Impurity effects in highly frustrated diamond-lattice antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savary, Lucile; Gull, Emanuel; Trebst, Simon; Alicea, Jason; Bergman, Doron; Balents, Leon
2011-08-01
We consider the effects of local impurities in highly frustrated diamond-lattice antiferromagnets, which exhibit large but nonextensive ground-state degeneracies. Such models are appropriate to many A-site magnetic spinels. We argue very generally that sufficiently dilute impurities induce an ordered magnetic ground state and provide a mechanism of degeneracy breaking. The states that are selected can be determined by a “swiss cheese model” analysis, which we demonstrate numerically for a particular impurity model in this case. Moreover, we present criteria for estimating the stability of the resulting ordered phase to a competing frozen (spin glass) one. The results may explain the contrasting finding of frozen and ordered ground states in CoAl2O4 and MnSc2S4, respectively.
Impurity Effects in Highly Frustrated Diamond-Lattice Antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savary, Lucile
2012-02-01
We consider the effects of local impurities in highly frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnets, which exhibit large but non-extensive ground state degeneracies. Such models are appropriate to many A-site magnetic spinels. We argue very generally that sufficiently dilute impurities induce an ordered magnetic ground state, and provide a mechanism of degeneracy breaking. The states which are selected can be determined by a ``swiss cheese model'' analysis, which we demonstrate numerically for a particular impurity model in this case. Moreover, we present criteria for estimating the stability of the resulting ordered phase to a competing frozen (spin glass) one. The results may explain the contrasting finding of frozen and ordered ground states in CoAl2O4 and MnSc2S4, respectively.
Quantum order by disorder in frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnets.
Bernier, Jean-Sébastien; Lawler, Michael J; Kim, Yong Baek
2008-07-25
We present a quantum theory of frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnets. Considering quantum fluctuations as the predominant mechanism relieving spin frustration, we find a rich phase diagram comprising of six phases with coplanar spiral ordering in addition to the Néel phase. By computing the specific heat of these ordered phases, we obtain a remarkable agreement between (k, k, 0) spiral ordering and the experimental specific heat data for the diamond lattice spinel compounds MnSc2S4, Co3O4, and CoRh2O4, i.e., specific heat data is a strong evidence for (k, k, 0) spiral ordering in all of these materials. This prediction can be tested in future neutron scattering experiments on Co3O4 and CoRh2O4, and is consistent with existing neutron scattering data on MnSc2S4. Based on this agreement, we infer a monotonically increasing relationship between frustration and the strength of quantum fluctuations. PMID:18764361
Kinetically inhibited order in a diamond-lattice antiferromagnet
MacDougall, Gregory J.; Gout, Delphine; Zarestky, Jerel L.; Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey; McGuire, Michael A.; Mandrus, David; Nagler, Stephen E.
2011-01-01
Frustrated magnetic systems exhibit highly degenerate ground states and strong fluctuations, often leading to new physics. An intriguing example of current interest is the antiferromagnet on a diamond lattice, realized physically in A-site spinel materials. This is a prototypical system in three dimensions where frustration arises from competing interactions rather than purely geometric constraints, and theory suggests the possibility of unusual magnetic order at low temperature. Here, we present a comprehensive single-crystal neutron scattering study of CoAl2O4, a highly frustrated A-site spinel. We observe strong diffuse scattering that peaks at wavevectors associated with Néel ordering. Below the temperature T∗ = 6.5 K, there is a dramatic change in the elastic scattering lineshape accompanied by the emergence of well-defined spin-wave excitations. T∗ had previously been associated with the onset of glassy behavior. Our new results suggest instead that T∗ signifies a first-order phase transition, but with true long-range order inhibited by the kinetic freezing of domain walls. This scenario might be expected to occur widely in frustrated systems containing first-order phase transitions and is a natural explanation for existing reports of anomalous glassy behavior in other materials. PMID:21896723
Kinetically inhibited order in a diamond-lattice antiferromagnet.
MacDougall, Gregory J; Gout, Delphine; Zarestky, Jerel L; Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey; McGuire, Michael A; Mandrus, David; Nagler, Stephen E
2011-09-20
Frustrated magnetic systems exhibit highly degenerate ground states and strong fluctuations, often leading to new physics. An intriguing example of current interest is the antiferromagnet on a diamond lattice, realized physically in A-site spinel materials. This is a prototypical system in three dimensions where frustration arises from competing interactions rather than purely geometric constraints, and theory suggests the possibility of unusual magnetic order at low temperature. Here, we present a comprehensive single-crystal neutron scattering study of CoAl(2)O(4), a highly frustrated A-site spinel. We observe strong diffuse scattering that peaks at wavevectors associated with Néel ordering. Below the temperature T(∗) = 6.5 K, there is a dramatic change in the elastic scattering lineshape accompanied by the emergence of well-defined spin-wave excitations. T(∗) had previously been associated with the onset of glassy behavior. Our new results suggest instead that T(∗) signifies a first-order phase transition, but with true long-range order inhibited by the kinetic freezing of domain walls. This scenario might be expected to occur widely in frustrated systems containing first-order phase transitions and is a natural explanation for existing reports of anomalous glassy behavior in other materials. PMID:21896723
Kinetically Inhibited Order in a Diamond-Lattice Antiferromagnet
MacDougall, Gregory J; Gout, Delphine J; Zarestky, Jerel L; Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey A; McGuire, Michael A; Mandrus, David; Nagler, Stephen E
2011-01-01
Frustrated magnetic systems exhibit highly degenerate ground states and strong fluctuations, often leading to new physics. An intriguing example of current interest is the antiferromagnet on a diamond lattice, realized physically in the A-site spinel materials. This is a prototypical system in three dimensions where frustration arises from competing interactions rather than purely geometric constraints, and theory suggests the possibility of novel order at low temperature. Here we present a comprehensive single crystal neutron scattering study CoAl2O4, a highly frustrated A-site spinel. We observe strong diffuse scattering that peaks at wavevectors associated with Neel ordering. Below the temperature T*=6.5K, there is a dramatic change in elastic scattering lineshape accompanied by the emergence of well-defined spin-wave excitations. T* had previously been associated with the onset of glassy behavior. Our new results suggest instead that in fact T* signifies a first-order phase transition, but with true long-range order inhibited by the kinetic freezing of domain walls. This scenario might be expected to occur widely in frustrated systems containing first-order phase transitions and is a natural explanation for existing reports of anomalous glassy behavior in other materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, Yuhei; Oguchi, Akihide; Fukumoto, Yoshiyuki
2016-09-01
We study Heisenberg antiferromagnets on a diamond-like decorated square lattice perturbed by further neighbor couplings. The second-order effective Hamiltonian is calculated and the resultant Hamiltonian is found to be a square-lattice quantum-dimer model with a finite hopping amplitude and no repulsion, which suggests the stabilization of the plaquette phase. Our recipe for constructing quantum-dimer models can be adopted for other lattices and provides a route for the experimental realization of quantum-dimer models.
Spin liquid in a single crystal of the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaharko, O.; Christensen, N. B.; Cervellino, A.; Tsurkan, V.; Maljuk, A.; Stuhr, U.; Niedermayer, C.; Yokaichiya, F.; Argyriou, D. N.; Boehm, M.; Loidl, A.
2011-09-01
We study the evidence for spin liquid in the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4 by means of single-crystal neutron scattering in zero and applied magnetic fields. The magnetically ordered phase appearing below TN=8 K remains nonconventional down to 1.5 K. The magnetic Bragg peaks at the q=0 positions are broad and their line shapes have strong Lorentzian contributions. Additionally, the peaks are connected by weak diffuse streaks oriented along the <111> directions. The observed short-range magnetic correlations are explained within the spiral spin-liquid model. The specific shape of the energy landscape of the system, with an extremely flat energy minimum around q=0 and many low-lying excited spiral states with q=<111>, results in thermal population of this manifold at finite temperatures. The agreement between the experimental results and the spiral spin-liquid model is only qualitative, indicating that microstructure effects might be important to achieve quantitative agreement. Application of a magnetic field significantly perturbs the spiral spin-liquid correlations. The magnetic peaks remain broad but acquire more Gaussian line shapes and increase in intensity. The 1.5 K static magnetic moment increases from 1.58 μB/Co at zero field to 2.08 μB/Co at 10 T. The magnetic excitations appear rather conventional at zero field. Analysis using classical spin-wave theory yields values of the nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor exchange parameters J1=0.92(1) meV and J2=0.101(2) meV and an additional anisotropy term D=-0.0089(2) meV for CoAl2O4. In the presence of a magnetic field, the spin excitations broaden considerably and become nearly featureless at the zone center.
Antiferromagnetic phases of the Kondo lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eder, R.; Grube, K.; Wróbel, P.
2016-04-01
We discuss the paramagnetic and Néel-ordered phases of the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian on the two-dimensional square lattice by means of bond fermions. In the doped case we find two antiferromagnetic solutions, the first one with small ordered moment, heavy bands, and an antiferromagnetically folded large Fermi surface—i.e., including the localized spins—the second one with large ordered moment, light bands, and an antiferromagnetically folded conduction electron-only Fermi surface. The zero temperature phase diagram as a function of Kondo coupling and conduction electron density shows first- and second-order transition lines between the three different phases and agrees qualitatively with previous numerical studies. We compare to experiments on CeRh1 -xCoxIn5 and find qualitative agreement.
Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Unjong
2015-06-01
Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices.
Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices.
Yu, Unjong
2015-06-01
Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices. PMID:26172675
Skyrmions in square-lattice antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keesman, Rick; Raaijmakers, Mark; Baerends, A. E.; Barkema, G. T.; Duine, R. A.
2016-08-01
The ground states of square-lattice two-dimensional antiferromagnets with anisotropy in an external magnetic field are determined using Monte Carlo simulations and compared to theoretical analysis. We find a phase in between the spin-flop and spiral phase that shows strong similarity to skyrmions in ferromagnetic thin films. We show that this phase arises as a result of the competition between Zeeman and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction energies of the magnetic system. Moreover, we find that isolated (anti-)skyrmions are stabilized in finite-sized systems, even at higher temperatures. The existence of thermodynamically stable skyrmions in square-lattice antiferromagnets provides an appealing alternative over skyrmions in ferromagnets as data carriers.
Classical antiferromagnet on a hyperkagome lattice.
Hopkinson, John M; Isakov, Sergei V; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Yong Baek
2007-07-20
Motivated by recent experiments on Na4Ir3O8 [Y. Okamoto, M. Nohara, H. Aruga-Katori, and H. Takagi, arXiv:0705.2821 (unpublished)], we study the classical antiferromagnet on a frustrated three-dimensional lattice obtained by selectively removing one of four sites in each tetrahedron of the pyrochlore lattice. This "hyperkagome" lattice consists of corner-sharing triangles. We present the results of large-N mean field theory and Monte Carlo computations on O(N) classical spin models. It is found that the classical ground states are highly degenerate. Nonetheless a nematic order emerges at low temperatures in the Heisenberg model (N=3) via "order by disorder," representing the dominance of coplanar spin configurations. Implications for ongoing experiments are discussed. PMID:17678320
Ising antiferromagnet on the 2-uniform lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Unjong
2016-08-01
The antiferromagnetic Ising model is investigated on the twenty 2-uniform lattices using the Monte Carlo method based on the Wang-Landau algorithm and the Metropolis algorithm to study the geometric frustration effect systematically. Based on the specific heat, the residual entropy, and the Edwards-Anderson freezing order parameter, the ground states of them were determined. In addition to the long-range-ordered phase and the spin ice phase found in the Archimedean lattices, two more phases were found. The partial long-range order is long-range order with exceptional disordered sites, which give extensive residual entropy. In the partial spin ice phase, the partial freezing phenomenon appears: A majority of sites are frozen without long-range order, but the other sites are fluctuating even at zero temperature. The spin liquid ground state was not found in the 2-uniform lattices.
Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the Husimi lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, H. J.; Xie, Z. Y.; Chen, J.; Han, X. J.; Xie, H. D.; Normand, B.; Xiang, T.
2016-02-01
We perform a systematic study of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the Husimi lattice using numerical tensor-network methods based on projected entangled simplex states. The nature of the ground state varies strongly with the spin quantum number S . For S =1/2 , it is an algebraic (gapless) quantum spin liquid. For S =1 , it is a gapped, nonmagnetic state with spontaneous breaking of triangle symmetry (a trimerized simplex-solid state). For S =2 , it is a simplex-solid state with a spin gap and no symmetry breaking; both integer-spin simplex-solid states are characterized by specific degeneracies in the entanglement spectrum. For S =3/2 , and indeed for all spin values S ≥5/2 , the ground states have 120∘ antiferromagnetic order. In a finite magnetic field, we find that, irrespective of the value of S , there is always a plateau in the magnetization at m =1/3 .
Formation and Dynamics of Antiferromagnetic Correlations in Tunable Optical Lattices.
Greif, Daniel; Jotzu, Gregor; Messer, Michael; Desbuquois, Rémi; Esslinger, Tilman
2015-12-31
We report on the observation of antiferromagnetic correlations of ultracold fermions in a variety of optical lattice geometries that are well described by the Hubbard model, including dimers, 1D chains, ladders, isolated and coupled honeycomb planes, as well as square and cubic lattices. The dependence of the strength of spin correlations on the specific geometry is experimentally studied by measuring the correlations along different lattice tunneling links, where a redistribution of correlations between the different lattice links is observed. By measuring the correlations in a crossover between distinct geometries, we demonstrate an effective reduction of the dimensionality for our atom numbers and temperatures. We also investigate the formation and redistribution time of spin correlations by dynamically changing the lattice geometry and studying the time evolution of the system. Time scales ranging from a sudden quench of the lattice geometry to an adiabatic evolution are probed. PMID:26764974
Interaction-induced adiabatic cooling for antiferromagnetism in optical lattices
Dare, A.-M.; Raymond, L.; Albinet, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
2007-08-01
In the experimental context of cold-fermion optical lattices, we discuss the possibilities to approach the pseudogap or ordered phases by manipulating the scattering length or the strength of the laser-induced lattice potential. Using the two-particle self-consistent approach, as well as quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide isentropic curves for the two- and three-dimensional Hubbard models at half-filling. These quantitative results are important for practical attempts to reach the ordered antiferromagnetic phase in experiments on optical lattices of two-component fermions. We find that adiabatically turning on the interaction in two dimensions to cool the system is not very effective. In three dimensions, adiabatic cooling to the antiferromagnetic phase can be achieved in such a manner, although the cooling efficiency is not as high as initially suggested by dynamical mean-field theory. Adiabatic cooling by turning off the repulsion beginning at strong coupling is possible in certain cases.
Layer Anti-Ferromagnetism on Bilayer Honeycomb Lattice
Tao, Hong-Shuai; Chen, Yao-Hua; Lin, Heng-Fu; Liu, Hai-Di; Liu, Wu-Ming
2014-01-01
Bilayer honeycomb lattice, with inter-layer tunneling energy, has a parabolic dispersion relation, and the inter-layer hopping can cause the charge imbalance between two sublattices. Here, we investigate the metal-insulator and magnetic phase transitions on the strongly correlated bilayer honeycomb lattice by cellular dynamical mean-field theory combined with continuous time quantum Monte Carlo method. The procedures of magnetic spontaneous symmetry breaking on dimer and non-dimer sites are different, causing a novel phase transition between normal anti-ferromagnet and layer anti-ferromagnet. The whole phase diagrams about the magnetism, temperature, interaction and inter-layer hopping are obtained. Finally, we propose an experimental protocol to observe these phenomena in future optical lattice experiments. PMID:24947369
Antiferromagnetic majority voter model on square and honeycomb lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sastre, Francisco; Henkel, Malte
2016-02-01
An antiferromagnetic version of the well-known majority voter model on square and honeycomb lattices is proposed. Monte Carlo simulations give evidence for a continuous order-disorder phase transition in the stationary state in both cases. Precise estimates of the critical point are found from the combination of three cumulants, and our results are in good agreement with the reported values of the equivalent ferromagnetic systems. The critical exponents 1 / ν, γ / ν and β / ν were found. Their values indicate that the stationary state of the antiferromagnetic majority voter model belongs to the Ising model universality class.
Antiferromagnetism and Kondo screening on a honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Heng-Fu; Hong-Shuai, Tao; Guo, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Wu-Ming
2015-05-01
Magnetic adatoms in the honeycomb lattice have received tremendous attention due to the interplay between Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction and Kondo coupling leading to very rich physics. Here we study the competition between the antiferromagnetism and Kondo screening of local moments by the conduction electrons on the honeycomb lattice using the determinant quantum Monte Carlo method. While changing the interband hybridization V, we systematically investigate the antiferromagnetic-order state and the Kondo singlet state transition, which is characterized by the behavior of the local moment, antiferromagnetic structure factor, and the short range spin-spin correlation. The evolution of the single particle spectrum are also calculated as a function of hybridization V, we find that the system presents a small gap in the antiferromagnetic-order region and a large gap in the Kondo singlet region in the Fermi level. We also find that the localized and itinerant electrons coupling leads to the midgap states in the conduction band in the Fermi level at very small V. Moreover, the formation of antiferromagnetic order and Kondo singlet are studied as on-site interaction U or temperature T increasing, we have derived the phase diagrams at on-site interaction U (or temperature T) and hybridization V plane. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 2011CB921502 and 2012CB821305), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61227902, 61378017, and 11434015), the State Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics and Quantum Optical Devices, China (Grant No. KF201403).
Spin-Lattice-Coupled Order in Heisenberg Antiferromagnets on the Pyrochlore Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoyama, Kazushi; Kawamura, Hikaru
2016-06-01
Effects of local lattice distortions on the spin ordering are investigated for the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on the pyrochlore lattice. It is found by Monte Carlo simulations that the spin-lattice coupling (SLC) originating from site phonons induces a first-order transition into two different types of collinear magnetic ordered states. The state realized at the stronger SLC is cubic symmetric characterized by the magnetic (1/2 ,1/2 ,1/2 ) Bragg peaks, while that at the weaker SLC is tetragonal symmetric characterized by the (1,1,0) ones, each accompanied by the commensurate local lattice distortions. Experimental implications to chromium spinels are discussed.
Fractional excitations in the square lattice quantum antiferromagnet
Christensen, N. B.; Nilsen, G. J.; Tregenna-Piggott, P.; Perring, T. G.; Enderle, M.; McMorrow, D. F.; Ivanov, D. A.; Rønnow, H. M.
2014-01-01
Quantum magnets have occupied the fertile ground between many-body theory and low-temperature experiments on real materials since the early days of quantum mechanics. However, our understanding of even deceptively simple systems of interacting spins-1/2 is far from complete. The quantum square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet (QSLHAF), for example, exhibits a striking anomaly of hitherto unknown origin in its magnetic excitation spectrum. This quantum effect manifests itself for excitations propagating with the specific wave vector (π, 0). We use polarized neutron spectroscopy to fully characterize the magnetic fluctuations in the metal-organic compound CFTD, a known realization of the QSLHAF model. Our experiments reveal an isotropic excitation continuum at the anomaly, which we analyse theoretically using Gutzwiller-projected trial wavefunctions. The excitation continuum is accounted for by the existence of spatially-extended pairs of fractional S=1/2 quasiparticles, 2D analogues of 1D spinons. Away from the anomalous wave vector, these fractional excitations are bound and form conventional magnons. Our results establish the existence of fractional quasiparticles in the high-energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet, even in the absence of frustration. PMID:25729400
Mechanical Properties of Laser-Sintered-Nylon Diamond Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neff, Clayton
Additive manufacturing offers a manufacturing technique to produce complex geometry prototypes at a rapid pace and low cost. These advantages advocate additive manufacturing for the design and production of cellular structures. Cellular structures are interesting because they contain a large amount of porosity (void space of air) to manifest a lightweight structure. Designs of cellular structures generate a periodic pattern; often of complex geometry, called a lattice. There has been a significant amount of research to maximize specific stiffness of lattice structures but little to evaluate low-stiffness lattices. Low-stiffness structures benefit energy absorbance through bending of the lattice. This research seeks to assess diamond lattices as low stiffness, bending structures. The research involves PA2200 (Nylon 12) laser sintered diamond lattices with experimental compression testing and direct FEA model comparison. A correction factor is applied for a design offset of laser sintered lattices. Once applied, the experimental and FEA data agree in validating the diamond lattice as a bending-dominated structure. Diamond lattices show a 4th order relationship between stiffness and parameters of thickness and unit cell length. For density, stiffness maintains a 2nd order relationship, as predicted by bending dominated structures. The resulting stiffness can be tuned over a stiffness range of four orders of magnitude. Further research shows the results for modifying the diamond lattice and scaling stiffness and density using other materials (like metals) to expand the range of stiffness and compare diamond lattices on material property charts. Lastly, the effective Poisson's ratio varies from 0.5 to 0.4 depending on the (t/L) ratio.
Cyclic period-3 window in antiferromagnetic potts and Ising models on recursive lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ananikian, N. S.; Ananikyan, L. N.; Chakhmakhchyan, L. A.
2011-09-01
The magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic Potts model with two-site interaction and the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on recursive lattices have been studied. A cyclic period-3 window has been revealed by the recurrence relation method in the antiferromagnetic Q-state Potts model on the Bethe lattice (at Q < 2) and in the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on the Husimi cactus. The Lyapunov exponents have been calculated, modulated phases and a chaotic regime in the cyclic period-3 window have been found for one-dimensional rational mappings determined the properties of these systems.
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2016-04-01
Despite their inherently non-equilibrium nature, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases of conventional condensed-matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies, microbial suspensions and tissues to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish and flocks of birds. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial and biological systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct patterns characterized by ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The coupling between adjacent vortices can be controlled by tuning the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents, reminiscent of those in quantum systems. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems.
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2016-01-01
Despite their inherent non-equilibrium nature1, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states2,3 that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases4,5 of conventional condensed matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies6,7, microbial suspensions8,9 and tissues10 to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish11 and flocks of birds12. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial13 and biological6–9,14 systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: Through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct phases of ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The preferred phase can be controlled by tuning the vortex coupling through changes of the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents15,16, reminiscent of those in quantum systems17–19. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems. PMID:27213004
Magnetic ordering in frustrated antiferromagnets on the pyrochlore lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chern, Gia-Wei
Pyrochlore antiferromagnet is one of the most studied examples of strongly-interacting systems. The conflict between the lattice geometry and the local spin correlations favored by their interactions precludes the simple Neel ordering and creates an extensive degeneracy of the classical ground state. This, in turn, renders the magnet susceptible to nominally small perturbations such as quantum fluctuations, anisotropies, and dipolar interactions. Of particular interest is the classical Heisenberg spins on the pyrochlore lattice with exchange interactions restricted to the nearest neighbors. It has been demonstrated by analytical arguments and numerical simulations that the spin system remains disordered down to the lowest temperatures. In this thesis I study how magnetic ordering is induced by residual perturbations in such a system. Apart from the theoretical interest, the work presented in this thesis is mainly motivated by experimental observations of real materials. Three mechanisms of breaking the ground-state degeneracy are considered here: (1) order by distortion, (2) further-neighbor exchange interactions, and (3) the orbital degrees of freedom. In the first part, we present a theoretical model describing the lattice distortion and incommensurate magnetic order in the compound CdCr2O 4, which belongs to a class of chromium spinels exhibiting the magnetoelastic phase transitions. The magnetic frustration is relieved through the spin-driven Jahn-Teller effect involving a phonon doublet with odd parity. The distortion stabilizes a collinear magnetic order with the propagation wavevector q = 2pi(0, 0, 1). The crystal structure becomes chiral due to the lack of inversion symmetry. The handedness is transferred to the magnetic system by the relativistic spin-orbit coupling: the collinear state is twisted into a long spiral with the spins in the ac plane and q shifted to 2pi(0, delta, 1), consistent with the experiments. In the second part, we examine the effects
Antiferromagnetic Spinor Condensates in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice.
Zhao, L; Jiang, J; Tang, T; Webb, M; Liu, Y
2015-06-01
We experimentally demonstrate that spin dynamics and the phase diagram of spinor condensates can be conveniently tuned by a two-dimensional optical lattice. Spin population oscillations and a lattice-tuned separatrix in phase space are observed in every lattice where a substantial superfluid fraction exists. In a sufficiently deep lattice, we observe a phase transition from a longitudinal polar phase to a broken-axisymmetry phase in steady states of lattice-confined spinor condensates. The steady states are found to depend sigmoidally on the lattice depth and exponentially on the magnetic field. We also introduce a phenomenological model that semiquantitatively describes our data without adjustable parameters. PMID:26196625
Saturation field entropies of antiferromagnetic Ising models: Ladders and the kagome lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varma, Vipin Kerala
2013-10-01
Saturation field entropies of antiferromagnetic Ising models on quasi-one-dimensional lattices (ladders) and the kagome lattice are calculated. The former is evaluated exactly by constructing the corresponding transfer matrices, while the latter calculation uses Binder's algorithm for efficiently and exactly computing the partition function of over 1300 spins to give Skag/kB=0.393589(6). We comment on the relation of the kagome lattice to the experimental situation in the spin-ice compound Dy2Ti2O7.
Lattice distortion accompanied by magnetization reversal in A-type antiferromagnetic manganites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Jong-Suck; Iyama, Ayato; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Yusuke; Kimura, Tsuyoshi
2012-05-01
Magnetostriction was investigated for layered A-type antiferromagnetic SmMnO3 showing large magnetocapacitive effects around a temperature (TTP) where ferrimagnetically coupled Mn 3d and Sm 4f moments were reversed simultaneously. Upon sweeping temperature or a magnetic field, a significant lattice distortion was observed at TTP or the coercive field, respectively. This indicates that the lattice is strongly coupled with the magnetic configuration. We discuss the lattice distortion accompanied by the magnetization reversal in terms of a partial change in the orbital state of Mn eg electrons.
Analysis of the antiferromagnetic phase transitions of the 2D Kondo lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Barbara
2010-03-01
The Kondo lattice continues to present an interesting and relevant challenge, with its interactions between Kondo, RKKY, and coherent order. We present our study[1] of the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transitions of a 2D Kondo-Heisenberg square lattice. Starting from the nonlinear sigma model as a model of antiferromagnetism, we carry out a renormalization group analysis of the competing Kondo-RKKY interaction to one-loop order in an ɛ-expansion. We find a new quantum critical point (QCP) strongly affected by Kondo fluctuations. Near this QCP, there is a breakdown of hydrodynamic behavior, and the spin waves are logarithmically frozen out. The renormalization group results allow us to propose a new phase diagram near the antiferromagnetic fixed point of this 2D Kondo lattice model. The T=0 phase diagram contains four phases separated by a tetracritical point, the new QCP. For small spin fluctuations, we find a stable local magnetic moment antiferromagnet. For stronger coupling, region II is a metallic quantum disordered paramagnet. We find in region III a paramagnetic phase driven by Kondo interactions, with possible ground states of a heavy fermion liquid or a Kondo driven spin-liquid. The fourth phase is a spiral phase, or a large-Fermi-surface antiferromagnetic phase. We will describe these phases in more detail, including possible experimental confirmation of the spiral phase. The existence of the tetracritical point found here would be expected to affect the phase diagram at finite temperatures as well. In addition, It is hoped that these results, and particularly the Kondo interaction paramagnetic phase, will serve to bridge to solutions starting from the opposite limit, of a Kondo effect leading to a heavy fermion ground state. Work in collaboration with T. Tzen Ong. [4pt] [1] T. Ong and B. A. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 066405 (2009).
Spin-1/2 Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Spatially Anisotropic Kagome Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnyder, Andreas; Starykh, Oleg; Balents, Leon
2008-03-01
We study the quasi-one-dimensional limit of the Spin-1/2 quantum antiferromagnet on the Kagome lattice, a model Hamiltonian that might be of relevance for the mineral volborthite [1,2]. The lattice is divided into antiferromagnetic spin-chains (exchange J) that are weakly coupled via intermediate ``dangling'' spins (exchange J'). Using bosonization, renormalization group methods, and current algebra techniques we determine the ground state as a function of J'/J. The case of a strictly one-dimensional Kagome strip is also discussed. [1] Z. Hiroi, M. Hanawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Nohara, Hidenori Takagi, Y. Kato, and M. Takigawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 70, 3377 (2001). [2] F. Bert, D. Bono, P. Mendels, F. Ladieu, F. Duc, J.-C. Trumbe, and P. Millet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 087203 (2005).
Spin-Chirality-Driven Ferroelectricity on a Perfect Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet
Mitamura, H.; Watanuki, R.; Kaneko, Koji; Onozaki, N.; Amou, Y.; Kittaka, S.; Kobayashi, Riki; Shimura, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Suzuki, K.; Chi, Songxue; Sakakibara, T.
2014-10-01
Magnetic field (B) variation of the electrical polarization P_{c} ( ∥c) of the perfect triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO_{4})_{2} is examined up to the saturation point of the magnetization for B⊥c. P_{c} is observed only in phases for which chirality is predicted in the in-plane magnetic structures. No strong anomaly is observed in P_{c} at the field at which the spin modulation along the c axis, and hence the spin helicity, exhibits a discontinuity to the commensurate state. These results indicate that the ferroelectricity in this compound originates predominantly from the spin chirality, the explanation of which would require a new mechanism for magnetoferroelectricity. Lastly, the obtained field-temperature phase diagrams of ferroelectricity well agree with those theoretically predicted for the spin chirality of a Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnet.
Spin-Chirality-Driven Ferroelectricity on a Perfect Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet
Mitamura, H.; Watanuki, R.; Kaneko, Koji; Onozaki, N.; Amou, Y.; Kittaka, S.; Kobayashi, Riki; Shimura, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Suzuki, K.; et al
2014-10-01
Magnetic field (B) variation of the electrical polarization Pc ( ∥c) of the perfect triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO4)2 is examined up to the saturation point of the magnetization for B⊥c. Pc is observed only in phases for which chirality is predicted in the in-plane magnetic structures. No strong anomaly is observed in Pc at the field at which the spin modulation along the c axis, and hence the spin helicity, exhibits a discontinuity to the commensurate state. These results indicate that the ferroelectricity in this compound originates predominantly from the spin chirality, the explanation of which would require a newmore » mechanism for magnetoferroelectricity. Lastly, the obtained field-temperature phase diagrams of ferroelectricity well agree with those theoretically predicted for the spin chirality of a Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnet.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, A. S. T.
2016-08-01
I study the spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the two dimensional honeycomb lattice at zero temperature, with first J1, second J2 and third J3 neighbors exchange interactions and single ion easy plane anisotropy, using the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism. The phase diagram is shown. The results show the existence of a region in the intermediate frustrated regime where the system does not have quantum magnetic order.
Exact results for the site-dilute antiferromagnetic Ising model on finite triangular lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farach, H. A.; Creswick, R. J.; Poole, C. P., Jr.
1988-04-01
Exact analytical and numerical results for the site-diluted antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice (AFIT) are presented. For infinitesimal dilution the change in the free energy of the system is related to the distribution of local fields, and it is shown that for a frustrated system such as the AFIT, dilution lowers the entropy per spin. For lattices of finite size and dilution the transfer matrix for the partition function is evaluated numerically. The entropy per spin shows a marked minimum near a concentration of spins x=0.70, in some disagreement with earlier transfer-matrix results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovský, Michal; Weigel, Martin; Barash, Lev Yu.; Žukovič, Milan
2016-02-01
The population annealing algorithm is a novel approach to study systems with rough free-energy landscapes, such as spin glasses. It combines the power of simulated annealing, Boltzmann weighted differential reproduction and sequential Monte Carlo process to bring the population of replicas to the equilibrium even in the low-temperature region. Moreover, it provides a very good estimate of the free energy. The fact that population annealing algorithm is performed over a large number of replicas with many spin updates, makes it a good candidate for massive parallelism. We chose the GPU programming using a CUDA implementation to create a highly optimized simulation. It has been previously shown for the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the stacked triangular lattice with a ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, that standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations fail to equilibrate at low temperatures due to the effect of kinetic freezing of the ferromagnetically ordered chains. We applied the population annealing to study the case with the isotropic intra- and interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling (J2/|J1| = -1). The reached ground states correspond to non-magnetic degenerate states, where chains are antiferromagnetically ordered, but there is no long-range ordering between them, which is analogical with Wannier phase of the 2D triangular Ising antiferromagnet.
Magnetic Interaction in the Geometrically Frustrated Triangular LatticeAntiferromagnet CuFeO2
Ye, Feng; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A; Fishman, Randy Scott; Ren, Y.; Kang, H. J.; Qiu, Y.; Kimura, T.
2007-01-01
The spin wave excitations of the geometrically frustrated triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLA) CuFeO2 have been measured using high resolution inelastic neutron scattering. Antiferromagnetic interactions up to third nearest neighbors in the ab plane (J1, J2, J3, with J2=J1 0:44 and J3=J1 0:57), as well as out-of-plane coupling (Jz, with Jz=J1 0:29) are required to describe the spin wave dispersion relations, indicating a three dimensional character of the magnetic interactions. Two energy deeps in the spin wave dispersion occur at the incommensurate wavevectors associated with multiferroic phase, and can be interpreted as dynamic precursors to the magnetoelectric behavior in this system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Rosales, H. D.
2016-04-01
In this paper we present a detailed study of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice in a highly frustrated regime in the presence of a magnetic field. This study shows strong evidence of entropic order-by-disorder selection in different sectors of the magnetization curve. For antiferromagnetic couplings J1=Jx=Jp/3 , we find that at low temperatures there are two different regions in the magnetization curve selected by this mechanism with different number of soft and zero modes. These regions present broken Z2 symmetry and are separated by a not fully collinear classical plateau at M =1 /2 . At higher temperatures, there is a crossover from the conventional paramagnet to a cooperative magnet. Finally, we also discuss the low-temperature behavior of the system for a less frustrated region, J1=Jx
Antiferromagnetism and superfluidity of a dipolar Fermi gas in a two-dimensional optical lattice
Liu Bo; Yin Lan
2011-10-15
In a dipolar Fermi gas, the dipole-dipole interaction between fermions can be turned into a dipolar Ising interaction between pseudospins in the presence of an ac electric field. When trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice, this dipolar Fermi gas has a very rich phase diagram at zero temperature, due to the competition between antiferromagnetism and superfluidity. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic state is the favored ground state. The superfluid state appears as the ground state at a smaller filling factor. In between there is a phase-separated region. The order parameter of the superfluid state can display different symmetries depending on the filling factor and interaction strength, including the d-wave (d), the extended s-wave (xs), or their linear combination (xs+id). Implications for the current experiment are discussed.
Magnetic ordering of the buckled honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet Ba2NiTeO6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asai, Shinichiro; Soda, Minoru; Kasatani, Kazuhiro; Ono, Toshio; Avdeev, Maxim; Masuda, Takatsugu
2016-01-01
We investigate the magnetic order of the buckled honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet Ba2NiTeO6 and its related antiferromagnet Ba3NiTa2O9 by neutron diffraction measurements. We observe magnetic Bragg peaks below the transition temperatures, and identify propagation vectors for these oxides. A combination of representation analysis and Rietveld refinement leads to a collinear magnetic order for Ba2NiTeO6 and a 120∘ structure for Ba3NiTa2O9 . We find that the spin model of the bilayer triangular lattice is equivalent to that of the two-dimensional buckled honeycomb lattice having magnetic frustration. We discuss the magnetic interactions and single-ion anisotropy of Ni+2 ions for Ba2NiTeO6 in order to clarify the origin of the collinear magnetic structures. Our calculation suggests that the collinear magnetic order of Ba2NiTeO6 is induced by the magnetic frustration and easy-axis anisotropy.
Ising antiferromagnet on a finite triangular lattice with free boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung-Yeon
2015-11-01
The exact integer values for the density of states of the Ising model on an equilateral triangular lattice with free boundary conditions are evaluated up to L = 24 spins on a side for the first time by using the microcanonical transfer matrix. The total number of states is 2 N s = 2300 ≈ 2.037 × 1090 for L = 24, where N s = L( L+1)/2 is the number of spins. Classifying all 2300 spin states according to their energy values is an enormous work. From the density of states, the exact partition function zeros in the complex temperature plane of the triangular-lattice Ising model are evaluated. Using the density of states and the partition function zeros, we investigate the properties of the triangularlattice Ising antiferromagnet. The scaling behavior of the ground-state entropy and the form of the correlation length at T = 0 are studied for the triangular-lattice Ising antiferromagnet with free boundary conditions. Also, the scaling behavior of the Fisher edge singularity is investigated.
Fishman, Randy Scott; Haraldsen, Jason T
2011-01-01
While a magnetic phase may be both locally stable and globally unstable, global stability always implies local stability. The distinction between local and global stability is studied on a geometrically-frustrated triangular lattice antiferromagnet with easy axis, single-ion anisotropy D along the z axis. Whereas the critical value Dloc c for local stability may be discontinuous across a phase boundary, the critical value Dglo c Dloc c for global stability must be continuous. We demonstrate this behavior across the phase boundary between collinear 3 and 4 sublattice phases that are stable for large D.
Quantum selection of order in an XXZ antiferromagnet on a Kagome lattice.
Chernyshev, A L; Zhitomirsky, M E
2014-12-01
Selection of the ground state of the kagome-lattice XXZ antiferromagnet by quantum fluctuations is investigated by combining nonlinear spin-wave and real-space perturbation theories. The two methods unanimously favor q=0 over sqrt[3]×sqrt[3] magnetic order in a wide range of the anisotropy parameter 0≤Δ≲0.72. Both approaches are also in accord on the magnitude of the quantum order-by-disorder effect generated by topologically nontrivial, looplike spin-flip processes. A tentative S-Δ phase diagram of the model is proposed. PMID:25526152
Quantum phase diagram of a frustrated antiferromagnet on the bilayer honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hao; Lamas, Carlos A.; Arlego, Marcelo; Brenig, Wolfram
2016-06-01
We study the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a bilayer honeycomb lattice including interlayer frustration. Using a set of complementary approaches, namely, Schwinger bosons, dimer series expansion, bond operators, and exact diagonalization, we map out the quantum phase diagram. Analyzing ground-state energies and elementary excitation spectra, we find four distinct phases, corresponding to three collinear magnetic long-range ordered states, and one quantum disordered interlayer dimer phase. We detail that the latter phase is adiabatically connected to an exact singlet product ground state of the bilayer, which exists along a line of maximum interlayer frustration. The order within the remaining three phases will be clarified.
Tricritical behaviour of the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobák, A.; Lučivjanský, T.; Žukovič, M.; Borovský, M.; Balcerzak, T.
2016-08-01
We use the effective-field theory with correlations based on different cluster sizes to investigate phase diagrams of the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice with isotropic interactions of the strength J1 < 0 between nearest-neighbour pairs and J2 < 0 between next-nearest neighbour pairs of spins. We present results for the ground-state energy as a function of the frustration parameter R =J2 / |J1 |. We find that the cluster-size has a considerable effect on the existence and location of a tricritical point in the phase diagram at which the phase transition changes from the second order to the first one.
Topological Aspects of Symmetry Breaking in Triangular-Lattice Ising Antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smerald, Andrew; Korshunov, Sergey; Mila, Frédéric
2016-05-01
Using a specially designed Monte Carlo algorithm with directed loops, we investigate the triangular lattice Ising antiferromagnet with coupling beyond the nearest neighbors. We show that the first-order transition from the stripe state to the paramagnet can be split, giving rise to an intermediate nematic phase in which algebraic correlations coexist with a broken symmetry. Furthermore, we demonstrate the emergence of several properties of a more topological nature such as fractional edge excitations in the stripe state, the proliferation of double domain walls in the nematic phase, and the Kasteleyn transition between them. Experimental implications are briefly discussed.
Phase Diagram of a Geometrically-Frustrated Triangular-Lattice Antiferromagnet in a Magnetic Field
Fishman, Randy Scott
2011-01-01
The magnetic phase diagram of a geometrically-frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet is evaluated as a function of external magnetic field and anisotropy using a trial spin state built from harmonics of a fundamental ordering wavevector. A non-collinear incommensurate state, observed to be chiral and ferroelectric in CuFeO2, is sandwiched between a collinear state with 4 sublattices (SLs) and a 5-SL state. Chiral and non-collinear 5-SL states are predicted to appear at fields above and below the collinear 5-SL states.
Detection of antiferromagnetic order by cooling atoms in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Tsung-Lin; Teles, Rafael; Hazzard, Kaden; Hulet, Randall; Rice University Collaboration
2016-05-01
We have realized the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6 Li atoms in a three-dimensional compensated optical lattice. The compensated optical lattice has provided low enough temperatures to produce short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. Previously, we reached temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition, more than a factor of 2 below temperatures obtained previously in 3D optical lattices with fermions. In order to further reduce the entropy in the compensated lattice, we implement an entropy conduit - which is a single blue detuned laser beam with a waist size smaller than the overall atomic sample size. This repulsive narrow potential provides a conductive metallic path between the low entropy core and the edges of the atomic sample where atoms may be evaporated. In addition, the entropy conduit may store entropy, thus further lowering the entropy in the core. We will report on the status of these efforts to further cool atoms in the optical lattice. Work supported by ARO MURI Grant, NSF and The Welch Foundation.
Hexagonal RMnO3: a model system for two-dimensional triangular lattice antiferromagnets.
Sim, Hasung; Oh, Joosung; Jeong, Jaehong; Le, Manh Duc; Park, Je Geun
2016-02-01
The hexagonal RMnO3(h-RMnO3) are multiferroic materials, which exhibit the coexistence of a magnetic order and ferroelectricity. Their distinction is in their geometry that both results in an unusual mechanism to break inversion symmetry and also produces a two-dimensional triangular lattice of Mn spins, which is subject to geometrical magnetic frustration due to the antiferromagnetic interactions between nearest-neighbor Mn ions. This unique combination makes the h-RMnO3 a model system to test ideas of spin-lattice coupling, particularly when both the improper ferroelectricity and the Mn trimerization that appears to determine the symmetry of the magnetic structure arise from the same structure distortion. In this review we demonstrate how the use of both neutron and X-ray diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering techniques have been essential to paint this comprehensive and coherent picture of h-RMnO3. PMID:26830792
RVB signatures in the spin dynamics of the square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghioldi, E. A.; Gonzalez, M. G.; Manuel, L. O.; Trumper, A. E.
2016-03-01
We investigate the spin dynamics of the square-lattice spin-\\frac{1}{2} Heisenberg antiferromagnet by means of an improved mean-field Schwinger boson calculation. By identifying both, the long-range Néel and the RVB-like components of the ground state, we propose an educated guess for the mean-field magnetic excitation consisting on a linear combination of local and bond spin flips to compute the dynamical structure factor. Our main result is that when this magnetic excitation is optimized in such a way that the corresponding sum rule is fulfilled, we recover the low- and high-energy spectral weight features of the experimental spectrum. In particular, the anomalous spectral weight depletion at (π,0) found in recent inelastic neutron scattering experiments can be attributed to the interference of the triplet bond excitations of the RVB component of the ground state. We conclude that the Schwinger boson theory seems to be a good candidate to adequately interpret the dynamic properties of the square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet.
Matsuda, Masaaki; Yoshida, H.; Isobe, M.; De la cruz, Clarina; Fishman, Randy Scott
2012-01-01
Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 2} is an S = 3/2 frustrated triangular lattice antiferromagnet without an orbital degree of freedom. With decreasing temperature, a four-sublattice spin state develops. However, a long-range partially disordered state with five sublattices abruptly appears at T{sub N} = 24 K, accompanied by a structural distortion, and persists at least down to 2 K. The spin-lattice coupling stabilizes the anomalous state, which is expected to appear only in limited ranges of further-neighbor interactions and temperature. It was found that the spin-lattice coupling is a common feature in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with multiple-sublattice spin states, since the triangular lattice is elastic.
Narasimhan, S L; Rajarajan, A K; Vardharaj, L
2012-09-21
We present an exact enumeration algorithm for identifying the native configuration--a maximally compact self-avoiding walk configuration that is also the minimum energy configuration for a given set of contact-energy schemes; the process is implicitly sequence-dependent. In particular, we show that the 25-step native configuration on a diamond lattice consists of two sheet-like structures and is the same for all the contact-energy schemes, {(-1, 0, 0); (-7, -3, 0); (-7, -3, -1); (-7, -3, 1)}; on a square lattice also, the 24-step native configuration is independent of the energy schemes considered. However, the designing sequence for the diamond lattice walk depends on the energy schemes used whereas that for the square lattice walk does not. We have calculated the temperature-dependent specific heat for these designed sequences and the four energy schemes using the exact density of states. These data show that the energy scheme (-7, -3, -1) is preferable to the other three for both diamond and square lattice because the associated sequences give rise to a sharp low-temperature peak. We have also presented data for shorter (23-, 21-, and 17-step) walks on a diamond lattice to show that this algorithm helps identify a unique minimum energy configuration by suitably taking care of the ground-state degeneracy. Interestingly, all these shorter target configurations also show sheet-like secondary structures. PMID:22998288
Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei
2015-01-16
Magnetization processes of spin-1/2 layered triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAFs) under a magnetic field H are studied by means of a numerical cluster mean-field method with a scaling scheme. We find that small antiferromagnetic couplings between the layers give rise to several types of extra quantum phase transitions among different high-field coplanar phases. Especially, a field-induced first-order transition is found to occur at H≈0.7H_{s}, where H_{s} is the saturation field, as another common quantum effect of ideal TLAFs in addition to the well-established one-third plateau. Our microscopic model calculation with appropriate parameters shows excellent agreement with experiments on Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9} [T. Susuki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267201 (2013)]. Given this fact, we suggest that the Co^{2+}-based compounds may allow for quantum simulations of intriguing properties of this simple frustrated model, such as quantum criticality and supersolid states. PMID:25635561
Order-by-disorder effects in antiferromagnets on face-centered cubic lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalov, L. A.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.
2016-09-01
We discuss the role of quantum fluctuations in Heisenberg antiferromagnets on face-centered cubic lattice with small dipolar interaction in which the next-nearest-neighbor exchange coupling dominates over the nearest-neighbor one. It is well known that a collinear magnetic structure which contains (111) ferromagnetic planes arranged antiferromagnetically along one of the space diagonals of the cube is stabilized in this model via order-by-disorder mechanism. On the mean-field level, the dipolar interaction forces spin to lie within (111) planes. By considering 1 / S corrections to the ground state energy, we demonstrate that quantum fluctuations lead to an anisotropy within (111) planes favoring three equivalent directions for the staggered magnetization (e.g., [ 11 2 bar ], [ 1 2 bar 1 ], and [ 2 bar 11 ] directions for (111) plane). Such in-plane anisotropy was obtained experimentally in related materials MnO, α-MnS, α-MnSe, EuTe, and EuSe. We find that the order-by-disorder mechanism can contribute significantly to the value of the in-plane anisotropy in EuTe. Magnon spectrum is also derived in the first order in 1 / S.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei
2015-01-01
Magnetization processes of spin-1 /2 layered triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAFs) under a magnetic field H are studied by means of a numerical cluster mean-field method with a scaling scheme. We find that small antiferromagnetic couplings between the layers give rise to several types of extra quantum phase transitions among different high-field coplanar phases. Especially, a field-induced first-order transition is found to occur at H ≈0.7 Hs, where Hs is the saturation field, as another common quantum effect of ideal TLAFs in addition to the well-established one-third plateau. Our microscopic model calculation with appropriate parameters shows excellent agreement with experiments on Ba3CoSb2O9 [T. Susuki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267201 (2013)]. Given this fact, we suggest that the Co2 + -based compounds may allow for quantum simulations of intriguing properties of this simple frustrated model, such as quantum criticality and supersolid states.
Low-energy singlet excitations in spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aktersky, A. Yu.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.
2016-05-01
We present an approach based on a dimer expansion which describes low-energy singlet excitations (singlons) in spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on simple square lattice. An operator ("effective Hamiltonian") is constructed whose eigenvalues give the singlon spectrum. The "effective Hamiltonian" looks like a Hamiltonian of a spin-1/2 magnet in strong external magnetic field and it has a gapped spectrum. It is found that singlet states lie above triplet ones (magnons) in the whole Brillouin zone except in the vicinity of the point (π , 0), where their energies are slightly smaller. Based on this finding, we suggest that a magnon decay is possible near (π , 0) into another magnon and a singlon which may contribute to the dip of the magnon spectrum near (π , 0) and reduce the magnon lifetime. It is pointed out that the singlon-magnon continuum may contribute to the continuum of excitations observed recently near (π , 0).
Spin-Ice State of the Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Pyrochlore Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yuan; Chen, Kun; Deng, Youjin; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris
2016-04-01
We study the low-temperature physics of the SU(2)-symmetric spin-1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore lattice and find "fingerprint" evidence for the thermal spin-ice state in this frustrated quantum magnet. Our conclusions are based on the results of bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo simulations, with good convergence of the skeleton series down to the temperature T /J =1 /6 . The identification of the spin-ice state is done through a remarkably accurate microscopic correspondence for the static structure factor between the quantum Heisenberg, classical Heisenberg, and Ising models at all accessible temperatures, and the characteristic bowtie pattern with pinch points observed at T /J =1 /6 . The dynamic structure factor at real frequencies (obtained by the analytic continuation of numerical data) is consistent with diffusive spinon dynamics at the pinch points.
Shuaibu, A.; Rahman, M. M.
2014-03-05
We study the low temperature behavior of a triangular lattice quantum spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single-site anisotropy by using coordinate Bethe ansatz method. We compute the standard two-particle Hermitian Hamiltonian, and obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalue of the system. The obtained results show a number of advantages in comparison with many results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choy, Ting-Pong; Kim, Yong Baek
2009-08-01
We study possible quantum ground states of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the star lattice, which may be realized in the recently discovered polymeric iron acetate, Fe3(μ3-O)(μ-OAc)6(H2O)3[Fe3(μ3-O)(μ-OAc)7.5]2ṡ7H2O [Y. Z. Zheng , Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 6076 (2007)]. Even though the FeIII moment in this material carries spin-5/2 and the system eventually orders magnetically at low temperatures, the magnetic ordering temperature is much lower than the estimated Curie-Weiss temperature, revealing the frustrated nature of the spin interactions. Anticipating that a lower spin analog of this material may be synthesized in future, we investigate the effect of quantum fluctuations on the star-lattice antiferromagnet using a large- N Sp(N) mean field theory and a projective symmetry group analysis for possible bosonic quantum spin liquid phases. It is found that there exist only two distinct gapped Z2 spin liquid phases with bosonic spinons for nonvanishing nearest-neighbor valence-bond amplitudes. In particular, the spin liquid phase which has a lower energy in the nearest-neighbor exchange model can be stabilized for relatively higher spin magnitudes. Hence, it is perhaps a better candidate for the realization of quantum spin liquid state. We also determine the magnetic ordering patterns resulting from the condensation of the bosonic spinons in the two different spin liquid phases. We expect these magnetic ordering patterns would directly be relevant for the low temperature ordered phase of the iron acetate. The phase diagram containing all of these phases and various dimerized states are obtained for the nearest-neighbor exchange model and its implications are discussed.
Intersite coupling effects in a Kondo lattice near an antiferromagnetic instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakatsuji, Satoru
2003-03-01
Critcal fluctuations due to the proximity to a magnetic instability are believed to be the origin of a variety of non-Fermi-liquid behavior and unconventional superconductivity observed in heavy fermion systems. Near the quantum critical points, prominent effect of intersite coupling in Kondo lattice systems may appear. With this in mind, we studied the La dilution effects in CeCoIn_5, a heavy fermion superconductor located near an antiferromangetic instability [1,2]. The scaling laws found for the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat reveal two well-separated energy scales, corresponding to the single impurity Kondo temperature TK and an intersite spin-liquid temperature T. The Ce-dilute alloy has the expected Fermi liquid ground state, while the specific heat and resistivity in the dense Kondo regime exhibit non-Fermi-liquid behavior, which scales with T^*. These observations indicate that the screening of the magnetic moments in the lattice involves antiferromagnetic intersite correlations with a larger energy scale in comparison with the Kondo impurity case. This work was supported by NSF DMR-9527035. [1] C. Petrovic ´it et al., J.Phys.: Condens. Matter ´bf 13, L337 (2001). [2] S. Nakatsuji ´it et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 106402 (2002) ^´ast Work done in collaboration with Zachary Fisk, Sunmog Yeo, Luis Balicas, Pedro Schlottmann, Pagliuso G. Pagliuso, Nelson O. Moreno, John L. Sarrao, and Joe D. Thompson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyun-Jung; Li, Chaokai; Feng, Ji; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cho, Jun-Hyung
The tuning of topological states is of significant fundamental and practical importance in contemporary condensed matter physics, for which the extension to two-dimensional (2D) organometallic systems is particularly attractive. Using first-principles calculations, we find that a 2D hexagonal triphenyl-lead lattice composed of only main group elements is susceptible to a magnetic instability, characterized by a antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulating state with a renormalized valley gaps with gap difference of 24 meV due to the spin and valley coupling. This AFM state will be subject to a anomalous valley Hall effect under the action of Berry curvature-induced spin and valley currents via, for example, injection of circularly polarized light. Furthermore, such a AFM band insulator can be tuned into a topologically nontrivial quantum anomalous Hall state with a Chern number of one by the application of an out-of-plane electric field. These findings further enrich our understanding of 2D hexagonal organometallic lattices for potential applications in spintronics and valleytronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farnell, D. J. J.; Darradi, R.; Schmidt, R.; Richter, J.
2011-09-01
We investigate the ground state of the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet on two Archimedean lattices, namely, the maple-leaf and bounce lattices as well as a generalized J-J' model interpolating between both systems by varying J'/J from J'/J=0 (bounce limit) to J'/J=1 (maple-leaf limit) and beyond. We use the coupled cluster method to high orders of approximation and also exact diagonalization of finite-sized lattices to discuss the ground-state magnetic long-range order based on data for the ground-state energy, the magnetic order parameter, the spin-spin correlation functions as well as the pitch angle between neighboring spins. Our results indicate that the “pure” bounce (J'/J=0) and maple-leaf (J'/J=1) Heisenberg antiferromagnets are magnetically ordered, however, with a sublattice magnetization drastically reduced by frustration and quantum fluctuations. We found that magnetic long-range order is present in a wide parameter range 0⩽J'/J≲Jc'/J and that the magnetic order parameter varies only weakly with J'/J. At Jc'≈1.45J, a transition to a quantum orthogonal-dimer singlet ground state without magnetic long-range order takes place that is probably of first-order type, although we cannot rule out that this transition is second order. The orthogonal-dimer state is the exact ground state in this large-J' regime, and so our model has similarities to the Shastry-Sutherland model. Finally, we use the exact diagonalization to investigate the magnetization curve. We find a 1/3 magnetization plateau for J'/J≳1.07 and another one at 2/3 of saturation emerging only at large J'/J≳3.
DNA-linked NanoParticle Lattices with Diamond Symmetry: Stability and Shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emamy, Hamed; Tkachenko, Alexei; Gang, Oleg; Starr, Francis
The linking of nanoparticles (NP) by DNA has been proven to be an effective means to create NP lattices with specific order. Lattices with diamond symmetry are predicted to offer novel photonic properties, but self-assembly of such lattices has proven to be challenging due to the low packing fraction, sensitivity to bond orientation, and local heterogeneity. Recently, we reported an approach to create diamond NP lattices based on the association between anisotropic particles with well-defined tetravalent DNA binding topology and isotropically functionalized NP. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to evaluate the Gibbs free energy of these lattices, and thereby determine the stability of these lattices as a function of NP size. The lattice free energy has a minimum for NP size near 50 nm, and rapid increases for larger NP, destabilizing the lattice. We also predict the equilibrium shape for the cubic diamond crystallite using the Wulff construction method. Specifically, we predict the equilibrium shape using the surface energy for different crystallographic planes. We evaluate surface energy directly form molecular dynamics simulation, which we correlate with theoretical estimates from the expected number of broken DNA bonds along a facet.
Optical Signatures of Antiferromagnetic Ordering of Fermionic Atoms in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordobes Aguilar, Francisco; Ho, Andrew F.; Ruostekoski, Janne
2014-07-01
We show how off-resonant light scattering can provide quantitative information on antiferromagnetic ordering of a two-species fermionic atomic gas in a tightly-confined two-dimensional optical lattice. We analyze the emerging magnetic ordering of atoms in the mean-field and in random phase approximations and show how the many-body static and dynamic correlations, evaluated in the standard Feynman-Dyson perturbation series, can be detected in the scattered light signal. The staggered magnetization reveals itself in the magnetic Bragg peaks of the individual spin components. These magnetic peaks, however, can be considerably suppressed in the absence of a true long-range antiferromagnetic order. The light scattered outside the diffraction orders can be collected by a lens with highly improved signal-to-shot-noise ratio when the diffraction maxima are blocked. The collective and single-particle excitations are identified in the spectrum of the scattered light. We find that the spin-conserving and spin-exchanging atomic transitions convey information on density, longitudinal spin, and transverse spin correlations. The different correlations and scattering processes exhibit characteristic angular distribution profiles for the scattered light, and e.g., the diagnostic signal of transverse spin correlations could be separated from the optical response by the scattering direction, frequency, or polarization. We also analyze the detection accuracy by estimating the number of required measurements, constrained by the heating rate that is determined by inelastic light-scattering events. The imaging technique could be extended to the two-species fermionic states in other regions of the phase diagram where the ground-state properties are still not fully understood.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, M.; Yoshida, H.; Isobe, M.; de La Cruz, C.; Fishman, R. S.
2012-02-01
Ag2CrO2 consists of triangular lattice planes of CrO2, which are well separated by the metallic Ag2 layers. [1] This compound is an S=3/2 frustrated triangular lattice antiferromagnet without orbital degree of freedom. We performed neutron diffraction experiments on a powder sample of Ag2CrO2 on a neutron powder diffractometer HB-2A and a triple-axis neutron spectrometer HB-1, installed at HFIR in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With decreasing temperature, a short-range 4-sublatice spin state develops. However, a long-range partially disordered state with 5 sublattices abruptly appears at TN=24 K, accompanied by a structural distortion, and persists at least down to 2 K. The spin-lattice coupling stabilizes the anomalous state, which is expected to appear only in limited ranges of further-neighbor interactions and temperature. It was found that the spin-lattice coupling is a common feature in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with multiple-sublattice spin states, since the triangular lattice is elastic. [4pt] [1] H. Yoshida et al., to appear in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.
Crystal Structure of the Spin 1/2 Honeycomb-Lattice Antiferromagnet Cu2(pymca)3(ClO4)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honda, Zentaro; Kodama, Takafumi; Kikukawa, Reo; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kida, Takanori; Sakai, Masamichi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fujihara, Takashi; Kamata, Norihiko
2015-03-01
Using X-ray diffraction techniques, we have studied the crystal structure of a copper polynuclear coordination polymer Cu2(pymca)3(ClO4) (pymca = pyrimidine-2-carboxylate), which is found to crystallize as a trigonal crystal system, space group P31m, with the lattice constants a = 9.5904(18) Å and c = 5.9000(11) Å, at temperature T = 150 K. Each pymca ligand connects to two Cu2+ ions, forming a honeycomb network in the ab plane. The T dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of Cu2(pymca)3(ClO4) shows a broad maximum near T = 26 K, indicating low-dimensional antiferromagnetic interactions. From the crystal structure and magnetic properties, we conclude that Cu2(pymca)3(ClO4) is a good realization of a spin-1/2 honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet.
Transitions to valence-bond solid order in a honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujari, Sumiran; Alet, Fabien; Damle, Kedar
2015-03-01
We use quantum Monte Carlo methods to study the ground-state phase diagram of a S =1 /2 honeycomb lattice magnet in which a nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic exchange J (favoring Néel order) competes with two different multispin interaction terms: a six-spin interaction Q3 that favors columnar valence-bond solid (VBS) order, and a four-spin interaction Q2 that favors staggered VBS order. For Q3˜Q2≫J , we establish that the competition between the two different VBS orders stabilizes Néel order in a large swath of the phase diagram even when J is the smallest energy scale in the Hamiltonian. When Q3≫(Q2,J ) [ Q2≫(Q3,J ) ], this model exhibits at zero temperature phase transition from the Néel state to a columnar (staggered) VBS state. We establish that the Néel-columnar VBS transition is continuous for all values of Q2, and that critical properties along the entire phase boundary are well characterized by critical exponents and amplitudes of the noncompact CP1 (NCCP1) theory of deconfined criticality, similar to what is observed on a square lattice. However, a surprising threefold anisotropy of the phase of the VBS order parameter at criticality, whose presence was recently noted at the Q2=0 deconfined critical point, is seen to persist all along this phase boundary. We use a classical analogy to explore this by studying the critical point of a three-dimensional X Y model with a fourfold anisotropy field which is known to be weakly irrelevant at the three-dimensional X Y critical point. In this case, we again find that the critical anisotropy appears to saturate to a nonzero value over the range of sizes accessible to our simulations.
YbNi Si3 : An antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice with strong exchange interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avila, M. A.; Sera, M.; Takabatake, T.
2004-09-01
We report on the structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of high quality single crystals of YbNiSi3 grown by the flux method. This compound crystallizes in the SmNiGe3 layered structure type of the Cmmm space group. The general physical behavior is that of a Kondo lattice showing an antiferromagnetic ground state below TN=5.1K . This is among the highest ordering temperatures for a Yb-based intermetallic, indicating strong exchange interaction between the Yb ions, which are in or very close to +3 valency based on the effective moment of 4.45μB/f.u . The compound has moderately heavy-electron behavior with a Sommerfeld coefficient of 190mJ/molK2 . Resistivity is highly anisotropic and for I⊥b exhibits the signature logarithmic increase below a local minimum, followed by a sharp decrease in the coherent/magnetically ordered state, resulting in a residual resistivity of 1.5μΩcm and a residual resistivity ratio of 40. Fermi-liquid behavior consistent with a ground-state doublet is clearly observed below 1K .
Search for the Heisenberg spin glass on rewired square lattices with antiferromagnetic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surungan, Tasrief; Bansawang B., J.; Tahir, Dahlang
2016-03-01
Spin glass (SG) is a typical magnetic system with frozen random spin orientation at low temperatures. The system exhibits rich physical properties, such as infinite number of ground states, memory effect, and aging phenomena. There are two main ingredients considered to be pivotal for the existence of SG behavior, namely, frustration and randomness. For the canonical SG system, frustration is led by the presence of competing interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) couplings. Previously, Bartolozzi et al. [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)], reported the SG properties of the AF Ising spins on scale free network (SFN). It is a new type of SG, different from the canonical one which requires the presence of both FM and AF couplings. In this new system, frustration is purely caused by the topological factor and its randomness is related to the irregular connectvity. Recently, Surungan et. al. [Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 640, 012001 (2015)] reported SG bahavior of AF Heisenberg model on SFN. We further investigate this type of system by studying an AF Heisenberg model on rewired square lattices. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter to search for the existence of SG phase.
Quantum phase transitions in triangular lattice Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Mengxing; Chubukov, Andrey
We present the zero temperature phase diagram of a large S Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet on a frustrated triangular lattice with the nearest neighbor (J1) and the next nearest neighbor (J2) interactions, in a magnetic field. We show that the classical model has an ``accidental'' degeneracy for all J2 /J1 and all fields below the saturation field, which gives rise to the extended manifold of the ground state spin configurations. Quantum fluctuations, however, lift this degeneracy. For small J2 /J1 , they select one of three different co-planar states, depending on the field value. We argue that above some critical ratio of J2 /J1 , which weakly depends on a magnetic field, these fluctuations select the stripe phase. We analyze in detail the mechanism of the selection of the stripe phase and explore the nature of the quantum phase transition in a magnetic field between the ordered phases as J2 /J1 passes through a critical value.
CaMn2Sb2: Spin waves on a frustrated antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice
McNally, D. E.; Simonson, J. W.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Smith, G. J.; Hassinger, J. E.; DeBeer-Schmidt, L.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Zaliznyak, I.; Aronson, M. C.
2015-05-22
We present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMn2Sb2:, which consists of corrugated honeycomb layers of Mn. The dispersion of magnetic excitations has been measured along the H and L directions in reciprocal space, with a maximum excitation energy of ≈ 24 meV. These excitations are well described by spin waves in a Heisenberg model, including first and second neighbor exchange interactions, J1 and J2, in the Mn plane and also an exchange interaction between planes. The determined ratio J2/J1 ≈ 1/6 suggests that CaMn2Sb2: is the first example of a compound that lies very close to themore » mean field tricritical point, known for the classical Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice, where the N´eel phase and two different spiral phases coexist. The magnitude of the determined exchange interactions reveal a mean field ordering temperature ≈ 4 times larger than the reported N´eel temperature TN = 85 K, suggesting significant frustration arising from proximity to the tricritical point.« less
Antiferromagnetic order and Kondo-lattice behavior in single-crystalline Ce2RhSi3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szlawska, M.; Kaczorowski, D.; Ślebarski, A.; Gulay, L.; Stępień-Damm, J.
2009-04-01
Single crystal of Ce2RhSi3 was investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetization, electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity measurements. Moreover, its electronic structure was studied by cerium core-level x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The results revealed that Ce2RhSi3 is an antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice due to the presence of stable trivalent Ce ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Jie; Li, Ning; He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng
2016-03-01
In this paper, based on mean-field approach and random-phase-approximation, we study the magnetic properties of the repulsive Haldane-Hubbard model on a square lattice. We find antiferromagnetic order driven topological spin density waves beyond Landau’s symmetry-breaking paradigm, for which the effective low energy physics is determined by Chern-Simons-Hopf gauge field theories with different K matrices.
Frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice with spin quantum number s ≥ 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, P. H. Y.; Bishop, R. F.; Campbell, C. E.
2016-03-01
The ground-state (GS) phase diagram of the frustrated spin-s J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice is studied using the coupled cluster method implemented to high orders of approximation, for spin quantum numbers s = 1, 3/2, 2 , 5/2. The model has antiferromagnetic (AFM) nearest-neighbour, next-nearest-neighbour and next-next-nearest-neighbour exchange couplings (with strength J1 > 0, J2 > 0 and J3 > 0, respectively). We specifically study the case J3 = J2 = κJ1, in the range 0 < κ < 1 of the frustration parameter, which includes the point of maximum classical (s → ∞) frustration, viz., the classical critical point at κcl = 1/2, which separates the Neel phase for κ < κcl and the collinear striped AFM phase for κ > κ cl. Results are presented for the GS energy, magnetic order parameter and plaquette valence-bond crystal (PVBC) susceptibility. For all spins s > 3/2 we find a quantum phase diagram very similar to the classical one, with a direct first-order transition between the two collinear AFM states at a value κc(s) which is slightly greater than κcl [e.g., κc(3/2) ≈ 0.53(1)] and which approaches it monotonically as s → ∞. By contrast, for the case s = 1 the transition is split into two such that the stable GS phases are one with Néel AFM order for κ < κc1 = 0.485(5) and one with striped AFM order for κ > κc2 = 0.528(5), just as in the case s = 1/2 (for which κc1 ≈ 0.47 and κc2 ≈ 0.60). For both the s = 1/2 and s = 1 models the transition at κc2 appears to be of first-order type, while that at κc1 appears to be continuous. However, whereas in the s = 1/2 case the intermediate phase appears to have PVBC order over the entire range κc1 < κ < κc2, in the s = 1 case PVBC ordering either exists only over a very small part of the region or, more likely, is absent everywhere.
Control of the third dimension in copper-based square-lattice antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goddard, Paul A.; Singleton, John; Franke, Isabel; Möller, Johannes S.; Lancaster, Tom; Steele, Andrew J.; Topping, Craig V.; Blundell, Stephen J.; Pratt, Francis L.; Baines, C.; Bendix, Jesper; McDonald, Ross D.; Brambleby, Jamie; Lees, Martin R.; Lapidus, Saul H.; Stephens, Peter W.; Twamley, Brendan W.; Conner, Marianne M.; Funk, Kylee; Corbey, Jordan F.; Tran, Hope E.; Schlueter, J. A.; Manson, Jamie L.
2016-03-01
Using a mixed-ligand synthetic scheme, we create a family of quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnets, namely, [Cu (HF2) (pyz) 2] ClO4 [pyz = pyrazine], [Cu L2(pyz) 2] (ClO4)2 [L = pyO = pyridine-N-oxide and 4-phpy-O = 4-phenylpyridine-N-oxide. These materials are shown to possess equivalent two-dimensional [Cu(pyz)2] 2 + nearly square layers, but exhibit interlayer spacings that vary from 6.5713 to 16.777 Å, as dictated by the axial ligands. We present the structural and magnetic properties of this family as determined via x-ray diffraction, electron-spin resonance, pulsed- and quasistatic-field magnetometry and muon-spin rotation, and compare them to those of the prototypical two-dimensional magnetic polymer Cu(pyz) 2(ClO4)2 . We find that, within the limits of the experimental error, the two-dimensional, intralayer exchange coupling in our family of materials remains largely unaffected by the axial ligand substitution, while the observed magnetic ordering temperature (1.91 K for the material with the HF2 axial ligand, 1.70 K for the pyO and 1.63 K for the 4-phpy-O) decreases slowly with increasing layer separation. Despite the structural motifs common to this family and Cu(pyz) 2(ClO4)2 , the latter has significantly stronger two-dimensional exchange interactions and hence a higher ordering temperature. We discuss these results, as well as the mechanisms that might drive the long-range order in these materials, in terms of departures from the ideal S =1 /2 two-dimensional square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet. In particular, we find that both spin-exchange anisotropy in the intralayer interaction and interlayer couplings (exchange, dipolar, or both) are needed to account for the observed ordering temperatures, with the intralayer anisotropy becoming more important as the layers are pulled further apart.
DMRG Study of the S >= 1 quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on a Kagome-like lattice without loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamberty, R. Zach; Changlani, Hitesh J.; Henley, Christopher L.
2013-03-01
The Kagome quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, for spin up to S = 1 and perhaps S = 3 / 2 , is a prime candidate to realize a quantum spin liquid or valence bond crystal state, but theoretical or computational studies for S > 1 / 2 are difficult and few. We consider instead the same interactions and S >= 1 on the Husimi Cactus, a graph of corner sharing triangles whose centers are vertices of a Bethe lattice, using a DMRG procedure tailored for tree graphs. Since both lattices are locally identical, properties of the Kagome antiferromagnet dominated by nearest-neighbor spin correlations should also be exhibited on the Cactus, whereas loop-dependent effects will be absent on the loopless Cactus. Our study focuses on the possible transition(s) that must occur with increasing S for the Cactus antiferromagnet. (It has a disordered valence bond state at S = 1 / 2 but a 3-sublattice coplanar ordered state in the large S limit). We also investigate the phase diagram of the S = 1 quantum XXZ model with on-site anisotropy, which we expect to have three-sublattice and valence-bond-crystal phases similar to the kagome case. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through a Graduate Research Fellowship to R. Zach Lamberty, as well as grant DMR-
t2 g-orbital model on a honeycomb lattice: Application to the antiferromagnet SrRu 2O 6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Da; Wang, Wan-Sheng; Wang, Qiang-Hua
2015-08-01
Motivated by the recent discovery of high-temperature antiferromagnet SrRu2O6 [Hiley et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 4423 (2014);, 10.1002/anie.201310110 Tian et al., arXiv:1504.03642] and its potential to be the parent of a new superconductor upon doping, we construct a minimal t2 g-orbital model on a honeycomb lattice to simulate its low-energy band structure. Local Coulomb interaction is taken into account through both random phase approximation and mean-field theory. Experimentally observed antiferromagnetic order is obtained in both approximations. In addition, our theory predicts that the magnetic moments on three t2 g-orbitals are noncollinear as a result of the strong spin-orbit coupling of Ru atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jotzu, Gregor; Greif, Daniel; Messer, Michael; Desbuqois, Rémi; Görg, Frederik; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-05-01
It is well known that in the thermodynamic limit, quantum effects hinder the formation of true long-range order in lower dimensions. However, on shorter length-scales correlations can actually be enhanced by reducing the connectivity of a lattice. Here we report on the observation of anti-ferromagnetic correlations of ultracold fermions in a variety of optical lattice geometries that are well described by the Hubbard model, including dimers, 1D chains, ladders, isolated and coupled honeycomb planes, as well as square and cubic lattices. The dependence of total correlations and their distribution on the specific geometry is experimentally probed by measuring the spin correlator along different lattice tunnelling bonds. We study distinct geometries as well as continuous crossovers between them, and find a strong dependence on the specific configuration. By dynamically changing the lattice geometry and studying the time-evolution of the system, we determine the time required for the formation and redistribution of spin correlations. Timescales ranging from a sudden quench of the lattice geometry to an adiabatic evolution are probed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, D. A.; Lee, Patrick A.
1999-02-01
We study the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 in the two-leg antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladder. More specifically, we consider the contribution to 1/T1 from the processes with momentum transfer (π,π). In the limit of weak coupling between the two chains, this contribution is of activation type with gap 2Δ at low temperatures (Δ is the spin gap), but crosses over to a slowly decaying temperature dependence at the crossover temperature T~Δ. This crossover possibly explains the recent high-temperature NMR results on ladder-containing cuprates by Imai et al.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujihala, M.; Zheng, X. G.; Oohara, Y.; Morodomi, H.; Kawae, T.; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi
2012-01-01
Spin fluctuations and spin-liquid behaviors of frustrated kagome antiferromagnets have received intense recent attention. Although most severe frustration was predicted for an Ising kagome antiferromagnet, a real material system of undistorted kagome lattice has not been found so far. Here we report the frustrated magnetism of a new Ising kagome antiferromagnet, MgCo3(OH)6Cl2, which can be viewed as a Co version of the intensively researched quantum kagome antiferromagnet of Herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2. Experiments of magnetization, heat capacity, μSR, and neutron scattering demonstrated a partially frozen state with persistent spin fluctuations below around T = 2.7 K. The present study has provided a real material system to study the Ising spin behaviors on undistorted kagome lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salas, Jesús; Sokal, Alan D.
2011-09-01
We study, using transfer-matrix methods, the partition-function zeros of the square-lattice q-state Potts antiferromagnet at zero temperature (= square-lattice chromatic polynomial) for the boundary conditions that are obtained from an m× n grid with free boundary conditions by adjoining one new vertex adjacent to all the sites in the leftmost column and a second new vertex adjacent to all the sites in the rightmost column. We provide numerical evidence that the partition-function zeros are becoming dense everywhere in the complex q-plane outside the limiting curve {B}_{infty}(sq) for this model with ordinary (e.g. free or cylindrical) boundary conditions. Despite this, the infinite-volume free energy is perfectly analytic in this region.
Patil, S.; Generalov, A.; Güttler, M.; Kushwaha, P.; Chikina, A.; Kummer, K.; Rödel, T. C.; Santander-Syro, A. F.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Geibel, C.; Danzenbächer, S.; Kucherenko, Yu.; Laubschat, C.; Allen, J. W.; Vyalikh, D. V.
2016-01-01
The hybridization between localized 4f electrons and itinerant electrons in rare-earth-based materials gives rise to their exotic properties like valence fluctuations, Kondo behaviour, heavy-fermions, or unconventional superconductivity. Here we present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of the Kondo lattice antiferromagnet CeRh2Si2, where the surface and bulk Ce-4f spectral responses were clearly resolved. The pronounced 4f 0 peak seen for the Ce terminated surface gets strongly suppressed in the bulk Ce-4f spectra taken from a Si-terminated crystal due to much larger f-d hybridization. Most interestingly, the bulk Ce-4f spectra reveal a fine structure near the Fermi edge reflecting the crystal electric field splitting of the bulk magnetic 4f 15/2 state. This structure presents a clear dispersion upon crossing valence states, providing direct evidence of f-d hybridization. Our findings give precise insight into f-d hybridization penomena and highlight their importance in the antiferromagnetic phases of Kondo lattices. PMID:26987899
Spin frustration and magnetic ordering in triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Jia; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Peng-Shuai; Pang, Fei; Munsie, Tim J.; Luke, Graeme M.; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yu, Wei-Qiang
2015-12-01
We synthesized a quasi-two-dimensional distorted triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9, in which the effective spin of Co2+ is 1/2 at low temperatures, whose magnetic properties were studied by dc susceptibility and magnetization techniques. The x-ray diffraction confirms the quality of our powder samples. The large Weiss constant θCW˜ -55 K and the low Neel temperature TN˜ 1.45 K give a frustration factor f = | θCW/TN | ≈ 38, suggesting that Ca3CoNb2O9 resides in strong frustration regime. Slightly below TN, deviation between the susceptibility data under zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) is observed. A new magnetic state with 1/3 of the saturate magnetization Ms is suggested in the magnetization curve at 0.46 K. Our study indicates that Ca3CoNb2O9 is an interesting material to investigate magnetism in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with weak anisotropy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374364 and 11222433), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00112). Research at McMaster University supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. Work at North China Electric Power University supported by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.
Magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4
Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Kamenskyi, D.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; et al
2015-11-27
We present on high- field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in the spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4. Frequency- field diagrams of ESR excitations are measured for different orientations of magnetic fields up to 25 T. We show that the substantial zero- field energy gap, Δ ≈ 9.5 K, observed in the low-temperature excitation spectrum of Cs2CuBr4 [Zvyagin et al:, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 077206 (2014)], is present well above TN. Noticeably, the transition into the long-range magnetically ordered phase does not significantly affect the size of the gap, suggesting that even below TN the high-energy spin dynamicsmore » in Cs2CuBr4 is determined by short-range-order spin correlations. The experimental data are compared with results of model spin-wave-theory calculations for spin-1/2 triangle-lattice antiferromagnet.« less
Patil, S; Generalov, A; Güttler, M; Kushwaha, P; Chikina, A; Kummer, K; Rödel, T C; Santander-Syro, A F; Caroca-Canales, N; Geibel, C; Danzenbächer, S; Kucherenko, Yu; Laubschat, C; Allen, J W; Vyalikh, D V
2016-01-01
The hybridization between localized 4f electrons and itinerant electrons in rare-earth-based materials gives rise to their exotic properties like valence fluctuations, Kondo behaviour, heavy-fermions, or unconventional superconductivity. Here we present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of the Kondo lattice antiferromagnet CeRh2Si2, where the surface and bulk Ce-4f spectral responses were clearly resolved. The pronounced 4f (0) peak seen for the Ce terminated surface gets strongly suppressed in the bulk Ce-4f spectra taken from a Si-terminated crystal due to much larger f-d hybridization. Most interestingly, the bulk Ce-4f spectra reveal a fine structure near the Fermi edge reflecting the crystal electric field splitting of the bulk magnetic 4f (1)5/2 state. This structure presents a clear dispersion upon crossing valence states, providing direct evidence of f-d hybridization. Our findings give precise insight into f-d hybridization penomena and highlight their importance in the antiferromagnetic phases of Kondo lattices. PMID:26987899
Ground-state phases of the spin-1 J1-J2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, P. H. Y.; Bishop, R. F.
2016-06-01
We study the zero-temperature quantum phase diagram of a spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice with both nearest-neighbor exchange coupling J1>0 and frustrating next-nearest-neighbor coupling J2≡κ J1>0 , using the coupled cluster method implemented to high orders of approximation, and based on model states with different forms of classical magnetic order. For each we calculate directly in the bulk thermodynamic limit both ground-state low-energy parameters (including the energy per spin, magnetic order parameter, spin stiffness coefficient, and zero-field uniform transverse magnetic susceptibility) and their generalized susceptibilities to various forms of valence-bond crystalline (VBC) order, as well as the energy gap to the lowest-lying spin-triplet excitation. In the range 0 <κ <1 we find evidence for four distinct phases. Two of these are quasiclassical phases with antiferromagnetic long-range order, one with two-sublattice Néel order for κ <κc1=0.250(5 ) , and another with four-sublattice Néel-II order for κ >κc 2=0.340 (5 ) . Two different paramagnetic phases are found to exist in the intermediate region. Over the range κc1<κ<κci=0.305 (5 ) we find a gapless phase with no discernible magnetic order, which is a strong candidate for being a quantum spin liquid, while over the range κci<κ <κc 2 we find a gapped phase, which is most likely a lattice nematic with staggered dimer VBC order that breaks the lattice rotational symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laflorencie, Nicolas; Luitz, David J.; Alet, Fabien
2015-09-01
Using a modified spin-wave theory which artificially restores zero sublattice magnetization on finite lattices, we investigate the entanglement properties of the Néel ordered J1-J2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the square lattice. Different kinds of subsystem geometries are studied, either corner-free (line, strip) or with sharp corners (square). Contributions from the nG=2 Nambu-Goldstone modes give additive logarithmic corrections with a prefactor nG/2 independent of the Rényi index. On the other hand, π /2 corners lead to additional (negative) logarithmic corrections with a prefactor lqc which does depend on both nG and the Rényi index q , in good agreement with scalar field theory predictions. By varying the second neighbor coupling J2 we also explore universality across the Néel ordered side of the phase diagram of the J1-J2 antiferromagnet, from the frustrated side 0
Mechanical behavior of regular open-cell porous biomaterials made of diamond lattice unit cells.
Ahmadi, S M; Campoli, G; Amin Yavari, S; Sajadi, B; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A
2014-06-01
Cellular structures with highly controlled micro-architectures are promising materials for orthopedic applications that require bone-substituting biomaterials or implants. The availability of additive manufacturing techniques has enabled manufacturing of biomaterials made of one or multiple types of unit cells. The diamond lattice unit cell is one of the relatively new types of unit cells that are used in manufacturing of regular porous biomaterials. As opposed to many other types of unit cells, there is currently no analytical solution that could be used for prediction of the mechanical properties of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cells. In this paper, we present new analytical solutions and closed-form relationships for predicting the elastic modulus, Poisson׳s ratio, critical buckling load, and yield (plateau) stress of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cell. The mechanical properties predicted using the analytical solutions are compared with those obtained using finite element models. A number of solid and porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) specimens were manufactured using selective laser melting. A series of experiments were then performed to determine the mechanical properties of the matrix material and cellular structures. The experimentally measured mechanical properties were compared with those obtained using analytical solutions and finite element (FE) models. It has been shown that, for small apparent density values, the mechanical properties obtained using analytical and numerical solutions are in agreement with each other and with experimental observations. The properties estimated using an analytical solution based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory markedly deviated from experimental results for large apparent density values. The mechanical properties estimated using FE models and another analytical solution based on the Timoshenko beam theory better matched the experimental observations. PMID:24566381
Nakane, Kazuya; Kamijo, Takeshi; Ichinose, Ikuo
2011-02-01
In the present paper, we study a spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic (AF) Heisenberg model on layered anisotropic triangular lattice and obtain its phase structure. We use the Schwinger bosons for representing spin operators and also a coherent-state path integral for calculating physical quantities. Finite-temperature properties of the system are investigated by means of the numerical Monte-Carlo simulations. A detailed phase diagram of the system is obtained by calculating internal energy, specific heat, spin correlation functions, etc. There are AF Neel, paramagnetic, and spiral states. Turning on the plaquette term (i.e., the Maxwell term on a lattice) of an emergent U(1) gauge field that flips a pair of parallel spin-singlet bonds, we found that there appears a phase that is regarded as a deconfined spin-liquid state, though 'transition' to this phase from the paramagnetic phase is not of second order but a crossover. In that phase, the emergent gauge boson is a physical gapless excitation coupled with spinons. These results support our previous study on an AF Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice at vanishing temperature.
Magnetic excitation spectrum of the square lattice S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet K2V3O8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lumsden, M. D.; Nagler, S. E.; Sales, B. C.; Tennant, D. A.; McMorrow, D. F.; Lee, S.-H.; Park, S.
2006-12-01
We have explored the magnetic excitation spectrum of the S=1/2 square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, K2V3O8 , using both triple-axis and time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. The long-wavelength spin waves are consistent with the previously determined Hamiltonian for this material. A small energy gap of 72±9μeV is observed at the antiferromagnetic zone center and the near-neighbor exchange constant is determined to be 1.08±0.03meV . A finite ferromagnetic interplanar coupling is observed along the crystallographic c axis with a magnitude of Jc=-0.0036±0.0006meV . However, upon approaching the zone boundary, the observed excitation spectrum deviates significantly from the expectation of linear spin wave theory resulting in split modes at the (π/2,π/2) zone boundary point. The effects of magnon-phonon interaction, orbital degrees of freedom, multimagnon scattering, and dilution/site randomness are considered in the context of the mode splitting. Unfortunately, no fully satisfactory explanation of this phenomenon is found and further theoretical and experimental work is needed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Salas, Jesús; Sokal, Alan D.
2003-09-01
We study the chromatic polynomial P G ( q) for m× n triangular-lattice strips of widths m≤12P,9F (with periodic or free transverse boundary conditions, respectively) and arbitrary lengths n (with free longitudinal boundary conditions). The chromatic polynomial gives the zero-temperature limit of the partition function for the q-state Potts antiferromagnet. We compute the transfer matrix for such strips in the Fortuin-Kasteleyn representation and obtain the corresponding accumulation sets of chromatic zeros in the complex q-plane in the limit n→∞. We recompute the limiting curve obtained by Baxter in the thermodynamic limit m, n→∞ and find new interesting features with possible physical consequences. Finally, we analyze the isolated limiting points and their relation with the Beraha numbers.
Oh, Joosung; Le, Manh Duc; Jeong, Jaehong; Lee, Jung-hyun; Woo, Hyungje; Song, Wan-Young; Perring, T G; Buyers, W J L; Cheong, S-W; Park, Je-Geun
2013-12-20
The breakdown of magnons, the quasiparticles of magnetic systems, has rarely been seen. By using an inelastic neutron scattering technique, we report the observation of spontaneous magnon decay in multiferroic LuMnO3, a simple two dimensional Heisenberg triangular lattice antiferromagnet, with large spin S=2. The origin of this rare phenomenon lies in the nonvanishing cubic interaction between magnons in the spin Hamiltonian arising from the noncollinear 120° spin structure. We observed all three key features of the nonlinear effects as theoretically predicted: a rotonlike minimum, a flat mode, and a linewidth broadening, in our inelastic neutron scattering measurements of single crystal LuMnO3. Our results show that quasiparticles in a system hitherto thought of as "classical" can indeed break down. PMID:24483753
Elasticity of randomly diluted honeycomb and diamond lattices with bending forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liarte, Danilo B.; Stenull, O.; Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, T. C.
2016-04-01
We use numerical simulations and an effective-medium theory to study the rigidity percolation transition of the honeycomb and diamond lattices when weak bond-bending forces are included. We use a rotationally invariant bond-bending potential, which, in contrast to the Keating potential, does not involve any stretching. As a result, the bulk modulus does not depend on the bending stiffness κ. We obtain scaling functions for the behavior of some elastic moduli in the limits of small Δ P=1-P , and small δ P=P-{{P}\\text{c}} , where P is an occupation probability of each bond, and {{P}\\text{c}} is the critical probability at which rigidity percolation occurs. We find good quantitative agreement between effective-medium theory and simulations for both lattices for P close to one.
Elasticity of randomly diluted honeycomb and diamond lattices with bending forces.
Liarte, Danilo B; Stenull, O; Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, T C
2016-04-27
We use numerical simulations and an effective-medium theory to study the rigidity percolation transition of the honeycomb and diamond lattices when weak bond-bending forces are included. We use a rotationally invariant bond-bending potential, which, in contrast to the Keating potential, does not involve any stretching. As a result, the bulk modulus does not depend on the bending stiffness κ. We obtain scaling functions for the behavior of some elastic moduli in the limits of small [Formula: see text], and small [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is an occupation probability of each bond, and [Formula: see text] is the critical probability at which rigidity percolation occurs. We find good quantitative agreement between effective-medium theory and simulations for both lattices for [Formula: see text] close to one. PMID:27023434
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, Masaaki
2013-03-01
Spin-lattice coupling plays an important role in selecting the ground state in the geometrically frustrated magnets, since a small amount of structural distortion is sufficient to lift the ground state degeneracy and stabilize a long-range magnetic order. Ag2CrO2 consists of insulating triangular lattice planes of CrO2 (Cr3+ ion with S=3/2), which are separated by the metallic Ag2 layers. Interestingly, the electric transport in the Ag2 layer is strongly affected by the magnetism in the CrO2 layer. We performed neutron diffraction experiments on this material and found that a partially disordered state with 5 sublattices abruptly appears at TN=24 K, accompanied by a structural distortion. The spin-lattice coupling stabilizes the anomalous state, which is expected to appear only in limited ranges of further-neighbor interactions and temperature. The nonnegligible further-neighbor interactions suggest the existence of the RKKY interaction mediated by the conduction electrons. We have recently performed inelastic neutron scattering experiments and found anomalous magnetic excitations, which cannot be explained simply by the linear spin-wave theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Toshihiro; Tsunetsugu, Hirokazu
2016-08-01
We numerically study optical conductivity σ (ω ) near the "antiferromagnetic" phase transition in the square-lattice Hubbard model at half filling. We use a cluster dynamical mean field theory and calculate conductivity including vertex corrections and, to this end, we have reformulated the vertex corrections in the antiferromagnetic phase. We find that the vertex corrections change various important details in temperature and ω dependencies of conductivity in the square lattice, and this contrasts sharply the case of the Mott transition in the frustrated triangular lattice. Generally, the vertex corrections enhance variations in the ω dependence, and sharpen the Drude peak and a high-ω incoherent peak in the paramagnetic phase. They also enhance the dip in σ (ω ) at ω =0 in the antiferromagnetic phase. Therefore, the dc conductivity is enhanced in the paramagnetic phase and suppressed in the antiferromagnetic phase, but this change occurs slightly below the transition temperature. We also find a temperature region above the transition temperature in which the dc conductivity shows an insulating behavior but σ (ω ) retains the Drude peak, and this region is stabilized by the vertex corrections. We also investigate which fluctuations are important in the vertex corrections and analyze momentum dependence of the vertex function in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yun; Lu, Haiyan; Zhu, Xiegang; Tan, Shiyong; Chen, Qiuyun; Feng, Wei; Xie, Donghua; Luo, Lizhu; Zhang, Wen; Lai, Xinchun; Donglai Feng Team; Huiqiu Yuan Team
One basic concept in heavy fermions systems is the entanglement of localized spin state and itinerant electron state. It can be tuned by two competitive intrinsic mechanisms, Kondo effect and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction, with external disturbances. The key issue regarding heavy fermions properties is how the two mechanisms work in the same phase region. To investigate the relation of the two mechanisms, the cubic antiferromagnetic heavy fermions compound CeIn3 was investigated by soft x-ray angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The hybridization between f electrons and conduction bands in the paramagnetic state was observed directly, providing compelling evidence for Kondo screening scenario and coexistence of two mechanisms. The hybridization strength shows slight and regular anisotropy in K space, implying that the two mechanisms are competitive and anisotropic. This work illuminates the concomitant and competitive relation between the two mechanisms and supplies some evidences for the anisotropic superconductivity of CeIn3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chateigner, D.; Brunet, F.; Deneuville, A.; Germi, P.; Pernet, M.; Gheeraert, E.; Gonon, P.
1995-02-01
Incorporation of boron in polycrystalline diamond films deposited on Si is shown to decrease or increase the lattice parameter below and above about 10 19 B cm -3, respectively. At lower values of doping, the lattice parameter is lower than that of the undoped films, while their <111> texture is maintained. At higher values, the lattice parameter increases rapidly above that of the undoped films, while the <111> texture is progressively lost until it becomes untextured at 6 × 10 20 B cm -3. A coherent interpretation of these results is proposed, based on a decrease and an increase of the defect concentration with B incorporation below and above 10 19 B cm -3, with the hypothesis that the defects increase the diamond lattice parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murtazaev, A. K.; Babaev, A. B.; Ataeva, G. Ya.
2015-07-01
The effect of quenched-in nonmagnetic impurities on phase transitions in a two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnetic three-vertex Potts model on a triangular lattice has been investigated using the Monte Carlo method. The systems with linear dimensions L × L = N and L = 9-144 have been considered. It has been shown using the fourth-order Binder cumulant method that the introduction of a quenched-in disorder into a spin system described by the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Potts model leads to a change from the first-order phase transition to the second-order phase transition.
Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F; Mekhov, Igor B
2016-01-01
Ultracold atomic systems offer a unique tool for understanding behavior of matter in the quantum degenerate regime, promising studies of a vast range of phenomena covering many disciplines from condensed matter to quantum information and particle physics. Coupling these systems to quantized light fields opens further possibilities of observing delicate effects typical of quantum optics in the context of strongly correlated systems. Measurement backaction is one of the most funda- mental manifestations of quantum mechanics and it is at the core of many famous quantum optics experiments. Here we show that quantum backaction of weak measurement can be used for tailoring long-range correlations of ultracold fermions, realizing quantum states with spatial modulations of the density and magnetization, thus overcoming usual requirement for a strong interatomic interactions. We propose detection schemes for implementing antiferromagnetic states and density waves. We demonstrate that such long-range correlations cannot be realized with local addressing, and they are a consequence of the competition between global but spatially structured backaction of weak quantum measurement and unitary dynamics of fermions. PMID:27510369
Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.
2016-01-01
Ultracold atomic systems offer a unique tool for understanding behavior of matter in the quantum degenerate regime, promising studies of a vast range of phenomena covering many disciplines from condensed matter to quantum information and particle physics. Coupling these systems to quantized light fields opens further possibilities of observing delicate effects typical of quantum optics in the context of strongly correlated systems. Measurement backaction is one of the most funda- mental manifestations of quantum mechanics and it is at the core of many famous quantum optics experiments. Here we show that quantum backaction of weak measurement can be used for tailoring long-range correlations of ultracold fermions, realizing quantum states with spatial modulations of the density and magnetization, thus overcoming usual requirement for a strong interatomic interactions. We propose detection schemes for implementing antiferromagnetic states and density waves. We demonstrate that such long-range correlations cannot be realized with local addressing, and they are a consequence of the competition between global but spatially structured backaction of weak quantum measurement and unitary dynamics of fermions. PMID:27510369
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitamura, Hiroyuki; Watanuki, Ryuta; Onozaki, Norimichi; Amou, Yuta; Kono, Yohei; Kittaka, Shunichiro; Shimura, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Isao; Suzuki, Kazuya; Sakakibara, Toshiro
2016-02-01
We performed electric polarization P, dielectric constant ɛ and magnetization M measurements on the perfect triangular-lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO4)2 in high magnetic fields B applied along the c-axis. Whereas M(B) at T=1.5 K monotonically increases with B up to the saturation at Bs = 21 T, P(B) disappears about 14 T, far below the saturation point. In a field range 13 ≤ B ≤ 14 T, the temperature variation of ɛ shows a double peak structure below 2.8 K, indicating two successive transitions. These results strongly suggest the presence of a new high-field phase; the magnetic structure changes from a low-field conical state having chirality to a high-field coplanar non-collinear structure without chirality. The obtained phase diagram is in agreement with a theoretical prediction on XY-like Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnets.
Accary, C.; Barbarat, P.; Hase, W.L. ); Hass, K.C. )
1993-09-30
This paper reports the results of a classical trajectory study of the dynamics of H-atom association with a radical site on the (111) surface of diamond. The association dynamics are affected by the potential between the H-atom and radical site, nonbonded interactions between the H-atom and the surface of the lattice, and the lattice vibrational frequencies. The sensitivity of the association probability to the lattice frequencies suggests that in a complete theory for association the dynamics of energy transfer from H-atom relative translation to the lattice modes must be considered. As a result, a capture theory like transition-state theory is expected to overestimate the association rate constant. The trajectories also show that once the H-atom associates there is a negligible initial transient in the ensuing dissociation of this H-atom from the lattice. The trajectory results are found to be sensitive to the treatment of zero-point energy. A quasiclassical trajectory calculation as performed here, which includes lattice zero-point energy, is expected to give a larger abstraction/addition rate constant ratio for a H-atom interacting with a diamond surface than does a molecular dynamics calculation, which does not include lattice zero-point energy. 73 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compounds Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Pr, Sm)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yanglin; Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Adams, Daniel; Spinu, Leonard; Mao, Zhiqiang
Intermetallic compounds containing rare-earth/actinide elements with 4f/5f electrons have formed a special family of strongly correlated materials, i.e. heavy fermion systems. We have recently found a new layered rare earth intermetallic system showing moderate heavy fermion behavior: Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Sm, Pr). The Re =Ce and Sm members were previously synthesized, while their electronic properties have not been reported. We have recently grown single crystals of Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Sm, Pr) and characterized their electronic and magnetic properties. We find all these materials are antiferromagnetic, with TN = 2.5 K, 5 K, 3.4 K respectively for Re =Ce, Pr and Sm. Moreover, they also exhibit large values of electronic specific coefficient: γ ~ 101 mJ mol-Ce-1 K-2 for Re =Ce, 368 mJ mol-Pr-1 K-2 for Re =Pr, and 196.4 mJ mol-Sm-1 K-2 for Re =Sm, indicating enhanced Kondo effect and the presence of AFM Kondo lattice. Our findings suggest that Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Pr, Sm) could be interesting candidate materials for exploring novel exotic properties of correlated electrons through external parameter tuning such as chemical substitution and pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seabra, Luis; Shannon, Nic
2011-04-01
The majority of magnetic materials possess some degree of magnetic anisotropy, either at the level of a single ion, or in the exchange interactions between different magnetic ions. Where these exchange interactions are also frustrated, the competition between them and anisotropy can stabilize a wide variety of new phases in applied magnetic field. Motivated by the hexagonal delafossite 2H-AgNiO2, we study the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a layered triangular lattice with competing first- and second-neighbor interactions and single-ion easy-axis anisotropy. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation, mean-field analysis, and Landau theory, we establish the magnetic phase diagram of this model as a function of temperature and magnetic field for a fixed ratio of exchange interactions, but with values of easy-axis anisotropy D extending from the Heisenberg (D=0) to the Ising (D=∞) limits. We uncover a rich variety of different magnetic phases. These include several phases which are magnetic supersolids (in the sense of Matsuda and Tsuneto or Liu and Fisher), one of which may already have been observed in AgNiO2. We explore how this particular supersolid arises through the closing of a gap in the spin-wave spectrum, and how it competes with rival collinear phases as the easy-axis anisotropy is increased. The finite temperature properties of this phase are found to be different from those of any previously studied magnetic supersolid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wan-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Chun; Xiang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Qiang-Hua
2016-07-01
We investigate the electronic instabilities in a kagome lattice with Rashba spin-orbital coupling by the unbiased singular-mode functional renormalization group. At the parent 1 /3 filling, the normal state is a quantum spin Hall system. Since the bottom of the conduction band is near the van Hove singularity, the electron-doped system is highly susceptible to competing orders upon electron interactions. The topological nature of the parent system enriches the complexity and novelty of such orders. We find 120∘-type intra-unit-cell antiferromagnetic order, f -wave superconductivity, and chiral p -wave superconductivity with increasing electron doping above the van Hove point. In both types of superconducting phases, there is a mixture of comparable spin singlet and triplet components because of the Rashba coupling. The chiral p -wave superconducting state is characterized by a Chern number Z =1 , supporting a branch of Weyl fermion states on each edge. The model bares close relevance to the so-called s d2 graphenes proposed recently.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babaev, A. B.; Magomedov, M. A.; Murtazaev, A. K.; Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Proshkin, A. I.
2016-02-01
Phase transitions (PTs) and frustrations in two-dimensional structures described by a three-vertex antiferromagnetic Potts model on a triangular lattice are investigated by the Monte Carlo method with regard to nearest and next-nearest neighbors with interaction constants J 1 and J 2, respectively. PTs in these models are analyzed for the ratio r = J 2/ J 1 of next-nearest to nearest exchange interaction constants in the interval | r| = 0-1.0. On the basis of the analysis of the low-temperature entropy, the density of states function of the system, and the fourth-order Binder cumulants, it is shown that a Potts model with interaction constants J 1 < 0 and J 2 < 0 exhibits a first-order PT in the range of 0 ⩽ r < 0.2, whereas, in the interval 0.2 ⩽ r ⩽ 1.0, frustrations arise in the system. At the same time, for J 1 > 0 and J 2 < 0, frustrations arise in the range 0.5 < | r| < 1.0, while, in the interval 0 ⩽ | r| ⩽ 1/3, the model exhibits a second-order PT.
Lattice distortion and stripelike antiferromagnetic order in Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5
Sapkota, Aashish; Tucker, Gregory S; Ramazanoglu, Mehmet; Tian, Wei; Ni, N; Cava, R J; McQueeney, Robert J; Goldman, Alan I; Kreyssig, Andreas
2014-09-01
Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 is the parent compound for a class of Fe-based high-temperature superconductors where superconductivity with transition temperatures up to 30 K can be introduced by partial element substitution. We present a combined high-resolution high-energy x-ray diffraction and elastic neutron scattering study on a Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 single crystal. This study reveals the microscopic nature of two distinct and continuous phase transitions to be very similar to other Fe-based high-temperature superconductors: an orthorhombic distortion of the high-temperature tetragonal Fe-As lattice below TS=110(2) K followed by stripelike antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe moments below TN=96(2) K. These findings demonstrate that major features of the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors are very robust against variations in chemical constitution as well as structural imperfection of the layers separating the Fe-As layers from each other and confirms that the Fe-As layers primarily determine the physics in this class of material.
CaMn_{2}Sb_{2}: Spin waves on a frustrated antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice
McNally, D. E.; Simonson, J. W.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Smith, G. J.; Hassinger, J. E.; DeBeer-Schmidt, L.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Zaliznyak, I.; Aronson, M. C.
2015-05-22
We present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMn_{2}Sb_{2}:, which consists of corrugated honeycomb layers of Mn. The dispersion of magnetic excitations has been measured along the H and L directions in reciprocal space, with a maximum excitation energy of ≈ 24 meV. These excitations are well described by spin waves in a Heisenberg model, including first and second neighbor exchange interactions, J_{1} and J_{2}, in the Mn plane and also an exchange interaction between planes. The determined ratio J_{2}/J_{1} ≈ 1/6 suggests that CaMn_{2}Sb_{2}: is the first example of a compound that lies very close to the mean field tricritical point, known for the classical Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice, where the N´eel phase and two different spiral phases coexist. The magnitude of the determined exchange interactions reveal a mean field ordering temperature ≈ 4 times larger than the reported N´eel temperature T_{N} = 85 K, suggesting significant frustration arising from proximity to the tricritical point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, S.; Hosaka, S.; Tamatsukuri, H.; Nakajima, T.; Mitsuda, S.; Prokeš, K.; Kiefer, K.
2014-08-01
We report neutron diffraction measurement results for an Ising antiferromagnet CoNb2O6 under uniaxial pressure along the geometrically frustrated isosceles-triangular-lattice direction. We find that an onset incommensurate wave number at the Néel temperature increases with pressure from 0.378 to 0.411 at 400 MPa. The observations suggest that the anisotropic deformation of the lattice by the uniaxial pressure significantly modifies the spin frustration, leading to an increase in the nearest-neighbor to next-nearest-neighbor interaction ratio from 1.33 to 1.81.
Magnetic Order in the Mixed-Spin Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet NaxMnO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chisnell, Robin; Parshall, Dan; Li, Xin; Larson, Amber; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph; Rodriguez, Efrain; Lynn, Jeffrey
NaxTMO2 (TM = transition metal) materials consist of alternating layers of Na and TM ions with the TM ions arranged on a geometrically frustrated triangular lattice. Na can be easily and reversibly removed from these materials, making them of interest for application in rechargeable batteries and allowing for exploration of their rich phase diagrams as a function of Na concentration. Na ordering is an important factor in ground state selection, and is driven by electrostatic interactions in many NaxTMO2 systems. The TM = Mn series differs in that Na ordering is driven by a cooperative Jahn-Teller effect, due to the coexistence of Jahn-Teller active Mn3+ and inactive Mn4+ ions. This effect also results in an ordered arrangement of the Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions, and thus of spin-2 and spin-3/2 moments. For x = 5/8, we have recently shown the coexistence of charge and magnetic stripe orderings. Here, we present the results of neutron diffraction measurements performed on single crystal samples of NaxMnO2 and discuss the details of the magnetic structure in the magnetically ordered phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Wen-Jun; Gong, Shou-Shu; Sheng, D. N.
2016-08-01
By using Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions and variational Monte Carlo technique, we study the spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model with the first-neighbor (J1), second-neighbor (J2), and additional scalar chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) on the triangular lattice. In the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model with 0.08 ≲J2/J1≲0.16 , recent density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies [Zhu and White, Phys. Rev. B 92, 041105(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.041105 and Hu, Gong, Zhu, and Sheng, Phys. Rev. B 92, 140403(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140403] find a possible gapped spin liquid with the signal of a competition between a chiral and a Z2 spin liquid. Motivated by the DMRG results, we consider the chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) as a perturbation for this nonmagnetic phase. We find that with growing Jχ, the gapless U(1) Dirac spin liquid, which has the best variational energy for Jχ=0 , exhibits the energy instability towards a gapped spin liquid with nontrivial magnetic fluxes and nonzero chiral order. We calculate topological Chern number and ground-state degeneracy, both of which identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with fractionalized Chern number C =1 /2 and twofold topological degeneracy. Our results indicate a positive direction to stabilize a chiral spin liquid near the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Jian-Xin; Yang, Z. R.
2003-12-01
The phase transitions of the anisotropic Ashkin-Teller model on a family of diamond-type hierarchical lattices is studied by means of the transfer-matrix method and the real-space renormalization-group transformation. We find that the phase diagram, for the ferromagnetic case, consists of five phases, i.e., the fully disordered paramagnetic phase P, the fully ordered ferromagnetic phase F, and three partially ordered ferromagnetic phases Fs, Fσ, and Fsσ, as well as ten nontrivial fixed points. The correlation length critical exponents and the crossover exponents are also calculated. In addition, we also investigate the variations of the critical exponents with the fractal dimension df, the number of branches m, and the number of bonds per branch b of the generator of the family of diamond-type hierarchical lattices. Finally we give a brief discussion about universality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honda, Zentaro; Kodama, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kida, Takanori; Okutani, Akira; Sakai, Masamichi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kamata, Norihiko
2016-09-01
We report on the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of a series of transition metal coordination polymers M2(pymca)3(ClO4), (pymca = pyrimidine-2-carboxylic acid, M = Fe (1), Co (2), and Ni (3)). These compounds are found to crystallize in a trigonal crystal system, space group P31m, with the lattice constants a = 9.727 Å and c = 5.996 Å for 1, a = 9.608 Å and c = 5.996 Å for 2, and a = 9.477 Å and c = 5.958 Å for 3 at room temperature. In these compounds, each pymca ligand connects to two M2+ ions, forming a honeycomb network in the ab plane. The temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibilities in these compounds show broad maxima, indicating antiferromagnetic interactions within two-dimensional honeycomb layers. We also observed an antiferromagnetic phase transition at low temperatures by magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. From the crystal structures and magnetic properties, we conclude that the compounds 1, 2, and 3 are good realizations of honeycomb-lattice antiferromagnets.
Chi, Songxue; Ye, F.; Dai, Pengcheng; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Huang, Q.; Lynn, J. W.; Plummer, E. W.; Mathieu, R.; Kaneko, Y.; Tokura, Y.
2007-01-01
We use neutron scattering to study the lattice and magnetic structure of the layered half-doped manganite Pr0.5Ca1.5MnO4. On cooling from high temperature, the system first becomes charge-and orbital-ordered (CO/OO) near TCO = 300 K and then develops checkerboard-like antiferromagnetic (AF) order below TN = 130 K. At temperatures above TN but below TCO (TN
Chi, Songxue; Ye, Feng; Dai, Pengcheng; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A; Huang, Q.; Lynn, J. W.; Plummer, E Ward; Mathieu, R.; Kaneko, Y.; Tokura, Y.
2007-01-01
We use neutron scattering to study the lattice and magnetic structure of the layered half-doped manganite Pr0.5Ca1.5MnO4. On cooling from high temperature, the system first becomes chargeand orbital-ordered (CO/OO) near TCO = 300 K and then develops checkerboard-like antiferromagnetic (AF) order below TN = 130 K. At temperatures above TN but below TCO (TN
Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Dipolar Antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babkevich, P.; Jeong, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kovacevic, I.; Finco, A.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Ritter, C.; Mânsson, M.; Nakatsuji, S.; Rønnow, H. M.
2016-05-01
We report ac susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements on a dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet LiYbF4 . For the thermal transition, the order-parameter critical exponent is found to be 0.20(1) and the specific-heat critical exponent -0.25 (1 ) . The exponents agree with the 2D X Y /h4 universality class despite the lack of apparent two-dimensionality in the structure. The order-parameter exponent for the quantum phase transitions is found to be 0.35(1) corresponding to (2 +1 )D . These results are in line with those found for LiErF4 which has the same crystal structure, but largely different TN, crystal field environment and hyperfine interactions. Our results therefore experimentally establish that the dimensional reduction is universal to quantum dipolar antiferromagnets on a distorted diamond lattice.
Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Dipolar Antiferromagnets.
Babkevich, P; Jeong, M; Matsumoto, Y; Kovacevic, I; Finco, A; Toft-Petersen, R; Ritter, C; Månsson, M; Nakatsuji, S; Rønnow, H M
2016-05-13
We report ac susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements on a dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet LiYbF_{4}. For the thermal transition, the order-parameter critical exponent is found to be 0.20(1) and the specific-heat critical exponent -0.25(1). The exponents agree with the 2D XY/h_{4} universality class despite the lack of apparent two-dimensionality in the structure. The order-parameter exponent for the quantum phase transitions is found to be 0.35(1) corresponding to (2+1)D. These results are in line with those found for LiErF_{4} which has the same crystal structure, but largely different T_{N}, crystal field environment and hyperfine interactions. Our results therefore experimentally establish that the dimensional reduction is universal to quantum dipolar antiferromagnets on a distorted diamond lattice. PMID:27232040
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H. P.; Wu, D. S.; Shi, Y. G.; Wang, N. L.
2016-07-01
We present anisotropic transport and optical spectroscopy studies on EuCd2As2 . The measurements reveal that EuCd2As2 is a low carrier density semimetal with moderate anisotropic resistivity ratio. The charge carriers experience very strong scattering from Eu magnetic moments, resulting in a Kondo-like increase of resistivity at low temperature. Below the antiferromagnetic transition temperature at TN=9.5 K, the resistivity drops sharply due to the reduced scattering from the ordered Eu moments. Nevertheless, the anisotropic ratio of ρc/ρa b keeps increasing, suggesting that the antiferromagnetic coupling is along the c axis. The optical spectroscopy measurement further reveals, besides an overdamped reflectance plasma edge at low energy, a strong coupling between phonon and electronic continuum. Our study suggests that EuCd2As2 is a promising candidate displaying intriguing interplay among charge, magnetism, and the underlying crystal lattice.
Magnetic structure of the antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice compounds CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2
Ghimire, N. J.; Calder, S.; Janoschek, M.; Bauer, E. D.
2015-06-01
In this article, we have investigated the magnetic ground state of the antiferromagnetic Kondo-lattice compounds CeMAl4Si2(M = Rh, Ir) using neutron powder diffraction. Although both of these compounds show two magnetic transitions TN1 and TN2 in the bulk properties measurements, evidence for magnetic long-range order was only found below the lower transition TN2. Analysis of the diffraction profiles reveals a commensurate antiferromagnetic structure with a propagation vector k = (0, 0, 1/2). The magnetic moment in the ordered state of CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 were determined to be 1.14(2) and 1.41(3) μB/Ce, respectively, and are parallel to the crystallographic c-axis inmore » agreement with magnetic susceptibility measurements.« less
Classical Monte Carlo Study for Antiferro Quadrupole Orders in a Diamond Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hattori, Kazumasa; Tsunetsugu, Hirokazu
2016-09-01
We investigate antiferro quadrupole orders in a diamond lattice under magnetic fields by Monte Carlo simulations for two types of classical effective models. One is an XY model with Z3 anisotropy, and the other is a two-component ϕ4 model with a third-order anisotropy. We confirm that the universality class of the zero-field transition is that for the three-dimensional XY model. Magnetic field corresponds to a Z3 field in the effective model, and under this field, we find that collinear and canted antiferro-quadrupole orders compete. Each phase is characterized by symmetry breaking in the sector of (sublattice Z2) otimes (reflection Z2 for the order parameter). When Z3 anisotropy and magnetic field vary, it turns out that this system is a good playground for various multicritical points; bicritical and tetracritical points emerge in a finite field. Another important finding is about the scaling of parasitic ferro quadrupole order at the zero-field critical point. This is the secondary order parameter induced by the primary antiferro order, and its critical exponent β' = 0.815 clearly differs from the expected value that is twice the value for the primary order parameter. The corresponding correlation length exponent is also different, ν' = 0.597(12). We also discuss relation of the present effective quadrupole models with the 3-state Potts model as well as implication to understanding of orbital orders in Pr-based 1-2-20 compounds.
Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K.; Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Kurbanova, D. R.
2015-01-15
Phase transitions in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a body-centered cubic lattice are studied on the basis of the replica algorithm by the Monte Carlo method and histogram analysis taking into account the interaction of next-to-nearest neighbors. The phase diagram of the dependence of the critical temperature on the intensity of interaction of the next-to-nearest neighbors is constructed. It is found that a second-order phase transition is realized in this model in the investigated interval of the intensities of interaction of next-to-nearest neighbors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shore, Joel D.; Thurston, George M.
2015-12-01
We report a charge-patterning phase transition on two-dimensional square lattices of titratable sites, here regarded as protonation sites, placed in a low-dielectric medium just below the planar interface between this medium and a salt solution. We calculate the work-of-charging matrix of the lattice with use of a linear Debye-Hückel model, as input to a grand-canonical partition function for the distribution of occupancy patterns. For a large range of parameter values, this model exhibits an approximate inverse cubic power-law decrease of the voltage produced by an individual charge, as a function of its in-lattice separation from neighboring titratable sites. Thus, the charge coupling voltage biases the local probabilities of proton binding as a function of the occupancy of sites for many neighbors beyond the nearest ones. We find that even in the presence of these longer-range interactions, the site couplings give rise to a phase transition in which the site occupancies exhibit an alternating, checkerboard pattern that is an analog of antiferromagnetic ordering. The overall strength W of this canonical charge coupling voltage, per unit charge, is a function of the Debye length, the charge depth, the Bjerrum length, and the dielectric coefficients of the medium and the solvent. The alternating occupancy transition occurs above a curve of thermodynamic critical points in the (p H-p K ,W ) plane, the curve representing a charge-regulation analog of variation of the Néel temperature of an Ising antiferromagnet as a function of an applied, uniform magnetic field. The analog of a uniform magnetic field in the antiferromagnet problem is a combination of p H-p K and W , and 1 /W is the analog of the temperature in the antiferromagnet problem. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the occupancy patterns of the titratable sites, including interactions out to the 37th nearest-neighbor category (a distance of √{74 } lattice constants), first validating simulations
Shore, Joel D; Thurston, George M
2015-12-01
We report a charge-patterning phase transition on two-dimensional square lattices of titratable sites, here regarded as protonation sites, placed in a low-dielectric medium just below the planar interface between this medium and a salt solution. We calculate the work-of-charging matrix of the lattice with use of a linear Debye-Hückel model, as input to a grand-canonical partition function for the distribution of occupancy patterns. For a large range of parameter values, this model exhibits an approximate inverse cubic power-law decrease of the voltage produced by an individual charge, as a function of its in-lattice separation from neighboring titratable sites. Thus, the charge coupling voltage biases the local probabilities of proton binding as a function of the occupancy of sites for many neighbors beyond the nearest ones. We find that even in the presence of these longer-range interactions, the site couplings give rise to a phase transition in which the site occupancies exhibit an alternating, checkerboard pattern that is an analog of antiferromagnetic ordering. The overall strength W of this canonical charge coupling voltage, per unit charge, is a function of the Debye length, the charge depth, the Bjerrum length, and the dielectric coefficients of the medium and the solvent. The alternating occupancy transition occurs above a curve of thermodynamic critical points in the (pH-pK,W) plane, the curve representing a charge-regulation analog of variation of the Néel temperature of an Ising antiferromagnet as a function of an applied, uniform magnetic field. The analog of a uniform magnetic field in the antiferromagnet problem is a combination of pH-pK and W, and 1/W is the analog of the temperature in the antiferromagnet problem. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the occupancy patterns of the titratable sites, including interactions out to the 37th nearest-neighbor category (a distance of √74 lattice constants), first validating simulations through
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Taro; Mitsuda, Setsuo; Okano, Hidekazu; Inomoto, Yu; Kobayashi, Satoru; Prokes, Karel; Gerischer, Sebastian; Smeibidl, Peter
2014-09-01
We have investigated nonmagnetic impurity effect on the H||c-T magnetic phase diagram of an isosceles triangular lattice Ising antiferromagnet CoNb2O6, by means of neutron diffraction measurements using single crystals of Co1-xMgxNb2O6 with x = 0, 0.004, and 0.008. We have found that the commensurate antiferromagnetic (AF) ground state disappears by substituting only 0.8% of nonmagnetic Mg2+ ions for the magnetic Co2+ ions. On the other hand, the phase boundaries between the other phases, namely the field-induced ferrimagnetic phase, thermally-induced incommensurate (IC) magnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase, are hardly affected by the small amount of nonmagnetic substitution. We have also performed Monte Carlo simulations for the isosceles triangular lattice Ising model to understand the extremely high sensitivity to the nonmagnetic substitution. Consequently, we have revealed that the disappearance of the AF phase is not because the small amount of nonmagnetic impurities destabilize the AF phase, but because the phase transition from the IC phase to the AF phase is strongly suppressed by a pinning effect due to the impurities.
Magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs_{2}CuBr_{4}
Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Kamenskyi, D.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.
2015-11-27
We present on high- field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in the spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs_{2}CuBr_{4}. Frequency- field diagrams of ESR excitations are measured for different orientations of magnetic fields up to 25 T. We show that the substantial zero- field energy gap, Δ ≈ 9.5 K, observed in the low-temperature excitation spectrum of Cs_{2}CuBr_{4} [Zvyagin et al:, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 077206 (2014)], is present well above T_{N}. Noticeably, the transition into the long-range magnetically ordered phase does not significantly affect the size of the gap, suggesting that even below T_{N} the high-energy spin dynamics in Cs_{2}CuBr_{4} is determined by short-range-order spin correlations. The experimental data are compared with results of model spin-wave-theory calculations for spin-1/2 triangle-lattice antiferromagnet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ran; Purushottam, D. Gujrati
2015-09-01
Two types of recursive lattices with the identical coordination number but different unit cells (2-D square and 3-D cube) are constructed and the antiferromagnetic Ising model is solved exactly on them to study the stable and metastable states. A multi-branched structure of the 2-D plaquette model, which we introduced in this work, makes it possible to be an analog to the cubic lattice. Two solutions of each model can be found to exhibit the crystallization of liquid, and the ideal glass transition of supercooled liquid respectively. Based on the solutions, the thermodynamics on both lattices, e.g. the free energy, energy density, and entropy of the supercooled liquid, crystal, and liquid state of the model are calculated and compared with each other. Interactions between particles farther away than the nearest neighbor distance and multi-spins interactions are taken into consideration, and their effects on the thermal behavior are examined. The two lattices show comparable properties on the thermodynamics, which proves that both of them are practical to describe the regular 3-D case, especially to locate the ideal glass transition, while the 2-D multi-branched plaquette model is less accurate with the advantage of simpler formulation and less computation time consumption. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505110
Infrared probe of spin-phonon coupling in antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice compound Li2MnO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Seungjae; Lee, Sanghyun; Jeon, Seyoung; Park, Je-Geun; Moon, S. J.
2015-12-01
We investigated temperature-dependent infrared-active phonon modes of honeycomb Li2MnO3 which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at T N = 36 K. In the far-infrared frequency region, we observed fourteen phonon modes. We obtained the temperature dependence of each phonon mode from the analysis of optical conductivity spectra by using the Lorentz and the Fano-type oscillator models. We found that the resonance frequencies of nine phonon modes showed an anomalous behavior near T N that should be attributed to the spin-phonon coupling. We calculated the magnitude of the spin-phonon coupling constant from the shift in the resonance frequencies of the phonon modes below T N. Our results suggest that Li2MnO3 is weakly frustrated and that spin-phonon coupling plays a role in antiferromagnetic ordering.
Ma, J; Kamiya, Y; Hong, Tao; Cao, H B; Ehlers, G; Tian, W; Batista, C D; Dun, Z L; Zhou, H D; Matsuda, M
2016-02-26
We present single-crystal neutron scattering measurements of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9}. Besides confirming that the Co^{2+} magnetic moments lie in the ab plane for zero magnetic field and then determining all the exchange parameters of the minimal quasi-2D spin Hamiltonian, we provide conclusive experimental evidence of magnon decay through observation of intrinsic line broadening. Through detailed comparisons with the linear and nonlinear spin-wave theories, we also point out that the large-S approximation, which is conventionally employed to predict magnon decay in noncollinear magnets, is inadequate to explain our experimental observation. Thus, our results call for a new theoretical framework for describing excitation spectra in low-dimensional frustrated magnets under strong quantum effects. PMID:26967439
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, R. F.; Li, P. H. Y.
2016-06-01
The coupled cluster method (CCM) is employed to very high orders of approximation to study the ground-state (GS) properties of the spin-s Heisenberg antiferromagnet (with isotropic interactions, all of equal strength, between nearest-neighbour pairs only) on the honeycomb lattice. We calculate with high accuracy the complete set of GS parameters that fully describes the low-energy behaviour of the system, in terms of an effective magnon field theory, viz., the energy per spin, the magnetic order parameter (i.e., the sublattice magnetization), the spin stiffness and the zero-field (uniform, transverse) magnetic susceptibility, for all values of the spin quantum numbers in the range 1/2 ≤ s ≤ 9/2. The CCM data points are used to calculate the leading quantum corrections to the classical (s → ∞) values of these low-energy parameters, considered as large-s asymptotic expansions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Hiroshi; Asai, Takayuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hayama, Hiromi; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Saito, Gunzi
2016-07-01
We report an antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering at ambient pressure and a superconducting transition under pressure for κ - (ET) 2C F3S O3 [ ET =bis (ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene], which has a two-dimensional electronic system with quasi-one-dimensional triangular spin lattice. At ambient pressure, AF ordering was detected at TN=2.5 K by 1H NMR, subsequent to two structural phase transitions at 230 and 190 K. Under hydrostatic pressures, metallic behavior appeared above ˜1.1 GPa, and a superconducting transition (maximum onset Tc=4.8 K at ˜1.3 GPa) was observed up to 2.2 GPa. Superconductivity was also found under c -axis strain, which reduced t'/t , but was absent under b -axis strain which increased t'/t .
Ma, Jie; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Hong, Tao; Cao, H. B.; Ehlers, Georg; Tian, Wei; Batista, C. D.; Dun, Z. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Matsuda, Masaaki
2016-02-24
We present single-crystal neutron scattering measurements of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9. Besides confirming that the Co2+ magnetic moments lie in the ab plane for zero magnetic field and then determining all the exchange parameters of the minimal quasi-2D spin Hamiltonian, we provide conclusive experimental evidence of magnon decay through observation of intrinsic line broadening. Through detailed comparisons with the linear and nonlinear spin-wave theories, we also point out that the large-S approximation, which is conventionally employed to predict magnon decay in noncollinear magnets, is inadequate to explain our experimental observation. Hence, our results call for a new theoreticalmore » framework for describing excitation spectra in low-dimensional frustrated magnets under strong quantum effects.« less
Antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Jungwirth, T; Marti, X; Wadley, P; Wunderlich, J
2016-03-01
Antiferromagnetic materials are internally magnetic, but the direction of their ordered microscopic moments alternates between individual atomic sites. The resulting zero net magnetic moment makes magnetism in antiferromagnets externally invisible. This implies that information stored in antiferromagnetic moments would be invisible to common magnetic probes, insensitive to disturbing magnetic fields, and the antiferromagnetic element would not magnetically affect its neighbours, regardless of how densely the elements are arranged in the device. The intrinsic high frequencies of antiferromagnetic dynamics represent another property that makes antiferromagnets distinct from ferromagnets. Among the outstanding questions is how to manipulate and detect the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet efficiently. In this Review we focus on recent works that have addressed this question. The field of antiferromagnetic spintronics can also be viewed from the general perspectives of spin transport, magnetic textures and dynamics, and materials research. We briefly mention this broader context, together with an outlook of future research and applications of antiferromagnetic spintronics. PMID:26936817
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jungwirth, T.; Marti, X.; Wadley, P.; Wunderlich, J.
2016-03-01
Antiferromagnetic materials are internally magnetic, but the direction of their ordered microscopic moments alternates between individual atomic sites. The resulting zero net magnetic moment makes magnetism in antiferromagnets externally invisible. This implies that information stored in antiferromagnetic moments would be invisible to common magnetic probes, insensitive to disturbing magnetic fields, and the antiferromagnetic element would not magnetically affect its neighbours, regardless of how densely the elements are arranged in the device. The intrinsic high frequencies of antiferromagnetic dynamics represent another property that makes antiferromagnets distinct from ferromagnets. Among the outstanding questions is how to manipulate and detect the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet efficiently. In this Review we focus on recent works that have addressed this question. The field of antiferromagnetic spintronics can also be viewed from the general perspectives of spin transport, magnetic textures and dynamics, and materials research. We briefly mention this broader context, together with an outlook of future research and applications of antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Proffen, Thomas E; Melot, Brent C; Page, Katharine; Seshadri, Ramzy; Stoudenmire, E M; Balents, Leon; Bergman, Doron L
2008-01-01
The spinels CoB{sub 2}O{sub 4} with magnetic Co{sup 2+} ions on the diamond lattice A site can be frustrated because of competing near-neighbor (J{sub 1}) and next-near neighbor (J{sub 2}) interactions. Here we describe attempts to tune the relative strengths of these interactions by substitution on the non-magnetic B-site. The system we employ is CoAl{sub 2-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 4}, where Al is systematically replaced by the larger Ga, ostensibly on the B site. As expected, Ga substitution expands the lattice, resulting in Co atoms on the A-site being pushed further from one other and thereby weakening magnetic interactions. In addition, Ga distributes between the B and the A site in a concentration dependent manner displacing an increasing amount of Co from the A site with increasing x. This increased inversion, which is confirmed by neutron diffraction studies carried out at room temperature, affects magnetic ordering very significantly, and changes the nature of the ground state. Modeling of the magnetic coupling illustrates the complexity that arises from the cation site disorder.
Feng Shiquan; Zhao Jianling; Cheng Xinlu
2013-01-14
Using density-functional linear-response theory, we calculated the phonon dispersion curves for the diamond structural elemental semiconductors of Ge, C and zinc-blende structure semiconductors of GaAs, InSb at different electronic temperatures. We found that the transverse-acoustic phonon frequencies of C and Ge become imaginary as the electron temperature is elevated, which means the lattices of C and Ge become unstable under intense laser irradiation. These results are very similar with previous theoretical and experimental results for Si. For GaAs and InSb, not only can be obtained the similar results for their transverse-acoustic modes, but also their LO-TO splitting gradually decreases as the electronic temperature is increased. It means that the electronic excitation weakens the strength of the ionicity of ionic crystal under intense laser irradiation.
Kondo lattice and antiferromagnetic behavior in quaternary CeTAl4Si2 (T = Rh, Ir) single crystals
Maurya, Arvind; Kulkarni, Ruta; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Paudyal, Durga; Dhar, Sudesh Kumar
2016-02-26
Here, we have explored in detail the anisotropic magnetic properties of CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2, which undergo two antiferromagnetic transitions, at TN1 = 12.6 and 15.5 K, followed by a second transition at TN2 = 9.4 and 13.8 K, respectively, with the [001]-axis as the relatively easy axis of magnetization. The electrical resistivity at ambient and applied pressure provides evidence of Kondo interaction in both compounds, further supported by a reduced value of the entropy associated with the magnetic ordering. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ is inferred to be 195.6 and 49.4 mJ/(mol K2) for CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2, respectively, classifying these materialsmore » as moderate heavy-fermion compounds. The crystal electric field energy levels are derived from the peak seen in the Schottky heat capacity. Furthermore, we have also performed electronic structure calculations by using the local spin density approximation + U [LSDA+U] approach, which provide physical insights on the observed magnetic behavior of these two compounds.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yi-Zhen; Xi, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Wei; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Su, Gang
2016-06-01
The quantum phase transition, scaling behaviors, and thermodynamics in the spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic coupling J >0 in the armchair direction and ferromagnetic interaction J'<0 in the zigzag direction on a honeycomb lattice are systematically studied using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. By calculating the Binder ratio Q2 and spin stiffness ρ in two directions for various coupling ratios α =J'/J under different lattice sizes, we found that a quantum phase transition from the dimerized phase to the stripe phase occurs at the quantum critical point αc=-0.93 . Through the finite-size scaling analysis on Q2, ρx, and ρy, we determined the critical exponent related to the correlation length ν to be 0.7212(8), implying that this transition falls into a classical Heisenberg O(3) universality. A zero magnetization plateau is observed in the dimerized phase, whose width decreases with increasing α . A phase diagram in the coupling ratio α -magnetic field h plane is obtained, where four phases, including dimerized, stripe, canted stripe, and polarized, are identified. It is also unveiled that the temperature dependence of the specific heat C (T ) for different α 's intersects precisely at one point, similar to that of liquid 3He under different pressures and several magnetic compounds under various magnetic fields. The scaling behaviors of Q2, ρ , and C (T ) are carefully analyzed. The susceptibility is compared with the experimental data to give the magnetic parameters of both compounds.
Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Huang, X.; Ma, J.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Matsuda, M.; Tian, W.; Dun, Z. L.; Dong, S.; Zhou, H. D.
2014-12-01
Here we have performed magnetic, electric, thermal and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations on Ba3MnNb2 O9. All results suggest that Ba3MnNb2 O9 is a spin-5/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF) with weak easy-axis anisotropy. At zero field, we observed a narrow two-step transition at TN1 = 3.4 K and TN2 = 3.0 K. The neutron diffraction measurement and the DFT calculation indicate a 120 spin structure in ab plane with out-of-plane canting at low temperatures. With increasing magnetic field, the 120 spin structure evolves into up-up-down (uud) and oblique phases showing successive magneticmore » phase transitions, which fits well to the theoretical prediction for the 2D Heisenberg TLAF with classical spins. Ultimately, multiferroicity is observed when the spins are not collinear but suppressed in the uud and oblique phases.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Huang, X.; Ma, J.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Matsuda, M.; Tian, W.; Dun, Z. L.; Dong, S.; Zhou, H. D.
2014-12-01
We have performed magnetic, electric, thermal, and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations on Ba3MnNb2O9 . All results suggest that Ba3MnNb2O9 is a spin-5/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF) with weak easy-axis anisotropy. At zero field, we observed a narrow two-step transition at TN 1=3.4 K and TN 2=3.0 K. The neutron diffraction measurement and the DFT calculation indicate a 120∘ spin structure in the a b plane with out-of-plane canting at low temperatures. With increasing magnetic field, the 120∘ spin structure evolves into up-up-down (u u d ) and oblique phases showing successive magnetic phase transitions, which fits well to the theoretical prediction for the 2D Heisenberg TLAF with classical spins. Multiferroicity is observed when the spins are not collinear but suppressed in the u u d and oblique phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Huang, X.; Ma, J.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Matsuda, M.; Tian, W.; Dun, Z. L.; Dong, S.; Zhou, H. D.
2015-03-01
We have performed magnetic, electric, thermal, and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations on Ba3MnNb2O9. All results suggest that Ba3MnNb2O9 is a spin-5/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF) with weak easy-axis anisotropy. At zero field, we observed a narrow two-step transition at TN 1 = 3.4 K and TN 2 = 3.0 K. The neutron diffraction measurement and the DFT calculation indicate a 120° spin structure in the ab plane with out-of-plane canting at low temperatures. With increasing magnetic field, the 120° spin structure evolves into up-up-down (uud) and oblique phase showing successive magnetic phase transitions, which fits well to the theoretical prediction for the 2D Heisenberg TLAF with classical spins. Multiferroicity is observed when the spins are not collinear but suppressed in the uud and the oblique phase. We discuss the results in comparison with our previous works on its sister compounds with small spins, Ba3NiNb2O9 (S = 1) (J. Hwang et al ., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 257205 (2012) and Ba3CoNb2O9 (S = 1/2) (M. Lee et al ., Phys. Rev. B 89, 104420 (2014)). NHMFL is supported by NSF, the state of Florida and US DOE. ORNL HFIR was sponsored by U.S. DOE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, M.; Hwang, J.; Choi, E. S.; Ma, J.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Zhu, M.; Ke, X.; Dun, Z. L.; Zhou, H. D.
2014-03-01
We have investigated the magnetic and electric ground states of a quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF), Ba3CoNb2O9, in which the effective spin of Co2+ is 1/2. At zero field, the system undergoes a two-step transition upon cooling at TN2=1.36 K and TN1=1.10 K and enters a 120∘ ordered state. By applying magnetic fields, a series of spin states with fractions of the saturation magnetization Ms are observed. They are spin states with 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 (or √3 /3) Ms. The ferroelectricity emerges in all spin states, either with collinear or noncollinear spin structure, which makes Ba3CoNb2O9 another unique TLAF exhibiting both a series of magnetic phase transitions and multiferroicity. We discuss the role of quantum fluctuations and magnetic anisotropy in contributing more complex phase diagram compared to its sister multiferroic TLAF compound Ba3NiNb2O9 [J. Hwang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 257205 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.257205].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mi, Bin-Zhou
2016-07-01
The thermodynamic properties of the frustrated arbitrary spin-S J1-J2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the body-centered-cubic lattice for Néel phase are systematically calculated by use of the double-time Green's function method within the random phase approximation (RPA). The role of spin quantum number and frustration strength on sublattice magnetization, Néel temperature, internal energy, and free energy are carefully analyzed. The curve of zero-temperature sublattice magnetization
Wang, Guangmei; Valldor, Martin; Mallick, Bert; Mudring, Anja-Verena
2014-01-01
Four open-framework transition-metal phosphates; (NH4)2Co3(HPO4)2F4 (1), (NH4)Co3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (2), KCo3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (3), and KFe3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (4); are prepared by ionothermal synthesis using pyridinium hexafluorophosphate as the ionic liquid. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the four compounds contain cobalt/iron–oxygen/fluoride layers with Kagomé topology composed of interlinked face-sharing MO3F3/MO4F2 octahedra. PO3OH pseudo-tetrahedral groups augment the [M3O6F4] (1)/[M3O8F2] layers on both sides to give M3(HPO4)2F4 (1) and M3(HPO4)2F2 (2–4) layers. These layers are stacked along the a axis in a sequence AA…, resulting in the formation of a layer structure for (NH4)2Co3(HPO4)2F4(1). In NH4Co3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 and KM3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2, the M3(HPO4)2F2 layers are stacked along the a axis in a sequence AAi… and are connected by [PO3(OH)] tetrahedra, giving rise to a 3-D open framework structure with 10-ring channels along the [001] direction. The negative charges of the inorganic framework are balanced by K+/NH4+ ions located within the channels. The magnetic transition metal cations themselves form layers with stair-case Kagomé topology. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements reveal that all four compounds exhibit a canted anti-ferromagnetic ground state (Tc = 10 or 13 K for Co and Tc = 27 K for Fe) with different canting angles. The full orbital moment is observed for both Co2+ and Fe2+.
Mayrhofer, Leonhard; Moras, Gianpietro; Mulakaluri, Narasimham; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Stevens, Paul A; Moseler, Michael
2016-03-30
Despite the pronounced polarity of C-F bonds, many fluorinated carbon compounds are hydrophobic: a controversial phenomenon known as "polar hydrophobicity". Here, its underlying microscopic mechanisms are explored by ab initio calculations of fluorinated and hydrogenated diamond (111) surfaces interacting with single water molecules. Gradient- and van der Waals-corrected density functional theory simulations reveal that "polar hydrophobicity" of the fully fluorinated surfaces is caused by a negligible surface/water electrostatic interaction. The densely packed C-F surface dipoles generate a short-range electric field that decays within the core repulsion zone of the surface and hence vanishes in regions accessible by adsorbates. As a result, water physisorption on fully F-terminated surfaces is weak (adsorption energies Ead < 0.1 eV) and dominated by van der Waals interactions. Conversely, the near-surface electric field generated by loosely packed dipoles on mixed F/H-terminated surfaces has a considerably longer range, resulting in a stronger water physisorption (Ead > 0.2 eV) that is dominated by electrostatic interactions. The suppression of electrostatic interactions also holds for perfluorinated molecular carbon compounds, thus explaining the prevalent hydrophobicity of fluorocarbons. In general, densely packed polar terminations do not always lead to short-range electric fields. For example, surfaces with substantial electron density spill-out give rise to electric fields with a much slower decay. However, electronic spill-out is limited in F/H-terminated carbon materials. Therefore, our ab initio results can be reproduced and rationalized by a simple classical point-charge model. Consequently, classical force fields can be used to study the wetting of F/H-terminated diamond, revealing a pronounced correlation between adsorption energies of single H2O molecules and water contact angles. PMID:26931527
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, P. H. Y.; Bishop, R. F.; Campbell, C. E.
2015-01-01
We use the coupled cluster method (CCM) to study the zero-temperature ground-state (GS) properties of a spin-1/2 J1-J2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice with competing nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor exchange couplings J1>0 and J2≡κ J1>0 , respectively, in the window 0 ≤κ <1 . The classical version of the model has a single GS phase transition at κcl=1/8 in this window from a phase with 3-sublattice antiferromagnetic (AFM) 120∘ Néel order for κ <κcl to an infinitely degenerate family of 4-sublattice AFM Néel phases for κ >κcl . This classical accidental degeneracy is lifted by quantum fluctuations, which favor a 2-sublattice AFM striped phase. For the quantum model we work directly in the thermodynamic limit of an infinite number of spins, with no consequent need for any finite-size scaling analysis of our results. We perform high-order CCM calculations within a well-controlled hierarchy of approximations, which we show how to extrapolate to the exact limit. In this way we find results for the case κ =0 of the spin-1/2 model for the GS energy per spin, E /N =-0.5521 (2 ) J1 , and the GS magnetic order parameter, M =0.198 (5 ) (in units where the classical value is Mcl=1/2), which are among the best available. For the spin-1/2 J1-J2 model we find that the classical transition at κ =κcl is split into two quantum phase transitions at κ1c=0.060 (10 ) and κ2c=0.165 (5 ) . The two quasiclassical AFM states (viz., the 120∘ Néel state and the striped state) are found to be the stable GS phases in the regime κ <κ1c and κ >κ2c , respectively, while in the intermediate regimes κ1c<κ <κ2c the stable GS phase has no evident long-range magnetic order.
Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet.
Wadley, P; Howells, B; Železný, J; Andrews, C; Hills, V; Campion, R P; Novák, V; Olejník, K; Maccherozzi, F; Dhesi, S S; Martin, S Y; Wagner, T; Wunderlich, J; Freimuth, F; Mokrousov, Y; Kuneš, J; Chauhan, J S; Grzybowski, M J; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T
2016-02-01
Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 10(6) ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics. PMID:26841431
Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wadley, P.; Howells, B.; Železný, J.; Andrews, C.; Hills, V.; Campion, R. P.; Novák, V.; Olejník, K.; Maccherozzi, F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Martin, S. Y.; Wagner, T.; Wunderlich, J.; Freimuth, F.; Mokrousov, Y.; Kuneš, J.; Chauhan, J. S.; Grzybowski, M. J.; Rushforth, A. W.; Edmonds, K. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.
2016-02-01
Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 106 ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doretto, R. L.
2014-03-01
We study the plaquette valence-bond solid phase of the spin-1/2J1-J2 antiferromagnet Heisenberg model on the square lattice within the bond-operator theory. We start by considering four S =1/2 spins on a single plaquette and determine the bond operator representation for the spin operators in terms of singlet, triplet, and quintet boson operators. The formalism is then applied to the J1-J2 model and an effective interacting boson model in terms of singlets and triplets is derived. The effective model is analyzed within the harmonic approximation and the previous results of Zhitomirsky and Ueda [Phys. Rev. B 54, 9007 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.9007] are recovered. By perturbatively including cubic (triplet-triplet-triplet and singlet-triplet-triplet) and quartic interactions, we find that the plaquette valence-bond solid phase is stable within the parameter region 0.34
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tretiakov, Oleg; Barker, Joseph
Skyrmions are topologically protected entities in magnetic materials which have the potential to be used in spintronics for information storage and processing. However, skyrmions in ferromagnets have some intrinsic difficulties which must be overcome to use them for spintronic applications, such as the inability to move straight along current. We show that skyrmions can also be stabilized and manipulated in antiferromagnetic materials. An antiferromagnetic skyrmion is a compound topological object with a similar but of opposite sign spin texture on each sublattice, which e.g. results in a complete cancelation of the Magnus force. We find that the composite nature of antiferromagnetic skyrmions gives rise to different dynamical behavior, both due to an applied current and temperature effects. O.A.T. and J.B. acknowledge support by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 25800184, 25247056, 25220910 and 15H01009) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and SpinNet.
Ghimire, N. J.; Calder, S.; Janoschek, M.; Bauer, E. D.
2015-06-01
In this article, we have investigated the magnetic ground state of the antiferromagnetic Kondo-lattice compounds CeMAl_{4}Si_{2}(M = Rh, Ir) using neutron powder diffraction. Although both of these compounds show two magnetic transitions T_{N1} and T_{N2} in the bulk properties measurements, evidence for magnetic long-range order was only found below the lower transition T_{N2}. Analysis of the diffraction profiles reveals a commensurate antiferromagnetic structure with a propagation vector k = (0, 0, 1/2). The magnetic moment in the ordered state of CeRhAl_{4}Si_{2} and CeIrAl_{4}Si_{2} were determined to be 1.14(2) and 1.41(3) _{μB}/Ce, respectively, and are parallel to the crystallographic c-axis in agreement with magnetic susceptibility measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Avni; Errington, Jeffrey R.; Truskett, Thomas M.
2013-10-01
We use molecular simulation to construct equilibrium phase diagrams for two recently introduced model materials with isotropic, soft-repulsive pair interactions designed to favor diamond and simple cubic lattice ground states, respectively, over a wide range of densities [Jain et al., Soft Matter 9, 3866 (2013)]. We employ free energy based Monte Carlo simulation techniques to precisely trace the inter-crystal and fluid-crystal coexistence curves. We find that both model materials display rich polymorphic phase behavior featuring stable crystals corresponding to the target ground-state structures, as well as a variety of other crystalline (e.g., hexagonal and body-centered cubic) phases and multiple reentrant melting transitions.
Manson, J.; Stone, K; Southerland, H; Lancaster, T; Steele, A; Warter, M; Blundell, S; Pratt, F; Baker, P; et al,
2009-01-01
X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) consists of 2D square nets of Ag{sup 2+} ions resulting from the corner-sharing of axially elongated AgN{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedra and exhibits characteristic 2D antiferromagnetism. Nevertheless, {mu}{sup +}SR measurements indicate that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) undergoes 3D magnetic ordering below 7.8(3) K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.
2015-07-01
The layered compound CePd1 -xBi2 with the tetragonal ZrCuSi2-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd1 -xBi2 show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the a b plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ of 0.191 J mol Ce -1 K -2 obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd1 -xBi2. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 K which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd1 -xBi2 around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.
Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; et al
2015-07-13
The layered compound CePd1–xBi₂ with the tetragonal ZrCuSi₂-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd1–xBi₂ show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the ab plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ of 0.191 J mol Ce⁻¹ K⁻² obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd1–xBi₂. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 Kmore » which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd1–xBi₂ around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.« less
Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jungwirth, Tomas
Louis Néel pointed out in his Nobel lecture that while abundant and interesting from theoretical viewpoint, antiferromagnets did not seem to have any applications. Indeed, the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization make antiferromagnets hard to control by tools common in ferromagnets. Strong coupling would be achieved if the externally generated field had a sign alternating on the scale of a lattice constant at which moments alternate in AFMs. However, generating such a field has been regarded unfeasible, hindering the research and applications of these abundant magnetic materials. We have recently predicted that relativistic quantum mechanics may offer staggered current induced fields with the sign alternating within the magnetic unit cell which can facilitate a reversible switching of an antiferromagnet by applying electrical currents with comparable efficiency to ferromagnets. Among suitable materials is a high Néel temperature antiferromagnet, tetragonal-phase CuMnAs, which we have recently synthesized in the form of single-crystal epilayers structurally compatible with common semiconductors. We demonstrate electrical writing and read-out, combined with the insensitivity to magnetic field perturbations, in a proof-of-concept antiferromagnetic memory device. We acknowledge support from European Research Council Advanced Grant No. 268066.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palosz, B.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Stelmakh, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Weber, H.-P.; Palosz, W.
2003-01-01
Two methods of the analysis of powder diffraction patterns of diamond and SiC nanocrystals are presented: (a) examination of changes of the lattice parameters with diffraction vector Q ('apparent lattice parameter', alp) which refers to Bragg scattering, and (b), examination of changes of inter-atomic distances based on the analysis of the atomic Pair Distribution Function, PDF. Application of these methods was studied based on the theoretical diffraction patterns computed for models of nanocrystals having (i) a perfect crystal lattice, and (ii), a core-shell structure, i.e. constituting a two-phase system. The models are defined by the lattice parameter of the grain core, thickness of the surface shell, and the magnitude and distribution of the strain field in the shell. X-ray and neutron experimental diffraction data of nanocrystalline SiC and diamond powders of the grain diameter from 4 nm up to micrometers were used. The effects of the internal pressure and strain at the grain surface on the structure are discussed based on the experimentally determined dependence of the alp values on the Q-vector, and changes of the interatomic distances with the grain size determined experimentally by the atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis. The experimental results lend a strong support to the concept of a two-phase, core and the surface shell structure of nanocrystalline diamond and SiC.
Liu, Junjie; Goddard, Paul A; Singleton, John; Brambleby, Jamie; Foronda, Francesca; Möller, Johannes S; Kohama, Yoshimitsu; Ghannadzadeh, Saman; Ardavan, Arzhang; Blundell, Stephen J; Lancaster, Tom; Xiao, Fan; Williams, Robert C; Pratt, Francis L; Baker, Peter J; Wierschem, Keola; Lapidus, Saul H; Stone, Kevin H; Stephens, Peter W; Bendix, Jesper; Woods, Toby J; Carreiro, Kimberly E; Tran, Hope E; Villa, Cecelia J; Manson, Jamie L
2016-04-01
The crystal structures of NiX2(pyz)2 (X = Cl (1), Br (2), I (3), and NCS (4)) were determined by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. All four compounds consist of two-dimensional (2D) square arrays self-assembled from octahedral NiN4X2 units that are bridged by pyz ligands. The 2D layered motifs displayed by 1-4 are relevant to bifluoride-bridged [Ni(HF2)(pyz)2]EF6 (E = P, Sb), which also possess the same 2D layers. In contrast, terminal X ligands occupy axial positions in 1-4 and cause a staggered packing of adjacent layers. Long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) order occurs below 1.5 (Cl), 1.9 (Br and NCS), and 2.5 K (I) as determined by heat capacity and muon-spin relaxation. The single-ion anisotropy and g factor of 2, 3, and 4 were measured by electron-spin resonance with no evidence for zero-field splitting (ZFS) being observed. The magnetism of 1-4 spans the spectrum from quasi-two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnetism. Nearly identical results and thermodynamic features were obtained for 2 and 4 as shown by pulsed-field magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, as well as their Néel temperatures. Magnetization curves for 2 and 4 calculated by quantum Monte Carlo simulation also show excellent agreement with the pulsed-field data. Compound 3 is characterized as a 3D AFM with the interlayer interaction (J⊥) being slightly stronger than the intralayer interaction along Ni-pyz-Ni segments (J(pyz)) within the two-dimensional [Ni(pyz)2](2+) square planes. Regardless of X, J(pyz) is similar for the four compounds and is roughly 1 K. PMID:27002487
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnikov, A. V.; Vasilenko, A. P.; Trukhanov, E. M.; Gutakovsky, A. K.
2000-10-01
The problem of generation of L-shape misfit dislocations (MDs) is investigated for (001) heterosystems with diamond and sphalerite crystal structures. These 60° MDs can be formed by modified Frank-Read dislocation sources as well as by Hagen-Strunk ones. The analysis shows that perpendicular dislocation lines included in L-shape MDs have different types of screw dislocation components (namely, left-screw and right-screw ones). As a result, the stress-releasing process tends to slow preventing further generation of L-shape dislocations and annihilation of threading dislocations (TDs). To minimize density of TDs and to form equilibrium plane MD networks at the final stage of stresses relaxation process, it is necessary to generate mutually perpendicular MD arrays with the same types of screw dislocation components.
Magnetic phase diagram of the S =1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Batista, Cristian
2015-03-01
To explain the recently reported magnetic phase diagram of the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice compound Ba3CoSb2O9, we present a semiclassical mean-field theory for the easy-plane XXZ model on the stacked triangular-lattice with a small inter-layer coupling. Quantum effects are incorporated by deriving effective interactions from the linear spin-wave analysis of the two-dimensional model. This analysis reproduces the main experimental observations, such as the 1/3-magnetization plateau (B || a) , a cusp near 1/3 of the saturated moment (B || c) , and a small step anomaly in the high field regime. The predicted spin configurations are compared against the NMR measurements on this compound. This work was done in collaboration with G. Koutroulakis (Los Alamos), T. Zhou (UCLA), J. D. Thompson (Los Alamos), H. D. Zhou (Univ. of Tennessee), and S. E. Brown (UCLA). Y.K. acknowledges financial support from the RIKEN iTHES Project.
Ghorbani, Elaheh; Shahbazi, Farhad; Mosadeq, Hamid
2016-10-12
Using the modified spin wave method, we study the [Formula: see text] Heisenberg model with first and second neighbor antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. For a symmetric S = 1/2 model, with the same couplings for all the equivalent neighbors, we find three phases in terms of the frustration parameter [Formula: see text]: (1) a commensurate collinear ordering with staggered magnetization (Néel.I state) for [Formula: see text], (2) a magnetically gapped disordered state for [Formula: see text], preserving all the symmetries of the Hamiltonian and lattice, which by definition is a quantum spin liquid (QSL) state and (3) a commensurate collinear ordering in which two out of the three nearest neighbor magnetizations are antiparallel and the remaining pair are parallel (Néel.II state), for [Formula: see text]. We also explore the phase diagram of a distorted [Formula: see text] model with S = 1/2. Distortion is introduced as an inequality of one nearest neighbor coupling with the other two. This yields a richer phase diagram by the appearance of a new gapped QSL, a gapless QSL and also a valence bond crystal phase in addition to the previous three phases found for the undistorted model. PMID:27518832
Olson, D.W.
2001-01-01
An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becca, Federico; Iqbal, Yasir; Poilblanc, Didier
2012-02-01
Within the class of Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions, by using quantum variational Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the energetics of all possible Z2 spin liquids that can potentially occur as ground states of the nearest-neighbor S=1/2 quantum Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice [1]. We conclusively show that all gapped and gapless Z2 spin liquids are higher in energy compared to the U(1) gapless states in whose neighborhoods they lie. In particular, the most promising gapped Z2 spin liquid (the so-called Z2[0,π]β state), conjectured to describe the ground state [2], is always higher in energy compared to the U(1) Dirac spin liquid. We also extended the U(1) Dirac state and the uniform RVB spin liquid to include next-nearest-neighbor hopping terms, and studied its local and global stability towards various valence bond crystal patterns. We found that a non-trivial 36-site VBC is stabilized upon addition of a small ferromagnetic exchange coupling [3]. [4pt] [1] Y. Iqbal, F. Becca, and D. Poilblanc, Phys. Rev. B 84, 020407(R) (2011)[0pt] [2] Y.-M. Lu, Y. Ran, and P.A. Lee. Phys. Rev. B 83, 224413 (2011)[0pt] [3] Y. Iqbal, F. Becca, and D. Poilblanc, Phys. Rev. B 83, 100404(R) (2011)
Raman Microscopic Characterization of Proton-Irradiated Polycrystalline Diamond Films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newton, R. L.; Davidson, J. L.; Lance, M. J.
2004-01-01
The microstructural effects of irradiating polycrystalline diamond films with proton dosages ranging from 10(exp 15) to 10(exp 17) H(+) per square centimeter was examined. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman microscopy were used to examine the changes in the diamond crystalline lattice as a function of depth. Results indicate that the diamond lattice is retained, even at maximum irradiation levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, M.; Hwang, J.; Choi, E. S.; Ma, J.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Zhu, M.; Ke, X.; Dun, Z. L.; Zhou, H. D.
2014-03-01
We have measured magnetic, dielectric and thermodynamic properties of quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF), Ba3CoNb2O9 (S = 1/2) and Ba3MnNb2O9 (S = 3/2). At zero magnetic field, Ba3CoNb2O9 undergoes a two-step transition at 1.36 K and 1.10 K and enters a 120 degree ordered state. By applying magnetic fields, a series of magnetic phases with fractional saturation magnetization (1/3, 1/2, 2/3 (or √{ 3}/3Ms) are observed. The collinear spin phase with 1/3 Ms becomes more robust at lower temperatures due to quantum fluctuations. For Ba3MnNb2O9, the 120 degree ordered state is stabilized below 3.10 K at zero field. Under the magnetic field, successive magnetic phase transitions are observed with fractional magnetization 1/3 and 1/2 Ms. The 1/3 Ms phase becomes more stable at higher temperatures due to thermal fluctuations. The ferroelectricity emerges in all spin states in both compounds regardless of the spin chirality. Therefore, Ba3CoNb2O9andBa3MnNb2O9 are unique TLAFs exhibiting not only a series of magnetic phase transitions but also multiferroicity. NHMFL is supported by NSF, the State of Florida and US DOE. ORNL HFIR was sponsored by U.S. DOE.
Constructing a magnetic handle for antiferromagnetic manganites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glavic, Artur; Dixit, Hemant; Cooper, Valentino R.; Aczel, Adam A.
2016-04-01
An intrinsic property of antiferromagnetic materials is the compensation of the magnetic moments from the individual atoms that prohibits the direct interaction of the spin lattice with an external magnetic field. To overcome this limitation we have created artificial spin structures by heteroepitaxy between two bulk antiferromagnets SrMnO3 and NdMnO3. Here, we demonstrate that charge transfer at the interface results in the creation of thin ferromagnetic layers adjacent to A -type antiferromagnetism in thick NdMnO3 layers. A novel interference based neutron diffraction technique and polarized neutron reflectometry are used to confirm the presence of ferromagnetism in the SrMnO3 layers and to probe the relative alignment of antiferromagnetic spins induced by the coupling at the ferro- to antiferromagnet interface. A density functional theory analysis of the driving forces for the exchange reveals strong ferromagnetic interfacial coupling through quantifiable short range charge transfer. These results confirm a layer-by-layer control of magnetic arrangements that constitutes a promising step on a path towards isothermal magnetic control of antiferromagnetic arrangements as would be necessary in spin-based heterostructures like multiferroic devices.
Frustrated 3×3 Heisenberg antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moustanis, P. N.
2016-08-01
The full energy spectrum and the exact thermodynamic results of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Hamiltonian of the 3×3 triangular and the frustrated square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and s=1/2 are obtained. To this end the method of hierarchy of algebras is employed. It was found that the ground state of the 3×3 frustrated square lattice is a Resonating Valence Bond (RVB) state. Thermodynamic properties, like the specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, the thermal average of the square of the total Sz and entropy, for these two lattices are presented.
Olson, D.W.
2003-01-01
Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.
Dugdale, R.A.
1960-07-19
A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.
Diamond family of nanoparticle superlattices.
Liu, Wenyan; Tagawa, Miho; Xin, Huolin L; Wang, Tong; Emamy, Hamed; Li, Huilin; Yager, Kevin G; Starr, Francis W; Tkachenko, Alexei V; Gang, Oleg
2016-02-01
Diamond lattices formed by atomic or colloidal elements exhibit remarkable functional properties. However, building such structures via self-assembly has proven to be challenging because of the low packing fraction, sensitivity to bond orientation, and local heterogeneity. We report a strategy for creating a diamond superlattice of nano-objects via self-assembly and demonstrate its experimental realization by assembling two variant diamond lattices, one with and one without atomic analogs. Our approach relies on the association between anisotropic particles with well-defined tetravalent binding topology and isotropic particles. The constrained packing of triangular binding footprints of truncated tetrahedra on a sphere defines a unique three-dimensional lattice. Hence, the diamond self-assembly problem is solved via its mapping onto two-dimensional triangular packing on the surface of isotropic spherical particles. PMID:26912698
Spintronics in antiferromagnets
Soh, Yeong-Ah; Kummamuru, Ravi K.
2012-05-10
Magnetic domains and the walls between are the subject of great interest because of the role they play in determining the electrical properties of ferromagnetic materials and as a means of manipulating electron spin in spintronic devices. However, much less attention has been paid to these effects in antiferromagnets, primarily because there is less awareness of their existence in antiferromagnets, and in addition they are hard to probe since they exhibit no net magnetic moment. In this paper, we discuss the electrical properties of chromium, which is the only elemental antiferromagnet and how they depend on the subtle arrangement of the antiferromagnetically ordered spins. X-ray measurement of the modulation wavevector Q of the incommensurate antiferromagnetic spin-density wave shows thermal hysteresis, with the corresponding wavelength being larger during cooling than during warming. The thermal hysteresis in the Q vector is accompanied with a thermal hysteresis in both the longitudinal and Hall resistivity. During cooling, we measure a larger longitudinal and Hall resistivity compared with when warming, which indicates that a larger wavelength at a given temperature corresponds to a smaller carrier density or equivalently a larger antiferromagnetic ordering parameter compared to a smaller wavelength. This shows that the arrangement of the antiferromagnetic spins directly influences the transport properties. In thin films, the sign of the thermal hysteresis for Q is the same as in thick films, but a distinct aspect is that Q is quantized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shick, A. B.; Khmelevskyi, S.; Mryasov, O. N.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, T.
2010-06-01
Magnetic anisotropy phenomena in bimetallic antiferromagnets Mn2Au and MnIr are studied by first-principles density-functional theory calculations. We find strong and lattice-parameter-dependent magnetic anisotropies of the ground-state energy, chemical potential, and density of states, and attribute these anisotropies to combined effects of large moment on the Mn3d shell and large spin-orbit coupling on the 5d shell of the noble metal. Large magnitudes of the proposed effects can open a route towards spintronics in compensated antiferromagnets without involving ferromagnetic elements.
Antiferromagnetic magnonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troncoso, Roberto E.; Ulloa, Camilo; Pesce, Felipe; Nunez, A. S.
2015-12-01
We describe the features of magnonic crystals based upon antiferromagnetic elements. Our main results are that with a periodic modulation of either magnetic fields or system characteristics, such as the anisotropy, it is possible to tailor the spin-wave spectra of antiferromagnetic systems into a band-like organization that displays a segregation of allowed and forbidden bands. The main features of the band structure, such as bandwidths and band gaps, can be readily manipulated. Our results provide a natural link between two steadily growing fields of spintronics: antiferromagnetic spintronics and magnonics.
Spatially anisotropic Heisenberg kagome antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apel, W.; Yavors'kii, T.; Everts, H.-U.
2007-04-01
In the search for spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnets, the mineral volborthite has recently been the subject of experimental studies (Hiroi et al 2001 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 70 3377; Fukaya et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 207603; Bert et al 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 S829; Bert et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 087203). It has been suggested that the magnetic properties of this material are described by a spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with spatially anisotropic exchange couplings. We report on investigations of the {\\mathrm {Sp}}(\\mathcal {N}) symmetric generalization of this model in the large \\mathcal {N} limit. We obtain a detailed description of the dependence of possible ground states on the anisotropy and on the spin length S. A fairly rich phase diagram with a ferrimagnetic phase, incommensurate phases with and without long-range order and a decoupled chain phase emerges.
Olson, D.W.
2012-01-01
Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.
Olson, D.W.
2013-01-01
Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.
Olson, D.W.
2011-01-01
Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.
Olson, D.W.
2006-01-01
In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.
Olson, D.W.
2000-01-01
Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.
Antiferromagnetic Ising Model in Hierarchical Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Xiang; Boettcher, Stefan
2015-03-01
The Ising antiferromagnet is a convenient model of glassy dynamics. It can introduce geometric frustrations and may give rise to a spin glass phase and glassy relaxation at low temperatures [ 1 ] . We apply the antiferromagnetic Ising model to 3 hierarchical networks which share features of both small world networks and regular lattices. Their recursive and fixed structures make them suitable for exact renormalization group analysis as well as numerical simulations. We first explore the dynamical behaviors using simulated annealing and discover an extremely slow relaxation at low temperatures. Then we employ the Wang-Landau algorithm to investigate the energy landscape and the corresponding equilibrium behaviors for different system sizes. Besides the Monte Carlo methods, renormalization group [ 2 ] is used to study the equilibrium properties in the thermodynamic limit and to compare with the results from simulated annealing and Wang-Landau sampling. Supported through NSF Grant DMR-1207431.
Medical applications of diamond particles and surfaces.
Narayan, R. J.; Boehm, R. D.; Sumant, A. V.
2011-04-01
Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon that is being considered for use in several medical applications. Ramachandran determined that the crystal structure of diamond consists of two close packed interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices; one lattice is shifted with respect to the other along the elemental cube space diagonal by one-quarter of its length. If one approximates carbon atoms as equal diameter rigid spheres, the filling of this construction is 34%. Due to the carbon-carbon distance (1.54 {angstrom}), diamond crystal exhibits the highest atomic density (1.76 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}) of any solid. The very high bond energy between two carbon atoms (83 kcal/mol) and the directionality of tetrahedral bonds are the main reasons for the high strength of diamond. Diamond demonstrates the highest Vickers hardness value of any material (10,000 kg/mm{sup 2}). The tribological properties of diamond are also impressive; the coefficient of friction of polished diamond is 0.07 in argon and 0.05 in humid air. Diamond is resistant to corrosion except in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures over 800 C. In addition, type IIa diamond exhibits the highest thermal conductivity of all materials (20 W cm{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature).
Singleton, John; Mc Donald, R; Sengupta, P; Cox, S; Manson, J; Southerland, H; Warter, M; Stone, K; Stephens, P; Lancaster, T; Steele, A; Blundell, S; Baker, P; Pratt, F; Lee, C; Whangbo, M
2009-01-01
X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) consists of 2D square nets of Ag{sup 2+} ions resulting from the corner-sharing of axially elongated AgN{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedra and exhibits characteristic 2D antiferromagnetism. Nevertheless, {mu}{sup +}Sr measurements indicate that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) undergoes 3D magnetic ordering below 7.8(3) K.
Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.
2015-07-13
The layered compound CePd_{1–x}Bi₂ with the tetragonal ZrCuSi₂-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd_{1–x}Bi₂ show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the ab plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ of 0.191 J mol Ce⁻¹ K⁻² obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd_{1–x}Bi₂. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 K which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd_{1–x}Bi₂ around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.
Lattice Green's functions in all dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guttmann, Anthony J.
2010-07-01
We give a systematic treatment of lattice Green's functions (LGF) on the d-dimensional diamond, simple cubic, body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic lattices for arbitrary dimensionality d >= 2 for the first three lattices, and for 2 <= d <= 5 for the hyper-fcc lattice. We show that there is a close connection between the LGF of the d-dimensional hyper-cubic lattice and that of the (d - 1)-dimensional diamond lattice. We give constant-term formulations of LGFs for each of these lattices in all dimensions. Through a still under-developed connection with Mahler measures, we point out an unexpected connection between the coefficients of the sc, bcc and diamond LGFs and some Ramanujan-type formulae for 1/π.
[Spectroscopic studies on transition metal ions in colored diamonds].
Meng, Yu-Fei; Peng, Ming-Sheng
2004-07-01
Transition metals like nickel, cobalt and iron have been often used as solvent catalysts in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) synthesis of diamond, and nickel and cobalt ions have been found in diamond lattice. Available studies indicated that nickel and cobalt ions could enter the lattice as interstitial or substitutional impurities and form complexes with nitrogen. Polarized microscopy, SEM-EDS, EPR, PL and FTIR have been used in this study to investigate six fancy color natural and synthetic diamonds in order to determine the spectroscopic characteristics and the existing forms of transition metal ions in colored diamond lattice. Cobalt-related optical centers were first found in natural chameleon diamonds, and some new nickel and cobalt-related optical and EPR centers have also been detected in these diamond samples. PMID:15766067
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.
Olson, D.W.
2007-01-01
World production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 648 million carats in 2006, with 79 percent of the production coming from Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa, and the U.S. U.S. consumption was was an estimated 602 million carats, imports were over 391 million carats, and exports were about 83 million carats. About 87 percent of the industrial diamonds market uses synthetic diamonds, which are expected to become less expensive as technology improves and competition from low-cost producers increases.
Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin
2016-07-28
In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177
Olson, D.W.
2004-01-01
Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.
Beha, Katja; Wolfer, Marco; Becker, Merle C; Siyushev, Petr; Jamali, Mohammad; Batalov, Anton; Hinz, Christopher; Hees, Jakob; Kirste, Lutz; Obloh, Harald; Gheeraert, Etienne; Naydenov, Boris; Jakobi, Ingmar; Dolde, Florian; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Twittchen, Daniel; Markham, Matthew; Dregely, Daniel; Giessen, Harald; Meijer, Jan; Jelezko, Fedor; Nebel, Christoph E; Bratschitsch, Rudolf; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Wrachtrup, Jörg
2012-01-01
Summary We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition. PMID:23365803
Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldbart, Paul M.; Sheehy, Daniel E.
1998-09-01
Excitations of the antiferromagnetic state that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region are discussed within the context of Zhang's SO(5)-symmetry-based approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials. Nonsingular, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these texture excitations are what hedgehogs become when the antiferromagnetic order parameter is permitted to ``escape'' into superconducting directions. The structure of such excitations is determined in a simple setting, and a number of their experimental implications are examined.
Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores
Goldbart, P.M.; Sheehy, D.E.
1998-09-01
Excitations of the antiferromagnetic state that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region are discussed within the context of Zhang{close_quote}s SO(5)-symmetry-based approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials. Nonsingular, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these texture excitations are what hedgehogs become when the antiferromagnetic order parameter is permitted to {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} into superconducting directions. The structure of such excitations is determined in a simple setting, and a number of their experimental implications are examined. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Spin reorientation via antiferromagnetic coupling
Ranjbar, M.; Sbiaa, R.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.; Piramanayagam, S. N.
2014-05-07
Spin reorientation in antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) Co/Pd multilayers, wherein the thickness of the constituent Co layers was varied, was studied. AFC-Co/Pd multilayers were observed to have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even for a Co sublayer thickness of 1 nm, much larger than what is usually observed in systems without antiferromagnetic coupling. When similar multilayer structures were prepared without antiferromagnetic coupling, this effect was not observed. The results indicate that the additional anisotropy energy contribution arising from the antiferromagnetic coupling, which is estimated to be around 6 × 10{sup 6} ergs/cm{sup 3}, induces the spin-reorientation.
Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.
1996-01-01
A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.
Mechanism for diamond nucleation and growth on single crystal copper surfaces implanted with carbon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ong, T. P.; Xiong, Fulin; Chang, R. P. H.; White, C. W.
1992-01-01
The nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on single-crystal copper surfaces implanted with carbon ions is studied. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition is used for diamond growth. The single-crystal copper substrates were implanted either at room or elevated temperature with carbon ions prior to diamond nucleation. This procedure leads to the formation of a graphite film on the copper surface which greatly enhances diamond crystallite nucleation. A simple lattice model is constructed for diamond growth on graphite as 111 line (diamond) parallel to 0001 line (graphite) and 110 line (diamond) parallel to 1 1 -2 0 (graphite).
Advanced Diamond Anvil Techniques (Customized Diamond Anvils)
Weir, S
2009-02-11
A complete set of diamond-based fabrication tools now exists for making a wide range of different types of diamond anvils which are tailored for various high-P applications. Current tools include: CVD diamond deposition (making diamond); Diamond polishing, laser drilling, plasma etching (removal of diamond); and Lithography, 3D laser pantography (patterning features onto diamond); - Metal deposition (putting electrical circuits and metal masks onto diamond). Current applications include the following: Electrical Conductivity; Magnetic Susceptibility; and High-P/High-T. Future applications may include: NMR; Hall Effect; de Haas - Shubnikov (Fermi surface topology); Calorimetry; and thermal conductivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mori, Reona; Maida, Osamu; Ito, Toshimichi
2015-04-01
We have investigated properties of heavily-B-doped diamond (HBD) films homoepitaxially grown with boron-to-carbon (B/C) mole ratios ranging from 1000 to 5000 ppm in the source gas mainly by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), cathodoluminescence (CL), and Hall effect measurements. Each HBD layer was deposited on a vicinal (001) substrate of high-pressure/high-temperature synthesized Ib-type diamond with 5° misorientation angle by means of high-power-density microwave-plasma chemical-vapor-deposition method with a source gas composed of 4% CH4 in H2 and H2-diluted B(CH3)3. XRD data indicated that the lattice constant of the B-doped layer slightly decreased for the B/C ratios≤3000 ppm while slightly increasing for that of 5000 ppm, suggesting that for the latter HBD sample a part of the incorporated B atoms behaved differently from the remaining other B atoms. By contrast the Hall data indicated that all the HBD samples had a degenerate feature only at temperatures well below room temperature (RT), above which a semiconducting feature was evident, and that the density of the degenerate holes steeply increased from 1.3×1019 to 1.2×1021 cm-3 with increases in the incorporated B density, [B], from 1.2×1020 to 5.9×1020 cm-3. This drastic change in the hole density strongly suggested the presence of a [B]-dependent impurity band. Their evident near-band-edge CL spectra taken at RT and 85 K demonstrated that radiative transition features in the HBD layers considerably varied for the B/C ratios studied. The CL peaks were consistently assigned by assuming both the presence of an impurity band and a slight bandgap shrinkage. These observed features are discussed in relation to the energy separation between the low-mobility impurity band assumed and the valence band in the high-quality HBD layer which are not merged in energy.
Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect.
Wu, Stephen M; Zhang, Wei; Kc, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E; Jiang, J Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand
2016-03-01
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30 nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF_{2} thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected. PMID:26991198
Observation of twinning in diamond CVD films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marciniak, W.; Fabisiak, K.; Orzeszko, S.; Rozploch, F.
1992-10-01
Diamond particles prepared by dc-glow-discharge enhanced HF-CVD hybrid method, from a mixture of acetone vapor and hydrogen gas have been examined by TEM, RHEED and dark field method of observation. Results suggest the presence of twinned diamond particles, which can be reconstructed by a sequence of twinning operations. Contrary to the 'stick model' of the lattice, very common five-fold symmetry of diamond microcrystals may be obtained by applying a number of edge dislocations rather than the continuous deformation of many tetrahedral C-C bonds.
Multicritical points in the three-dimensional XXZ antiferromagnet with single-ion anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selke, Walter
2013-01-01
The classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet with uniaxial exchange anisotropy, the XXZ model, and competing planar single-ion anisotropy in a magnetic field on a simple cubic lattice is studied with the help of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The biconical (supersolid) phase, bordering the antiferromagnetic and spin-flop phases, is found to become thermally unstable well below the onset of the disordered, paramagnetic phase, leading to interesting multicritical points.
Detection of Antiferromagnetic Correlations in the Fermi-Hubbard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hulet, Randall
2014-05-01
The Hubbard model, consisting of a cubic lattice with on-site interactions and kinetic energy arising from tunneling to nearest neighbors is a ``standard model'' of strongly correlated many-body physics, and it may also contain the essential ingredients of high-temperature superconductivity. While the Hamiltonian has only two terms it cannot be numerically solved for arbitrary density of spin-1/2 fermions due to exponential growth in the basis size. At a density of one spin-1/2 particle per site, however, the Hubbard model is known to exhibit antiferromagnetism at temperatures below the Néel temperature TN, a property shared by most of the undoped parent compounds of high-Tc superconductors. The realization of antiferromagnetism in a 3D optical lattice with atomic fermions has been impeded by the inability to attain sufficiently low temperatures. We have developed a method to perform evaporative cooling in a 3D cubic lattice by compensating the confinement envelope of the infrared optical lattice beams with blue-detuned laser beams. Evaporation can be controlled by the intensity of these non-retroreflected compensating beams. We observe significantly lower temperatures of a two-spin component gas of 6Li atoms in the lattice using this method. The cooling enables us to detect the development of short-range antiferromagnetic correlations using spin-sensitive Bragg scattering of light. Comparison with quantum Monte Carlo constrains the temperature in the lattice to 2-3 TN. We will discuss the prospects of attaining even lower temperatures with this method. Supported by DARPA/ARO, ONR, and NSF.
Incommensurate to commensurate antiferromagnetism in CeRhAl4Si2 : An 27Al NMR study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakai, H.; Hattori, T.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.
2016-01-01
27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments have been performed on a single crystal of CeRhAl4Si2 , which is an antiferromagnetic Kondo-lattice compound with successive antiferromagnetic transitions of TN 1=14 K and TN 2=9 K at zero external field. In the paramagnetic state, the Knight shifts, quadrupolar frequency, and asymmetric parameter of electrical field gradient on the Al sites have been determined, which have local orthorhombic symmetry. The transferred hyperfine coupling constants are also determined. Analysis of the NMR spectra indicates that a commensurate antiferromagnetic structure exists below TN 2, but an incommensurate modulation of antiferromagnetic moments is present in the antiferromagnetic state between TN 1 and TN 2. The spin-lattice relaxation rate suggests that the 4 f electrons behave as local moments at temperatures above TN 1.
Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass
Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, Charles; Alexander, Corrine
1974-01-01
The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.
Antiferromagnetic ordering in MnF(salen)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čižmár, Erik; Risset, Olivia N.; Wang, Tong; Botko, Martin; Ahir, Akhil R.; Andrus, Matthew J.; Park, Ju-Hyun; Abboud, Khalil A.; Talham, Daniel R.; Meisel, Mark W.; Brown, Stuart E.
2016-06-01
Antiferromagnetic order at {{T}\\text{N}}=23 K has been identified in Mn(III)F(salen), salen = H14C16N2O2, an S = 2 linear-chain system. Using single crystals, specific heat studies performed in magnetic fields up to 9 T revealed the presence of a field-independent cusp at the same temperature where 1H NMR studies conducted at 42 MHz observed dramatic changes in the spin-lattice relaxation time, T 1, and in the linewidths. Low-field (less than 0.1 T) magnetic susceptibility studies of single crystals and randomly-arranged microcrystalline samples reveal subtle features associated with the transition.
Antiferromagnetic ordering in MnF(salen).
Čižmár, Erik; Risset, Olivia N; Wang, Tong; Botko, Martin; Ahir, Akhil R; Andrus, Matthew J; Park, Ju-Hyun; Abboud, Khalil A; Talham, Daniel R; Meisel, Mark W; Brown, Stuart E
2016-06-15
Antiferromagnetic order at [Formula: see text] K has been identified in Mn(III)F(salen), salen = H14C16N2O2, an S = 2 linear-chain system. Using single crystals, specific heat studies performed in magnetic fields up to 9 T revealed the presence of a field-independent cusp at the same temperature where (1)H NMR studies conducted at 42 MHz observed dramatic changes in the spin-lattice relaxation time, T 1, and in the linewidths. Low-field (less than 0.1 T) magnetic susceptibility studies of single crystals and randomly-arranged microcrystalline samples reveal subtle features associated with the transition. PMID:27160792
Probing the evolution of antiferromagnetism in multiferroics
Holcomb, M.; Martin, L.; Scholl, A.; He, Q.; Yu, P.; Yang, C.-H.; Yang, S.; Glans, P.-A.; Valvidares, M.; Huijben, M.; Kortright, J.; Guo,, J.; Chu, Y.-H.; Ramesh, R.
2010-06-09
This study delineates the evolution of magnetic order in epitaxial films of the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 system. Using angle- and temperature-dependent dichroic measurements and spectromicroscopy, we have observed that the antiferromagnetic order in the model multiferroic BiFeO3 evolves systematically as a function of thickness and strain. Lattice-mismatch-induced strain is found to break the easy-plane magnetic symmetry of the bulk and leads to an easy axis of magnetization which can be controlled through strain. Understanding the evolution of magnetic structure and how to manipulate the magnetism in this model multiferroic has significant implications for utilization of such magnetoelectric materials in future applications.
Transformation of spin current by antiferromagnetic insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khymyn, Roman; Lisenkov, Ivan; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Ivanov, Boris A.
2016-06-01
It is demonstrated theoretically that a thin layer of an anisotropic antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator can effectively conduct spin current through the excitation of a pair of evanescent AFM spin wave modes. The spin current flowing through the AFM is not conserved due to the interaction between the excited AFM modes and the AFM lattice and, depending on the excitation conditions, can be either attenuated or enhanced. When the phase difference between the excited evanescent modes is close to π /2 , there is an optimum AFM thickness for which the output spin current reaches a maximum, which can significantly exceed the magnitude of the input spin current. The spin current transfer through the AFM depends on the ambient temperature and increases substantially when temperature approaches the Néel temperature of the AFM layer.
Artifact Diamond Its Allure And Significance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoder, Max N.
1989-01-01
While the preponderance of the mechanical, optical, and electronic properties of natural diamond have been known for over a decade, only recently has artifact diamond in technologically useful form factors become an exciting possibility. The advent of sacrificial, lattice matched crystalline substrates provides the basis not only for semiconducting applications of diamond, but for optical mirrors, lenses, and windows as well. As a semiconductor, diamond has the highest resistivity, the highest saturated electron velocity, the highest thermal conductivity, the lowest dielectric constant, the highest dielectric strength, the greatest hardness, the largest bandgap and the smallest lattice constant of any material. It also has electron and hole mobilities greater than those of silicon. Its figure of merit as a microwave power amplifier is unexcelled and exceeds that of silicon by a multiplier of 8200. For integrated circuit potential, its thermal conductivity, saturated velocity, and dielectric constant also place it in the premier position (32 times that of silicon, 46 times that of GaAs). Although not verified, its radiation hardness should also be unmatched. Aside from its brilliant sparkle as a gemstone, there has been little use of diamond in the field of optics. Processing of the diamond surface now appears to be as simple as that of any other material --albeit with different techniques. In fact, it may be possible to etch diamond far more controllably (at economically viable rates) than any other material as the product of the etch is gaseous and the etched trough is self-cleaning. Other properties of diamond make it an ideal optical material. Among them are its unmatched thermal conductivity, its extremely low absorption loss above 228 nanometers, and unmatched Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, hardness, thermal shock, and modulus of elasticity. If the recently-found mechanisms by which erbium impurities in III-V junctions can be made to "lase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
On April 24, a group traveling with Diamond Tours visited StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The trip marked Diamond Tours' return to StenniSphere since Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29, 2005. About 25 business professionals from Georgia enjoyed the day's tour of America's largest rocket engine test complex, along with the many displays and exhibits at the museum. Before Hurricane Katrina, the nationwide company brought more than 1,000 visitors to StenniSphere each month. That contributed to more than 100,000 visitors from around the world touring the space center each year. In past years StenniSphere's visitor relations specialists booked Diamond Tours two or three times a week, averaging 40 to 50 people per visit. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars. For more information or to book a tour, visit http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/home/index.html and click on the StenniSphere logo; or call 800-237-1821 or 228-688-2370.
Positron beam investigations of natural cubic and coated diamonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiryaev, A. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Kruseman, A. C.; Zakharchenko, O. D.
2000-06-01
Positron beam and 2D-ACAR investigation of cubic and coated diamonds are reported. In type IIA diamonds, positrons are mostly trapped in vacancies in the carbon lattice; in type Ia diamonds, two main defect-related annihilation sites are nitrogen-vacancy complexes (H2, H3) and the vicinity of split interstitial atoms. No correlation between principal nitrogen defects and annihilation rate was found. PAS data indicate the presence of a significant amount of vacancies in all studied diamonds, which increases the rate of nitrogen aggregation. It is shown that pressurised fluid inclusions may serve as a positron trap, giving rise to the long component in the lifetime spectra.
Observation of the nanoscale epitaxial growth of diamond on Si (100) surface
Song, S.G.; Chen, C.L.; Mitchell, T.E.; Hackenberger, L.B.; Messier, R.
1996-02-01
Epitaxial growth of noncrystalline diamond thin film on Si(001) surface has been observed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The epitaxial lattice relationship at diamond/Si interface has been described based on a cube-cube orientation with {ital a}{approx_equal}7{degree} tilt plus a rotation of the diamond lattice from the substrate lattice. The observed epitaxial behavior can be explained by the 3:2 lattice coincidence and the introduction of interfacial misfit dislocations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy
Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D.
2008-03-29
To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.
Entanglement Perturbation Theory for Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Spin Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lihua; Chung, Sung Gong
2012-11-01
A recently developed numerical method, entanglement perturbation theory (EPT), is used to study the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chains with z-axis anisotropy λ and magnetic field B. To demonstrate its accuracy, we first apply EPT to the isotropic spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, and find that EPT successfully reproduces the exact Bethe ansatz results for the ground state energy, the local magnetization, and the spin correlation functions (Bethe ansatz result is available for the first seven lattice separations). In particular, EPT confirms for the first time the asymptotic behavior of the spin correlation functions predicted by the conformal field theory, which realizes only for lattice separations larger than 1000. Next, turning on the z-axis anisotropy and the magnetic field, the 2- and 4-spin correlation functions are calculated, and the results are compared with those obtained by bosonization and density matrix renormalization group methods. Finally, for the spin-1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, the ground state phase diagram in λ space is determined by Roomany--Wyld renormalization group (RG) finite size scaling. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by the level-spectroscopy method.
Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.
Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke
2014-06-24
The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer. PMID:24738731
Thermophoresis of an antiferromagnetic soliton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Se Kwon; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2015-07-01
We study the dynamics of an antiferromagnetic soliton under a temperature gradient. To this end, we start by phenomenologically constructing the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for an antiferromagnet with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We then derive the Langevin equation for the soliton's center of mass by the collective coordinate approach. An antiferromagentic soliton behaves as a classical massive particle immersed in a viscous medium. By considering a thermodynamic ensemble of solitons, we obtain the Fokker-Planck equation, from which we extract the average drift velocity of a soliton. The diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to a small damping constant α , which can yield a drift velocity of tens of m/s under a temperature gradient of 1 K/mm for a domain wall in an easy-axis antiferromagnetic wire with α ˜10-4 .
Tetragonal phase of epitaxial room-temperature antiferromagnet CuMnAs.
Wadley, P; Novák, V; Campion, R P; Rinaldi, C; Martí, X; Reichlová, H; Zelezný, J; Gazquez, J; Roldan, M A; Varela, M; Khalyavin, D; Langridge, S; Kriegner, D; Máca, F; Mašek, J; Bertacco, R; Holý, V; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Foxon, C T; Wunderlich, J; Jungwirth, T
2013-01-01
Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antiferromagnets as the active component in spintronic devices. This is in contrast to their current passive role as pinning layers in hard disk read heads and magnetic memories. Here we report the epitaxial growth of a new high-temperature antiferromagnetic material, tetragonal CuMnAs, which exhibits excellent crystal quality, chemical order and compatibility with existing semiconductor technologies. We demonstrate its growth on the III-V semiconductors GaAs and GaP, and show that the structure is also lattice matched to Si. Neutron diffraction shows collinear antiferromagnetic order with a high Néel temperature. Combined with our demonstration of room-temperature-exchange coupling in a CuMnAs/Fe bilayer, we conclude that tetragonal CuMnAs films are suitable candidate materials for antiferromagnetic spintronics. PMID:23959149
Tetragonal phase of epitaxial room-temperature antiferromagnet CuMnAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wadley, P.; Novák, V.; Campion, R. P.; Rinaldi, C.; Martí, X.; Reichlová, H.; Železný, J.; Gazquez, J.; Roldan, M. A.; Varela, M.; Khalyavin, D.; Langridge, S.; Kriegner, D.; Máca, F.; Mašek, J.; Bertacco, R.; Holý, V.; Rushforth, A. W.; Edmonds, K. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Foxon, C. T.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, T.
2013-08-01
Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antiferromagnets as the active component in spintronic devices. This is in contrast to their current passive role as pinning layers in hard disk read heads and magnetic memories. Here we report the epitaxial growth of a new high-temperature antiferromagnetic material, tetragonal CuMnAs, which exhibits excellent crystal quality, chemical order and compatibility with existing semiconductor technologies. We demonstrate its growth on the III-V semiconductors GaAs and GaP, and show that the structure is also lattice matched to Si. Neutron diffraction shows collinear antiferromagnetic order with a high Néel temperature. Combined with our demonstration of room-temperature-exchange coupling in a CuMnAs/Fe bilayer, we conclude that tetragonal CuMnAs films are suitable candidate materials for antiferromagnetic spintronics.
First principles study of Fe in diamond: A diamond-based half metallic dilute magnetic semiconductor
Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.
2013-12-14
Half-metallic ferromagnetic ordering in semiconductors, essential in the emerging field of spintronics for injection and transport of highly spin polarised currents, has up to now been considered mainly in III–V and II–VI materials. However, low Curie temperatures have limited implementation in room temperature device applications. We report ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations on the properties of Fe in diamond, considering the effects of lattice site, charge state, and Fermi level position. We show that the lattice sites and induced magnetic moments of Fe in diamond depend strongly on the Fermi level position and type of diamond co-doping, with Fe being energetically most favorable at the substitutional site in p-type and intrinsic diamond, while it is most stable at a divacancy site in n-type diamond. Fe induces spin polarized bands in the band gap, with strong hybridization between Fe-3d and C-2s,2p bands. We further consider Fe-Fe spin interactions in diamond and show that substitutional Fe{sup +1} in p-type diamond exhibits a half-metallic character, with a magnetic moment of 1.0 μ{sub B} per Fe atom and a large ferromagnetic stabilization energy of 33 meV, an order of magnitude larger than in other semiconductors, with correspondingly high Curie temperatures. These results, combined with diamond's unique properties, demonstrate that Fe doped p-type diamond is likely to be a highly suitable candidate material for spintronics applications.
Sznajd Sociophysics Model on a Triangular Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Iksoo
The Sznajd sociophysics model is generalized on the triangular lattice with pure antiferromagnetic opinion and also with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic opinions. The slogan of the trade union ``united we stand, divided we fall'' can be realized via the propagation of ferromagnetic opinion of adjacent people in the union, but the propagation of antiferromagnetic opinion can be observed among the third countries between two big super powers or among the family members of conflicting parents. Fixed points are found in both models. The distributions of relaxation time of the mixed model are dispersed and become closer to log-normal as the initial concentration of down spins approaches 0.5, whereas for pure antiferromagnetic spins, they are collapsed into one master curve, which is roughly log-normal. We do not see the phase transition in the model.
Inclusions of Hydrocarbon Fluids in Diamonds From Wafangdian, Liaoning, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, I. S.; Tsao, C.
2015-12-01
We studied a large number of industrial-grade diamonds from Pipe 50 of Liaoning, China. These diamonds are not suitable for polishing into gems or making cutting tools. They are usually crushed to form abrasives, without much scientific scrutiny. We report here fluid inclusions in dozens of diamonds. The first type of fluids occur in the outer rim of diamonds, just below the surface, while their interior is free of visible fluids. Under UV radiation, when a non-fluorescent diamond appeared dim, bubbles of included fluids became visible as yellow and blue spherules. Such diamonds are sometimes encrusted with euhedral micro-diamonds resembling those on thin films grown by CVD. The second type of fluid-rich diamonds display iridescence of pink, blue, green and yellow colors. They show lamellar, filamentous, or tubular structures, some of the tubes are filled with granules, probably grown from fluids in the tubes. An FT-IR investigation of both types yielded similar results. Apart from absorption due to intrinsic diamond lattice vibrations, we found an outstanding group of bands just below wavenumber 3000. This indicates the presence of a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons of long chain length. Our results seem to implicate that hydrocarbons might be an important component in Earth's mantle, which might even have provided carbon from which diamonds crystllized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanov, B. F.
1985-03-01
The development of diamond tool designs is determined by the development of the technology for the synthesis of artificial diamonds. The technology of syntehsizing artificial diamonds involves the production of mono and polycrystalline diamonds and composition diamond-containing materials. High strength and thermally stable monocrystalline diamonds brands AS30 to AS80 in a size of up to 800 micrometers, and polycrystalline diamonds: black diamonds, ballas (Synthetic Fiber) in a size up to 10mm, are manufactured. Production of single-layer and double-layer diamond plates used in cutting tools is organized. The raw materials base with the constant decrease in the use of natural diamonds is the basis for the development of the manufacture of a wide array of diamond tools. New areas of applications for tools using natural diamonds, such as diamond cutters for turning high-precision parts, straightening tools, hardness gages are outlined. Diamond cutters with natural diamonds are used to grind surfaces which have exceptionally high requirements with respect to the reflecting capacity and roughness.
Peculiarities of boron distribution in as-grown boron-doped diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blank, V. D.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Terentiev, S. A.; Nosukhin, S. A.; Kuznetsov, M. S.
2014-09-01
Boron doped diamond (BDD) single crystals have been grown under conditions of high isostatic pressure by the temperature gradient method. Numerous equilateral triangles were found on the fluorescence images of {111}-diamond facets. Structural peculiarities of BDD were investigated by JEM-2010 transmission electron microscope with GIF Quantum attachment for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High resolution image of diamond lattice revealed some distorted {111}-layers. EELS testifies the presence of boron in distorted regions of diamond lattice. The crystallographic features of BDD and their connection with the superconductivity are discussed.
Intrinsic magnetization of antiferromagnetic textures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tveten, Erlend G.; Müller, Tristan; Linder, Jacob; Brataas, Arne
2016-03-01
Antiferromagnets (AFMs) exhibit intrinsic magnetization when the order parameter spatially varies. This intrinsic spin is present even at equilibrium and can be interpreted as a twisting of the homogeneous AFM into a state with a finite spin. Because magnetic moments couple directly to external magnetic fields, the intrinsic magnetization can alter the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures under such influence. Starting from the discrete Heisenberg model, we derive the continuum limit of the free energy of AFMs in the exchange approximation and explicitly rederive that the spatial variation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter is associated with an intrinsic magnetization density. We calculate the magnetization profile of a domain wall and discuss how the intrinsic magnetization reacts to external forces. We show conclusively, both analytically and numerically, that a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field can move and control the position of domain walls in AFMs. By comparing our model to a commonly used alternative parametrization procedure for the continuum fields, we show that the physical interpretations of these fields depend critically on the choice of parametrization procedure for the discrete-to-continuous transition. This can explain why a significant amount of recent studies of the dynamics of AFMs, including effective models that describe the motion of antiferromagnetic domain walls, have neglected the intrinsic spin of the textured order parameter.
Quantum localization in bilayer Heisenberg antiferromagnets with site dilution.
Roscilde, Tommaso; Haas, Stephan
2005-11-11
The field-induced antiferromagnetic ordering in systems of weakly coupled S = 1/2 dimers at zero temperature can be described as a Bose-Einstein condensation of triplet quasiparticles (singlet quasiholes) in the ground state. For the case of a Heisenberg bilayer, it is here shown how the above picture is altered in the presence of site dilution of the magnetic lattice. Geometric randomness leads to quantum localization of the quasiparticles or quasiholes and to an extended Bose-glass phase in a realistic disordered model. This localization phenomenon drives the system towards a quantum-disordered phase well before the classical geometric percolation threshold is reached. PMID:16384096
Diamond Sheet: A new diamond tool material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackey, C. R.
1982-01-01
Diamond sheet is termed a diamond tool material because it is not a cutting tool, but rather a new material from which a variety of different tools may be fabricated. In appearance and properties, it resembles a sheet of copper alloy with diamond abrasive dispersed throughout it. It is capable of being cut, formed, and joined by conventional methods, and subsequently used for cutting as a metal bonded diamond tool. Diamond sheet is normally made with industrial diamond as the abrasive material. The metal matrix in diamond sheet is a medium hard copper alloy which has performed well in most applications. This alloy has the capability of being made harder or softer if specific cutting conditions require it. Other alloys have also been used including a precipitation hardened aluminum alloy with very free cutting characteristics. The material is suitable for use in a variety of cutting, surfacing, and ring type tools, as well as in such mundane items as files and sandpaper. It can also be used as a bearing surface (diamond to diamond) and in wear resistant surfaces.
Oxygen in bulk monocrystalline diamonds and its correlations with nitrogen.
Shiryaev, A A; Wiedenbeck, M; Hainschwang, T
2010-02-01
The distribution of oxygen and nitrogen impurities in diamond single crystals from a variety of origins and qualities was investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry. A positive correlation between these impurities is observed over a wide concentration range. It is suggested that in diamonds oxygen is present not only in submicroscopic inclusions, but also as a lattice impurity. It appears that the presence of oxygen in a given crystal volume suppresses the IR-activity of nitrogen defects. PMID:21386322
Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion: Stability, Creation and Manipulation
Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko
2016-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like topological excitations in ferromagnets, which have the topo-logical number Q = ± 1, and hence show the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE) due to the Magnus force effect originating from the topology. Here, we propose the counterpart of the magnetic skyrmion in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) system, that is, the AFM skyrmion, which is topologically protected but without showing the SkHE. Two approaches for creating the AFM skyrmion have been described based on micromagnetic lattice simulations: (i) by injecting a vertical spin-polarized current to a nanodisk with the AFM ground state; (ii) by converting an AFM domain-wall pair in a nanowire junction. It is demonstrated that the AFM skyrmion, driven by the spin-polarized current, can move straightly over long distance, benefiting from the absence of the SkHE. Our results will open a new strategy on designing the novel spintronic devices based on AFM materials. PMID:27099125
Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion: Stability, Creation and Manipulation.
Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko
2016-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like topological excitations in ferromagnets, which have the topo-logical number Q = ± 1, and hence show the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE) due to the Magnus force effect originating from the topology. Here, we propose the counterpart of the magnetic skyrmion in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) system, that is, the AFM skyrmion, which is topologically protected but without showing the SkHE. Two approaches for creating the AFM skyrmion have been described based on micromagnetic lattice simulations: (i) by injecting a vertical spin-polarized current to a nanodisk with the AFM ground state; (ii) by converting an AFM domain-wall pair in a nanowire junction. It is demonstrated that the AFM skyrmion, driven by the spin-polarized current, can move straightly over long distance, benefiting from the absence of the SkHE. Our results will open a new strategy on designing the novel spintronic devices based on AFM materials. PMID:27099125
Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion: Stability, Creation and Manipulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko
2016-04-01
Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like topological excitations in ferromagnets, which have the topo-logical number Q = ± 1, and hence show the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE) due to the Magnus force effect originating from the topology. Here, we propose the counterpart of the magnetic skyrmion in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) system, that is, the AFM skyrmion, which is topologically protected but without showing the SkHE. Two approaches for creating the AFM skyrmion have been described based on micromagnetic lattice simulations: (i) by injecting a vertical spin-polarized current to a nanodisk with the AFM ground state; (ii) by converting an AFM domain-wall pair in a nanowire junction. It is demonstrated that the AFM skyrmion, driven by the spin-polarized current, can move straightly over long distance, benefiting from the absence of the SkHE. Our results will open a new strategy on designing the novel spintronic devices based on AFM materials.
Electrically conductive diamond electrodes
Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael
2009-05-19
An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.
Anomalous Hall effect in the noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn5Si3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sürgers, Christoph; Kittler, Wolfram; Wolf, Thomas; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.
2016-05-01
Metallic antiferromagnets with noncollinear orientation of magnetic moments provide a playground for investigating spin-dependent transport properties by analysis of the anomalous Hall effect. The intermetallic compound Mn5Si3 is an intinerant antiferromagnet with collinear and noncollinear magnetic structures due to Mn atoms on two inequivalent lattice sites. Here, magnetotransport measurements on polycrstalline thin films and a single crystal are reported. In all samples, an additional contribution to the anomalous Hall effect attributed to the noncollinear arrangment of magnetic moments is observed. Furthermore, an additional magnetic phase between the noncollinear and collinear regimes above a metamagnetic transition is resolved in the single crystal by the anomalous Hall effect.
Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant
2009-01-01
The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions. PMID:19745488
Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yung-Hsiu
This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that
Niklowitz, P G; Pfleiderer, C; Keller, T; Vojta, M; Huang, Y-K; Mydosh, J A
2010-03-12
We report for the first time simultaneous microscopic measurements of the lattice constants, the distribution of the lattice constants, and the antiferromagnetic moment in high-purity URu(2)Si(2), combining Larmor and conventional neutron diffraction at low temperatures and pressures up to 18 kbar. Our data demonstrate quantitatively that the small moment in the hidden order (HO) of URu(2)Si(2) is purely parasitic. The excellent experimental conditions we achieve allow us to resolve that the transition line between HO and large-moment antiferromagnetism (LMAF), which stabilizes under pressure, is intrinsically first order and ends in a bicritical point. Therefore, the HO and LMAF must have different symmetry, which supports exotic scenarios of the HO such as orbital currents, helicity order, or multipolar order. PMID:20366444
Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.
Diamonds for beam instrumentation
Griesmayer, Erich
2013-04-19
Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.
Thermally stable diamond brazing
Radtke, Robert P.
2009-02-10
A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.
Interpretation of perturbed angular distribution results for19F implanted into diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connell, S.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Stemmet, M. C.; Appel, H.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Verwoerd, W. S.
1990-08-01
Perturbed Angular Distribution measurements have been made on natural diamond using recoil implanted fluorine ions as probes. Two distinct lattice sites for fluorine in diamond were found. Site identifications prompted by theoretical cluster calculations are presented. The PAD data are well described by a texture theory, though the origin of the texture effects is presently not known.
Electric voltage generation by antiferromagnetic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamane, Yuta; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Sinova, Jairo
2016-05-01
We theoretically demonstrate dc and ac electric voltage generation due to spin motive forces originating from domain wall motion and magnetic resonance, respectively, in two-sublattice antiferromagnets. Our theory accounts for the canting between the sublattice magnetizations, the nonadiabatic electron spin dynamics, and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, with the intersublattice electron dynamics treated as a perturbation. This work suggests a way to observe and explore the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures by electrical means, an important aspect in the emerging field of antiferromagnetic spintronics, where both manipulation and detection of antiferromagnets are needed.
Nucleation mechanism for the direct graphite-to-diamond phase transition.
Khaliullin, Rustam Z; Eshet, Hagai; Kühne, Thomas D; Behler, Jörg; Parrinello, Michele
2011-09-01
Graphite and diamond have comparable free energies, yet forming diamond from graphite in the absence of a catalyst requires pressures that are significantly higher than those at equilibrium coexistence. At lower temperatures, the formation of the metastable hexagonal polymorph of diamond is favoured instead of the more stable cubic diamond. These phenomena cannot be explained by the concerted mechanism suggested in previous theoretical studies. Using an ab initio quality neural-network potential, we carried out a large-scale study of the graphite-to-diamond transition assuming that it occurs through nucleation. The nucleation mechanism accounts for the observed phenomenology and reveals its microscopic origins. We demonstrate that the large lattice distortions that accompany the formation of diamond nuclei inhibit the phase transition at low pressure, and direct it towards the hexagonal diamond phase at higher pressure. The proposed nucleation mechanism should improve our understanding of structural transformations in a wide range of carbon-based materials. PMID:21785417
Diamond-cBN alloy: A universal cutting material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pei; He, Duanwei; Wang, Liping; Kou, Zili; Li, Yong; Xiong, Lun; Hu, Qiwei; Xu, Chao; Lei, Li; Wang, Qiming; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yusheng
2015-09-01
Diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN) as conventional superhard materials have found widespread industrial applications, but both have inherent limitations. Diamond is not suitable for high-speed cutting of ferrous materials due to its poor chemical inertness, while cBN is only about half as hard as diamond. Because of their affinity in structural lattices and covalent bonding character, diamond and cBN could form alloys that can potentially fill the performance gap. However, the idea has never been demonstrated because samples obtained in the previous studies were too small to be tested for their practical performance. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of transparent bulk diamond-cBN alloy compacts whose diameters (3 mm) are sufficiently large for them to be processed into cutting tools. The testing results show that the diamond-cBN alloy has superior chemical inertness over polycrystalline diamond and higher hardness than single crystal cBN. High-speed cutting tests on hardened steel and granite suggest that diamond-cBN alloy is indeed a universal cutting material.
Diamond-cBN alloy: A universal cutting material
Wang, Pei; He, Duanwei Kou, Zili; Li, Yong; Hu, Qiwei; Xu, Chao; Lei, Li; Wang, Qiming; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng; Xiong, Lun; Liu, Jing
2015-09-07
Diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN) as conventional superhard materials have found widespread industrial applications, but both have inherent limitations. Diamond is not suitable for high-speed cutting of ferrous materials due to its poor chemical inertness, while cBN is only about half as hard as diamond. Because of their affinity in structural lattices and covalent bonding character, diamond and cBN could form alloys that can potentially fill the performance gap. However, the idea has never been demonstrated because samples obtained in the previous studies were too small to be tested for their practical performance. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of transparent bulk diamond-cBN alloy compacts whose diameters (3 mm) are sufficiently large for them to be processed into cutting tools. The testing results show that the diamond-cBN alloy has superior chemical inertness over polycrystalline diamond and higher hardness than single crystal cBN. High-speed cutting tests on hardened steel and granite suggest that diamond-cBN alloy is indeed a universal cutting material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullah, Mahtab; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Ahmad, E.; Raza, Rizwan; Hussain, Fayyaz; Hussain, Akhtar; Iqbal, Muhammad
2016-09-01
Tantalum (Ta) incorporated diamond films are synthesized on silicon substrate by chemical vapor deposition under gas mixture of CH4 + H2. Characterizations of the resulting films indicate that morphology and resistivity of as-grown diamond films are significantly influenced by the process parameters and the amount of tantalum incorporated in the diamond films. XRD plots reveal that diamond films are composed of TaC along with diamond for higher concentration of tantalum and Ta2C phases for lower concentration of tantalum. EDS spectra confirms the existence of tantalum in the diamond films. Resistivity measurements illustrate a sudden fall of about two orders of magnitude by the addition of tantalum in the diamond films. Band structure of Ta-incorporated diamond has been investigated based on density functional theory (DFT) using VASP code. Band structure calculations lead to the semiconducting behavior of Ta-incorporated diamond films because of the creation of defects states inside the band gap extending towards conduction band minimum. Present DFT results support experimental trend of resistivity that with the incorporation of tantalum into diamond lattice causes a decrease in the resistivity of diamond films so that tantalum-incorporated diamond films behave like a good semiconductor.
Complex antiferromagnetic order in the Cd6 R approximants to the i- R-Cd quasicrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreyssig, A.; Beutier, G.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Kong, T.; Kim, M. G.; Tucker, G. S.; Ueland, B. G.; Hiroto, T.; Liu, D.; Yamada, T.; Boissieu, M. De; Tamura, R.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Goldman, A. I.
2014-03-01
The observation of antiferromagnetic order in the Cd6 R (R = rare earths) approximants to the recently discovered related i- R-Cd quasicrystals provides new and exciting opportunities to unravel the nature of magnetism in these materials. We present single-crystal studies employing x-ray and neutron scattering that revealed complex antiferromagnetism in the Cd6 R approximants. Resolution-limited magnetic Bragg peaks have been observed at lattice points forbidden by the center-symmetry and at incommensurate positions demonstrating long-range antiferromagnetic correlations between the R moments. The work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DMSE, contract DE-AC02-07CH11358. Work at the Tokyo University of Science was supported by KAKENHI (Grant No. 20045017).
NaSrCo2F7, a Co(2+) pyrochlore antiferromagnet.
Krizan, J W; Cava, R J
2015-07-29
We report the crystal growth, by the Bridgeman-Stockbarger method, and the basic magnetic properties of a new cobalt-based pyrochlore, NaSrCo2F7. Single-crystal structure determination shows that Na and Sr are completely disordered on the non-magnetic large atom A sites, while magnetic [Formula: see text] Co(2+) fully occupies the pyrochlore lattice B sites. NaSrCo2F7 displays strong antiferromagnetic interactions ([Formula: see text]), a large effective moment ([Formula: see text]), and no spin freezing until 3 K. Thus, NaSrCo2F7 is a geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet with a frustration index [Formula: see text]. Ac susceptibility, dc susceptibility, and heat capacity are utilized to characterize the spin freezing. We argue that NaSrCo2F7 and the related material NaCaCo2F7 are examples of frustrated pyrochlore antiferromagnets with weak bond disorder. PMID:26154596
Relativistic Néel-Order Fields Induced by Electrical Current in Antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Železný, J.; Gao, H.; Výborný, K.; Zemen, J.; Mašek, J.; Manchon, Aurélien; Wunderlich, J.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.
2014-10-01
We predict that a lateral electrical current in antiferromagnets can induce nonequilibrium Néel-order fields, i.e., fields whose sign alternates between the spin sublattices, which can trigger ultrafast spin-axis reorientation. Based on microscopic transport theory calculations we identify staggered current-induced fields analogous to the intraband and to the intrinsic interband spin-orbit fields previously reported in ferromagnets with a broken inversion-symmetry crystal. To illustrate their rich physics and utility, we consider bulk Mn2Au with the two spin sublattices forming inversion partners, and a 2D square-lattice antiferromagnet with broken structural inversion symmetry modeled by a Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We propose an antiferromagnetic memory device with electrical writing and reading.
Nano-inclusions in diamond: Evidence of diamond genesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirth, R.
2015-12-01
The use of Focused Ion Beam technology (FIB) for TEM sample preparation introduced approximately 15 years ago revolutionized the application of TEM in Geosciences. For the first time, FIB enabled cutting samples for TEM use from exactly the location we are interested in. Applied to diamond investigation, this technique revealed the presence of nanometre-sized inclusions in diamond that have been simply unknown before. Nanoinclusions in diamond from different location and origin such as diamonds from the Lower and Upper Mantle, metamorphic diamonds (Kazakhstan, Erzgebirge, Bohemia), diamonds from ophiolites (Tibet, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Ural Mountains), diamonds from igneous rocks (Hawaii, Kamchatka) and impact diamonds (Popigai Crater, Siberia) have been investigated during the last 15 years. The major conclusion of all these TEM studies is, that the nanoinclusions, their phases and phase composition together with the micro- and nanostructure evidence the origin of diamond and genesis of diamond. We can discriminate Five different mechanisms of diamond genesis in nature are observed: Diamond crystallized from a high-density fluid (Upper mantle and metamorphic diamond). Diamond crystallized from carbonatitic melt (Lower mantle diamond). Diamond precipitates from a metal alloy melt (Diamond from ophiolites). Diamond crystallized by gas phase condensation or chemical vapour condensation (CVD) (Lavas from Kamchatka, xenoliths in Hawaiian lavas). Direct transformation of graphite into diamond.
Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Huang, X.; Ma, J.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Matsuda, M.; Tian, W.; Dun, Z. L.; Dong, S.; Zhou, H. D.
2014-12-01
Here we have performed magnetic, electric, thermal and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations on Ba_{3}MnNb_{2} O_{9}. All results suggest that Ba_{3}MnNb_{2} O_{9} is a spin-5/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF) with weak easy-axis anisotropy. At zero field, we observed a narrow two-step transition at T_{N1} = 3.4 K and T_{N2} = 3.0 K. The neutron diffraction measurement and the DFT calculation indicate a 120 spin structure in ab plane with out-of-plane canting at low temperatures. With increasing magnetic field, the 120 spin structure evolves into up-up-down (uud) and oblique phases showing successive magnetic phase transitions, which fits well to the theoretical prediction for the 2D Heisenberg TLAF with classical spins. Ultimately, multiferroicity is observed when the spins are not collinear but suppressed in the uud and oblique phases.
Fermi surface reconstruction in hole-doped t-J models without long-range antiferromagnetic order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punk, Matthias; Sachdev, Subir
2012-05-01
We calculate the Fermi surface of electrons in hole-doped, extended t-J models on a square lattice in a regime where no long-range antiferromagnetic order is present, and no symmetries are broken. Using the “spinon-dopon” formalism of Ribeiro and Wen, we show that short-range antiferromagnetic correlations lead to a reconstruction of the Fermi surface into hole pockets which are not necessarily centered at the antiferromagnetic Brillouin zone boundary. The Brillouin zone area enclosed by the Fermi surface is proportional to the density of dopants away from half-filling, in contrast to the conventional Luttinger theorem, which counts the total electron density. This state realizes a “fractionalized Fermi liquid” (FL*), which has been proposed as a possible ground state of the underdoped cuprates; we note connections to recent experiments. We also discuss the quantum phase transition from the FL* state to the Fermi liquid state with long-range antiferromagnetic order.