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Sample records for diana lucia cristancho

  1. St. Lucia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnik, Victor

    1993-01-01

    Examines the impact of mining the dunes in Natal's Saint Lucia Park on the wetlands and lake to the west of the dunes. Discusses mining companies campaign to receive rights to mine, government neglect, and public education and opinion concerning the controversy. (MDH)

  2. St. Lucia.

    PubMed

    1987-06-01

    The population of St Lucia was 123,000 in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2%. The infant mortality rate stands at 22.2/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 70.3 years for males and 74.9 years for females. The literacy rate is 78%. St Lucia's labor force is allocated as follows: agriculture, 36.6%; industry and commerce, 20.1%; and services, 18.1%. The gross national product (GNP) was US$146 million in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 3% and a per capita GNP of $1071. St Lucia is a parliamentary democracy modeled on the British Westminster system. The island is divided into 16 parishes and 1 urban area (the capital, Castries). St Lucia is currently a politically stable country, although the high level of youth unemployment is a cause for concern. Ongoing stability may depend on the government's ability to provide services such as jobs and housing. The economy has evolved from a monocrop sugar plantation type to a diversified economy based on agriculture, industry, and tourism. Agriculture, dominated by the banana industry, is characterized by the participation of a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises. Industry is being encouraged through the provision of incentives such as tax rebates. The government is attempting to maintain a sound investment climate through a tripartite dialogue with the private sector and trade unions. Overall economic policy is predicated on the attraction of sound investments, by both local and foreign entities, to accelerate the rate of economic growth, solve the unemployment problem, and generate a solid balance-of-payments position. PMID:12177918

  3. Diana Leonard and Materialist Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Stevi

    2013-01-01

    This tribute to Diana Leonard focuses on her contribution to materialist feminism, both through bringing the work of key French theorists to the attention of an Anglophone audience and through her own sociological work on the family, marriage and childhood. In so doing it draws attention to the importance of her work as editor and…

  4. Making a Way for Diana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shima, Kate; Gsovski, Barbara K.

    1996-01-01

    Although many parents and educators hesitate to involve children in a regular course of drug therapy, Ritalin often proves beneficial to Attention Deficit Disorder sufferers. Diana, an intelligent, easily distracted middle schooler, was helped by a team approach using evaluation, remediation, behavioral therapy, medication, and a supportive…

  5. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other's calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other's alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males' eagle alarms with 'standard' eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males' eagle alarm calls with 'standard' eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males' calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  6. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other’s calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other’s alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males’ eagle alarms with ‘standard’ eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males’ eagle alarm calls with ‘standard’ eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males’ calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  7. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  8. DIANA-TarBase and DIANA Suite Tools: Studying Experimentally Supported microRNA Targets.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs (∼22 nts) present in animals, plants, and viruses. They are considered central post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and are key components in a great number of physiological and pathological conditions. The accurate characterization of their targets is considered essential to a series of applications and basic or applied research settings. DIANA-TarBase (http://www.microrna.gr/tarbase) was initially launched in 2006. It is a reference repository indexing experimentally derived miRNA-gene interactions in different cell types, tissues, and conditions across numerous species. This unit focuses on the study of experimentally supported miRNA-gene interactions, as well as their functional interpretation through the use of available tools in the DIANA suite (http://www.microrna.gr). The proposed use-case scenarios are presented in protocols, describing how to utilize the DIANA-TarBase database and DIANA-microT-CDS server and perform miRNA-targeted pathway analysis with DIANA-miRPath-v3. All analyses are directly invoked or initiated from DIANA-TarBase. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27603020

  9. Free and Beautiful: Lucia Chen--New York Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article details the work of Lucia Chen of the New York Public Library. Lucia Chen combined her two passions--organization and beautification--in her recent project, creating an online version of the New York Public Library's (NYPL) legendary picture collection. Artists ranging from set designers to filmmakers have long used the collection,…

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  11. Data analysis with the DIANA meta-scheduling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, A.; McClatchey, R.; Willers, I.

    2008-07-01

    The concepts, design and evaluation of the Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) meta-scheduling approach for solving the challenges of data analysis being faced by CERN experiments are discussed in this paper. Our results suggest that data analysis can be made robust by employing fault tolerant and decentralized meta-scheduling algorithms supported in our DIANA meta-scheduler. The DIANA meta-scheduler supports data intensive bulk scheduling, is network aware and follows a policy centric meta-scheduling. In this paper, we demonstrate that a decentralized and dynamic meta-scheduling approach is an effective strategy to cope with increasing numbers of users, jobs and datasets. We present 'quality of service' related statistics for physics analysis through the application of a policy centric fair-share scheduling model. The DIANA meta-schedulers create a peer-to-peer hierarchy of schedulers to accomplish resource management that changes with evolving loads and is dynamic and adapts to the volatile nature of the resources.

  12. Economics and applications of geothermal energy in St. Lucia

    SciTech Connect

    Altseimer, J.H.; Burris, A.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Trocki, L.K.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The assessment reported here consisted of three major tasks: first, a field geologic assessment of the physical extent of the Qualibou caldera geothermal resource; second, an engineering evaluation of the potential development of the geothermal resource; and third, a study of the potential economic impact upon St. Lucia associated with the development of the geothermal resource. The first task, the geologic assessment, is not discussed in detail.

  13. Geographical variation of St. Lucia Parrot flight vocalizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeman, P.M.; Gilardi, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Parrots are vocal learners and many species of parrots are capable of learning new calls, even as adults. This capability gives parrots the potential to develop communication systems that can vary dramatically over space. St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) flight vocalizations were examined for geographic variation between four different sites on the island of St. Lucia. Spectrographic cross-correlation analysis of a commonly used flight vocalization, the p-chow call, demonstrated quantitative differences between sites. Additionally, the similarity of p-chows decreased as the distance between sites increased. Flight call repertoires also differed among sites; parrots at the Des Bottes and Quilesse sites each used one flight call unique to those sites, while parrots at the Barre de L'Isle site used a flight call that Quilesse parrots gave only while perched. It is unclear whether the vocal variation changed clinally with distance, or whether there were discrete dialect boundaries as in a congener, the Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata, Wright 1996). The geographical scale over which the St. Lucia Parrot's vocal variation occurred was dramatically smaller than that of the Yellow-naped Parrot. Similar patterns of fine-scale vocal variation may be more widespread among other parrot species in the Caribbean than previously documented.

  14. Reducing Health Disparities and Improving Health Equity in Saint Lucia.

    PubMed

    Holden, Kisha; Charles, Lisa; King, Stephen; McGregor, Brian; Satcher, David; Belton, Allyson

    2016-01-01

    St. Lucia is an island nation in the Eastern Caribbean, with a population of 179,000 people, where chronic health conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are significant. The purpose of this pilot study is to create a model for community health education, tracking, and monitoring of these health conditions, research training, and policy interventions in St. Lucia, which may apply to other Caribbean populations, including those in the U.S. This paper reports on phase one of the study, which utilized a mixed method analytic approach. Adult clients at risk for, or diagnosed with, diabetes (n = 157), and health care providers/clinic administrators (n = 42), were recruited from five healthcare facilities in St. Lucia to assess their views on health status, health services, and improving health equity. Preliminary content analyses indicated that patients and providers acknowledge the relatively high prevalence of diabetes and other chronic illnesses, recognize the impact that socioeconomic status has on health outcomes, and desire improved access to healthcare and improvements to healthcare infrastructures. These findings could inform strategies, such as community education and workforce development, which may help improve health outcomes among St. Lucians with chronic health conditions, and inform similar efforts among other selected populations. PMID:26703647

  15. Reducing Health Disparities and Improving Health Equity in Saint Lucia

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha; Charles, Lisa; King, Stephen; McGregor, Brian; Satcher, David; Belton, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    St. Lucia is an island nation in the Eastern Caribbean, with a population of 179,000 people, where chronic health conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are significant. The purpose of this pilot study is to create a model for community health education, tracking, and monitoring of these health conditions, research training, and policy interventions in St. Lucia, which may apply to other Caribbean populations, including those in the U.S. This paper reports on phase one of the study, which utilized a mixed method analytic approach. Adult clients at risk for, or diagnosed with, diabetes (n = 157), and health care providers/clinic administrators (n = 42), were recruited from five healthcare facilities in St. Lucia to assess their views on health status, health services, and improving health equity. Preliminary content analyses indicated that patients and providers acknowledge the relatively high prevalence of diabetes and other chronic illnesses, recognize the impact that socioeconomic status has on health outcomes, and desire improved access to healthcare and improvements to healthcare infrastructures. These findings could inform strategies, such as community education and workforce development, which may help improve health outcomes among St. Lucians with chronic health conditions, and inform similar efforts among other selected populations. PMID:26703647

  16. Evaluation of the St. Lucia geothermal resource: macroeconomic models

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, A.E.; Trocki, L.K.; Yeamans, M.K.; Kolstad, C.D.

    1984-08-01

    A macroeconometric model describing the St. Lucian economy was developed using 1970 to 1982 economic data. Results of macroeconometric forecasts for the period 1983 through 1985 show an increase in gross domestic product (GDP) for 1983 and 1984 with a decline in 1985. The rate of population growth is expected to exceed GDP growth so that a small decline in per capita GDP will occur. We forecast that garment exports will increase, providing needed employment and foreign exchange. To obtain a longer-term but more general outlook on St. Lucia's economy, and to evaluate the benefit of geothermal energy development, we applied a nonlinear programming model. The model maximizes discounted cumulative consumption.

  17. Geologic Map of the Diana Chasma Quadrangle (V-37), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, V.L.; DeShon, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Diana Chasma quadrangle hosts some of the steepest topography on Venus. Altimetry measurements range from -2.5 to 4.7 km (0.0 = mean planetary radius), with a surface mean of 0.6 km. Fractures and faults within the central fracture/rift zone create large blocks of down-dropped material, especially along the east-central edge of the map area. The Dali and Diana chasmata display slopes of >30°, the steepest and deepest trenches on Venus. Both chasmata host landslide deposits presumably sourced from the steep chasmata walls. The tessera inlier, coronae, and ridge belts sit topographically above Rusalka and Zhibek planitiae. Rusalka Planitia topography describes broad undulations having northwest-trending ridges spaced ~200 km apart. The most distinctive ridge, Vetsorgo Dorsum, centered at 6.5° S., 163° E., is a Class I ridge belt owing to its simple arch morphology. The central interior of Markham crater sits topographically lower than the surrounding region, which slopes downward to the east.

  18. "DIANA" - A New, Deep-Underground Accelerator Facility for Astrophysics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.; Leitner, D.; Lemut, A.; Vetter, P.; Wiescher, M.

    2009-05-28

    The DIANA project (Dakota Ion Accelerators for Nuclear Astrophysics) is a collaboration between the University of Notre Dame, University of North Carolina, Western Michigan University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to build a nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility 1.4 km below ground. DIANA is part of the US proposal DUSEL (Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory) to establish a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory in the former gold mine of Homestake in South Dakota, USA. DIANA would consist of two high-current accelerators, a 30 to 400 kV variable, high-voltage platform, and a second, dynamitron accelerator with a voltage range of 350 kV to 3 MV. As a unique feature, both accelerators are planned to be equipped with either high-current microwave ion sources or multi-charged ECR ion sources producing ions from protons to oxygen. Electrostatic quadrupole transport elements will be incorporated in the dynamitron high voltage column. Compared to current astrophysics facilities, DIANA could increase the available beam densities on target by magnitudes: up to 100 mA on the low energy accelerator and several mA on the high energy accelerator. An integral part of the DIANA project is the development of a high-density super-sonic gas-jet target which can handle these anticipated beam powers. The paper will explain the main components of the DIANA accelerators and their beam transport lines and will discuss related technical challenges.

  19. DIANA-miRPath v3.0: deciphering microRNA function with experimental support.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Ioannis S; Zagganas, Konstantinos; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Georgakilas, Georgios; Karagkouni, Dimitra; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2015-07-01

    The functional characterization of miRNAs is still an open challenge. Here, we present DIANA-miRPath v3.0 (http://www.microrna.gr/miRPathv3) an online software suite dedicated to the assessment of miRNA regulatory roles and the identification of controlled pathways. The new miRPath web server renders possible the functional annotation of one or more miRNAs using standard (hypergeometric distributions), unbiased empirical distributions and/or meta-analysis statistics. DIANA-miRPath v3.0 database and functionality have been significantly extended to support all analyses for KEGG molecular pathways, as well as multiple slices of Gene Ontology (GO) in seven species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Gallus gallus and Danio rerio). Importantly, more than 600 000 experimentally supported miRNA targets from DIANA-TarBase v7.0 have been incorporated into the new schema. Users of DIANA-miRPath v3.0 can harness this wealth of information and substitute or combine the available in silico predicted targets from DIANA-microT-CDS and/or TargetScan v6.2 with high quality experimentally supported interactions. A unique feature of DIANA-miRPath v3.0 is its redesigned Reverse Search module, which enables users to identify and visualize miRNAs significantly controlling selected pathways or belonging to specific GO categories based on in silico or experimental data. DIANA-miRPath v3.0 is freely available to all users without any login requirement. PMID:25977294

  20. Growing old in St. Lucia: expectations and experiences in a Caribbean village.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Lisa S

    2005-03-01

    In St. Lucia there are increased proportions of elders secondary to decreasing fertility and mortality rates and increasing life expectancy. The fact that people are living longer is a reflection of social success; however, increasing numbers of elders (often with chronic health problems) challenge family, social, health, political, and economic systems. Who will provide care and how this care will be provided are at the forefront of health and social service planning and debate. This paper describes the status of elders in St. Lucia. Expectations as well as current care experiences of elders and villagers are described. PMID:15870968

  1. Beyond 10 J/ 2 Hz LUCIA current status with cryogenic amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucianetti, A.; Novo, T.; Vincent, B.; Albach, D.; Chanteloup, J.-C.

    2011-06-01

    More than 10 Joules at 2 Hz were recently obtained from the LUCIA laser system based on diode-pumped Yb:YAG active mirrors. This achievement is the result of careful management of both Amplified Spontaneous Emission and thermal effects in laser amplifiers. Future developments including a cryogenically-cooled active mirror are also presented.

  2. Strengthening National Capital: A Postcolonial Analysis of Lifelong Learning Policy in St Lucia, Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Jn Pierre, Kentry D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a postcolonial policy analysis of the "Education Sector Development Plan: 2000-2005 and Beyond" in the small Caribbean island nation of St Lucia. The specific focus is upon the nature of the lifelong learning policy as incorporated in the Plan. This is shown to be a globalised policy discourse. Drawing on a number of…

  3. Micro-Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy with the LUCIA Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Lagarde, P.; Flank, A.-M.; Vantelon, D.; Janousch, M.

    2007-02-02

    With the development of new synchrotron radiation machines, which have seen, in the last ten years, the emittance of the beam decreased by several orders of magnitude, new beamlines have been developed which make full use of these improvements. We describe here the LUCIA beamline, which has been implemented at the Swiss Light Source in a collaboration between PSI, SOLEIL and the CNRS.

  4. Taking a Giant Step into Our Technological Future. A Talk with Diana Oshiro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, Gisela E.

    1995-01-01

    Diana Oshiro, Assistant Superintendent for the Office of Information and Telecommunications Services, Hawaii State Department of Education, supervises voice, data, video, and information systems serving the department. This article presents an interview in which she discusses the importance of technology in education and describes the need for…

  5. DIANA-microT web server: elucidating microRNA functions through target prediction.

    PubMed

    Maragkakis, M; Reczko, M; Simossis, V A; Alexiou, P; Papadopoulos, G L; Dalamagas, T; Giannopoulos, G; Goumas, G; Koukis, E; Kourtis, K; Vergoulis, T; Koziris, N; Sellis, T; Tsanakas, P; Hatzigeorgiou, A G

    2009-07-01

    Computational microRNA (miRNA) target prediction is one of the key means for deciphering the role of miRNAs in development and disease. Here, we present the DIANA-microT web server as the user interface to the DIANA-microT 3.0 miRNA target prediction algorithm. The web server provides extensive information for predicted miRNA:target gene interactions with a user-friendly interface, providing extensive connectivity to online biological resources. Target gene and miRNA functions may be elucidated through automated bibliographic searches and functional information is accessible through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The web server offers links to nomenclature, sequence and protein databases, and users are facilitated by being able to search for targeted genes using different nomenclatures or functional features, such as the genes possible involvement in biological pathways. The target prediction algorithm supports parameters calculated individually for each miRNA:target gene interaction and provides a signal-to-noise ratio and a precision score that helps in the evaluation of the significance of the predicted results. Using a set of miRNA targets recently identified through the pSILAC method, the performance of several computational target prediction programs was assessed. DIANA-microT 3.0 achieved there with 66% the highest ratio of correctly predicted targets over all predicted targets. The DIANA-microT web server is freely available at www.microrna.gr/microT. PMID:19406924

  6. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  7. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    PubMed

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-01-01

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit.  PMID:25112239

  8. Polyspecific associations of Cercopithecus campbelli and C. petaurista with C. diana: what are the costs and benefits?

    PubMed

    Buzzard, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Polyspecific associations (PSA) are common in many African primate communities, including the diurnal primates at Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper I use data on the PSA of two forest guenons, Campbell's (Cercopithecus campbelli) and lesser spot-nosed monkeys (C. petaurista), with Diana monkeys (C. diana) and other primates to clarify interspecific relationships during 17 months including a 3-month low-fruit period. I analyzed association in relation to fruit availability and measured forest strata use for C. campbelli and C. petaurista when alone and in associations with and without C. diana. I also measured predator risk and reactions to potential predators. C. campbelli and C. petaurista had high association rates with C. diana monkeys, and fruit availability did not influence association rates. C. campbelli and C. petaurista used higher strata when in association with C. diana than when alone, but they used even higher strata when associated with other primates without C. diana. This suggested that C. diana competitively exclude C. campbelli and C. petaurista from higher strata. There were relatively large numbers of potential predators, and C. diana were usually the first callers to threatening stimuli, suggesting that antipredator benefits of association with C. diana outweighed the competitive costs. C. campbelli spent more time in association with C. diana than C. petaurista did and appeared to be more reliant on C. diana for antipredator benefits. C. petaurista were less reliant on C. diana because of a cryptic strategy and may have associated less in some months because of high chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presence. PMID:20535628

  9. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  10. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa): Gastropod molluscs

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Miranda, Nelson A.F.; Raw, Jacqueline L.; Peer, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as “A.” aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that

  11. The biology of Solea bleekeri (Teleostei) in Lake St Lucia on the southeast coast of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrus, D. P.

    Several aspects of the biology of Solea bleekeri in Lake St Lucia were investigated, these included occurrence, distribution, reproduction and recruitment, food and feeding, size frequency distribution and the role of estuaries in the species' life cycle. Solea bleekeri was found to occur throughout the system in muddy turbid areas and was largely absent from the eastern shores of the lake where clear water sandy substrata occur. The preferred diet of the species was bivalve siphon tips of the species Solon cylindraceus, when these were in abundant supply. However, when numbers of large (length > 20 mm) specimens were not available then S. bleekeri fed on whatever prey was available in or near the substratum. Analysis of stomach contents under the latter conditions showed that food consumption reflected the composition of the benthos. Large numbers of S. bleekeri spend their entire post-larval and juvenile phases as well as the greater part of their adult life within estuaries. Evidence is presented to support the idea that S. bleekeri breeds in certain areas of the lake and that spawning takes place between September and November. The current data suggest that there may be two populations in St Lucia: one migrates from the system to spawn at sea during winter along with the other marine fish species which utilize estuaries as nursery areas, while the other population breeds within the system. Alternatively there may simply be a single population which normally breeds at sea, but which may breed within the system when conditions are suitable. Recruitment of S. bleekeri into the St Lucia estuarine system takes place from the muddy offshore marine banks and possibly from within the system as well. Solea bleekeri appears not to be totally dependent on estuaries for the completion of its life cycle. The advantages of utilizing these systems for their development relate to the shallow, calm, turbid food-rich areas which estuaries offer. The fact that breeding takes

  12. The hidden impact of conspiracy theories: perceived and actual influence of theories surrounding the death of Princess Diana.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M

    2008-04-01

    The authors examined the perceived and actual impact of exposure to conspiracy theories surrounding the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in 1997. One group of undergraduate students rated their agreement and their classmates' perceived agreement with several statements about Diana's death. A second group of students from the same undergraduate population read material containing popular conspiracy theories about Diana's death before rating their own and others' agreement with the same statements and perceived retrospective attitudes (i.e., what they thought their own and others' attitudes were before reading the material). Results revealed that whereas participants in the second group accurately estimated others' attitude changes, they underestimated the extent to which their own attitudes were influenced. PMID:18512419

  13. Effects of Protection and Sediment Stress on Coral Reefs in Saint Lucia

    PubMed Central

    Bégin, Chantale; Schelten, Christiane K.; Nugues, Maggy M.; Hawkins, Julie; Roberts, Callum; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) benefit corals is contentious. On one hand, MPAs could enhance coral growth and survival through increases in herbivory within their borders; on the other, they are unlikely to prevent disturbances, such as terrestrial runoff, that originate outside their boundaries. We examined the effect of spatial protection and terrestrial sediment on the benthic composition of coral reefs in Saint Lucia. In 2011 (10 to 16 years after MPAs were created), we resurveyed 21 reefs that had been surveyed in 2001 and analyzed current benthic assemblages as well as changes in benthic cover over that decade in relation to protection status, terrestrial sediment influence (measured as the proportion of terrigenous material in reef-associated sediment) and depth. The cover of all benthic biotic components has changed significantly over the decade, including a decline in coral and increase in macroalgae. Protection status was not a significant predictor of either current benthic composition or changes in composition, but current cover and change in cover of several components were related to terrigenous content of sediment deposited recently. Sites with a higher proportion of terrigenous sediment had lower current coral cover, higher macroalgal cover and greater coral declines. Our results suggest that terrestrial sediment is an important factor in the recent degradation of coral reefs in Saint Lucia and that the current MPA network should be complemented by measures to reduce runoff from land. PMID:26845451

  14. Trophic functioning of the St. Lucia estuarine lake during a drought phase assessed using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Natasha; Smit, Albertus J.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2011-06-01

    The St. Lucia Estuary is Africa's largest estuarine system and is currently experiencing the stress of prolonged freshwater deprivation, manifested by extremely low water levels and hypersalinity. These unprecedented conditions have raised questions regarding the trophic functioning of the ecosystem. Despite the substantial amount of research previously undertaken within this system, no studies of food web structure and function have yet been documented. This study therefore aimed to examine the food web structure of the St. Lucia estuary system through the use of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Analysis of carbon isotope ratios indicates that benthic carbon sources are most utilised at sites with low water levels and generally higher salinity (Catalina Bay, Charter's Creek). Conversely, the estuarine region of the mouth and Narrows, with its elevated water levels and lower salinity, still sustains a viable pelagic food web. Analysis of δ15N ratios indicates that the number of trophic transfers (food chain length) might be related to water levels. Overall, the study provides a greater understanding of the ecological processes of this complex estuarine lake, which may allow for future comparisons of trophic functioning under drought and normal/wet conditions to be made.

  15. Sustainability Analysis of the Water Resources and Supply of the Vieux Fort Region of Saint Lucia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, D.; Johnson, B.; Morgan, F.

    2005-05-01

    In the Vieux Fort region of the Caribbean island of St. Lucia, water needs are becoming acute. The water supply shortfalls during the dry season will continue to grow as population and development increase, unless action is taken. Actions to address the problem should include measures to optimize the present water delivery system and the development of a new supply, through new intakes, groundwater, or reservoir construction. An investigation into the potential for groundwater resources using electrical resistivity soundings indicated a likely pervasive, shallow aquitard of clay materials below the water table; the shallowness of this aquitard virtually precludes the existence of productive perched aquifers. Consequently, a model of Grande Riviere du Vieux Fort (Big Vieux Fort River) seasonal surface-water flow was developed, based on a digital elevation model and rainfall data, allowing us to analyze the possible productivity of any new intakes placed along the river. A specific site downstream of the present intake was recommended for potential development. Recommendations were given for short, medium and long-term development of the resources and supply of the Vieux Fort region of southern St. Lucia.

  16. Modelling reef zonation in the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleyer, Michael H.; Celliers, Louis

    2005-05-01

    East Africa has a rich coral fauna that extends to Maputaland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At this latitude, considered high and marginal for coral distribution and development, they form a veneer on limited, late Pleistocene reefs rather than forming the accretive, aragonite structures known as coral reefs. It is thus more appropriate to refer to them in this region as coral communities, the environment being rendered marginal for their development by reduced temperatures, light and aragonite saturation state. Subsequent to their discovery, the reefs were afforded protection within two Marine Protected Areas (the St Lucia and Maputaland Marine Reserves). They are found primarily within three reef complexes, with only the central complex being readily accessible to the public for ecotourism at present. With the creation of the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, a World Heritage Site, and the expectation of an accompanying increase in ecotourism, the status quo seems set to change. The reefs are thus the current focus of a modelling initiative to provide decision support in their management. This paper examines the unique nature of the South African communities, their vulnerability and importance in the regional and global context, and, using representative data from the model, how an anticipated increase in their use could affect their sustainability. The case for scientifically based zonation for their use is presented.

  17. Effects of Protection and Sediment Stress on Coral Reefs in Saint Lucia.

    PubMed

    Bégin, Chantale; Schelten, Christiane K; Nugues, Maggy M; Hawkins, Julie; Roberts, Callum; Côté, Isabelle M

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) benefit corals is contentious. On one hand, MPAs could enhance coral growth and survival through increases in herbivory within their borders; on the other, they are unlikely to prevent disturbances, such as terrestrial runoff, that originate outside their boundaries. We examined the effect of spatial protection and terrestrial sediment on the benthic composition of coral reefs in Saint Lucia. In 2011 (10 to 16 years after MPAs were created), we resurveyed 21 reefs that had been surveyed in 2001 and analyzed current benthic assemblages as well as changes in benthic cover over that decade in relation to protection status, terrestrial sediment influence (measured as the proportion of terrigenous material in reef-associated sediment) and depth. The cover of all benthic biotic components has changed significantly over the decade, including a decline in coral and increase in macroalgae. Protection status was not a significant predictor of either current benthic composition or changes in composition, but current cover and change in cover of several components were related to terrigenous content of sediment deposited recently. Sites with a higher proportion of terrigenous sediment had lower current coral cover, higher macroalgal cover and greater coral declines. Our results suggest that terrestrial sediment is an important factor in the recent degradation of coral reefs in Saint Lucia and that the current MPA network should be complemented by measures to reduce runoff from land. PMID:26845451

  18. The relationship between acoustic structure and semantic information in Diana monkey alarm vocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-08-01

    Mammalian vocal production mechanisms are still poorly understood despite their significance for theories of human speech evolution. Particularly, it is still unclear to what degree mammals are capable of actively controlling vocal-tract filtering, a defining feature of human speech production. To address this issue, a detailed acoustic analysis on the alarm vocalization of free-ranging Diana monkeys was conducted. These vocalizations are especially interesting because they convey semantic information about two of the monkeys' natural predators, the leopard and the crowned eagle. Here, vocal tract and sound source parameter in Diana monkey alarm vocalizations are described. It is found that a vocalization-initial formant downward transition distinguishes most reliably between eagle and leopard alarm vocalization. This finding is discussed as an indication of articulation and alternatively as the result of a strong nasalization effect. It is suggested that the formant modulation is the result of active vocal filtering used by the monkeys to encode semantic information, an ability previously thought to be restricted to human speech.

  19. Negligencia en la Educacion de Estudiantes Mexico-Americanos en el Distrito Escolar Unificado Lucia Mar, Pismo Beach, California. (Educational Neglect of Mexican-American Students in Lucia Mar Unified School District, Pismo Beach, California.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    California State Advisory Committee (SAC) of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held hearings in Santa Maria, California (May 20, 1972) to collect information on civil rights problems of Mexican American students in the Lucia Mar School District. Major issues were community complaints about the arrest of 26 Mexican American students and some…

  20. Situation Report--Antigua, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are: Antigua, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning…

  1. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  2. A Proposed Community Network For Monitoring Volcanic Emissions In Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Robertson, R. E.; Latchman, J. L.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic geochemical monitoring of volcanic systems in the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles was initiated by the UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in 2000, as part of its volcanic surveillance programme for the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles. This programme provided the first time-series observations used for the purpose of volcano monitoring in Dominica and Saint Lucia, permitted the characterization of the geothermal fluids associated with them, and established baseline studies for understanding of the hydrothermal systems during periods of quiescence (Joseph et al., 2011; Joseph et al., 2013). As part of efforts to improve and expand the capacity of SRC to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, it is necessary to develop economically sustainable options for the monitoring of volcanic emissions/pollutants. Towards this effort we intend to work in collaboration with local authorities in Saint Lucia, to develop a monitoring network for quantifying the background exposure levels of ambient concentrations of volcanic pollutants, SO2 in air and As in waters (as health significant marker elements in the geothermal emissions) that would serve as a model for the emissions monitoring network for other volcanic islands. This programme would facilitate the building of local capacity and training to monitor the hazardous exposure, through the application and transfer of a regionally available low-cost and low-technology SO2 measurement/detection system in Saint Lucia. Existing monitoring technologies to inform evidence based health practices are too costly for small island Caribbean states, and no government policies or health services measures currently exist to address/mitigate these influences. Gases, aerosols and toxic elements from eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic activity are known to adversely affect human health and the environment (Baxter, 2000; Zhang et al., 2008). Investigations into the

  3. [DianaWeb: a demonstration project to improve breast cancer prognosis through lifestyles].

    PubMed

    Villarini, Anna; Villarini, Milena; Gargano, Giuliana; Moretti, Massimo; Berrino, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In the field of cancer prevention, the public ask to be involved more actively in scientific research and in the production of knowledge. This is leading to an increase of participatory projects in the field of epidemiology. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention in the past 15 years; it is becoming a recognized and important approach in addressing health disparities in cancer prevention. The increasing accessibility of new methods of comparison, discussion and information allows to link a large number of people. The project DianaWeb was born in 2015 at the Department of Predictive Medicine and Prevention of the National Cancer Institute, Milan. This CBPR involves women with diagnosis of breast cancer (BC). DianaWeb communications are based on an interactive online platform developed "ad hoc" (www.dianaweb.org). With very few exceptions, all communication between participants and research team will be on the web. The recruitment is done through Internet, hospitals, physicians, media and word of mouth. Women can join the project independently, under the control of researchers and the aim of the study is to assess whether healthy eating and regular physical activity can improve the quality of life and increase survival rates in women with diagnosis of BC. About 50,000 Italian women with a diagnosis of BC with or without metastasis, local recurrence or second cancers; with in situ or invasive cancer, whatever the disease stage at diagnosis, whatever histological diagnosis, whatever the time elapsed since diagnosis should be recruited in the DianaWeb project. The volunteers are asked to send clinical information about their condition from diagnosis onwards, on their weight and other anthropometric measures, lifestyles and nutrition through online questionnaires. Moreover, the women enrolled in the study, after login, can access evidence-based information and results obtained during the project (individual and whole community

  4. How well do preschoolers identify healthy foods? Development and preliminary validation of the Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA).

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A

    2015-09-01

    The current study aimed to develop and initially validate a brief Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA) that mapped onto the Stop-Light Diet System. Participants for this study included 69 preschool children (83% boys; mean age = 5.13 years; 86% Latino) recruited from two summer programs. Children were presented with 24 pictures and were asked to name the food and indicate how healthy they felt each food was by pointing to a smiley face (very healthy = Green/Go food), neutral face (somewhat healthy = Yellow/Slow food), or a sad face (not healthy at all = Red/Whoa foods). Psychometric properties of the DIANA were assessed via a baseline assessment while children were re-administered the DIANA within 4-6 weeks to ascertain the test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity was also assessed in an exploratory fashion with a small subsample (n = 11) of children who participated in a healthy-lifestyle intervention program (HIP). Results indicated that the internal consistency of the DIANA for both the expressive knowledge and the health classification scales was acceptable (α = .83 and .82, respectively) along with the test-retest reliability (ICC = .86 and .81, respectively). Lastly, children who participated in HIP experienced greater gains in their ability to classify food based on the Stop-Light System and greater expressive knowledge of Green/Go foods compared to children who did not participate in the intervention suggesting adequate construct validity. These findings highlight the feasibility and utility of the DIANA in assessing young children's knowledge of foods and their relative healthiness as well as its potential sensitivity to intervention effects. PMID:25998236

  5. Prehnite in plutonic and metamorphic rocks of the northern Santa Lucia Range, Salinian block, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Prehnite is abundant as monomineralic veins, as lenses in biotite, and as discrete patches and apparent primary crystals in both plutonic and metamorphic rocks along the west edge of the Salinian block in the northern Santa Lucia Range. The prehnite appears to be concentrated near the Sur fault zone but is very rare in Franciscan rocks west of the fault zone. The prehnite does not appear to have been derived by local alteration of minerals in the country rocks (either plutonic or metamorphic). I suggest that solutions, derived from a "substratum" (possibly Franciscan graywacke) beneath the tectonically thinned west margin of the Salinian block, migrated through the fractured rocks of the Salinian block near the Sur fault zone and that the chemical and physical nature of these rocks favored selective prehnite deposition.

  6. Acoustic concomitants of emotional expression in operatic singing: the case of Lucia in Ardi gli incensi.

    PubMed

    Siegwart, H; Scherer, K R

    1995-09-01

    Two excerpts from the cadenza in Ardi gli incensi from Donizetti's opera Lucia di Lammermoor were acoustically analyzed for five recorded versions of the cadenza by Toti dal Monte, Maria Callas, Renata Scotto, Joan Sutherland, and Edita Gruberova. These acoustic parameters of the singing voices were correlated with preference and emotional expression judgments, based on pairwise comparisons, made by a group of experienced listener-judges. In addition to showing major differences in the voice quality of the five "dive" studied, the acoustic parameters suggested which vocal cues affect listener judgments. Two component scores, based on a factorial-dimensional analysis of the acoustic parameters, predicted 84% of the variance in the preference ratings. PMID:8541968

  7. A Collaborative Approach to Monitoring Ambient Volcanogenic Pollution at Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of volcano tourism is recognized as an important contributor to the economy of volcanic islands in the Lesser Antilles. However, if it is to be promoted as a sustainable sector of the tourism industry, visitors, tour operators, and vendors must be made aware of the potential health hazards facing them in volcanic environments. Volcanogenic air pollutants are of primary concern in this setting. In general, no warning signs, guidelines for recreational use, or emissions monitoring currently exists to provide warning to the public to decrease their vulnerability to the potential risks, or to minimize the liability of the agencies managing these areas. Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a popular international destination, and concerns about the volcanic emissions and its possible health effect have been raised by visitors, staff, and management of the Park. As part of the responsibility of the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, a network was established for quantifying the ambient SO2 concentrations at Sulphur Springs in order to assess the potential risk of unsafe exposure. This effort required collaboration with the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) of Saint Lucia, as well as the staff and management of the Soufrière Regional Development Foundation (SRDF). Local personnel were trained in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations over the monitoring period, thereby contributing to an active community-based effort. This type of approach was also thought to be an effective option for scientists to engage communities as partners in disaster risk reduction. Lessons learnt from this experience are presented for the benefit of other citizen monitoring projects, including its use as a tool for promoting volcanic hazard education, and enhancing communication and understanding between geoscientists and

  8. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  9. DIANA-LncBase v2: indexing microRNA targets on non-coding transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulou, Maria D.; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Karagkouni, Dimitra; Georgakilas, Georgios; Kanellos, Ilias; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Zagganas, Konstantinos; Tsanakas, Panayiotis; Floros, Evangelos; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G.

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that act as post-transcriptional regulators of coding gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recently reported to interact with miRNAs. The sponge-like function of lncRNAs introduces an extra layer of complexity in the miRNA interactome. DIANA-LncBase v1 provided a database of experimentally supported and in silico predicted miRNA Recognition Elements (MREs) on lncRNAs. The second version of LncBase (www.microrna.gr/LncBase) presents an extensive collection of miRNA:lncRNA interactions. The significantly enhanced database includes more than 70 000 low and high-throughput, (in)direct miRNA:lncRNA experimentally supported interactions, derived from manually curated publications and the analysis of 153 AGO CLIP-Seq libraries. The new experimental module presents a 14-fold increase compared to the previous release. LncBase v2 hosts in silico predicted miRNA targets on lncRNAs, identified with the DIANA-microT algorithm. The relevant module provides millions of predicted miRNA binding sites, accompanied with detailed metadata and MRE conservation metrics. LncBase v2 caters information regarding cell type specific miRNA:lncRNA regulation and enables users to easily identify interactions in 66 different cell types, spanning 36 tissues for human and mouse. Database entries are also supported by accurate lncRNA expression information, derived from the analysis of more than 6 billion RNA-Seq reads. PMID:26612864

  10. DIANA-LncBase v2: indexing microRNA targets on non-coding transcripts.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Karagkouni, Dimitra; Georgakilas, Georgios; Kanellos, Ilias; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Zagganas, Konstantinos; Tsanakas, Panayiotis; Floros, Evangelos; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that act as post-transcriptional regulators of coding gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recently reported to interact with miRNAs. The sponge-like function of lncRNAs introduces an extra layer of complexity in the miRNA interactome. DIANA-LncBase v1 provided a database of experimentally supported and in silico predicted miRNA Recognition Elements (MREs) on lncRNAs. The second version of LncBase (www.microrna.gr/LncBase) presents an extensive collection of miRNA:lncRNA interactions. The significantly enhanced database includes more than 70 000 low and high-throughput, (in)direct miRNA:lncRNA experimentally supported interactions, derived from manually curated publications and the analysis of 153 AGO CLIP-Seq libraries. The new experimental module presents a 14-fold increase compared to the previous release. LncBase v2 hosts in silico predicted miRNA targets on lncRNAs, identified with the DIANA-microT algorithm. The relevant module provides millions of predicted miRNA binding sites, accompanied with detailed metadata and MRE conservation metrics. LncBase v2 caters information regarding cell type specific miRNA:lncRNA regulation and enables users to easily identify interactions in 66 different cell types, spanning 36 tissues for human and mouse. Database entries are also supported by accurate lncRNA expression information, derived from the analysis of more than 6 billion RNA-Seq reads. PMID:26612864

  11. The benthic macrofauna of the St. Lucia Estuary during the 2005 drought year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillay, D.; Perissinotto, R.

    2008-03-01

    The St. Lucia Estuary is the largest estuarine system in Africa. The estuary is part of the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, which has been declared a World Heritage Site. This ecosystem has been subjected to severe drought conditions over the last four to five years, resulting in its mouth being closed off from the ocean in June 2002 for a period of over four years. The main aim of this study was to document the effects of the prevailing drought on the macrofauna of the system, since the last work on this benthic component had been undertaken over a decade ago, during a normal-to-wet phase. Macrofauna samples together with physico-chemical data were collected at representative sites in the Narrows, and the South and North lakes in February, April, August and October 2005. The drought exerted a strong influence on the system, leading to hypersaline conditions developing in its northern regions (maximum of 126 at Hell's Gate), and to the loss of aquatic habitat. Ordinations and clustering indicated that the macrofauna of the system could generally be separated into three clusters viz. (1) the Narrows and the southern portion of South Lake, (2) the northern half of South Lake, and (3) the North Lake-False Bay complex. Multivariate correlations indicated weak relationships between macrofaunal community structure and physico-chemical parameters. The distinction in macrofaunal assemblages between these clusters was probably caused by these habitats being physically separated at the peak of the drought, with no water flow between them, thereby preventing exchange of planktonic larvae and retarding colonisation of habitats. There was a northward decline in taxonomic richness and diversity of macrofauna in the system, which correlated positively with water depth and negatively with the biomass of microphytobenthos. It is evident that the drought structured macrofauna communities primarily through its effects on water depth and habitat fragmentation. The results of this

  12. Broadcasting the royal role: constructing culturally situated identities in the Princess Diana Panorama interview.

    PubMed

    Abell, J; Stokoe, E H

    2001-09-01

    We examine critically the two traditions of work that have informed discursive approaches to identity: social constructionism and conversation analysis. Within both strands, identity is theorized as a flexible phenomenon that is situated in conversations. But although constructionists locate identity within the social, such work remains at a theoretical and rather abstract level and often fails to interrogate the discursive practices through which identity is constituted. Conversely, this attention to the occasioning of identity in everyday talk is precisely the focus of the second, conversation analytic strand of work. Whereas constructionists attend to the wider cultural positioning of identities, conversation analysts resist commenting upon the social significance of what is constructed in interaction. Conversation analysis is therefore limited by its restricted notion of culture in the study of the situated social self. Despite the apparent conflict between these approaches, we suggest that a synthesis of the two provides a comprehensive framework for analysing identity. Drawing upon the BBC Panorama interview between Martin Bashir and Princess Diana, we explore how culturally situated identities are located in this conversational context. We conclude that analysts must not only attend to the micro-level organization of identities but also engage in a wider understanding of the cultural framework within which they are located. PMID:11593942

  13. Thickness optimization of the composite gain medium for the oscillator and amplifier of the lucia laser.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiwu; Bourdet, Gilbert

    2005-11-20

    Using a theory of quasi-three-level laser ions, we obtained the optimum thickness of the gain medium of Yb:YAG. For the parameters of the oscillator and the amplifier of the diode-pumped Lucia laser (Lasers Ultra-Courts et Intense et Applications), which will deliver a 100 J, 10 Hz, 10 ns pulse train the optimum thicknesses are, respectively, 1.4 and 1.6 mm, with a concentration of 10 at. %. Simulations indicate that the bending of such a thin medium is great but can be eliminated by substitution of a composite gain medium. The optimum thickness of undoped YAG is related to that of Yb:YAG and is also dependent on cooling conditions. Results show that, for a small-aperture oscillator, we can obtain both minimum bending and optical distortion at several doping concentrations. However, greater doping (approximately 20 at. %) is preferred for a large-aperture amplifier. The results reported will be helpful for the design of gain media for high-average-power thin disk Yb:YAG lasers. PMID:16320442

  14. Cord blood thyrotropin screening for congenital hypothyroidism. Three years' experience on the Island of Saint Lucia.

    PubMed

    Sajous, C; Goto, M; Fitzgerald, M; Anderson, C L; Craft, W; Hurley, R M; Zeller, W P

    1991-01-01

    Cord blood thyrotropin (TSH) screening for congenital primary hypothyroidism has been in effect on the island of St. Lucia for the past three years. Umbilical cord blood samples are obtained on Guthrie filter paper and then transported 3,000 miles to Loyola University of Chicago and delivered to the Illinois State Metabolic Screening Laboratory. There TSH is measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). After three years, 1,789 newborns have been screened, and the mean value is 6.23 +/- 0.13 microIU per ml. This mean value is less than previously reported by us in 1986 (10.23 +/- 0.29 microIU per ml).13 It is concluded that this screening service continues to be possible far removed from the population under observation. No case of primary hypothyroidism has been detected. Our decreased mean TSH value is due to the new method currently used by the Illinois State Metabolic Screening Laboratory. Congenital hypothyroidism will not be missed provided internal controls are established and rigidly observed. PMID:1781667

  15. Do Zircon age Spectra Record Magmatic Cyclicity at Soufrière (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soufrière Volcanic Center (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles) is a long-lived arc-volcanic system that evolved over the past 5 - 6 Ma. Its most recent volcanic activity between 20 and 40 ka was concentrated within the prominent Qualibou topographic depression and produced two voluminous pyroclastic deposits: Choiseul and the overlying Belfond. In addition, several dacitic lava domes exist within the Qualibou depression. Because evidence of earlier volcanic activity in long-lived magma systems is frequently obliterated by subsequent eruptive or volcano-tectonic events, high spatial resolution U-Th dating of zircon combined with (U-Th)/He dating is a powerful tool to identify magma crystallization episodes at depth and to link these to the eruptive record. U-Th model ages and disequilibrium corrected U-Pb ages for 56 individual zircons from Soufrière lavas (Morne Bonin, Belfond, Terre Blanche) and pumice (Choiseul, Belfond) were determined by secondary ionization mass spectrometry. The majority of results is on unpolished zircons where analysis pits integrate over the outermost ~10 μm of individual grains with a lateral spatial resolution of ~40 μm. Selected grains were subsequently analyzed by (U-Th)/He methods. Belfond and Terre Blanche (U-Th)/He zircon ages (~20 ka) agree with previous 14C charcoal ages, whereas Morne Bonin ages are much older (~250 ka). Overall, the U-Th zircon crystallization age spectrum reveals a remarkable range between ~20 and ~600 ka and displays multiple peaks, among which the most prominent are tentatively identified at ~40 ka, ~80 ka, ~130 ka, ~200 ka and ~500 ka. The distribution of rim ages indicates that most zircons lack overgrowth dating from just prior to the eruption, but the youngest ages for each sample overlap with the eruption ages. Soufrière zircons thus reveal magma intrusion, cooling, and crystallization cycles within the underlying plutonic system for which the volcanic stratigraphic record is sketchy.

  16. Development of a Halotolerant Community in the St. Lucia Estuary (South Africa) during a Hypersaline Phase

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Nicola K.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Background The St. Lucia Estuary, Africa's largest estuarine lake, is currently experiencing unprecedented freshwater deprivation which has resulted in a northward gradient of drought effects, with hypersaline conditions in its northern lakes. Methodology/Principal Findings This study documents the changes that occurred in the biotic communities at False Bay from May 2010 to June 2011, in order to better understand ecosystem functioning in hypersaline habitats. Few zooplankton taxa were able to withstand the harsh environmental conditions during 2010. These were the flatworm Macrostomum sp., the harpacticoid copepod Cletocamptus confluens, the cyclopoid copepod Apocyclops cf. dengizicus and the ciliate Fabrea cf. salina. In addition to their exceptional salinity tolerance, they were involved in a remarkably simple food web. In June 2009, a bloom of an orange-pigmented cyanobacterium (Cyanothece sp.) was recorded in False Bay and persisted uninterruptedly for 18 months. Stable isotope analysis suggests that this cyanobacterium was the main prey item of F. cf. salina. This ciliate was then consumed by A. cf. dengizicus, which in turn was presumably consumed by flamingos as they flocked in the area when the copepods attained swarming densities. On the shore, cyanobacteria mats contributed to a population explosion of the staphylinid beetle Bledius pilicollis. Although zooplankton disappeared once salinities exceeded 130, many taxa are capable of producing spores or resting cysts to bridge harsh periods. The hypersaline community was disrupted by heavy summer rains in 2011, which alleviated drought conditions and resulted in a sharp increase in zooplankton stock and diversity. Conclusions/Significance Despite the current freshwater deprivation crisis, the False Bay region has shown to be resilient, harboring a unique biodiversity with species that are capable of enduring harsh environmental conditions. However, further freshwater deprivation may extend beyond the

  17. High power Yb:YAG diode pumped LUCIA front-end oscillator (250 mJ, 50 ns, 2 Hz).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahbah, S.; Albach, D.; Assémat, F.; Bourdet, G.; Chanteloup, J.-C.; Piatti, P.; Pluvinage, M.; Vincent, B.; Touzé, G. L.

    2008-05-01

    The LULI laboratory is building a new intense laser chain with an energy goal of 100, J and at high repetition rate (10 Hz). This chain, called LUCIA, is composed of an oscillator and two diode pumped Yb:YAG amplifiers. We will show the progress of our work on the oscillator. In terms of performance in free running regime, we reach energies of about 4 J at 2 Hz with diode pumping energies of 11, J. In Q-switch regime 49ns long pulses at a repetition rate of 2 Hz were observed.

  18. DIANA: A multi-phase, multi-component hydrodynamic model for the analysis of severe accidents in heavy water reactors with multiple-tube assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Tentner, A.M.

    1994-03-01

    A detailed hydrodynamic fuel relocation model has been developed for the analysis of severe accidents in Heavy Water Reactors with multiple-tube Assemblies. This model describes the Fuel Disruption and Relocation inside a nuclear fuel assembly and is designated by the acronym DIANA. DIANA solves the transient hydrodynamic equations for all the moving materials in the core and treats all the relevant flow regimes. The numerical solution techniques and some of the physical models included in DIANA have been developed taking advantage of the extensive experience accumulated in the development and validation of the LEVITATE (1) fuel relocation model of SAS4A [2, 3]. The model is designed to handle the fuel and cladding relocation in both voided and partially voided channels. It is able to treat a wide range of thermal/ hydraulic/neutronic conditions and the presence of various flow regimes at different axial locations within the same hydrodynamic channel.

  19. Santa Lucia (2008) (L6) Chondrite, a Recent Fall: Composition, Noble Gases, Nitrogen and Cosmic Ray Exposure Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.; Varela, Maria Eugenia; Joron, Jean Louis

    2016-04-01

    The Santa Lucia (2008)—one the most recent Argentine meteorite fall, fell in San Juan province, Argentina, on 23 January 2008. Several masses (total ~6 kg) were recovered. Most are totally covered by fusion crust. The exposed interior is of light-grey colour. Chemical data [olivine (Fa24.4) and low-Ca pyroxene (En77.8 Fs20.7 Wo1.6)] indicate that Santa Luica (2008) is a member of the low iron L chondrite group, corresponding to the equilibrated petrologic type 6. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature Committee (NomCom) of the Meteoritical Society (Meteoritic Bulletin, no. 97). We report about the chemical composition of the major mineral phases, its bulk trace element abundance, its noble gas and nitrogen data. The cosmic ray exposure age based on cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar around 20 Ma is comparable to one peak of L chondrites. The radiogenic K-Ar age of 2.96 Ga, while the young U, Th-He are of 1.2 Ga indicates that Santa Lucia (2008) lost radiogenic 4He more recently. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c and absence of solar wind noble gases are consistent with irradiation in a large body. Heavy noble gases (Ar/Kr/Xe) indicated trapped gases similar to ordinary chondrites. Krypton and neon indicates irradiation in large body, implying large pre-atmospheric meteoroid.

  20. Donizetti and the music of mental derangement: Anna Bolena, Lucia di Lammermoor, and the composer's neurobiological illness.

    PubMed Central

    Peschel, E.; Peschel, R.

    1992-01-01

    The composer Gaetano Donizetti, who died in a state of mental derangement due to neurosyphilis, created some of opera's greatest scenes of psychosis. His letters reveal the clinical progression of his neurobiological illness, which was confirmed by autopsy. One can hypothesize that the composer's brain disease, which led to his psychosis and death, may have had an influence on his ability to create the powerful and unforgettable scenes of psychosis in his operas. In Anna Bolena, he captured in musical and dramatic terms Anne Boleyn's historically corroborated mental disorder during her imprisonment in the Tower of London. Sixteen years after having composed Anna Bolena, Donizetti himself would be locked up, against his will, in a mental institution. In Lucia di Lammermoor, Donizetti portrayed a girl given to hallucinations who, in her unforgettable "mad" scene, comes on stage, a pathetic embodiment of a human being in the throes of psychosis. Thirteen years after Lucia's première, Donizetti would die, psychotic and paralyzed, of untreated neurosyphilis. Studying Donizetti's neurosyphilis and the portrayals of psychosis in his operas can help one to appreciate the pain of human beings trapped in the prison of a brain subjected to the devastation of mental derangement. PMID:1285447

  1. DIANA-miRGen v3.0: accurate characterization of microRNA promoters and their regulators

    PubMed Central

    Georgakilas, Georgios; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Zagganas, Konstantinos; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D.; Kanellos, Ilias; Tsanakas, Panayiotis; Dellis, Dimitris; Fevgas, Athanasios; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G.

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that actively fine-tune gene expression. The accurate characterization of the mechanisms underlying miRNA transcription regulation will further expand our knowledge regarding their implication in homeostatic and pathobiological networks. Aim of DIANA-miRGen v3.0 (http://www.microrna.gr/mirgen) is to provide for the first time accurate cell-line-specific miRNA gene transcription start sites (TSSs), coupled with genome-wide maps of transcription factor (TF) binding sites in order to unveil the mechanisms of miRNA transcription regulation. To this end, more than 7.3 billion RNA-, ChIP- and DNase-Seq next generation sequencing reads were analyzed/assembled and combined with state-of-the-art miRNA TSS prediction and TF binding site identification algorithms. The new database schema and web interface facilitates user interaction, provides advanced queries and innate connection with other DIANA resources for miRNA target identification and pathway analysis. The database currently supports 276 miRNA TSSs that correspond to 428 precursors and >19M binding sites of 202 TFs on a genome-wide scale in nine cell-lines and six tissues of Homo sapiens and Mus musculus. PMID:26586797

  2. DIANA-miRGen v3.0: accurate characterization of microRNA promoters and their regulators.

    PubMed

    Georgakilas, Georgios; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Zagganas, Konstantinos; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Kanellos, Ilias; Tsanakas, Panayiotis; Dellis, Dimitris; Fevgas, Athanasios; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that actively fine-tune gene expression. The accurate characterization of the mechanisms underlying miRNA transcription regulation will further expand our knowledge regarding their implication in homeostatic and pathobiological networks. Aim of DIANA-miRGen v3.0 (http://www.microrna.gr/mirgen) is to provide for the first time accurate cell-line-specific miRNA gene transcription start sites (TSSs), coupled with genome-wide maps of transcription factor (TF) binding sites in order to unveil the mechanisms of miRNA transcription regulation. To this end, more than 7.3 billion RNA-, ChIP- and DNase-Seq next generation sequencing reads were analyzed/assembled and combined with state-of-the-art miRNA TSS prediction and TF binding site identification algorithms. The new database schema and web interface facilitates user interaction, provides advanced queries and innate connection with other DIANA resources for miRNA target identification and pathway analysis. The database currently supports 276 miRNA TSSs that correspond to 428 precursors and >19M binding sites of 202 TFs on a genome-wide scale in nine cell-lines and six tissues of Homo sapiens and Mus musculus. PMID:26586797

  3. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of geothermal fluids from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Fournier, Nicolas; Lindsay, Jan M.; Robertson, Richard; Beckles, Denise M.

    2013-03-01

    Sulphur Springs is a vigorous, geothermal field associated with the active Soufrière Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles island arc. The 'Sulphur Springs Park' is an important tourist attraction (touted as the 'world's only drive-through volcano') with some of the hot pools being developed into recreational pools. Some 200,000 people visit the park each year. Since 2001, the hydrothermal fluids of Sulphur Springs have been sampled as part of an integrated volcanic monitoring programme for the island. Gas and water samples were analysed to characterise the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system, and to assess the equilibrium state and subsurface temperatures of the reservoir. This has also enabled us, for the first time, to establish baseline data for future geochemical monitoring. The gases are of typical arc-type composition, with N2 excess and low He and Ar content. The dry gas composition is dominated by CO2 (ranging from 601-993 mmol/mol), with deeper magmatic sourced H2S-rich vapour undergoing boiling and redox changes in the geothermal reservoir to emerge with a hydrothermal signature in the fumarolic gases. Fluid contributions from magmatic degassing are also evident, mainly from the moderate to high contents of HCl and deeply-sourced H2S gas, respectively. Sulphur Springs hydrothermal waters have acid-sulphate type compositions (SO4 = 78-4008 mg/L; pH = 3-7), and are of primarily meteoric origin which have been affected by evaporation processes based on the enrichment in both δ18O and δD (δ18O = - 1 to 15‰ and δD = - 9 to 14‰ respectively) in relation to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). These waters are steam-heated water typically formed by absorption of H2S-rich gases in the near surface oxygenated groundwaters. Reservoir temperatures calculated from the evaluation of gas equilibria in the CO2-CH4-H2 system reveal higher temperatures (190 to 300 °C) than those derived from quartz geothermometry (95 to 169 °C), which

  4. The Relevance and Appropriateness of Positivist and Interpretative Approaches for Exploring Quality Education in Schools in St. Lucia, a Small Caribbean State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caesar, Chryselda

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of research, purpose and influence of educational research on policy and its practitioners, the distinguishing features of positivist and interpretative approaches as complementary research paradigms, and to debate their relevance in exploring quality education in schools in St. Lucia, a small Caribbean Island.…

  5. The sulphur springs geothermal field, St. Lucia, lesser Antilles: Hydrothermal mineralogy of wells SL-1 and SL-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, S.; Gianelli, G.; Rossi, R.; Cavarretta, G.

    Two wells have been drilled to depths of 1413 and 2213 meters in the geothermal field of Sulphur Springs, St. Lucia, and reveal a complex volcanic sequence characterized by collapse episodes followed by the emplacement of dacite domes. The geothermal reservoir consists of fractured volcanic rocks and produces superheated steam. Well-bottom temperatures are around 270-290°C. The hydrothermal alteration found in both the productive SL-2 well and the non-productive SL-1 is strongly reminiscent of that of porphyry copper deposits, with (1) an inner, high-temperature potassic zone characterized by the occurrence of dravitic tourmaline, quartz, and biotite, (2) an outer propylitic alteration zone that is partly superimposed on (3) a potassic alteration zone. The alteration mineral assemblages indicate that the hydrothermal system has cooled at the levels sampled.

  6. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S.; Bilton, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this

  7. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  8. Estimating the Burden of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness: A Pilot Study of the Prevalence and Underreporting in Saint Lucia, Eastern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Jaime, Alina; Mckensie, Martin; Auguste, Ava; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Saint Lucia was the first country to conduct a burden of illness study in the Caribbean to determine the community prevalence and underreporting of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A retrospective cross-sectional population survey on AGE-related illness was administered to a random sample of residents of Saint Lucia in 20 April–16 May 2008 and 6-13 December 2009 to capture the high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the selected 1,150 individuals, 1,006 were administered the survey through face-to-face interviews (response rate 87.4%). The overall monthly prevalence of AGE was 3.9%. The yearly incidence rate was 0.52 episodes/person-year. The age-adjusted monthly prevalence was 4.6%. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE was among children aged <5 years (7.5%) and the lowest in persons aged 45-64 years (2.6%). The average number of days an individual suffered from diarrhoea was 3.8 days [range 1-21 day(s)]. Of the reported AGE cases, only seven (18%) sought medical care; however, 83% stayed at home due to the illness [(range 1-16 day(s), mean 2.5]; and 26% required other individuals to take care of them. The estimated underreporting of syndromic AGE and laboratory-confirmed foodborne disease pathogens was 81% and 99% respectively during the study period. The economic cost for treating syndromic AGE was estimated at US$ 3,892.837 per annum. This was a pilot study on the burden of illness (BOI) in the Caribbean. The results of the study should be interpreted within the limitations and challenges of this study. Lessons learnt were used for improving the implementation procedures of other BOI studies in the Caribbean.

  9. The cult of St. Lucia, patroness of the eyes: some examples from Croatian ethnomedical tradition. On the occasion of the 1700th anniversary of her martyrdom.

    PubMed

    Skrobonja, Ante; Muzur, Amir; Culina, Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    In the introductory part, the authors present several patrons/patronesses of the eyes and sight, as well as the protectors from eye diseases. In addition, presented is a short hagiography of St. Lucia, the most famous among the patrons of the eyes. The second part is dedicated to the cult of St. Lucia, which has existed among the Croats from the 10th century until present day. Testimonies to this are numerous churches, chapels, altars, paintings, sculptures, processions, pilgrimage, prayers, votive gifts, and many other forms of folk piety. By reviewing several characteristic examples from Istria and the region of Kvarner, the importance of this veneration is indicated, for general and religious tradition as well as for the history of medicine, especially the history of ethno-ophthalmology. PMID:15085975

  10. Millennial-scale Denudation Rates of the Santa Lucia Mountains, CA: Implications for Landscape Thresholds from a Steep, High Relief, Coastal Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, H.; Hilley, G. E.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new, 10-Be-derived denudation rates measured from river sands in basins of the Santa Lucia Range, central California. The Santa Lucia Mountains of the California Coast Range are an asymmetrical northwest-southeast trending range bounded by the San Gregorio-Hosgri (SG-HFZ ) and Rinconada-Reliz faults. This area provides an additional opportunity to analyze the relationships between topographic form, denudation rates, and mapped underlying geologic substrate in an actively deforming landscape. Analysis of in situ-produced 10-Be from alluvial sand samples collected in the Santa Lucia Mountains has yielded measurements of spatially varying basin-scale denudation rates. Despite the impressive relief of the Santa Lucia's, denudation rates within catchments draining the coastal side of the range are uniformly low, generally varying between ~90 m/Myr and ~350 m/Myr, with one basin eroding at ~500 m/Myr. Preliminary data suggest the lowest erosion rates are located within the northern interior of the range in sedimentary and granitic lithologies, while higher rates are located directly along the coast in metasedimentary bedrock. This overall trend is punctuated by a single high denudation rate, which is hosted by a watershed whose geometry suggests that it previously has, and continues to experience divide migration as it captures the adjacent watershed's area. Spatial distribution of basins with higher denudation rates is inferred to indicate a zone of uplift adjacent to the SG-HFZ. We compare erosion rates to basin mean channel steepness index, extracted from a 10 m digital elevation model. Denudation rate generally increases with channel steepness index until ~250 m/Myr, at which point the relationship becomes invariant, suggesting a non-linear erosion model may best characterize this region. These hypotheses will be tested further as additional denudation rate results are analyzed.

  11. Persistent phytoplankton bloom in Lake St. Lucia (iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa) caused by a cyanobacterium closely associated with the genus Cyanothece (Synechococcaceae, Chroococcales).

    PubMed

    Muir, David G; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2011-09-01

    Lake St. Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, is the largest estuarine lake in Africa. Extensive use and manipulation of the rivers flowing into it have reduced freshwater inflow, and the lake has also been subject to a drought of 10 years. For much of this time, the estuary has been closed to the Indian Ocean, and salinities have progressively risen throughout the system, impacting the biotic components of the ecosystem, reducing zooplankton and macrobenthic biomass and diversity in particular. In June 2009, a bloom of a red/orange planktonic microorganism was noted throughout the upper reaches of Lake St. Lucia. The bloom persisted for at least 18 months, making it the longest such bloom on record. The causative organism was characterized by light and electron microscopy and by 16S rRNA sequencing and was shown to be a large, unicellular cyanobacterium most strongly associated with the genus Cyanothece. The extent and persistence of the bloom appears to be unique to Lake St. Lucia, and it is suggested that the organism's resistance to high temperatures, to intense insolation, and to hypersalinity as well as the absence of grazing pressure by salinity-sensitive zooplankton all contributed to its persistence as a bloom organism until a freshwater influx, due to exceptionally heavy summer rains in 2011, reduced the salinity for a sufficient length of time to produce a crash in the cyanobacterium population as a complex, low-salinity biota redeveloped. PMID:21742912

  12. Persistent Phytoplankton Bloom in Lake St. Lucia (iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa) Caused by a Cyanobacterium Closely Associated with the Genus Cyanothece (Synechococcaceae, Chroococcales) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Muir, David G.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2011-01-01

    Lake St. Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, is the largest estuarine lake in Africa. Extensive use and manipulation of the rivers flowing into it have reduced freshwater inflow, and the lake has also been subject to a drought of 10 years. For much of this time, the estuary has been closed to the Indian Ocean, and salinities have progressively risen throughout the system, impacting the biotic components of the ecosystem, reducing zooplankton and macrobenthic biomass and diversity in particular. In June 2009, a bloom of a red/orange planktonic microorganism was noted throughout the upper reaches of Lake St. Lucia. The bloom persisted for at least 18 months, making it the longest such bloom on record. The causative organism was characterized by light and electron microscopy and by 16S rRNA sequencing and was shown to be a large, unicellular cyanobacterium most strongly associated with the genus Cyanothece. The extent and persistence of the bloom appears to be unique to Lake St. Lucia, and it is suggested that the organism's resistance to high temperatures, to intense insolation, and to hypersalinity as well as the absence of grazing pressure by salinity-sensitive zooplankton all contributed to its persistence as a bloom organism until a freshwater influx, due to exceptionally heavy summer rains in 2011, reduced the salinity for a sufficient length of time to produce a crash in the cyanobacterium population as a complex, low-salinity biota redeveloped. PMID:21742912

  13. DIANA-mirExTra v2.0: Uncovering microRNAs and transcription factors with crucial roles in NGS expression data.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Ioannis S; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Lykokanellos, Filopoimin; Georgakilas, Georgios; Georgiou, Penny; Chatzopoulos, Serafeim; Karagkouni, Dimitra; Christodoulou, Foteini; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2016-07-01

    Differential expression analysis (DEA) is one of the main instruments utilized for revealing molecular mechanisms in pathological and physiological conditions. DIANA-mirExTra v2.0 (http://www.microrna.gr/mirextrav2) performs a combined DEA of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) to uncover miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) playing important regulatory roles between two investigated states. The web server uses as input miRNA/RNA-Seq read count data sets that can be uploaded for analysis. Users can combine their data with 350 small-RNA-Seq and 65 RNA-Seq in-house analyzed libraries which are provided by DIANA-mirExTra v2.0.The web server utilizes miRNA:mRNA, TF:mRNA and TF:miRNA interactions derived from extensive experimental data sets. More than 450 000 miRNA interactions and 2 000 000 TF binding sites from specific or high-throughput techniques have been incorporated, while accurate miRNA TSS annotation is obtained from microTSS experimental/in silico framework. These comprehensive data sets enable users to perform analyses based solely on experimentally supported information and to uncover central regulators within sequencing data: miRNAs controlling mRNAs and TFs regulating mRNA or miRNA expression. The server also supports predicted miRNA:gene interactions from DIANA-microT-CDS for 4 species (human, mouse, nematode and fruit fly). DIANA-mirExTra v2.0 has an intuitive user interface and is freely available to all users without any login requirement. PMID:27207881

  14. DIANA-mirExTra v2.0: Uncovering microRNAs and transcription factors with crucial roles in NGS expression data

    PubMed Central

    Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D.; Lykokanellos, Filopoimin; Georgakilas, Georgios; Georgiou, Penny; Chatzopoulos, Serafeim; Karagkouni, Dimitra; Christodoulou, Foteini; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G.

    2016-01-01

    Differential expression analysis (DEA) is one of the main instruments utilized for revealing molecular mechanisms in pathological and physiological conditions. DIANA-mirExTra v2.0 (http://www.microrna.gr/mirextrav2) performs a combined DEA of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) to uncover miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) playing important regulatory roles between two investigated states. The web server uses as input miRNA/RNA-Seq read count data sets that can be uploaded for analysis. Users can combine their data with 350 small-RNA-Seq and 65 RNA-Seq in-house analyzed libraries which are provided by DIANA-mirExTra v2.0. The web server utilizes miRNA:mRNA, TF:mRNA and TF:miRNA interactions derived from extensive experimental data sets. More than 450 000 miRNA interactions and 2 000 000 TF binding sites from specific or high-throughput techniques have been incorporated, while accurate miRNA TSS annotation is obtained from microTSS experimental/in silico framework. These comprehensive data sets enable users to perform analyses based solely on experimentally supported information and to uncover central regulators within sequencing data: miRNAs controlling mRNAs and TFs regulating mRNA or miRNA expression. The server also supports predicted miRNA:gene interactions from DIANA-microT-CDS for 4 species (human, mouse, nematode and fruit fly). DIANA-mirExTra v2.0 has an intuitive user interface and is freely available to all users without any login requirement. PMID:27207881

  15. Community-based participatory research to improve life quality and clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer (DianaWeb in Umbria pilot study)

    PubMed Central

    Villarini, Milena; Lanari, Chiara; Nucci, Daniele; Gianfredi, Vincenza; Marzulli, Tiziana; Berrino, Franco; Borgo, Alessandra; Bruno, Eleonora; Gargano, Giuliana; Moretti, Massimo; Villarini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer in Europe and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has estimated over 460 000 incident cases per year. Survival among patients with BC has increased in the past decades and EUROCARE-5 has estimated a 5-year relative survival rate of 82% for patients diagnosed in 2000–2007. There is growing evidence that lifestyle (such as a diet based on Mediterranean principles associated with moderate physical activity) may influence prognosis of BC; however, this information is not currently available to patients and is not considered in oncology protocols. Only a few epidemiological studies have investigated the role of diet in BC recurrence and metastasis. Methods and analysis DianaWeb is a community-based participatory research dedicated to patients with BC and represents a collaborative effort between participants and research institutions to determine if specified changes in lifestyle would result in improved outcomes in terms of quality of life or survival. The aim of the study is to recruit a large number of participants, to monitor their lifestyle and health status over time, to provide them tips to encourage sustainable lifestyle changes, to analyse clinical outcomes as a function of baseline risk factors and subsequent changes, and to share with patients methodologies and results. DianaWeb uses a specific interactive website (http://www.dianaweb.org/) and, with very few exceptions, all communications will be made through the web. In this paper we describe the pilot study, namely DianaWeb in Umbria. Ethics and dissemination DianaWeb does not interfere with prescribed oncological treatments; rather, it recommends that participants should follow the received prescriptions. The results will be used to plan guidelines for nutrition and physical activity for patients with BC. The pilot study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Perugia (reference number 2015-002), and is

  16. The MADS domain protein DIANA acts together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to specify the central cell in Arabidopsis ovules.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Angenent, Gerco C

    2008-08-01

    MADS box genes in plants consist of MIKC-type and type I genes. While MIKC-type genes have been studied extensively, the functions of type I genes are still poorly understood. Evidence suggests that type I MADS box genes are involved in embryo sac and seed development. We investigated two independent T-DNA insertion alleles of the Arabidopsis thaliana type I MADS box gene AGAMOUS-LIKE61 (AGL61) and showed that in agl61 mutant ovules, the polar nuclei do not fuse and central cell morphology is aberrant. Furthermore, the central cell begins to degenerate before fertilization takes place. Although pollen tubes are attracted and perceived by the mutant ovules, neither endosperm development nor zygote formation occurs. AGL61 is expressed in the central cell during the final stages of embryo sac development. An AGL61:green fluorescent protein-beta-glucoronidase fusion protein localizes exclusively to the polar nuclei and the secondary nucleus of the central cell. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that AGL61 can form a heterodimer with AGL80 and that the nuclear localization of AGL61 is lost in the agl80 mutant. Thus, AGL61 and AGL80 appear to function together to differentiate the central cell in Arabidopsis. We renamed AGL61 DIANA, after the virginal Roman goddess of the hunt. PMID:18713950

  17. Overview of the Lucia laser program: toward 100-Joules, nanosecond-pulse, kW averaged power based on ytterbium diode-pumped solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteloup, J.-C.; Yu, H.; Bourdet, G.; Dambrine, C.; Ferre, S.; Fulop, A.; Le Moal, S.; Pichot, A.; Le Touze, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2005-04-01

    We present the current status of the Lucia laser being built at the LULI laboratory, the national civil facility for intense laser matter interaction in France. This diode pumped laser will deliver a 100 Joules, 10 ns, 10 Hz pulse train from Yb:YAG using 4400 power diode laser bars. We first focus on the amplifier stage by describing the reasons for selecting our extraction architecture. Thermal issues and solutions for both laser and pumping heads are then described. Finally, we emphasize more specifically the need for long-lifetime high-laser-damage-threshold coatings and optics.

  18. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonfill, Xavier; Osorio, Dimelza; Solà, Ivan; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Balasso, Valentina; Quintana, Maria Jesús; Puig, Teresa; Bolibar, Ignasi; Urrútia, Gerard; Zamora, Javier; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Ferreira-González, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database. Methods and Findings Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own. Conclusions We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability

  19. [RESPECT FOR AUTONOMY AND CONFIDENTIALITY, BETWEEN "ETHICAL NORMS' AND "LOCAL MORALITY". AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHICS OF CARE IN ST LUCIA].

    PubMed

    Meudec, Marie

    2015-10-01

    This article considers the difficulty of applying ethical norms as part of an anthropological research on moralities and ethics of healing practices in St. Lucia (Caribbean). This reflection is based on the moral evaluations related to obeah, locally conceived as a set of magical, religious and witchcraft practices that helps to manage disease and misfortune. Through the analysis of local conceptions surrounding the ethical notions of autonomy and confidentiality, I call attention to potential nuisance caused by the application of principles of beneficence and respect for the individual. Indeed, local idioms that are moral discretion and self-sufficiency, which can respectively refer to the concepts of autonomy and confidentiality, are, paradoxically, both valued and likely to be associated with dubious morality. I will demonstrate that the fact of applying these principles in all ethnographic relationship may harm interlocutors by increasing, in the case of St. Lucia, the risk of witchcraft accusations and derogatory moral attributions. The anthropological field experience presented here questions the principles of beneficence and respect for the individual as defined in the field of research ethics; it also imposes the need to think about their adaptation to suit local representations. This leads to recommend a pragmatic and emerging ethics of anthropological research/practice. PMID:26911083

  20. Exercise training improves cardiopulmonary and endothelial function in women with breast cancer: findings from the Diana-5 dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Vitelli, Alessandra; Maresca, Luigi; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Gentile, Marco; Mancini, Maria; Grieco, Alessandra; Russo, Angelo; Lucci, Rosa; Torella, Giorgio; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether exercise training (ET) improves cardiopulmonary and endothelial function in women with breast cancer (BC). Fifty-one female patients (aged between 39 and 72 years) with a history of primary invasive BC within the previous 5 years and enrolled in the Mediterranean diet-based DIANA (diet and androgens)-5 Trial were subdivided into 2 groups: an ET group (n = 25) followed a formal ET program of moderate intensity (3 session/week on a bicycle at 60-70 % VO2peak for 3 months, followed by one session/week until 1-year follow-up), while a control group (n = 26) did not perform any formal ET. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, all patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise stress test (CPET) and measurements of vascular endothelial function by peripheral artery tonometry (Reactive Hyperemia Index, RHI). There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline anthropometrical, BC characteristics, and metabolic profile. No differences in baseline CPET and RHI parameters were found. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) significantly increased in ET group (from 12.4 ± 2.9 to 14.3 ± 3.3 mL/kg/min, p < 0.001) compared to the control group (from 12.8 ± 2.5 to 12.6 ± 2.8 mL/kg/min, p = 0.55; p < 0.001 between groups). Compared to the control group (from 2.0 ± 0.4 to 1.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.62), the ET group showed a significant improvement of RHI after 1 year (from 2.1 ± 0.7 to 2.5 ± 0.8, p < 0.001). Changes in VO2peak were correlated with changes in RHI (ΔVO2peak vs. ΔRHI: r = 0.47, p = 0.017). In BC survivors, ET program improves cardiopulmonary functional capacity and vascular endothelial function after 12 months. Whether these changes may favorably modulate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms implied in cancer evolution should be investigated. PMID:26016834

  1. The role of water and sediment connectivity in integrated flood management: a case study on the island of Saint Lucia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetten, Victor; van Westen, Cees; Ettema, Janneke; van den Bout, Bastian

    2016-04-01

    Disaster Risk Management combines the effects of natural hazards in time and space, with elements at risk, such as ourselves, infrastructure or other elements that have a value in our society. The risk in this case is defined as the sum of potential consequences of one or more hazards and can be expressed as potential damages. Generally, we attempt to reduce risk by better risk management, such as increase of resilience, protection and spatial planning. Caribbean islands are hit by hurricanes and tropical storms with a frequency of 1 to 2 every 10 years, with devastating consequences in terms of flash floods and landslides. The islands basically consist of a central (volcanic) mountain range, with medium and small sized catchments radiating outward towards the ocean. The coastal zone is inhabited, while the ring road network is essential for functioning of the island. An example of a case study is given for the island of Saint Lucia. Recorded rainfall intensities during tropical storms of 12 rainfall stations surpass 200 mm/h, causing immediate flash floods. Very often however, sediment is a forgotten variable in flash flood management: protection and mitigation measures as well as spatial planning all focus on the hydrology, the extent and depth of flood water, and sometimes of flood velocities. With recent developments, the opensource model LISEM includes hydrology and runoff, flooding, and erosion, transport and deposition both in runoff, channel flow and flood waters. We will discuss the practical solutions we implemented in connecting slopes, river channels and floodplains in terms of water and sediment, and the strength and weaknesses we have encountered so far. Catchment analysis shows two main effects: on the one hand in almost all cases upstream flooding serves as a temporary water storage that prevents further damage downstream, while on the other hand, erosion upstream often blocks bridges and decreases channel storage downstream, which increases the

  2. Volcanic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Soufrière Volcanic Centre, Saint Lucia with implications for volcanic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jan M.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Shane, Phil A.; Howe, Tracy M.

    2013-05-01

    The Soufrière Volcanic Complex (SVC), Saint Lucia, represents one of the largest silicic centres in the Lesser Antilles arc. It comprises extensive pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposits, lava flows as well as Peléan-style domes and dome collapse block-and-ash-flow deposits. These deposits occur within and around the Qualibou Depression, a ~ 10-km diameter wide sector collapse structure. To date, vent locations for SVC pyroclastic deposits and their relationship to the sector collapse have been unclear because of limited stratigraphic correlation and few radiometric ages. In this study we reconstruct the geologic history of the SVC in light of new and recently published (U-Th)/He, U-Th and U-Pb zircon chronostratigraphic data, aided by mineralogical and geochemical correlation. Compositionally, SVC deposits are monotonous medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks with 61.6 to 67.7 wt.% SiO2 and display similar trace element abundances. Combined U-Th and (U-Th)/He zircon dating together with 14C ages and mineral fingerprinting reveals significant explosive eruptions at 640, 515, 265, 104, 60 and 40 ka (producing deposits previously grouped together as the "Choiseul" unit) and at 20 ka (Belfond unit). The mineralogically and geochemically distinct Belfond unit is a large, valley-filling pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposit distributed to the north, northeast, south and southeast of the Qualibou Depression that was probably deposited during a single plinian eruption. The unit previously referred to as ‘Choiseul tuff' is much less well defined. The typical Choiseul unit comprises a series of yellowish-white, crystal-poor, non-welded pumiceous pyroclastic deposits cropping out to the north and southeast of the Qualibou depression; however its age is poorly constrained. A number of other units previously mapped as Choiseul can be distinguished based on age, and in some cases mineral and whole rock chemistry. Pyroclastic deposits at Micoud (640 ± 19 ka), Bellevue (264 ± 8 ka), Anse

  3. New Emphases for Adult Education in the Caribbean in the Eighties. Final Report on a Meeting of Experts from Adult Education Institutions in the Caribbean (Castries, St. Lucia, September 1-6, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    A meeting was held in St. Lucia in September, 1980, at which representatives of Caribbean countries discussed the present state and future progress of adult education in the region. The meeting viewed adult education as a vital part of national and regional development. Meeting participants stressed the following four themes: (1) political changes…

  4. An evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations from passive degassing of the Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia geothermal system: Implications for human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Beckles, Denise M.; Cox, Leonette; Jackson, Viveka B.; Alexander, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a site of energetic geothermal activity associated with the potentially active Soufrière Volcanic Centre. The Park is one of Saint Lucia's most important tourist attractions, and is marketed as the 'world's only drive-in volcano'. It has an on-site staff of tour guides and vendors, as well as over 200,000 visitors annually. There are also a number of residents living in the areas bordering the Park. Recreational use is made of the geothermal waters for bathing, application of mud masques, and in some cases drinking. As part of the University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre's (UWI-SRC's) overall volcano monitoring programme for Saint Lucia, the volcanic emissions at Sulphur Springs (hot springs, mud pools and fumaroles) have been regularly monitored since 2001. In recent years, visitors, staff, and management at the Park have expressed concern about the health effects of exposure to volcanic emissions from the hydrothermal system. In response to this, SRC has expanded its regular geothermal monitoring programme to include a preliminary evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations in and around the Park, to assess the possible implications for human health. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure the atmospheric SO2 concentrations at various sites in Sulphur Springs Park (SSP), in the town of Soufrière and in the capital of Castries. Measurements of average monthly ambient SO2 with the passive samplers indicated that during the dry season period of April to July 2014 concentration at sites closest to the main vents at SSP (Group 1), which are routinely used by staff and visitors, frequently exceeded the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3. However, for sites that were more distal to the main venting area (Groups 2 and 3), the average monthly ambient SO2 did not exceed the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3 during the entire monitoring period. The measured concentrations and dispersion

  5. SANTA LUCIA WILDERNESS, AND GARCIA MOUNTAIN, BLACK MOUNTAIN, LA PANZA, MACHESNA MOUNTAIN, LOS MACHOS HILLS, BIG ROCKS, AND STANLEY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    The Santa Lucia Wilderness Area and Garcia Mountain, Black Mountain, La Panza, Machesna Mountain, Los Machos Hills, Big Rocks, and Stanley Mountain Roadless Areas together occupy an area of about 218 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. On the basis of a mineral-resource evaluation a small area in the Black Mountain Roadless Area has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, and a small area in the Stanley Mountain Roadless Area has probable potential for low-grade mercury resources. Although petroleum resources occur in rocks similar to those found in the study area, no potential for petroleum resources was identified in the wilderness or any of the roadless areas. No resource potential for other mineral resources was identified in any of the areas. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling probably would increase knowledge about distribution and modes of occurrence of uranium and cinnabar in those areas, respectively.

  6. Volcanic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Soufrière Volcanic Centre, Saint Lucia with implications for volcanic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jan M.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Shane, Phil A.; Howe, Tracy M.

    2013-05-01

    The Soufrière Volcanic Complex (SVC), Saint Lucia, represents one of the largest silicic centres in the Lesser Antilles arc. It comprises extensive pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposits, lava flows as well as Peléan-style domes and dome collapse block-and-ash-flow deposits. These deposits occur within and around the Qualibou Depression, a ~ 10-km diameter wide sector collapse structure. To date, vent locations for SVC pyroclastic deposits and their relationship to the sector collapse have been unclear because of limited stratigraphic correlation and few radiometric ages. In this study we reconstruct the geologic history of the SVC in light of new and recently published (U-Th)/He, U-Th and U-Pb zircon chronostratigraphic data, aided by mineralogical and geochemical correlation. Compositionally, SVC deposits are monotonous medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks with 61.6 to 67.7 wt.% SiO2 and display similar trace element abundances. Combined U-Th and (U-Th)/He zircon dating together with 14C ages and mineral fingerprinting reveals significant explosive eruptions at 640, 515, 265, 104, 60 and 40 ka (producing deposits previously grouped together as the "Choiseul" unit) and at 20 ka (Belfond unit). The mineralogically and geochemically distinct Belfond unit is a large, valley-filling pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposit distributed to the north, northeast, south and southeast of the Qualibou Depression that was probably deposited during a single plinian eruption. The unit previously referred to as ‘Choiseul tuff' is much less well defined. The typical Choiseul unit comprises a series of yellowish-white, crystal-poor, non-welded pumiceous pyroclastic deposits cropping out to the north and southeast of the Qualibou depression; however its age is poorly constrained. A number of other units previously mapped as Choiseul can be distinguished based on age, and in some cases mineral and whole rock chemistry. Pyroclastic deposits at Micoud (640 ± 19 ka), Bellevue (264 ± 8 ka), Anse

  7. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics in the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area, northern Bexar County, Texas, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Allan K.; Morris, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    The area designated by the city of San Antonio as the Rancho Diana Natural Area is in northern Bexar County, near San Antonio, Texas. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of San Antonio, documented the geologic framework and mapped the hydrogeologic characteristics for the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area. The geologic framework of the study area and its hydrogeologic characteristics were documented using field observations and information from previously published reports. Many of the geologic and hydrogeologic features were found by making field observations through the dense vegetation along gridlines spaced approximately 25 feet apart and documenting the features as they were located. Surface geologic features were identified and hydrogeologic features such as caves, sinkholes, and areas of solutionally enlarged porosity were located using hand-held Global Positioning System units. The location data were used to create a map of the hydrogeologic subdivisions and the location of karst features. The outcrops of the Edwards and Trinity aquifer recharge zones were mapped by using hydrogeologic subdivisions modified from previous reports. All rocks exposed within the study area are of sedimentary origin and Lower Cretaceous in age. The valley floor is formed in the cavernous member of the upper Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group. The hills are composed of the basal nodular member, dolomitic member, Kirschberg evaporite member, and grainstone member of the Kainer Formation of the Edwards Group. Field observations made during this study of the exposed formations and members indicate that the formations and members typically are composed of mudstones, wackestones, packstones, grainstones, and argillaceous limestones, along with marls. The upper Glen Rose Limestone is approximately 410 to 450 feet thick but only the upper 70 feet is exposed in the study area. The Kainer Formation is approximately 255 feet thick in

  8. Socio-economic analysis of forest-wood use and resource stock depletion in developing countries: A case study of Saint Lucia

    SciTech Connect

    Nzeogwu, O.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid depletion of forest-wood resources by households in developing countries to meet their energy needs has aroused the concerns of many private and international organizations. Privatization of communal forests to restrict open access, reforestation of forest, and population control are the often-suggested solutions. The Island of Saint Lucia in the Caribbean has partially in existence most of these suggested solutions, however rapid depletion (non-optimal) of forest-wood resource stock continues to exist. On the microlevel, Saint Lucian households are exposed to five competing energy forms. Many households use two or more competing alternatives simultaneously: electricity and kerosene for lighting; LPG, charcoal, and firewood for cooking. This is to minimize the risks associated with uncertainties of quantity supply and price fluctuations. Two key factors were found to determine energy adoption behavior, the geographical location (a proxy for urbanization) and living environment (if household was a farming or fishing household). The study suggests that laissez faire policy posture towards the declining forest-wood stock may not constitute a non-optimal solution if prices move in the direction of long-run equilibrium and the halting of continuous stock depletion.

  9. The MADS Domain Protein DIANA Acts Together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to Specify the Central Cell in Arabidopsis Ovules[W

    PubMed Central

    Bemer, Marian; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2008-01-01

    MADS box genes in plants consist of MIKC-type and type I genes. While MIKC-type genes have been studied extensively, the functions of type I genes are still poorly understood. Evidence suggests that type I MADS box genes are involved in embryo sac and seed development. We investigated two independent T-DNA insertion alleles of the Arabidopsis thaliana type I MADS box gene AGAMOUS-LIKE61 (AGL61) and showed that in agl61 mutant ovules, the polar nuclei do not fuse and central cell morphology is aberrant. Furthermore, the central cell begins to degenerate before fertilization takes place. Although pollen tubes are attracted and perceived by the mutant ovules, neither endosperm development nor zygote formation occurs. AGL61 is expressed in the central cell during the final stages of embryo sac development. An AGL61:green fluorescent protein–β-glucoronidase fusion protein localizes exclusively to the polar nuclei and the secondary nucleus of the central cell. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that AGL61 can form a heterodimer with AGL80 and that the nuclear localization of AGL61 is lost in the agl80 mutant. Thus, AGL61 and AGL80 appear to function together to differentiate the central cell in Arabidopsis. We renamed AGL61 DIANA, after the virginal Roman goddess of the hunt. PMID:18713950

  10. DIANA-microT Web server upgrade supports Fly and Worm miRNA target prediction and bibliographic miRNA to disease association.

    PubMed

    Maragkakis, Manolis; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Alexiou, Panagiotis; Reczko, Martin; Plomaritou, Kyriaki; Gousis, Mixail; Kourtis, Kornilios; Koziris, Nectarios; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2011-07-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNA molecules that are implicated in many biological processes through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The DIANA-microT Web server provides a user-friendly interface for comprehensive computational analysis of miRNA targets in human and mouse. The server has now been extended to support predictions for two widely studied species: Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In the updated version, the Web server enables the association of miRNAs to diseases through bibliographic analysis and provides insights for the potential involvement of miRNAs in biological processes. The nomenclature used to describe mature miRNAs along different miRBase versions has been extensively analyzed, and the naming history of each miRNA has been extracted. This enables the identification of miRNA publications regardless of possible nomenclature changes. User interaction has been further refined allowing users to save results that they wish to analyze further. A connection to the UCSC genome browser is now provided, enabling users to easily preview predicted binding sites in comparison to a wide array of genomic tracks, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms. The Web server is publicly accessible in www.microrna.gr/microT-v4. PMID:21551220

  11. The influence of environmental parameters in the biocolonization of the Mithraeum in the roman masonry of casa di Diana (Ostia Antica, Italy).

    PubMed

    Scatigno, C; Moricca, C; Tortolini, C; Favero, G

    2016-07-01

    The microclimatic parameters (Ta, RH, E, and CO2) reflect the indoor quality of the environment. Their relationship, connected with the design of the building, can facilitate the growth of photo/heterotrophic organisms and therefore facilitate the increase of the relative CO2 production. Taking this into account, the impact of biological proliferation in a historical building is discussed for the Mithraeum of "Casa di Diana" in the archaeological site of Ostia Antica, which is subjected to guided tours. In this work, for the first time, we propose a study on biological monitoring to evaluate the contribution of bioactivity to air quality, with the objective to increase the comfort of visitors and to open the site for more than one day per week, suggesting possible tools providing a good compromise between building conservation and human comfort. In the sense, it has been possible to distinguish the contribution of the plants from the one deriving from humans: high values of carbon dioxide have been recorded during the night and its scarce removal during the day (air flow). The window present is not sufficient to eliminate the CO2, involving concentrations of CO2 relatively high in comparison to the proposed limits and guidelines defined by law. The obtained results strongly encouraged the elimination of flora in order to increase the comfort of visitors and to open the house for more than one day per week. Although, this process involves an important economic effort, the present study allows making an objective decision which has an important value in a cultural heritage management. Graphical Abstract CO2 contribute by bioactivity as damage to human health. PMID:27026542

  12. Probing the structure of the sub-Salinia mantle lithosphere using spinel lherzolite xenoliths from Crystal Knob, Santa Lucia Range, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, D. P.; Saleeby, J.; Ducea, M. N.; Luffi, P. I.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first petrogenetic analysis of a suite of peridotite xenoliths from the Crystal Knob volcanic neck in the Santa Lucia Range, California. The neck was erupted during the Plio-Pleistocene through the Salinia terrane, a fragment of the Late Cretaceous southern Sierra-northwest Mojave supra-subduction core complex that was displaced ~310 km in the late Cenozoic along the dextral San Andreas fault. The marginal tectonic setting makes these xenoliths ideal for testing different models of upper-mantle evolution along the western North American plate boundary. Possible scenarios include the early Cenozoic underplating of Farallon-plate mantle lithosphere nappes (Luffi et al., 2009), Neogene slab window opening (Atwater and Stock, 1998), and the partial subduction and stalling of the Monterey microplate (Pisker et al., 2012). The xenoliths from Crystal Knob are spinel lherzolites, which sample the mantle lithosphere underlying Salinia, and dunite cumulates apparently related to the olivine-basalt host. Initial study is focused on the spinel lherzolites: these display an allotriomorphic granular texture with anisotropy largely absent. However, several samples exhibit a weak shape-preferred orientation in elongate spinels. Within each xenolith, the silicate phases are in Fe-Mg equilibrium; between samples, Mg# [molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)*100] ranges from 87 to 91. Spinels have Cr# [molar Cr/(Cr+Al)*100] ranging from 10 to 27. Clinopyroxene Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd radiogenic isotope data show that the lherzolites are depleted in large-ion lithophile (LIL) elements, with uniform enrichment in 143Nd (ɛNd from +10.3 to +11.0) and depletion in 87Sr (87/86Sr of .702). This data rules out origin in the continental lithosphere, such as that observed in xenoliths from above the relict subduction interface found at at Dish Hill and Cima Dome in the Mojave (Luffi et al., 2009). The Mesozoic mantle wedge, which is sampled by xenoliths from beneath the southern Sierra Nevada batholith

  13. The milliped family Platyrhacidae (Polydesmida: Leptodesmidea) in the West Indies: Proposal of Hoffmanorhacus n. gen.; description and illustrations of males of Proaspis aitia Loomis, 1941; redescription of Nannorrhacus luciae (Pocock, 1894); hypotheses on origins and affinities; and an updated New World familial distribution.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Rowland M; Martinez-Torres, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    In the New World, the milliped family Platyrhacidae (Polydesmida) is known or projected for Central America south of southeastern Nicaragua and the northern ¼ of South America, with disjunct, insular populations on Hispaniola (Haiti), Guadeloupe (Basse-Terre), and St. Lucia. Male near-topotypes enable redescription of Proaspis aitia Loomis, 1941, possibly endemic to the western end of the southern Haitian peninsula. The tibiotarsus of its biramous gonopodal telopodite bends strongly laterad, and the medially directed solenomere arises at midlength proximal to the bend. With a uniramous telopodite, P. sahlii Jeekel, 1980, on Guadeloupe, is not congeneric, and Hoffmanorhacus, n. gen., is erected to accommodate it. Nannorrhacus luciae (Pocock, 1894), on St. Lucia, is redescribed; also with a biramous telopodite, its tibiotarsus arises distad and diverges from the coaxial solenomere. The Antillean species do not comprise a clade and are only distantly related; rather than introductions, they plausibly reflect ancestral occurrences on the "proto-Antillean" terrain before it rifted from "proto-South America" in the Cretaceous/Paleocene, with fragmentation isolating modern forms on their present islands. Existing platyrhacid tribes are formally elevated to subfamilies as this category was omitted from recent taxonomies. Without unequivocal evidence to the contrary, geographically anomalous species should initially be regarded as indigenous rather than anthropochoric. PMID:26176151

  14. Diana's Eulogy: Breaking New Ground in Epideictic Rhetoric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David K.

    A speech in response to an individual's death is by nature a recurring form of rhetoric. Based on audience expectations and needs, certain generic aspects have emerged to characterize eulogies. The funeral oration has generally been recognized as a form of epideictic rhetoric. Modern scholars have generally broadly defined epideictic rhetoric to…

  15. [Significance and progress of DIAN/A4/API].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The DIAN observational study compared the pathophysiological markers between mutation carriers and non-carriers for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. It has revealed the biomarker changes in the mutation carrier's brain started as early as 20, even 25 years prior to symptoms. The researchers of DIAN started the prevention trial(DIAN-TU) with two monoclonal antibodies. The API study is the clinical trial of the anti-amyloid monoclonal antibody therapy to the kindred of early onset familial AD (EOAD) who carry the PSEN1 E280A mutation. This study has also shown the same biomarker changes that were reported in the DIAN study. Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic AD (A4) is a prevention trial aimed at treating cognitive normal older individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease dementia on the basis of having biomarker evidence of amyloid (pre-clinical AD). Solanezumab was selected for the anti-amyloid treatment for A4. PMID:27025079

  16. 27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Road in a southeasterly direction for approximately 1 mile to the junction of River, Fort Romie and... the junction of Foothill and Paraiso Roads on the Soledad, California U.S.G.S. map. (8) Then...

  17. 27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... boundary of section 28, T. 16S., R. 4E. The boundary is as follows: (1) From the beginning point the... sections 29, 19, 13, and 11, to the northwest corner of section 11, T. 17S., R. 4E on the Rana Creek, California U.S.G.S. map. (19) Then north along the western boundary of section 2, T. 17S., R. 4E., to...

  18. 27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... boundary of section 28, T. 16S., R. 4E. The boundary is as follows: (1) From the beginning point the... sections 29, 19, 13, and 11, to the northwest corner of section 11, T. 17S., R. 4E on the Rana Creek, California U.S.G.S. map. (19) Then north along the western boundary of section 2, T. 17S., R. 4E., to...

  19. 27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... boundary of section 28, T. 16S., R. 4E. The boundary is as follows: (1) From the beginning point the... sections 29, 19, 13, and 11, to the northwest corner of section 11, T. 17S., R. 4E on the Rana Creek, California U.S.G.S. map. (19) Then north along the western boundary of section 2, T. 17S., R. 4E., to...

  20. 27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... boundary of section 28, T. 16S., R. 4E. The boundary is as follows: (1) From the beginning point the... sections 29, 19, 13, and 11, to the northwest corner of section 11, T. 17S., R. 4E on the Rana Creek, California U.S.G.S. map. (19) Then north along the western boundary of section 2, T. 17S., R. 4E., to...

  1. The heirs of Aradia, daughters of Diana: community in the second and third wave.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Jane R; Cook, Anna; Gazda, Rachel; Martin, Bethany; Sturrus, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    What happens when young third wave feminists learn from second wave feminists what living in community means? This article gives an account of engagement between generations of second and third wave feminists as the younger women began documenting the herstory of Aradia, a radical, separatist and mostly lesbian community and non-profit organization in conservative West Michigan in the 1970s and 1980s. The younger women learned the importance of non-hierarchical political organizing to counter differences of experience and power. They learned that divisions of work and play prevent the development of community and that "high play" is critically important for creative energy and insight. And they learned that mythmaking is more than fantasy; it creates reality. The older women learned that for the third wave identity and sexuality are more fluid. They learned that the younger feminists recognized and valued their contributions, and sought to carry feminist goals forward. Both generations were empowered by the encounter and learned the radical effects of women speaking across generations. PMID:19780268

  2. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs improve autonomic neuropathy in arthritis: DIANA study.

    PubMed

    Syngle, Ashit; Verma, Inderjeet; Krishan, Pawan; Garg, Nidhi; Syngle, Vijaita

    2015-07-01

    Autonomic neuropathy (AN) is a risk predictor for sudden cardiac death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, the impact of most commonly employed disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy on autonomic neuropathy in rheumatic diseases is not known. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of DMARDs on autonomic neuropathy in RA and AS. We performed autonomic function assessment in 60 patients in this open-label, 12-week pilot study including 42 patients with RA, 18 with AS, and 30 aged-matched healthy subjects. The methodology included assessment of cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests according to Ewing. Parasympathetic dysfunction was established by performing three tests: heart rate response to deep breathing, standing, and Valsalva tests. Sympathetic dysfunction was examined by applying two tests: blood pressure response to standing and handgrip tests. Sudomotor function was assessed by Sudoscan. Cardiovascular reflex tests were impaired significantly among the patients as compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Autonomic neuropathy was more pronounced in biologic-naive RA and AS patients. After treatment with combination synthetic DMARDs, parasympathetic, and sudomotor dysfunction significantly (p < 0.05) improved in RA and AS. Biologic DMARDs significantly improved parasympathetic, sympathetic and peripheral sympathetic autonomic neuropathy (p < 0.05) in biologic-naive RA and AS patients. In conclusion, synthetic DMARDs improved parasympathetic and sudomotor dysfunction in both DMARD-naive RA and AS patients. However, biologic DMARDs improved parasympathetic, sympathetic and sudomotor dysfunction to a greater extent than synthetic DMARDs in both RA and AS patients. PMID:24928343

  3. A new genus of mimetic longhorned beetle from St. Lucia, Lesser Antilles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Rhinotragini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species originally described as Fortuneleptura romei Touroult 2011 (Lepturinae) is placed in a new genus, Iyanola Lingafelter & Ivie (Cerambycinae: Rhinotragini). Along with the new genus description, the species is redescribed and additional collection data is recorded. A key to the genera and ...

  4. Environmental sanitation infection and nutritional status of infants in rural St. Lucia, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Henry, F J

    1981-01-01

    About 75 babies in each of three valleys were followed up for two years. The valleys had different levels of water supplies and latrine facilities, whereas socio-economic conditions and feeding patterns were similar. Results show that the prevalence of diarrhoea and intestinal helminths reduced as sanitation improved. Ascaris and Trichuris infections dropped 30 and 50% respectively after water supplies and latrines were installed. The growth of the children was significantly better in the improved areas. The possibility of malnutrition being secondary to illness, rather than primary, is included in the discussion. PMID:7324124

  5. Osmoregulation of the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, in Lake St. Lucia, Kwazulu/Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Leslie, A J; Spotila, J R

    2000-07-01

    Nile crocodiles of three age classes, hatched in captivity and reared in fresh water, when exposed acutely to water of 17 and 35 ppt NaCl, suffered marked dehydration, were lethargic, ceased to feed and lost mass. When exposed to gradually increasing salinities (3-35 ppt), with a short acclimation period at each salinity, crocodiles survived, continued to feed and increased in mass and size. All age classes had a relatively constant plasma osmolality across the salinity spectrum. Cloacal urine osmolality varied throughout the acclimation experiment, but did not increase with increasing salinity. No significant increase was found in plasma concentrations of any of the osmolytes. There was a trend of decreasing cloacal urine [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] and increasing cloacal urine [K(+)] with increased salinity, indicating that urine was not an important route for Na(+) and Cl(-) excretion. Crocodiles exposed to saline conditions maintained relatively constant plasma uric acid concentrations, but urinary uric acid concentrations increased markedly with increasing salinities. This suggests that uric acid is the main constituent of nitrogenous waste excretion in saline exposed Nile crocodiles. As in Crocodylus porosus, C.niloticus has the physiological ability to survive and thrive in periodically hyper-osmotic environments. However, its euryhalinity is restricted, in that acute exposure to sea water leads to dehydration, but with an acclimation period at lower salinities, it survives and thrives in sea water. PMID:10964030

  6. The LUCIA project: a high average power ytterbium diode pumped solid state laser chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Gilbert L.; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe; Fulop, A.; Julien, Y.; Migus, Arnold

    2004-04-01

    With the goal to set up a high average power Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (100 Joules/10 Hz/10 ns), the Laboratory for Use of Intense Laser (LULI) is now studying various solutions concerning the amplifier medium, the cooling, the pumping and the extraction architectures. In this paper, we present the last states of these developments and the solutions already chosen.

  7. LUCIA - a new 1-7 keV {mu}-XAS Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Janousch, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Wetter, R.; Grolimund, G.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Flank, A.-M.; Lagarde, P.; Cauchon, G.; Bac, S.; Dubuisson, J.M.

    2004-05-12

    LURE-SOLEIL (France) and the Swiss Light Source (SLS) are building together a new micro focused beamline for micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro imaging. This line is designed to deliver a photon flux of the order of 1012 ph/sec on a 1 x 1 {mu}m spot within the energy domain of 0.8 to 7 keV. This beam line is being installed on the X07M straight section of SLS. The source is an APPLE II undulator with a period of 54 mm. The main advantage of this device lies in the delivery of any degree of polarization, linear or circular, over the whole energy range, without the need of a sample-position change. The monochromator will be a fixed exit double crystal equipped with 5 sets of crystals, thanks to the very narrow photon beam from the undulator ( Beryl, KTP, YB66, InSb(111), Si(111) ). The optics includes a first horizontal focusing mirror (spherical), which produces an intermediate source for the horizontal mirror of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) system. The vertical mirror of the KB directly images the source. Finally, a low-pass double mirror filter insures a proper harmonic rejection.

  8. Curriculum/Resource Development: The "C.A.R.E for St. Lucia" Resource Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Michelle

    1993-01-01

    Describes a resource packet that utilizes a four-point approach to make environmental action concerning land use more accessible to teachers. The points are construct a map of the area under consideration; assess the impact of historical development, natural cycles, mining, and eco-tourism on the problem; research land use options; and encourage…

  9. The Santa Lucia-Aiguá-Merin rifting (Uruguay): an early aborted branch of the South Atlantic break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossello, E.; López-Gamundí, O. R.; Veroslavsky, G.; de Santa Ana, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Santa Lucía-Aigua-Merin (SaLAM) rift is emplaced in the cratonic basement of SE Uruguay. It covers 450 km from the Rio de La Plata to the southwest to Laguna Merin to the northeast running broadly parallel to the South American plate boundary. It is a narrow, pull apart trough trending N 70° with two distinct depocenters (Santa Lucía and Merin) filled predominantly by Mesozoic volcaniclastic sediments. Alkaline magmatic rocks have been identified in the Minas-Aigua-Lescano uplifted segment that separates both depocenters. The Santa Lucía depocenter or sub basin was filled with a up to 2,500 m thick column of upper Jurassic to Cenozoic volcaniclastic sediments that rest on the structured Precambrian basement. The Merin sub basin is dominated by a thick volcanic sequence associated with a significant gravity anomaly. The SaLAM rift joins southwestard into a triple-junction configuration with the NW-SE trending Salado Basin is was buried by Lower Tertiary to Recent sediments. The SaLAM trough can be interpreted as an aborted branch of the South Atlantic break up; its orientation was probably controlled, at least partially, by the structural grain of the pre-existing Gondwana crystalline basement. Its accessible outcrops provide an excellent opportunity to study the sedimentary, magmatic and tectonic evolution of the early stages of the South Atlantic break up and its potential reactivation during the Andean orogeny that seemed to have affected significant parts of the adjacent large continental platform of Uruguay and Argentina.

  10. An In Situ High Temperature Investigation of Cation Environments in Aluminate and Silicate Glasses and Liquids at the LUCIA Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Neuville, Daniel R.; Roux, Jacques; Cormier, Laurent; Ligny, Dominique de; Flank, Anne-Marie; Lagarde, Pierre; Henderson, Grant S.

    2007-02-02

    The structure of crystals and melts were obtained at high temperature using X-ray absorption at the Ca K-edge on CaMgSi2O6 (diopside), CaAl2Si2O8 (anorthite), Ca3Al2O6 (C3A) and CaAl2O4 (CA) compositions. Important changes are observed above the liquidus temperature particularly for the C3A composition where all oscillations in the XANES spectra disappear. Important changes in the Ca K-edge XANES are also visible in the pre-edge region, with increasing temperature, for crystalline CaMgSi2O6.

  11. Long-term community changes on a high-latitude coral reef in the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Michael H; Kruger, Alke; Celliers, Louis

    2008-03-01

    South African coral reefs are limited in size but, being marginal, provide a model for the study of many of the stresses to which these valuable systems are being subjected globally. Soft coral cover, comprising relatively few species, exceeds that of scleractinians over much of the reefs. The coral communities nevertheless attain a high biodiversity at this latitude on the East African coast. A long-term monitoring programme was initiated in 1993, entailing temperature logging and image analysis of high resolution photographs of fixed quadrats on representative reef. Sea temperatures rose by 0.15 degrees C p.a. at the site up to 2000 but have subsequently been decreasing by 0.07 degrees C p.a. Insignificant bleaching was encountered in the region during the 1998 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, unlike elsewhere in East Africa, but quantifiable bleaching occurred during an extended period of warming in 2000. Peak temperatures on the South African reefs thus appear to have attained the coral bleaching threshold. While this has resulted in relatively little bleaching thus far, the increased temperatures appear to have had a deleterious effect on coral recruitment success as other anthropogenic influences on the reefs are minimal. Recruitment success diminished remarkably up to 2004 but appears again to be improving. Throughout, the corals have also manifested changes in community structure, involving an increase in hard coral cover and reduction in that of soft corals, resulting in a 5.5% drop in overall coral cover. These "silent" effects of temperature increase do not appear to have been reported elsewhere in the literature. PMID:18206178

  12. Review of a West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyne (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) with description of five new species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The previously monotypic West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyne is reviewed, redescribed and illustrated. Five new species are added: Monotalla dominica (Dominica); M. lecticafolium (St. Lucia); M. maierae (St. Lucia); M. obrienorum (Grenada); and M. viridis (St. Lucia). A key to Monotalla species is p...

  13. Review of the West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyné (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) with description of five new species

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Alexander S.; Linzmeier, Adelita M.; Clark, Shawn M.; Ivie, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyné is reviewed, redescribed and illustrated. Five new species are added: Monotalla dominica sp. n. (Dominica); Monotalla lecticofolia sp. n. (St. Lucia); Monotalla maierae sp. n. (St. Lucia); Monotalla obrienorum sp. n. (Grenada); and Monotalla viridis sp. n. (St. Lucia). A key to Monotalla species is provided. PMID:26052242

  14. Review of the West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyné (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) with description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Alexander S; Linzmeier, Adelita M; Clark, Shawn M; Ivie, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyné is reviewed, redescribed and illustrated. Five new species are added: Monotalladominica sp. n. (Dominica); Monotallalecticofolia sp. n. (St. Lucia); Monotallamaierae sp. n. (St. Lucia); Monotallaobrienorum sp. n. (Grenada); and Monotallaviridis sp. n. (St. Lucia). A key to Monotalla species is provided. PMID:26052242

  15. 76 FR 59488 - Addition to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... was previously designated pursuant to the Order: GRAJALES PUENTES, Diana Carolina, c/o AGRONILO S.A...) (individual) The listing now appears as follows: GRAJALES PUENTES, Diana Carolina, c/o AGRONILO S.A.,...

  16. 7 CFR 305.17 - Authorized treatments; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... islands, Korea, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman... Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia, and all countries outside of North, Central, and South...

  17. 77 FR 60477 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... 31, 2012. Permit Application: 2013-023 Applicant: Diana H. Wall, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory... soils and associated terrestrial invertebrates found in ornithogenic soils from penguin rookeries....

  18. Approaches to Research Priorities for Policy: A Comparative Study. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Diana Wilkinson, Chief Social Researcher with the Scottish Government, assisted National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) to facilitate a forum to discuss the development of national research priorities for the vocational education and training sector. This paper summarises Diana Wilkinson's impression of the forum and uses two…

  19. Perspectives on Adults Learning Mathematics: Research and Practice. Mathematics Education Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana, Ed.; O'Donoghue, John, Ed.; FitzSimons, Gail E., Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers that are designed to situate research and practice in adults learning mathematics within the wider field of lifelong learning and lifelong education. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Diana Coben, Gail E. FitzSimons, John O'Donoghue); "Review of Research on Adults Learning Mathematics" (Diana Coben);…

  20. Microbial Extracellular Enzyme Activity and Community Assembly Processes Post Fire Disturbance Amanda Labrado, University of Texas at El Paso; Emily B. Graham, University of Colorado Boulder; Joseph E. Knelman, University of Colorado Boulder; Scott Ferrenberg, University of Colorado Boulder; Diana R. Nemergut, University of Colorado Boulder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrdo, A.; Knelman, J. E.; Graham, E. B.; Ferrenberg, S.; Nemergut, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Microbes control major biogeochemical cycles and can directly impact the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus pools and fluxes of soils. However, many questions remain regarding when and where data on microbial community structure are necessary to accurately predict biogeochemical processes. In particular, it is unknown how shifts in microbial assembly processes may relate to changes in the relationship between community structure and ecosystem function. Here, we examine soil microbial community assembly processes and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) at 4-weeks and 16-weeks after the Fourmile Canyon Fire in Boulder, CO in order to determine the effects of disturbance on community assembly and EEA. Microbial community structure was determined from 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, edaphic properties were determined using standard biogeochemical assays, and extracellular enzyme activity for β-1, 4-glucosidase (BG) and β-1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) enzymes were determined using fluorimetric assays. Stepwise linear regressions were used to determine the effects of microbial community structure and edaphic factors on EEA. We determined that in 4-week post fire samples EEA was only correlated with microbial predictors. However, we observed a shift with 16-week samples in which EEA was significantly related to edaphic predictors. Null derivation analysis of community assembly revealed that communities in the 4-week samples were more neutrally assembled than communities in the 16-week samples. Together, these results support a conceptual model in which the relationship between edaphic factors and ecosystem processes is somewhat decoupled in more neutrally assembled communities, and data on microbial community structure is important to most accurately predict function.

  1. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures were conducted (EPA 1994) with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and four endangered fish species: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucias ), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and Gila t...

  2. Deformation of partially pumped active mirrors for high average-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Albach, Daniel; LeTouzé, Geoffroy; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe

    2011-04-25

    We discuss the deformation of a partially pumped active mirror amplifier as a free standing disk, as implemented in several laser systems. We rely on the Lucia laser project to experimentally evaluate the analytical and numerical deformation models. PMID:21643092

  3. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 8, 1940. ST. 'LUCY' or 'LUCIA'. (SOUTH ELEVATION). FACADE - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  4. 78 FR 70088 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... regarding our veterans' resources and partners, please visit our Web site at www.sba.gov/vets . FOR FURTHER... at www.sba.gov/vets . Dated: November 14, 2013 Diana Doukas, SBA Committee Management...

  5. For Children Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Clare Cooper

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how a London playground dedicated to Princess Diana's memory challenges the preconceptions on which most American playgrounds are designed. The playground's layout and theme are described, and several photographs are included. (GR)

  6. 77 FR 16229 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for the “2012 ASPR Challenge Titled Now Trending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Tools at Fusion Forum: November 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diana Boss, MPH, Public Health Analyst, Fusion Cell, OPEO, ASPR, HHS. Phone: 202-260-5189. Award Approval Official: RADM Nicole Lurie,...

  7. Lightcurve Analysis of Ten Main-belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauerbach, Michael; Marks, Scott A.; Lucas, Michael P.

    2008-06-01

    We report lightcurve periods for ten main-belt asteroids observed at the Evelyn L. Egan Observatory: 26 Proserpina, 78 Diana, 242 Kriemhild, 287 Nephthys, 348 May, 368 Haidea, 446 Aeternitas, 872 Holda, 905 Universitas, and 1013 Tombecka.

  8. Who Drinks More -- Couples or Singles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... author Diana Dinescu, a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Virginia. The researchers looked ... were published recently in the Journal of Family Psychology . SOURCE: University of Virginia, news release, Aug. 11, ...

  9. "The black and white of it": Barbara Grier editing and publishing women of color.

    PubMed

    Enszer, Julie R

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, lesbian-feminist writing and publishing expressed new theoretical insights about race and envisioned new, intersectional identities. Using texts published and edited by Grier in The Ladder and subsequent Ladder anthologies published by Diana Press, archival documents from Diana Press, and the Grier-Naiad Press papers, this article explores Grier's editorial practices and compares Grier's work to other lesbian-feminist editors and publishers to illuminate different generational understandings of racial-ethnic and class formations within lesbianism and feminism and highlight some of the strategies that White publishers like Grier utilized to realize a vision of multicultural publishing. PMID:25298098

  10. What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, B. Christian; Layberry, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (Celastrina serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Previous records of this taxon are re-identified as Celastrina lucia (Kirby) and Celastrina neglecta (Edwards). Evidence is presented that both Celastrina lucia and Celastrina neglecta have a second, summer-flying generation in parts of Canada. The summer generation of Celastrina lucia has previously been misidentified as Celastrina neglecta, which differs in phenology, adult phenotype and larval hosts from summer Celastrina lucia. DNA barcodes are highly conserved among at least three North American Celastrina species, and provide no taxonomic information. Celastrina neglecta has a Canadian distribution restricted to southern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and easternmost Alberta. The discovery of museum specimens of Celastrina ladon (Cramer) from southernmost Ontario represents a new species for the Canadian butterfly fauna, which is in need of conservation status assessment. PMID:27199600

  11. Optimizing abiotic conditions for higher efficacy of 3 fungal pathogens against chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is a recently introduced important pest of fruits, ornamentals and vegetables. In Western Hemisphere, chilli thrips was reported for the first time in 2003, established in St. Lucia and St. Vincent in the insular Caribbean. It attacks all above ground ...

  12. Play, Language, and Stories: The Development of Children's Literate Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galda, Lee, Ed.; Pellegrini, Anthony D., Ed.

    The question of the relationship between children's play and more formal, literate uses of language is explored in the 9 studies described in this volume. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: (1) "The Influence of Discourse Content and Context on Preschoolers' Use of Language" (Lucia A. French, Joan Lucariello, Susan Seidman, and Katherine…

  13. OCOD-CTTP Test Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, Leonard

    Tests in social studies and integrated science given in Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica were analyzed by the Organization for Co-operation in Overseas Development (OCOD) Comprehensive Teacher Training Program (CTTP) for discrimination, difficulty, and reliability, as well as other characteristics. There were 767 examinees for the…

  14. Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): An island-hopping mite pest in the Caribbean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major infestations of the flat mite species Raoiella indica Hirst have been reported from the Caribbean islands of Dominica, Martinique, and Saint Lucia. Specimens from these localities were examined using traditional light microscopy and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) techniqu...

  15. Physical Education Guide for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Culture & Labour, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This collaboration between teachers in Saint Lucia (West Indies) and Peace Corps volunteers offers a comprehensive physical education program for children and youth ages 10-18 years, including lesson plans, evaluation and assessment techniques, and psychological and physical growth and development characteristics for this age group. The program is…

  16. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future Tenses" (Lucia Lobata); "Revisiting…

  17. Workforce Development for Communities in Crisis and Transition: A Case Study of the Windward Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, L. Alfons

    The Windward Islands (Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) have taken several approaches to educate the work force and prepare for the technology-driven society of the future. These approaches include government initiatives, such as the governments' commitment to primary education and more recently to secondary…

  18. A Case for Community-Run Pre-Schools and Daycare Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Rosamunde

    This booklet advocates and describes the establishment of community run preschool and day care centers. The type described is based on the Laborie Community Education Centre in Saint Lucia, West Indies. Chapter 1 advocates establishing small, local institutions that are community managed, community owned, concerned with quality, and sustainable.…

  19. What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B Christian; Layberry, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (Celastrina serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Previous records of this taxon are re-identified as Celastrina lucia (Kirby) and Celastrina neglecta (Edwards). Evidence is presented that both Celastrina lucia and Celastrina neglecta have a second, summer-flying generation in parts of Canada. The summer generation of Celastrina lucia has previously been misidentified as Celastrina neglecta, which differs in phenology, adult phenotype and larval hosts from summer Celastrina lucia. DNA barcodes are highly conserved among at least three North American Celastrina species, and provide no taxonomic information. Celastrina neglecta has a Canadian distribution restricted to southern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and easternmost Alberta. The discovery of museum specimens of Celastrina ladon (Cramer) from southernmost Ontario represents a new species for the Canadian butterfly fauna, which is in need of conservation status assessment. PMID:27199600

  20. Profile of the National Association of Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Rosamunde

    This profile describes various facets of Saint Lucia's National Association of Early Childhood Educators (NAECE), whose mission is "to stand up for the rights of children." The profile first presents the association's 5-year action plan, which includes goals for: (1) technical assistance, for example scholarships for the poor to attend early…

  1. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  2. The Promise and Challenge of Producing Biofuel Feedstocks: An Ecological Perspective (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    DeLucia, Evan

    2011-04-26

    Evan DeLucia of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute talks about "The Promise and Challenge of Producing Biofuel Feedstocks: An Ecological Perspective" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  3. A review of the Paectes arcigera (Guenée)(Lepidoptera, Eutellidae) species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée) (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Donimica, St. Lucia, Trinidad) and P. longiformis Pogue (Brazil) are described: P. asper n.sp. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti...

  4. Time-to-Contact Judgments of an Approaching Object that Is Partially Concealed by an Occluder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Patricia R.

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies of time-to-contact (TTC) focused on judgments of unoccluded approaching objects. P. R. DeLucia, M. K. Kaiser, J. M. Bush, L. E. Meyer, and B. T. Sweet (2003) showed that partial occlusion decreases an object's optical size and expansion rate and that the value of tau derived from the reduced optical size (relative rate of accretion;…

  5. Stevewoodia minutum, a new genus and species of Scolytidae (Coleoptera) from the West Indies. Studies on West Indian Scolytidae (Coleoptera) 6

    PubMed Central

    E. Bright, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of Scolytidae (Coleoptera), Stevewoodia, from St. Lucia in the Lesser Antilles, is herein named and described. The type species, Stevewoodia minutum sp. n. is also named. The genus is named in honor of the late Steven L. Wood for his many contributions to the systematics of the Scolytidae. PMID:21594171

  6. What Mothers Have To Say. Evaluation: Parents as Teachers. Programme: Part One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Rosamunde

    A survey was administered to families in St. Lucia during home visits between November 1993 and July 1995, after the local Parents As Teachers Programme had been affiliated with the Parents As Teachers Program in St. Louis, Missouri (affiliation took place in 1991). In all, 2000 home visits were conducted in the communities of Laborie, Banse,…

  7. Gender Differences in Caribbean Students' Performance on a Test of Errors in Biological Labelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the performance of 11th-grade students from Barbados, Belize, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Trinidad (n=1216) on an Errors in Biological Labeling Test (EBLT). Concludes that performance was low in six categories of errors, and that girls performed significantly better on each category of error than did boys. Contains 15…

  8. Conceptualizing Gender Performance in Higher Education: Exploring Regulation of Identity Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellabaum, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    While many higher education scholars have considered gender (e.g., Dawson-Threat & Huba, 1996; DeLucia-Waack, Gerrity, Taub, & Baldo, 2001; Jacobs, 1995; Knox, Zusman, & Mcneely, 2004; Lackland & De Lisi, 2001; Massey & Christensen, 1990), most of the literature uses modernistic theories to examine gender roles or gendered differences among…

  9. Beliefs about Early Language Learning: St. Lucian Beginning Students of French and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated the attitudes toward language learning held by early secondary school students (ages 11-13) on the island of Saint Lucia who are studying French and Spanish simultaneously, as required in the first two years of secondary school. Subjects were students at two schools, and included 121 boys and 72 girls. The survey consisted of…

  10. School Counselors' Perceptions of Their Academic Preparedness for Job Activities and Actual Job Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The school counseling field has evolved over the years and increasingly clarified school counselors' job roles and activities (Burnham & Jackson, 2000; Cervoni & DeLucia-Waack, 2011; Shillingford & Lambie, 2010; Trolley, 2011); however, school counselors' job roles and activities remain inconsistently understood and practiced (Burnham…

  11. "Besides that I'm Ok": Well-Being in Caribbean and American Adolescents and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ruth Williams; Martin, Bess; Hopson, Jamal; Welch-Murphy, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    A total of 235 adolescents and college students from Aruba, St. Lucia, Tennessee, and Alabama participated in this study that measured various aspects of well-being. The Life Factors Questionnaire measured participants' responses on such self-reported measures as health, intelligence, subjective well-being, responses to stress, optimism,…

  12. Even 'Good' Insurance Comes with Hidden Hospital Bills

    MedlinePlus

    ... Washington, D.C., is to arm consumers with information. "Health insurance works for many until you actually have to use it," Lucia said. "And that's because there's a very low level of health literacy among consumers, both among those who have a ...

  13. Ohio State University Extension Competency Study: Developing a Competency Model for a 21st Century Extension Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Graham Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The literature on competency-based human resource (HR) management provides a strong case for moving from a jobs-based to a competency-based approach to human resources. There is agreement in the literature (Dubois, Rothwell, Stern, & Kemp, 2004; Lucia & Lepsinger, 1999) on the benefits of using competencies throughout HR systems and impact has…

  14. Construyendo Puentes (Building Bridges): Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Spanish. AAHE's Series on Service-Learning in the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellebrandt, Josef, Ed.; Varona, Lucia T., Ed.

    This volume is part of a series of 18 monographs on service learning and the academic disciplines. It is designed to help teachers, administrators, and students realize the potential of service learning in Spanish. Following a Foreword by Carmen Chaves Tesser and an Introduction by Josef Hellebrandt and Lucia T. Varona, the four essays in Part 1,…

  15. Even 'Good' Insurance Comes with Hidden Hospital Bills

    MedlinePlus

    ... a history of having insurance and all the new people Obamacare is bringing in." Insurance is a very complicated instrument, Lucia added. "But it's very important that we provide the resources to help consumers get involved and better understand the policies they' ...

  16. The Promise and Challenge of Producing Biofuel Feedstocks: An Ecological Perspective (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    DeLucia, Evan

    2010-03-25

    Evan DeLucia of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute talks about "The Promise and Challenge of Producing Biofuel Feedstocks: An Ecological Perspective" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  17. University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment (UWIDITE). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Gerald C.; Marrett, Christine

    Since March 1983, the University of the West Indies has been conducting a distance teaching experiment that links its three campuses and the Extra Mural Centres in Antigua, Dominica, and St. Lucia by telecommunications. The network is used for interactive distance teaching and other types of teleconferences. A variety of modern audio and video…

  18. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, Volume 11, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Leslie K., Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Five papers on applied linguistics in educational contexts are presented. "What Can Second Language Learners Learn from Each Other? Only Their Researcher Knows for Sure" (Teresa Pica, Felicia Lincoln-Porter, Diana Paninos, Julian Linnell) presents further research on interaction and negotiation among language learners. "Collaborative Effort…

  19. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 5: Practical Issues in Parenting. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with practical aspects of meeting children's needs, this volume, the fifth of five on parenting, describes the nuts and bolts of parenting as well as the promotion of positive parenting practices. The volume consists of the following 19 chapters: (1) "The Ethics of Parenting" (Diana Baumrind and Ross A. Thompson; (2) "Parenting and…

  20. Abraham Lincoln and the Pillars of Liberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Diana J.

    2002-01-01

    In this essay, Diana Schaub, associate professor and chair of the Department of Political Science at Loyola College in Maryland, asserts that the 9/11 attack on America showed students the fallacy not of relativism, but of toleration. They are now aware that there are limits to toleration. By giving such a vivid display of the horrors of…

  1. REVIEW OF REFLECTIONS IN BULLOUGH'S POND: ECONOMY AND ECOSYSTEM IN NEW ENGLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reflections in Bullough's Pond is a fascinating and eye opening chronicle of New England from pre-European settlement to present times. Author Diana Muir uses the history of the pond in her backyard to individualize the story she tells. It's a powerful device that makes her arg...

  2. Aglaopheniid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Aglaopheniidae) from bathyal waters of the Flemish Cap, Flemish Pass, and Grand Banks of Newfoundland (NW Atlantic) .

    PubMed

    Altuna, Alvaro; Murillo, Francisco J; Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    Five species of aglaopheniid hydroids (Aglaophenopsis cornuta, Cladocarpus diana, C. formosus, C. integer, and Nematocarpus ramuliferus) were collected from the Flemish Cap, Flemish Pass, and Grand Banks of Newfoundland during surveys with bottom trawls, rock dredges, and scallop gear. All are infrequently reported species, with C. diana being discovered for the first time since its original description from Iceland. We document here the southernmost collections of C. diana and N. ramuliferus, both previously unknown in the western Atlantic. Each of the five species is described and illustrated based on fertile material, a key is provided for their identification, and bathymetric distributions are noted. Known depth ranges are extended for A. cornuta, C. diana, and C. integer. Aglaophenopsis and Nematocarpus are recognized as genera distinct from the polyphyletic Cladocarpus, based on the unique structure of the phylactocarp in the former, and the existence of appendages with nematothecae (ramuli) on almost all thecate internodes of hydrocladia in the latter. These appendages occur even in the absence of gonothecae, and are here considered defensive structures that protect the hydranths. In differing from typical phylactocarps, we accept the contention that they are characters of generic value. PMID:25112767

  3. Connecting the Private and the Public: Pregnancy, Exclusion, and the Expansion of Schooling in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    In a number of countries in Africa, young women who become pregnant are excluded from school. This article presents a critique of policy and practice in this area drawing partly on Diana Leonard's scholarship concerning the relational dynamic of gender, generation, social division, and household forms. Much of the policy prescription of large…

  4. Parents as Leaders: The Role of Control and Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahraes, Herbert

    This paper reviews Diana Baumrind's studies of the effect of various types of parental control on children's behavior and concludes that a child is more likely to develop a sense of competence, responsibility, and independence if he or she is given firm and reasonable guidelines. A brief survey of Baumrind's first two studies of preschool children…

  5. The Teacher Trainer, A Practical Journal Mainly for Modern Language Teacher Trainers, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Tessa, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The three issues of the journal on second language teacher education include these articles: "Monitoring and Evaluating the Production of Materials on a Large Scale Trainer Training Workshop" (R. Williams, Choong Kam Foong, Diana Lubelska); Sensory Channels in ESL Instruction" (Michael E. Rudder); "Using the In-Service Feedback Session To Promote…

  6. The Spanish-Language Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criticas: An English Speaker's Guide to the Latest Spanish Language Titles, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a meeting with a group of experts including Leylha Ahuile, Rene Alegria, Rueben Martinez, Diana Martinez Calice, Silvia Matute, Anne Messitte, and Teresa Mlawer from the Spanish language market for books. Topics include publishing; school and library markets; bookstores; the role of the Latino press and Latino authors; coverage in…

  7. Marr: Magpie or Marsh Harrier? The Quest for the Common Characteristics of the Genus "Historian" with 16- to 19-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffin, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Diana Laffin writes about historical language and explores how understanding different historians' use of language can help sixth form students refine and deepen both their understanding of the discipline of history and their abilities to practise the discipline in their own writing. What does close study of the textual habits and practices of…

  8. Rachel's Challenge: A Moral Compass for Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingshead, Barbara; Crump, Christi; Eddy, Rochelle; Rowe, Dina

    2009-01-01

    Though American life in 1923 was significantly different than the present day, authors John Dewey and Diana Brannon share similar concerns about character. Historically, educators as far back as the 1800s have felt an obligation to the community to transcend the primary purpose for schooling by including character education in their curricula.…

  9. Using Group-Based Learning in Higher Education. Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Lin, Ed.; Gregory, Roy, Ed.

    The 26 papers in this collection from a British conference first provide an overview of group-based learning in higher education, offer a range of examples, and identify issues and trends. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction" (Roy Gregory and Lin Thorley); (2) "An Overview from Higher Education" (Diana M. R. Tribe); (3) "The UPshot Programme:…

  10. Otherness through Elves: Into Elfland and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamazaki, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    This article examines three novels which use stories of elves--especially the ballad "Tam Lin"--as pre-texts, and contemplates how they explore the issue of Otherness. The three novels are "The Sterkarm Handshake" by Susan Price, "Cold Tom" by Sally Prue, and "Fire and Hemlock" by Diana Wynne Jones. Although the novels seem to be about elves as…

  11. Suffixation influences receivers' behaviour in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Coye, Camille; Ouattara, Karim; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Compared to humans, non-human primates have very little control over their vocal production. Nonetheless, some primates produce various call combinations, which may partially offset their lack of acoustic flexibility. A relevant example is male Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli), which give one call type (‘Krak’) to leopards, while the suffixed version of the same call stem (‘Krak-oo’) is given to unspecific danger. To test whether recipients attend to this suffixation pattern, we carried out a playback experiment in which we broadcast naturally and artificially modified suffixed and unsuffixed ‘Krak’ calls of male Campbell's monkeys to 42 wild groups of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana diana). The two species form mixed-species groups and respond to each other's vocalizations. We analysed the vocal response of male and female Diana monkeys and overall found significantly stronger vocal responses to unsuffixed (leopard) than suffixed (unspecific danger) calls. Although the acoustic structure of the ‘Krak’ stem of the calls has some additional effects, subject responses were mainly determined by the presence or the absence of the suffix. This study indicates that suffixation is an evolved function in primate communication in contexts where adaptive responses are particularly important. PMID:25925101

  12. The Rules of the Game: Women and the Leaderist Turn in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This paper engages with Diana Leonard's writing on how gender is constituted in the academy. It offers an international review of feminist knowledge on how gender and power interact with leadership in higher education. It interrogates the "leaderist turn" or how leadership has developed into a popular descriptor and a dominant social and…

  13. "Keeping Close and Spoiling" Revisited: Exploring the Significance of "Home" for Family Relationships and Educational Trajectories in a Marginalised Estate in Urban South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannay, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits Diana Leonard's seminal paper "Keeping close and spoiling in a south Wales town", by drawing on one mother and daughter case study. Leonard focused on geographical closeness and the strategies employed by parents to keep their children living at home, rather than sending them to university. In contrast, this…

  14. Reform in Administrator Preparation Programs: Individual Perspectives. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.; Bryant, Miles T., Ed.

    This publication contains five chapters that focus on individual perspectives of reform in administrator-preparation programs. In "One Person's Links Between Administration and the Academy," Ann Weaver Hart offers a self-study that views administrative leadership as an ongoing process of social validation and socialization. Diana G. Pounder, in…

  15. Suffixation influences receivers' behaviour in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Coye, Camille; Ouattara, Karim; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-05-22

    Compared to humans, non-human primates have very little control over their vocal production. Nonetheless, some primates produce various call combinations, which may partially offset their lack of acoustic flexibility. A relevant example is male Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli), which give one call type ('Krak') to leopards, while the suffixed version of the same call stem ('Krak-oo') is given to unspecific danger. To test whether recipients attend to this suffixation pattern, we carried out a playback experiment in which we broadcast naturally and artificially modified suffixed and unsuffixed 'Krak' calls of male Campbell's monkeys to 42 wild groups of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana diana). The two species form mixed-species groups and respond to each other's vocalizations. We analysed the vocal response of male and female Diana monkeys and overall found significantly stronger vocal responses to unsuffixed (leopard) than suffixed (unspecific danger) calls. Although the acoustic structure of the 'Krak' stem of the calls has some additional effects, subject responses were mainly determined by the presence or the absence of the suffix. This study indicates that suffixation is an evolved function in primate communication in contexts where adaptive responses are particularly important. PMID:25925101

  16. Working with Staff Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldhuis, Hollace Anne

    2012-01-01

    The author's presentation at the staff meeting centered on Diana Baumrind's parenting styles framework (Baumrind, 1967). Baumrind believed that there were four requirements for effective guidance: nurturing, communication, maturity demands, and control. She rated parents on these four dimensions and identified the pattern of parenting that…

  17. Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians: Is There Still a Disconnect between Professional Education and Professional Responsibilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrock, Theresa; Fabian, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    In 1993, based on the proficiencies for bibliographic instruction librarians (1986), Diana Shonrock and Craig Mulder investigated if and where librarians were acquiring these proficiencies. In 2007, ACRL approved a revised set of proficiencies: Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians and Coordinators. The authors recreated the 1993 study, using…

  18. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  19. How Schools Can Support Children Who Experience Loss and Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    Scenes of public grieving such as followed the death of Princess Diana bear little resemblance to the "taboo" status of death and bereavement at an individual level. For schools and the support services with whom they work, responding to pupils' experiences of loss and death, especially of parents, is challenging. This paper draws on research and…

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Media Ethics Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Media Ethics division of the proceedings contains the following 6 papers: "A Masochist's Teapot: Where to Put the Handle in Media Ethics" (Thomas W. Hickey); "Stalker-razzi and Sump-pump Hoses: The Role of the Media in the Death of Princess Diana" (Elizabeth Blanks Hindman); "The Promise and Peril of Anecdotes in News Coverage: An Ethical…

  1. Republic of Noise: The Loss of Solitude in Schools and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Diana

    2011-01-01

    In "Republic of Noise," Diana Senechal confronts a culture that has come to depend on instant updates and communication at the expense of solitude. Where once it was common wisdom that the chatter of the present, about the present, could not always grasp the present, today we treat "real time" as though it were the only real time. Schools…

  2. AAHE Bulletin, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchese, Theodore J., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 10 issues of this bulletin present reports, reviews and essays on issues concerning the advancement of higher education. Major articles include: "Learning, Teaching Technology"--an interview with Diana Laurillard of Britain's Open University; "Learning, Technology, and the Way We Work" (Russ Edgerton and Barbara Leigh Smith); "Implementing the…

  3. Flexible Learning Strategies in Higher and Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Diana, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers written by contributors from all areas of Great Britain in further and higher education. The following papers are included: "Learning to Be Flexible" (Diana Thomas); "Managing Change: Towards a New Paradigm?" (Mac Stephenson, Timothy Lehmann); "Open Learning: Educational Opportunity or Convenient Solution to Practical…

  4. 76 FR 22075 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa... Mesa Vegetation Management Project Public Comment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diana McGinn at 719... for Action The purpose and need for the Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project is move...

  5. Education, Diversity, and Inclusion in Burmese Refugee Camps in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Su-Ann; van der Stouwe, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the "two faces" model of education through which Kenneth Bush and Diana Saltarelli (2000) describe the positive and negative roles that education can play in situations of ethnic conflict. The authors apply it more narrowly to analyze the effect of inclusion and diversity in education in a conflict situation. In addition to…

  6. Making Matter Making Us: Thinking with Grosz to Find Freedom in New Feminist Materialisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alecia Youngblood

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I offer a very close reading of Grosz [2010. "Feminism, Materialism, and Freedom." In "New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and Politics," edited by Diana Coole and Samantha Frost, 139-157. Durham, NC: Duke University Press] thinking with Bergson in order to re-conceptualise freedom, matter, and the subject in new…

  7. Assessing Individuals with Disabilities in Educational, Employment, and Counseling Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Ruth B., Ed.; Smith, Douglas K., Ed.

    This book is designed to assist testing professionals as they face the challenge of how best to assess and test people with disabilities. Chapters include: (1) "Testing Individuals with Disabilities: Reconciling Social Science and Social Policy" (Diana Pullin); (2) "The Psychometrics of Testing Individuals with Disabilities" (Kurt F. Geisinger and…

  8. Good/Bad Girls Read Together: Pre-Adolescent Girls' Co-Authorship of Feminine Subject Positions during a Shared Reading Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enciso, Patricia E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses reading with pre-teens Francine Pascal's "Sweet Valley Twins: Best Friends," one of a series of pre-romance novels featuring identical twin sisters. Interviews six girls using the Symbolic Representation Interview (SRI) about the good girl/bad girl dichotomy in novels and other media. Provides comments by Tom Romano and Diana Mitchell.…

  9. JiaZhang Dui ErTong FaZhan TongBan GuanXi De ZuoYong (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  10. Sex Differences in the Development of Moral Reasoning: A Rejoinder to Baumrind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the criticisms of Diana Baumrind's review of his research on sex differences in moral reasoning development. Discusses issues such as the nature of moral development, the focus on adulthood, the choice of statistics, the effect of differing sample sizes and scoring systems, and the role of sexual experiences in explaining variability in…

  11. The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  12. Los biocombustibles y el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Cómo podremos utilizar los biocombustibles en el futuro? La ingeniera aeroespacial de la NASA, Diana Centeno Gómez nos explica el futuro de los biocombustibles y cómo un día podrías trabajar con d...

  13. Mini-Portfolio on Math and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching PreK-8, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents six articles dealing with math and science education: "Sneaker Geometry" (Jack George), "Fairs with a Flair" (Diane McCarty), "Generating Excitement with Math Projects" (Jeffrey Kostecky and Louis Roe), "Playing with Numbers" (Diana Smith), "When Student Teachers Want to Do Hands-On Science" (Betsy Feldkamp-Price), and "Science ala Carte"…

  14. Teaching for Tomorrow: Integrating LRE and the Social Studies. Bar/School Partnership Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowiec, Jack, Ed.

    This collection of four short articles presents teaching strategies to enrich the social studies curriculum and promote students' sense of citizenship. Diana Hess outlines how cooperative learning stimulates the skills necessary for effective participation in a democratic society. By taking an active role in their own education and respecting the…

  15. 75 FR 30368 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Availability Procedures and Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Availability... comments must be submitted on or before August 2, 2010. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Diana... and industry to make foreign availability determinations in accordance with Section 768 of the...

  16. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  17. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…

  18. El Papel de los Padres en el Desarrollo de la Competencia Social (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  19. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Michael; Hankins, Diana

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to encourage dialogue and reflection on matters of common concern and interest, the journal staff invite responses on selected articles from other educators, who engage the text critically and offer some reflections about its utility and validity. This article offers responses from Michael Fierro and Diana Hankins on the article…

  20. Precious Knowledge: Teaching Solidarity with Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carberry, Devin

    2013-01-01

    The author's class has been invited to speak on NPR's "Call-In-Radio" and two of her students, Omar and Diana, were elected to be their spokespeople regarding HB 2281, Arizona's controversial ethnic studies ban. Omar stressed that he and his classmates are engaged by this topic because they see what's happening in Arizona is wrong--that they are…

  1. Pedagogy Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marashio, Paul, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This annual serial volume contains 13 articles offering practical pedagogical ideas from faculty at New Hampshire Technical Colleges. After a brief preface, the following articles are presented: (1) "Variety Is the Spice of Learning," by Sandra Cole; (2) "Separating the Wheat from the Chaff at the Annual Conference," by Diana Wyman; (3) "Teaching…

  2. Rethinking "Harmonious Parenting" Using a Three-Factor Discipline Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Diana Baumrind's typology of parenting is based on a two-factor model of "control" and "warmth". Her recommended discipline style, labeled "authoritative parenting", was constructed by taking high scores on these two factors. A problem with authoritative parenting is that it does not allow for flexible and differentiated responses to discipline…

  3. Should Teachers Help Students Develop Partisan Identities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Diana E.; McAvoy, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Five years ago, Diana Hess was teaching a graduate seminar called "Democratic Education." The purpose of the seminar was to critically analyze two seemingly simple, but actually very complex, questions: What is democracy? What is democratic education? Both are contested concepts, and the seminar was designed to help students understand…

  4. Forging a New Direction: How UTEP Created Its Own Brand of Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.; Natalicio, Diana S.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) sits on the border of Mexico and the United States in the middle of the world's largest binational metropolitan region. For years, it struggled to compete with top-tier research institutions with far greater resources in a quest to become "Harvard on the Border." In the late 1980s, new president Diana S.…

  5. Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Materials Guidebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American College Personnel Association's (ACPA's) Sustainability Task Force partnered with the Commission on Assessment and Evaluation with the goal of creating assessment tools to help ACPA members effectively measure student learning around sustainability. Towards these ends, Kimberly Yousey-Elsener (StudentVoice), Diana Richter Keith…

  6. 76 FR 9578 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Conducting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... for More Information: Diana Bartlett, M.P.H., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, N.E...:30 p.m.-3 p.m., April 13, 2011 (Closed). Place: Teleconference. Status: The meeting will be closed to... Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  7. One-Stop Shopping: A Library-Based Corporate Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handman, Pamela L.; Ziegler, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Cetus Corporation library's online information system, called ISCLine (Information Services Center Line). Menu options are explained, system maintenance is described, the use of the system by employees and staff is examined, and future possibilities are considered. A sidebar by Diana L. Ziegler describes programing procedures for…

  8. Language and Music as Communication: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Roger Brown, Diana Deutsch, Warren Benson, and Ruth Day comment on the similarities and differences between verbal language and music as forms of communication. This discussion occurred at the first session of the National Symposium on the Applications of Psychology to the Teaching and Learning of Music, Ann Arbor. (SJL)

  9. DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD-BIOREACTORS USING THE BEST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD-BIOREACTORS USING THE BEST MODEL

    Marek H. Zaluski1,3, Brian T. Park1, Diana R. Bless2

    1 MSE Technology Applications; 200 Technology Way, Butte, Montana 59701, USA
    2 U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinna...

  10. You Are Embarked: How a Philosophy Curriculum Took Shape and Took Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Diana Senechal teaches philosophy at Columbia Secondary School for Math, Science, and Engineering in New York City; in addition, she serves on the faculty of the Sue Rose Summer Institute for Teachers at the Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture. In this article she states that if someone had told her five years ago that she would be a high…

  11. Introduction to "Multicultural Voices: Peer Tutoring and Critical Reflection in the Writing Center"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Nancy Maloney

    2010-01-01

    In 1991 when Diana George, Ed Lotto, and the author were publishing their first issue as "WCJ" editors, this multivoiced essay struck her as a prime example of their editorial belief that writing centers could be "agents of change in the academy." As Gail Okawa and Tom Fox observe, "Most universities are inhospitable to more democratic definitions…

  12. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  13. On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Diana, Ed.

    This publication presents interviews with 11 prominent women, representing different backgrounds, philosophies, and life experiences, in which they speak about their own experiences with work and family issues. The introduction, "On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family" (Diana Zuckerman), provides an overview. The 11 interviews…

  14. The deaf child--challenges in management: a parent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Glover, Diana M

    2003-12-01

    Diana Glover lives in Buckinghamshire, UK with her husband, Ray, and their three sons, William (21), Robin (19) and Benjamin (10). Robin and Benjamin are profoundly deaf. Ray also has a hearing loss, which is unconnected with the children's deafness. Diana is a trustee of the National Deaf Children's Society. Diana will compare Robin's experiences with those of Benjamin. She will show how difficult it was to obtain a diagnosis of Robin's deafness, in spite of her early anxieties about his hearing, and that this had a marked impact on Robin's speech and language acquisition. She will speak about the struggle she and Ray had to convince their Local Education Authority that Robin should move from mainstream schooling to a boarding school for the deaf at the age of 9. She will also express her current anxieties as Robin, who has only deaf friends, moves from Mary Hare Grammar School for the Deaf to mainstream Higher Education. Robin's experiences will be contrasted with Benjamin's diagnosis at 7 weeks and progress in mainstream education. Diana will also highlight some of the issues that she and Ray had to consider when they agreed that Benjamin should have a cochlear implant at the age of 2. It will be demonstrated that having one hearing and two deaf sons has a profound effect on relationships within the family and with professionals. Diana will show how she and Ray have learned that one can easily overlook the needs of a hearing sibling, and that it is equally important for deaf children to come to terms with their disability. She will summarise the difficult choices they have had to make over implantation, communication methods and schooling and demonstrate that, even within one family, the needs of deaf children are never the same. PMID:14662194

  15. 78 FR 59 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Honduran Emerald Hummingbird

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list as endangered the Honduran emerald hummingbird (Amazilia luciae) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This species is endemic to a small area in Honduras, and the population is estimated to be less than 1,000 and decreasing. Its suitable habitat has decreased in the past 100 years and continues to......

  16. 14 J/2 Hz Yb3+:YAG diode pumped solid state laser chain.

    PubMed

    Gonçalvès-Novo, Thierry; Albach, Daniel; Vincent, Bernard; Arzakantsyan, Mikayel; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-14

    The Lucia laser chain is a Diode Pumped Solid State Laser system based on Yb3+ doped YAG disks used in an active mirror scheme. Front-end and amplifier stages are presented with recent energetic performances (14 J/2 Hz) achieved with improved pumping and extraction architectures. Emphasis is given on the crucial role of ASE and thermal mitigation considerations in engineering the amplifier head. PMID:23388979

  17. Model coupling methodology for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical numerical simulations in integrated assessment of long-term site behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The integrated assessment of long-term site behaviour taking into account a high spatial resolution at reservoir scale requires a sophisticated methodology to represent coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes of relevance. Our coupling methodology considers the time-dependent occurrence and significance of multi-phase flow processes, mechanical effects and geochemical reactions (Kempka et al., 2014). Hereby, a simplified hydro-chemical coupling procedure was developed (Klein et al., 2013) and validated against fully coupled hydro-chemical simulations (De Lucia et al., 2015). The numerical simulation results elaborated for the pilot site Ketzin demonstrate that mechanical reservoir, caprock and fault integrity are maintained during the time of operation and that after 10,000 years CO2 dissolution is the dominating trapping mechanism and mineralization occurs on the order of 10 % to 25 % with negligible changes to porosity and permeability. De Lucia, M., Kempka, T., Kühn, M. A coupling alternative to reactive transport simulations for long-term prediction of chemical reactions in heterogeneous CO2 storage systems (2014) Geosci Model Dev Discuss 7:6217-6261. doi:10.5194/gmdd-7-6217-2014. Kempka, T., De Lucia, M., Kühn, M. Geomechanical integrity verification and mineral trapping quantification for the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site by coupled numerical simulations (2014) Energy Procedia 63:3330-3338, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.361. Klein E, De Lucia M, Kempka T, Kühn M. Evaluation of longterm mineral trapping at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage: an integrative approach using geo-chemical modelling and reservoir simulation. Int J Greenh Gas Con 2013; 19:720-730. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.05.014.

  18. Incorporating Geologic Constraints Into a Tsunami Hazard Assessment, South-Central Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, K.; Nishenko, S.; Cluff, L.; Rietman, J.; Angell, M.; Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G.; Greene, H. G.

    2006-12-01

    The central California coast lies within a tectonically active region where displacements of the sea floor from both tectonic fault ruptures and submarine landslides may pose a tsunami hazard. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company recently conducted an extensive reanalysis of marine data along the continental margin from Point Conception to Point Sur (34.5° to 36.5°N) to identify potential tsunami sources. The study area encompasses the continental shelf and slope, including the offshore Santa Maria basin, Sur basin, the western part of the Ventura basin, the Santa Lucia Bank, the Santa Lucia basin, and the Santa Lucia Escarpment. The primary objectives of this study were to: a) perform a comprehensive compilation and review of available marine geophysical data; b) construct digital elevation models (DEMs) at the highest possible resolution by re- processing individual surveys that comprise the NGDC/NOAA coastal relief model; c) use these combined data sets in a GIS environment to aid in the identification and characterization of local tsunami sources and to provide a reference sea floor surface to be used in modeling tsunami effects; and d) develop a probablisitic framework to evaluate hazard from both far-field and near-field tsunami sources. A geomorphic seafloor classification map was developed based on the DEMs, published maps, available single channel seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric data, as well as known/inferred relationships between landforms, modes of sediment transport and erosion, and underlying geologic structure. Estimates of the recurrence and maximum dimensions of large landslides along the Santa Lucia Escarpment are based on interpretation of the number, extent, and depth of burial by pelagic sediments of individual slide masses. Fault source and potential slope failure parameters were then used in a variable-grid, non-linear tsunami wave propagation model to assess the impact of these potential tsunami sources on the central

  19. Convergent validity of a novel method for quantifying rowing training loads.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jacqueline; Rice, Anthony J; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Elite rowers complete rowing-specific and non-specific training, incorporating continuous and interval-like efforts spanning the intensity spectrum. However, established training load measures are unsuitable for use in some modes and intensities. Consequently, a new measure known as the T2minute method was created. The method quantifies load as the time spent in a range of training zones (time-in-zone), multiplied by intensity- and mode-specific weighting factors that scale the relative stress of different intensities and modes to the demands of on-water rowing. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity of the T2minute method with Banister's training impulse (TRIMP), Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE when quantifying elite rowing training. Fourteen elite rowers (12 males, 2 females) were monitored during four weeks of routine training. Unadjusted T2minute loads (using coaches' estimates of time-in-zone) demonstrated moderate-to-strong correlations with Banister's TRIMP, Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE (rho: 0.58, 0.55 and 0.42, respectively). Adjusting T2minute loads by using actual time-in-zone data resulted in stronger correlations between the T2minute method and Banister's TRIMP and Lucia's TRIMP (rho: 0.85 and 0.81, respectively). The T2minute method is an appropriate in-field measure of elite rowing training loads, particularly when actual time-in-zone values are used to quantify load. PMID:25083912

  20. PREFACE: Conference Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    ORGANISING COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov - Chairman, Kiril Blagoev - Vice-Chairman, Margarita Grozeva - Scientific secretary, Kostadinka Gesheva, Anna Szekeres, Hassan Chamati, Diana Nesheva, Peter Rafailov, Yordan Marinov, Emilia Dimova, Tatyana Ivanova, Radostina Kamburova, Ekaterina Iordanova, Julia Genova, Alexander Donkov, Emilia Vlaikova SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov, Bulgaria; Nikola Sabotinov, Bulgaria; Kiril Blagoev, Bulgaria; Nicholay Tonchev, Bulgaria; Hassan Chamati, Bulgaria; Marin Gospodinov, Bulgaria; Peter Rafailov, Bulgaria; Emil Vlakhov, Bulgaria; Kostadinka Gesheva, Bulgaria; Anna Szekeres, Bulgaria; Diana Nesheva, Bulgaria; Albena Paskaleva, Bulgaria; Tatyana Ivanova, Bulgaria; Alexander Dreischuh, Bulgaria; Evgenia Valcheva, Bulgaria; Miglena Nikolaeva-Dimitrova, Bulgaria; Sanka Gateva, Bulgaria; Frank Hamelmann, Germany; Nicola Scaramuzza, Italy; G.M.W. Kroesen, Netherlands; Jan van Dijk Netherlands; Andrzej Szewczyk, Poland; Henryk Szymczak, Poland; Krzistof Rogacki, Poland; Ion Mihailescu, Romania; Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sweden; Mikael Jonsson, Sweden; Andrew Livingston, UK; Ludmila Peeva, UK

  1. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  2. What All Teachers Hope for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how he had touched the life of one of his troubled students. He relates how he had helped Diana, his student, make her life a little smoother after her mother's suicide. He relates that this is the very reason why he had loved teaching for most of his 40-year career as an educator. The author states that the…

  3. [Effect of erythrocyte preserved for different lengths of time on anti-D antibody identification with three blood matching tests].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui-Qing; Lin, Wu-Cun; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Jie; Wu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Shu-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The specificity of the antigens and length of preservation time of erythrocytes are the interfering factors in blood group serological tests. In order to clarify the influence of preservation time of erythrocytes on the blood matching test, the titers of anti-D antibody were detected with papain method, BioVue cross matching card and DianaGel cross matching card in 7 series of panel red blood cells preserved for various length of time (0 to 9 months). The results showed that the titer of micro-column gel test (DianaGel card) was one tube higher than that of column agglutinating test (BioVue card). The titer of erythrocytes preserved for 9 months was as high as 256 tested by DianaGel card, but it was only 2 by papain method in the same anti-serum. It is suggested that there was no obvious difference between the results of micro-column gel test and column agglutinating test, and titer of papain method was the lowest. PMID:14575550

  4. Accurate microRNA target prediction correlates with protein repression levels

    PubMed Central

    Maragkakis, Manolis; Alexiou, Panagiotis; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L; Reczko, Martin; Dalamagas, Theodore; Giannopoulos, George; Goumas, George; Koukis, Evangelos; Kourtis, Kornilios; Simossis, Victor A; Sethupathy, Praveen; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Koziris, Nectarios; Sellis, Timos; Tsanakas, Panagiotis; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are small endogenously expressed non-coding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression through translation repression or messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNA regulation is performed through pairing of the microRNA to sites in the messenger RNA of protein coding genes. Since experimental identification of miRNA target genes poses difficulties, computational microRNA target prediction is one of the key means in deciphering the role of microRNAs in development and disease. Results DIANA-microT 3.0 is an algorithm for microRNA target prediction which is based on several parameters calculated individually for each microRNA and combines conserved and non-conserved microRNA recognition elements into a final prediction score, which correlates with protein production fold change. Specifically, for each predicted interaction the program reports a signal to noise ratio and a precision score which can be used as an indication of the false positive rate of the prediction. Conclusion Recently, several computational target prediction programs were benchmarked based on a set of microRNA target genes identified by the pSILAC method. In this assessment DIANA-microT 3.0 was found to achieve the highest precision among the most widely used microRNA target prediction programs reaching approximately 66%. The DIANA-microT 3.0 prediction results are available online in a user friendly web server at PMID:19765283

  5. Zooplankton community structure during a transition from dry to wet state in a shallow, subtropical estuarine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Nicola K.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2015-12-01

    Lake St Lucia is among the most important shallow ecosystems globally and Africa's largest estuarine lake. It has long been regarded as a resilient system, oscillating through periods of hypersalinity and freshwater conditions, depending on the prevailing climate. The alteration of the system's catchment involving the diversion of the Mfolozi River away from Lake St Lucia, however, challenged the resilience of the system, particularly during the most recent drought (2002-2011), sacrificing much of its biodiversity. This study reports on the transition of the St Lucia zooplankton community from a dry hypersaline state to a new wet phase. Sampling was undertaken during routine quarterly surveys at five representative stations along the lake system from February 2011 to November 2013. A total of 54 taxa were recorded during the study period. The zooplankton community was numerically dominated by the calanoid copepods Acartiella natalensis and Pseudodiaptomus stuhlmanni and the cyclopoid copepod Oithona brevicornis. While the mysid Mesopodopsis africana was still present in the system during the wet phase, it was not found in the swarming densities that were recorded during the previous dry phase, possibly due to increased predation pressure, competition with other taxa and or the reconnection with the Mfolozi River via a beach spillway. The increase in zooplankton species richness recorded during the present study shows that the system has undergone a transition to wet state, with the zooplankton community structure reflecting that recorded during the past. It is likely, though, that only a full restoration of natural mouth functioning will result in further diversity increases.

  6. Individual household water supplies as a control measure against Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Unrau, G. O.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a programme to evaluate single control measures for reducing the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, household water supplies were installed in 5 rural settlements in the Riche Fond Valley of St Lucia. About 2 000 persons who previously were dependent on rivers and streams are now receiving safe water at their homes. The systems provide useful design data on individual water requirements in rural areas. This experience suggests that future rural water systems can be designed more economically and efficiently by using consumption rates that are closer to the actual requirements and by eliminating water wastage at the taps. PMID:1082378

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of Toxocara canis zoonotic infection of children in a Caribbean community

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, D. E.; Bundy, D. A. P.; Cooper, E. S.; Schantz, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The study reports the results of a summary of the prevalence and symptomatology of paediatric toxocariasis in Anse-la-Raye, St. Lucia. The seroprevalence of Toxocara canis among the children, as determined by ELISA, was 86%, the highest level recorded to date. In contrast, the prevalence of infection in dogs was not abnormally high, although the canine population was large and unconstrained compared to that in industrial countries. The presence of infective ova in peridomestic areas and the widespread practice of pica among children in the village probably combine to enhance exposure to infection. PMID:3488844

  8. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  9. Wavelength tunable, 264 J laser diode array for 10 Hz/1ms Yb:YAG pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteloup, J.-C.; Albach, D.; Assémat, F.; Bahbah, S.; Bourdet, G.; Piatti, P.; Pluvinage, M.; Vincent, B.; LeTouzé, G.; Mattern, T.; Biesenbach, J.; Müntz, H.; Noeske, A.; Venohr, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Lucia [1,2] Laser program, under development at the LULI laboratory, aims at delivering a 1030 nm, 100J, 10 Hz, 10 ns pulse train. The two laser heads used in the amplification stage relies on water-cooled mm-thick Yb:YAG disks, each of them pumped by a 34×13 cm2 Laser Diode Array (LDA). For each LDA, the 88 QCW diodes stacks manufactured by DILAS GmbH will be tiled in an 8×11 arrangement. Fine wavelength tuning is performed through bias current adjustment, water temperature control and conductivity adjustment. Wavelength homogeneity experimental verification has been validated.

  10. Extension to Low Energies (<7keV) of High Pressure X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Itie, J.-P.; Flank, A.-M.; Lagarde, P.; Idir, M.; Polian, A.; Couzinet, B.

    2007-01-19

    High pressure x-ray absorption has been performed down to 3.6 keV, thanks to the new LUCIA beamline (SLS, PSI) and to the use of perforated diamonds or Be gasket. Various experimental geometries are proposed, depending on the energy of the edge and on the concentration of the studied element. A few examples will be presented: BaTiO3 at the titanium K edge, Zn0.95 Mn0.05O at the manganese K edge, KCl at the potassium K edge.

  11. The role of synmetamorphic igneous rocks in the metamorphism and partial melting of metasediments, Northwest Adirondacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Roger E.; Bohlen, Steven R.

    1985-08-01

    Field and petrologic studies along the Adirondack Lowlands — Highlands boundary near Harrisville, NY, indicate that heat from the synmetamorphic intrusion of the Diana syenite complex (intrusion temperature of ˜1,050° C) played a major role in the local metamorphic thermal regime and was responsible for extensive partial melting of adjacent metasedimentary units (Major Paragneiss of Engel and Engel). Metamorphic temperatures inferred from two — feldspar and spinel — quartz assemblages decrease from 850 950° C along the Diana — metasediment contact to 650 700° C, 2 3 km away from the contact. Metamorphic pressures are 7±0.5 kb as determined from coexisting plagioclase — garnet — sillimanite — quartz, kyanite — sillimanite, and garnet — rutile — ilmenite — sillimanite — quartz (GRAIL). In the paragneiss, migmatites consisting of quartz — microcline perthite — sodic plagioclase leucosomes are generally concordant with the melanosome consisting of biotite — sillimanite — garnet — spinel — plagioclase ±corundum±cordierite. Qualitatively the amount of partial melt and occurrences of corundum-bearing assemblages decrease away from the Diana contact. Activity of H2O inferred from coexisting biotite — sillimanite — quartz — garnet — K-feldspar ranges from 0.01 to 0.17 and is five to ten times lower in corundum-bearing rocks. Melting proceeded via vapor-absent reactions involving biotite in response to localized heating by synmetamorphic intrusion of magma. This unusually preserved, synmetamorphic contact aureole in a regional granulite terrane supports the concept that granulites owe their origin to magma intrusion and/or the ponding of magmas at the base of the crust.

  12. Shimoda 1854: Historical Consequences of a Natural Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A.

    2012-04-01

    At the end of 1854 - beginning of 1855 Japan was struck by a series of powerful earthquakes known as the Ansei Great Earthquakes. The first one, Ansei-Tōkai Quake, occurred on 23 December, 1854. It had a magnitude of 8.4; the epicenter ranged from the centre of Suruga Bay to the south-east into the ocean. It was followed by the Ansei-Nankai Quake on 24 December. The earthquakes with the following tsunami caused a huge damage in several regions of Japan: more than 20,000 buildings were destroyed, about 30,000 casualties caused. This natural disaster was witnessed by a Russian diplomatic mission led by admiral Yevfimy Putyatin. His flagship, frigate Diana, stayed at Shimoda, and Putyatin was conducting long and difficult negotiations trying to convince Japan of signing a commercial treaty with Russia, when Shimoda was hit by the tsunami. Several members of the mission described their impressions in their memoirs. The city was almost completely destroyed (only 16 houses survived the disaster). Diana was also badly damaged and sank in a storm while sailing to Heda for repairs. It was decided to build a new ship for the Russian mission. Works were carried out in Heda with the help of plans salvaged from the Diana, and required a cooperation of Russian sailors and Japanese carpenters. In about two months a two-masted schooner was built, which was christened Heda in honour of the city that helped with its construction. The Heda was the first western-style ship built in Japan, and thus can be called a "grandfather" of a Japanese oceanic navy. On 26 January, 1855 the Russian-Japanese negotiations were successfully concluded, and the Treaty of Shimoda was signed, marking the start of official relations between Russia and Japan. Thus a terrible natural disaster framed one of the most vivid pages in history of the Japanese-Russian relationship.

  13. Formation of a narrow baryon resonance with positive strangeness in K + collisions with Xe nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmin, V. V.; Asratyan, A. E.; Borisov, V. S.; Curceanu, C.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Guaraldo, C.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Larin, I. F.; Matveev, V. A.; Shebanov, V. A.; Shishov, N. N.; Sokolov, L. I.; Tumanov, G. K.; Verebryusov, V. S.

    2010-07-01

    The data on the charge-exchange reaction K +Xe → K 0 pXe', obtained with the bubble chamber DIANA, are reanalyzed using increased statistics and updated selections. Our previous evidence for formation of a narrow pK 0 resonance with mass near 1538 MeV is confirmed. The statistical significance of the signal reaches some 8 (6) standard deviations when estimated as {S {sqrt B ( {{S {/ {sqrt {B + S} }}} )}} . The mass and intrinsic width of the Θ+ baryon are measured as m = 1538 ± 2 MeV and Γ = 0.39 ± 0.10 MeV.

  14. [New artificial lung respiration apparatuses for anesthesia and design of gas flow commutators].

    PubMed

    Reĭderman, E N; Sterlin, Iu G; Trushin, A I; Maiakov, A A; Nemirovskiĭ, S B; Tsvik, A I

    2005-01-01

    The principles of action of new anesthetic devices and apparatuses for mechanical lung ventilation (MLV) including alternate-flow inhalation generators designed in recent time in VNIIMP-VITA, Ltd. are considered. According to the type of drive, these apparatuses fall into groups of devices with pneumatic drive (Diana) and electric drive (Elan). New technological approaches to design of gas flow commutators for pneumatic drive and respiratory contours of MLV apparatuses are discussed. The design of a new source of stable pneumatic signals providing reliable operation of the control valves of the inhalation and exhalation contours of electrically driven apparatuses. This source allows necessary MLV modes to be implemented during anesthesia. PMID:16491662

  15. A Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Using Quantum Proxy Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Yu, Yao-Feng; Li, Peng-Fei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new electronic voting scheme using Bell entangled states as quantum channels. This scheme is based on quantum proxy signature. The voter Alice, vote management center Bob, teller Charlie and scrutineer Diana only perform single particle measurement to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. It can be easily realized. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to guarantee its anonymity, verifiability, unforgetability and undeniability.

  16. Classification of Murine Pulmonary Tumors —

    Cancer.gov

    This WEB site contains a digital atlas of virtual histological slides with representative mouse and human pulmonary proliferative lesions. It complements the paper "Classification of Proliferative Pulmonary Lesions of the Mouse: Recommendations of the Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium" by Alexander Yu. Nikitin, Ana Alcaraz, Miriam R. Anver, Roderick T. Bronson, Robert D. Cardiff, Darlene Dixon, Armando E. Fraire, Edward W. Gabrielson, William T. Gunning, Diana C. Haines, Matthew H. Kaufman, R. Ilona Linnoila, Robert R. Maronpot, Alan S. Rabson, Robert L. Reddick, Sabine Rehm, Nora Rozengurt, Hildegard M. Schuller, Elena N. Shmidt, William D. Travis, Jerrold M. Ward and Tyler Jacks published in Cancer Research 64: 2307-2316, 2004

  17. A Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Using Quantum Proxy Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Yu, Yao-Feng; Li, Peng-Fei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new electronic voting scheme using Bell entangled states as quantum channels. This scheme is based on quantum proxy signature. The voter Alice, vote management center Bob, teller Charlie and scrutineer Diana only perform single particle measurement to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. It can be easily realized. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to guarantee its anonymity, verifiability, unforgetability and undeniability.

  18. The gifts of silence and solitude.

    PubMed

    Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    In this column the author describes the importance of finding silence and solitude amid the noise and technology present today in the teaching-learning academy. Three gifts of silence and solitude are identified: the gift of comforting aloneness, the gift of vision for new horizons, and the gift of a sense of freedom. A humanbecoming perspective is used to explore the implications of these gifts. This column introduces a column by Diana Vander Woude describing her teaching-learning experience in leadership focusing on silence and solitude. PMID:18096981

  19. A computer graphics based model for scattering from objects of arbitrary shapes in the optical region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Rozehnal, Ivan; Thompson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-graphics-based model, named DIANA, is presented for generation of objects of arbitrary shape and for calculating bidirectional reflectances and scattering from them, in the visible and infrared region. The computer generation is based on a modified Lindenmayer system approach which makes it possible to generate objects of arbitrary shapes and to simulate their growth, dynamics, and movement. Rendering techniques are used to display an object on a computer screen with appropriate shading and shadowing and to calculate the scattering and reflectance from the object. The technique is illustrated with scattering from canopies of simulated corn plants.

  20. Evaluation of one dimensional analytical models for vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Kuusk, Andres

    1992-01-01

    The SAIL model for one-dimensional homogeneous vegetation canopies has been modified to include the specular reflectance and hot spot effects. This modified model and the Nilson-Kuusk model are evaluated by comparing the reflectances given by them against those given by a radiosity-based computer model, Diana, for a set of canopies, characterized by different leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD). It is shown that for homogeneous canopies, the analytical models are generally quite accurate in the visible region, but not in the infrared region. For architecturally realistic heterogeneous canopies of the type found in nature, these models fall short. These shortcomings are quantified.

  1. Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb mineral ages, and strontium, lead, neodymium, and oxygen isotopic compositions for granitic rocks from the Salinian Composite Terrane, California:

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kistler, R.W.; Champion, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes new and published age and isotopic data for whole-rocks and minerals from granitic rocks in the Salinian composite terrane, California. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock ages of plutons are in two groups, Early Cretaceous (122 to 100 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (95 to 82 Ma). Early Cretaceous plutons occur in all granitic rock exposures from Bodega Head in the north to those from the Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges in the central part of the terrane. Late Cretaceous plutons have been identified in the Point Reyes Peninsula, the Santa Lucia and the Gabilan Ranges, and in the La Panza Range in the southern part of the terrane. Ranges of initial values of isotopic compositions are 87Sr/86Sr, 0.7046-0.7147, δ18O, +8.5 to +12.5 per mil, 206Pb/204Pb, 18.901-19.860, 207Pb/204Pb, 15.618-15.814, 208Pb/204Pb, 38.569- 39.493, and εNd, +0.9 to -8.6. The initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.706 isopleth is identified in the northern Gabilan Range and in the Ben Lomond area of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in Montara Mountain, in Bodega Head, and to the west of the Farallon Islands on the Cordell Bank. This isotopic boundary is offset about 95 miles (160km) by right-lateral displacements along the San Gregorio-Hosgri and San Andreas fault systems.

  2. Simulating Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the LSST Image Simulation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizagno, James; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Chang, C.; Gibson, R. R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Jones, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Krughoff, S. K.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Shmakova, S. M.; Sylvestri, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an extragalactic source catalog, which includes galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei, that is used for the Large Survey Synoptic Telescope Imaging Simulation effort. The galaxies are taken from the De Lucia et. al. (2006) semi-analytic modeling (SAM) of the Millennium Simulation. The LSST Image Simulation effort requires full SED information and galaxy morphological information, which is added to the catalog by fitting Bruzual & Charlot (2003) stellar population models, with Cardelli, Clayton, Mathis (1989) dust models, to the BVRIK colors provided by the De Lucia et. al. (2006) SAM. Galaxy morphology is modeled as a double Sersic profile for the disk and bulge. Galaxy morphological information and number counts are matched to existing observations. The catalog contains galaxies with a limiting r-band magnitude of mr=28, which results in roughly 1E6 galaxies per square degree. An existing AGN catalog (MacLeod et. al. 2010) is matched to galaxy hosts in the galaxy catalog using SDSS observations. AGN are morphologically modeled as variable point sources located at the center of the host galaxy. We demonstrate how this extragalactic source catalog allows LSST to plan for extended object extraction, variable extragalactic source detection, sensitivity level determination after image stacking, and perform various other cosmological tests.

  3. Race, ethnicity and prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Wilson, M. Roy

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, some authors pooled data from studies on the Dutch, Australians and Americans of European origin in an attempt to predict the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the United States. PURPOSE: To examine potential ethnic diversity in the prevalence of POAG among populations of the "same race." Methods: Medical literature was searched, and 11 population-based studies on populations of African origin and five on populations of European origin were identified. RESULTS: The prevalence of POAG was significantly higher in white Australians than in the Dutch (p<0.001) and was significantly lower (p<0.001) among black populations in South Africa, Nigeria, Tanzania and the United States than in Ghana, St. Lucia or Barbados. Notably, the prevalence was significantly lower in Afro Caribbeans living in London than in St. Lucia or Barbados (p<0.001). There was, however, inconsistency in the definition of POAG among the different studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide range in the prevalence of POAG among populations of the same "race," which might be attributed to the different methodology and definition of POAG; potential difference in social, behavioral and environmental factors; and/or genetic predisposition. Scrutiny is warranted when pooling data from different ethnic groups of the "same race" in meta-analyses. PMID:17052053

  4. Logging system adds value to field rejuvenation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, D.; Bartenhagen, K.; Santolamazza, A.

    1997-11-01

    As with any rejuvenation scheme, the first step is always identification and evaluation of potential producible reserves. But economic and physical factors made evaluation using traditional logging techniques problematic. The constraints that inhibited earlier logging tools have been addressed by a new, compact integrated system called Platform Express (PEX). Oil companies operating in two of the most mature producing regions of the US, the Hugoton-Panhandle Field and the Southwest Nena Lucia Field in West Texas, discuss the physical and economic advantages they are reaping using PEX technologies. Hugoton-Panhandle Field, discovered around 1920, sprawls across parts of three south-central states and has been one of the world`s largest gas producers. Despite continuing pressure declines in this aging gas giant, the entire region has undergone restoration in the last few years. In its Kansas portions, a modest oil production has almost doubled since 1990 and a steep gas decline has been completely turned around. These production gains have come from an active program of recompletions, the deepening of old holes and new drilling. The story in the southwest Nena Lucia Field is much the same. Operator Oryx Energy has been active in the field, located west of Abilene, Texas, since its discovery in the 1950s. The goal with this field is to use advanced technologies to reverse the production declines that began years ago. Such a reversal began in mid-1996 and has been sustained thus far.

  5. Influence of type and amount of straw cover on weed emergence.

    PubMed

    Correia, Núbia Maria; Durigan, Julio Cezar; Klink, Urubatan Palhares

    2005-01-01

    This research was undertaken during 2003-2004 growing season to evaluate the effects of type [forage sorghum "hybrid Cober Exp" (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense), forage millet (Pennisetum americanum "var. BN2"), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), and St Lucia grass (Brachiaria brizantha)] and amount of straw cover (5.5 and 3.0 t ha(-1)) upon the emergence of Bidens pilosa, Chamaesyce spp., Amaranthus spp., and Commelina benghalensis, under field conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado, in the region of Uberlândia--MG. The control consisted additional treatment lacking the straw cover. Emergence of weed depended on the type and amount of straw cover, as well as the weed species. The lowest number of B. pilosa seedlings was found in the presence of forage sorghum straw; Chamaesyce spp. in the lack of straw; Amaranthus spp. in the presence of higher amount of forage sorghum and forage millet, and lower amounts of forage millet and Finger Millet. All the types and amounts of straw reduced the emergency of C. benghalensis, except at the lowest level of St Lucia grass and the lack of straw. PMID:15656176

  6. Seismicity Patterns Before the Mw 6.5 San Simeon Earthquake of 22 December 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, M. K.; Stanton, M. A.; van der Elst, N. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Mw 6.5 San Simeon Earthquake of 22 December 2003 was the largest earthquake to occur in the south-central coastal region of California since the 1952 ML 6.2 Bryson earthquake. In response to this earthquake we have updated our catalog to study pre-mainshock seismicity patterns and monthly rates. The catalog consists of 2800 earthquakes recorded in the region from Oct 1987 to 19 Dec 2003 by the PG&E and USGS networks. Seismicity patterns over the 17-year period have been relatively consistent, generally coinciding with faults and areas of tectonic uplift, including the offshore regions N and S of the Santa Maria Basin, and onshore within the uplifting blocks of the Los Osos structural domain (LOD) and along the NW trending San Lucia Range. Seismically quiescent areas are the offshore Santa Maria Basin, onshore Santa Maria Valley and smaller onshore regions N and E of Estero Bay. Events constrained to horizontal and vertical errors less than 2 and 5 km show the depth of the seismogenic zone to be 12 to 15 km throughout the region, but nearly 20 km at the NW end of the Santa Lucia Range. Focal mechanisms show predominantly reverse and reverse oblique faulting within the Santa Lucia Range, along the uplifting structural blocks of the LOD, and the offshore region west of San Simeon. Right lateral strike-slip mechanisms are predominantly along the Hosgri fault zone and to the east in Estero Bay. Seismicity patterns along the Santa Lucia Range show three main spatial clusters extending SE from N of San Simeon, near Ragged Point to where the Oceanic and Nacimiento faults converge. The San Simeon mainshock and aftershock locations are consistent with previous seismicity. The mainshock hypocenter is at the NW end of the middle cluster at 11.3 km depth, near the base of the seismogenic zone. The aftershocks occur in two main clusters, one nearly coincident with the mainshock and the middle cluster and other coincident with the NW half of the SE cluster. Variations in the

  7. Collaboration on SEP Missions to the Moon and Small Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    In response to the Discovery announcement of opportunity a team consisting of TRW Lewis Research Center, JPL and UCLA with scientific co-investigators from government and University laboratories have proposed to fly the first planetary solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission. Diana is designed to carry an X-ray and gamma ray spectrometer, and imaging spectrometer, a framing camera, a laser altimer an ion spectrometer and a magnetometer. In order to obtain lunar gravity data from the far side of the moon a relay satellite is placed into high polar orbit about the moon to relay the Doppler-shifted telemetry to Earth. Diana will spend two months in a 700 km polar orbit obtaining mineralogical data from a full spectral map of the lunar surface, and then spend a year in a 100 km (or below) polar orbit mapping the lunar elemental composition, its topography, gravity field, ions from its atmosphere and its permanent and induced magnetic fields. After the low altitude mapping phase the ion thrusters propel the spacecraft out of the lunar sphere of influence and onto a heloioscentric trajectory to rendezvous with dormant comet Wilson-Harrington. The ground truth provided by the returned lunar samples to validate the remote sensing instruments for lunar studies will also serve to validate the Wilson-Harrington observations since the same instruments will be used at both bodies.

  8. Profile: Manhiça Health Research Centre (Manhiça HDSS).

    PubMed

    Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Aponte, John J; Bassat, Quique; Augusto, Orvalho; Mandomando, Inácio; Sacarlal, Jahit; Lauchande, Natu; Sigaúque, Betuel; Alonso, Pedro; Macete, Eusébio; Munguambe, Khátia; Guinovart, Caterina; Aide, Pedro; Menendez, Clara; Acácio, Sozinho; Quelhas, Diana; Sevene, Esperança; Nhampossa, Tacilta

    2013-10-01

    The Manhiça Health Research Centre, established in 1996 in a rural area of southern Mozambique, currently follows around 92 000 individuals living in approximately 20 000 enumerated and geo-positioned households. Its main strength is the possibility of linking demographic data and clinical data to promote and conduct biomedical research in priority health areas. Socio-demographic data are updated twice a year and clinical data are collected on a daily basis. The data collected in Manhiça HDSS comprises household and individual characteristics, household socio-economic assets, vital data, migration, individual health history and cause of death, among others. Studies conducted in this HDSS contributed to guide the health authorities and decision-making bodies to define or adjust health policies such as the introduction of Mozambique's expanded programme of immunization with different vaccines (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Pneumococcus) or the development of the concept of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Infants (IPTi) that led to the World Health Organization recommendation of this method as best practice for the control of malaria among infants. Manhiça's data can be accessed through a formal request to Diana Quelhas (diana.quelhas@manhica.net) accompanied by a proposal that will be analysed by the Manhiça HDSS internal scientific and ethics committees. PMID:24159076

  9. Sequence divergence, polymorphism and evolution of the middle-wave and long-wave visual pigment genes of great apes and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dulai, K S; Bowmaker, J K; Mollon, J D; Hunt, D M

    1994-10-01

    In man, the spectral shift between the middle-wave (MW) and long-wave (LW) visual pigments is largely achieved by amino acid substitution at two codons, both located in exon 5. A third amino acid site coded by exon 3 is polymorphic between pigments. We have studied the equivalent regions of the cone opsin genes in two members of the Hominidea (the gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes) and in three members of the Cercopithecoidea family of Old World primates (the diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana, the talapoin monkey, Miopithecus talapoin, and the crab-eating macaque, Macaca fascicularis). No variation in the codons that specify the amino acids involved in spectral tuning were found. We predict therefore that the MW and LW pigments of gorilla and chimpanzee have similar spectral characteristics to those of man. Multiple copies of the same opsin gene sequence were identified in the chimpanzee, talapoin and macaque and we also show that non-human Old World primates are similar to man in showing a bunching of polymorphic sites in exon 3. We discuss the ancestry of the separate MW and LW genes of Old World primates and the equivalent polymorphic gene of the marmoset, a New World primate. PMID:7975287

  10. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  11. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  12. Structure comparison of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein GliPR and the plant pathogenesis-related protein P14a indicates a functional link between the human immune system and a plant defense system.

    PubMed

    Szyperski, T; Fernández, C; Mumenthaler, C; Wüthrich, K

    1998-03-01

    The human glioma pathogenesis-related protein (GliPR) is highly expressed in the brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme and exhibits 35% amino acid sequence identity with the tomato pathogenesis-related (PR) protein P14a, which has an important role for the plant defense system. A molecular model of GliPR was computed with the distance geometry program DIANA on the basis of a P14a-GliPR sequence alignment and a set of 1,200 experimental NMR conformational constraints collected with P14a. The GliPR structure is represented by a group of 20 conformers with small residual DIANA target function values, low AMBER-energies after restrained energy-minimization with the program OPAL, and an average rms deviation relative to the mean of 1.6 A for the backbone heavy atoms. Comparison of the GliPR model with the P14a structure lead to the identification of a common partially solvent-exposed spatial cluster of four amino acid residues, His-69, Glu-88, Glu-110, and His-127 in the GliPR numeration. This cluster is conserved in all known plant PR proteins of class 1, indicating a common putative active site for GliPR and PR-1 proteins and thus a functional link between the human immune system and a plant defense system. PMID:9482873

  13. Structure comparison of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein GliPR and the plant pathogenesis-related protein P14a indicates a functional link between the human immune system and a plant defense system

    PubMed Central

    Szyperski, T.; Fernández, C.; Mumenthaler, C.; Wüthrich, K.

    1998-01-01

    The human glioma pathogenesis-related protein (GliPR) is highly expressed in the brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme and exhibits 35% amino acid sequence identity with the tomato pathogenesis-related (PR) protein P14a, which has an important role for the plant defense system. A molecular model of GliPR was computed with the distance geometry program diana on the basis of a P14a–GliPR sequence alignment and a set of 1,200 experimental NMR conformational constraints collected with P14a. The GliPR structure is represented by a group of 20 conformers with small residual diana target function values, low amber-energies after restrained energy-minimization with the program opal, and an average rms deviation relative to the mean of 1.6 Å for the backbone heavy atoms. Comparison of the GliPR model with the P14a structure lead to the identification of a common partially solvent-exposed spatial cluster of four amino acid residues, His-69, Glu-88, Glu-110, and His-127 in the GliPR numeration. This cluster is conserved in all known plant PR proteins of class 1, indicating a common putative active site for GliPR and PR-1 proteins and thus a functional link between the human immune system and a plant defense system. PMID:9482873

  14. Tensiometer-Based Irrigation Management of Subirrigated Soilless Tomato: Effects of Substrate Matric Potential Control on Crop Performance.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Francesco F; Serio, Francesco; Mininni, Carlo; Signore, Angelo; Parente, Angelo; Santamaria, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Automatic irrigation scheduling based on real-time measurement of soilless substrate water status has been recognized as a promising approach for efficient greenhouse irrigation management. Identification of proper irrigation set points is crucial for optimal crop performance, both in terms of yield and quality, and optimal use of water resources. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of irrigation management based on matric potential control on growth, plant-water relations, yield, fruit quality traits, and water-use efficiency of subirrigated (through bench system) soilless tomato. Tensiometers were used for automatic irrigation control. Two cultivars, "Kabiria" (cocktail type) and "Diana" (intermediate type), and substrate water potential set-points (-30 and -60 hPa, for "Diana," and -30, -60, and -90 hPa for "Kabiria"), were compared. Compared with -30 hPa, water stress (corresponding to a -60 hPa irrigation set-point) reduced water consumption (14%), leaf area (18%), specific leaf area (19%), total yield (10%), and mean fruit weight (13%), irrespective of the cultivars. At -60 hPa, leaf-water status of plants, irrespective of the cultivars, showed an osmotic adjustment corresponding to a 9% average osmotic potential decrease. Total yield, mean fruit weight, plant water, and osmotic potential decreased linearly when -30, -60, and -90 hPa irrigation set-points were used in "Kabiria." Unmarketable yield in "Diana" increased when water stress was imposed (187 vs. 349 g·plant(-1), respectively, at -30 and -60 hPa), whereas the opposite effect was observed in "Kabiria," where marketable yield loss decreased linearly [by 1.05 g·plant(-1) per unit of substrate water potential (in the tested range from -30 to -90 hPa)]. In the second cluster, total soluble solids of the fruit and dry matter increased irrespective of the cultivars. In the seventh cluster, in "Diana," only a slight increase was observed from -30 vs. -60 hPa (3.3 and 1

  15. Coupling of geochemical and multiphase flow processes for validation of the MUFITS reservoir simulator against TOUGHREACT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Afanasyev, Andrey; Melnik, Oleg; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Coupled reactive transport simulations, especially in heterogeneous settings considering multiphase flow, are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues compared to purely hydrodynamic simulations. This represents a major hurdle in the assessment of geological subsurface utilization, since it constrains the practical application of reactive transport modelling to coarse spatial discretization or oversimplified geological settings. In order to overcome such limitations, De Lucia et al. [1] developed and validated a one-way coupling approach between geochemistry and hydrodynamics, which is particularly well suited for CO2 storage simulations, while being of general validity. In the present study, the models used for the validation of the one-way coupling approach introduced by De Lucia et al. (2015), and originally performed with the TOUGHREACT simulator, are transferred to and benchmarked against the multiphase reservoir simulator MUFITS [2]. The geological model is loosely inspired by an existing CO2 storage site. Its grid comprises 2,950 elements enclosed in a single layer, but reflecting a realistic three-dimensional anticline geometry. For the purpose of this comparison, homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios in terms of porosity and permeability were investigated. In both cases, the results of the MUFITS simulator are in excellent agreement with those produced with the fully-coupled TOUGHREACT simulator, while profiting from significantly higher computational performance. This study demonstrates how a computationally efficient simulator such as MUFITS can be successfully included in a coupled process simulation framework, and also suggests ameliorations and specific strategies for the coupling of chemical processes with hydrodynamics and heat transport, aiming at tackling geoscientific problems beyond the storage of CO2. References [1] De Lucia, M., Kempka, T., and Kühn, M. A coupling alternative to reactive transport simulations

  16. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  17. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  18. Temperature Resolved 3-D Submillimeter Spectroscopy of Astronomical `WEEDs'.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortman, Sarah M.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2009-06-01

    We have previously reported on the experimental spectroscopic approach that makes possible the calculation of lower state energy levels and transition strengths without the need for spectral assignment. Analysis of the temperature dependent measurements significantly improves the estimate of the lower state energy, recovered by division of temperature dependent spectral intensities. Also, this approach provides results both in the standard astronomical catalog form (frequency, line strength, lower state energy) and as experimental temperature dependent spectra. We are reporting on temperature resolved 3-D spectroscopy of ethyl cyanide -- a well known astronomical `weed'. "An experimental approach to the prediction of complete millimeter and submillimeter spectra at astrophysical temperatures: Applications to confusion-limited astrophysical observations," I. R. Medvedev and F. C. De Lucia, Ap. J. 656, 621-628 (2007).

  19. Resistance in some Caribbean populations of Aedes aegypti to several insecticides.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, S C; Wan, J O

    1995-03-01

    Thirty-four strains of Aedes aegypti larvae from 17 Caribbean countries were bioassayed for sensitivity to temephos, malathion, fenitrothion, fenthion, and chlorpyrifos. There were fairly high levels of resistance in Tortola (10-12-fold resistance) and Antigua (6-9-fold resistance) strains to temephos and to fenthion (Tortola, 7-10-fold; Antigua, 6-10-fold resistance). Most other strains showed some resistance to malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos, but only moderate levels. Adult populations of Ae. aegypti--Aruba, Jamaica, Trinidad, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, and Antigua strains--also showed moderate resistance to malathion. Mosquito control field data supported the laboratory findings. Doubling the diagnostic dosage of temephos for larval Ae. aegypti was only partially effective against a more resistant strain, and even so, the chemical lost its limited efficacy over a short period of time. Integrated strategies for Ae. aegypti control to mitigate the negative effects of insecticide resistance in the Caribbean strains are suggested. PMID:7542312

  20. Methanol and the productivity of tropical crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, T.U.

    1995-12-31

    Studies are being conducted in Trinidad and Tobago, St. Lucia and St. Kitts/Nevis to determine the effect of aqueous solutions of methanol on the growth and yield of a wide range of vegetable, field and perennial crops. The paper presents a summary of results to data for ten of the crops studied. Six of these crops, lettuce, sweet pepper, tomato, mango and breadfruit, have shown significant increases in growth or yield with methanol application, while others such as pigeon pea, rice, banana and cocoa have shown more limited responses. There appears to be some potential for the use of methanol in tropical crop production but further studies are required before this apparent potential can be harnessed.

  1. Purpose-driven public sector reform: the need for within-government capacity build for the management of slope stability in communities in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Malcolm; Holcombe, Liz

    2006-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of within-government capacity build as the optimal approach to minimizing landslide risk to the most vulnerable communities in the developing world. Landslide risk is an integrated issue that demands strong managerial leadership and multidisciplinary inclusion to develop structures that deliver sustainable improvements in the reduction of risk. The tension between projects demanding international technical and financial intervention and those capable of "within-country" solutions are examined. More particularly, the challenges of developing a management methodology capable of energizing inter-ministry collaboration to achieve community-level action is examined in the context of a recently established program of slope stability management in St. Lucia. The program, Management of Slope Stability in Communities (MoSSaiC), is shown to have successfully fostered not only extensive technical collaboration within government but also to have energized local communities in the shared mission of capacity build through their direct involvement in the management process. PMID:16215650

  2. Seroprevalence of seven zoonotic pathogens in pregnant women from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Wood, Heidi; Drebot, Michael A; Dewailly, Eric; Dillon, Liz; Dimitrova, Kristina; Forde, Martin; Grolla, Allen; Lee, Elise; Loftis, Amanda; Makowski, Kai; Morrison, Karen; Robertson, Lyndon; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-09-01

    Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals. PMID:24914001

  3. Review of the longipalpus-Group of Chrysotus Meigen (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), with Description of Four New Species.

    PubMed

    Capellari, R S

    2015-02-01

    The longipalpus-group of Chrysotus Meigen is reviewed and comprises eight species: Chrysotus coquitos n. sp. (Mexico), Chrysotus crosbyi Van Duzee (Eastern US, Bermuda, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil; introduced in Australasian Region), Chrysotus longipalpus Aldrich (=Chrysotus sagittarius Van Duzee, n. syn.; Eastern US, Saint Vincent, Grenadas and Brazil; introduced in the Afrotropical, Australasian, Oriental and Palaearctic regions), Chrysotus miripalpus Parent (Costa Rica and Brazil), Chrysotus neopedionomus n. sp. (Brazil), Chrysotus pachystoma n. sp. (Belize), Chrysotus xiphostoma Robinson (Dominica and Saint Lucia), and Chrysotus zumbadoi n. sp. (Costa Rica). Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated for Chrysotus pallidipalpus Van Duzee, and a neotype for C. miripalpus. Illustrations of the hypopygium and ovipositor, photos of the male palpus and a key to species of the group are provided. PMID:26013012

  4. New Hires at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Fifty-six people joined the facility in January, February, and March 2014. The National Cancer Institute welcomes… Shailesh Ambre • Lucia Babini • Hideaki Bando • Sandip Basu • Konstantinos Dimas • Amber Elia • Lan Jin • Yifei Li • Hanhan Liu • Hugo Martinez • Manasi Mayekar • Michele Newton • Sheikh Rahman • Luis Rodriguez • Eric Sterner • Emmanuel Tavares • Yanping Wang • Sarah Watters

  5. Developing food-based dietary guidelines to promote healthy diets and lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Albert, Janice L; Samuda, Pauline M; Molina, Verónika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the general population in each of these countries. This paper reports on the comprehensive process of developing the guidelines through consensus building among stakeholders, technical assessments and priority setting, and use of qualitative methods to field test messages to ensure public understanding and motivation. Nutritionists in each country received training and support from the Food and Agriculture Organization and the Pan American Health Organization's nutritionists. PMID:17996630

  6. Seroprevalence of Seven Zoonotic Pathogens in Pregnant Women from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Heidi; Drebot, Michael A.; Dewailly, Eric; Dillon, Liz; Dimitrova, Kristina; Forde, Martin; Grolla, Allen; Lee, Elise; Loftis, Amanda; Makowski, Kai; Morrison, Karen; Robertson, Lyndon; Krecek, Rosina C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals. PMID:24914001

  7. First records of Gastrotricha from South Africa, with description of a new species of Halichaetonotus (Chaetonotida, Chaetonotidae).

    PubMed

    Todaro, M Antonio; Zotto, Matteo Dal; Bownes, Sarah J; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2011-01-01

    During a survey of the biota of the St. Lucia Estuary in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, a number of Gastrotricha were found among samples of meiofauna. Fresh, marine sediment yielded several specimens belonging to a total of seven species. Of these, two are already known from other regions (i.e., Dactylopodola australiensis and Heteroxenotrichula squamosa), one is described as new to science (Halichaetonotus sanctaeluciae sp. n.), while the remaining four (Pseudostomella sp., Halichaetonotus sp.1, Halichaetonotus sp. 2, Xenotrichula sp.) require further collections and analysis, in order to establish the extent of their affiliation to species already described. General appearance, shape of hydrofoil scale and the occurrence of three long spines on the dorsal side make the new species most closely related to Halichaetonotus australis and Halichaetonotus marivagus. The key differences from these taxa and between Halichaetonotus sanctaeluciae sp. n. and Halichaetonotus aculifer are discussed. PMID:22144860

  8. First records of Gastrotricha from South Africa, with description of a new species of Halichaetonotus (Chaetonotida, Chaetonotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Todaro, M. Antonio; Zotto, Matteo Dal; Bownes, Sarah J.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During a survey of the biota of the St. Lucia Estuary in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, a number of Gastrotricha were found among samples of meiofauna. Fresh, marine sediment yielded several specimens belonging to a total of seven species. Of these, two are already known from other regions (i.e., Dactylopodola australiensis and Heteroxenotrichula squamosa), one is described as new to science (Halichaetonotus sanctaeluciae sp. n.), while the remaining four (Pseudostomella sp., Halichaetonotus sp.1, Halichaetonotus sp. 2, Xenotrichula sp.) require further collections and analysis, in order to establish the extent of their affiliation to species already described. General appearance, shape of hydrofoil scale and the occurrence of three long spines on the dorsal side make the new species most closely related to Halichaetonotus australis and Halichaetonotus marivagus. The key differences from these taxa and between Halichaetonotus sanctaeluciae sp. n. and Halichaetonotus aculifer are discussed. PMID:22144860

  9. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  10. Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association.

    PubMed

    Temeles, Ethan J; Kress, W John

    2003-04-25

    Sexual dimorphism in bill morphology and body size of the Caribbean purple-throated carib hummingbird is associated with a reversal in floral dimorphism of its Heliconia food plants. This hummingbird is the sole pollinator of H. caribaea and H. bihai, with flowers of the former corresponding to the short, straight bills of males, the larger sex, and flowers of the latter corresponding to the long, curved bills of females. On St. Lucia, H. bihai compensates for the rarity of H. caribaea by evolving a second color morph with flowers that match the bills of males, whereas on Dominica, H. caribaea evolves a second color morph with flowers that match the bills of females. The nectar rewards of all Heliconia morphs are consistent with each sex's choice of the morph that corresponds to its bill morphology and energy requirements, supporting the hypothesis that feeding preferences have driven their coadaptation. PMID:12714743

  11. Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833–1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850–1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865–1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

  12. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Following publication of the Research Article by Orazio Caffo, Giovanni Lo Re, Teodoro Sava, Sebastiano Buti, Cosimo Sacco, Umberto Basso, Fable Zustovich, Michele Lodde, Alessandra Perin, Gaetano Facchini, Antonello Veccia, Francesca Maines, Carmen Barile, Lucia Fratino, Angela Gernone, Rocco De Vivo, Giovanni L Pappagallo & Enzo Galligioni titled ‘Intermittent docetaxel chemotherapy as first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients’, which appeared in the January 2015 issue of Future Oncology (11[6], 965–973 [2015]; www.futuremedicine.com/doi/full/10.2217/fon.14.284), it has come to our attention that the affiliation number 6 was incorrectly presented as: Medical Oncology Department, Istituto Oncologico Veneto, Padova, Italy. This should have been presented as: Medical Oncology Unit 1; Department of Clinical & Experimental Oncology, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV IRCCS, Padova Italy. The authors and editors of Future Oncology would like to sincerely apologize for any inconvenience or confusion this may have caused. PMID:26075450

  13. Diplosmittia caribensis, a new Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Wiedenbrug, Sofia; Silva, Fabio Laurindo Da

    2016-01-01

    The genus Diplosmittia was erected by Sæther (1981) based on Diplosmittia harrisoni from St. Lucia and St. Vincent in the British West Indies. Prior to the present study the genus comprised nine species, all except D. carinata Sæther were known only from Neotropical Region (Ashe & O'Connor, 2012). During sampling in the surroundings of a highly organic polluted river, in the National Botanical Garden in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, the present second author collected several imagines of Diplosmittia that did not fit any taxon treated in the recent review of the genus (Pinho et al. 2009). In the present paper, the male of this new species is described and illustrated. PMID:27394616

  14. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment: expected performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk; Adams, James H.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Dudnik, Alexey V.; Fazely, Ali R.; Garcia, L.; Grigorov, Naum L.; Guzik, T. Gregory; Inderhees, Susan E.; Isbert, Joachim; Jung, H. C.; Khein, L.; Kim, Sun-Kee; Kroeger, Richard A.; McDonald, Frank B.; Panasyuk, Mikhail I.; Park, Choong-Soo; Schmidt, Wolfgang K.; Dion-Schwartz, C.; Senchishin, V. G.; Wang, J. Z.; Wefel, John P.; Zatsepin, Viktor I.; Zinn, S. Y.

    1996-10-01

    An advanced thin ionization calorimeter (ATIC) will be used to investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of ultrahigh energy primary cosmic rays in a series of long- duration balloon flights. While obtaining new high priority scientific results, this balloon payload can also serve as a proof of concept for a BGO calorimeter-based instrument on the International Space Station. The ATIC technical details are presented in a companion paper at this conference. Here we discuss the expected performance of the instrument based on a GEANT code developed for simulating nuclear- electromagnetic cascades initiated by protons. For simulations of helium and heavy nuclei, a nucleus-nucleus interaction event generator LUCIAE was linked to the GEANT based program. Using these models, the design of the ATIC detector system has been optimized by simulating the instrument response to particles of different charges over the energy range to be covered. Results of these simulations are presented and discussed.

  15. Direct filtration for recovery of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae in the field

    PubMed Central

    Sandt, Donald G.

    1973-01-01

    The recovery of schistosome cercariae from natural waters has been limited by variations in turbidity and in the accuracy of recovery with different techniques. A modification of the Rowan vacuum paper filtration method employing a battery-operated pumping system, a glass—silicone plate filter, and a specially designed filter holder is described and evaluated. Field tests on St Lucia indicate a mean filtration volume of 12.2 litres per filter at a mean turbidity of 20.3 Jackson turbidity units. Overall, 86% of the volumes filtered per filter were in excess of 6 litres. Particle size, rather than turbidity, was found to be the main factor influencing filter blockage, reading time, and accuracy. Recoveries of 0.01 cercaria (Schistosoma mansoni) per litre sampled were obtained, but the practical limit of the method is considered to be closer to 0.1 cercaria per litre sampled. PMID:4541145

  16. Mm-Wave Spectroscopic Sensors, Catalogs, and Uncatalogued Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Ivan; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2014-06-01

    Analytical chemical sensing based on high resolution rotational molecular spectra has been recognized as a viable technique for decades. We recently demonstrated a compact implementation of such a sensor. Future generations of these sensors will rely on automated algorithms for quantification of chemical dilutions based on their spectral libraries, as well as identification of spectral features not present in spectral catalogs. Here we present an algorithm aimed at detection of unidentified lines in complex molecular species based on spectroscopic libraries developed in our previous projects. We will discuss the approaches suitable for data mining in feature-rich rotational molecular spectra. Neese, C.F., I.R. Medvedev, G.M. Plummer, A.J. Frank, C.D. Ball, and F.C. De Lucia, "A Compact Submillimeter/Terahertz Gas Sensor with Efficient Gas Collection, Preconcentration, and ppt Sensitivity." Sensors Journal, IEEE, 2012. 12(8): p. 2565-2574

  17. San Jose Accord: energy aid or petroleum-marketing strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-30

    The San Jose Accord was signed in San Jose, Costa Rica on August 3, 1980 by the Presidents of Venezuela and Mexico, whereby the two countries mutually committed to supply the net imported domestic oil consumption of several Central American and Caribbean countries. Countries initially participating in the program are: Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Seven eastern Caribbean countries were to meet on October 7 to petition for inclusion in the Accord, namely: Antigua, St. Kitt/Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. The official language of the Accord is presented, and the operative status of the Accord two years after signing is discussed. Specific briefs about some of the individual countries in the Accord are included. The fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries is updated.

  18. Geothermal power development: 1984 overview and update

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1984-10-01

    The status of geothermal power plants as of mid-1984 is given. There are 15 countries with active plants, and France (Guadeloupe) is expected to join the roster in the near future. The total number of operating units (defined as individual turbo-generator sets) is 145; the total installed capacity is somewhat less than 3770 MW. If plans for additional plants are met, the total could jump by more than 200 MW over the next two years. Recent growth is presented and the worldwide installed capacity is traced. A graphic portrayal of the growth pattern is presented. The countries that will be most responsible for sustaining this growth are the US, the Philippines, Mexico, and Indonesia. Other countries that will contribute significantly include Italy, Japan, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Turkey. The following countries do not now have any geothermal plants but may bring some online by 1990: Guatemala, Costa Rica, Greece, St. Lucia, Thailand, and Ethiopia.

  19. Modeling studies of landfalling atmospheric rivers and orographic precipitation over northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiserloh, Arthur J.; Chiao, Sen

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated a slow-moving long-wave trough that brought four Atmospheric Rivers (AR) "episodes" within a week to the U.S. West Coast from 28 November to 3 December 2012, bringing over 500 mm to some coastal locations. The highest 6- and 12-hourly rainfall rates (131 and 195 mm, respectively) over northern California occurred during Episode 2 along the windward slopes of the coastal Santa Lucia Mountains. Surface observations from NOAA's Hydrometeorological Testbed sites in California, available GPS Radio Occultation (RO) vertical profiles from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellite mission were both assimilated into WRF-ARW via eight combinations of observation nudging, grid nudging, and 3DVAR to improve the upstream moisture characteristics and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) during this event. Results during the 6-hourly rainfall maximum period in Episode 2 revealed that the models underestimated the observed 6-hourly rainfall rate maximum on the windward slopes of the Santa Lucia mountain range. The grid-nudging experiments smoothed out finer mesoscale details in the inner domain that may affect the final QPFs. Overall, the experiments that did not use grid nudging were more accurate in terms of less mean absolute error. In the time evolution of the accumulated rainfall forecast, the observation nudging experiment that included RAOB and COSMIC GPS RO data demonstrated results with the least error for the north central Coastal Range and the 3DVAR cold-start experiment demonstrated the least error for the windward Sierra Nevada. The experiment that combined 3DVAR cold start, observation nudging, and grid nudging showed the most error in the rainfall forecasts. Results from this study further suggest that including surface observations at frequencies less than 3 h for observation nudging and having cycling intervals less than 3 h for 3DVAR cycling would be more beneficial for short

  20. Survey of Salmonella contamination in chicken layer farms in three Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the demography, management, and production practices on layer chicken farms in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia and the frequency of risk factors for Salmonella infection. The frequency of isolation of Salmonella from the layer farm environment, eggs, feeds, hatchery, and imported day-old chicks was determined using standard methods. Of the eight risk factors (farm size, age group of layers, source of day-old chicks, vaccination, sanitation practices, biosecurity measures, presence of pests, and previous disease outbreaks) for Salmonella infection investigated, farm size was the only risk factor significantly associated (P = 0.031) with the prevalence of Salmonella; 77.8% of large farms were positive for this pathogen compared with 33.3 and 26.1% of medium and small farms, respectively. The overall isolation rate of Salmonella from 35 layer farms was 40.0%. Salmonella was isolated at a significantly higher rate (P < 0.05) from farm environments than from the cloacae. Only in Trinidad and Tobago did feeds (6.5% of samples) and pooled egg contents (12.5% of samples) yield Salmonella; however, all egg samples from hotels, hatcheries, and airports in this country were negative. Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella group C, and Salmonella Kentucky were the predominant serotypes in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia, respectively. Although Salmonella infections were found in layer birds sampled, table eggs appear to pose minimal risk to consumers. However, the detection of Salmonella -contaminated farm environments and feeds cannot be ignored. Only 2.9% of the isolates belonged to Salmonella Enteritidis, a finding that may reflect the impact of changes in farm management and poultry production in the region. PMID:25198837

  1. Diversity of the strongly rheophilous tadpoles of Malagasy tree frogs, genus Boophis (Anura, Mantellidae), and identification of new candidate species via larval DNA sequence and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Strauß, Axel; Glos, Julian; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of previously unknown tadpoles of the treefrog genus Boophis Tschudi and analyses of habitat preferences of several of these tadpoles in Ranomafana National Park. A total of twenty-two tadpoles determined via DNA barcoding are characterized morphologically herein, fourteen of them for the first time. Twelve of these tadpoles belong to taxonomically undescribed candidate species which in several cases are so far only known from their larval stages. Our data show that the larvae of some of these candidate species occur syntopically yet maintaining a clearly correlated genetic and morphological identity, suggesting that they indeed are true biological and evolutionary species. Tadpoles considered to belong to the “adherent” ecomorphological guild inhabit fast-running waters and their oral disc is commonly to continuously attached to the rocky substrate, supposedly to keep their position in the water current. Some of these species are characterized by the presence of a dorsal gap of papillae and the absence of an upper jaw sheath. This guild includes the tadpoles of the Boophis albipuncatus group (Boophis ankaratra, Boophis schuboeae, Boophis albipunctatus, Boophis sibilans, Boophis luciae), and of the Boophis mandraka group (Boophis sambirano and six candidate species related to this species and to Boophis mandraka). Tadpoles considered belonging to the “suctorial” guild inhabit fast-running waters where they use frequently their oral disc to attach to the substrate. They have an enlarged oral disc without any dorsal gap, including two nominal species (Boophis marojezensis, Boophis vittatus), and five candidate species related to Boophis marojezensis. An ecological analysis of the tadpoles of Boophis luciae, Boophis schuboeae and Boophis marojezensis [Ca51 JQ518198] from Ranomafana National Park did not provide evidence for a clear preference of these tadpoles to the fast flowing microhabitat

  2. Diversity of the strongly rheophilous tadpoles of Malagasy tree frogs, genus Boophis (Anura, Mantellidae), and identification of new candidate species via larval DNA sequence and morphology.

    PubMed

    Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Strauß, Axel; Glos, Julian; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of previously unknown tadpoles of the treefrog genus Boophis Tschudi and analyses of habitat preferences of several of these tadpoles in Ranomafana National Park. A total of twenty-two tadpoles determined via DNA barcoding are characterized morphologically herein, fourteen of them for the first time. Twelve of these tadpoles belong to taxonomically undescribed candidate species which in several cases are so far only known from their larval stages. Our data show that the larvae of some of these candidate species occur syntopically yet maintaining a clearly correlated genetic and morphological identity, suggesting that they indeed are true biological and evolutionary species. Tadpoles considered to belong to the "adherent" ecomorphological guild inhabit fast-running waters and their oral disc is commonly to continuously attached to the rocky substrate, supposedly to keep their position in the water current. Some of these species are characterized by the presence of a dorsal gap of papillae and the absence of an upper jaw sheath. This guild includes the tadpoles of the Boophis albipuncatus group (Boophis ankaratra, Boophis schuboeae, Boophis albipunctatus, Boophis sibilans, Boophis luciae), and of the Boophis mandraka group (Boophis sambirano and six candidate species related to this species and to Boophis mandraka). Tadpoles considered belonging to the "suctorial" guild inhabit fast-running waters where they use frequently their oral disc to attach to the substrate. They have an enlarged oral disc without any dorsal gap, including two nominal species (Boophis marojezensis, Boophis vittatus), and five candidate species related to Boophis marojezensis. An ecological analysis of the tadpoles of Boophis luciae, Boophis schuboeae and Boophis marojezensis [Ca51 JQ518198] from Ranomafana National Park did not provide evidence for a clear preference of these tadpoles to the fast flowing microhabitat sections of the

  3. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates recovered from layer farms and eggs in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-12-01

    This investigation determined the frequency of resistance of 84 isolates of Salmonella comprising 14 serotypes recovered from layer farms in three Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia) to eight antimicrobial agents, using the disc diffusion method. Resistance among isolates of Salmonella was related to the country of recovery, type of sample, size of layer farms, and isolate serotype. Overall, all (100.0%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents tested, and all were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The resistance detected ranged from 11.9% to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to 100.0% to erythromycin. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Across countries, for types of samples that yielded Salmonella, significant differences in frequency of resistance were detected only to SXT (P = 0.002) in Trinidad and Tobago and to gentamycin (P = 0.027) in St. Lucia. For the three countries, the frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly different for ampicillin (P = 0.001) and SXT (P = 0.032). A total of 83 (98.8%) of the 84 isolates exhibited 39 multidrug resistance patterns. Farm size significantly (P = 0.032) affected the frequency of resistance to kanamycin across the countries. Overall, among the 14 serotypes of Salmonella tested, significant (P < 0.05) differences in frequency of resistance were detected to kanamycin, ampicillin, and SXT. Results suggest that the relatively high frequency of resistance to six of the antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) tested and the multidrug resistance detected may pose prophylactic and therapeutic concerns for chicken layer farms in the three countries studied. PMID:25474066

  4. Impact of a major cyclone on a southeast African estuarine lake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, A. T.; Cyrus, D. P.

    The St Lucia lake and estuarine system in northern Natal, South Africa was struck by Cyclone Domoina on 31 January 1984. This is the only cyclone known to have traversed part of South Africa. The ensuing flood levels in the St Lucia system (which have been exceeded perhaps only one other time in recorded history) provided an opportunity to assess the effect of a major disturbance on a subtropical estuarine system. Major geomorphological changes occurred in the mouth area where all man-made structures were obliterated. The two river channels were scoured from 2-3 m to 10-14 m in depth and widened by up to 300 m, while the shoreline between the two channels retreated in places up to 100 m. An estimated 16∗10 6 m 3 of sediment were removed from the lower reaches of the system including areas of mangrove and Phragmites australis swamp. One-metre tall mangrove saplings died following inundation lasting days to weeks. Effects on the fauna included redistribution of the tanaid Apseudes digitalis, the mysid Mesopodopsis africana, the copepod Pseudodiaptomus stuhlmanni, the polychaete Scololepis squamata and the bivalve Solen cylindraceus, all typical lake species which appeared in the tidal channel linking the lake with the sea. Responses of other species such as the penaeid prawns, the crab Scylla serrata and the sole Solea bleekeri suggested that physiological tolerance, extended larval or juvenile recruitment periods and prey switching minimized long-term flood effects. No large-scale mortalities were noted, and the absence of a temperature shock is considered to be a significant feature.

  5. Hornblende-rich, high grade metamorphic terranes in the southernmost Sierra Nevada, California, and implications for crustal depths and batholith roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Donald Clarence

    1983-01-01

    The southernmost Sierra Nevaaa widely exposes hornblende-rich, gneissic to granoblastic, amphibolite- to granulite-grade, metamorphic rocks and associated magmatic rocks, all of mid-Cretaceous age. Locally, red garnet, in part in euhedral crystals as large as 10 cm, as well as strongly pleochroic hyperstnene, characterize these rocks. These hornblende-rich rocks dominate the north slopes of the southern tail of the Sierra Nevada, but are also present as inclusion masses of various sizes in the dominantly granitic terrane to She northeast. The mafic, hornblende-rich rocks reflect a deeper crustal level than the dominantly granitic terrane to the northeast based on: 1) 'index' minerals (presence of hypersthene, coarse garnet, and brown hornblende; 2) textures (considerable ambivalence of whether individual samples are metamorphic or magmatic, 3) metamorphic grade (at least local granulite facies); and 4) the presence of migmatite, and the eviaence of local melting and mobilization. These rocks may be exposures of the upper part of the root zone and metamorphic substrate of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Xenoliths of gneiss, amphibolite, and granulite from sub-batholithic levels, that have been transported upward and preserved in volcanic rocks in the central Sierra Nevada, are similar to some exposed rocks of the southernmost Sierra Nevada. Hypersthene-bearing granulite and tonalite, as well as distinctive granofels of mid-Cretaceous age, are exposed in the western part of the Santa Lucia Range (some 300 km to the northwest across the San Andreas fault). These rocks have much in common with some of the metamorphic and magmatic rocks in the southernmost Sierra Nevada, suggesting that the two areas record similar metamorphic conditions and crustal depth. Mid-Cretaceous hypersthene granulite is rare, which makes correlation of the Santa Lucia Range and the southernmost Sierra Nevada seem attractive. Nevertheless, possibly significant petrographic anm rock distribution

  6. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (<3 μg/dL, n = 8) to 960 μg/dL for an adult male at the Lake St Lucia Estuary. Blood lead concentrations averaged 8.15 μg/dL (SD = 7.47) for females and 98.10 μg/dL (SD = 217.42) for males. Eighteen individuals (53 %) had elevated BPbs (≥10 μg/dL). We assessed 12 general linear models using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and found no significant statistical effects among the parameters of sex, crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos. PMID:27038476

  7. Physician involvement enhances coding accuracy to ensure national standards: an initiative to improve awareness among new junior trainees.

    PubMed

    Nallasivan, S; Gillott, T; Kamath, S; Blow, L; Goddard, V

    2011-06-01

    Record Keeping Standards is a development led by the Royal College of Physicians of London (RCP) Health Informatics Unit and funded by the National Health Service (NHS) Connecting for Health. A supplementary report produced by the RCP makes a number of recommendations based on a study held at an acute hospital trust. We audited the medical notes and coding to assess the accuracy, documentation by the junior doctors and also to correlate our findings with the RCP audit. Northern Lincolnshire & Goole Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust has 114,000 'finished consultant episodes' per year. A total of 100 consecutive medical (50) and rheumatology (50) discharges from Diana Princess of Wales Hospital from August-October 2009 were reviewed. The results showed an improvement in coding accuracy (10% errors), comparable to the RCP audit but with 5% documentation errors. Physician involvement needs enhancing to improve the effectiveness and to ensure clinical safety. PMID:21677911

  8. Comparison of satellite IR rain estimates with radar rain observations in hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, K. Robert; Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Radar-observed rainrates and rain areas obtained for the Hurricanes Frederic (1979), Alicia (1983), and Diana (1984) were used in conjunction with GOES IR data to examine the validity of three satellite IR rain estimation techniques: the Arkin (1983) method, the Negri-Adler-Wetzel (1984) technique, and the convective-stratiform technique of Adler and Negri (1987). The Alicia hurricane was also monitored using the subjective manual technique of Spayd and Scofield (1984). It is shown that the success of IR techniques in identifying areas of rainfall depends on the hurricane feature being addressed. Thus, the three objective IR techniques were unable to identify the locations of radar-observed eyewall and inner band precipitation areas because of strong vertical wind shear in the eyewall and the lack of the vertical extent of stratiform precipitation beneath the central dense overcast.

  9. Formation of a narrow baryon resonance with positive strangeness in K{sup +} collisions with Xe nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Barmin, V. V.; Asratyan, A. E.; Borisov, V. S.; Curceanu, C.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Guaraldo, C.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Larin, I. F.; Matveev, V. A.; Shebanov, V. A.; Shishov, N. N.; Sokolov, L. I.; Tumanov, G. K.; Verebryusov, V. S.

    2010-07-15

    The data on the charge-exchange reaction K{sup +}Xe {sup {yields}}K{sup 0}pXe', obtained with the bubble chamber DIANA, are reanalyzed using increased statistics and updated selections. Our previous evidence for formation of a narrow pK{sup 0} resonance with mass near 1538 MeV is confirmed. The statistical significance of the signal reaches some 8{sigma} (6{sigma}) standard deviations when estimated as S/{radical}B (S/{radical}B + S. The mass and intrinsic width of the {Theta}{sup +} baryon are measured as m = 1538 {+-} 2 MeV and {Gamma} = 0.39 {+-} 0.10 MeV.

  10. The Unappreciated Ramifications of the "Triple Obstetric Tragedy".

    PubMed

    Quigley, James

    2015-06-01

    The untimely death of a young Princess of Wales reverberated around the world in August 1997. Diana, Princess of Wales, was not, however, the first holder of that title to suffer an early demise. Princess Charlotte of Wales was fifteen years younger and died exactly one hundred and eighty years earlier. A national feeling of grief and desolation consumed the nation in the same way as it did following the death of the "People's Princess" in the twentieth century. Her death during childbirth led to a change in the practice of obstetrics and a succession crisis in the British monarchy. But were the consequences of the fateful night of 6th November 1817 to be even more profound, indirectly contributing to war in Europe a century later? PMID:26592079

  11. Ecstatic stigmatics and Holy anorexics: medieval and contemporary.

    PubMed

    Farber, Sharon Klayman

    2003-01-01

    As has been shown and explained, the stigmata and other mortifications of the flesh can serve as survival tools for someone who has been severely traumatized, devout Christian or unbeliever alike. When Diana, Princess of Wales, was killed, this nonreligious woman came to be regarded by her admirers as a popular saint who wanted nothing more than to help and serve others. Despite her wealth, she became a waif in the popular imagination, and like many others who suffered great psychic pain, she too inflicted further pain and suffering on herself through starving herself, binging and purging, and cutting herself. This suffering was her visible stigmata, inspiring great popular devotion. When she died, millions cried, carrying candles in the streets as they listened to Elton John's song to this suffering woman whose light flickered "like a candle in the wind". PMID:14606475

  12. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    PubMed

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources. PMID:8577647

  13. A microclimate study on hypogea environments of ancient roman building.

    PubMed

    Scatigno, C; Gaudenzi, S; Sammartino, M P; Visco, G

    2016-10-01

    Roman hypogea, vernacular settlements or crypts, are underground places characterised by specific and unique challenges (RH<90% and almost constant temperature throughout the whole year) related to their relative isolation from the outdoor environment. These sites often require adequate monitoring tools providing complete environmental information in order to carry out appropriate strategies for scheduling routine maintenance and designing suitable layouts for their preservation. In this work we present the results of a carefully planned thermo-hygrometric monitoring campaign conducted in a peculiar Roman building (130CE), the "Casa di Diana" Mithraeum, sited in Ostia Antica (archaeological site, Rome-Italy), with the aim of characterising the indoor environment as the structure suffers of several conservation problems (biocolonisation, efflorescences, evaporating and condensing cycle for wall-building materials). The campaign involving multipoint continuous measurement was carefully planned to better describe this micro-clime. In addition to underground environmental data available in literature, we have also performed, as a checkpoint control, a thermo-hygrometric monitoring campaign in the "Terme di Mitra" Hypogeum, a few meters from the "Casa di Diana". The recorded data was analysed by multivariate statistical and chemometric analyses. The results brought to light the presence of different microclimates (three areas) within a single Mithraeum: a room (pre-Mithraeum) and an area (Mithraeum: 2-4m) present a thermo-hygrometric environmental behaviour in accordance with a semi-confined environment, another area (Mithraeum: 1-2m) behaves accordingly with underground environments (although it cannot be described as such), and the last area (Mithraeum: 0-1m) where was recording RH values close to saturation (96-99%), associated with non-ventilated areas where the rising damp is "held" and not dispersed, describing an own micro-clime, comparable to a "small greenhouse

  14. Optimal lunar trajectories for a combined chemical-electric propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kluever, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    Spacecraft which utilize electric propulsion (EP) systems are capable of delivering a greater payload fraction compared to spacecraft using conventional chemical propulsion systems. Several researchers have investigated numerous applications of low-thrust EP including a manned Mars mission, scientific missions to the outer planets, and lunar missions. In contrast, the study of optimal combined high and low-thrust spacecraft trajectories has been limited. In response to the release of NASA's 1994 Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for Discovery class interplanetary exploration missions, a preliminary investigation of a lunar comet rendezvous mission using a solar electric propulsion (SEP) spacecraft was performed. The Discovery mission (eventually named Diana) was envisioned to be a two-phase scientific exploration mission: the first phase involved exploration of the moon and second phase involved rendezvous with a comet. The initial phase began with a chemical propulsion translunar injection and chemical insertion into a lunar orbit, followed by a low-thrust SEP transfer to a circular, polar, low-lunar orbit (LLO). After scientific data was collected at the moon, the SEP spacecraft performed a spiral lunar escape maneuver to begin the interplanetary leg of the mission. After escape from the Earth-moon system, the SEP spacecraft maneuvered in interplanetary space and performed a rendezvous with a short period comet. An initial study that demonstrated the feasibility of using EP for the lunar and comet orbit transfer was performed under the grant NAG3-1581. This final report is a continuation of the initial research efforts in support of the Discovery mission proposal that was submitted to NASA Headquarters in October 1994. Section 2 discusses the lunar orbit transfer phase of the Diana mission which involves both chemical and electric propulsion stages. Section 3 discusses the chemical lunar orbit insertion (LOI) burn optimization. Finally, section 4 presents the

  15. An integrated tool for loop calculations: AITALC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorca, Alejandro; Riemann, Tord

    2006-01-01

    AITALC, a new tool for automating loop calculations in high energy physics, is described. The package creates Fortran code for two-fermion scattering processes automatically, starting from the generation and analysis of the Feynman graphs. We describe the modules of the tool, the intercommunication between them and illustrate its use with three examples. Program summaryTitle of the program:AITALC version 1.2.1 (9 August 2005) Catalogue identifier:ADWO Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWO Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer:PC i386 Operating system:GNU/ LINUX, tested on different distributions SuSE 8.2 to 9.3, Red Hat 7.2, Debian 3.0, Ubuntu 5.04. Also on SOLARIS Programming language used:GNU MAKE, DIANA, FORM, FORTRAN77 Additional programs/libraries used:DIANA 2.35 ( QGRAF 2.0), FORM 3.1, LOOPTOOLS 2.1 ( FF) Memory required to execute with typical data:Up to about 10 MB No. of processors used:1 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:40 926 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:371 424 Distribution format:tar gzip file High-speed storage required:from 1.5 to 30 MB, depending on modules present and unfolding of examples Nature of the physical problem:Calculation of differential cross sections for ee annihilation in one-loop approximation. Method of solution:Generation and perturbative analysis of Feynman diagrams with later evaluation of matrix elements and form factors. Restriction of the complexity of the problem:The limit of application is, for the moment, the 2→2 particle reactions in the electro-weak standard model. Typical running time:Few minutes, being highly depending on the complexity of the process and the FORTRAN compiler.

  16. Practical Aspects of microRNA Target Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Witkos, T.M; Koscianska, E; Krzyzosiak, W.J

    2011-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that control gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. These small regulatory molecules play a key role in the majority of biological processes and their expression is also tightly regulated. Both the deregulation of genes controlled by miRNAs and the altered miRNA expression have been linked to many disorders, including cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, it is of particular interest to reliably predict potential miRNA targets which might be involved in these diseases. However, interactions between miRNAs and their targets are complex and very often there are numerous putative miRNA recognition sites in mRNAs. Many miRNA targets have been computationally predicted but only a limited number of these were experimentally validated. Although a variety of miRNA target prediction algorithms are available, results of their application are often inconsistent. Hence, finding a functional miRNA target is still a challenging task. In this review, currently available and frequently used computational tools for miRNA target prediction, i.e., PicTar, TargetScan, DIANA-microT, miRanda, rna22 and PITA are outlined and various practical aspects of miRNA target analysis are extensively discussed. Moreover, the performance of three algorithms (PicTar, TargetScan and DIANA-microT) is both demonstrated and evaluated by performing an in-depth analysis of miRNA interactions with mRNAs derived from genes triggering hereditary neurological disorders known as trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases (TREDs), such as Huntington’s disease (HD), a number of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), and myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). PMID:21342132

  17. Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

    1999-04-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination. PMID:10231768

  18. Horizontal Trends in Larval Fish Diversity and Abundance Along an Ocean-Estuarine Gradient on the Northern KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. A.; Cyrus, D. P.; Beckley, L. E.

    2001-08-01

    The structure of the larval fish assemblages along an ocean-estuarine gradient in the St Lucia region on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast of South Africa was examined using a combination of univariate, distributional and multivariate techniques. The data was comprised of a full annual set of ichthyoplankton samples taken from three types of environment: nearshore coastal waters, surf zone and within the St Lucia Estuary itself. The mean monthly densities of each species in each environment were used in the species matrix, and the mean monthly values of salinity, temperature and turbidity were used in the physical variables matrix. The mean species diversity and eveness index was significantly higher in the nearshore waters than the surf zone and estuary. The patterns of relative species abundances in each environment (K-dominance curves) showed that the estuarine environment was dominated by a few species in large numbers, the surf zone was intermediate, and the nearshore coast was the most diverse. Classification and multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination analyses of larval fish densities grouped together into three main clusters based on the three different environments. The species similarity matrix (inverse analysis) clustered into four groups at the 10% similarity level. The MDS analysis of the same matrix showed that the groups separated out more or less according to the type of environment they occur in, and hence the level of estuarine dependence of the various species. Species belonging to each assemblage showed similarities with regards to their reproduction modes and/or preference to a particular physical condition. Some species were restricted to one environment, whilst others were common to two or all three environments. The occurrence of partially estuarine-dependent species in all three environments suggests that ocean-estuarine coupling is an important process for the recruitment success of these species. The ' best fitting ' physical variable

  19. Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports

  20. The Thz Spectrum of Glycolaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubet, Manuel; Huet, Therese R.; Haykal, Imane; Margules, Laurent; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2011-06-01

    The vibration-rotation spectrum of the ν_1-0, ν_2-0 and ν_3-0 bands of glycolaldehyde was recorded up to 12 THz, using the far-infrared beamline AILES at the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier transform spectrometer coupled to a multipass cell. More than eight thousands lines were assigned, revealing the rotation structure up to J=80, K_a=38 for the ground state. The THz data were fitted simultaneously with pure rotational transitions of better accuracy observed in the microwave (1), in the millimeter-wave (2) and in the sub-millimeter-wave (3) range. In addition new data were recorded at Lille in the 150-300 GHz and 750-950 GHz range. The THz lines and the microwave - (sub)-millimeterwave lines are reproduced with a standard deviation of 2 10-4 Cm-1 and 40 KHz, respectively. Glycolaldehyde has been identified toward the galactic center (4). The vibrational state partition function can be re-evaluated according to the bands origins associated with ν_1, ν_2, and ν_3, which are observed experimentally for the first time. This work is supported by the Programme National de Physico-Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI-CNRS) and by the contract ANR-08-BLAN-0054. 1. M. Rey, J.-R. Aviles-Moreno and T. R. Huet, Chem. Phys. Lett. 430(2006) 121 ; K.-M. Marstokk and H. Mollendal, J. Mol. Struct. 5 (1970) 205. 2. R. A. H. Butler, F. C. De Lucia, D. T. Petkie, H. Mollendal, A. Horn, and E. Herbst, ApJS 134 (2001) 319. ; S. L. Widicus-Weaver, R. A. H. Butler, B. J. Drouin, D. T. Petkie, K. A. Dyl, F. C. De Lucia, and G. A. Blake, ApJ 158(2005)188. 3. P. B. Carroll, B. J. Drouin, and S. L. Widicus-Weaver, ApJ 723 (2010) 845. 4. J. M. Hollis, S. N. Vogel, L. E. Snyder, P. R. Jewell, and F. J. Lovas, ApJ 554 (2001) L81. ; M.T. Beltran, C. Codella, S. Viti, R. Niri, R. Cesaroni, ApJ 690 (2009) L93.

  1. Permanent Habitats in Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol Orbit Positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, J.

    Project Outpost is a manned Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol platform that enables permanent occupation in deep space. In order to develop the program elements for this complex mission, Project Outpost will rely primarily on existing/nearterm technology and hardware for the construction of its components. For the purposes of this study, four mission requirements are considered: 1. Outpost - Man's 1st purpose-produced effort of space engineering, in which astructure is developed/constructed in an environment completely alien to currentpractices for EVA guidelines. 2. Newton - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development ofa modified Hohmann personnel orbital transport operating between Earth andMars. Newton would serve as the primary crew delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization. 3. Cruis - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development of amodified Hohmann cargo orbital transport operating between Earth and Mars.Cruis would serve as the primary equipment delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization, and 4. Ares/Diana - a more conventional space platform configuration for Lunar andMars orbit is included as a construction baseline. The operations of these assetsare supported, and used for the support, of the outpost. Outpost would be constructed over a 27-year period of launch opportunities into Earth-Sol or Mars-Sol Lagrange orbit (E-S/M-S L1, 4 or 5). The outpost consists of an operations core with a self-contained power generation ability, a docking and maintenance structure, a Scientific Research complex and a Habitation Section. After achieving initial activation, the core will provide the support and energy required to operate the outpost in a 365

  2. Tensiometer-Based Irrigation Management of Subirrigated Soilless Tomato: Effects of Substrate Matric Potential Control on Crop Performance

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Francesco F.; Serio, Francesco; Mininni, Carlo; Signore, Angelo; Parente, Angelo; Santamaria, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Automatic irrigation scheduling based on real-time measurement of soilless substrate water status has been recognized as a promising approach for efficient greenhouse irrigation management. Identification of proper irrigation set points is crucial for optimal crop performance, both in terms of yield and quality, and optimal use of water resources. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of irrigation management based on matric potential control on growth, plant–water relations, yield, fruit quality traits, and water-use efficiency of subirrigated (through bench system) soilless tomato. Tensiometers were used for automatic irrigation control. Two cultivars, “Kabiria” (cocktail type) and “Diana” (intermediate type), and substrate water potential set-points (−30 and −60 hPa, for “Diana,” and −30, −60, and −90 hPa for “Kabiria”), were compared. Compared with −30 hPa, water stress (corresponding to a −60 hPa irrigation set-point) reduced water consumption (14%), leaf area (18%), specific leaf area (19%), total yield (10%), and mean fruit weight (13%), irrespective of the cultivars. At −60 hPa, leaf-water status of plants, irrespective of the cultivars, showed an osmotic adjustment corresponding to a 9% average osmotic potential decrease. Total yield, mean fruit weight, plant water, and osmotic potential decreased linearly when −30, −60, and −90 hPa irrigation set-points were used in “Kabiria.” Unmarketable yield in “Diana” increased when water stress was imposed (187 vs. 349 g·plant−1, respectively, at −30 and −60 hPa), whereas the opposite effect was observed in “Kabiria,” where marketable yield loss decreased linearly [by 1.05 g·plant−1 per unit of substrate water potential (in the tested range from −30 to −90 hPa)]. In the second cluster, total soluble solids of the fruit and dry matter increased irrespective of the cultivars. In the seventh cluster, in “Diana,” only a

  3. Exosome-derived microRNAs contribute to prostate cancer chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yang, Xin; Guan, Hao; Mizokami, Atsushi; Keller, Evan T; Xu, Xiaozhen; Liu, Xia; Tan, Jiyong; Hu, Longyuan; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Certain microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in cancer cell chemoresistance. However, the pleiotropic functions of exosome-derived miRNAs on developing chemoresistance remain unknown. In the present study, we aimed to construct potential networks of miRNAs, which derived from the exosome of chemoresistant prostate cancer (PCa) cells, with their known target genes using miRNA expression profiling and bioinformatic tools. Global miRNA expression profiles were measured by microarray. Twelve miRNAs were initially selected and validated by qRT-PCR. Known targets of deregulated miRNAs were utilized using DIANA-TarBase database v6.0. The incorporation of deregulated miRNAs and target genes into KEGG pathways were utilized using DIANA-mirPath software. To construct potential miRNA regulatory networks, the overlapping parts of miRNAs and their targer genes from the selected KEGG pathway 'PCa progression (hsa05215)' were visualized by Cytoscape software. We identified 29 deregulated miRNAs, including 19 upregulated and 10 downregulated, in exosome samples derived from two kinds of paclitaxel resistance PCa cells (PC3-TXR and DU145-TXR) compared with their parental cells (PC3 and DU145). The enrichment results of deregulated miRNAs and known target genes showed that a few pathways were correlated with several critical cell signaling pathways. We found that hub hsa-miR3176, -141-3p, -5004-5p, -16-5p, -3915, -488‑3p, -23c, -3673 and -3654 were potential targets to hub gene androgen receptor (AR) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Hub gene T-cell factors/lymphoid enhancer-binding factors 4 (TCF4) target genes were mainly regulated by hub hsa-miR-32-5, -141-3p, -606, -381 and -429. These results may provide a linkage between PCa chemoresistance and exosome regulatory networks and thus lead us to propose that AR, PTEN and TCF4 genes may be the important genes which are regulated by exosome miRNAs in chemoresistance cancer cells. PMID:27278879

  4. MicroRNA target prediction in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Romano, Giovanni Luca; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Forte, Stefano; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to investigate microRNA (miRNA) regulation in glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases, that share similar pathways, by means of in silico approaches such as bibliographic search and access to bioinformatic resources. First of all, data mining was carried out on Human miRNA Disease Database (HMDD) and miR2Disease databases. Then, predictions of deregulated miRNAs were carried out accessing to microrna.org database. Finally, the potential combinatorial effect of miRNAs, on regulation of biochemical pathways, was studied by an enrichment analysis performed by DIANA-miRPath v.2.0. We found, from literature search, 8 deregulated miRNAs in glaucoma and 9 and 23 in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), respectively. One miRNA is commonly deregulated in glaucoma and AMD (miR-23a). Two miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-29b) are common to glaucoma and AD, and four miRNAs were identified to be commonly deregulated in AMD and AD (miR-9, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-146a). The match of the miRNA common to glaucoma and the other two neurodegenerative diseases (AMD and AD) did not generate any output. Enrichment of information has been reached through miRNAs prediction: 88 predicted miRNAs are common to glaucoma and AMD, 19 are common to glaucoma and AD, and 9 are common to AMD and AD. Indeed, predicted miRNAs common to the three neurodegenerative diseases are nine (miR-107, miR-137, miR-146a, miR-181c, miR-197, miR-21, miR-22, miR-590, miR-9). DIANA-miRPath predicted that those nine miRNAs might regulate pathways involved in inflammation. The findings hereby obtained provide a valuable hint to assess deregulation of specific miRNA, as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, in glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases by means of preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26497793

  5. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery. [Coastal Ranges of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The transverse faults observed in the central Coast Ranges of California are believed to represent the remnants of a major system of shear faults older than the San Andreas system. The transverse shear system is believed to have developed in the Mesozoic when the Pacific Plate was advancing under the North American Plate. Shear faults thus developed due to unequal rates of underthrusting. This tectonic model indicates that the intrusive belt of the proto-Sierra Nevada and the belt of eugeosynclinal sedimentary belt (Franciscan group) which lay to the west were both subjected to regional left-handed shear. Later development of the San Andreas system as transform faults of the East Pacific Rise changes the tectonic style to right-lateral tangential. The model explains the peculiar distribution of the Franciscan rocks in the Diablo Range east of the San Andreas fault and in Santa Lucia Range west of Nacimiento fault and the presence of Sierra Nevada type granitic blocks in between the two faults in the Salinia block. This model is also consistent with an analysis of the Texas and Parras shears which indicates that the southwestern part of North America has been subjected to a major left-lateral regional shear before the development of the San Andreas fault system.

  6. The schistosomiasis problem in the world: results of a WHO questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Iarotski, L. S.; Davis, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the magnitude of the schistosomiasis problem throughout the world, and is based on information on schistosomiasis control programmes provided by 103 countries in reply to a questionnaire circulated by the World Health Organization in 1976. According to the data either given in these replies, published, or provided in internal reports to WHO, schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections of man. Some 500 million people are thought to be exposed to infection and four main species of schistosomes are prevalent, together with their various intermediate snail hosts, in 73 countries. Control programmes are operating in 41% of responding endemic countries although they are on a national scale only in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Morocco, Puerto Rico, St Lucia, Tunisia, and Venezuela. It appears that a maximum of only 1-2% of all cases have been treated, the most frequently used drugs being niridazole and hycanthone. A small number of efficient molluscicides are in regular use but their high cost precludes large-scale application. Installation of water supplies and health education are the most frequently used non-specific control measures. Nearly 50% of endemic countries use more than three different methods of control simultaneously. The national schistosomiasis control programmes in Brazil, Egypt, Iran, Japan, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela are examples of combined approaches that have resulted in a significant decline in the prevalence of schistosomiasis. Finally, some specific needs in research, control, and training of personnel are discussed. PMID:6973414

  7. Biodiversity and distribution of the southern African sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    The history of the southern African holothuroid fauna south of the tropic of Capricorn, is updated and the biodiversity and distribution of the fauna discussed. All five currently recognized orders are represented, distributed over 24 families, 74 genera and 163 species. As many as 117 species are shelf forms comprising the following faunistic components : 36% Indo-Pacific, 12% West Indian Ocean, 1% Atlantic and 51% endemic. Four faunistic provinces are recognized : tropical Indo-Pacific Province on the east coast, extending to St Lucia in northern KwaZulu-Natal; the Subtropical (Natal) province, from this point to Port St. Johns in the Eastern Cape Province; the Warm Temperate (Agulhas) Province from this point to Cape Point in the Western Cape Province; and the Cold Temperate (Namaqua) from Cape Point to Walvis Bay in Namibia. Vertical distribution of the approximately 90 species collected from more than one locality is also given. The origin of the holothuroid fauna is briefly discussed and reiterated that the Indo-Pacific component moved in from the north mostly by way of the Mozambique-Agulhas Current. The origin of the endemic component is obscure but surmised that it is perhaps also of Indo-Pacific origin with negligible contribution from the Atlantic. PMID:26701531

  8. Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Wongyu Lewis; Anneducharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This paper describes the system design and development strategies of a "network of networks" surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Caribbean. Also described are benefits, challenges, and limitations of this approach across the three island nations identified through direct observation, open-ended interviews, and email communications with an on-site IT consultant, key informants, and the project director. Identified core systems design of the ARICABA data warehouse include a disease monitoring system and a syndromic surveillance system. Three components comprise the development strategy: the data warehouse server, the geographical information system, and forecasting algorithms; these are recognized technical priorities of the surveillance system. A main benefit of the ARICABA surveillance system is improving responsiveness and representativeness of existing health systems through automated data collection, process, and transmission of information from various sources. Challenges include overcoming technology gaps between countries; real-time data collection points; multiple language support; and "component-oriented" development approaches. PMID:23569607

  9. Preliminary isostatic residual gravity anomaly map of Paso Robles 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of an effort to map the three-dimensional distribution of rocks in the central California Coast Ranges and will serve as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults within the Paso Robles quadrangle. Local spatial variations in the Earth\\'s gravity field, after accounting for variations caused by elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust. Densities often can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in density commonly mark lithological or structural boundaries. High-density rocks exposed within the central Coast Ranges include Mesozoic granitic rocks (exposed northwest of Paso Robles), Jurassic to Cretaceous marine strata of the Great Valley Sequence (exposed primarily northeast of the San Andreas fault), and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Franciscan Complex [exposed in the Santa Lucia Range and northeast of the San Andreas fault (SAF) near Parkfield, California]. Alluvial sediments and Tertiary sedimentary rocks are characterized by low densities; however, with increasing depth of burial and age, the densities of these rocks may become indistinguishable from those of older basement rocks.

  10. Interspecific Aggression and Habitat Partitioning in Garter Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Edgehouse, Michael; Latta, Leigh C.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2014-01-01

    Defense of a limited resource, such as space or food, has recently been discovered in snakes and has been widely documented in lizards. Garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.) are historically considered generalist predators such that food is not a limiting resource. However, in this study we show that the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and the aquatic garter snake (Thamnophis atratus) show a strong preference for amphibians as their primary food source at the Santa Lucia Preserve (SLP), Monterey County, California. This food preference forces these snake species at SLP to exploit aquatic habitats. Our principle goal was to investigate the aggressive behavior of T. sirtalis and the potential that this aggression displaces T. atratus from its preferred habitat. We found that when individuals from either species are alone, a 100% preference for aquatic or near aquatic habitat is observed. In contrast, when these species are together, T. sirtalis occupy the aquatic habitat and T. atratus occupy an area far removed from water. Thamnophis sirtalis often physically force T. atratus from the aquatic habitat through repeated biting and other displays of aggression. PMID:24465962

  11. Cross-sectional serological survey of human fascioliasis in haiti.

    PubMed

    Agnamey, P; Fortes-Lopes, E; Raccurt, C P; Boncy, J; Totet, A

    2012-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia) of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics) on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216). The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%), 42 kDa (64%), 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%). This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti. PMID:21876782

  12. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée) (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée) (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad) and Paectes longiformis Pogue (Brazil) are described: Paectes asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia), Paectes medialba sp. n. (Argentina), Paectes similis sp. n. (Brazil), Paectes sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay), and Paectes tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of Paectes nana (Walker) (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos) as a valid species and revised synonyms Paectes indefatigabilis Schaus and Paectes isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of Paectes nana instead of Paectes arcigera. New host records for Paectes sinuosa and Paectes nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of Paectes obrotunda (Guenée) are illustrated. PMID:23730180

  13. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée) (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae).

    PubMed

    Pogue, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée) (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad) and Paectes longiformis Pogue (Brazil) are described: Paectes asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia), Paectes medialba sp. n. (Argentina), Paectes similis sp. n. (Brazil), Paectes sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay), and Paectes tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of Paectes nana (Walker) (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos) as a valid species and revised synonyms Paectes indefatigabilis Schaus and Paectes isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of Paectes nana instead of Paectes arcigera. New host records for Paectes sinuosa and Paectes nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of Paectes obrotunda (Guenée) are illustrated. PMID:23730180

  14. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton M; Val, Fernando F A; Siqueira, André M; Franca, Gabriel P; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Melo, Gisely C; Almeida, Anne C G; Brito, Marcelo A M; Peixoto, Henry M; Fuller, Douglas; Bassat, Quique; Romero, Gustavo A S; Maria Regina F, Oliveira; Marcus Vinícius G, Lacerda

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ), a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10%) of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available. PMID:25141282

  15. Colonisation and Diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in the Antilles: Phylogeography, Contemporary Gene Flow and Morphological Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Monceau, Karine; Cézilly, Frank; Moreau, Jérôme; Motreuil, Sébastien; Wattier, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI) and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA) and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA). Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands) and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados). Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation. PMID:24349217

  16. The prevalence of hypertension in seven populations of west African origin.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R; Rotimi, C; Ataman, S; McGee, D; Osotimehin, B; Kadiri, S; Muna, W; Kingue, S; Fraser, H; Forrester, T; Bennett, F; Wilks, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to describe the distribution of blood pressures, hypertension prevalence, and associated risk factors among seven populations of West African origin. METHODS: The rates of hypertension in West Africa (Nigeria and Cameroon), the Caribbean (Jamaica, St. Lucia, Barbados), and the United States (metropolitan Chicago, Illinois) were compared on the basis of a highly standardized collaborative protocol. After researchers were given central training in survey methods, population-based samples of 800 to 2500 adults over the age of 25 were examined in seven sites, yielding a total sample of 10014. RESULTS: A consistent gradient of hypertension prevalence was observed, rising from 16% in West Africa to 26% in the Caribbean and 33% in the United States. Mean blood pressures were similar among persons aged 25 to 34, while the increase in hypertension prevalence with age was twice as steep in the United States as in Africa. Environmental factors, most notably obesity and the intake of sodium and potassium, varied consistently with disease prevalence across regions. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate the determining role of social conditions in the evolution of hypertension risk in these populations. PMID:9103091

  17. Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy and Equilibrium Structure Determination of Pyrimidine (m-C_4H_4N_2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Zachary N.; Amberger, Brent K.; Esselman, Brian J.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Pyrimidine, the meta substituted dinitrogen analog of benzene, has been studied in the mm-wave region from 260 - 360 GHz, expanding on previous studies up to 337 GHz. The spectra of all four of the singly-substituted 13C and 15N isotopologues were observed in natural abundance. Samples of deuterium enriched pyrimidine were synthesized, giving access to several deuterium-substituted isotopologues. The experimental rotational constants have been corrected for vibration-rotation coupling and electron mass. The vibration-rotation corrections were calculated with an anharmonic frequency calculation at the CCSD[T]/ANO1 level using CFOUR. An equilibrium structure determination has been performed using the corrected rotational constants with the xrefit module of CFOUR. Several vibrational satellites of pyrimidine have also been studied. Their rotational constants have been compared to those obtained computationally. Z. Kisiel, L. Pszczolkowski, I. R. Medvedev, M. Winnewisser, F. C. De Lucia, E. Herbst, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 231-243 (2005). G. L. Blackman, R. D. Brown, F. R. Burden, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 35, 444-454 (1970). W. Caminati, D. Damiani, Chem. Phys. Lett. 179, 460-462 (1991).

  18. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome diversity in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Benn Torres, J; Kittles, R A; Stone, A C

    2007-11-01

    The transatlantic slave trade lasted over three centuries and represents one of the largest forced migrations in human history. The biological repercussions are not well understood especially in African-Caribbean populations. This paper explores the effects of the forced migration, isolation, and admixture on genetic diversity using mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers for 501 individuals from Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, and Trinidad. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure analyses of mitochondrial data and Y chromosome data indicate that there was no post-migration loss in genetic diversity in the African derived lineages. Genetic structure was observed between the islands for both genetic systems. This may be due to isolation, differences in the number and source of Africans imported, depopulation of indigenous populations, and/or differences in colonization history. Nearly 10% of the individuals belonged to a non-African mitochondrial haplogroup. In contrast, Y chromosome admixture estimates showed that there was nearly 30% European contribution to these Caribbean populations. This study sheds light on the history of Africans in the Americas as well as contributing to our understanding of the nature and extent of diversity within the African Diaspora. PMID:17596204

  19. From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

  20. Rickettsial infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of wild animals in midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Witter, Rute; Martins, Thiago F; Campos, Artur K; Melo, Andréia L T; Corrêa, Sandra H R; Morgado, Thaís O; Wolf, Rafael W; May-Júnior, Joares A; Sinkoc, Afonso L; Strüssmann, Christine; Aguiar, Daniel M; Rossi, Rogério V; Semedo, Thiago B F; Campos, Zilca; Desbiez, Arnaud L J; Labruna, Marcelo B; Pacheco, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    Ticks collected in the last two decades from free-living and captive wild animals from 28 municipalities of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were identified and tested using molecular methods for the presence of rickettsial agents. A total of 4467 ticks (229 larvae, 1676 nymphs, 1565 males, 997 females) representing 27 ixodid species were collected from 235 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals from three different ecoregions (Pantanal, Cerrado, and Amazonia). The species Amblyomma parkeri, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma varium and Ixodes luciae are reported for the first time in the state of Mato Grosso. Amongst 538 ticks tested by molecular methods for rickettsial infection, we detected 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu stricto and Amblyomma coelebs, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest infecting Amblyomma ovale, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD infecting Amblyomma nodosum, and 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae' infecting Amblyomma sculptum. Our results represent an impressive expansion of knowledge on tick fauna and rickettsiae and are essential for understanding the ecology of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Neotropical region, particularly in midwestern Brazil. PMID:26775021

  1. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0. PMID:19283047

  2. Mammalian wildlife diseases as hazards to man and livestock in an area of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Wells, E A; D'Alessandro, A; Morales, G A; Angel, D

    1981-01-01

    Development of the LLanos Orientales of Colombia, and access to underdeveloped areas in the Llanos, may create disease hazards to man and domestic animals or introduce exotic pathogens, creating reservoirs of infection for domestic animals and acting as limiting factors on the native wild species. A survey of wild animals common to the Llanos revealed a number of parasites indigenous to the area. A total total of 59 mammalian species, representing eight orders were examined. Haematozoa were represented by Trypanosoma cruzi, T. evansi and T. rangeli. Eight species of ticks were found: Amblyomma cajennense, A. auricularium, A. rotundatum, A. maculatum, A. longirostre, A. pacae, Ixodes luciae and Boophilus microplus. Four species of fleas were found: Rhopalopsyllus lugubris lugubris, R. australis tupinus, R. cacicus saevus and Polygenis klagesi samuelis. A species of Echinococcus was commonly found in Cuniculus paca. Serologic titers and/or isolations of pathogenic viral and bacterial agents generally indicated that the wildlife population had not been exposed to the diseases common to the domestic population. A low prevalence of titers to Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis was found in Cebus apella and Proechimys sp. Neutralizing antibodies to Group B viruses were found in Proechimys sp., Coendor sp. and Nectomys squamipes. Antibodies to Group C viruses were found in Proechimys sp. Serologic titers to Leptospira sejroe and L. tarassovi were found in Proechimys sp. and Didelphis marsupialis. L. tarassovi was isolated from Proechimys sp. Titers to Brucella were not found in 1964 animals. The significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:6788961

  3. Description of the female of Haematonotus jenisi Krajcik, 2006 and placement of the species within the genus Atrichiana Distant, 1911 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The male of Haematonotus jenisi Krajcik, 2006 was described on the basis of a sole holotype specimen. A number of new specimens have recently been collected from the False Bay area of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, in northeastern KwaZulu-Natal, including a number of females, thereby allowing the description of this sex for the first time. The new series also reveals that most morphological characters are actually typical for the genus Atrichiana Distant, 1911, rather than Haematonotus Kraatz, 1880. For this reason, it is here proposed that this species be placed within Atrichiana, thus becoming the second species of a genus that was previously regarded as monospecific, represented by the southern African endemic Atrichiana placida (Boheman, 1857). Like Atrichiana placida, Atrichiana jenisi exhibits a remarkable polymorphism, but also sexual dimorphism, particularly expressed at the level of the antennal clubs, which in the male are twice as long as in the female. Unfortunately, all specimens of the recent series were collected dead or drowning on the lake shores and therefore no further information on their life cycle and biology in general could be obtained. It seems that the species may represent a micro-endemism restricted to the Western Shores of Lake St Lucia, with habitat associated to Sand Forest and possibly also Northern Coastal Forest vegetation types. PMID:27006615

  4. Training for empowerment? A comparative study of nonformal education for women in small island countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M

    1997-10-01

    This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes. PMID:12348991

  5. Neogosseidae (Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida) from the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Todaro, M Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    Among the mostly benthic gastrotrichs, the Neogosseidae (Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida) are particularly interesting from an evolutionary point of view in virtue of their planktonic lifestyle; yet, they are poorly known and uncertainties concerning morphological traits hamper accurate in-group systematics. During a recent survey of meiofauna in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, two species of Neogosseidae were found in a freshwater pond near Charter's Creek on the Western Shores of Lake St Lucia. Based on morphological traits, one species has been identified as Neogossea acanthocolla, originally described from Brazil, while the other, affiliated to the genus Kijanebalola, is proposed as new to science. Using a combination of differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy, fine anatomical details were observed and are here discussed in a larger taxonomic framework, especially regarding Kijanebalola devestiva sp. n. Results have also provided reasons for a revision of the diagnostic traits of Kijanebalola, Neogossea and the whole Family Neogosseidae. Besides expanding awareness about the biodiversity hosted by South Africa's first UNESCO World Heritage Site, our study will be beneficial to future phylogenetic studies of the Gastrotricha based on morphology, by allowing the selection and/or a more precise character coding of traits of phylogenetic relevance. PMID:23878511

  6. Neogosseidae (Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida) from the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Todaro, M. Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Among the mostly benthic gastrotrichs, the Neogosseidae (Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida) are particularly interesting from an evolutionary point of view in virtue of their planktonic lifestyle; yet, they are poorly known and uncertainties concerning morphological traits hamper accurate in-group systematics. During a recent survey of meiofauna in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, two species of Neogosseidae were found in a freshwater pond near Charter’s Creek on the Western Shores of Lake St Lucia. Based on morphological traits, one species has been identified as Neogossea acanthocolla, originally described from Brazil, while the other, affiliated to the genus Kijanebalola, is proposed as new to science. Using a combination of differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy, fine anatomical details were observed and are here discussed in a larger taxonomic framework, especially regarding Kijanebalola devestiva sp. n. Results have also provided reasons for a revision of the diagnostic traits of Kijanebalola, Neogossea and the whole Family Neogosseidae. Besides expanding awareness about the biodiversity hosted by South Africa’s first UNESCO World Heritage Site, our study will be beneficial to future phylogenetic studies of the Gastrotricha based on morphology, by allowing the selection and/or a more precise character coding of traits of phylogenetic relevance. PMID:23878511

  7. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Wuelton M; Val, Fernando FA; Siqueira, André M; Franca, Gabriel P; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Melo, Gisely C; Almeida, Anne CG; Brito, Marcelo AM; Peixoto, Henry M; Fuller, Douglas; Bassat, Quique; Romero, Gustavo AS; Maria Regina F, Oliveira; Marcus Vinícius G, Lacerda

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ), a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10%) of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available. PMID:25141282

  8. The impact of stellar feedback on high-z galaxy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; De Lucia, Gabriella

    One major deficiency of state-of-the-art galaxy formation models consists in their inability of capturing the observed galaxy downsizing trend significantly over-estimating the number density of low-mass galaxies, in particular at high redshifts. Employing an enhanced galaxy formation model with a full chemical enrichment scheme (DeLucia et al., 2014), we present an improved model for stellar feedback (based on parametrizations from cosmological zoom simulations), in which strong gas outflows occur due to bursty star formation at high z, while star formation is mainly ``quiescent'' not causing any significant outflows anymore at low z. Due to the stronger gas outflows at high z, early star formation is strongly delayed towards later times. This helps to sufficiently detach the evolution of galaxy growth from the hiearchical dark matter assembly resulting in a fairly good agreement with the evolution of the observed stellar mass function (SMF, see Fig. 1). With our new feedback scheme, we can also successfully reproduce many other observational constraints, such as the metallicity content, the cold gas fractions or the quiescent galaxy fractions at both low and high redshifts. The resulting new-generation galaxy catalogues (Hirschmann et al., in prep) based on that model are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming large-scale surveys (HST, JWST, Euclid). This will, in turn, provide a rapid verification and refinement of our modeling.

  9. Changing teaching techniques and adapting new technologies to improve student learning in an introductory meteorology and climate course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutrim, E. M.; Rudge, D.; Kits, K.; Mitchell, J.; Nogueira, R.

    2006-06-01

    Responding to the call for reform in science education, changes were made in an introductory meteorology and climate course offered at a large public university. These changes were a part of a larger project aimed at deepening and extending a program of science content courses that model effective teaching strategies for prospective middle school science teachers. Therefore, revisions were made to address misconceptions about meteorological phenomena, foster deeper understanding of key concepts, encourage engagement with the text, and promote inquiry-based learning. Techniques introduced include: use of a flash cards, student reflection questionnaires, writing assignments, and interactive discussions on weather and forecast data using computer technology such as Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). The revision process is described in a case study format. Preliminary results (self-reflection by the instructor, surveys of student opinion, and measurements of student achievement), suggest student learning has been positively influenced. This study is supported by three grants: NSF grant No. 0202923, the Unidata Equipment Award, and the Lucia Harrison Endowment Fund.

  10. Genetic Characterization of Northwestern Colombian Chikungunya Virus Strains from the 2014-2015 Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Juan D; Kautz, Tiffany; Camacho, Erwin; Paternina, Luis; Guzmán, Hilda; Díaz, Francisco J; Blanco, Pedro; Tesh, Robert; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-09-01

    Chikungunya fever, an acute and often chronic arthralgic disease caused by the mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), spread into the Americas in late 2013. Since then it has caused epidemics in nearly all New World countries, the second largest being Colombia with over 450,000 suspected cases beginning in September, 2014, and focused in Bolivar Department in the north. We examined 32 human sera from suspected cases, including diverse age groups and both genders, and sequenced the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein genes, known determinants of vector host range. As expected for Asian lineage CHIKV strains, these isolates lacked known Aedes albopictus-adaptive mutations. All the Colombian strains were closely related to those from the Virgin Islands, Saint Lucia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Brazil, consistent with a single, point-source introduction from the southeast Asia/Pacific region. Two substitutions in the E2 and E1 envelope glycoprotein genes were found in the Colombian strains, especially E1-K211E involving a residue shown previously to affect epistatically the penetrance of the E1-A226V A. albopictus-adaptive substitution. We also identified two amino acid substitutions unique to all American CHIKV sequences: E2-V368A and 6K-L20M. Only one codon, 6K-47, had a high nonsynonymous substitution rate suggesting positive selection. PMID:27430542

  11. Short-pulse Laser Capability on the Mercury Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C; Armstrong, P; Bayramian, A; Barty, C J; Bibeau, C; Britten, J; Caird, J; Campbell, R; Chai, B; Crane, J; Cross, R; Erlandson, A; Fei, Y; Freitas, B; Jovanovic, I; Liao, Z; Molander, B; Schaffers, K; Stuart, B; Sutton, S; Ladran, T; Telford, S; Thelin, P; Utterback, E

    2006-06-22

    Applications using high energy ''petawatt-class'' laser drivers operating at repetition rates beyond 0.01 Hz are only now being envisioned. The Mercury laser system is designed to operate at 100 J/pulse at 10 Hz. We investigate the potential of configuring the Mercury laser to produce a rep-rated, ''petawatt-class'' source. The Mercury laser is a prototype of a high energy, high repetition rate source (100 J, 10 Hz). The design of the Mercury laser is based on the ability to scale in energy through scaling in aperture. Mercury is one of several 100 J, high repetition rate (10 Hz) lasers sources currently under development (HALNA, LUCIA, POLARIS). We examine the possibility of using Mercury as a pump source for a high irradiance ''petawatt-class'' source: either as a pump laser for an average power Ti:Sapphire laser, or as a pump laser for OPCPA based on YCa{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (YCOB), ideally producing a source approaching 30 J /30 fs /10 Hz--a high repetition rate petawatt. A comparison of the two systems with nominal configurations and efficiencies is shown in Table 1.

  12. Proteomic identification of hair cell repair proteins in the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Sea anemones have an extraordinary capability to repair damaged hair bundles, even after severe trauma. A group of secreted proteins, named repair proteins (RPs), found in mucus covering sea anemones significantly assists the repair of damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors both in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae and the blind cavefish Astyanax hubbsi. The polypeptide constituents of RPs must be identified in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which repair of hair bundles is accomplished. In this study, several polypeptides of RPs were isolated from mucus using blue native PAGE and then sequenced using LC-MS/MS. Thirty-seven known polypeptides were identified, including Hsp70s, as well as many polypeptide subunits of the 20S proteasome. Other identified polypeptides included those involved in cellular stress responses, protein folding, and protein degradation. Specific inhibitors of Hsp70s and the 20S proteasome were employed in experiments to test their involvement in hair bundle repair. The results of those experiments suggested that repair requires biologically active Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes. A model is proposed that considers the function of extracellular Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes in the repair of damaged hair cells. PMID:26183436

  13. Diets of insectivorous birds along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, H.K.; van Riper, Charles, III; Brown, B.T.; Kearsley, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We examined diets of six insectivorous bird species (n = 202 individuals) from two vegetation zones along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1994. All bird species consumed similar quantities of caterpillars and beetles, but use of other prey taxa varied. Non-native leafhoppers (Opsius stactagolus) specific to non-native tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis) substantially augmented Lucy's Warbler (Vermivora luciae) diets (49%), while ants comprised 82% of Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) diets. Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) diets were composed of 45% aquatic midges. All bird species consumed the non-native leafhopper specific to tamarisk. Comparison of bird diets with availability of arthropod prey from aquatic and terrestrial origins showed terrestrial insects comprised 91% of all avian diets compared to 9% of prey from aquatic origin. Seasonal shifts in arthropod prey occurred in diets of three bird species, although no seasonal shifts were detected in arthropods sampled in vegetation indicating that at least three bird species were not selecting prey in proportion to its abundance. All bird species had higher prey overlap with arthropods collected in the native, mesquite-acacia vegetation zone which contained higher arthropod diversity and better prey items (i.e., Lepidoptera). Lucy's Warbler and Yellow Warbler consumed high proportions of prey items found in greatest abundance in the tamarisk-dominated vegetation zone that has been established since the construction of Glen Canyon Dam. These species appeared to exhibit ecological plasticity in response to an anthropogenic increase in prey resources.

  14. Golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) distribution in the main hydrographical basins of Uruguay: update and predictions.

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Ernesto; Clemente, Juan; Boccardi, Lucía; Borthagaray, Ana; Scarabino, Fabrizio

    2005-06-01

    Limnoperna fortunei, an Asiatic rivers bivalve has become a worldwide problematic invasive species causing several water quality and macrofouling problems. In the Neotropical region it was first recorded in 1991 in the Rio de la Plata coast, Buenos Aires province. Since this, it showed a quick upstream invasion into the principals aquatic systems of the Plata Basin. Nevertheless, there is not a study about its invasion and distribution process in aquatic systems of Uruguay. We describe the new records of Limnoperna fortunei in Uruguayan coast of Rio de la Plata, Santa Lucia, Negro and Uruguay Rivers. With these results we aim to estimate its distributional limits for Uruguay main hydrographical basins. We also deal with the role of salinity as the main abiotic factor in limiting the east distribution of this mussel in Uruguayan coast of Rio de la Plata and as a potential determinant of the "new" colonization on the Atlantic and the Merin Lagoon Basins. Its presence in the ecosystems not only can cause changes at the ecosystem level but also endanger the associated community, favoring the displacement and the disappearance of endemic species. PMID:15895160

  15. Gadè deceptions and lies told by the ill: The Caribbean sociocultural construction of truth in patient-healer encounters.

    PubMed

    Massé, Raymond

    2002-08-01

    A constructivist approach in medical anthropology suggests that the boundary between lies and truth in sickness narratives is thin. Based on fieldwork in the French (Martinique) and English (Saint-Lucia) Carribbean with gadé and quimboiseurs (local folk healers), this paper addresses the gap between naïve romanticism and radical cynicism in the anthropological analysis of patient-healer encounters. Is the sick person lying when she accuses evil spirits for her behaviour or sickness? Is the quimboiseur who is building a meaningful explanation or diagnosis simply a liar taking advantage of his client's credulity? The challenge for anthropology is not to determine whether or not a person is lying when attributing their ill fortune to witchcraft. Instead, in this paper, the author approaches lying as a language-game played by both patients and folk healers. Concepts of lying as games, tactical lies, pragmatic creativity, and constructive lies are introduced here as a perspective for a reconsideration of lying as a pertinent research object. PMID:26868988

  16. Description of the female of Haematonotus jenisi Krajcik, 2006 and placement of the species within the genus Atrichiana Distant, 1911 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    The male of Haematonotus jenisi Krajcik, 2006 was described on the basis of a sole holotype specimen. A number of new specimens have recently been collected from the False Bay area of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, in northeastern KwaZulu-Natal, including a number of females, thereby allowing the description of this sex for the first time. The new series also reveals that most morphological characters are actually typical for the genus Atrichiana Distant, 1911, rather than Haematonotus Kraatz, 1880. For this reason, it is here proposed that this species be placed within Atrichiana, thus becoming the second species of a genus that was previously regarded as monospecific, represented by the southern African endemic Atrichiana placida (Boheman, 1857). Like Atrichiana placida, Atrichiana jenisi exhibits a remarkable polymorphism, but also sexual dimorphism, particularly expressed at the level of the antennal clubs, which in the male are twice as long as in the female. Unfortunately, all specimens of the recent series were collected dead or drowning on the lake shores and therefore no further information on their life cycle and biology in general could be obtained. It seems that the species may represent a micro-endemism restricted to the Western Shores of Lake St Lucia, with habitat associated to Sand Forest and possibly also Northern Coastal Forest vegetation types. PMID:27006615

  17. Computational intelligence-based polymerase chain reaction primer selection based on a novel teaching-learning-based optimisation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Huei

    2014-12-01

    Specific primers play an important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, and therefore it is essential to find specific primers of outstanding quality. Unfortunately, many PCR constraints must be simultaneously inspected which makes specific primer selection difficult and time-consuming. This paper introduces a novel computational intelligence-based method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimisation, to select the specific and feasible primers. The specified PCR product lengths of 150-300 bp and 500-800 bp with three melting temperature formulae of Wallace's formula, Bolton and McCarthy's formula and SantaLucia's formula were performed. The authors calculate optimal frequency to estimate the quality of primer selection based on a total of 500 runs for 50 random nucleotide sequences of 'Homo species' retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The method was then fairly compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) and memetic algorithm (MA) for primer selection in the literature. The results show that the method easily found suitable primers corresponding with the setting primer constraints and had preferable performance than the GA and the MA. Furthermore, the method was also compared with the common method Primer3 according to their method type, primers presentation, parameters setting, speed and memory usage. In conclusion, it is an interesting primer selection method and a valuable tool for automatic high-throughput analysis. In the future, the usage of the primers in the wet lab needs to be validated carefully to increase the reliability of the method. PMID:25429503

  18. In Pursuit of the Far-Infrared Spectrum of Cyanogen Iso-Thiocyanate Ncncs, Under the Influence of the Energy Level Dislocation due to Quantum Monodromy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnewisser, Manfred; Winnewisser, Brenda P.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; De Lucia, Frank, C.; Ross, Stephen C.; Koput, Jacek

    2010-06-01

    Quantum Monodromy has a strong impact on the ro-vibrational energy levels of chain molecules whose bending potential energy function has the form of the bottom of a champagne bottle (i.e. with a hump or punt) around the linear configuration. NCNCS is a particularly good example of such a molecule and clearly exhibits a distinctive monodromy-induced dislocation of the energy level pattern at the top of the potential energy hump. The generalized semi-rigid bender (GSRB) wave functions are used to show that the expectation values of any physical quantity which varies with the large amplitude bending coordinate will also have monodromy-induced dislocations. This includes the electric dipole moment components. High level ab initio calculations not only provided the molecular equilibrium structure of NCNCS, but also the electric dipole moment components μa and μb as functions of the large-amplitude bending coordinate. The calculated expectation values of these quantities indicate large ro-vibrational transition moments that will be discussed in pursuit of possible far-infrared bands. To our knowledge there is no NCNCS infrared spectrum reported in the literature. B. P. Winnewisser, M. Winnewisser, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, S. C. Ross and J. Koput, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, DOI:10.1039/B922023B.

  19. "How to stop choking to death": Rethinking lesbian separatism as a vibrant political theory and feminist practice.

    PubMed

    Enszer, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary feminist discourses, lesbian separatism is often mocked. Whether blamed as a central reason for feminism's alleged failure or seen as an unrealistic, utopian vision, lesbian separatism is a maligned social and cultural formation. This article traces the intellectual roots of lesbian feminism from the early 1970s in The Furies and Radicalesbians through the work of Julia Penelope and Sarah Lucia Hoagland in the 1980s and 1990s, then considers four feminist and lesbian organizations that offer innovative engagements with lesbian separatism. Olivia Records operated as a separatist enterprise, producing and distributing womyn's music during the 1970s and 1980s. Two book distributors, Women in Distribution, which operated in the 1970s, and Diaspora Distribution, which operated in the 1980s, offer another approach to lesbian separatism as a form of economic and entrepreneurial engagement. Finally, Sinister Wisdom, a lesbian-feminist literary and arts journal, enacts a number of different forms of lesbian separatism during its forty-year history. These four examples demonstrate economic and cultural investments of lesbian separatism and situate its investments in larger visionary feminist projects. More than a rigid ideology, lesbian separatism operates as a feminist process, a method for living in the world. PMID:26914821

  20. Eradication of the tropical bont tick in the Caribbean: is the Caribbean amblyomma program in a crisis?

    PubMed

    Pegram, Rupert G; Gersabeck, Edward F; Wilson, David; Hansen, Jorgen W

    2002-10-01

    The progress and problems in the Caribbean Amblyomma Program (CAP) are reviewed since its inception in 1995. During 1998, there were funding and administrative management problems. USDA resolved the acute funding crisis, and after three years of negotiation, the CAP has now secured an additional euro 1.5 million from the European Community. Changes in administration in 1998 included the withdrawal of IICA from the program, and the transition during the decentralization of administrative and financial management from FAO headquarters to the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, based in Chile. A general overview of technical progress and one case study, St. Kitts, is presented. One major concern that emerged during 2000 is that the elimination of the small remaining tropical bont tick (TBT) "hot spots" in both St. Kitts and St. Lucia remained elusive. Why is this so? Egrets? Alternative residual hosts? Or is it fatigue in both technical and administrative management functions? Of even greater concern is the finding of two, apparently new, foci in St. Croix (USVI) in the north and St. Vincent in the south. A critical overview of the program has identified one major remaining constraint-an appropriate management support function at both regional and, in some countries, at the national level. A proposal for a revised management strategy, coupled with the identification of a future strategy to succeed the CAP, namely a Caribbean Animal Resources Management (CARM) Program. PMID:12381609

  1. Exploration geochemistry: The Los Alamos experience

    SciTech Connect

    Maassen, L.W.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory became actively involved in geochemical exploration in 1975 by conducting a reconnaissance-scale exploration program for uranium as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Initially, only uranium and thorium were analyzed. By 1979 Los Alamos was analyzing a multielement suite. The data were presented in histograms and as black and white concentration plots for uranium and thorium only. Data for the remaining elements were presented as hard copy data listings in an appendix to the report. In 1983 Los Alamos began using exploration geochemistry for the purpose of finding economic mineral deposits to help stimulate the economies of underdeveloped countries. Stream-sediment samples were collected on the Caribbean island of St. Lucia and a geochemical atlas of that island was produced. The data were statistically smoothed and presented as computer-generated color plots of each element of the multielement suite. Studies for the US Bureau of Land Management in 1984 consisted of development of techniques for the integration of several large data sets, which could then be used for computer-assisted mineral resource assessments. A supervised classification technique was developed which compares the attributes of grid cells containing mines or mineral occurrences with attributes of unclassified cells not known to contain mines or occurrences. Color maps indicate how closely unclassified cells match in attributes the cells with mines or occurrences. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Ecology of bacterial communities in the schistosomiasis vector snailBiomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ducklow, H W; Clausen, K; Mitchell, R

    1981-09-01

    The internal colony-forming bacterial flora of the schistosome intermediate host snailBiomphalaria glabrata (Say) has been characterized in ca. 500 individual snails from Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, and St. Lucia, and from laboratory aquaria. Freshly captured wild snails harbor 2-40×10(6) CFU·g(-1), and healthy aquarium snails harbor 4-16×10(7) CFU·g(-1), whereas moribund individuals have 4-10 times as many bacteria as healthy individuals from the same habitats.Pseudomonas spp. are the most common predominant bacteria in normal snails, whereasAcinetobacter, Aeromonas, andMoraxella spp. predominate in moribund snails. External bacterial populations in water appear to have little effect on the composition and size of the flora in any snail. In addition to normal (healthy) and moribund snails, a third group of snails has been distinguished on the basis of internal bacterial density and predominating genera. These "high-density" snails may have undergone stresses and may harbor opportunistic pathogens. The microfloras of wild and laboratory-reared snails can be altered and stimulated to increase in density by crowding the snails or treating them with antibiotics. PMID:24227500

  3. Submarine canyon deposits, central California coast, and their possible relation to an Eocene low sea-level stand

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, V.M.; Joyce, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A cliff exposure in the northern Santa Lucia Range is interpreted to represent the north margin of an Eocene submarine canyon. The exposure shows an unconformity between The Rocks Sandstone Member of the Reliz Canyon Formation and the underlying crystalline basement rocks. Sandstone beds overlie the unconformity at an angle of about 20/sup 0/. Stratigraphic relations exposed nearby show that about 220 m of the Reliz Canyon and Church Creek Formations pinches out northward against the basement across a distance of about 900 m of the Reliz Canyon and Church Creek Formations pinches out northward against the basement across a distance of about 900 m. This corresponds to an original southward slope of the unconformity of about 14/sup 0/. Farther south, an even steeper slope to the north may be indicated, but a fault of uncertain horizontal displacement intervenes. The Reliz Canyon Formation seems to have been deposited in a small northwest-trending submarine canyon in the vicinity of the exposed unconformity; elsewhere in the region the Reliz Canyon Formation may have been deposited in two other canyons or restricted basins. Fossil data show that the voluminous sand of The Rocks Sandstone Member was deposited near the early-middle Eocene boundary, a postulated time of worldwide low sea level. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Eddy development and motion in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Carlos A.; Barton, Eric D.

    2000-11-01

    Eddy motion in the Caribbean Sea is described on the basis of sea level anomalies deduced from ERS-1 altimetry data corrected with TOPEX/Poseidon data during the 15 months of the Exact Repeat Mission (October 1992 to December 1993). Both cyclones and anticyclones were observed in the satellite data as anomalies originating in the Venezuelan Basin or entering the Caribbean through the Antillean passages, mainly the St. Lucia Channel, Anegada Passage, and north of Trinidad. The diameter of the eddies ranged from a few tens of kilometers to 700 km. Advection speeds were typically 20-30 cm s-1 and the eddies were energetic (kinetic energy > 0.6 m2 s-2). Their lifetime of 3-4 months was determined, in general, by their interaction with topography. Most eddy activity was eroded and disappeared at the Central American Rise area, although a few eddies crossed into the Cayman Sea through the Chibcha Channel. Some eddies also entered the Cayman Sea from outside the Caribbean through the Windward Passage. The Panama-Colombia Gyre was evident only during the tropical rainy season. A large cyclonic eddy was formed there during the period of maximum precipitation, when strong meridional salinity and wind speed gradients occurred. Eddy production in the central Caribbean appears to be associated with the interaction of the meandering Caribbean Current and the strong wind curl.

  5. Planning and pre-testing: the key to effective AIDS education materials.

    PubMed

    Ostfield, M L; Romocki, L S

    1991-06-01

    The steps in designing and producing effective AIDS prevention educational materials are outlines, using as an example a brochure originated in St. Lucia for clients at STD clinics. The brochure was intended to be read by clients as they waited for their consultation, thus it was targeted to a specific audience delimited by age, sex, language, educational level, religion and associated medical or behavioral characteristics. When researching the audience, it is necessary to learn the medium they best respond to, what they know already, what is their present behavior, how they talk about AIDS, what terms they use, how they perceive the benefits of AIDS prevention behavior, what sources of information they trust. The minimum number of key messages should be selected. Next the most appropriate channel of communication is identified. Mass media are not always best for a target audience, "little media" such as flyers and give-always may be better. The draft is then pre-tested by focus groups and interviews, querying about the text separately, then images, color, format, style. Listen to the way the respondents talk about the draft. Modify the draft and pre-test again. Fine-tune implications of the message for realism in emotional responses, respect, self-esteem, admiration and trust. To achieve wide distribution it is a good idea to involve community leaders to production of the materials, so they will be more likely to take part in the distribution process. PMID:12316892

  6. That Which Bends Up: A Case Report and Literature Review of Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Peper, Shana M; Monson, Benjamin J; Van Schooneveld, Trevor; Smith, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in a 39-year-old female who developed an acute febrile illness marked by polyarthralgia and rash after returning from Saint Lucia. This epidemic-prone pathogen is increasingly likely to be encountered by primary care and hospital physicians in the coming months. The virus was first locally transmitted in the Caribbean in December 2013 and has since spread to 44 countries and 47 US states, affecting a suspected 1.2 million people. A mosquito-borne virus, CHIKV causes a severe and symmetric polyarthralgia that can relapse for months to years, creating debilitating illness and profound socioeconomic consequences. Current treatment is limited to supportive measures, which are dependent on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Research into immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapies, and vaccines is ongoing. Prevention remains key in slowing the spread of disease. Patient education should focus on personal protective measures, such as insect repellant and remaining indoors, while public health departments should implement strategies to control vector breeding grounds. Given the possibility of relapsing and debilitating disease, general internists should consider CHIKV in the differential diagnosis of a returning traveler with acute onset of fever, polyarthralgia, and rash. PMID:26194641

  7. Analysis of 2ν3 Band of Hto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Maki, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Takuya; Hara, Masanori; Hatano, Yuji; Ozeki, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. Tritium released into natural enviroment is said to be converted into mostly HTO. The detection of HTO is important from the viewpoint of basic science as well as its radioactivity. Spectroscopy is a good tool for detection, however, high-resolution spectroscopy studies are still limited. The microwave study were carried out and the molecular constants of the ground state were determined. All fundamental ν_1, ν_2 and the ν_3 bands of HTO were reported. At 1.38 micron region, overtone and combination bands are expected. In this study, we prepared a new double wall cell for safe handling of highly concentrated tritiated water and carried out the near-infrared measurement. More than 100 transitions were observed and most of them were assigned to belong to the 2ν_3 band based on the previous quantum chemical calculations. We will report the current status of the analysis. P. Helminger, F. C. De Lucia, W. Gordy, P. A. Staats and H. W. Morgan, Phys. Rev. A, 10, 1072 (1974). S. D. Cope, D. K. Russell, H. A. Fry, L. H. Jones, and J. E. Barefield, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 127, 464 (1988). P. P. Cherrier, P. H. Beckwith, and J. Reid, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 121, 69 (1987). M. Tine, D. Kobor, I. Sakho, and L. H. Coudert, J. Mod. Phys., 3, 1945 (2012). M. J. Down, J. Tennyson, M. Hara, Y. Hatano, and K. Kobayashi, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 289, 35 (2013).

  8. The use of a deprogramming appliance to obtain centric relation records.

    PubMed

    Karl, P J; Foley, T F

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an anterior flat plane deprogramming appliance (Jig) in 40 subjects for whom centric relation (CR) records were obtained before and after the use of the appliance. Incisal overbite and overjet dimensions and three-dimensional instrument condylar representation using the Panadent condylar path indicator (CPI) were recorded from maximum intercuspation and centric relation. Subjects were assessed subjectively to determine the degree of difficulty manipulating the mandible to obtain the centric relation record. The mean overbite difference from maximum intercuspation (MI) to centric relation without (CR) and with (CRJ) the appliance were statistically significant and decreased 1.58 mm and 2.23 mm, respectively. The mean overjet values from MI to CR and CRJ were statistically significant and increased .44 mm and .57 mm, respectively. Significant differences were determined on the Panadent articulator for the absolute vertical (Z) and absolute horizontal (X) values for centric relation with and without the appliance. The number of subjects who exceeded the threshold values of 2 mm for CPI recordings in either the horizontal or vertical direction was 7 (18%,) from MI to CR and 16 (40%) from MI to CRJ. The Lucia-type jig deprogramming appliance provides a centric relation record with greater displacement from MI than a centric relation record alone. This appliance may be a useful adjunct in a patient where mandibular manipulation in taking a centric relation bite registration is deemed not easy. PMID:10227551

  9. Venus - 3D Perspective View of Latona Corona and Dali Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This computer-generated perspective view of Latona Corona and Dali Chasma on Venus shows Magellan radar data superimposed on topography. The view is from the northeast and vertical exaggeration is 10 times. Exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (i.e. faults and fractures) and topography. Latona Corona, a circular feature approximately 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) in diameter whose eastern half is shown at the left of the image, has a relatively smooth, radar-bright raised rim. Bright lines or fractures within the corona appear to radiate away from its center toward the rim. The rest of the bright fractures in the area are associated with the relatively deep (approximately 3 kilometers or 1.9 miles) troughs of Dali Chasma. The Dali and Diana Chasma system consist of deep troughs that extend for 7,400 kilometers (4,588 miles) and are very distinct features on Venus. Those chasma connect the Ovda and Thetis highlands with the large volcanoes at Atla Regio and thus are considered to be the 'Scorpion Tail' of Aphrodite Terra. The broad, curving scarp resembles some of Earth's subduction zones where crustal plates are pushed over each other. The radar-bright surface at the highest elevation along the scarp is similar to surfaces in other elevated regions where some metallic mineral such as pyrite (fool's gold) may occur on the surface.

  10. Food Deprivation Affects the miRNome in the Lactating Goat Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Mobuchon, Lenha; Marthey, Sylvain; Le Guillou, Sandrine; Laloë, Denis; Le Provost, Fabienne; Leroux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrition affects milk composition thus influencing its nutritional properties. Nutrition also modifies the expression of mammary genes, whose regulation is not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non coding RNA which are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs. Our goal was to characterize miRNA whose expression is regulated by nutrition in the lactating goat mammary gland, which may provide clues to deciphering regulations of the biosynthesis and secretion of milk components. Methodology/principal findings Using high-throughput sequencing technology, miRNomes of the lactating mammary gland were established from lactating goats fed ad libitum or deprived of food for 48h affecting milk production and composition. High throughput miRNA sequencing revealed 30 miRNA with an expression potentially modulated by food deprivation; 16 were down-regulated and 14 were up-regulated. Diana-microT predictive tools suggested a potential role for several nutriregulated miRNA in lipid metabolism. Among the putative targets, 19 were previously identified as differently expressed genes (DEG). The functions of these 19 DEG revealed, notably, their involvement in tissue remodelling. Conclusion/significance In conclusion, this study offers the first evidence of nutriregulated miRNA in the ruminant mammary gland. Characterization of these 30 miRNA could contribute to a clearer understanding of gene regulation in the mammary gland in response to nutrition. PMID:26473604

  11. Experimental search for radiative decays of the pentaquark baryon Θ+(1540)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmin, V. V.; Asratyan, A. E.; Borisov, V. S.; Curceanu, C.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Guaraldo, C.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Larin, I. F.; Matveev, V. A.; Shebanov, V. A.; Shishov, N. N.; Sokolov, L. I.; Tumanov, G. K.; Verebryusov, V. S.

    2010-07-01

    The data on the reactions K +Xe → K 0 γX and K +Xe → K + γX, obtained with the bubble chamber DIANA, have been analyzed for possible radiative decays of the Θ+(1540) baryon: Θ+ → K 0 pγ and Θ+ → K + nγ. No signals have been observed, and we derive the upper limits Γ(Θ+ → K 0 pγ)/Γ(Θ+ → K 0 p) < 0.032 and Γ(Θ+ → K + nγ)/Γ(Θ+ → K + nγ) < 0.041 which, using our previous measurement of Γ(Θ+ → KN) = 0.39 ± 0.10 MeV, translate to Γ(Θ+ → K 0 pγ) < 8 keV and Γ(Θ+ → K + nγ) < 11 keV at 90% confidence level. We have also measured the cross sections of K +-induced reactions involving emission of a neutral pion: σ( K + n → K 0 pπ 0) = 68 ± 18 µb and σ( K + N → K + Nπ 0) = 30 ± 8 µb for incident K + momentum of 640 MeV.

  12. Observation of a narrow baryon resonance with positive strangeness formed in K+Xe collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmin, V. V.; Asratyan, A. E.; Borisov, V. S.; Curceanu, C.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Guaraldo, C.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Larin, I. F.; Matveev, V. A.; Shebanov, V. A.; Shishov, N. N.; Sokolov, L. I.; Tarasov, V. V.; Tumanov, G. K.; Verebryusov, V. S.; Diana Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    The charge-exchange reaction K+Xe→K0pXe' is investigated using the data of the DIANA experiment. The distribution of the pK0 effective mass shows a prominent enhancement near 1538 MeV formed by nearly 80 events above the background, whose width is consistent with being entirely due to the experimental resolution. Under the selections based on a simulation of K+Xe collisions, the statistical significance of the signal reaches 5.5σ. We interpret this observation as strong evidence for formation of a pentaquark baryon with positive strangeness, Θ+(uudds¯), in the charge-exchange reaction K+n→K0p on a bound neutron. The mass of the Θ+ baryon is measured as m (Θ+)=1538±2 MeV. Using the ratio between the numbers of resonant and nonresonant charge-exchange events in the peak region, the intrinsic width of this baryon resonance is determined as Γ (Θ+)=0.34±0.10 MeV.

  13. The Sacred Mountain of Varallo in Italy: seismic risk assessment by acoustic emission and structural numerical models.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Invernizzi, Stefano; Accornero, Federico

    2013-01-01

    We examine an application of Acoustic Emission (AE) technique for a probabilistic analysis in time and space of earthquakes, in order to preserve the valuable Italian Renaissance Architectural Complex named "The Sacred Mountain of Varallo." Among the forty-five chapels of the Renaissance Complex, the structure of the Chapel XVII is of particular concern due to its uncertain structural condition and due to the level of stress caused by the regional seismicity. Therefore, lifetime assessment, taking into account the evolution of damage phenomena, is necessary to preserve the reliability and safety of this masterpiece of cultural heritage. A continuous AE monitoring was performed to assess the structural behavior of the Chapel. During the monitoring period, a correlation between peaks of AE activity in the masonry of the "Sacred Mountain of Varallo" and regional seismicity was found. Although the two phenomena take place on very different scales, the AE in materials and the earthquakes in Earth's crust, belong to the same class of invariance. In addition, an accurate finite element model, performed with DIANA finite element code, is presented to describe the dynamic behavior of Chapel XVII structure, confirming visual and instrumental inspections of regional seismic effects. PMID:24381511

  14. Altered MicroRNA Expression Profile in Exosomes during Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shui-Jun; Zhao, Chen; Qiu, Bin-Song; Gu, Hai-Feng; Hong, Jian-Fei; Cao, Li; Chen, Yu; Xia, Bing; Bi, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The physiological role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in osteoblast differentiation remains elusive. Exosomal miRNAs isolated from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) culture were profiled using miRNA arrays containing probes for 894 human matured miRNAs. Seventy-nine miRNAs (∼8.84%) could be detected in exosomes isolated from BMSC culture supernatants when normalized to endogenous control genes RNU44. Among them, nine exosomal miRNAs were up regulated and 4 miRNAs were under regulated significantly (Relative fold>2, p<0.05) when compared with the values at 0 day with maximum changes at 1 to 7 days. Five miRNAs (miR-199b, miR-218, miR-148a, miR-135b, and miR-221) were further validated and differentially expressed in the individual exosomal samples from hBMSCs cultured at different time points. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that RNA degradation, mRNA surveillance pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, RNA transport were the most prominent pathways enriched in quantiles with differential exosomal miRNA patterns related to osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrated exosomal miRNA is a regulator of osteoblast differentiation. PMID:25503309

  15. Multiscale Thermo-Mechanical Design and Analysis of High Frequency and High Power Vacuum Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamzina, Diana

    Diana Gamzina March 2016 Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Multiscale Thermo-Mechanical Design and Analysis of High Frequency and High Power Vacuum Electron Devices Abstract A methodology for performing thermo-mechanical design and analysis of high frequency and high average power vacuum electron devices is presented. This methodology results in a "first-pass" engineering design directly ready for manufacturing. The methodology includes establishment of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions, evaluation of convective film heat transfer coefficients, identification of material options, evaluation of temperature and stress field distributions, assessment of microscale effects on the stress state of the material, and fatigue analysis. The feature size of vacuum electron devices operating in the high frequency regime of 100 GHz to 1 THz is comparable to the microstructure of the materials employed for their fabrication. As a result, the thermo-mechanical performance of a device is affected by the local material microstructure. Such multiscale effects on the stress state are considered in the range of scales from about 10 microns up to a few millimeters. The design and analysis methodology is demonstrated on three separate microwave devices: a 95 GHz 10 kW cw sheet beam klystron, a 263 GHz 50 W long pulse wide-bandwidth sheet beam travelling wave tube, and a 346 GHz 1 W cw backward wave oscillator.

  16. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD. PMID:20178575

  17. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua on minimally-processed peaches under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-10-01

    Consumption of fresh-cut produce has sharply increased recently causing an increase of foodborne illnesses associated with these products. As generally, acidic fruits are considered 'safe' from a microbiological point of view, the aim of this work was to study the growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua on minimally-processed peaches. The three foodborne pathogens population increased more than 2 log(10)units on fresh-cut peach when stored at 20 and 25 degrees C after 48 h. At 10 degrees C only L. innocua grew more than 1 log(10)unit and it was the only pathogen able to grow at 5 degrees C. Differences in growth occurred between different peach varieties tested, with higher population increases in those varieties with higher pH ('Royal Glory' 4.73+/-0.25 and 'Diana' 4.12+/-0.18). The use of common strategies on extending shelf life of fresh-cut produce, as modified atmosphere packaging and the use of the antioxidant substance, ascorbic acid (2%w/v), did not affect pathogens' growth at any of the temperatures tested (5 and 25 degrees C). Minimally-processed peaches have shown to be a good substrate for foodborne pathogens' growth regardless use of modified atmosphere and ascorbic acid. Therefore, maintaining cold chain and avoiding contamination is highly necessary. PMID:20688227

  18. Acoustic sensor planning for gunshot location in national parks: a pareto front approach.

    PubMed

    González-Castaño, Francisco Javier; Alonso, Javier Vales; Costa-Montenegro, Enrique; López-Matencio, Pablo; Vicente-Carrasco, Francisco; Parrado-García, Francisco J; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Costas-Rodríguez, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution for gunshot location in national parks. In Spain there are agencies such as SEPRONA that fight against poaching with considerable success. The DiANa project, which is endorsed by Cabaneros National Park and the SEPRONA service, proposes a system to automatically detect and locate gunshots. This work presents its technical aspects related to network design and planning. The system consists of a network of acoustic sensors that locate gunshots by hyperbolic multi-lateration estimation. The differences in sound time arrivals allow the computation of a low error estimator of gunshot location. The accuracy of this method depends on tight sensor clock synchronization, which an ad-hoc time synchronization protocol provides. On the other hand, since the areas under surveillance are wide, and electric power is scarce, it is necessary to maximize detection coverage and minimize system cost at the same time. Therefore, sensor network planning has two targets, i.e., coverage and cost. We model planning as an unconstrained problem with two objective functions. We determine a set of candidate solutions of interest by combining a derivative-free descent method we have recently proposed with a Pareto front approach. The results are clearly superior to random seeding in a realistic simulation scenario. PMID:22303135

  19. Acoustic Sensor Planning for Gunshot Location in National Parks: A Pareto Front Approach

    PubMed Central

    González-Castaño, Francisco Javier; Alonso, Javier Vales; Costa-Montenegro, Enrique; López-Matencio, Pablo; Vicente-Carrasco, Francisco; Parrado-García, Francisco J.; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Costas-Rodríguez, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution for gunshot location in national parks. In Spain there are agencies such as SEPRONA that fight against poaching with considerable success. The DiANa project, which is endorsed by Cabaneros National Park and the SEPRONA service, proposes a system to automatically detect and locate gunshots. This work presents its technical aspects related to network design and planning. The system consists of a network of acoustic sensors that locate gunshots by hyperbolic multi-lateration estimation. The differences in sound time arrivals allow the computation of a low error estimator of gunshot location. The accuracy of this method depends on tight sensor clock synchronization, which an ad-hoc time synchronization protocol provides. On the other hand, since the areas under surveillance are wide, and electric power is scarce, it is necessary to maximize detection coverage and minimize system cost at the same time. Therefore, sensor network planning has two targets, i.e., coverage and cost. We model planning as an unconstrained problem with two objective functions. We determine a set of candidate solutions of interest by combining a derivative-free descent method we have recently proposed with a Pareto front approach. The results are clearly superior to random seeding in a realistic simulation scenario. PMID:22303135

  20. Pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and pesticides in Mediterranean coastal waters: Results from a pilot survey using passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaron, Dominique; Tapie, Nathalie; Budzinski, Hélène; Andral, Bruno; Gonzalez, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-01

    21 pharmaceuticals, 6 alkylphenols and 27 hydrophilic pesticides and biocides were investigated using polar organic contaminant integrative samplers (POCIS) during a large-scale study of contamination of French Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine and transitional water-bodies, defined under the EU Water Framework Directive were monitored. Our results show that the French Mediterranean coastal waters were contaminated with a large range of emerging contaminants, detected at low concentrations during the summer season. Caffeine, carbamazepine, theophilline and terbutaline were detected with a detection frequency higher than 83% in the coastal waters sampled, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) were detected in all coastal waters sampled, and diuron, terbuthylazine, atrazine, irgarol and simazine were detected in more than 77% of samples. For pharmaceuticals, highest time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were measured for caffeine and carbamazepine (32 and 12 ng L-1, respectively). For alkylphenols, highest TWA concentrations were measured for 4-nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate and 4-nonylphenol (41 and 33 ng L-1, respectively), and for herbicides and biocides, they were measured for diuron and irgarol (33 and 2.5 ng L-1, respectively). Except for Diana lagoon, lagoons and semi-enclosed bays were the most contaminated areas for herbicides and pharmaceuticals, whilst, for alkylphenols, levels of contamination were similar in lagoons and coastal waters. This study demonstrates the relevance and utility of POCIS as quantitative tool for measuring low concentrations of emerging contaminants in marine waters.

  1. In Situ Boundary Layer Coral Metabolism in the Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillis, Wade

    2013-04-01

    and Chris Langdon, Brice Loose, Dwight Gledhill, Diana Hsueh, Derek Manzello, Ian Enochs, Ryan Moyer We present net ecosystem productivity (nep) and net ecosystem calcification (nec) in coral and seagrass ecosystems using the boundary layer gradient flux technique (CROSS). Coastal anthropogenic inputs and changes in global ocean chemistry in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide has emerged in recent years as a topic of considerable concern. Coral reefs are particularly vulnerable from eroded environmental conditions including ocean acidification and water pollution. The Atlantic Ocean Acidification Testbed (AOAT) project monitors metabolism to ascertain the continuing health of coral reef ecosystems. The CROSS boundary layer nep/nec approach is one component of this diagnostic program. Certification of CROSS as an operational monitoring tool is underway in the AOAT. CROSS inspects a benthic community and measures productivity/respiration and calcification/dissolution over an area of 10 square meters. Being a boundary layer tool, advection and complex mesoscale flows are not a factor or concern and CROSS is autonomous and can be used at deep benthic sites. The interrogation area is not enclosed therefore exposed to ambient light, flow, and nutrient levels. CROSS is easy to deploy, unambiguous, and affordable. Repeated measurements have been made from 2011-2012 in reefal systems in La Parguera Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys, USA. Diurnal, seasonal and regional metabolism will be compared and discussed. The ability to accurately probe benthic ecosystems provides a powerful management and research tool to policy makers and researchers.

  2. Meeting report of the first conference of the International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS).

    PubMed

    Parolini, O; Alviano, F; Betz, A G; Bianchi, D W; Götherström, C; Manuelpillai, U; Mellor, A L; Ofir, R; Ponsaerts, P; Scherjon, S A; Weiss, M L; Wolbank, S; Wood, K J; Borlongan, C V

    2011-10-01

    The International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS) was founded in June 2010. Its goal is to serve as a network for advancing research and clinical applications of stem/progenitor cells isolated from human term placental tissues, including the amnio-chorionic fetal membranes and Wharton's jelly. The commitment of the Society to champion placenta as a stem cell source was realized with the inaugural meeting of IPLASS held in Brescia, Italy, in October 2010. Officially designated as an EMBO-endorsed scientific activity, international experts in the field gathered for a 3-day meeting, which commenced with "Meet with the experts" sessions, IPLASS member and board meetings, and welcome remarks by Dr. Ornella Parolini, President of IPLASS. The evening's highlight was a keynote plenary lecture by Dr. Diana Bianchi. The subsequent scientific program consisted of morning and afternoon oral and poster presentations, followed by social events. Both provided many opportunities for intellectual exchange among the 120 multi-national participants. This allowed a methodical and deliberate evaluation of the status of placental cells in research in regenerative and reparative medicine. The meeting concluded with Dr. Parolini summarizing the meeting's highlights. This further prepared the fertile ground on which to build the promising potential of placental cell research. The second IPLASS meeting will take place in September 2012 in Vienna, Austria. This meeting report summarizes the thought-provoking lectures delivered at the first meeting of IPLASS. PMID:21575989

  3. Aneurysm miRNA Signature Differs, Depending on Disease Localization and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Busch, Albert; Busch, Martin; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Kellersmann, Richard; Otto, Christoph; Chernogubova, Ekaterina; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zernecke, Alma; Lorenz, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Limited comprehension of aneurysm pathology has led to inconclusive results from clinical trials. miRNAs are key regulators of post-translational gene modification and are useful tools in elucidating key features of aneurysm pathogenesis in distinct entities of abdominal and popliteal aneurysms. Here, surgically harvested specimens from 19 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and 8 popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) patients were analyzed for miRNA expression and histologically classified regarding extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammation. DIANA-based computational target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis verified our results, as well as previous ones. miRNA-362, -19b-1, -194, -769, -21 and -550 were significantly down-regulated in AAA samples depending on degree of inflammation. Similar or inverse regulation was found for miR-769, 19b-1 and miR-550, -21, whereas miR-194 and -362 were unaltered in PAA. In situ hybridization verified higher expression of miR-550 and -21 in PAA compared to AAA and computational analysis for target genes and pathway enrichment affirmed signal transduction, cell-cell-interaction and cell degradation pathways, in line with previous results. Despite the vague role of miRNAs for potential diagnostic and treatment purposes, the number of candidates from tissue signature studies is increasing. Tissue morphology influences subsequent research, yet comparison of distinct entities of aneurysm disease can unravel core pathways. PMID:26771601

  4. Aneurysm miRNA Signature Differs, Depending on Disease Localization and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Albert; Busch, Martin; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Kellersmann, Richard; Otto, Christoph; Chernogubova, Ekaterina; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zernecke, Alma; Lorenz, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Limited comprehension of aneurysm pathology has led to inconclusive results from clinical trials. miRNAs are key regulators of post-translational gene modification and are useful tools in elucidating key features of aneurysm pathogenesis in distinct entities of abdominal and popliteal aneurysms. Here, surgically harvested specimens from 19 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and 8 popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) patients were analyzed for miRNA expression and histologically classified regarding extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammation. DIANA-based computational target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis verified our results, as well as previous ones. miRNA-362, -19b-1, -194, -769, -21 and -550 were significantly down-regulated in AAA samples depending on degree of inflammation. Similar or inverse regulation was found for miR-769, 19b-1 and miR-550, -21, whereas miR-194 and -362 were unaltered in PAA. In situ hybridization verified higher expression of miR-550 and -21 in PAA compared to AAA and computational analysis for target genes and pathway enrichment affirmed signal transduction, cell-cell-interaction and cell degradation pathways, in line with previous results. Despite the vague role of miRNAs for potential diagnostic and treatment purposes, the number of candidates from tissue signature studies is increasing. Tissue morphology influences subsequent research, yet comparison of distinct entities of aneurysm disease can unravel core pathways. PMID:26771601

  5. Contribution to the understanding of the cycle of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens.

    PubMed

    Arzul, I; Chollet, B; Boyer, S; Bonnet, D; Gaillard, J; Baldi, Y; Robert, M; Joly, J P; Garcia, C; Bouchoucha, M

    2014-02-01

    The paramyxean parasite Marteilia refringens infects several bivalve species including European flat oysters Ostrea edulis and Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sequence polymorphism allowed definition of three parasite types 'M', 'O' and 'C' preferably detected in oysters, mussels and cockles respectively. Transmission of the infection from infected bivalves to copepods Paracartia grani could be experimentally achieved but assays from copepods to bivalves failed. In order to contribute to the elucidation of the M. refringens life cycle, the dynamics of the infection was investigated in O. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and zooplankton over one year in Diana lagoon, Corsica (France). Flat oysters appeared non-infected while mussels were infected part of the year, showing highest prevalence in summertime. The parasite was detected by PCR in zooplankton particularly after the peak of prevalence in mussels. Several zooplanktonic groups including copepods, Cladocera, Appendicularia, Chaetognatha and Polychaeta appeared PCR positive. However, only the copepod species Paracartia latisetosa showed positive signal by in situ hybridization. Small parasite cells were observed in gonadal tissues of female copepods demonstrating for the first time that a copepod species other than P. grani can be infected with M. refringens. Molecular characterization of the parasite infecting mussels and zooplankton allowed the distinguishing of three Marteilia types in the lagoon. PMID:24128728

  6. The Sacred Mountain of Varallo in Italy: Seismic Risk Assessment by Acoustic Emission and Structural Numerical Models

    PubMed Central

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Invernizzi, Stefano; Accornero, Federico

    2013-01-01

    We examine an application of Acoustic Emission (AE) technique for a probabilistic analysis in time and space of earthquakes, in order to preserve the valuable Italian Renaissance Architectural Complex named “The Sacred Mountain of Varallo.” Among the forty-five chapels of the Renaissance Complex, the structure of the Chapel XVII is of particular concern due to its uncertain structural condition and due to the level of stress caused by the regional seismicity. Therefore, lifetime assessment, taking into account the evolution of damage phenomena, is necessary to preserve the reliability and safety of this masterpiece of cultural heritage. A continuous AE monitoring was performed to assess the structural behavior of the Chapel. During the monitoring period, a correlation between peaks of AE activity in the masonry of the “Sacred Mountain of Varallo” and regional seismicity was found. Although the two phenomena take place on very different scales, the AE in materials and the earthquakes in Earth's crust, belong to the same class of invariance. In addition, an accurate finite element model, performed with DIANA finite element code, is presented to describe the dynamic behavior of Chapel XVII structure, confirming visual and instrumental inspections of regional seismic effects. PMID:24381511

  7. IDPT: Insights into potential intrinsically disordered proteins through transcriptomic analysis of genes for prostate carcinoma epigenetic data.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Saurav; Sen, Sagnik; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2016-07-15

    Involvement of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) with various dreadful diseases like cancer is an interesting research topic. In order to gain novel insights into the regulation of IDPs, in this article, we perform a transcriptomic analysis of mRNAs (genes) for transcripts encoding IDPs on a human multi-omics prostate carcinoma dataset having both gene expression and methylation data. In this regard, firstly the genes that consist of both the expression and methylation data, and that are corresponding to the cancer-related prostate-tissue-specific disordered proteins of MobiDb database, are selected. We apply standard t-test for determining differentially expressed genes as well as differentially methylated genes. A network having these genes and their targeter miRNAs from Diana Tarbase v7.0 database and corresponding Transcription Factors from TRANSFAC and ITFP databases, is then built. Thereafter, we perform literature search, and KEGG pathway and Gene Ontology analyses using DAVID database. Finally, we report several significant potential gene-markers (with the corresponding IDPs) that have inverse relationship between differential expression and methylation patterns, and that are hub genes of the TF-miRNA-gene network. PMID:27060408

  8. PREFACE: Processes in Isotopes and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Diana; Tosa, Valer

    2009-07-01

    These Proceedings present some of the Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers of the International Conference 'Processes in Isotopes and Molecules' (PIM), held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 24-26 September 2009. The PIM conference, started in 1999 as a local event, is now an international conference organized every two years by the National Institute for R&D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies in Cluj-Napoca, the capital city of Transylvania, Romania. The meetings are attended by researchers in the field of atomic and molecular physics as well as those developing new materials and technologies. The scientific subjects are at the cross-roads of three fundamental research areas: physics, chemistry, and biology. The papers here are grouped according to the five conference topics: T1 - Molecular and biomolecular systems T2 - Modern techniques and technologies T3 - Environmental molecular processes T4 - Hydrogen and renewable sources of energy T5 - Nanostructured materials and nanocomposites We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of our colleagues from the Scientific Committee and Program Committee who contributed their time, energy and expertise to the refereeing process. Finally, we would like to thank people from IOP Publishing for their friendly advice and prompt help during the editing process, as well as for their efforts making the Journal of Physics: Conference Series available to the scientific community. Diana Bogdan and Valer Tosa National Institute for R&D Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca

  9. The social consequences of conspiracism: Exposure to conspiracy theories decreases intentions to engage in politics and to reduce one's carbon footprint.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    The current studies explored the social consequences of exposure to conspiracy theories. In Study 1, participants were exposed to a range of conspiracy theories concerning government involvement in significant events such as the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to engage in politics, relative to participants who were given information refuting conspiracy theories. This effect was mediated by feelings of political powerlessness. In Study 2, participants were exposed to conspiracy theories concerning the issue of climate change. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting the conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to reduce their carbon footprint, relative to participants who were given refuting information, or those in a control condition. This effect was mediated by powerlessness with respect to climate change, uncertainty, and disillusionment. Exposure to climate change conspiracy theories also influenced political intentions, an effect mediated by political powerlessness. The current findings suggest that conspiracy theories may have potentially significant social consequences, and highlight the need for further research on the social psychology of conspiracism. PMID:24387095

  10. Remote Semi-State Preparation as SuperDense Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Herbert J.

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in experimental technique make SuperDense Teleportation (SDT) possible. The effect uses remote state preparation to send more state-specifying parameters per bit than ordinary quantum teleportation (QT) can transmit. SDT uses a maximal entanglement to teleport the relative phases of an {n}-dimensional equimodular state. This means that one can send only {n}-1 of the total (2 n - 2) parameters -- comprising the relative phases and amplitudes -- of a general state. Nevertheless, for {n} >= 3 , SDT sends more of these state-specifying parameters than QT for a given number of classical bits. In the limit of large {n} the ratio is 2 to 1, hence the nomenclature Bennett suggested, SDT, by analogy with Super Dense Coding. Alice's measurements and Bob's transformations are simpler than in QT. The roles of Charles the state chooser, and Diana who deploys it, are different than in QT. I briefly review possible experimental realizations, including two that are under consideration at the present time by an experimental group leading in higher-dimension entanglement work. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY97-22614 & 07-58149 & KITP, UCSB, including an ITP Scholar-ship.

  11. [Concentrated red blood cells transfusion in Yaoundé, Cameroon: what quality?].

    PubMed

    Mbanya, D; Nouthe, B; Tayou Tagny, C; Moudourou, S; Ngogang, J

    2007-11-01

    As part of a quality assurance process in the transfusion service of a hospital blood bank of Yaoundé, Cameroon, a selection of units of red cell concentrates (RCC) were evaluated for volume, haemoglobin, and haematocrit levels as well as blood cell content. Blood samples were all collected into standard double blood bags containing an anticoagulant, citrate-phosphate-dextrose and adenine. During a three-month period, 35 bags intended for the preparation of the RCC were analysed. After relevant screening for transfusion transmissible infections ,and ABO and rhesus (RH1) blood grouping, the bags were centrifuged to obtain RCC. The resultant red cell bags were weighed and the volumes estimated. Full blood counts were performed on samples of the RCC using an electronic particle counter (DIANA 5, HYCEL Diagnostics, Reims, France). The results obtained showed that, based on ISO 9001: 2000 norms, there were 57, 66 and 80% of RCC respectively with volumes, hemoglobin levels as well as hematocrit that were in conformity with the norms. When the data was analysed based on the Algerian norms, 83, 66 and 95% respectively conformed. The significance of these findings and the need for establishing local norms for quality assurance in our community are discussed. PMID:18295526

  12. Scapular Morphology and Forelimb Use during Foraging in Four Sympatric Cercopithecids.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Noah T; Kane, Erin E; McGraw, W Scott

    2015-01-01

    Most investigations of primate scapular morphology use differences in locomotion to explain variation; less is known about how scapular geometry covaries with nonlocomotor behavior. We examined forelimb use during foraging in 4 cercopithecids ranging throughout the Ivory Coast's Tai Forest. During 5-min feeding bouts, we recorded the frequency individuals of Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, Cercocebus atys and Cercopithecus diana performed 5 forelimb behaviors involved in the acquisition and introduction of food to the oral cavity. Scapulae from these populations were examined to determine whether differences in forelimb use were reflected in features known to correspond with varying degrees of arm flexion, abduction and elevation. Our results reveal that the species differ markedly in forelimb use and that these differences are interpretable via their scapular morphology. For example, P. badius engages in more frequent flexion, abduction and elevation of the arm above the head relative to C. polykomos, and red colobus scapulae are longer craniocaudally and have larger, more cranially directed supraspinous fossae than those of closely related black-and-white colobus. Our attempt to explore how nonlocomotor behavior covaries with skeletal morphology should provide for more informed interpretations of the primate fossil record. PMID:26745141

  13. Altered microRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid exosome in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Gui, YaXing; Liu, Hai; Zhang, LiShan; Lv, Wen; Hu, XingYue

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of Parkinson's diseases (PD) is challenging, especially in the early stages of the disease. We developed a microRNA profiling strategy for exosomal miRNAs isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in PD and AD. Sixteen exosomal miRNAs were up regulated and 11 miRNAs were under regulated significantly in PD CSF when compared with those in healthy controls (relative fold > 2, p < 0.05). MiR-1 and miR-19b-3p were validated and significantly reduced in independent samples. While miR-153, miR-409-3p, miR-10a-5p, and let-7g-3p were significantly over expressed in PD CSF exosome. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that Neurotrophin signaling, mTOR signaling, Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, Dopaminergic synapse, and Glutamatergic synapse were the most prominent pathways enriched in quantiles with PD miRNA patterns. Messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts [amyloid precursor protein, APP), α-synuclein (α-syn), Tau, neurofilament, light gene (NF-L), DJ-1/PARK7, Fractalkine and Neurosin] and long non-coding RNAs (RP11-462G22.1 and PCA3) were differentially expressed in CSF exosomes in PD and AD patients. These data demonstrated that CSF exosomal RNA molecules are reliable biomarkers with fair robustness in regard to specificity and sensitivity in differentiating PD from healthy and diseased (AD) controls. PMID:26497684

  14. The microRNA feedback regulation of p63 in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Changwei; Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yihang; Zhou, Jianyu; Gao, Kai; Dai, Jing; Hu, Gui; Lv, Lv; Du, Juan; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor p63 is a member of the p53 gene family that plays a complex role in cancer due to its involvement in epithelial differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs with an important regulatory role in various cellular processes, as well as in the development and progression of cancer. A number of microRNAs have been shown to function as transcriptional targets of p63. Conversely, microRNAs also can modulate the expression and activity of p63. However, the p63–microRNA regulatory circuit has not been addressed in depth so far. Here, computational genomic analysis was performed using miRtarBase, Targetscan, microRNA.ORG, DIANA-MICROT, RNA22-HSA and miRDB to analyze miRNA binding to the 3′UTR of p63. JASPAR (profile score threshold 80%) and TFSEARCH datasets were used to search transcriptional start sites for p53/p63 response elements. Remarkably, these data revealed 63 microRNAs that targeted p63. Furthermore, there were 39 microRNAs targeting p63 that were predicted to be regulated by p63. These analyses suggest a crosstalk between p63 and microRNAs. Here, we discuss the crosstalk between p63 and the microRNA network, and the role of their interactions in cancer. PMID:25726529

  15. Major deepwater pipelay vessel starts work in North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Heerema, E.P.

    1998-05-04

    Industry`s deepwater pipelaying capability has received a boost this year with the entry into the world`s fleet of Solitaire, a dynamically positioned pipelay vessel of about 350 m including stinger. The converted bulk carrier, formerly the Trentwood, will arrive on station in the North Sea and begin laying pipe this month on Statoil`s Europipe II project, a 600-km, 42-in. OD gas pipeline from Norway to Germany. Next year, the vessel will install pipe for the Exxon U.S.A.`s Gulf of Mexico South Diana development (East Breaks Block 945) in a water depth of 1,643 m and for Mobil Oil Canada as part of the Sable Island Offshore and Energy Project offshore Nova Scotia. Using the S-lay mode, Solitaire is particularly well-suited for laying large lines economically, including the deepwater projects anticipated for the US Gulf of Mexico. Table 1 presents Solitaire`s technical specifications. The design, construction, pipelaying, and justification for building vessels such as the Solitaire are discussed.

  16. Tools for the advancement of undergraduate statistics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffner, Andrew Alan

    To keep pace with advances in applied statistics and to maintain literate consumers of quantitative analyses, statistics educators stress the need for change in the classroom (Cobb, 1992; Garfield, 1993, 1995; Moore, 1991a; Snee, 1993; Steinhorst and Keeler, 1995). These authors stress a more concept oriented undergraduate introductory statistics course which emphasizes true understanding over mechanical skills. Drawing on recent educational research, this dissertation attempts to realize this vision by developing tools and pedagogy to assist statistics instructors. This dissertation describes statistical facets, pieces of statistical understanding that are building blocks of knowledge, and discusses DIANA, a World-Wide Web tool for diagnosing facets. Further, I show how facets may be incorporated into course design through the development of benchmark lessons based on the principles of collaborative learning (diSessa and Minstrell, 1995; Cohen, 1994; Reynolds et al., 1995; Bruer, 1993; von Glasersfeld, 1991) and activity based courses (Jones, 1991; Yackel, Cobb and Wood, 1991). To support benchmark lessons and collaborative learning in large classes I describe Virtual Benchmark Instruction, benchmark lessons which take place on a structured hypertext bulletin board using the technology of the World-Wide Web. Finally, I present randomized experiments which suggest that these educational developments are effective in a university introductory statistics course.

  17. Adherence to WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and metabolic syndrome in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Eleonora; Gargano, Giuliana; Villarini, Anna; Traina, Adele; Johansson, Harriet; Mano, Maria Piera; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Simeoni, Milena; Consolaro, Elena; Mercandino, Angelica; Barbero, Maggiorino; Galasso, Rocco; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Zarcone, Maurizio; Zagallo, Emanuela; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Bellegotti, Manuela; Berrino, Franco; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), conventionally defined by the presence of at least three out of five dismetabolic traits (abdominal obesity, hypertension, low plasma HDL-cholesterol and high plasma glucose and triglycerides), has been associated with both breast cancer (BC) incidence and prognosis. We investigated the association between the prevalence of MetS and a score of adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) recommendations for the prevention of cancer in a cross-sectional study of BC patients. The DIet and ANdrogen-5 study (DIANA-5) for the prevention of BC recurrences recruited 2092 early stage BC survivors aged 35-70. At recruitment, all women completed a 24-hour food frequency and physical activity diary on their consumption and activity of the previous day. Using these diaries we created a score of adherence to five relevant WCRF/AICR recommendations. The prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS associated with the number of recommendations met were estimated using a binomial regression model. The adjusted PRs of MetS decreased with increasing number of recommendations met (p < 0.001). Meeting all the five recommendations versus meeting none or only one was significantly associated with a 57% lower MetS prevalence (95% CI 0.35-0.73). Our results suggest that adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations is a major determinant of MetS and may have a clinical impact. PMID:26175188

  18. To Boldly Go: America's Next Era in Space. Sustaining Life on the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Dr. France Cordova, NASA's Chief Scientist, opened this, the sixth seminar in the Administrator's Seminar Series, by introducing NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin. Mr Goldin welcomed the attendees and set the stage for Dr. Cordova's introduction of the first speaker, Dr. Robert Kates of Brown University. Dr. Kates primary concerns are global environmental changes, world hunger, and the size of the population. Human changes, he said, rival the changes of nature. Changes in the size of world population affect the need for more agricultural products, therefore more land for growing food, which leads to deforestation, which affects rainfall, and therefore the water supply which is in increased demand. Human ingenuity can reduce some shortages but generally doesn't keep up with increased demand for life-sustaining essentials. These problems require the concern of intergovernmental organizations, treaties and activities, as well as transnational corporations, and non-governmental and private, volunteer organizations. Next Dr. Diana Liverman of Pennsylvania State University spoke on human interactions regarding climate and society. She considered the effect of changes in land use on climate, using Mexico as an example. Mexicans changed from raising much wheat to raising more fruits and vegetables. This was in response to the demands of the market. The results were more industry, population growth, greater income, drought (because the new crops required more water), and conflicts over water supplies. Dr. Charles Kennel of the Office of Mission to Planet Earth joined Dr.s Cordova, Kates, and Liverman for the question and answer session that followed.

  19. Adaptation to cognitive context and item information in the medial temporal lobes

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2012-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) play an essential role in episodic memory, and accumulating evidence indicates that two MTL subregions—the perirhinal (PRc) and parahippocampal (PHc) cortices—might have different functions. According to the binding of item and context theory (Eichenbaum et al., 2007; Diana et al., 2007), PRc is involved in processing item information, the target of memory encoding, whereas PHc is involved in processing context information, peripheral information that identifies the circumstances of the episode. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation to test the roles of different MTL subregions in the processing of item and context information. Participants were scanned while viewing a series of objects. Each object was presented with a unique semantic encoding question that elicited a salient cognitive context. The object picture, the encoding question, both, or neither were immediately repeated. We found that PRc activity was sensitive to repetition of the object but not the encoding question whereas PHc activity was sensitive to repetition of the encoding question but not the object. These data are consistent with the idea that the PRc and PHc are differentially involved in the representation of item and context information and additionally suggest that the role of the PHc extends to nonspatial, cognitive context information. PMID:22846335

  20. Galileo Science Update: Observing Changes on Europa and in Jupiter's System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-08-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video release presents a news briefing from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) featuring video presentations by Dr. Alfred McEwen (Univ. of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Lab.), Dr. Ronald Greeley (Arizona St. Univ.), Dr. Andrew Ingersoll (California Inst. of Tech.,), and Dr. Diana Blaney (Jet Propulsion Lab.). Discussions center on the atmospheric and surface features of Jupiter and two of its moons, Europa and Io. Possible energy mechanisms that create atmospheric features of Jupiter, such as the Great Red Spot, as well as possible thunderstorm and lightning activity associated with these features are included. Discussions of the craters and fractures on the icy surface of Europa, surface features of Io, two of which are named Loki and Pele, believed to be of volcanic origin, as well infrared observations of volcanism on Io are presented. The individual presentations are followed by a question and answer period with questions posed by scientific journalists from JPL and other NASA centers. The video ends with computer animations, as well as actual footage, of features on Jupiter and its satellites taken from the Galileo spacecraft. Some of these images were seen previously in the individual presentations.

  1. Picasso Paintings, Moon Rocks, and Hand-Written Beatles Lyrics: Adults’ Evaluations of Authentic Objects

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wilson, Alice; Hood, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Authentic objects are those that have an historical link to a person, event, time, or place of some significance (e.g., original Picasso painting; gown worn by Princess Diana; your favorite baby blanket). The current study examines everyday beliefs about authentic objects, with three primary goals: to determine the scope of adults’ evaluation of authentic objects, to examine such evaluation in two distinct cultural settings, and to determine whether a person’s attachment history (i.e., whether or not they owned an attachment object as a child) predicts evaluation of authentic objects. We found that college students in the U.K. (N = 125) and U.S. (N = 119) consistently evaluate a broad range of authentic items as more valuable than matched control (inauthentic) objects, more desirable to keep, and more desirable to touch, though only non-personal authentic items were judged to be more appropriate for display in a museum. These patterns were remarkably similar across the two cultural contexts. Additionally, those who had an attachment object as a child evaluated objects more favorably, and in particular judged authentic objects to be more valuable. Altogether, these results demonstrate broad endorsement of "positive contagion" among college-educated adults. PMID:20631919

  2. Complex faulting associated with the 22 December 2003 Mw 6.5 San Simeon California, earthquake, aftershocks and postseismic surface deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaren, M.K.; Hardebeck, J.L.; van der Elst, N.; Unruh, J.R.; Bawden, G.W.; Blair, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We use data from two seismic networks and satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery to characterize the 22 December 2003 Mw 6.5 San Simeon earthquake sequence. Absolute locations for the mainshock and nearly 10,000 aftershocks were determined using a new three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity model; relative locations were obtained using double difference. The mainshock location found using the 3D velocity model is 35.704?? N, 121.096?? W at a depth of 9.7 ?? 0.7 km. The aftershocks concentrate at the northwest and southeast parts of the aftershock zone, between the mapped traces of the Oceanic and Nacimiento fault zones. The northwest end of the mainshock rupture, as defined by the aftershocks, projects from the mainshock hypocenter to the surface a few kilometers west of the mapped trace of the Oceanic fault, near the Santa Lucia Range front and the > 5 mm postseismic InSAR imagery contour. The Oceanic fault in this area, as mapped by Hall (1991), is therefore probably a second-order synthetic thrust or reverse fault that splays upward from the main seismogenic fault at depth. The southeast end of the rupture projects closer to the mapped Oceanic fault trace, suggesting much of the slip was along this fault, or at a minimum is accommodating much of the postseismic deformation. InSAR imagery shows ???72 mm of postseismic uplift in the vicinity of maximum coseismic slip in the central section of the rupture, and ???48 and ???45 mm at the northwest and southeast end of the aftershock zone, respectively. From these observations, we model a ???30-km-long northwest-trending northeast-dipping mainshock rupture surface - called the mainthrust - which is likely the Oceanic fault at depth, a ???10-km-long southwest-dipping backthrust parallel to the mainthrust near the hypocenter, several smaller southwest-dipping structures in the southeast, and perhaps additional northeast-dipping or subvertical structures southeast of the mainshock plane

  3. Verification of geomechanical integrity and prediction of long-term mineral trapping for the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2014-05-01

    .1 %, respectively. We verified the mechanical integrity of the storage system during site operation and predicted the trapping mechanisms for the Ketzin pilot site based on a time-dependent integration of relevant processes for a time period of 16,000 years. Supported by our coupled modelling results, we conclude that CO2 storage at the Ketzin site is safe and reliable on the pilot scale. References [1] Martens, S., Kempka, T., Liebscher, A., Lüth, S., Möller, F., Myrttinen, A., Norden, B., Schmidt-Hattenberger, C., Zimmer, M., Kühn, M. Europe's longest-operating on-shore CO2 storage site at Ketzin, Germany: a progress report after three years of injection. Environmental Earth Sciences 2012 67(2): 323-334. [2] Kempka, T., Kühn, M. Numerical simulations of CO2 arrival times and reservoir pressure coincide with observations from the Ketzin pilot site, Germany. Environmental Earth Sciences 2013 70(8): 3675-3685. [3] Kempka, T., Klein, E., De Lucia, M., Tillner, E., Kühn, M. Assessment of Long-term CO2 Trapping Mechanisms at the Ketzin Pilot Site (Germany) by Coupled Numerical Modelling. Energy Procedia 2013 37: 5419-5426. [4] Klein, E., De Lucia, M., Kempka, T., Kühn, M. Evaluation of long-term mineral trapping at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage: An integrative approach using geochemical modelling and reservoir simulation. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2013 19: 720-730.

  4. The telegraph office of the Pacific; Subpolar and tropical signals in the Southern California Bight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, I.; Kennett, J.; Pedersen, T.

    2003-04-01

    Detailed comparison between Greenland records and a Southern California Bight transect (ODP Sites 1017, 893A and 1014) provide critical insights into temporal responses of atmosphere, cryosphere and ocean during late Quaternary multi-decadal climate change. Planktonic foraminiferal isotopic and assemblage shifts at ODP hole 893A (Santa Barbara Basin) [34^o 17.25'N, 120^o 2.2'W; 576.5 m water depth] record the full sequence of brief interstadials (Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles) from 60 to 10 Ka. Surface dwelling Globigerina bulloides and thermocline dwelling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma δ18O values infer sea surface temperature (SST) warming of up to 5^oC within a few decades at interstadial initiations, a result supported by planktonic foraminiferal faunal SST reconstructions. At a lower resolution (400 years) similar evidence from ODP Site 1014 (Tanner Basin) [32^o50.046'N, 119^o58.879'W, 1177m] infer 4^oC increases in SST associated with the more prolonged D/O events. Isotopic shifts are accompanied by up to a 70% increase in the ratio of dextral to sinistral N. pachyderma. At a resolution of 150 years, results from ODP site 1017 (Santa Lucia slope) [34^o32.099'N, 121^o6.430'W, 955.5 m] display increases in the dextral to sinistral N. pachyderma ratio of 50 to 70% and ˜4^oC SST shifts inferred by isotopic results. SST differences between all three sites suggest a dramatic response to rapid climate change from north to south over the Southern Californian Bight suggesting relative changes in the contribution of surface water masses via the California Current System (CCS). Cool intervals were dominated by a cool subpolar California Current, while interstadials were marked by an increased influence of the subtropical California Countercurrent. As ocean-atmosphere interactions over the North Pacific determine the strength and location of surface currents, it follows some global climatic signals were atmospherically transmitted. As well ODP Hole 1017E located under a

  5. Active faulting induced by the slip partitioning in the Lesser Antilles arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Frédérique; Feuillet, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    ée. Some faults, located between Guadeloupe and Montserrat have throws up to thousand meters. Between St Lucia and Martinique, the St Lucia channel is crosscut by several normal faults with scarps up to 100m-high. These faults extend onshore and cut the southern shore of Martinique. Given their length (~20km), they could produce magnitude 6 or more earthquakes in the most tourist towns of the island (St Anne, St Lucie). Recent coseismic offsets could be identified along most faults in the chirp profiles. Turbidite deposits recognized in the Küllenberg cores could be related to damaging earthquakes. High resolution SAR imagery (25 cm) reveals several coseismic scarps in Les Saintes channel along the faults that ruptured in 2004. References: Feuillet, N., I. Manighetti, and P. Tapponnier, Arc parallel extension and localization of volcanic complexes in guadeloupe, lesser antilles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 2002. Feuillet, N., P. Tapponnier, I. Manighetti, B. Villemant, and G. C. P. King, Differential uplift and tilt of pleistocene reef platforms and quaternary slip Lopez, A.M., S. Stein, T. Dixon, G. Sella, E. Calais, P. Jansma, J. Weber, and P. La Femina, Is there a northern lesser antilles forearc block ?, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, 2006.

  6. An alternative to fully coupled reactive transport simulations for long-term prediction of chemical reactions in complex geological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael

    2014-05-01

    uncertainty underlying the geochemical models. References [1] Klein, E., De Lucia, M., Kempka, T. Kühn, M. 2013. Evaluation of longterm mineral trapping at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage: an integrative approach using geochemical modelling and reservoir simulation. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 19: 720-730, doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.05.014 [2] Kempka, T., Klein, E., De Lucia, M., Tillner, E. Kühn, M. 2013. Assessment of Long-term CO2 Trapping Mechanisms at the Ketzin Pilot Site (Germany) by Coupled Numerical Modelling. Energy Procedia 37: 5419-5426, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.460 [3] Xu, T., Spycher, N., Sonnenthal, E., Zhang, G., Zheng, L., Pruess, K. 2010. TOUGHREACT Version 2.0: A simulator for subsurface reactive transport under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions, Computers & Geosciences 37(6), doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2010.10.007

  7. Assignment of the Sub-Millimeter Wave Spectrum of Methyl Carbamate, NH_2COOCH_3, in the First Excited State of the Methyl Group Internal Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groner, P.

    2009-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of methyl carbamate in the first excited torsional state (up to 149 GHz) has been analyzed recently for rotational quantum number J up to 20 together with transitions in the ground state. An extended analysis of the rotational spectrum in the ground state between 10 and 371 GHz with over 6000 transitions with J up to 60 has also been published. In the spectra recorded at that time by the FASSST method, about 3000 transitions belonging to the first torsional excited state of the methyl group have now been assigned and analyzed, about half of them belonging to the E torsional species. Both the newly assigned and previously published transitions have been used to fit less than 45 spectroscopic parameters of an effective rotational Hamiltonian for such systems, achieving a dimensionless standard deviation of 1.33. A somewhat unexpected result was the value of the {ρ} parameter of 0.063628(20) which differed significantly from the value obtained for the ground state of 0.058791(15). The discrepancy will be investigated in the near future. Hopefully, a resolution of the problem can be achieved by a combined fit of all excited and ground state transitions using common {ρ} and {β} parameters with {β} as the angle between the {ρ}-axis and the a principal axis. V. Ilyushin, E. Alekseev, J. Demaison, I. Kleiner, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 240, 127 (2006). P. Groner, M. Winnewisser, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, E. Herbst, K. V. L. N. Sastry, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 169, 28 (2007). P. Groner, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4483 (1997).

  8. Understanding Reservoir Quality in the Petroleum System of the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group (South Oman Salt Basin):

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Reuning, L.; Kukla, P.; Marquez, X.; Farquani, S.; Rawahi, Z.

    2009-04-01

    The Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group of the South Oman Salt Basin consists of six carbonate to evaporite (rock salt, gypsum) sequences. These Ara Group carbonates are termed A0C to A6C from the bottom towards the top of the basin. Differential loading of locally 5 km thick Cambrian to Ordovician clastics onto the mobile rock salt of the Ara Group caused growth of isolated salt diapirs, which resulted in strong fragmentation and faulting of the carbonate intervals into several isolated so-called ‘stringers'. These carbonate stringers represent a unique intra-salt petroleum system, which has been successfully explored in recent years. Initially the reservoir properties of the carbonate stringers were controlled by their depositional facies. After deposition, the stringers experienced a complex diagenetic history from the shallow to the deep burial realm. Diagenetic processes like anhydrite and halite plugging exerted a negative affect on poroperm properties, whereas e.g. calcite dissolution had a positive affect. Our goal is to detect spatial and temporal distribution patterns of diagenetic phases and their effect on reservoir properties. Mineralogy, rock fabrics, paragenetic relationships and geochemistry of ~ 200 samples from several petroleum wells from the late Neoproterozoic A2C interval were analyzed. For a mineralogical overview the samples were measured by XRD - powder diffraction, whereas the rock fabric was studied by thin section analysis and if required additionally with SEM. This high-resolution dataset was used in combination with external petrophysical observations to defined porosity-permeability trends for different rock-fabric groups according to LUCIA (1995). The spatial distribution of these petrophysical characteristics will be displayed in field-scale distribution maps of the analyzed diagenetic phases. The expected integrated 3D - diagenesis model will enable better predictions of the reservoir qualities in the Ara fields and will

  9. The Complete, Temperature Resolved Spectrum of Methyl Formate Between 214 and 265 GHZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, James P.; Fortman, Sarah; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied methyl formate, one of the so-called 'astronomical weeds', in the 214--265 GHz band. We have experimentally gathered a set of intensity calibrated, complete, and temperature resolved spectra from across the astronomically significant temperature range of 248--406 K. Using our previously reported method of analysis, the point by point method, we are capable of generating the complete spectrum at an arbitrary temperature. Thousands of lines, of nontrivial intensity, which were previously not included in the available astrophysical catalogs have been found. The sensitivity of the point by point analysis is such that we are able to identify lines which would not have manifest in a single scan across the band. The consequence has been to reveal not only a number of new methyl formate lines, but also trace amounts of contaminants. We show how the intensities from the contaminants can be removed with indiscernible impact on the signal from methyl formate. To do this we use the point by point results from our previous studies of these contaminants. The efficacy of this process serves as strong proof of concept for usage of our point by point results on the problem of the 'weeds'. The success of this approach for dealing with the weeds has also previously been reported. J.~McMillan, S.~Fortman, C.~Neese, F.~DeLucia, ApJ. 795, 56 (2014) S.~Fortman, J.~McMillan, C.~Neese, S.~Randall, and A.~Remijan, J.~Mol.~Spectrosc. 280, 11 (2012).

  10. A focus on the consumer: social marketing for change.

    PubMed

    Lucaire, L E

    1985-01-01

    Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing principles to advance a social cause, issue, behavior, product, or service. Social marketing has added a framework to social efforts that heretofore lacked organization and has inspired projects that otherwise might never have been initiated. In the US, social marketing techniques have been particularly successful in the health field. Although advertising and other communications are central to social marketing, the discipline also depends upon other elements of what is termed the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. Social marketing is a cyclical process involving 6 steps: analysis; planning; development, testing, and refining elements of the plan; implementation; assessment of in-market effectiveness; and feedback. In developing countries, health has similarly been the greatest beneficiary to date of applied social marketing techniques. Family planning programs and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) projects have used social marketing techniques effectively in numerous developing countries. Social marketing has been even more widely applied in the sale of contraceptives in developing countries. Contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs are well established in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Nepal, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Egypt. More recently programs have been established in Honduras, Guatemala, Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) is a project funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) and is working with existing CSM programs and helping to launch new CSM programs. CSM programs are successfully functioning as legitimate marketing organizations in developing countries and are using local private sector resources in the process. Program results are encouraging. Social marketing requires both experience and sensitivity to local conditions. Many developing countries now have their own marketing resources

  11. XANES determination of magnesium speciation in shells of two marine bivalve molluscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, L. J.; Finch, A. A.; Huthwelker, T.; Foster, L. C.; Kennedy, H. A.; Richardson, C. A.; Steaggles, H.

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated generally weak relationships between seawater temperature and Mg/Ca ratios in calcite marine bivalve mollusc shells, despite an expected thermodynamic control on Mg incorporation. Several studies have suggested that such weak relationships could be due to Mg being non-lattice bound and associated with the shell organic matrix. In this study we use XANES to investigate the structural state of Mg in the shells of two species of marine bivalve mollusc, Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus. Both species of mollusc were cultured in laboratory constant-temperature aquaria. Mg K-edge XANES analyses were completed using the LUCIA beamline, then situated at the Swiss Light Source. Initially, Mg and S (as a proxy for the sulphated organic matrix) distributions were mapped using Synchrotron XRF within the new shell growth laid down during the culturing period. Subsequently, XANES were collected for different pixels within the maps that had contrasting Mg and S distributions. XANES spectra are consistent within the Pecten maximus shell, despite previous studies that have shown a marked heterogeneity of Mg/Ca ratios within this species, and are indicative of Mg being hosted in a calcite-type phase. In contrast, XANES of Mytilus edulis indicates that Mg is hosted predominantly in an organic-type phase. A simple two component numerical modelling will allow an assessment of the proportions of calcite and organic Mg hosts in the two species. Speciation studies using XANES thus indicate that Mg is hosted in different phases in the two marine bivalve mollusc species investigated in this study; such an observation clearly has implications for the application of Mg/Ca thermometry in these calcifying organisms.

  12. Time to set the agenda for schistosomiasis elimination.

    PubMed

    Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie; Levitz, Sarah; Stothard, J Russell; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Garba, Amadou; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Schur, Nadine; Person, Bobbie; Colley, Daniel G; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-11-01

    It is time to raise global awareness to the possibility of schistosomiasis elimination and to support endemic countries in their quest to determine the most appropriate approaches to eliminate this persistent and debilitating disease. The main interventions for schistosomiasis control are reviewed, including preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel, snail control, sanitation, safe water supplies, and behaviour change strategies supported by information, education and communication (IEC) materials. Differences in the biology and transmission of the three main Schistosoma species (i.e. Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni and S. japonicum), which impact on control interventions, are considered. Sensitive diagnostic procedures to ensure adequate surveillance in areas attaining low endemicity are required. The importance of capacity building is highlighted. To achieve elimination, an intersectoral approach is necessary, with advocacy and action from local communities and the health community to foster cooperative ventures with engineers, the private sector, governments and non-governmental organizations specialized in water supply and sanitation. Examples of successful schistosomiasis control programmes are reviewed to highlight what has been learnt in terms of strategy for control and elimination. These include St. Lucia and other Caribbean islands, Brazil and Venezuela for S. mansoni; Saudi Arabia and Egypt for both S. mansoni and S. haematobium; Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritius and the Islamic Republic of Iran for S. haematobium; Japan and the People's Republic of China for S. japonicum. Additional targets for elimination or even eradication could be the two minor human schistosome species S. guineenisis and S. intercalatum, which have a restricted distribution in West and Central Africa. The examples show that elimination of schistosomiasis is an achievable and desirable goal requiring full integration of preventive chemotherapy with the tools of transmission

  13. Snake venomics of the Lesser Antillean pit vipers Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus: correlation with toxicological activities and immunoreactivity of a heterologous antivenom.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Escolano, José; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Angulo, Yamileth; Rucavado, Alexandra; Warrell, David A; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-10-01

    The venom proteomes of the snakes Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus, endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands of Saint Lucia and Martinique, respectively, were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venoms contain proteins belonging to seven ( B. caribbaeus) and five ( B. lanceolatus) types of toxins. B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms contain phospholipases A 2, serine proteinases, l-amino acid oxidases and zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, whereas a long disintegrin, DC-fragments and a CRISP molecule were present only in the venom of B. caribbaeus, and a C-type lectin-like molecule was characterized in the venom of B. lanceolatus. Compositional differences between venoms among closely related species from different geographic regions may be due to evolutionary environmental pressure acting on isolated populations. The venoms of these two species differed in the composition and the relative abundance of their component toxins, but they exhibited similar toxicological and enzymatic profiles in mice, characterized by lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, phospholipase A 2 and proteolytic activities. The venoms of B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus are devoid of coagulant and defibrinogenating effects and induce only mild local myotoxicity in mice. The characteristic thrombotic effect described in human envenomings by these species was not reproduced in the mouse model. The toxicological profile observed is consistent with the abundance of metalloproteinases, PLA 2s and serine proteinases in the venoms. A polyvalent (Crotalinae) antivenom produced in Costa Rica was able to immunodeplete approximately 80% of the proteins from both B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms, and was effective in neutralizing the lethal, hemorrhagic, phospholipase

  14. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  15. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized. PMID:24968083

  16. Implications of Climate Change for Bird Conservation in the Southwestern U.S. under Three Alternative Futures.

    PubMed

    Friggens, Megan M; Finch, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Future expected changes in climate and human activity threaten many riparian habitats, particularly in the southwestern U.S. Using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt3.3.3) modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the Lucy's warbler (Oreothlypis luciae), the Southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and the Western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Our goal was to provide site- and species-specific information that can be used by managers to identify areas for habitat conservation and/or restoration along the Rio Grande in New Mexico. We created models of suitable habitat for each species based on collection and survey samples and climate, biophysical, and vegetation data. We projected habitat suitability under future climates by applying these models to conditions generated from three climate models for 2030, 2060 and 2090. By comparing current and future distributions, we identified how habitats are likely to change as a result of changing climate and the consequences of those changes for these bird species. We also examined whether land ownership of high value sites shifts under changing climate conditions. Habitat suitability models performed well. Biophysical characteristics were more important that climate conditions for predicting habitat suitability with distance to water being the single most important predictor. Climate, though less important, was still influential and led to declines of suitable habitat of more than 60% by 2090. For all species, suitable habitat tended to shrink over time within the study area leaving a few core areas of high importance. Overall, climate changes will increase habitat fragmentation and reduce breeding habitat patch size. The best strategy for conserving bird species within the Rio Grande will include measures to maintain and restore critical habitat refugia. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model that can be used

  17. Investigation of Essential Element Distribution in the Equine Metacarpophalangeal Joint using a Synchrotron Radiation Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kaabar, Wejdan; Gundogdu, O.; Attenburrow, D.; Bradley, D. A.; Tzaphlidou, M.; Janousch, M.

    2008-05-20

    In articular cartilage, Ca, P, K and S are among some of the well known co-factors of the metalloproteinases enzymatic family, the latter playing a pivotal role in the growth and degeneration of the collagenous bone-cartilage interface of articulating joints. Current study forms part of a larger investigation concerning the distribution of these and other key elements in such media. For the purpose of evaluating these low atomic number elements (Z{<=}20), use was made of the capabilities of the LUCIA Station, located at the synchrotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Using an incident radiation energy of 4.06 keV, a synchrotron radiation micro x-ray fluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) technique was applied in examining the distribution of the essential elements Ca, P, K and S in the bone-cartilage interface of both healthy and diseased (osteoarthritic) areas of an equine metacarpophalangeal joint. The SR-{mu}XRF mappings and line profile patterns have revealed remarkable changes in both the pattern and absolute distributions of these elements, agreeing with the findings of others. The elemental presence shown in the individual area scans encompassing the lesion each reflect the visibly abraded outer surface of the cartilage and change in shape of the bone surface. One of the area scans for the bone-cartilage interface shows a marked change in both the pattern and absolute elemental presence for all three elements compared to that observed at two other scan sites. The observation of change in bone cartilage composition around the surface of the articulating joint is thought to be novel, the variation being almost certainly due to the differing weight-bearing role of the subchondral bone at each locati0008.

  18. Erratum: ``The Influence of Mass and Environment on the Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies'' (ApJ, 647, L99 [2006])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Lanzoni, Barbara; Jørgensen, Inger

    2006-12-01

    We report about the changes to the above-mentioned Letter due to an error in the calibration of the galaxy luminosities used by Jørgensen et al. (2006). To correct for this error, the photometry for the two clusters should be offset to brighter luminosities with a factor (1+z). Correcting for this error corresponds to an offset in logL to brighter luminosities with log(1+z), which is 0.26 and 0.28 for RX J0152.7-1357 (z=0.835) and RX J1226.9+3332 (z=0.892), respectively. As a consequence, Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 are changed as far as the two clusters are concerned, and the correct versions are given here. As can be clearly seen in Figures 1 and 2, the claimed difference in the fundamental plane (FP) and in the M/LB ratio between the clusters and the field environment is not present any more, and the behavior of the z~1 early-type galaxies (ETGs) is remarkably similar in both environments, as claimed earlier by di Serego Alighieri et al. (2005). Therefore, the estimated formation epoch of ETGs does not depend on the environment but only on the galaxy mass (see Fig. 3). Quantitatively, the mean age difference between clusters and the field in each mass bin is smaller than 5% and is well within the standard deviation due to galaxy-to-galaxy variations (Fig. 4). Clearly it is now no longer relevant to study this age difference as a function of galaxy mass, and so Figure 4 is modified accordingly. Our correct results are therefore in even larger contrast to the most recent incarnation of the hierarchical models of galaxy formation and evolution, which foresee a marked difference in the formation epoch of ETGs with environment (De Lucia et al. 2006).

  19. Reevaluation of California coastal continental borderland evolution: recent evidence from stratigraphic, geophysical, and paleomagnetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ambos, E.L.; Lund, S.P.; Theyer, F.; Bottjer, D.; Henyey, T.L.

    1988-03-01

    Tectonostratigraphic terrane analyses applied during the past decade to California continental borderland evolution distinguished eight or nine terranes that may have docked in the borderland from Cretaceous to mid-Tertiary time. These terranes may in turn be grouped into two composite terranes - the Peninsular Ranges terrane (PRT) and the more northerly Santa Lucia-Orocopia Allochthon (SLOA) - that sutured together during the late Oligocene to mid-Miocene in the southwestern Transverse Ranges. In parallel, the last decade has seen continued refinements in stratigraphy, sea level history, and the accumulation of a large data base of paleomagnetic measurements in southern California. These newly refined data necessitate the reevaluation of the timing sequence of terrane amalgamation in the borderland, and a new scenario for the docking of the PRT against the SLOA can be constructed. Of equal importance in the tectonic reconstruction of the borderland is the consideration of paleoclimatological signals, which may mask or conflict with true terrane interactions. For example, a growing body of evidence indicates that prominent reflectors noted in borderland seismic records may correlate with global Neogene paleo-oceanographic events, rather than tectonic events. In addition, recent geophysical investigations of terrane suture zones and the crustal structure beneath terranes in other areas of the western US provide intriguing information on the nature of terrane boundaries. In this context, the PRT-SLOA suture appears as the most fundamental terrane boundary, marked by a zone of high-density, high-velocity material, whereas other terrane boundaries, particularly within the PRT, appear to be of secondary importance.

  20. Cluster galaxies die hard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, Simone M.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; von der Linden, Anja; De Lucia, Gabriella

    2010-08-01

    We investigate how the specific star formation rates of galaxies of different masses depend on cluster-centric radius and on the central/satellite dichotomy in both field and cluster environments. Recent data from a variety of sources, including the cluster catalogue of von der Linden et al., are compared to the semi-analytic models of De Lucia & Blaizot. We find that these models predict too many passive satellite galaxies in clusters, too few passive central galaxies with low stellar masses and too many passive central galaxies with high masses. We then outline a series of modifications to the model necessary to solve these problems: (a) instead of instantaneous stripping of the external gas reservoir after a galaxy becomes a satellite, the gas supply is assumed to decrease at the same rate that the surrounding halo loses mass due to tidal stripping and (b) the active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback efficiency is lowered to bring the fraction of massive passive centrals in better agreement with the data. We also allow for radio mode AGN feedback in satellite galaxies. (c) We assume that satellite galaxies residing in host haloes with masses below 1012h-1Msolar do not undergo any stripping. We highlight the fact that in low-mass galaxies, the external reservoir is composed primarily of gas that has been expelled from the galactic disc by supernovae-driven winds. This gas must remain available as a future reservoir for star formation, even in satellite galaxies. Finally, we present a simple recipe for the stripping of gas and dark matter in satellites that can be used in models where subhalo evolution is not followed in detail.

  1. Implications of Climate Change for Bird Conservation in the Southwestern U.S. under Three Alternative Futures

    PubMed Central

    Friggens, Megan M.; Finch, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Future expected changes in climate and human activity threaten many riparian habitats, particularly in the southwestern U.S. Using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt3.3.3) modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the Lucy’s warbler (Oreothlypis luciae), the Southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and the Western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Our goal was to provide site- and species-specific information that can be used by managers to identify areas for habitat conservation and/or restoration along the Rio Grande in New Mexico. We created models of suitable habitat for each species based on collection and survey samples and climate, biophysical, and vegetation data. We projected habitat suitability under future climates by applying these models to conditions generated from three climate models for 2030, 2060 and 2090. By comparing current and future distributions, we identified how habitats are likely to change as a result of changing climate and the consequences of those changes for these bird species. We also examined whether land ownership of high value sites shifts under changing climate conditions. Habitat suitability models performed well. Biophysical characteristics were more important that climate conditions for predicting habitat suitability with distance to water being the single most important predictor. Climate, though less important, was still influential and led to declines of suitable habitat of more than 60% by 2090. For all species, suitable habitat tended to shrink over time within the study area leaving a few core areas of high importance. Overall, climate changes will increase habitat fragmentation and reduce breeding habitat patch size. The best strategy for conserving bird species within the Rio Grande will include measures to maintain and restore critical habitat refugia. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model that can be

  2. Numerical calculation of neoclassical distribution functions and current profiles in low collisionality, axisymmetric plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, B. C.; Jardin, S. C.; Ramos, J. J.

    2012-08-15

    A new code, the Neoclassical Ion-Electron Solver (NIES), has been written to solve for stationary, axisymmetric distribution functions (f) in the conventional banana regime for both ions and electrons using a set of drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) with linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operators. Solvability conditions on the DKEs determine the relevant non-adiabatic pieces of f (called h). We work in a 4D phase space in which {psi} defines a flux surface, {theta} is the poloidal angle, v is the magnitude of the velocity referenced to the mean flow velocity, and {lambda} is the dimensionless magnetic moment parameter. We expand h in finite elements in both v and {lambda}. The Rosenbluth potentials, {Phi} and {Psi}, which define the integral part of the collision operator, are expanded in Legendre series in cos{chi}, where {chi} is the pitch angle, Fourier series in cos{theta}, and finite elements in v. At each {psi}, we solve a block tridiagonal system for h{sub i} (independent of f{sub e}), then solve another block tridiagonal system for h{sub e} (dependent on f{sub i}). We demonstrate that such a formulation can be accurately and efficiently solved. NIES is coupled to the MHD equilibrium code JSOLVER [J. DeLucia et al., J. Comput. Phys. 37, 183-204 (1980)] allowing us to work with realistic magnetic geometries. The bootstrap current is calculated as a simple moment of the distribution function. Results are benchmarked against the Sauter analytic formulas and can be used as a kinetic closure for an MHD code (e.g., M3D-C{sup 1}[S. C. Jardin et al., Comput. Sci. Discovery 5, 014002 (2012)]).

  3. Microwave Spectroscopy of Trans-Ethyl Methyl Ether in the Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Sakai, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shozo; Miyamoto, Taihei; Fujitake, Masaharu; Ohashi, Nobukimi

    2013-06-01

    The trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) has two inequivalent methyl group internal rotors which corresponds to the two vibrational motions, ν_{28} and ν_{29}. Due to these internal rotations, a rotational transition could be split into maximum five components. The skeletal torsion (ν_{30}) is another low-lying state (ν_{30}) that interacts with the ν_{28} and ν_{29} modes. The microwave spectra of the trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule in the ν_{28} = 1, ν_{29} = 1, and ν_{30} = 1, 2 and 3 have been extensively studied by using Hougen's tunneling matrix formalism. The microwave spectroscopy in the ground state was studied by several groups. The splitting due to the ν_{28} mode (C-CH_3 internal rotation) is small in the ground state and was not fully resolved in most of the previous studied rotational transitions. In this paper, we report the results of the pulsed nozzle-jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy so as to measure the fully resolved spectra. The submillmeter wave spectroscopy was also carried out. Our analysis including the previously reported transitions would be useful for astronomical observations. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, N. Mori, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc. {269}, 242 2011. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc. {255}, 164 2009. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, N. Mori, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc.{251}, 301 2008. K. Kobayashi, K. Murata, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi Int. Symposium on Mol. Spectrosc., 65th Meeting TH15 2010.} M. Hayashi, and K. Kuwada J. Mol. Structure {28}, 147 1975. M. Hayashi, and M. Adachi J. Mol. Structure {78}, 53 1982. S. Tsunekawa, Y. Kinai, Y. Kondo, H. Odashima, and K. Takagi Molecules {8}, 103 2003. U. Fuchs, G. Winnewisser, P. Groner, F. C. De Lucia, and E. Herbst Astrophys. J. Suppl. {144}, 277 2003.

  4. Excitation of interstellar hydrogen chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufild, David A.; Green, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    We have computed new rate coefficients for the collisional excitation of HCl by He, in the close-coupled formalism and using an interaction potential determined recently by Willey, Choong, & DeLucia. Results have been obtained for temperatures between 10 K and 300 K. With the use of the infinite order sudden approximation, we have derived approximate expressions of general applicability which may be used to estimate how the rate constant for a transition (J to J prime) is apportioned among the various hyperfine states F prime of the final state J prime. Using these new rate coefficients, we have obtained predictions for the HCl rotational line strengths expected from a dense clump of interstellar gas, as a function of the HCl fractional abundance. Over a wide range of HCl abundances, we have found that the line luminosities are proportional to abundance(exp 2/3), a general result which can be explained using a simple analytical approximation. Our model for the excitation of HCl within a dense molecular cloud core indicates that the J = 1 goes to 0 line strengths measured by Blake, Keene, & Phillips toward the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) imply a fractional abundance n(HCl)/n(H2) approximately 2 x 10(exp -9), a value which amounts to only approximately 0.3% of the cosmic abundance of chlorine nuclei. Given a fractional abundance of 2 x 10(exp -9), the contribution of HCl emission to the total radiative cooling of a dense clump is small. For Orion, we predict a flux approximately 10(exp -19) W/sq cm for the HCl J = 3 goes to 2 line near 159.8 micrometers, suggesting that the strength of this line could be measured using the Infrared Space Observatory.

  5. Stratigraphy of Pyroclastic Deposits of EL Aguajito Caldera, Baja California Sur, MÉXICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio Ocampo, L. S.; Macias, J. L.; García Sánchez, L.; Pola, A.; Saucedo, R.; Sánchez, J. M.; Avellán, D. R.; Cardona, S.; Reyes-Agustín, G.; Arce, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    El Aguajito caldera is located in the State of Baja California Sur, it comprises an area of 450 km2 and sits within the Santa Rosalía Basin which is controlled by NE-SW extensional structures and the NW-SE Cimarron Fault that transects the caldera structure. The oldest rocks are ~90 Ma granodiorites covered by an Oligocene-Miocene volcano-sedimentary sequence, the Miocene Santa Lucia Formation and La Esperanza basalt. Pliocene volcanism is represented by La Reforma caldera, El Aguajito caldera, and the Tres Vírgenes Volcanic complex. This study focuses on the cartography and stratigraphy of area in order to understand the evolution of the volcanic system. The stratigraphy from base to top consists of a series of shallow marine sediments (fossiliferous sandstones) covered by a thick sequence of ignimbrites and pyroclastic flows interbedded with volcaniclastic deposits (Gloria and El Infierno Formations). On top of these deposits is El Aguajito caldera, it consists of a 2 m thick pumice fallout followed by an ignimbrite with three transitional lithofacies: a ≤30-m thick light-pink pyroclastic flow enriched in pumice at the base that gradually becomes enrich in lithics towards the top with the occurrence of degasing pipes. On top rests a 15 m-thick light-purple ignimbrite slightly welded with fiammes and a sequence of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and fallouts. These deposits have been associate to the caldera formation with a collapse diameter of ~8 km marked by rhyolitic domes exposed along a ring collapse crowned the sequence as well as NW-SE aligned rhyolitic domes parallel to the seashore. This cartography allowed to present a preliminary new geological map with four stratigraphic units recognized so far, that were emplaced under subaerial conditions beginning with a Plinian column followed by the emplacement of El Aguajito ignimbrite with its subsequent caldera collapse and finally the extrusion of resurgent domes.

  6. What do simulations predict for the galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution in different environments?

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Bundy, Kevin; More, Surhud; De Lucia, Gabriella; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Calvi, Rosa

    2014-06-10

    We present a comparison between the observed galaxy stellar mass function and the one predicted from the De Lucia and Blaizot semi-analytic model applied to the Millennium Simulation, for cluster satellites and galaxies in the field (meant as a wide portion of the sky, including all environments), in the local universe (z ∼ 0.06), and at intermediate redshift (z ∼ 0.6), with the aim to shed light on the processes which regulate the mass distribution in different environments. While the mass functions in the field and in its finer environments (groups, binary, and single systems) are well matched in the local universe down to the completeness limit of the observational sample, the model overpredicts the number of low-mass galaxies in the field at z ∼ 0.6 and in clusters at both redshifts. Above M {sub *} = 10{sup 10.25} M {sub ☉}, it reproduces the observed similarity of the cluster and field mass functions but not the observed evolution. Our results point out two shortcomings of the model: an incorrect treatment of cluster-specific environmental effects and an overefficient galaxy formation at early times (as already found by, e.g., Weinmann et al.). Next, we consider only simulations. Also using the Guo et al. model, we find that the high-mass end of the mass functions depends on halo mass: only very massive halos host massive galaxies, with the result that their mass function is flatter. Above M {sub *} = 10{sup 9.4} M {sub ☉}, simulations show an evolution in the number of the most massive galaxies in all environments. Mass functions obtained from the two prescriptions are different, however, results are qualitatively similar, indicating that the adopted methods to model the evolution of central and satellite galaxies still have to be better implemented in semi-analytic models.

  7. The role of upper-regime flow bedforms in the morphodynamics of submarine channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covault, Jacob A.; Kostic, Svetlana; Fildani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Advances in acoustic imaging of submarine canyons and channels have provided accurate renderings of seafloor geomorphology. Still, a fundamental understanding of channel inception, evolution, sediment transport, and the nature of the currents traversing these channels remains elusive. Here, we review a mosaic of geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy, and morphodynamics of channelized deep-water depositional systems of tectonically active slopes offshore of California, USA. These systems are imaged in high-resolution multi-beam sonar bathymetry (dominant frequency ~200 kHz) and seismic-reflection (2-16 kHz) data. From north to south, the Monterey East, Lucia Chica, and San Mateo channelized deep-water depositional systems show a breadth of geomorphology and stratigraphic architecture, including channel reaches of varying sinuosity, levees, terraces within channels, and crescent-shaped bedforms, especially in the thalwegs of incipient channel elements. Morphodynamic numerical modeling is combined with interpretations of seafloor and shallow subsurface stratigraphic imagery to demonstrate that the crescent-shaped bedforms common to channel thalwegs are likely to be cyclic steps. We propose that net-erosional and net-depositional cyclic steps play a fundamental role in the formation, filling, and maintenance phases of submarine channels in continental margins with high gradient, locally rugose bathymetry. These margins include passive-margin slopes subjected to gravity-driven tectonic deformation. In such settings, high gradients support the development of densimetric Froude-supercritical turbidity currents, and abrupt slope breaks can promote hydraulic jumps and the spontaneous evolution of an erodible seabed into cyclic steps. This morphodynamic investigation of turbidity currents and the seafloor has the potential to enhance prediction of the locations, stratigraphic evolution, and architecture of submarine canyon-channel systems.

  8. Rainy Day: A Remote Sensing-Driven Extreme Rainfall Simulation Approach for Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel; Yatheendradas, Soni; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Ayalew, Tibebu; Mantilla, Ricardo; Krajewski, Witold

    2015-04-01

    Progress on the assessment of rainfall-driven hazards such as floods and landslides has been hampered by the challenge of characterizing the frequency, intensity, and structure of extreme rainfall at the watershed or hillslope scale. Conventional approaches rely on simplifying assumptions and are strongly dependent on the location, the availability of long-term rain gage measurements, and the subjectivity of the analyst. Regional and global-scale rainfall remote sensing products provide an alternative, but are limited by relatively short (~15-year) observational records. To overcome this, we have coupled these remote sensing products with a space-time resampling framework known as stochastic storm transposition (SST). SST "lengthens" the rainfall record by resampling from a catalog of observed storms from a user-defined region, effectively recreating the regional extreme rainfall hydroclimate. This coupling has been codified in Rainy Day, a Python-based platform for quickly generating large numbers of probabilistic extreme rainfall "scenarios" at any point on the globe. Rainy Day is readily compatible with any gridded rainfall dataset. The user can optionally incorporate regional rain gage or weather radar measurements for bias correction using the Precipitation Uncertainties for Satellite Hydrology (PUSH) framework. Results from Rainy Day using the CMORPH satellite precipitation product are compared with local observations in two examples. The first example is peak discharge estimation in a medium-sized (~4000 square km) watershed in the central United States performed using CUENCAS, a parsimonious physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The second example is rainfall frequency analysis for Saint Lucia, a small volcanic island in the eastern Caribbean that is prone to landslides and flash floods. The distinct rainfall hydroclimates of the two example sites illustrate the flexibility of the approach and its usefulness for hazard analysis in data-poor regions.

  9. Numerical Calculation of Neoclassical Distribution Functions and Current Profiles in Low Collisionality, Axisymmetric Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Lyons, S.C. Jardin, and J.J. Ramos

    2012-06-28

    A new code, the Neoclassical Ion-Electron Solver (NIES), has been written to solve for stationary, axisymmetric distribution functions (f ) in the conventional banana regime for both ions and elec trons using a set of drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) with linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operators. Solvability conditions on the DKEs determine the relevant non-adiabatic pieces of f (called h ). We work in a 4D phase space in which Ψ defines a flux surface, θ is the poloidal angle, v is the total velocity referenced to the mean flow velocity, and λ is the dimensionless magnetic moment parameter. We expand h in finite elements in both v and λ . The Rosenbluth potentials, φ and ψ, which define the integral part of the collision operator, are expanded in Legendre series in cos χ , where χ is the pitch angle, Fourier series in cos θ , and finite elements in v . At each ψ , we solve a block tridiagonal system for hi (independent of fe ), then solve another block tridiagonal system for he (dependent on fi ). We demonstrate that such a formulation can be accurately and efficiently solved. NIES is coupled to the MHD equilibrium code JSOLVER [J. DeLucia, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 37 , pp 183-204 (1980).] allowing us to work with realistic magnetic geometries. The bootstrap current is calculated as a simple moment of the distribution function. Results are benchmarked against the Sauter analytic formulas and can be used as a kinetic closure for an MHD code (e.g., M3D-C1 [S.C. Jardin, et al ., Computational Science & Discovery, 4 (2012).]).

  10. Resilience of estuarine phytoplankton and their temporal variability along salinity gradients during drought and hypersalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nche-Fambo, F. A.; Scharler, U. M.; Tirok, K.

    2015-06-01

    In South African estuaries, there is no knowledge on the resilience and variability in phytoplankton communities under conditions of hypersalinity, extended droughts and reverse salinity gradients. Phytoplankton composition, abundance and biomass vary with changes in environmental variables and taxa richness declines specifically under hypersaline conditions. This research thus investigated the phytoplankton community composition, its resilience and variability under highly variable and extreme environmental conditions in an estuarine lake system (Lake St. Lucia, South Africa) over one year. The lake system was characterised by a reverse salinity gradient with hypersalinity furthest from the estuarine inlet during the study period. During this study, 78 taxa were recorded: 56 diatoms, eight green algae, one cryptophyte, seven cyanobacteria and six dinoflagellates. Taxon variability and resilience depended on their ability to tolerate high salinities. Consequently, the phytoplankton communities as well as total abundance and biomass differed along the salinity gradient and over time with salinity as the main determinant. Cyanobacteria were dominant in hypersaline conditions, dinoflagellates in marine-brackish salinities, green algae and cryptophytes in lower salinities (brackish) and diatoms were abundant in marine-brackish salinities but survived in hypersaline conditions. Total abundance and biomass ranged from 3.66 × 103 to 1.11 × 109 Cells/L and 1.21 × 106 to 1.46 × 1010 pgC/L respectively, with the highest values observed under hypersaline conditions. Therefore, even under highly variable, extreme environmental conditions and hypersalinity the phytoplankton community as a whole was resilient enough to maintain a relatively high biomass throughout the study period. The resilience of few dominant taxa, such as Cyanothece, Spirulina, Protoperidinium and Nitzschia and the dominance of other common genera such as Chlamydomonas, Chroomonas, Navicula, Gyrosigma

  11. Quantifying Watershed-Scale Effects of Wildland Fires on Hydrologic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, E. K.; Moritz, M.; Hunt, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Mediterranean-type climate of coastal California is characterized by highly seasonal precipitation and temperature regimes. Plant adaptations to prolonged hot, dry periods, such as the hardened “sclerophyllous” leaves of many chaparral shrubs, make the plant communities of this area especially fire-prone. Periodic extreme fire events can remove all vegetation, diminish water infiltration, increase storm runoff, and generate substantial sediment erosion. Most of the studies of fire effects on watershed hydrology have either focused on individual storm events following wildland fires or the response of smaller scale test plots where trees and other vegetation were removed. In this effort we utilized a database of USGS stream gauging records, NOAA precipitation stations, PRISM precipitation maps, and fire perimeter data in the Santa Lucia Mountains of central coastal California to compare precipitation vs. runoff relationships pre- and post-fire from two moderate scale watersheds (100 to 500 square kilometers) that were nearly completely burned with one nearby that did not burn. PRISM data allowed for the extrapolation of station precipitation data to the scale of the entire watersheds, and watershed totals were compared with runoff on an annual water-year basis. The differences were calculated for the burned and unburned watersheds, both before and after the fire, to assess whether the lack of vegetation in the burned watersheds reduced water consumption, at least during the first few years after the wildland fire. Despite extensive stream gauge and precipitation data, there was considerable statistical variability in the results, making it difficult to distinguish pre- and post-fire hydrologic response. As climates shift to possibly hotter and drier conditions, wildland fire frequency and watershed response are of immediate interest. We therefore examined additional approaches needed to quantify the expected impacts at the watershed scale.

  12. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Record of Plio-Pleistocene extreme event in the Lesser Antilles fore-arc basin. Example of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe, French West Indies).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanlèn, L.; Philippon, M. M.; Randrianasolo, A.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Cornée, J. J.; Münch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Guadeloupe archipelago is part of the Lesser Antilles active volcanic arc and is therefore subjected to both enhanced seismic and volcanic activity related to the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, along which the Atlantic plate is subducted westward bellow the Caribbean plate. The volcanic arc is composed of several immerged volcanic islands (St Kitts, Nevis Montserrat, Basse Terre, Dominica, Martinique, St Lucia, Grenada) and submerged volcanoes (Kick em'Jenny). These volcanoes are known to be explosives and when they are entering in an eruptive cycle, debris flow could potentially initiate a tsunami and generate peculiar deposits within the sedimentary record recognized as tsunami deposits (or tsunamite). Subduction- related earthquakes might also initiate slope instabilities and trigger debris flow. Another controlling factor of slope (in-)-stabilities and debris flow is massive rainfalls. During cyclonic season (June to December), massive rainfalls are recorded in the area, which moreover is located on the trajectory of Atlantic Hurricanes that are responsible for numerous landslides. As a consequence, tsunami deposit are described and well studied in the Lesser Antilles arc as the islands shoreline and coastal plain are perpetually re-shaped by hurricanes responsible for tempestite deposits. However, the report of these deposit concern recent to actual events, for example present-day deposits consisting of large (metric) boulders, more or less aligned, located in the supralittoral fringe can be observed along Guadeloupe shore. In this study, we investigate the Plio-pleistocene sedimentary sequence of Grande Terre carbonate platform (Guadeloupe), and track the presence of such extreme-event related deposits and discuss our findings in the frame of the Lesser Antilles geological context.

  14. An international campaign of the 19th century to determine the solar parallax. The US Naval expedition to the southern hemisphere 1849-1852

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrimpf, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In 1847 Christian Ludwig Gerling, Marburg (Germany), suggested the solar parallax to be determined by measuring the position of Venus close to its inferior conjunction, especially at the stationary points, from observatories on nearly the same meridian but widely differing in latitude. James M. Gilliss, astronomer at the newly founded U.S. Naval Observatory, enthusiastically adopted this idea and procured a grant for the young astronomical community of the United States for an expedition to Chile. There they were to observe several conjunctions of Venus and oppositions of Mars, while the accompanying measurements were to be taken at the US Naval Observatory in Washington D.C. and the Harvard College Observatory at Cambridge, USA. This expedition was supported by A.V. Humboldt, C.F. Gauß, J.F. Encke, S.C. Walker, A.D. Bache, B. Peirce and others. From 1849 to 1852 not only were astronomical, but also meteorological and magnetic observations and measurements recorded, mainly in Santa Lucia close to Santiago, Chile. By comparing these measurements with those taken simultaneously at other observatories around the world the solar parallax could be calculated, although incomplete data from the corresponding northern observatories threatened the project's success. In retrospect this expedition can be recognized as the foundation of the Chilean astronomy. The first director of the new National Astronomical Observatory of Chile was Dr. C.W. Moesta, a Hessian student of Christian Ludwig Gerling's. The exchange of data between German, American and other astronomers during this expedition was well mediated by J.G. Flügel, consul of the United States of America and representative of the Smithsonian Institution in Europe, who altogether played a major role in nurturing the relationship between the growing scientific community in the U.S. and the well established one in Europe at that time.

  15. Neural complexity: A graph theoretic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, L.; Buckley, C. L.; Bullock, S.

    2011-04-01

    One of the central challenges facing modern neuroscience is to explain the ability of the nervous system to coherently integrate information across distinct functional modules in the absence of a central executive. To this end, Tononi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.91.11.5033 91, 5033 (1994)] proposed a measure of neural complexity that purports to capture this property based on mutual information between complementary subsets of a system. Neural complexity, so defined, is one of a family of information theoretic metrics developed to measure the balance between the segregation and integration of a system’s dynamics. One key question arising for such measures involves understanding how they are influenced by network topology. Sporns [Cereb. Cortex53OPAV1047-321110.1093/cercor/10.2.127 10, 127 (2000)] employed numerical models in order to determine the dependence of neural complexity on the topological features of a network. However, a complete picture has yet to be established. While De Lucia [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.71.016114 71, 016114 (2005)] made the first attempts at an analytical account of this relationship, their work utilized a formulation of neural complexity that, we argue, did not reflect the intuitions of the original work. In this paper we start by describing weighted connection matrices formed by applying a random continuous weight distribution to binary adjacency matrices. This allows us to derive an approximation for neural complexity in terms of the moments of the weight distribution and elementary graph motifs. In particular, we explicitly establish a dependency of neural complexity on cyclic graph motifs.

  16. Regular production of infective sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in laboratory-bred Anopheles albimanus.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, S; Salas, M L; Romero, J F; Zapata, J C; Ortiz, H; Arevalo-Herrera, M; Herrera, S

    1997-01-01

    One of the major constraints for studies on the sporogonic cycle of the parasites causing human malaria, and on the protective efficacy of pre-erythrocytic vaccines, is the scarcity of laboratory-reared Anopheles mosquitoes as a source of infective sporozoites. The aim of the present study was to reproduce the life-cycles of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in the laboratory and so develop the ability to produce infective sporozoites of these two species regularly under laboratory conditions. Colonized Anopheles albimanus, of Buenaventura and Tecojate strains, were infected by feeding either on Plasmodium-infected blood, from human patients or experimentally inoculated Aotus monkeys, or on gametocytes of the P. falciparum NF-54 isolate grown in vitro. The monkeys were infected with the blood stages of a Colombian P. vivax isolate and then, after recovery, with the Santa Lucia strain of P. falciparum from El Salvador. Although both of the mosquito strains used were successfully infected with both parasite species, the Buenaventura strain of mosquito was generally more susceptible to infection than the Tecojate strain, and particularly to infection with the parasites from the patients, who lived where this strain of mosquitoes was originally isolated. Monkeys injected intravenously with the P. vivax sporozoites produced in the mosquitoes developed patent sexual and asexual parasitaemias; the gametocytes that developed could then be used to infect mosquitoes, allowing the development of more sporozoites. However, experimental infections failed to establish after the P. falciparum sporozoites were used to inoculate monkeys. The ability to reproduce the complete life cycle of P. vivax in the laboratory, from human to mosquito and then to monkey, should greatly facilitate many studies on vivax malaria and on the efficacy of candidate malaria vaccines. The availability of the sporogonic cycles of P. falciparum from three different sources should also permit a variety of

  17. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    Lucia last year at the final meeting in Columbus - is what problems can we solve when real, fully capable spectrometers become essentially free to build?

  18. Investigation of Essential Element Distribution in the Equine Metacarpophalangeal Joint using a Synchrotron Radiation Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaabar, Wejdan; Gundogdu, O.; Tzaphlidou, M.; Janousch, M.; Attenburrow, D.; Bradley, D. A.

    2008-05-01

    In articular cartilage, Ca, P, K and S are among some of the well known co-factors of the metalloproteinases enzymatic family, the latter playing a pivotal role in the growth and degeneration of the collagenous bone-cartilage interface of articulating joints. Current study forms part of a larger investigation concerning the distribution of these and other key elements in such media. For the purpose of evaluating these low atomic number elements (Z⩽20), use was made of the capabilities of the LUCIA Station, located at the synchrotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Using an incident radiation energy of 4.06 keV, a synchrotron radiation micro x-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) technique was applied in examining the distribution of the essential elements Ca, P, K and S in the bone-cartilage interface of both healthy and diseased (osteoarthritic) areas of an equine metacarpophalangeal joint. The SR-μXRF mappings and line profile patterns have revealed remarkable changes in both the pattern and absolute distributions of these elements, agreeing with the findings of others. The elemental presence shown in the individual area scans encompassing the lesion each reflect the visibly abraded outer surface of the cartilage and change in shape of the bone surface. One of the area scans for the bone-cartilage interface shows a marked change in both the pattern and absolute elemental presence for all three elements compared to that observed at two other scan sites. The observation of change in bone cartilage composition around the surface of the articulating joint is thought to be novel, the variation being almost certainly due to the differing weight-bearing role of the subchondral bone at each location.

  19. 2010 John H. Gibbon Lecture. Just say yes!

    PubMed

    DeBois, William J

    2010-12-01

    Advancing anything requires change and a new method. It can be a challenge to bring about the change that you believe in. This change however requires you to plan and say no to the old way of doing things. Fortunately there is a positive way to say no whereby important needs are met. As Ury suggests, we need to focus on how the two opposing forces need to be addressed. There is your internal focus of what's important to you and the opposing external focus of others--what's important to them. We can't lose sight of this because when we do, we risk disrespecting others. As technicians we are in a unique position as perfusionists whereby we work closely with physicians and on occasion will direct them to perform tasks. Additionally, many other non-physicians are not familiar with our responsibilities. We need to make others knowledgeable of the education, skill, and passion we possess. I really enjoy what I do as a perfusionist and I am proud to be recognized for my team's contribution and of having received the Gibbon award. Bob Parsons, the CEO and founder of The Go Daddy Group, Inc., said "We're not here for a long time, we're here for a good time!" This all has been a real good time. Thank you. My Perfusion Team is currently: Barbara Elmer, Marie Kilcullen, Jim McVey, Marie Zanichelli, Junli Liu, Anthony Lamonica, Karen Hussey, Lilia Voevidko, Haleh Ebrahimi, Sergey Savy, Akilah Richards, Diana Froehlich. PMID:21313922

  20. Further evidence for formation of a narrow baryon resonance with positive strangeness in K + collisions with Xe nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmin, V. V.; Asratyan, A. E.; Borisov, V. S.; Curceanu, C.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Guaraldo, C.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Larin, I. F.; Matveev, V. A.; Shebanov, V. A.; Shishov, N. N.; Sokolov, L. I.; Tumanov, G. K.

    2007-01-01

    We have continued our investigation of the charge-exchange reaction K +Xe → K 0 pXe’ in the bubble chamber DIANA. In agreement with our previous results based on part of the present statistics, formation of a narrow pK 0 resonance with mass of 1537 ± 2 MeV/c 2 is observed in the elementary transition K + n → K 0 p on a neutron bound in the xenon nucleus. The visible width of the peak is consistent with being entirely due to instrumental resolution and allows one to place an upper limit on its intrinsic width: Γ < 9 MeV/c 2. A more precise estimate of the resonance intrinsic width, Γ = 0.36 ± 0.11 MeV/c 2, is obtained from the ratio between the numbers of resonant and nonresonant charge-exchange events. The signal is observed in a restricted interval of incident K + momentum that is consistent with smearing of a narrow pK 0 resonance by Fermi motion of the target neutron. The statistical significance of the signal is some 7.3, 5.3, and 4.3 standard deviations for the estimators S/sqrt B ,S/sqrt {S + B} and S/sqrt {S + 2B} , respectively. This observation confirms and reinforces our earlier results, and offers strong evidence for formation of a pentaquark baryon with positive strangeness in the charge-exchange reaction K + n → K 0 p on a bound neutron.

  1. Ultraviolet radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha, which is linked to the development of cutaneous SCC, modulates differential epidermal microRNAs expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok; Willems, Estelle; Singh, Anupama; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Ong, Irene M; Mehta, Suresh L; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is linked to the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a non-melanoma form of skin cancer that can metastasize. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is linked to UVR-induced development of SCC. To find clues about the mechanisms by which TNFα may promote UVR-induced development of SCC, we investigated changes in the expression profiling of microRNAs (miRNA), a novel class of short noncoding RNAs, which affects translation and stability of mRNAs. In this experiment, TNFα knockout (TNFα KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were exposed to acute UVR (2.0 kJ/m2) and the expression profiling of epidermal miRNA was determined 4hr post UVR exposure. TNFα deletion in untreated WT mice resulted in differential expression (log fold change>1) of seventeen miRNA. UVR exposure in WT mice induced differential expression of 22 miRNA. However, UVR exposure in TNFα KO mice altered only two miRNAs. Four miRNA, were differentially expressed between WT+UVR and TNFα KO+UVR groups. Differentially expressed selected miRNAs were further validated using real time PCR. Few of the differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-31-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-127-3p, miR-206-3p, miR-411-5p, miR-709, and miR-322-5p) were also observed in UVR-induced SCC. Finally, bio-informatics analysis using DIANA, MIRANDA, Target Scan, and miRDB algorithms revealed a link with major UVR-induced pathways (MAPK, PI3K-Akt, transcriptional mis-regulation, Wnt, and TGF-beta). PMID:26918454

  2. Beyond offshoring: assess your company's global potential.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2004-12-01

    In the past few years, companies have become aware that they can slash costs by offshoring: moving jobs to lower-wage locations. But this practice is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how globalization can transform industries, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). The institute's yearlong study suggests that by streamlining their production processes and supply chains globally, rather than just nationally or regionally, companies can lower their costs-as we've seen in the consumer-electronics and PC industries. Companies can save as much as 70% of their total costs through globalization--50% from offshoring, 5% from training and business-task redesign, and 15% from process improvements. But they don't have to stop there. The cost reductions make it possible to lower prices and expand into new markets, attracting whole new classes of customers. To date, however, few businesses have recognized the full scope of performance improvements that globalization makes possible, much less developed sound strategies for capturing those opportunities. In this article, Diana Farrell, director of MGI, offers a step-by-step approach to doing both things. Among her suggestions: Assess where your industry falls along the globalization spectrum, because not all sectors of the economy face the same challenges and opportunities at the same time. Also, pay attention to production, regulatory, and organizational barriers to globalization. If any of these can be changed, size up the cost-saving (and revenue-generating) opportunities that will emerge for your company as a result of those changes. Farrell also defines the five stages of globalization-market entry, product specialization, value chain disaggregation, value chain reengineering, and the creation of new markets-and notes the different levers for cutting costs and creating value that companies can use in each phase. PMID:15605568

  3. CrossHub: a tool for multi-way analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in the context of gene expression regulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, George S; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Melnikova, Nataliya V; Zaretsky, Andrew R; Nasedkina, Tatiana V; Zasedatelev, Alexander S; Senchenko, Vera N; Kudryavtseva, Anna V

    2016-04-20

    The contribution of different mechanisms to the regulation of gene expression varies for different tissues and tumors. Complementation of predicted mRNA-miRNA and gene-transcription factor (TF) relationships with the results of expression correlation analyses derived for specific tumor types outlines the interactions with functional impact in the current biomaterial. We developed CrossHub software, which enables two-way identification of most possible TF-gene interactions: on the basis of ENCODE ChIP-Seq binding evidence or Jaspar prediction and co-expression according to the data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, the largest cancer omics resource. Similarly, CrossHub identifies mRNA-miRNA pairs with predicted or validated binding sites (TargetScan, mirSVR, PicTar, DIANA microT, miRTarBase) and strong negative expression correlations. We observed partial consistency between ChIP-Seq or miRNA target predictions and gene-TF/miRNA co-expression, demonstrating a link between these indicators. Additionally, CrossHub expression-methylation correlation analysis can be used to identify hypermethylated CpG sites or regions with the greatest potential impact on gene expression. Thus, CrossHub is capable of outlining molecular portraits of a specific gene and determining the three most common sources of expression regulation: promoter/enhancer methylation, miRNA interference and TF-mediated activation or repression. CrossHub generates formatted Excel workbooks with the detailed results. CrossHub is freely available athttps://sourceforge.net/projects/crosshub/. PMID:26773058

  4. Silencing of the major family of NBS-LRR-encoding genes in lettuce results in the loss of multiple resistance specificities.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Tomczak, Anna; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Michelmore, Richard W

    2007-09-01

    The RGC2 gene cluster in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the largest known families of genes encoding nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins. One of its members, RGC2B, encodes Dm3 which determines resistance to downy mildew caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae carrying the cognate avirulence gene, Avr3. We developed an efficient strategy for analysis of this large family of low expressed genes using post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). We transformed lettuce cv. Diana (carrying Dm3) using chimeric gene constructs designed to simultaneously silence RGC2B and the GUS reporter gene via the production of interfering hairpin RNA (ihpRNA). Transient assays of GUS expression in leaves accurately predicted silencing of both genes and were subsequently used to assay silencing in transgenic T(1) plants and their offspring. Levels of mRNA were reduced not only for RGC2B but also for all seven diverse RGC2 family members tested. We then used the same strategy to show that the resistance specificity encoded by the genetically defined Dm18 locus in lettuce cv. Mariska is the result of two resistance specificities, only one of which was silenced by ihpRNA derived from RGC2B. Analysis of progeny from crosses between transgenic, silenced tester stocks and lettuce accessions carrying other resistance genes previously mapped to the RGC2 locus indicated that two additional resistance specificities to B. lactucae, Dm14 and Dm16, as well as resistance to lettuce root aphid (Pemphigus bursarius L.), Ra, are encoded by RGC2 family members. PMID:17587302

  5. A Review of the Neural and Behavioral Consequences for Unitizing Emotional and Neutral Information

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Brendan D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    A special type of association, called a “unitization,” is formed when pieces of information are encoded as a single representation in memory (e.g., “shirt” and “blue” are encoded as a “blue shirt”; Graf and Schacter, 1989) and typically are later reactivated in memory as a single unit, allowing access to the features of multiple related stimuli at once (Bader et al., 2010; Diana et al., 2011). This review examines the neural processes supporting memory for unitizations and how the emotional content of the material may influence unitization. Although associative binding is typically reliant on hippocampal processes and supported by recollection, the first part of this review will present evidence to suggest that when two items are unitized into a single representation, memory for those bound items may be accomplished on the basis of familiarity and without reliance on the hippocampus. The second part of this review discusses how emotion may affect the processes that give rise to unitizations. Emotional information typically receives a mnemonic benefit over neutral information, but the literature is mixed on whether the presence of emotional information impedes or enhances the associative binding of neutral information (reviewed by Mather, 2007). It has been suggested that the way the emotional and neutral details are related together may be critical to whether the neutral details are enhanced or impeded (Mather, 2007; Mather and Sutherland, 2011). We focus on whether emotional arousal aids or inhibits the creation of a unitized representation, presenting preliminary data, and future directions to test empirically the effects of forming and retrieving emotional and neutral unitizations. PMID:23750129

  6. Effect of Surface Alloying by Silicon on the Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of the Binary NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psakhie, S. G.; Meisner, S. N.; Lotkov, A. I.; Meisner, L. L.; Tverdokhlebova, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the study on changes in element and phase compositions in the near-surface layer and on surface topography of the NiTi specimens after the silicon ion-beam treatment. The effect of these parameters of the near-surface layer on corrosion properties in biochemical solutions and biocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells of rat marrow is studied. Ion-beam surface modification of the specimens was performed by a DIANA-3 implanter (Tomsk, Russia), using single-ion-beam pulses under oil-free pumping and high vacuum (10-4 Pa) conditions in a high-dose ion implantation regime. The fluence made 2 × 1017 cm-2, at an average accelerating voltage of 60 kV, and pulse repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The silicon ion-beam treatment of specimen surfaces is shown to bring about a nearly twofold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the material to attack by aqueous solutions of NaCl (artificial body fluid) and human plasma and a drastic decrease in the nickel concentration after immersion of the specimens into the solutions for ~3400 and ~6000 h, respectively (for the artificial plasma solution, a nearly 20-fold decrease in the Ni concentration is observed). It is shown that improvement of NiTi corrosion resistance after treatment by Si ions occurs mainly due to the formation of two-layer composite coating based on Ti oxides (outer layer) on the NiTi surface and adjacent inner layer of oxides, carbides, and silicides of the NiTi alloy components. Inner layer with high silicon concentration serves as a barrier layer preventing nickel penetration into biomedium. This, in our opinion, is the main reason why the NiTi alloy exhibits no cytotoxic properties after ion modification of its surface and leads to the biocompatibility improvement at the cellular level, respectively.

  7. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz de Montellano, B.

    1996-11-14

    As planned a letter was sent out to 17 teachers who had participated in a Summer 1994 workshop on ``Culturally Relevant Science for Hispanics`` at Michigan State. These teachers were supposed to have spent the intervening time developing lesson plans and curricula. The letter requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed by February 1996 with a stipend of $400 for satisfactory reports. It was a disappointment to only get 9 responses and not all of them demonstrating a satisfactory level of activity. Diana Marinez, Dean of Science at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, who is the other developer of this curriculum and the author reviewed the submitted materials and chose those showing the most promise to be invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. Spring of 1996 and particularly in May--June, the author wrote a partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual which would provide a rationale for doing culturally relevant science, present the cultural and the scientific background that teachers would need in order to be able to teach. One of the goals of this curriculum is that it should be off-the-shelf ready to teach and that teachers would not have to do extra research to encourage its adoption. The outline of the book is appendix 1. The Writing Workshop was held at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi from July 14 to July 27, 1996. Participating teachers chose topics that they were interested in developing and wrote first drafts. These were distributed to all participants and critiqued by the workshop directors before being rewritten. Some teachers were more productive than others depending on their science background. In total an impressive number of lesson plans were written. These lesson plans are listed in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a sample lesson. Work still needs to be done on both the source book and the teachers` manual.

  8. CrossHub: a tool for multi-way analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in the context of gene expression regulation mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Krasnov, George S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Zaretsky, Andrew R.; Nasedkina, Tatiana V.; Zasedatelev, Alexander S.; Senchenko, Vera N.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of different mechanisms to the regulation of gene expression varies for different tissues and tumors. Complementation of predicted mRNA–miRNA and gene–transcription factor (TF) relationships with the results of expression correlation analyses derived for specific tumor types outlines the interactions with functional impact in the current biomaterial. We developed CrossHub software, which enables two-way identification of most possible TF–gene interactions: on the basis of ENCODE ChIP-Seq binding evidence or Jaspar prediction and co-expression according to the data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, the largest cancer omics resource. Similarly, CrossHub identifies mRNA–miRNA pairs with predicted or validated binding sites (TargetScan, mirSVR, PicTar, DIANA microT, miRTarBase) and strong negative expression correlations. We observed partial consistency between ChIP-Seq or miRNA target predictions and gene–TF/miRNA co-expression, demonstrating a link between these indicators. Additionally, CrossHub expression-methylation correlation analysis can be used to identify hypermethylated CpG sites or regions with the greatest potential impact on gene expression. Thus, CrossHub is capable of outlining molecular portraits of a specific gene and determining the three most common sources of expression regulation: promoter/enhancer methylation, miRNA interference and TF-mediated activation or repression. CrossHub generates formatted Excel workbooks with the detailed results. CrossHub is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/crosshub/. PMID:26773058

  9. Predicting microRNA modulation in human prostate cancer using a simple String IDentifier (SID1.0).

    PubMed

    Albertini, Maria C; Olivieri, Fabiola; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Pilolli, Francesca; Galli, Francesco; Spada, Giorgio; Accorsi, Augusto; Rippo, Maria R; Procopio, Antonio D

    2011-08-01

    To make faster and efficient the identification of mRNA targets common to more than one miRNA, and to identify new miRNAs modulated in specific pathways, a computer program identified as SID1.0 (simple String IDentifier) was developed and successfully applied in the identification of deregulated miRNAs in prostate cancer cells. This computationally inexpensive Fortran program is based on the strategy of exhaustive search and specifically designed to screen shared data (target genes, miRNAs and pathways) available from PicTar and DIANA-MicroT 3.0 databases. As far as we know this is the first software designed to filter data retrieved from available miRNA databases. SID1.0 takes advantage of the standard Fortran intrinsic functions for manipulating text strings and requires ASCII input files. In order to demonstrate SID1.0 applicability, some miRNAs expected from the literature to associate with cancerogenesis (miR-125b, miR-148a and miR-141), were randomly identified as main entries for SID1.0 to explore matching sequences of mRNA targets and also to explore KEGG pathways for the presence of ID codes of targeted genes. Besides genes and pathways already described in the literature, SID1.0 has proven to useful for predicting other genes involved in prostate carcinoma. These latter were used to identify new deregulated miRNAs: miR-141, miR-148a, miR-19a and miR-19b. Prediction data were preliminary confirmed by expression analysis of the identified miRNAs in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC3) prostate carcinoma cell lines and in normal prostatic epithelial cells (PrEC). PMID:21334455

  10. U-Pb garnet, sphene, monazite, and rutile ages: Implications for the duration of high-grade metamorphism and cooling histories, Adirondack Mts. , New York

    SciTech Connect

    Mezger, K.; Rawnsley, C.M.; Hanson, G.N. ); Bohlen, S.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Garnet ages for the Lowlands range from 1,168-1,127 Ma, those from the central and southern Highlands from 1,154-1,013 Ma. Metamorphism in the Highlands may not have occurred as a single event but rather in several discrete thermal pulses. An age of 1,153 {plus minus} 3 Ma was determined for garnets in the syn-regional metamorphic contact aureole of the Diana syenite, consistent with that of the syenite intrusion, 1 155 {plus minus} 4 Ma. Garnets just outside the contact aureole give an age of 1,168 {plus minus} 6 Ma. In the Lowlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,161 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 1,005 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 953 {plus minus} 4 Ma, and sphene ages range from 1,156 to 1,103 Ma. In the Highlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,033 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 911 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 885 {plus minus} 2 and sphenes from 1,033 Ma to 991 Ma. The rutile and monazite ages indicate that both terranes cooled at time-integrated rates of ca. 1.5C/Ma for at least 150 Ma following the last phase of high-grade metamorphism. The Lowlands cooled to ca. 400C by ca. 1,000 Ma and the Highlands by ca. 900 Ma. The mineral ages indicate that metamorphic pressures and temperatures recorded by thermobarometry correspond to conditions attained polychronically over 150 Ma or more. Mineral ages combined with temperature estimates for peak metamorphism indicate that the closure temperature for the U-Pb system is >800C in garnet, 640-730C in monazite, and 500-670C in sphene.

  11. An Atlas of Type I MADS Box Gene Expression during Female Gametophyte and Seed Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Bemer, Marian; Heijmans, Klaas; Airoldi, Chiara; Davies, Brendan; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the plant type I MADS domain subfamily have been reported to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, from the 61 type I genes in the Arabidopsis genome, only PHERES1, AGAMOUS-LIKE80 (AGL80), DIANA, AGL62, and AGL23 have been functionally characterized, which revealed important roles for these genes during female gametophyte and early seed development. The functions of the other genes are still unknown, despite the fact that the available single T-DNA insertion mutants have been largely investigated. The lack of mutant phenotypes is likely due to a considerable number of recent intrachromosomal duplications in the type I subfamily, resulting in nonfunctional genes in addition to a high level of redundancy. To enable a breakthrough in type I MADS box gene characterization, a framework needs to be established that allows the prediction of the functionality and redundancy of the type I genes. Here, we present a complete atlas of their expression patterns during female gametophyte and seed development in Arabidopsis, deduced from reporter lines containing translational fusions of the genes to green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase. All the expressed genes were revealed to be active in the female gametophyte or developing seed, indicating that the entire type I subfamily is involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, expression was predominantly observed in the central cell, antipodal cells, and chalazal endosperm. The combination of our expression results with phylogenetic and protein interaction data allows a better identification of putative redundantly acting genes and provides a useful tool for the functional characterization of the type I MADS box genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:20631316

  12. An atlas of type I MADS box gene expression during female gametophyte and seed development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Heijmans, Klaas; Airoldi, Chiara; Davies, Brendan; Angenent, Gerco C

    2010-09-01

    Members of the plant type I MADS domain subfamily have been reported to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, from the 61 type I genes in the Arabidopsis genome, only PHERES1, AGAMOUS-LIKE80 (AGL80), DIANA, AGL62, and AGL23 have been functionally characterized, which revealed important roles for these genes during female gametophyte and early seed development. The functions of the other genes are still unknown, despite the fact that the available single T-DNA insertion mutants have been largely investigated. The lack of mutant phenotypes is likely due to a considerable number of recent intrachromosomal duplications in the type I subfamily, resulting in nonfunctional genes in addition to a high level of redundancy. To enable a breakthrough in type I MADS box gene characterization, a framework needs to be established that allows the prediction of the functionality and redundancy of the type I genes. Here, we present a complete atlas of their expression patterns during female gametophyte and seed development in Arabidopsis, deduced from reporter lines containing translational fusions of the genes to green fluorescent protein and beta-glucuronidase. All the expressed genes were revealed to be active in the female gametophyte or developing seed, indicating that the entire type I subfamily is involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, expression was predominantly observed in the central cell, antipodal cells, and chalazal endosperm. The combination of our expression results with phylogenetic and protein interaction data allows a better identification of putative redundantly acting genes and provides a useful tool for the functional characterization of the type I MADS box genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:20631316

  13. Ultraviolet radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha, which is linked to the development of cutaneous SCC, modulates differential epidermal microRNAs expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashok; Willems, Estelle; Singh, Anupama; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Ong, Irene M.; Mehta, Suresh L.; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is linked to the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a non-melanoma form of skin cancer that can metastasize. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is linked to UVR-induced development of SCC. To find clues about the mechanisms by which TNFα may promote UVR-induced development of SCC, we investigated changes in the expression profiling of microRNAs (miRNA), a novel class of short noncoding RNAs, which affects translation and stability of mRNAs. In this experiment, TNFα knockout (TNFα KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were exposed to acute UVR (2.0 kJ/m2) and the expression profiling of epidermal miRNA was determined 4hr post UVR exposure. TNFα deletion in untreated WT mice resulted in differential expression (log fold change>1) of seventeen miRNA. UVR exposure in WT mice induced differential expression of 22 miRNA. However, UVR exposure in TNFα KO mice altered only two miRNAs. Four miRNA, were differentially expressed between WT+UVR and TNFα KO+UVR groups. Differentially expressed selected miRNAs were further validated using real time PCR. Few of the differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-31-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-127-3p, miR-206-3p, miR-411-5p, miR-709, and miR-322-5p) were also observed in UVR-induced SCC. Finally, bio-informatics analysis using DIANA, MIRANDA, Target Scan, and miRDB algorithms revealed a link with major UVR-induced pathways (MAPK, PI3K-Akt, transcriptional mis-regulation, Wnt, and TGF-beta). PMID:26918454

  14. Breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 miRNA profile expression after BIK interference: BIK involvement in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Ruth; Torres-Márquez, María Eugenia; Viedma-Rodríguez, Rubí; Velázquez-Wong, Ana Claudia; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Velázquez-Flores, Miguel Ángel

    2016-05-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-interacting killer (apoptosis inducing) (BIK) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor in diverse types of cancers. However, BIK's overexpression in breast cancer (BC) and in non-small lung cancer cells (NSCLCs), associated with a poor prognosis, suggests its participation in tumor progression. In this study, we evaluated the global expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) expression changes in autophagy, and autophagic flux after BIK interference. BIK gene expression was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in BC cell MDA-MB-231, and BIK interference efficiency was tested by real-time PCR and by Western blotting. BIK expression levels decreased by 75 ± 18 % in the presence of 600 nM siRNA, resulting in the abolishment of BIK expression by 94 ± 30 %. BIK interference resulted in the overexpression of 17 miRNAs that, according to the DIANA-miRPath v3.0 database, are mainly implied in the control of cell signaling, gene expression, and autophagy. The autophagy array revealed downregulation of transcripts which participate in autophagy, and their interactome revealed a complex network, where hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HGS), α-synuclein (SNCA), unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1/2 (ULK1/2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) were shown to be signaling hubs. LC3-II expression-an autophagy marker-was increased by 169 ± 25 % after BIK interference, which indicates the involvement of BIK in autophagy. Altogether, our results indicate-for the first time-that BIK controls the expression of miRNAs, as well as the autophagic flux in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:26662110

  15. Common features of microRNA target prediction tools.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah M; Thompson, Jeffrey A; Ufkin, Melanie L; Sathyanarayana, Pradeep; Liaw, Lucy; Congdon, Clare Bates

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes for over 1800 microRNAs (miRNAs), which are short non-coding RNA molecules that function to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Due to the potential for one miRNA to target multiple gene transcripts, miRNAs are recognized as a major mechanism to regulate gene expression and mRNA translation. Computational prediction of miRNA targets is a critical initial step in identifying miRNA:mRNA target interactions for experimental validation. The available tools for miRNA target prediction encompass a range of different computational approaches, from the modeling of physical interactions to the incorporation of machine learning. This review provides an overview of the major computational approaches to miRNA target prediction. Our discussion highlights three tools for their ease of use, reliance on relatively updated versions of miRBase, and range of capabilities, and these are DIANA-microT-CDS, miRanda-mirSVR, and TargetScan. In comparison across all miRNA target prediction tools, four main aspects of the miRNA:mRNA target interaction emerge as common features on which most target prediction is based: seed match, conservation, free energy, and site accessibility. This review explains these features and identifies how they are incorporated into currently available target prediction tools. MiRNA target prediction is a dynamic field with increasing attention on development of new analysis tools. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive assessment of these tools in a manner that is accessible across disciplines. Understanding the basis of these prediction methodologies will aid in user selection of the appropriate tools and interpretation of the tool output. PMID:24600468

  16. Pricing products: juxtaposing affordability with quality appeal.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Choosing appropriate product prices is 1 of the most crucial steps in creating an effective contraceptive social marketing (CSM) sales campaign. The Social Marketing Forum conducted an informal survey of social marketing project managers, international contractors, and marketing consultants to determine how CSM programs cope with pricing problems and ways to circumvent some obstacles. According to Diana Altman, a family planning consultant, low prices that make products available to needy individuals are more important than the program's self sufficiency, yet if prices are too low, consumers think the products were unusable in the US and thus were dumped on local markets. Other key factors include commercial competition, spiraling inflation rates, and problems with rising prices and retailer/distributor margins. A sampling of per capita gross national products indicates the poverty level of most CSM projects' target market. Consequently, CSM projects must set low pices, regardless of program operating costs. The goal often is to increase the demand and availability for contraceptives. The fact that social marketing products must pass through retail networks to reach consumers complicates the pricing equation. To deal with the problem, India's Nirodh program gives a 25% margin to distributors/wholesalers, compared to 6% offered on most other goods. Retailers also receive a 25% margin, more than double the commercial rate. Once prices are set, increases pose hazards. Local government approval often is a prerequisite and can require lengthy negotiations. Market studies remain a valuable approach to effective pricing, according to PNA's Mallamad and other research consultants. They cite such effective research strategies as test marketing products and asking consumers how prices affect buying habits. Further, CSM projects can jump over some pricing hurdles through creative marketing. An effective pricing strategy alone cannot produce a successful CSM program. Pricing

  17. Experimental search for radiative decays of the pentaquark baryon {Theta}{sup +}(1540)

    SciTech Connect

    Barmin, V. V.; Asratyan, A. E.; Borisov, V. S.; Curceanu, C.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Guaraldo, C.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Larin, I. F.; Matveev, V. A.; Shebanov, V. A.; Shishov, N. N.; Sokolov, L. I.; Tumanov, G. K.; Verebryusov, V. S.

    2010-07-15

    The data on the reactions K{sup +}Xe {sup {yields}}K{sup 0{gamma}}X and K{sup +}Xe {sup {yields}}K{sup +{gamma}}X, obtained with the bubble chamber DIANA, have been analyzed for possible radiative decays of the {Theta}{sup +}(1540) baryon: {Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}K{sup 0}p{gamma} and {Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}K{sup +}n{gamma}. No signals have been observed, and we derive the upper limits {Gamma}({Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}K{sup 0}p{gamma})/{Gamma}({Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}K{sup 0}p) < 0.032 and {Gamma}({Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}K{sup +}n{gamma})/{Gamma}({Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}K{sup +}n{gamma}) < 0.041 which, using our previous measurement of {Gamma}({Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}KN) = 0.39 {+-} 0.10 MeV, translate to {Gamma}({Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}K{sup 0}p{gamma}) < 8 keV and {Gamma}({Theta}{sup +} {sup {yields}}K{sup +}n{gamma}) < 11 keV at 90% confidence level. We have also measured the cross sections of K{sup +}-induced reactions involving emission of a neutral pion: {sigma}(K{sup +}n {sup {yields}}K{sup 0}p{pi}{sup 0}) = 68 {+-} 18 {mu}b and {sigma}(K{sup +}N {sup {yields}}K{sup +}N{pi}{sup 0}) = 30 {+-} 8 {mu}b for incident K{sup +} momentum of 640 MeV.

  18. The real new economy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

  19. The major resistance gene cluster in lettuce is highly duplicated and spans several megabases.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, B C; Chin, D B; Shen, K A; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Lavelle, D O; Zhang, Z; Michelmore, R W

    1998-01-01

    At least 10 Dm genes conferring resistance to the oomycete downy mildew fungus Bremia lactucae map to the major resistance cluster in lettuce. We investigated the structure of this cluster in the lettuce cultivar Diana, which contains Dm3. A deletion breakpoint map of the chromosomal region flanking Dm3 was saturated with a variety of molecular markers. Several of these markers are components of a family of resistance gene candidates (RGC2) that encode a nucleotide binding site and a leucine-rich repeat region. These motifs are characteristic of plant disease resistance genes. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones were identified by using duplicated restriction fragment length polymorphism markers from the region, including the nucleotide binding site-encoding region of RGC2. Twenty-two distinct members of the RGC2 family were characterized from the bacterial artificial chromosomes; at least two additional family members exist. The RGC2 family is highly divergent; the nucleotide identity was as low as 53% between the most distantly related copies. These RGC2 genes span at least 3.5 Mb. Eighteen members were mapped on the deletion breakpoint map. A comparison between the phylogenetic and physical relationships of these sequences demonstrated that closely related copies are physically separated from one another and indicated that complex rearrangements have shaped this region. Analysis of low-copy genomic sequences detected no genes, including RGC2, in the Dm3 region, other than sequences related to retrotransposons and transposable elements. The related but divergent family of RGC2 genes may act as a resource for the generation of new resistance phenotypes through infrequent recombination or unequal crossing over. PMID:9811791

  20. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  1. MiRImpact, a new bioinformatic method using complete microRNA expression profiles to assess their overall influence on the activity of intracellular molecular pathways

    PubMed Central

    Artcibasova, Alina V.; Korzinkin, Mikhail B.; Sorokin, Maksim I.; Shegay, Peter V.; Zhavoronkov, Alex A.; Gaifullin, Nurshat; Alekseev, Boris Y.; Vorobyev, Nikolay V.; Kuzmin, Denis V.; Kaprin, Аndrey D.; Borisov, Nikolay M.; Buzdin, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRs) are short noncoding RNA molecules that regulate expression of target mRNAs. Many published sources provide information about miRs and their targets. However, bioinformatic tools elucidating higher level impact of the established total miR profiles, are still largely missing. Recently, we developed a method termed OncoFinder enabling quantification of the activities of intracellular molecular pathways basing on gene expression data. Here we propose a new technique, MiRImpact, which enables to link miR expression data with its estimated outcome on the regulation of molecular pathways, like signaling, metabolic, cytoskeleton rearrangement, and DNA repair pathways. MiRImpact uses OncoFinder rationale for pathway activity calculations, with the major distinctions that (i) it deals with the concentrations of miRs - known regulators of gene products participating in molecular pathways, and (ii) miRs are considered as negative regulators of target molecules, if other is not specified. MiRImpact operates with 2 types of databases: for molecular targets of miRs and for gene products participating in molecular pathways. We applied MiRImpact to compare regulation of human bladder cancer-specific signaling pathways at the levels of mRNA and miR expression. We took 2 most complete alternative databases of experimentally validated miR targets – miRTarBase and DianaTarBase, and an OncoFinder database featuring 2725 gene products and 271 signaling pathways. We showed that the impact of miRs is orthogonal to pathway regulation at the mRNA level, which stresses the importance of studying posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. We also report characteristic set of miR and mRNA regulation features linked with bladder cancer. PMID:27027999

  2. Effects of metal contamination in situ on osmoregulation and oxygen consumption in the mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax (Ocypodidae, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Capparelli, Mariana V; Abessa, Denis M; McNamara, John C

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of estuaries by metals can impose additional stresses on estuarine species, which may exhibit a limited capability to adjust their regulatory processes and maintain physiological homeostasis. The mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax is a typical estuarine crab, abundant in both pristine and contaminated areas along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. This study evaluates osmotic and ionic regulatory ability and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in different salinities (<0.5, 25 and 60‰ S) and oxygen consumption rates at different temperatures (15, 25 and 35°C) in U. rapax collected from localities along the coast of São Paulo State showing different histories of metal contamination (most contaminated Ilha Diana, Santos>Rio Itapanhaú, Bertioga>Picinguaba, Ubatuba [pristine reference site]). Our findings show that the contamination of U. rapax by metals in situ leads to bioaccumulation and induces biochemical and physiological changes compared to crabs from the pristine locality. U. rapax from the contaminated sites exhibit stronger hyper- and hypo-osmotic regulatory abilities and show greater gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities than crabs from the pristine site, revealing that the underlying biochemical machinery can maintain systemic physiological processes functioning well. However, oxygen consumption, particularly at elevated temperatures, decreases in crabs showing high bioaccumulation titers but increases in crabs with low/moderate bioaccumulation levels. These data show that U. rapax chronically contaminated in situ exhibits compensatory biochemical and physiological adjustments, and reveal the importance of studies on organisms exposed to metals in situ, particularly estuarine invertebrates subject to frequent changes in natural environmental parameters like salinity and temperature. PMID:26992327

  3. How Diet Intervention via Modulation of DNA Damage Response through MicroRNAs May Have an Effect on Cancer Prevention and Aging, an in Silico Study.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Felicia; Albertini, Maria C; Coletti, Dario; Vilmercati, Alessandra; Campanella, Luigi; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Teodori, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a molecular mechanism that cells have evolved to sense DNA damage (DD) to promote DNA repair, or to lead to apoptosis, or cellular senescence if the damage is too extensive. Recent evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRs) play a critical role in the regulation of DDR. Dietary bioactive compounds through miRs may affect activity of numerous genes. Among the most studied bioactive compounds modulating expression of miRs are epi-gallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, resveratrol and n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids. To compare the impact of these dietary compounds on DD/DDR network modulation, we performed a literature search and an in silico analysis by the DIANA-mirPathv3 software. The in silico analysis allowed us to identify pathways shared by different miRs involved in DD/DDR vis-à-vis the specific compounds. The results demonstrate that certain miRs (e.g., -146, -21) play a central role in the interplay among DD/DDR and the bioactive compounds. Furthermore, some specific pathways, such as "fatty acids biosynthesis/metabolism", "extracellular matrix-receptor interaction" and "signaling regulating the pluripotency of stem cells", appear to be targeted by most miRs affected by the studied compounds. Since DD/DDR and these pathways are strongly related to aging and carcinogenesis, the present in silico results of our study suggest that monitoring the induction of specific miRs may provide the means to assess the antiaging and chemopreventive properties of particular dietary compounds. PMID:27213347

  4. How Diet Intervention via Modulation of DNA Damage Response through MicroRNAs May Have an Effect on Cancer Prevention and Aging, an in Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Carotenuto, Felicia; Albertini, Maria C.; Coletti, Dario; Vilmercati, Alessandra; Campanella, Luigi; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Teodori, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a molecular mechanism that cells have evolved to sense DNA damage (DD) to promote DNA repair, or to lead to apoptosis, or cellular senescence if the damage is too extensive. Recent evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRs) play a critical role in the regulation of DDR. Dietary bioactive compounds through miRs may affect activity of numerous genes. Among the most studied bioactive compounds modulating expression of miRs are epi-gallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, resveratrol and n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids. To compare the impact of these dietary compounds on DD/DDR network modulation, we performed a literature search and an in silico analysis by the DIANA-mirPathv3 software. The in silico analysis allowed us to identify pathways shared by different miRs involved in DD/DDR vis-à-vis the specific compounds. The results demonstrate that certain miRs (e.g., -146, -21) play a central role in the interplay among DD/DDR and the bioactive compounds. Furthermore, some specific pathways, such as “fatty acids biosynthesis/metabolism”, “extracellular matrix-receptor interaction” and “signaling regulating the pluripotency of stem cells”, appear to be targeted by most miRs affected by the studied compounds. Since DD/DDR and these pathways are strongly related to aging and carcinogenesis, the present in silico results of our study suggest that monitoring the induction of specific miRs may provide the means to assess the antiaging and chemopreventive properties of particular dietary compounds. PMID:27213347

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of dendrotoxin K from the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis.

    PubMed

    Berndt, K D; Güntert, P; Wüthrich, K

    1993-12-01

    The solution structure of dendrotoxin K (Toxin K), a protein consisting of one polypeptide chain with 57 residues purified from the venom of the black mamba, Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis, was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. On the basis of virtually complete sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments, including individual assignments for 38 pairs of diastereotopic substituents and side-chain amide protons, a total of 818 nuclear Overhauser effect distance constraints and 123 dihedral angle constraints were identified. Using this input, the solution structure of Toxin K was calculated with the program DIANA, and refined by restrained energy-minimization with a modified version of the program AMBER. The average root-mean-square deviation (r.m.s.d.) relative to the mean atomic co-ordinates of the 20 conformers selected to represent the solution structure is 0.31 A for all backbone atoms N, C alpha and C', and 0.90 A for all heavy-atoms of residues 2 to 56. The solution structure of Toxin K is very similar to the solution structure of the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and the X-ray crystal structure of the alpha-dendrotoxin from Dendroaspis angusticeps (alpha-DTX), with r.m.s.d. values of 1.31 A and 0.92 A, respectively, for the backbone atoms of residues 2 to 56. Some local structural differences between Toxin K and BPTI are directly related to the fact that intermolecular interactions with two of the four internal molecules of hydration water in BPTI are replaced by intramolecular hydrogen bonds in Toxin K. PMID:8254670

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the alpha-neurotoxin from the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis).

    PubMed

    Brown, L R; Wüthrich, K

    1992-10-20

    The three-dimensional structure in solution of the alpha-neurotoxin from the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A high quality structure for this 60-residue protein was obtained from 656 NOE distance constraints and 143 dihedral angle constraints, using the distance geometry program DIANA for the structure calculation and AMBER for restrained energy minimization. For a group of 20 conformers used to represent the solution structure, the average root-mean-square deviation value calculated for the polypeptide backbone heavy atoms relative to the mean structure was 0.45 A. The protein consists of a core region from which three finger-like loops extend outwards. It includes a short, two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet of residues 1-5 and 13-17, a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet involving residues 23-31, 34-42 and 51-55, and four disulfide bridges in the core region. There is also extensive non-regular hydrogen bonding between the carboxy-terminal tail of the polypeptide chain and the rest of the core region. Comparison with the crystal structure of erabutoxin-b indicates that the structure of alpha-neurotoxin is quite similar to other neurotoxin structures, but that local structural differences are seen in regions thought to be important for binding of neurotoxins to the acetylcholine receptor. For two regions of the alpha-neurotoxin structure there is evidence for an equilibrium between multiple conformations, which might be related to conformational rearrangements upon binding to the receptor. Overall, the alpha-neurotoxin presents itself as a protein with a stable core and flexible surface areas that interact with the acetylcholine receptor in such a way that high affinity binding is achieved by conformational rearrangements of the deformable regions of the neurotoxin structure. PMID:1433289

  7. Recent Progress in GW-based Methods for Excited-State Calculations of Reduced Dimensional Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Jornada, Felipe H.

    2015-03-01

    Ab initio calculations of excited-state phenomena within the GW and GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) approaches allow one to accurately study the electronic and optical properties of various materials, including systems with reduced dimensionality. However, several challenges arise when dealing with complicated nanostructures where the electronic screening is strongly spatially and directionally dependent. In this talk, we discuss some recent developments to address these issues. First, we turn to the slow convergence of quasiparticle energies and exciton binding energies with respect to k-point sampling. This is very effectively dealt with using a new hybrid sampling scheme, which results in savings of several orders of magnitude in computation time. A new ab initio method is also developed to incorporate substrate screening into GW and GW-BSE calculations. These two methods have been applied to mono- and few-layer MoSe2, and yielded strong environmental dependent behaviors in good agreement with experiment. Other issues that arise in confined systems and materials with reduced dimensionality, such as the effect of the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to GW-BSE, and the calculation of non-radiative exciton lifetime, are also addressed. These developments have been efficiently implemented and successfully applied to real systems in an ab initio framework using the BerkeleyGW package. I would like to acknowledge collaborations with Diana Y. Qiu, Steven G. Louie, Meiyue Shao, Chao Yang, and the experimental groups of M. Crommie and F. Wang. This work was supported by Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR10-1006184.

  8. Science Planning for the TROPIX Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the study grant was to undertake the planning needed to execute meaningful solar electric propulsion missions in the magnetosphere and beyond. The first mission examined was the Transfer Orbit Plasma Investigation Experiment (TROPIX) mission to spiral outward through the magnetosphere. The next mission examined was to the moon and an asteroid. Entitled Diana, it was proposed to NASA in October 1994. Two similar missions were conceived in 1996 entitled CNR for Comet Nucleus Rendezvous and MBAR for Main Belt Asteroid Rendezvous. The latter mission was again proposed in 1998. All four of these missions were unsuccessfully proposed to the NASA Discovery program. Nevertheless we were partially successful in that the Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission was eventually carried out nearly duplicating our CNR mission. Returning to the magnetosphere we studied and proposed to the Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) program a MidEx mission called TEMPEST, in 1995. This mission included two solar electric spacecraft that spiraled outward in the magnetosphere: one at near 900 inclination and one in the equatorial plane. This mission was not selected for flight. Next we proposed a single SEP vehicle to carry Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers and inside observations to complement the IMAGE mission providing needed data to properly interpret the IMAGE data. This mission called SESAME was submitted unsuccessfully in 1997. One proposal was successful. A study grant was awarded to examine a four spacecraft solar electric mission, named Global Magnetospheric Dynamics. This study was completed and a report on this mission is attached but events overtook this design and a separate study team was selected to design a classical chemical mission as a Solar Terrestrial Probe. Competing proposals such as through the MIDEX opportunity were expressly forbidden. A bibliography is attached.

  9. PREFACE 16 ISCMP: Progress in Solid State and Molecular Electronics, Ionics and Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2010-11-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 16 ISCMP, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. The School was dedicated to the late Professor Joe Marshall, who served for a long time as Chairman and Honorary Chairman and left us just after having completed the proceedings of the previous School. Like previous events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saint Constantine and Elena near Varna, going back to the renewed facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 19 different countries delivered 34 invited lecturers and 75 posters, contributing to three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the articles published in this volume illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not the least significant factor in the success of the 16 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. These Proceedings are published for the first time in Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for encouraging this idea. The Scientific Committee of the ISCMP dedicates this volume of the Proceedings to the living memory of Professor Joe Marshall, Honorary Chairman of the ISCMP. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saint Constantine and Elena, in September 2012. It will be entitled: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa

  10. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  11. tRFs: miRNAs in disguise.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Suresh, Padmanaban S; Tsutsumi, Rie

    2016-04-01

    tRFs and tiRNAs are two new classes of regulatory non-coding small RNAs that are derived from the cleavage of pre-existing tRNAs. tRFs are 18-22 nt long and are classified into the tRF-5, tRF-3, and tRF-1 series. Here, we discuss in detail the regulatory roles of tRFs in translation, viral infections, and carcinogenesis. Moreover, we have reviewed the association of tRFs with Argonaute proteins, including their potential to function as miRNAs. Interestingly, few miRNAs are generated from pre-existing tRNAs. Hence, tRNAs generate similar-sized tRFs and miRNAs, leading to misannotations due to cross mapping of tRFs and tRNA-derived miRNAs during deep sequencing data analysis. Therefore, it is important to catalogue the overlapping sequences between tRNA-derived miRNAs and tRFs. We have catalogued the miRNAs that overlap with tRFs sequences in humans using miRBase. We identified 20 tRNA-derived miRNAs that share sequences with tRFs. Of the 20 miRNAs, 5 miRNAs (miR-3182, miR-4521, miR-1260a, miR-1260b, and miR-7977) showed significant prediction scores. Furthermore, we have identified a lysine degradation pathway as a common regulatory pathway for miR-1260a, miR-1260b, and miR-3182 by using DIANA-mirPath. PMID:26743126

  12. Torsionally Excited Dimethyl Ether in the Laboratory and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, C. P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Lewen, F.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Drouin, B. J.; Bisschop, S.; Groner, P.

    2010-06-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is highly abundant in hot cores and numerous transitions within the vibrational ground state have been detected in various interstellar line surveys of sources such as Orion KL. As a nearly prolate asymmetric top with two internal rotors, it shows a complex spectrum with low lying torsional modes. The energy levels of the two lowest torsional states (v11, and v15) lie only 200 and 240 cm-1 above the ground state (barrier height ≈ 915 cm-1), and are thus sufficiently populated in these interstellar sources to exhibit transitions in line surveys due to high excitation temperatures in hot cores. So far, the lack of sufficiently accurate predictions for the two lowest excited torsional states prevented their identification in astronomical spectra. Therefore, we analyzed spectra, which have been recorded within the context of the investigations of the ground state. In total, more than 9500 transitions have been assigned covering the frequency range from 38 up to 1670 GHz. The enlarged splitting of each rotational level into four substates (AA, EE, AE, EA) compared to its size in the ground state and a large number of perturbed transitions hampered not only the line assignment but also the astrophysical modelling. However, the inclusion of interaction terms between both excited states in the model of an effective Hamiltonian for a symmetric two-top rotor, allowed us to model both excited states within a global fit, and also to accurately determine the energy difference between both states. Frequency predictions have been calculated based on this analysis and have been used to unambiguously assign numerous rotational transitions within these excited states in the astronomical line survey of the hot core region G327.3-0.6. P. Schilke, T.D. Groesbeck et al., Astrophys.J.Suppl.Ser., 108,(1997) 301-337 P. Schilke, D.J. Benford, T.R. Hunter et al., Astrophys.J.Suppl.Ser., 132,(2001) 281-364. P. Groner, S. Albert, E. Herbst, and F.C. De Lucia, Astrophys

  13. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC), at the second administrative level or lower. Methodology A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health). Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a ‘proxi-indicator’ of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted. Principal Findings One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%). Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult. Conclusions There is a need for

  14. Block by Block Growth of Ultrathin YBa2Cu3O 7-x in YBa2Cu3O 7-x/PrBa2Cu3O7 Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Maria; Grogger, Werner; Arias, Diego; Sefrioui, Zouhair; Leon, Carlos; Ballesteros, Carmen; Krishnan, Kannan M.; Santamaria, Jacobo

    2001-03-01

    High quality [YBa2Cu3O 7-x n u.c. /PrBa2Cu3O7 5 u.c.] 1000Å superlattices with noninteger YBa2Cu3O7-x layer thickness have been grown to investigate the growth mechanism of YBCO. We unambiguously show the block by block deposition as opposed to atomic layer by layer growth modes [1,2]. Samples were grown on SrTiO3 substrates by high oxygen pressure sputtering. Interfacial morphology has been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). X ray refinement shows no interdiffusion, negligible interfacial roughness and significant epitaxial strain for YBCO layers, with thickness below 3 unit cells [3, 4]. X ray analysis shows that in superlattices with non integer YBCO layers, the superlattice modulation length does not commensurate with the underlying lattice [5]. EFTEM analysis shows the presence of interface steps one unit cell high, distributed in such a way that the interface plane composition changes coherently with increasing bilayer index. While a layer by layer growth would yield continuous one unit cell thick layers (and eventually Y/Pr alloys) the block by block growth mode results in one unit cell thick islands not completely covering the substrate surface. [1] T. Terashima, Y. Bando, K. Iijima, K. Yamamoto, K. Hiata, K. Hayashi, K. Kamigaki, H. Terauchi. Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 2684 (1990). [2] J.P. Locquet, A. Catana, E. Mächler, C. Gerber, J.G. Bednorz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 372 (1994). [3] M.Varela, Z. Sefrioui, D. Arias, M. A. Navacerrada, M. Lucia, M. A. Lopez de la Torre, G. D. Loos, C. Leon, F. Sanchez-Quesada, J. Santamaría, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3936 (1999). [4] M. Varela, D. Arias, Z. Sefrioui, C. León, C. Ballesteros, J. Santamaría. Phys. Rev. B 62 12509 (2000) [5] I. K. Schuller, M. Grimsditch, F. Chambers, G. Devane, H. Vanderstraeten, D. Neerinck, J.-P. Locquet, Y. Bruynseraede. Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 1235 (1990). + Financial support from CICYT grant nr.MAT99 1706E is acknowledged. Work at

  15. Effects of subduction and slab gaps on mantle flow beneath the Lesser Antilles based on observations of seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaphorst, David; Kendall, J.-Michael; Baptie, Brian; Latchman, Joan L.; Bouin, Marie-Paule

    2016-04-01

    Subduction is a key process in the formation of continental crust. However, the interaction of the mantle with the subducting slab is not fully understood and varies between subduction zones. The flow geometry and stress patterns influence seismic anisotropy; since anisotropic layers lead to variations in the speed of seismic waves as a function of the direction of wave propagation, mantle flow can be constrained by investigating the structure of these anisotropic layers. In this study we investigate seismic anisotropy in the eastern Greater and the Lesser Antilles along a subduction environment, including the crust and the upper mantle as regions of interest. We use a combination of teleseismic and local events recorded at three-component broadband seismic stations on every major island in the area to observe and distinguish between anisotropy in the crust, the mantle wedge and the sub-slab mantle. Local event delay times (0.21±0.12s) do not increase with depth, indicating a crustal origin and an isotropic mantle wedge. Teleseismic delay times are larger (1.34±0.47s), indicating sub-slab anisotropy. The results suggest trench-parallel mantle flow, with the exception of trench-perpendicular alignment in narrow regions east of Puerto Rico and south of Martinique, suggesting mantle flow through gaps in the slab. This agrees with the continuous northward mantle flow that is caused by the subducting slab proposed by previous studies of that region. We were able to identify a pattern previously unseen by other studies; on St. Lucia a trench-perpendicular trend also indicated by the stations around can be observed. This pattern can be explained by a mantle flow through a gap induced by the subduction of the boundary zone between the North and South American plates. This feature has been proposed for that area using tomographic modelling (van Benthem et al., 2013). It is based on previous results by Wadge & Shepherd (1984), who observed a vertical gap in the Wadati

  16. Clonal Structure, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, and Acquired AmpC-Type Cephalosporinases of Escherichia coli Populations Colonizing Patients in Rehabilitation Centers in Four Countries

    PubMed Central

    Izdebski, R.; Baraniak, A.; Fiett, J.; Adler, A.; Kazma, M.; Salomon, J.; Lawrence, C.; Rossini, A.; Salvia, A.; Vidal Samso, J.; Fierro, J.; Paul, M.; Lerman, Y.; Malhotra-Kumar, S.; Lammens, C.; Goossens, H.; Hryniewicz, W.; Brun-Buisson, C.; Carmeli, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The prospective project MOSAR was conducted in five rehabilitation units: the Berck Maritime Hôpital (Berck, France), Fondazione Santa Lucia (Rome, Italy), Guttmann Institute (GI; Barcelona, Spain), and Loewenstein Hospital and Tel-Aviv Souraski Medical Center (TA) (Tel-Aviv, Israel). Patients were screened for carriage of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) from admission until discharge. The aim of this study was to characterize the clonal structure, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and acquired AmpC-like cephalosporinases in the Escherichia coli populations collected. A total of 376 isolates were randomly selected. The overall number of sequence types (STs) was 76, including 7 STs that grouped at least 10 isolates from at least three centers each, namely, STs 10, 38, 69, 131, 405, 410, and 648. These clones comprised 65.2% of all isolates, and ST131 alone comprised 41.2%. Of 54 STs observed only in one center, some STs played a locally significant role, like ST156 and ST393 in GI or ST372 and ST398 in TA. Among 16 new STs, five arose from evolution within the ST10 and ST131 clonal complexes. ESBLs and AmpCs accounted for 94.7% and 5.6% of the ESC-hydrolyzing β-lactamases, respectively, being dominated by the CTX-M-like enzymes (79.9%), followed by the SHV (13.5%) and CMY-2 (5.3%) types. CTX-M-15 was the most prevalent β-lactamase overall (40.6%); other ubiquitous enzymes were CTX-M-14 and CMY-2. Almost none of the common clones correlated strictly with one β-lactamase; although 58.7% of ST131 isolates produced CTX-M-15, the clone also expressed nine other enzymes. A number of clone variants with specific pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ESBL types were spread in some locales, potentially representing newly emerging E. coli epidemic strains. PMID:23114774

  17. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  18. Slip partitioning in the Lesser Antilles arc: implications for seismic and volcanic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, N.; Leclerc, F.; Deplus, C.; Tapponnier, P.; Beauducel, F.; Jacques, E.; Beck, C.; Le Friant, A.; Boudon, G.; LeBrun, J.; Bazin, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is a region of high seismic and volcanic hazards exposed to large megathrust earthquakes along the subduction zone, to more local events within the arc and to destructive eruptions as in 1902 at Mount Pelee or in 1995 at Soufriere Hills of Montserrat. On November 21, 2004, the Guadeloupe archipelago was struck by a magnitude 6.3 superficial and very damaging earthquake. To better constrain the mechanisms of the recent deformation within the arc and its link with volcanic activity, several marine cruises were conducted since 1998 (AGUADOMAR, GWADASEIS and BATHYSAINTES). A lot of high-resolution data were acquired: Bathymetry, back-scatter images, Küllenberg cores, seismic reflection and chirp profiles. By combining them with onshore data, observations and measurements in the field, we have documented at several scales the active faulting between St Lucia and Saba, the northernmost emerged volcano of the arc. We have shown that the Lesser Antilles arc is crosscut by two main fault sets: arc perpendicular graben in the outer arc and a large en echelon system along the inner active arc. Volcanic complexes are crosscut by or emplaced within fault systems implying that faulting controls the emission of volcanic products. The Nevis volcano is growing on the hanging-wall of a large NE-dipping offshore normal fault probably responsible for the M6+ 1961 earthquake. Montserrat volcanic domes are aligned along a fissure set, parallel to large normal faults and Soufriere of Guadeloupe lies at the western tip of the Marie-Galante graben. At plate scale, the arc perpendicular fore arc graben and inner arc en echelon system are connected, forming a sinistral horsetail, east of the tip of the left lateral Puerto Rico fault zone that takes up the trench parallel component of convergence between the North American and Caribbean plates, west of the Anegada passage. Considering the newly published Caribbean North American Euler vector, the trench parallel

  19. Evaluation of exposure to organophosphate, carbamate, phenoxy acid, and chlorophenol pesticides in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean for both household and agricultural purposes. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds can cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure of pregnant women residing in 10 Caribbean countries to the following commonly used classes of pesticides in the Caribbean: organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, phenoxy acids, and chlorophenols. Out of 438 urine samples collected, 15 samples were randomly selected from each Caribbean country giving a total of 150 samples. Samples were analyzed for the following metabolites: six OP dialkylphosphate metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP)]; two carbamate metabolites [2-isopropoxyphenol (2-IPP) and carbofuranphenol]; one phenoxy acid 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); and five chlorophenols [2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)]. OP metabolites were consistently detected in ≥60% of the samples from Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, and Jamaica. Of the carbamate metabolites, 2-IPP was detected in seven of the 10 Caribbean countries with a detection frequency around 30%, whereas carbofuranphenol was detected in only one sample. The detection frequency for the phenoxy acid 2,4-D ranged from 20% in Grenada to a maximum of 67% in Belize. Evidence of exposure to chlorophenol pesticides was also established with 2,4-DCP by geometric means ranging from 0.52 μg L(-1) in St Lucia to a maximum of 1.68 μg L(-1) in Bermuda. Several extreme concentrations of 2,5-DCP were detected in four Caribbean countries-Belize (1100 μg L(-1)), Bermuda (870 μg L(-1)), Jamaica (1300 μg L(-1)), and St Kitts and Nevis (1400 μg L(-1

  20. Toxoplasmosis in the Caribbean islands: literature review, seroprevalence in pregnant women in ten countries, isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies with report of new T. gondii genetic types.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Geers, Régine; Su, Chunlei; Lee, Elise; Forde, Martin S; Krecek, Rosina C

    2016-04-01

    Little is currently known of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in the Caribbean. We investigated the prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies in 437 pregnant women from 10 English speaking Caribbean countries. Overall, antibodies (IgG) to Toxoplasma gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT, cut-off 1:6) were found in 174 (39.8 %) of 437 human sera; specifically 12 of 38 from Antigua-Barbuda, 26 of 52 from Belize, 9 of 50 from Bermuda, 29 of 49 from Dominica, 18 of 49 from Grenada, 16 of 47 from Jamaica, 5 of 15 from Montserrat, 8 of 44 from St. Kitts/Nevis, 24 of 45 from St. Lucia, and 27 of 50 from St. Vincent/Grenadines were seropositive. All IgG-positive sera were tested for IgM antibodies using the immunocapture method; all sera were negative for IgM antibodies. Additionally, tissues and sera of 45 dogs from St. Kitts were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies (IgG, MAT, 1:≥25) were found in 19 (42.2 %) of 45 dogs. Muscle samples (tongue, leg) of 19 seropositive dogs were digested in pepsin, and homogenates were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii were isolated from 6 dogs. T. gondii isolates were further propagated in cell culture. PCR-RFLP genotyping of cell culture derived tachyzoites using 10 genetic markers, SAG1, SAG2 (5' and 3' SAG2, and alt.SAG2) SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed that 4 isolates were ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2, and 2 were new genotypes #264 and #265. Review of 22 viable T. gondii isolates from chickens, dogs, and cats from Grenada and St. Kitts revealed that 1 isolate was type II, 13 were type III, and 8 were atypical. Thus, type III strains were predominant. Overall, the study revealed high prevalence of T. gondii in the Caribbean islands. PMID:26762861

  1. Excess Rainfall Product for the Caribbean Region - Developed by The CCRIF and Swiss Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkin, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Small island states exposed to natural hazards are often in the worst position to absorb the financial impact of natural disasters. In a moment, they can lose a significant portion of their GDP and not have the resiliency to bounce back. Several leaders pushed to build their own resiliency after suffering from four hurricanes in just one year - Charley, Frances, Ivan and Jeanne, all swept through the region in 2004 and caused losses in excess of US 4 billion. This push to build their own resiliency resulted in the creation of the Caribbean Catastrophic Risk Insurance Facility ("CCRIF"), a facility providing parametric earthquake and tropical cyclone insurance coverage to 16 Caribbean countries. Working well for the past 7 years, the CCRIF has paid out 8 times for a total of more than US 32 million. This dual protection against earthquake and tropical cyclone has become a well-known success globally. However, all stakeholders realized that considerable damage in the region is also caused by rainfall and flooding. This consistent realization was felt most recently, in December 2013, when Saint Lucia, St. Vincent and Dominica were ravaged by a torrential rainstorm, leaving several people dead, and causing massive damage to roads, infrastructure buildings and property. Due to this additional exposure, the Caribbean sought out ways to further build their own resiliency by requesting coverage for this specific third peril. For the past 2 years, Swiss Re has worked closely with the CCRIF to create an xsr product that can benefit the region now and going forward, as the impacts of climate change are felt. Excess rainfall is perhaps the most difficult peril of weather and climate modeling and there exists no scientific consensus on a methodology to underpin excess rainfall coverage. Its nature, prolonged and frequent, causes significant damage to small island states and the costs are only predicted to rise as the population and asset values increase and the climate changes

  2. New Perspective of Tsunami Deposit Investigations: Insight from the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami in Martinique, Lesser Antilles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, J.; Clouard, V.; Moizan, E.

    2014-12-01

    The recent devastating tsunamis having occurred during the last decades have highlighted the essential necessity to deploy operationnal warning systems and educate coastal populations. This could not be prepared correctly without a minimum knowledge about the tsunami history. That is the case of the Lesser Antilles islands, where a few handfuls of tsunamis have been reported over the past 5 centuries, some of them leading to notable destructions and inundations. But the lack of accurate details for most of the historical tsunamis and the limited period during which we could find written information represents an important problem for tsunami hazard assessment in this region. Thus, it is of major necessity to try to find other evidences of past tsunamis by looking for sedimentary deposits. Unfortunately, island tropical environments do not seem to be the best places to keep such deposits burried. In fact, heavy rainfalls, storms, and all other phenomena leading to coastal erosion, and associated to human activities such as intensive sugarcane cultivation in coastal flat lands, could caused the loss of potential tsunami deposits. Lots of places have been accurately investigated within the Lesser Antilles (from Sainte-Lucia to the British Virgin Islands) the last 3 years and nothing convincing has been found. That is when archeaological investigations excavated a 8-cm thick sandy and shelly layer in downtown Fort-de-France (Martinique), wedged between two well-identified layers of human origin (Fig. 1), that we found new hope: this sandy layer has been quickly attributed without any doubt to the 1755 tsunami, using on one hand the information provided by historical reports of the construction sites, and on the other hand by numerical modeling of the tsunami (wave heights, velocity fields, etc.) showing the ability of this transoceanic tsunami to wrap around the island after ~7 hours of propagation, enter Fort-de-France's Bay with enough energy to carry sediments, and

  3. The impact of a prominent rain shadow on flooding in California's Santa Cruz Mountains: A CALJET case study and sensitivity to the ENSO cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Neiman, P.J.; Kingsmill, D.E.; Persson, P.O.G.; White, A.B.; Strem, E.T.; Andrews, E.D.; Antweiler, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the California Land-Falling Jets Experiment (CALJET) are used to explore the causes of variations in flood severity in adjacent coastal watersheds within the Santa Cruz Mountains on 2-3 February 1998. While Pescadero Creek (rural) experienced its flood of record, the adjacent San Lorenzo Creek (heavily populated), attained only its fourth-highest flow. This difference resulted from conditions present while the warm sector of the storm, with its associated low-level jet, high moisture content, and weak static stability, was overhead. Rainfall in the warm sector was dominated by orographic forcing. While the wind speed strongly modulated rain rates on windward slopes, the wind direction positioned the edge of a rain shadow cast by the Santa Lucia Mountains partially over the San Lorenzo basin, thus protecting the city of Santa Cruz from a more severe flood. Roughly 26% ?? 9% of the streamflow at flood peak on Pescadero Creek resulted from the warm-sector rainfall. Without this rainfall, the peak flow on Pescadero Creek would likely not have attained record status. These results are complemented by a climatological analysis based on ???50-yr-duration streamflow records for these and two other nearby windward watersheds situated ???20 to 40 km farther to the east, and a comparison of this climatological analysis with composites of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis fields. The westernmost watersheds were found to have their greatest floods during El Nin??o winters, while the easternmost watersheds peaked during non-El Nin??o episodes. These results are consistent with the case study, that showed that the composite 925-mb, meridionally oriented wind direction during El Nin??os favors a rain shadow over the eastern watersheds. During non-El Nin??o periods, the composite, zonally oriented wind direction indicates that the sheltering effect of the rain shadow on the eastern watersheds is reduced, while weaker winds, less water vapor, and stronger stratification reduce the peak

  4. A new species of Nitocra Boeck, 1865 (Harpacticoida, Ameiridae, Ameirinae) from South Africa, with notes on its ecology and remarks on the status of Nitocra sewelli husmanni Kunz, 1976

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Samuel; Carrasco, Nicola K.; Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Nitocra Boeck, 1865, Nitocra taylori sp. n. is described from the St Lucia Estuary, Africa’s largest estuarine lake. It is also suggested that Nitocra sewelli husmanni Kunz, 1976 and Nitocra reducta fluviatilisGalhano, 1968 are granted full species rank as Nitocra husmanni stat. n. Kunz, 1976 and Nitocra fluviatilis stat. n. Galhano, 1968. Nitocra taylori sp. n. appears to be closely related to Nitocra husmanni. Unfortunately, the original description of the micro-characters of the species lacks the detail needed to make reliable comparisons between species of the genus Nitocra. The main differences observed are the number of spinules along the posterior margin of the anal operculum, length ratio of the exopod and endopod of the first swimming leg, shape of the outer spine on the male third endopodal segment of the third swimming leg, number of segments of the male antennule, relative length of the setae on the male baseoendopod of the fifth leg, shape of the male exopod of the fifth leg, relative length of the two setae of the male sixth leg, and shape of the female baseoendopod of the fifth leg. The current distribution of Nitocra taylori sp. n. is limited to the lake part of the estuary, an area which is most severely affected by the current freshwater deprivation crisis. During closed mouth conditions, these regions (South/North Lake and False Bay) are characterized by low water levels, high salinities and high turbidity levels. This suggests that Nitocra taylori sp. n. may favor these environmental conditions and the significant correlations found between the abundance of Nitocra taylori sp. n. and salinity and turbidity confirm this to a degree. Nitocra taylori sp. n. individuals are also able to withstand a wide range of fluctuations. They were recorded at turbidities ranging from 2 to 102 NTU, temperatures from 20.9 to 34.8 ºC and salinity levels ranging from 9.81 to 53.7 psu. However, in the current state of the

  5. Predictors of scientific understanding of middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strate, Joshua Matthew

    The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school student scientific understanding could be predicted by the variables: standardized 5th grade score in science, standardized 5th grade score in mathematics, standardized 5th grade score in reading, student attitude towards science, socioeconomic status, gender, and ethnicity. The areas of the comprehensive literature review were trends in science learning and teaching, research in the K-12 science education arena, what factors have influenced K-12 science education, scientific understanding, what research has been done on K-12 scientific understanding, and what factors have influenced science understanding in the K-12 arenas. Based on the results of the literature review, the researcher of this study examined a sample of middle school 8th grade students. An Attitude Towards Science Survey (SATS) Simpson & Oliver (1990) and a Survey of Scientific Understandings (Klapper, DeLucia, & Trent, 1993) were administered to these 116 middle school 8th grade students drawn from a total population of 1109 who attend this middle school in a typical county in Florida during the 2010- 2011 school year. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test each sub-hypothesis and to provide a model that attempted to predict student scientific understanding. Seven null sub-hypotheses were formed to determine if there were significant relationships between student scientific understanding and the abovementioned variables. The results of the tests of the seven null sub-hypotheses showed that the sub-hypothesis that involved socioeconomic status was rejected, which indicated that the socioeconomic status of a family does influence the level of scientific understanding of a student. Low SES students performed lower on the scientific understanding survey, on average, than high SES students. This study can be a source of information for teachers in low-income schools by recognizing potential areas of concern for low

  6. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Spreckels 7.5-minute Quadrangle, Monterey County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph C.; Brabb, Earl E.; Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Goss, Heather V.; Watkins, Sarah E.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction The Spreckels quadrangle lies at the north end of the Sierra de Salinas and extends from the Salinas Valley on the northeast across Los Laurelles Ridge south to Carmel Valley, an intermontane valley that separates the Santa Lucia Range from the Sierra de Salinas (fig. 1). The Toro Regional Park occupies the east-central part of the quadrangle, whereas the former Fort Ord Military Reservation covers the northwestern part of the area and is the probable locus of future development. Subdivisions largely occupy the older floodplain of Toro Creek and the adjacent foothills, with less dense development along the narrower canyons of Corral de Tierra and San Benancio Gulch to the south. The foothills southwest of the Salinas River are the site of active residential development. Geologically, the study area has a crystalline basement of Upper Cretaceous granitic rocks of the Salinian block and older metasedimentary rocks of the schist of the Sierra de Salinas of probable Cretaceous age. Resting nonconformably upon these basement rocks is a sedimentary section that ranges in age from middle Miocene to Holocene and has a composite thickness of as much as 1,200 m. One of the purposes of the present study was to investigate the apparent lateral variation of the middle to upper Miocene sections from the typical porcelaneous and diatomaceous Monterey Formation of the Monterey and Seaside quadrangles to the west (Clark and others, 1997) to a thick marine sandstone section in the eastern part of the Spreckels quadrangle. Liquefaction, which seriously affected the Spreckels area in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake (Lawson, 1908), and landsliding are the two major geological hazards of the area. The landslides consist mainly of older large slides in the southern and younger debris flows in the northern part of the quadrangle. This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general

  7. The evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies since z ~ 1 from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiley, I. M.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; De Lucia, G.; von der Linden, A.; Bamford, S. P.; Best, P.; Bremer, M. N.; Jablonka, P.; Johnson, O.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Noll, S.; Poggianti, B. M.; Rudnick, G.; Saglia, R.; White, S.; Zaritsky, D.

    2008-07-01

    We present K-band data for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS). These data are combined with the photometry published by Aragón-Salamanca, Baugh & Kauffmann and a low-redshift comparison sample built from the BCG catalogue of von der Linden et al. BCG luminosities are measured inside a metric circular aperture with 37kpc diameter. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the K-band Hubble diagram for BCGs exhibits very low scatter (~0.35) over a redshift range of 0 < z < 1. The colour and rest-frame K-band luminosity evolution of the BCGs are in good agreement with population synthesis models of stellar populations which formed at z > 2 and evolved passively thereafter. In contrast with some previous studies, we do not detect any significant change in the stellar mass of the BCG since z ~ 1. These results do not seem to depend on the velocity dispersion of the parent cluster. We also find that there is a correlation between the 1D velocity dispersion of the clusters (σcl) and the K-band luminosity of the BCGs (after correcting for passive-evolution). The clusters with large velocity dispersions, and therefore masses, tend to have brighter BCGs, i.e. BCGs with larger stellar masses. This dependency, although significant, is relatively weak: the stellar mass of the BCGs changes only by ~70 per cent over a two order of magnitude range in cluster mass. Furthermore, this dependency does not change significantly with redshift. We have compared our observational results with the hierarchical galaxy formation and evolution model predictions of De Lucia & Blaizot. We find that the models predict colours which are in reasonable agreement with the observations because the growth in stellar mass is dominated by the accretion of old stars. However, the stellar mass in the model BCGs grows by a factor of 3-4 since z = 1, a growth rate which seems to be ruled out by the observations. The models predict a dependency between

  8. Volcanoes: effusions and explosions. Interactive exhibits to understand how volcanoes work.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nostro, C.; Freda, L.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Baroux, E.

    2009-04-01

    , Colli Albani); some of them are reproduced with 3D models or described by short movies. The museum finishes with the visit of the volcanic survey hall of Stromboli, seeing - in real time - seismic data, three different webcams, geochemical and strain data. The INGV Museum had remarkably successful, reaching more than 7,500 children and adults yet in 13 days, also thanks to 30 volcanologists as very special guides. The Educational & Outreach Group: M. Pignone, A. Tertulliani, M. De Lucia, M. Di Vito, P. Landi, P. Madonia, M. Martini, R. Nave, M. Neri, P. Scarlato, J. Taddeucci, R. Moschillo, S. Tarquini, G. Vilardo, A. Bonforte, L. Calderone, F. Cannavò, W. De Cesare, P. Ficeli, S. Inguaggiato, M. Mattia, G. Puglisi, S. Morici, D. Reitano, D. Richichi, G. Scarpato, B. Angioni, F. Di Laura, S. Palone, D. Riposati.

  9. A new species of Nitocra Boeck, 1865 (Harpacticoida, Ameiridae, Ameirinae) from South Africa, with notes on its ecology and remarks on the status of Nitocra sewelli husmanni Kunz, 1976.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Samuel; Carrasco, Nicola K; Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the genus Nitocra Boeck, 1865, Nitocra taylorisp. n. is described from the St Lucia Estuary, Africa's largest estuarine lake. It is also suggested that Nitocra sewelli husmanni Kunz, 1976 and Nitocra reducta fluviatilisGalhano, 1968 are granted full species rank as Nitocra husmannistat. n. Kunz, 1976 and Nitocra fluviatilisstat. n. Galhano, 1968. Nitocra taylorisp. n. appears to be closely related to Nitocra husmanni. Unfortunately, the original description of the micro-characters of the species lacks the detail needed to make reliable comparisons between species of the genus Nitocra. The main differences observed are the number of spinules along the posterior margin of the anal operculum, length ratio of the exopod and endopod of the first swimming leg, shape of the outer spine on the male third endopodal segment of the third swimming leg, number of segments of the male antennule, relative length of the setae on the male baseoendopod of the fifth leg, shape of the male exopod of the fifth leg, relative length of the two setae of the male sixth leg, and shape of the female baseoendopod of the fifth leg. The current distribution of Nitocra taylorisp. n. is limited to the lake part of the estuary, an area which is most severely affected by the current freshwater deprivation crisis. During closed mouth conditions, these regions (South/North Lake and False Bay) are characterized by low water levels, high salinities and high turbidity levels. This suggests that Nitocra taylorisp. n. may favor these environmental conditions and the significant correlations found between the abundance of Nitocra taylorisp. n. and salinity and turbidity confirm this to a degree. Nitocra taylorisp. n. individuals are also able to withstand a wide range of fluctuations. They were recorded at turbidities ranging from 2 to 102 NTU, temperatures from 20.9 to 34.8 ºC and salinity levels ranging from 9.81 to 53.7 psu. However, in the current state of the system, salinity and

  10. The use of laser technology for the welding of the automotive tree mechanical clutch subject to the action of residual intrinsic magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, G.; Campanile, E.; D'Alonzo, M.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; Spera, M.; Lugarà, M.; Ferrandino, V.

    2007-05-01

    The material in issue is a case-hardening steel, type 20MnCr5 (UNI 8550), that has been previously undergone to a softening annealing process conferring therefore to the material one equal Hardness Brinnel 200 to 220 HB. This steel is very difficult to weld as by laser technology as by other welding technologies by fusion. It has been experienced a power at first laser of 1500 W (for requirements begins them of understanding of the process and the relative to you parameters to set up then) and of 3000 W, like previewed. They have been used a covering gas and a laser beam focusing mirror. All the welded tests have been at first subordinates to taken care of a visual examination to eye and then to an Image Acquisition System, computerized and connected to both metallographic and stereo microscope. Then cut to you with metallographic apparatus, workings to the abrasive papers and metallographic cloths, in order to end with a chemical etching of type NITAL. The best ones turn out to you have been then always visualize in shape of macro and micro-graphs, acquired with the same Image Acquisition System of type NIKON - LUCIA 4.82 vers. by LIM, to storage and automatically measure the cross-section area (melted zone) and then to calculate the efficiency level, on each joint and bead on plate, expressed in Dau unit, to verify the laser welding efficiency, correlated to the laser working parameters. To a better characterization of the produced joints many micro-hardness tests and relate family hardness trends and profiles have been carried out. At the end from the comparison of the values of ETE % and MR % (Model of Swift- Hook & Gick) and of the values of WE in Dau (Model DA.LU.), lead on some beads of the 20MnCr5, has turned out an ulterior and substantial validity and goodness (as well as easiness of employment and calculation of WE) of this last Model and Unit of Measure. In fact the values of ETE % and WE (in Dau) are appeared substantially similar, respecting both all

  11. Multiscaling properties of tropical rainfall: Analysis of rain gauge datasets in Lesser Antilles island environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Didier C.; Pasquier, Raphaël; Cécé, Raphaël; Dorville, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Changes in rainfall seem to be the main impact of climate change in the Caribbean area. The last conclusions of IPCC (2013), indicate that the end of this century will be marked by a rise of extreme rainfalls in tropical areas, linked with increase of the mean surface temperature. Moreover, most of the Lesser Antilles islands are characterized by a complex topography which tends to enhance the rainfall from synoptic disturbances by orographic effects. In the past five years, out of hurricanes passage, several extreme rainy events (approx. 16 mm in 6 minutes), including fatal cases, occurred in the Lesser Antilles Arc: in Guadeloupe (January 2011, May 2012 and 2013), in Martinique (May 2009, April 2011 and 2013), in Saint-Lucia (December 2013). These phenomena inducing floods, loss of life and material damages (agriculture sector and public infrastructures), inhibit the development of the islands. At this time, numerical weather prediction models as WRF, which are based on the equations of the atmospheric physics, do not show great results in the focused area (Bernard et al., 2013). Statistical methods may be used to examine explicitly local rainy updrafts, thermally and orographically induced at micro-scale. The main goal of the present insular tropical study is to characterize the multifractal symmetries occurring in the 6-min rainfall time series, registered since 2006 by the French Met. Office network weather stations. The universal multifractal model (Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991) is used to define the statistical properties of measured rainfalls at meso-scale and micro-scale. This model is parametrized by a fundamental exponents set (H,a,C1,q) which are determined and compared with values found in the literature. The first three parameters characterize the mean pattern and the last parameter q, the extreme pattern. The occurrence ranges of multifractal regime are examined. The suggested links between the internal variability of the tropical rainy events and the

  12. Simulation of Soil Quality with Riparian Forests and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Riparian forests are entrusted with important hydrological functions, such as riparian zone protection, filtering sediments and nutrients and mitigation of the amount of nutrients and xenobiotic molecules from the surrounding agro ecosystems. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0,2 and 0.2-0.4 m and its chemical (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, sum of bases-SB, bases saturation, V%, and aluminum saturation, m%); physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological attributes (basal respiration and microbial biomass) were determined. This work aimed to study the liner method of combining data, figures of merit (FoM), weighing process and the scoring functions developed by Wymore and asses the quality of the soil (SQI) by means of chemical, physical and microbiological soil attributes, employing the additive pondered model for two areas of riparian forest at different stages of ecological succession and an adjacent area cultivated with sugar cane, located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. Some hierarchical functions containing FoMs and their parameters were constructed, and from them weights were assigned to each FoM and parameter, in a way that cluster of structures with the same FoMs and parameters with different weights were formed. These clusters were used to calculate the SQI for all vegetal formations considering two types of soil (Oxisol and Podzol), in that way, the SQI was calculated for each combination of vegetation and soil. The SQIs values were usually higher in the oldest riparian forest, while the recent riparian forest showed the smallest SQI values, for both types of soil. The variation of values within a combination vegetation/soil was also different between all combinations, being that the set of values from the oldest riparian forest presented the lowest amplitude. It was also observed that the Oxisols, regardless of the vegetation, presented higher SQIs

  13. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  14. Anomalous Centrifugal Distortion in HDO and Spectroscopic Data Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, L. H.

    2015-06-01

    . Molec. Spectrosc.~195 (1999) 73. Messer, De Lucia, and Helminger, J. Molec. Spectrosc.~105 (1984) 139; and Baskakov et al., Opt. Spectrosc.~63 (1987) 1016. Parekunnel et al., J. Molec. Spectrosc.~210 (2001) 28 Janca et al., J. Molec. Specrosc.~219 (2003) 132. Tennyson et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer~111 (2010) 2160. Rothman et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer~130 (2013) 4.

  15. 5-14 μm Spitzer spectra of Themis family asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, J.; Hargrove, K.; Kelley, M.; Campins, H.; Ziffer, J.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Fernández, Y.; Rivkin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The Themis collisional family is one of the largest and best established families in the main belt. Composed of primitive asteroids, there is evidence that water is likely present in a large fraction of its members, either in aqueously altered silicates or in water ice reservoirs. The study of the abundance of water in the outer asteroid belt is important as it may be linked to the origin of Earth's water. Studying the Themis family can also help to constrain the compositional and thermal environment in the region of the solar nebula where these asteroids formed. Aims: Our aim is to constrain the composition and thermal properties of the surfaces of several Themis family asteroids. Methods: We present 5-14 μm spectra of 8 Themis family asteroids observed with Spitzer: (222) Lucia, (223) Rosa, (316) Goberta, (383) Janina, (468) Lina, (492) Gismonda, (515) Athalia, and (526) Jena. We determine their diameters, geometric albedos and beaming parameters using the near-Earth asteroid thermal model. Their emissivity spectra are studied in order to determine if they exhibit an emission plateau from 9 to 12 μm which has been observed in other primitive asteroids and attributed to fine-grained silicates (the Si-O stretch fundamental). Results: The derived mean albedo of our sample of Themis family asteroids is bar pV = 0.07 ± 0.02 = 0.07 ± 0.02, and the mean beaming parameter is bar η = 1.05 ± 0.10. The derived bar η value is close to unity, which implies that the infrared beaming is not significant, there is likely little night-side emission from the asteroids, and the thermal inertia is probably low. The emissivity spectra of at least 5 of our 8 asteroids show a 9-12 μm emission plateau with spectral contrast of 2-4%, similar but smaller than that observed in the spectra of Trojan asteroids and cometary dust. The plateau may be due to the surfaces having either small silicate grains embedded in a relatively transparent matrix, or from a very under

  16. Histomorphometric evaluation of intestinal cellular immune responses in pigs immunized with live oral F4ac+ non-enterotoxigenic E. coli vaccine against postweaning colibacillosis

    PubMed Central

    Kovšca Janjatović, A.; Lacković, G.; Božić, F.; Kezić, D.; Popović, M.; Valpotić, H.; Harapin, I.; Pavižić, Ž.; Njari, B.; Valpotić, I.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is the most common type of porcine postweaning colibacillosis (PWC). Among fimbriae of porcine ETEC strains the best studied family of fimbriae are the members of F4 adhesins, existing in at least three variants: ab, ac, ad. Active immunization against porcine PWC is difficult due to: i) ETEC strains are only one of the essential predisposing factors, ii) the success of vaccinal antigen uptake depends on the presence of enterocyte receptors for F4 adhesins, iii) the intestinal immune system may react with tolerance or hypersensitivity to the same antigens depending on the dose and form of the vaccinal immunogen, and iv) kinetics of the specific immune responses may be different in the case of F4 (earlier) and the other ETEC adhesins, particularly F18 (later). The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a live attenuated F4ac+ non-ETEC vaccine against porcine PWC by analyzing quantitative differences in the small intestinal lymphoid and myeloid cell subsets of immunized (with or without levamisole given as an adjuvant) vs control non-immunized pigs. Four week-old pigs were intragastrically immunized with a vaccine candidate F4ac + non-ETEC strain 2407 at day 0, challenged 7 days later with a virulent F4ac+ strain ETEC 11-800/1/94, euthanatized at day 13 and sampled for immunohistology. Non-immunized pigs received saline at day 0 and were processed as the principals. Immunophenotypes of lymphoid and myeloid cell subsets were demonstrated within jejunal and ileal mucosa by immunohistochemical avidinbiotin complex method and corresponding morphometric data were analyzed using software program Lucia G for digital image analyses. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with surface molecules on porcine immune cells such as CD3, CD45RA, CD45RC, CD21 and SWC3 enabled clear insight into distribution patterns and amount of these cells within the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) examined. The numbers of jejunal and

  17. Separation of Siamese twins in Bratislava.

    PubMed

    Siman, J; Payer, J; Brozman, M; Tanuska, D; Pevalová, L; Macek, M; Babala, J; Jursova, M; Cingel, V; Duchaj, B

    2004-01-01

    At the pediatric surgical clinic in Bratislava, in the year 2000, we successfully carried out the separation of Siamese twins, which we classified as "ischiopagus tetrapus"+. The pelvic ring, the gastrointestinal tract and the urogenital system were all malformed. There was a common terminal ileum and only a short segment of the large intestine with a blind end. This was a case of non-developed anal segment and rectum. Each of the twins had two kidneys and two commonly shared urinary bladders. There were two uteruses, which were both bicornuate in nature with a fallopian tube arising from each of the horns as well as an ovary. The orifices of both urinary bladders and those of the two uteruses joined into a common urogenital sinus. The external ostia of this sinus represented a bizarre fissure with a single skin fold similar to the labium majus, located dorsally at the point of fusion of the pelvic structures. The act of separation was performed in two stages. Separation of the gastrointestinal tract was urgent due to the severe ileus caused by aplasia of the anus and the rectum. This first stage procedure was performed on the third day of admission (24.2.2000) after the babies had spent a month in other health institutions. The definitive separation was carried out a month after the first procedure (28.3.2000) following the optimal stabilization of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The uropoietic and genital systems were separated. A new pelvic ring and a pelvic floor were formed. The anterior abdominal wall was reconstructed and plastic correction of the skin in the gluteal and perineal regions was performed. The colostomies are functioning well and the twins pass well-formed stools. Lucia has long dry intervals between mictions. Andrea has shorter dry intervals. The girls have recently celebrated their third birthday. Their mental development is excellent; they speak Slovak and Hungarian languages. They have a well-developed locomotive apparatus

  18. Prospective Work for Alma: the Millimeterwave and Submillimeterwave Spectrum of 13C-GLYCOLALDEHYDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haykal, Imane; Margulès, Laurent; Huet, Therese R.; Motiyenko, Roman; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Glycolaldehyde has been identified in interstellar sources. The relative abundance ratios of the three isomers (acetic acid) : (glycolaldehyde) : (methylformate) were estimated . The detection of 13C_1 and 13C_2 isotopomers of methylformate has been recently reported in Orion, as a result of the detailled labororatory spectroscopic study. Therefore the spectroscopy of the 13C isotopomers of glycolaldehyde is investigated in laboratory in order to provide data for an astronomical search. The instrument ALMA will certainly be a good instrument to detect them. Up to now, only the microwave spectra of 13CH_2OH-CHO and of CH_2OH-13CHO have been observed several years ago in the 12-40 GHz range. Spectra of both species are presently recorded in Lille in the 150-950 GHz range with the new submillimetre-wave spectrometer based on harmonic generation of a microwave synthesizer source, using only solid-state devices, and coupled to a cell of 2.2 m length The absolute accuracy of the line positions is better than 30 KHz. The rotational structure of the ground state and of the three first excited vibrational states has been observed. Two 13C enriched samples were used. The analysis is in progress. This work is supported by the Programme National de Physico-Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI-CNRS) and by the contract ANR-08-BLAN-0054 J. M. Hollis, S. N. Vogel, L. E. Snyder, et al., Astrophys. J. 554(2001) L81 R. A. H. Butler, F. C. De Lucia, D. T Petkie, et al., Astrophys. J. Supp. 134 (2001) 319 M. T. Beltran, C. Codella, S. Viti, R. Niri, R. Cesaroni, Astrophys. J. 690 (2009) L93. M. Carjaval, L. Margulès, B. Tercero et al., Astron. Astrophys. 500 (2009) 1109. K.-M. Marstokk and H. Møllendal, J. Mol. Struct. 16 (1973) 259. R. A. Motiyenko, L. Margulès, E. A. Alekseev et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 264 (2010) 94.

  19. The dykes and structural setting of the volcanic front in the Lesser Antilles island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadge, G.

    1986-12-01

    The orientations of dykes from many of the islands of the Lesser Antilles island arc have been mapped. Most of these dykes can be interpreted in terms of local or regional swarms derived from specific volcanoes of known age, with distinct preferred orientations. Dykes are known from all Cenozoic epochs except the Palaeocene, but are most common in Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene rocks. A majority of the sampled dykes are basaltic, intrude volcaniclastic host rocks and show a preference for widths of 1 1.25 m. Locally, dyke swarms dilate their hosts by up to 9% over hundreds of metres and up to 2% over distances of kilometres. The azimuths of dykes of all ages show a general NE-SW preferred orientation with a second NW-SE mode particularly in the Miocene rocks of Martinique. The regional setting for these minor intrusions is a volcanic front above a subduction zone composed of three segments: Saba-Montserrat, Guadeloupe-Martinique, St. Lucia-Grenada. The spacing of volcanic centres along this front is interpreted in terms of rising plumes of basaltic magma spaced about 30 km apart. This magma is normally intercepted at crustal depths by dioritic plutons and andesitic/dacitic magma generated there. Plumes which intersect transverse fracture systems or which migrate along the front can avoid these crustal traps. Throughout its history the volcanic front as a whole has migrated, episodically, towards the backarc at an average velocity of about 1 km/Ma. The local direction of plate convergence is negatively correlated with the local preferred orientation of dykes. The dominant NE-SW azimuth mode corresponds closely to the direction of faulting in the sedimentary cover of the backarc and the inferred tectonic fabric of the oceanic crust on which the arc is founded. A generalised model of the regional stress field that controls dyke intrusion outside of the immediate vicinity of central volcanic vents is proposed, in which the maximum horizontal stress parallels the

  20. Individualized Internal and External Training Load Relationships in Elite Wheelchair Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Mason, Barry; Rhodes, James; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The quantification and longitudinal monitoring of athlete training load (TL) provides a scientific explanation for changes in performance and helps manage injury/illness risk. Therefore, accurate and reliable monitoring tools are essential for the optimization of athletic performance. The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between measures of internal [heart rate (HR) and session RPE (sRPE)] and external TL specific to wheelchair rugby (WR). Methods: Fourteen international WR athletes (age = 29 ± 7 years; body mass = 58.9 ± 10.9 kg) were monitored during 18 training sessions over a 3 month period during the competitive phase of the season. Activity profiles were collected during each training session using a radio-frequency based indoor tracking system (ITS). External TL was quantified by total distance (m) covered as well as time spent and distance covered in a range of classification-specific arbitrary speed zones. Banister's TRIMP, Edwards's summated HR zone (SHRZ), and Lucia's TRIMP methods were used to quantify physiological internal TL. sRPE was calculated as the product of session duration multiplied by perceived exertion using the Borg CR10 scale. Relationships between external and internal TL were examined using correlation coefficients and the 90% confidence intervals (90% CI). Results: sRPE (r = 0.59) and all HR-based (r > 0.80) methods showed large and very large relationships with the total distance covered during training sessions, respectively. Large and very large correlations (r = 0.56 − 0.82) were also observed between all measures of internal TL and times spent and distances covered in low and moderate intensity speed zones. HR-based methods showed very large relationships with time (r = 0.71−0.75) and distance (r = 0.70−0.73) in the very high speed zone and a large relationship with the number of high intensity activities (HIA) performed (r = 0.56−0.62). Weaker relationships (r = 0.32−0.35) were observed

  1. Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Image Cubes of Mars during the 1999 Opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, John J.; Glenar, D.; Espenak, F.; Chanover, N.; Murphy, J.; Young, L.; Blass, W.

    1999-01-01

    and Fred Espenak from GSFC, Nancy Chanover, Jim Murphy and A. S. MurTell from NMSU, Leslie Young from BU, Diana Blaney from JPL and Dick Joyce from KPNO.

  2. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2012: FAIR NExt Generation of ScientistS 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcones, Almudena; Bleicher, Marcus; Fritsch, Miriam; Galatyuk, Tetyana; Nicmorus, Diana; Petersen, Hannah; Ratti, Claudia; Tolos, Laura

    2013-03-01

    forefront of research that is dedicated to the physics of FAIR. February 2013, Organizers of FAIRNESS 2012: Almudena Arcones, Marcus Bleicher, Miriam Fritsch, Tetyana Galatyuk, Diana Nicmorus, Hannah Petersen, Claudia Ratti and Laura Tolos Support for holding the conference was provided by: logos

  3. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2013: FAIR NExt generation of ScientistS 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Hannah; Destefanis, Marco; Galatyuk, Tetyana; Montes, Fernando; Nicmorus, Diana; Ratti, Claudia; Tolos, Laura; Vogel, Sascha

    2014-04-01

    research that is dedicated to the physics of FAIR. February 2014. Organizers of FAIRNESS 2013: Marco Destefanis, Tetyana Galatyuk, Fernando Montes, Diana Nicmorus, Hannah Petersen, Claudia Ratti, Laura Tolos, and Sascha Vogel. Support for holding the conference was provided by: Logos

  4. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs Mediating α-Synuclein Toxicity by Targeting Neuroactive-Ligand Receptor Interaction Pathway in Early Stage of Drosophila Parkinson's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yan; Liang, Xijun; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Dongdong; Wan, Chao; Gan, Zhenji; Yuan, Liudi

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder with pathological features including death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and intraneuronal accumulations of Lewy bodies. As the main component of Lewy bodies, α-synuclein is implicated in PD pathogenesis by aggregation into insoluble filaments. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying α-synuclein induced neurotoxicity in PD are still elusive. MicroRNAs are ~20nt small RNA molecules that fine-tune gene expression at posttranscriptional level. A plethora of miRNAs have been found to be dysregulated in the brain and blood cells of PD patients. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms and their in vivo functions in PD still need further investigation. By using Drosophila PD model expressing α-synuclein A30P, we examined brain miRNA expression with high-throughput small RNA sequencing technology. We found that five miRNAs (dme-miR-133-3p, dme-miR-137-3p, dme-miR-13b-3p, dme-miR-932-5p, dme-miR-1008-5p) were upregulated in PD flies. Among them, miR-13b, miR-133, miR-137 are brain enriched and highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. KEGG pathway analysis using DIANA miR-Path demonstrated that neuroactive-ligand receptor interaction pathway was most likely affected by these miRNAs. Interestingly, miR-137 was predicted to regulate most of the identified targets in this pathway, including dopamine receptor (DopR, D2R), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABA-B-R1, GABA-B-R3) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (Nmdar2). The validation experiments showed that the expression of miR-137 and its targets was negatively correlated in PD flies. Further experiments using luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-137 could act on specific sites in 3’ UTR region of D2R, Nmdar2 and GABA-B-R3, which downregulated significantly in PD flies. Collectively, our findings indicate that α-synuclein could induce the dysregulation of miRNAs, which target neuroactive ligand

  5. The Response of microRNAs to Solar UVR in Skin-Resident Melanocytes Differs between Melanoma Patients and Healthy Persons

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Jingfeng; Gastman, Brian R.; Morris, Nathan; Mesinkovska, Natasha A.; Baron, Elma D.; Cooper, Kevin D.; McCormick, Thomas; Arbesman, Joshua; Harter, Marian L.

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of melanocytes into cutaneous melanoma is largely dictated by the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Yet to be described, however, is exactly how these cells are affected by intense solar UVR while residing in their natural microenvironment, and whether their response differs in persons with a history of melanoma when compared to that of healthy individuals. By using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate a pure population of melanocytes from a small area of skin that had been intermittingly exposed or un-exposed to physiological doses of solar UVR, we can now report for the first time that the majority of UV-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) in the melanocytes of a group of women with a history of melanoma are down-regulated when compared to those in the melanocytes of healthy controls. Among the miRNAs that were commonly and significantly down-regulated in each of these women were miR-193b (P<0.003), miR-342-3p (P<0.003), miR186 (P<0.007), miR-130a (P<0.007), and miR-146a (P<0.007). To identify genes potentially released from inhibition by these repressed UV-miRNAs, we analyzed databases (e.g., DIANA-TarBase) containing experimentally validated microRNA-gene interactions. In the end, this enabled us to construct UV-miRNA-gene regulatory networks consisting of individual genes with a probable gain-of-function being intersected not by one, but by several down-regulated UV-miRNAs. Most striking, however, was that these networks typified well-known regulatory modules involved in controlling the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and processes associated with the regulation of immune-evasion. We speculate that these pathways become activated by UVR resulting in miRNA down regulation only in melanocytes susceptible to melanoma, and that these changes could be partially responsible for empowering these cells toward tumor progression. PMID:27149382

  6. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    is dedicated to the physics at FAIR. February 2015, Organizers of FAIRNESS 2014: Marco Destefanis, Tetyana Galatyuk, Fernando Montes, Diana Nicmorus, Hannah Petersen, Claudia Ratti, Laura Tolos, and Sascha Vogel. Support for holding the conference was provided by: Conference photograph

  7. The tumor suppressors p53, p63, and p73 are regulators of microRNA processing complex.

    PubMed

    Boominathan, Lakshmanane

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressors p53, p73, and p63 are known to function as transcription factors. They promote either growth arrest or apoptosis, depending upon the DNA damage. A number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to function as transcriptional targets of p53 and they appear to aid p53 in promoting growth arrest and apoptosis. However, the question of p53/p63/p73 regulating the miRNA processing complex has not been addressed in depth so far. Comparative/computational genomic analysis was performed using Target scan, Mami, and Diana software to identify miRNAs that regulate the miRNA processing complex. Here, I present evidence for the first time that the tumor suppressors p53, p63, and p73 function as both positive and negative regulators of the miRNA processing components. Curated p53-dependent miRNA expression data was used to identify p53-miRs that target the components of the miRNA-processing complex. This analysis suggests that most of the components (mRNAs' 3'UTR) of the miRNA processing complex are targeted by p53-miRs. Remarkably, this data revealed the conserved nature of p53-miRs in targeting a number of components of the miRNA processing complex. p53/p73/p63 appears to regulate the major components of the miRNA processing, such as Drosha-DGCR8, Dicer-TRBP2, and Argonaute proteins. In particular, p53/p73/p63 appears to regulate the processing of miRNAs, such as let-7, miR-200c, miR-143, miR-107, miR-16, miR-145, miR-134, miR-449a, miR-503, and miR-21. Interestingly, there seems to be a phenotypic similarity between p63(-/-) and dicer(-/-) mice, suggesting that p63 and dicer could regulate each other. In addition, p63, p73, and the DGCR8 proteins contain a conserved interaction domain. Further, promoters of a number of components of the miRNA processing machinery, including dicer and P2P-R, contain p53-REs, suggesting that they could be direct transcriptional targets of p63/p73/p53. Together, this study provides mechanistic insights into how p53, p63, and

  8. [Lectures from the tutorial courses at NATO--Advanced Study Institute pt. "Human biomonitoring after environmental and occupational exposure to chemical and physical agents" (Turkey, 9/23-10/3/1999)].

    PubMed

    Dobrzyńska, M M

    2000-01-01

    The NATO Science Programme joining in the celebration of 50th Anniversary of Founding of the NATO by organisation of NATO Advanced Study Institute "Human Monitoring after Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Chemical and Physical Agents", which was held in Tekirova-Antalya (Turkey), September 23-October 3, 1999. The director of ASI was dr Diana Anderson from TNO-BIBRA (UK). The members of Scientific Organizing Committee were also dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr A. Karakaya (Turkey), Dr P. O'Neill (USA), dr R. Bos (Netherlands), dr M. Lotti (Italy). It was a high-level tutorial course for scientists at the post-doctoral level from NATO countries and from NATO Cooperation Partner countries. NATO-ASI attended about 100 scientists from about 30 countries. There were 40 lectures, 20 oral presentations and 43 posters presented, 19 authors of posters were invited to additional short oral presentations. Subject of course concerned undesirable effects of chemical and physical agents on human health. The aim of NATO-Advanced Study Institute was the meeting of scientists working in different fields of science to present and discuss the knowledge and recent developments in the field of human monitoring. The majority of lectures concerned about biomonitoring of people exposed to genotoxic agents at work place and environment. Dr A. Autio (Switzerland) presented definitions of different kinds of bimarkers proposed by the Committee on Biological Markers in Environmental Health of USA Academy of Science/National Research Council. Dr D. Anderson (UK) introduced history of biomonitoring. The main lecturers on this topic were dr W. Au (USA), dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr M. Lotti (Italy), dr J. Timbell (USA), Dr E. Moustacchi (France). The following group of lectures presented by dr D. Anderson (UK), dr A. Wyrobek (USA), dr J. Bonde (Dennmark), dr H. Norppa (Finland) was regarded to male-mediated mutagenic effect in offspring induced by genotoxic physical and chemical agents

  9. Seafloor distribution and last glacial to postglacial activity of mud volcanoes on the Calabrian accretionary prism, Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceramicola, Silvia; Praeg, Daniel; Cova, Andrea; Accettella, Daniela; Zecchin, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are abundant along the eastern Mediterranean subduction zones, recording mud breccia extrusion over long timescales (106 years), but to date relatively few have been recognised in the northern Ionian Sea on the Calabrian accretionary prism (CAP). In the present study, the seafloor distribution and recent activity of MVs is investigated across a 35,600 km2 sector of the CAP using a regional acoustic dataset (multibeam bathymetric and backscatter imagery, integrated with subbottom profiles) locally ground-truthed by sediment cores. A total of 54 MVs are identified across water depths of 150-2,750 m using up to four geophysical criteria: distinctive morphology, high backscatter, unstratified subbottom facies and, in one case, a hydroacoustic flare. Fourteen MVs are identified from 3-4 criteria, of which five have been previously proven by cores containing mud breccia beneath up to 1.6 m of hemipelagic sediments (Madonna dello Ionio MVs 1-3, Pythagoras MV and the newly named Sartori MV), while nine others are identified for the first time (Athena, Catanzaro, Cerere, Diana, Giunone, Minerva, `right foot', Venere 1 and 2). Forty other as yet unnamed MVs are inferred from 1-2 geophysical criteria (three from distinctive morphology alone). All but one possible MV lie on the inner plateau of the CAP, landwards of the Calabrian Escarpment in a zone up to 120 km wide that includes the inner pre-Messinian wedge and the fore-arc basins, where they are interpreted to record the ascent from depth of overpressured fluids that interacted with tectonic structures and with evaporitic or shale seals within the fore-arc basins. The rise of fluids may have been triggered by post-Messinian out-of-sequence tectonism that affected the entire pre-Messinian prism, but Plio-Quaternary sedimentation rates and depositional styles support the inference that significant mud volcanism has taken place only on the inner plateau. Sedimentation rates across the CAP applied to a 12

  10. Camões e a cosmogonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os Lusíadas, escrito por Luis de Camões em 1572, é um poema épico renascentista e a visão Cosmogônica do autor é apresentada, principalmente, no último canto do poema, quando Tétis mostra ao Gama a Máquina do Mundo. A Cosmogonia de Camões neste poema reflete uma visão de uma época de transição, que ainda não incorporou os elementos da revolução Copernicana. É uma visão Grego- Ptolomaica e também medieval. O poeta guia-se pela tradução e notas feita por Pedro Nunes, inventor do Nonio, do Tratado da Esfera "De Sphaera" do Astrônomo Inglês John Holywood, mais conhecido pelo nome latinizado de Johannes Sacrobosco. Outra provável fonte de Camões, de acordo com Luciano Antonio Pereira da Silva em Astronomia de os Lusíadas, é o "Theoricae novae Planetarum" (1460) do astrólogo Alemão Jorge Purbáquio (1423 - 1461). A Astronomia de Os Lusíadas representa a ciência do tempo de Camões. Camões nunca emprega a palavra constelação e seu catálogo é bastante completo. A Máquina do Mundo tem a Terra no centro. Em redor, em círculos concêntricos, a lua (Diana), Mercúrio, Vênus, o Sol (Febo), Marte, Júpiter e Saturno. Envolvendo estes astros tem o firmamento seguido pelo "Céu Áqueo" ou cristalino, depois o 1o Móbil, esfera que arrasta todas as outras consigo. Este trabalho, multidisciplinar, serve tanto para ensinar aos alunos da Física como das Ciências Humanas, a concepção de mundo do renascimento de uma forma belamente poética em versos decassílabos Este trabalho também ajuda na apreciação do maior clássico da língua portuguesa e mostra como as Ciências e as artes, em geral, estão correlacionadas e refletem a visão de mundo da época em que foi produzida.

  11. Risk miRNA screening of ovarian cancer based on miRNA functional synergistic network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background miRNAs are proved to have causal roles in tumorgenesis involving various types of human cancers, but the mechanism is not clear. We aimed to explore the effect of miRNAs on the development of ovarian cancer and the underlying mechanism. Methods The miRNA expression profile GSE31801 was downloaded from GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) database. Firstly, the differentially expressed miRNAs were screened. Target genes of the miRNAs were collected from TargetScan, PicTar, miRanda, and DIANA-microT database, then the miRNA-miRNA co-regulating network was constructed using miRNA pairs with common regulated target genes. Next, the functional modules in the network were studied, the miRNA pairs regulated at least one modules were enriched to form the miRNA functional synergistic network (MFSN). Results Risk miRNA were selected in MFSN according to the topological structure. Transcript factors (TFs) in MFSN were identified, followed by the miRNA-transcript factor networks construction. Totally, 42 up- and 61 down-regulated differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, of which 68 formed 2292 miRNA pairs in the miRNA-miRNA co-regulating network. GO: 0007268 (synaptic transmission) and GO: 0019226 (transmission of nerve impulse) were the two common functions of miRNAs in MFSN, and hsa-miR-579 (36), hsa-miR-942 (31), hsa-miR-105 (31), hsa-miR-150 (34), and hsa-miR-27a* (32) were selected as the hub nodes in MFSN. Conclusions In all, 17 TFs, including CREM, ERG, and CREB1 were screened as the cancer related TFs in MFSN. Other TFs, such as BIN1, FOXN3, FOXK1, FOXP2, and ESRRG with high degrees may be inhibited in ovarian cancer. MFSN gave us a new shed light on the mechanism studies in ovarian cancer. PMID:24444095

  12. Near-Infrared hyperspectral image cubes of Mars during the 1999 opposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, J.; Glenar, D.; Espenak, F.; Chanover, N.; Murphy, J.; Young, L.; Blass, W.

    1999-09-01

    Fred Espenak from GSFC, Nancy Chanover, Jim Murphy and A. S. Murrell from NMSU, Leslie Young from BU, Diana Blaney from JPL and Dick Joyce from KPNO.

  13. Interplay between microRNA-17-5p, insulin-like growth factor-II through binding protein-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Habashy, Danira Ashraf; El Tayebi, Hend Mohamed; Fawzy, Injie Omar; Hosny, Karim Adel; Esmat, Gamal; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of microRNA on insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and hence on insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) bioavailability in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS Bioinformatic analysis was performed using microrna.org, DIANA lab and Segal lab softwares. Total RNA was extracted from 23 HCC and 10 healthy liver tissues using mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit. microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) expression was mimicked and antagonized in HuH-7 cell lines using HiPerFect Transfection Reagent, then total RNA was extracted using Biozol reagent then reverse transcribed into cDNA followed by quantification of miR-17-5p and IGFBP-3 expression using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to validate the binding of miR-17-5p to the 3’UTR of IGFBP-3. Free IGF-II protein was measured in transfected HuH-7 cells using IGF-II ELISA kit. RESULTS Bioinformatic analysis revealed IGFBP-3 as a potential target for miR-17-5p. Screening of miR-17-5p and IGFBP-3 revealed a moderate negative correlation in HCC patients, where miR-17-5p was extensively underexpressed in HCC tissues (P = 0.0012), while IGFBP-3 showed significant upregulation in the same set of patients (P = 0.0041) compared to healthy donors. Forcing miR-17-5p expression in HuH-7 cell lines showed a significant downregulation of IGFBP-3 mRNA expression (P = 0.0267) and a significant increase in free IGF-II protein (P = 0.0339) compared to mock untransfected cells using unpaired t-test. Luciferase assay validated IGFBP-3 as a direct target of miR-17-5p; luciferase activity was inhibited by 27.5% in cells co-transfected with miR-17-5p mimics and the construct harboring the wild-type binding region 2 of IGFBP-3 compared to cells transfected with this construct alone (P = 0.0474). CONCLUSION These data suggest that regulating IGF-II bioavailability and hence HCC progression can be achieved through targeting IGFBP-3 via manipulating the expression of mi

  14. Obituary: Preston F. Gott, 1919-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, Charles Wesley

    2003-12-01

    Scholarship Award in Physics and also endowed a scholarship in the Women's Studies Program, in memory of his first wife, long time TTU Economics Professor Edna Gott. He was a true gentleman and a friend to all who knew him. He will be sorely missed. He is survived by his wife, Orene, and his children, Eugene and Suzanne. His stepchildren are Ruth, Benita, and Diana (who pre-deceased him).

  15. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs

  16. MicroRNA profile in very young women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is rarely diagnosed in very young women (35years old or younger), and it often presents with distinct clinical-pathological features related to a more aggressive phenotype and worse prognosis when diagnosed at this early age. A pending question is whether breast cancer in very young women arises from the deregulation of different underlying mechanisms, something that will make this disease an entity differentiated from breast cancer diagnosed in older patients. Methods We performed a comprehensive study of miRNA expression using miRNA Affymetrix2.0 array on paraffin-embedded tumour tissue of 42 breast cancer patients 35 years old or younger, 17 patients between 45 and 65 years old and 29 older than 65 years. Data were statistically analyzed by t-test and a hierarchical clustering via average linkage method was conducted. Results were validated by qRT-PCR. Putative targeted pathways were obtained using DIANA miRPath online software. Results The results show a differential and unique miRNA expression profile of 121 miRNAs (p-value <0.05), 96 of those with a FDR-value <0.05. Hierarchical clustering grouped the samples according to their age, but not by subtype nor by tumour characteristics. We were able to validate by qRT-PCR differences in the expression of 6 miRNAs: miR-1228*, miR-3196, miR-1275, miR-92b, miR-139 and miR-1207. Moreover, all of the miRNAs maintained the expression trend. The validated miRNAs pointed out pathways related to cell motility, invasion and proliferation. Conclusions The study suggests that breast cancer in very young women appears as a distinct molecular signature. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a validated microRNA profile, distinctive to breast cancer in very young women, has been presented. The miRNA signature may be relevant to open an important field of research in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism in this particular disease, which in a more clinical setting, could potentially help to

  17. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  18. Conference Comments by the Editors

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E

    2009-01-01

    acknowledge our corporate supporters: Caen Nuclear, Eljen Technology, Hilger Crystals and GE Global Research. Finally, we thank the members of the local organizing committee: Diana Attila, Thomas Budinger, Joe Chew, Daniel Chivers, Rob Johnson, Laurie O'Brien, Donna Raziano, Emily Sause, and Brian Wirth for doing all the work that actually made this conference happen.

  19. The Response of microRNAs to Solar UVR in Skin-Resident Melanocytes Differs between Melanoma Patients and Healthy Persons.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jingfeng; Gastman, Brian R; Morris, Nathan; Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Baron, Elma D; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas; Arbesman, Joshua; Harter, Marian L

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of melanocytes into cutaneous melanoma is largely dictated by the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Yet to be described, however, is exactly how these cells are affected by intense solar UVR while residing in their natural microenvironment, and whether their response differs in persons with a history of melanoma when compared to that of healthy individuals. By using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate a pure population of melanocytes from a small area of skin that had been intermittingly exposed or un-exposed to physiological doses of solar UVR, we can now report for the first time that the majority of UV-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) in the melanocytes of a group of women with a history of melanoma are down-regulated when compared to those in the melanocytes of healthy controls. Among the miRNAs that were commonly and significantly down-regulated in each of these women were miR-193b (P<0.003), miR-342-3p (P<0.003), miR186 (P<0.007), miR-130a (P<0.007), and miR-146a (P<0.007). To identify genes potentially released from inhibition by these repressed UV-miRNAs, we analyzed databases (e.g., DIANA-TarBase) containing experimentally validated microRNA-gene interactions. In the end, this enabled us to construct UV-miRNA-gene regulatory networks consisting of individual genes with a probable gain-of-function being intersected not by one, but by several down-regulated UV-miRNAs. Most striking, however, was that these networks typified well-known regulatory modules involved in controlling the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and processes associated with the regulation of immune-evasion. We speculate that these pathways become activated by UVR resulting in miRNA down regulation only in melanocytes susceptible to melanoma, and that these changes could be partially responsible for empowering these cells toward tumor progression. PMID:27149382

  20. MR-02A GENOME-WIDE miRNA SCREEN REVEALED MIR-603 AS A MGMT-REGULATING miRNA IN GLIOBLASTOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Deepa; Ramakrishnan, Valya; Ng, Kimberly; Steed, Tyler; Nguyen, Thien; Futalan, Diahnn; Akers, Johnny; Tao, Jiang; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Carter, Bob; Chen, Clark

    2014-01-01

    MGMT expression is a critical determinant for therapeutic resistance to DNA alkylating agents. We previously demonstrated that MGMT expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-181d and other miRNAs. Here, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify MGMT regulating miRNAs. Candidate miRNAs were further tested for inverse correlation with MGMT expression in clinical specimens. We identified 15 candidate miRNAs. Comparison of these candidates to those predicted computational algorithms, including DIANA micro, Targetscan, miRanda, and microcosm showed poor agreement (3-22%), suggesting the need for empiric validation of in silico predictions. Transfection of miR-603, the top scoring candidate, suppressed MGMT mRNA/protein expression in vitro and in vivo; this effect was reversed by transfection with antimiR-603. miR-603 affinity-precipitated with MGMT mRNA and suppressed luciferase activity in an MGMT-3'UTR-luciferase assay, suggesting direct interaction between miR-603 and MGMT 3'UTR. miR-603 transfection enhanced the temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity of MGMT-expressing glioblastoma cell lines. Importantly, miR-603 mediated MGMT suppression and TMZ resistance were reversed by expression of an MGMT cDNA. miR-603 cooperates with miR-181d to bind to the 3'UTR of MGMT to suppress MGMT expression. In a collection of 74 clinical glioblastoma specimens, both miR-603 and miR-181d levels inversely correlated with MGMT expression. However, a combined index of the two miRNAs better reflected MGMT expression than each individually. These results suggest that MGMT is co-regulated by independent miRNAs. Our results further suggest that these miRNA may regulate MGMT by direct binding of MGMT 3'UTR or through modulation of proteins that regulate MGMT stability/degradation. Characterization of these miRNAs should contribute toward strategies for enhancing the efficacy of DNA alkylating agents.