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Sample records for diaphorobacter sp pca039

  1. Comparison of denitrification between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Srinandan S; Pande, Samay; Kapoor, Ashish; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

    2011-09-01

    Denitrification was compared between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp. in this study, both of which were isolated from activated sludge of a denitrifying reactor. Denitrification of both isolates showed contrasting patterns, where Diaphorobacter sp. showed accumulation of nitrite in the medium while Paracoccus sp. showed no accumulation. The nitrate reduction rate was 1.5 times more than the nitrite reduction in Diaphorobacter sp., as analyzed by the resting state denitrification kinetics. Increasing the nitrate concentration in the medium increased the nitrite accumulation in Diaphorobacter sp., but not in Paracoccus sp., indicating a branched electron transfer during denitrification. Diaphorobacter sp. was unable to denitrify efficiently at high nitrate concentrations from 1 M, but Paracoccus sp. could denitrify even up to 2 M nitrate. Paracoccus sp. was found to be an efficient denitrifier with insignificant amounts of nitrite accumulation, and it could also denitrify high amounts of nitrate up to 2 M. Efficient denitrification without accumulation of intermediates like nitrite is desirable in the removal of high nitrates from wastewaters. Paracoccus sp. is shown to suffice this demand and could be a potential organism to remove high nitrates effectively. PMID:21509603

  2. Diaphorobacter ruginosibacter sp. nov., isolated from soybean root nodule, and emended description of the genus Diaphorobacter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiu Li; Han, Meng Sha; Xia, Cong Cong; Ding, Shu Lan; Xu, Lin; Lin, Yan Bing; Wang, Li; Wei, Ge Hong

    2015-06-01

    A gram-negative bacterium designated BN30(T), which is motile with a polar flagellum, non-endospores forming, oxidase- and catalase-positive, was isolated from soybean root nodule. The organism is facultative anaerobic and surface-wrinkled rod. It can grow at 10-40 °C, pH 6-8 and 6 % (w/v) NaCl. BLASTn search based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain is closely related to Diaphorobacter aerolatus 8604S-37(T), Alicycliphilus denitrificans K601(T), Simplicispira limi EMB325(T), Diaphorobacter nitroreducens NA10B(T) and Diaphorobacter oryzae RF3(T), which all belonged to the family Comamonadaceae in class Betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain formed a firm clade with three Diaphorobacter species, being closest to Diaphorobacter aerolatus 8604S-37(T) with similarity of 98.64 %. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain BN30(T) and five reference strains ranged from 11.5 to 35.9 %. All the results of phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomical data (predominant fatty acids are C16:0, sum feature 3, sum feature 8 and C17:0 cyclo; major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol; major quinone is Q-8; G+C of total DNA is 65.2 %), physiological and phenotypic results supported that BN30(T) represented a novel species within the genus Diaphorobacter. The name Diaphorobacter ruginosibacter was proposed, and the type strain is BN30(T) (=ACCC06116(T) = DSM 27467(T)). PMID:25763990

  3. Diaphorobacter polyhydroxybutyrativorans sp. nov., a novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)-degrading bacterium isolated from biofilms.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tianlei; Zuo, Zhengyan; Gao, Junlian; Gao, Min; Han, Meilin; Sun, Lijiao; Zhang, Lanhe; Wang, Xuming

    2015-09-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively aerobic and rod-shaped strain, designated SL-205(T), was isolated from the biofilms of a denitrifying reactor using poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) as the sole carbon source in Beijing, PR China. A polyphasic taxonomic characterization was performed on the novel isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain SL-205(T) is a member of the genus Diaphorobacter. High levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were found between strain SL-205(T) and Diaphorobacter nitroreducens NA10B(T) (99.4%) and Diaphorobacter oryzae RF3(T) (98.5%), respectively. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SL-205(T) and D. nitroreducens NA10B(T) and D. oryzae RF3(T) were 57 ± 1% and 45 ± 1.5%, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain SL-205(T) was 66.8 mol%. The major fatty acids consisted of summed feature 3 (including C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c. Ubiquinone Q-8 was the only respiratory quinone; the polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and one uncharacterized phospholipid. We conclude that strain SL-205(T) represents a novel species of the genus Diaphorobacter for which the name Diaphorobacter polyhydroxybutyrativorans is proposed; the type strain is SL-205(T) ( = ACCC 19739(T) = DSM 29460(T)). PMID:26012582

  4. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens gen nov, sp nov, a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-degrading denitrifying bacterium isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Hiraishi, Akira

    2002-12-01

    Three denitrifying strains of bacteria capable of degrading poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were isolated from activated sludge and characterized. All of the isolates had almost identical phenotypic characteristics. They were motile gram-negative rods with single polar flagella and grew well with simple organic compounds, as well as with PHB and PHBV, as carbon and energy sources under both aerobic and anaerobic denitrifying conditions. However, none of the sugars tested supported their growth. The cellular fatty acid profiles showed the presence of C16:1omega7cis and C16:0 as the major components and of 3-OH-C10:0 as the sole component of hydroxy fatty acids. Ubiquinone-8 was detected as the major respiratory quinone. A 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the family Comamonadaceae, a major group of beta-Proteobacteria, but formed no monophyletic cluster with any previously known species of this family. The closest relative to our strains was an unidentified bacterium strain LW1 (=DSM 13225) (99.9% similarity), reported previously as a 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene degrading bacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization levels among the new isolates were more than 60%, whereas those between our isolates and strain DSM 13225 were less than 50%. The G+C content of genomic DNA of the new strains was 64 to 65 mol%. Based on these results, we concluded that the PHBV-degrading denitrifying isolates should be classified as a new genus and a new species, for which we propose the name Diaphorobacter nitroreducens. The type strain is strain NA10B (=JCM 11421=CIP 107294). We also propose to classify strain DSM 13225 as a genospecies of Diaphorobacter. PMID:12682868

  5. Nitrate removal performance of Diaphorobacter nitroreducens using biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. T.; Nagao, Y.; Hiraishi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Strain NA10BT and other two strains of the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Diaphorobacter nitroreducens were studied for the performance of solid-phase denitrification (SPD) using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and some other biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power in wastewater treatment. Sequencing-batch SPD reactors with these organisms and PHBV granules or flakes as the substrate exhibited good nitrate removal performance. Vial tests using cultures from these parent reactors showed higher nitrate removal rates with PHBV granules (ca. 20 mg-NO3-- N g-1 [dry wt cells] h-1) than with PHBV pellets and flakes. In continuous-flow SPD reactors using strain NA10BT and PHBV flakes, nitrate was not detected even at a loading rate of 21 mg-NO3-- N L-1 h-1. This corresponded to a nitrate removal rate of 47 mg-NO3-- N g-1 (dry wt cells) h-1. In the continuous-flow reactor, the transcription level of the phaZ gene, coding for PHB depolymerase, decreased with time, while that of the nosZ gene, involved in denitrificaiton, was relatively constant. These results suggest that the bioavailability of soluble metabolites as electron donor and carbon sources increases with time in the continuous-flow SPD process, thereby having much higher nitrate removal rates than the process with fresh PHBV as the substrate.

  6. Nitrate removal performance of Diaphorobacter nitroreducens using biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S. T.; Nagao, Y.; Hiraishi, A.

    2015-02-27

    Strain NA10B{sup T} and other two strains of the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Diaphorobacter nitroreducens were studied for the performance of solid-phase denitrification (SPD) using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and some other biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power in wastewater treatment. Sequencing-batch SPD reactors with these organisms and PHBV granules or flakes as the substrate exhibited good nitrate removal performance. Vial tests using cultures from these parent reactors showed higher nitrate removal rates with PHBV granules (ca. 20 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N g{sup −1} [dry wt cells] h{sup −1}) than with PHBV pellets and flakes. In continuous-flow SPD reactors using strain NA10B{sup T} and PHBV flakes, nitrate was not detected even at a loading rate of 21 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This corresponded to a nitrate removal rate of 47 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N g{sup −1} (dry wt cells) h{sup −1}. In the continuous-flow reactor, the transcription level of the phaZ gene, coding for PHB depolymerase, decreased with time, while that of the nosZ gene, involved in denitrificaiton, was relatively constant. These results suggest that the bioavailability of soluble metabolites as electron donor and carbon sources increases with time in the continuous-flow SPD process, thereby having much higher nitrate removal rates than the process with fresh PHBV as the substrate.

  7. Plasmids in Frankia sp.

    PubMed

    Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

    1983-07-01

    A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plasmids ranging in size from 7.1 to 32.2 kilobase pairs as estimated from agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. A total of 11 plasmids were detected. PMID:6863219

  8. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  9. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  10. Laser sculpting of atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunmei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-01-12

    Atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals were introduced by Linus Pauling to explain the nature of the chemical bond. Quantum dynamics simulations show that they can be sculpted by means of a selective series of coherent laser pulses, starting from the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atom. Laser hybridization generates atoms with state-selective electric dipoles, opening up new possibilities for the study of chemical reaction dynamics and heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:25257703

  11. Corynebacterium appendicis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A F; Steiner, U; Ludwig, W

    2002-07-01

    A lipophilic, coryneform bacterium isolated from a human clinical specimen was characterized by phenotypic and molecular-taxonomic methods. Chemotaxonomic investigations revealed the presence of cell-wall chemotype IV and short-chain mycolic acids consistent with the genus Corynebacterium. The isolate could be distinguished from other members of the genus Corynebacterium by positive urease and catalase tests as well as its failure to produce acid from carbohydrates. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that this isolate constitutes a distinct subline within the genus Corynebacterium, displaying >3.0% sequence divergence from other known Corynebacterium species. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that this isolate be classified as a novel species, Corynebacterium appendicis sp. nov., represented by strain IMMIB R-3491T (= DSM 44531T = NRRL B-24151T). PMID:12148623

  12. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain. PMID:13678040

  13. DADiSP processing guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    A guide for DADiSP software, intended for use by the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) Team during and after the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-1 mission, is presented. DADiSP is a Data Analysis and Display Software developed and marketed by DSP Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This guide is intended to be used in addition to the DADiSP Worksheet User Manual and Reference Manual which are supplied by the company with the software. Technical support for DADiSP is available from DSP at (617) 577-1133. Access to DADiSP on Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) EGSE is being provided to the LPE team during USMP-1 for off-line processing of SAMS data.

  14. Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Monika; Worliczek, Hanna; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated D-1,5a(T) and D-1,5b, were isolated from a medieval wall painting in the chapel of Castle Herberstein, Styria (Austria). The Gram-positive, heterotrophic, aerobic, spore-forming rods showed nearly identical whole-cell protein patterns, identical genomic fingerprints and identical physiological profiles, demonstrating their relationship at the species level. Both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan, possessed a quinone system comprising menaquinone MK-7 and had fatty acid profiles in which C(15:0) iso and C(15:0) anteiso were predominant. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of D-1,5a(T) showed the highest similarity (99.5%) to the sequence of Bacillus sp. LMG 20243, and Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T) was the next most closely related established species (96.5%). Other type strains, such as Bacillus fastidiosus DSM 91(T), Bacillus indicus SD/3(T), Bacillus cibi JG-30(T), Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T), Bacillus cohnii DSM 6308(T), Bacillus bataviensis LMG 21833(T) and Bacillus soli LMG 21838(T), shared 96.0-96.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with D-1,5a(T). The combination of physiological and chemotaxonomic traits distinguishes the two strains from those species sharing the highest sequence similarities (96.0-96.5%). On the basis of these characteristics and the phylogenetic position of strain D-1,5a(T) (=DSM 16534(T)=CCM 7228(T)), this strain is assigned as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:16166719

  15. 76 FR 56876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP), 9789 and 9789(SP) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is...

  16. SP-100 Advanced Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

  17. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)). PMID:17392194

  18. Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elke; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Three yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, C36T, C37 and C39, were isolated in the Medical Clinic for Small Animals and Ungulates at the University for Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Austria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain C36T was shown to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045T was the nearest relative (99.5 % sequence similarity). Other Pseudomonas species shared <97 % sequence similarity with strain C36T. The presence of Q-9 as the major ubiquinone, the predominance of putrescine and spermidine in its polyamine patterns and its fatty acid profile [i.e. the predominance of C(16 : 0), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or 2-OH C(15 : 0) iso), C(18 : 1)omega7c and the presence of 3-OH C(10 : 0), 3-OH C(12 : 0) and 2-OH C(12 : 0)] were in agreement with identification of this strain as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and the results of genomic fingerprinting clearly differentiated strain C36T from its phylogenetic relative P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain C36T represents a species that is distinct from P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. These data demonstrate that strain C36T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C36T (= LMG 21977T = DSM 15758T). Additionally, physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genomic fingerprints indicate that P. oleovorans ATCC 29347 may not be a member of the species P. oleovorans sensu stricto. PMID:15388721

  19. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction genes in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Erik; Cheng, Yating; Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Kyounghyun; Safe, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factor (TF) Sp1 is overexpressed in multiple tumors and is a negative prognostic factor for patient survival. Sp1 and also Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in cancer cells and in this study, we have used results of RNA interference (RNAi) to show that the three TFs individually play a role in the growth, survival and migration/invasion of breast, kidney, pancreatic, lung and colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing L3.6pL pancreatic cancer cells as xenografts were significantly decreased in cells depleted for Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 (combined) or Sp1 alone. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of changes in gene expression in Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells after individual knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 demonstrates that these TFs regulate genes and pathways that correlated with the functional responses observed after knockdown but also some genes and pathways that inversely correlated with the functional responses. However, causal IPA analysis which integrates all pathway-dependent changes in all genes strongly predicted that Sp1-, Sp3- and Sp4-regulated genes were associated with the pro-oncogenic activity. These functional and genomic results coupled with overexpression of Sp transcription factors in tumor vs. non-tumor tissues and decreased Sp1 expression with age indicate that Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction (NOA) genes and are attractive drug targets for individual and combined cancer chemotherapies. PMID:26967243

  20. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  1. Interplay of posttranslational modifications in Sp1 mediates Sp1 stability during cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-11-18

    Although Sp1 is known to undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, little is known about the possible interplay between the different forms of Sp1 that may affect its overall levels. It is also unknown whether changes in the levels of Sp1 influence any biological cell processes. Here, we identified RNF4 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1. From in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that sumoylated Sp1 can recruit RNF4 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that subjects sumoylated Sp1 to proteasomal degradation. Sp1 mapping revealed two ubiquitination-related domains: a small ubiquitin-like modifier in the N-terminus of Sp1(Lys16) and the C-terminus of Sp1 that directly interacts with RNF4. Interestingly, when Sp1 was phosphorylated at Thr739 by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 during mitosis, this phosphorylated form of Sp1 abolished the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Our results show that, while sumoylated Sp1 subjects to proteasomal degradation, the phosphorylation that occurs during the cell cycle can protect Sp1 from degradation by repressing the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Thus, we propose that the interplay between posttranslational modifications of Sp1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and keeps Sp1 at a critical level for mitosis. PMID:21983342

  2. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed. PMID:19620357

  3. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  4. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  5. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema

    Harper, Jason

    2014-06-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  6. SP-100 Reactor Subsystem Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Scott F.

    1994-07-01

    The SP-100 reactor subsystem consists of the pressure vessel, vessel internals, and fuel elements. Type A (standard) Nb-1Zr and rhenium materials development efforts related to fabrication of the vessel, vessel internals, and fuel cladding/liner have been completed. Type A and Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr loop fabrication has been successfully demonstrated by prototypic testing with flowing lithium at 1350 K for 1500 hr. Development of UN fuel has been completed, and the performance validated by irradiation testing to the full life (7 yr. full power) burnup of 6 atom %. Neutronic and hydraulic core performance have been validated by engineering mockup critical experiments in the Zero Power Physics Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, and detailed core hydraulic flow testing with water. Essentially all feasibility issues have been settled for the full life SP-100 reactor subsystem. Remaining SP-100 reactor subsystem development efforts are focused on further reducing mass by the use of Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr rather than Type A, and demonstrating fuel life for beyond full life to perhaps 9 atom % burnup.

  7. Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

    2014-06-01

    Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (μ'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher μ' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced. PMID:24736090

  8. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  9. Two New Species of Cryptococcus sp. and Candida sp. from Wild Flowers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Hong; Kang, Min-Gu; Ryu, Jin-Ju; Lee, Hyang-Burm; Kim, Chang-Mu; Kim, Ha-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Among 80 types of yeast isolated from wild flowers in Daejeon, Korea, two species that have not yet been identified by phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) genes and 26S rDNA sequences were identified as Candida sp. 44-C-1 and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1. Neither of the newly identified species formed ascospores, while Candida sp. 44-C-1 formed pseudomycelium and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1 did not. PMID:23323051

  10. Zinc Finger Independent Genome-Wide Binding of Sp2 Potentiates Recruitment of Histone-Fold Protein Nf-y Distinguishing It from Sp1 and Sp3

    PubMed Central

    Finkernagel, Florian; Stiewe, Thorsten; Nist, Andrea; Suske, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are grouped into families based on sequence similarity within functional domains, particularly DNA-binding domains. The Specificity proteins Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 are paradigmatic of closely related transcription factors. They share amino-terminal glutamine-rich regions and a conserved carboxy-terminal zinc finger domain that can bind to GC rich motifs in vitro. All three Sp proteins are ubiquitously expressed; yet they carry out unique functions in vivo raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Crucially, it is unknown whether they bind to distinct genomic sites and, if so, how binding site selection is accomplished. In this study, we have examined the genomic binding patterns of Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by ChIP-seq. Sp1 and Sp3 essentially occupy the same promoters and localize to GC boxes. The genomic binding pattern of Sp2 is different; Sp2 primarily localizes at CCAAT motifs. Consistently, re-expression of Sp2 and Sp3 mutants in corresponding knockout MEFs revealed strikingly different modes of genomic binding site selection. Most significantly, while the zinc fingers dictate genomic binding of Sp3, they are completely dispensable for binding of Sp2. Instead, the glutamine-rich amino-terminal region is sufficient for recruitment of Sp2 to its target promoters in vivo. We have identified the trimeric histone-fold CCAAT box binding transcription factor Nf-y as the major partner for Sp2-chromatin interaction. Nf-y is critical for recruitment of Sp2 to co-occupied regulatory elements. Equally, Sp2 potentiates binding of Nf-y to shared sites indicating the existence of an extensive Sp2-Nf-y interaction network. Our results unveil strikingly different recruitment mechanisms of Sp1/Sp2/Sp3 transcription factor members uncovering an unexpected layer of complexity in their binding to chromatin in vivo. PMID:25793500

  11. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    PubMed

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  12. SP-100 Control System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Jaikaran N.; Halfen, Frank J.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Syed, Akbar; Jiang, Thomas J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Otwell, Robert L.

    1994-07-01

    Recent work in lower power generic early applications for the SP-100 have resulted in control system design simplification for a 20 kWe design with thermoelectric power conversion. This paper presents the non-mission-dependent control system features for this design. The control system includes a digital computer based controller, dual purpose control rods and drives, temperature sensors, and neutron flux monitors. The thaw system is mission dependent and can be either electrical or based on NaK trace lines. Key features of the control system and components are discussed. As was the case for higher power applications, the initial on-orbit approach to criticality involves the relatively fast withdrawal of the control-rods to a near-critical position followed by slower movement through critical and into the power range. The control system performs operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic startup, shutdown, restart, and reactor protection.

  13. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  14. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saare, Mario; Hämarik, Uku; Venta, Rainis; Panarina, Marina; Zucchelli, Chiara; Pihlap, Maire; Remm, Anu; Kisand, Kai; Toots, Urve; Möll, Kaidi; Salupere, Riina; Musco, Giovanna; Uibo, Raivo; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients. PMID:26347895

  15. Structural and functional differences among human surfactant proteins SP-A1, SP-A2 and co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2: role of supratrimeric oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Barbero, Fernando; Rivas, Germán; Steinhilber, Wolfram; Casals, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    SP-A (surfactant protein A) is a membrane-associated SP that helps to maintain the lung in a sterile and non-inflamed state. Unlike SP-As from other mammalian species, human SP-A consists of two functional gene products: SP-A1 and SP-A2. In all the functions examined, recombinant human SP-A1 invariably exhibits lower biological activity than SP-A2. The objective of the present study was to investigate why SP-A2 possesses greater biological activity than SP-A1 and what advantage accrues to having two polypeptide chains instead of one. We analysed structural and functional characteristics of recombinant baculovirus-derived SP-A1, SP-A2 and co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2 using a wide array of experimental approaches such as analytical ultracentrifugation, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and fluorescence. We found that the extent of supratrimeric assembly is much lower in SP-A1 than SP-A2. However, the resistance to proteolysis is greater for SP-A1 than for SP-A2. Co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2 had greater thermal stability than SP-A1 and SP-A2 and exhibited properties of each protein. On the one hand, SP-A1/SP-A2, like SP-A2, had a higher degree of oligomerization than SP-A1, and consequently had lower Kd for binding to bacterial Re-LPS (rough lipopolysaccharide), higher self-association in the presence of calcium and greater capability to aggregate Re-LPS and phospholipids than SP-A1. On the other hand, SP-A1/SP-A2, like SP-A1, was more resistant to trypsin degradation than SP-A2. Finally, the importance of the supratrimeric assembly for SP-A immunomodulatory function is discussed. PMID:17542781

  16. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  17. Superhard sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Meng; Ma, Mengdong; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; He, Julong

    2016-05-01

    Four sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772). The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  18. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, L. T., Jr.; Womack, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  19. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-01-31

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compability between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  20. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Myroides sp.*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shao-hua; Yuan, Shu-xing; Qu, Hai; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Ya-jun; Wang, Ming-xi; Ming, De-song

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Myroides (Myroides spp.) are rare opportunistic pathogens. Myroides sp. infections have been reported mainly in China. Myroides sp. is highly resistant to most available antibiotics, but the resistance mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Current strain identification methods based on biochemical traits are unable to identify strains accurately at the species level. While 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing can accurately achieve this, it fails to give information on the status and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, because the 16S rRNA sequence contains no information on resistance genes, resistance islands or enzymes. We hypothesized that obtaining the whole genome sequence of Myroides sp., using next generation sequencing methods, would help to clarify the mechanisms of pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance, and guide antibiotic selection to treat Myroides sp. infections. As Myroides sp. can survive in hospitals and the environment, there is a risk of nosocomial infections and pandemics. For better management of Myroides sp. infections, it is imperative to apply next generation sequencing technologies to clarify the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in these bacteria. PMID:26984839

  1. Heptaketides with antiviral activity from three endolichenic fungal strains Nigrospora sp., Alternaria sp. and Phialophora sp.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Wei; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gao, Hao; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Peng, Tao; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 μM, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072

  2. Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. and N. ostovani sp.nov. (Acari: Camerobiidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Yazdanpanah, Shima; Masoudian, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Neophyllobius Berlese, 1886 are described: Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. collected from soil under Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae) in Markazi province and Neophyllobius ostovani sp. nov. from soil and rotten leaves of oak trees in Fars province, Iran. A key to all known Iranian and Turkish species of Neophyllobius is provided. PMID:24870646

  3. Expression of surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D in murine decidua and immunomodulatory effects on decidual macrophages.

    PubMed

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, Aghila Rani; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Marri, Eswari Dodagatta-; Kouser, Lubna; Jamil, Kaiser; Alhamlan, Fatimah S; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules that belong to the C-type lectin family. In lungs, they play an important role in the clearance of pathogens and control of inflammation. SP-A and SP-D are also expressed in the female reproductive tract where they play an important role in pregnancy and parturition. However, the role of SP-A and SP-D expressed at the feto-maternal interface (decidua) remains unclear. Here, we have examined the expression of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua at 17.5 (pre-parturition) and 19.5dpc (near parturition) and their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated decidual macrophages. SP-A and SP-D were localized to stromal cells in the murine decidua at 17.5 and 19.5dpc in addition to cells lining the maternal spiral artery. Purified pre-parturition decidual cells were challenged with LPS with and without SP-A or SP-D, and expression of F4/80 and TNF-α were measured by flow cytometry. On their own, SP-A or SP-D did not affect the percentage of F4/80 positive cells while they suppressed the percentage of TNF-α positive cells. However, simultaneous addition of SP-A or SP-D, together with LPS, reduced TNF-α secreting F4/80 positive cells. It is likely that exogenous administration of SP-A and SP-D in decidua can potentially control infection and inflammation mediators during spontaneous term labor and infection-induced preterm labor. Thus, the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua is likely to play a protective role against intrauterine infection during pregnancy. PMID:26421960

  4. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-18

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

  5. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

  6. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, Georgios; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kouser, Lubna; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Kishore, Uday; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain) on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP) genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and connexin 43 (CX43). In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one. PMID:26641881

  7. Regulation of Sp1 by cell cycle related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Alicia; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Roninson, Igor B.; Noé, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Sp1 transcription factor regulates the expression of multiple genes, including the Sp1 gene itself. We analyzed the ability of different cell cycle regulatory proteins to interact with Sp1 and to affect Sp1 promoter activity. Using an antibody array, we observed that CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 could interact with Sp1 and we confirmed these interactions by co-immunoprecipitation. CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 also activated the Sp1 promoter. Among the known Sp1-interacting proteins, E2F-DP1, Cyclin D1, Stat3 and Rb activated the Sp1 promoter, whereas p53 and NFκB inhibited it. The proteins that regulated Sp1 gene expression were shown by positive chromatin immunoprecipitation to be bound to the Sp1 promoter. Moreover, SKP2, BRCA2, p21, E2F-DP1, Stat3, Rb, p53 and NFκB had similar effects on an artificial promoter containing only Sp1 binding sites. Transient transfections of CDK4, Rad51, E2F-DP1, p21 and Stat3 increased mRNA expression from the endogenous Sp1 gene in HeLa cells whereas overexpression of NFκB, and p53 decreased Sp1 mRNA levels. p21 expression from a stably integrated inducible promoter in HT1080 cells activated Sp1 expression at the promoter and mRNA levels, but at the same time it decreased Sp1 protein levels due to the activation of Sp1 degradation. The observed multiple effects of cell cycle regulators on Sp1 suggest that Sp1 may be a key mediator of cell cycle associated changes in gene expression. PMID:18769160

  8. Benchmark physics experiments for SP-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, David N.; Carpenter, Stuart G.; Grasseschi, Gary L.; Smith, Dale M.

    A space nuclear power system (SNPS) benchmark reactor physics program was performed at Argonne's Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR). Two uranium fuelled, BeO reflected reactors were assembled to test 300 kWe conceptual designs considered for the SP-100. The major difference between configurations was the reactivity control concept. Program goals were to aid designers in evaluating SP-100 designs and provide guidance in defining a series of engineering mockup criticals to be performed in support of the ground engineering test. ZPPR-16 was a short program aimed at providing basic physics data for cores representing early SP-100 designs. All measurement results from the experimental program are available. Initial analysis, using standard deterministic methods, shows significant errors when compared against the measurements. Calculational difficulties are enhanced by the need to model a natural B4C/graphite room-return shield used in the ZPPR experiments.

  9. Comparison of Thraustochytrids Aurantiochytrium sp., Schizochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp., and Ulkenia sp. for production of biodiesel, long-chain omega-3 oils, and exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Lee Chang, Kim Jye; Nichols, Carol Mancuso; Blackburn, Susan I; Dunstan, Graeme A; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in coproducing biodiesel for transportation, as well as producing a feedstock for omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for use in nutraceuticals. In this study, we compared eight new endemic Australian thraustochytrid strains from the genera Aurantiochytrium, Schizochytrium, Thraustochytrium, and Ulkenia for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (EPS), in addition to biodiesel and LC-PUFA. Aurantiochytrium sp. strains readily utilized glucose for biomass production, and increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased biomass yield by an average factor of 1.7. Ulkenia sp. strain TC 010 and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 033 did not utilize glucose, while Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 utilized less than half the glucose available by day 14, and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 004 utilized glucose at 4 % w/v but not 2 % w/v of the culture suggesting a threshold requirement between these values. Across all strains, increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased total fatty acid methyl ester content by an average factor of 1.9. Despite an increasing literature demonstrating the capacity of thraustochytrids for DHA synthesis, the production of EPS from these organisms is not well documented. A broad range of EPS yields was observed. The maximum yield of EPS was observed for Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 (299 mg/L). High biomass-producing strains that also have high lipid and high EPS yield may be better candidates for commercial production of biofuels and other coproducts. PMID:24463839

  10. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Gaby S.; Chaudhari, Shobhana; Shady, Ahmed; Caballes, Ana; Hong, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. PMID:27247810

  11. Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov., isolated from wild Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujinaga, Yuta; Inoue, Kai; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi

    2013-05-01

    Four novel strains of members of the genus Bartonella, OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T), were isolated from the blood of wild-captured greater Egyptian jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) and golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). All the animals were imported to Japan as pets from Egypt, Thailand and the Netherlands. The phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (37.4 mol% for strain OY2-1(T), 35.5 mol% for strain BR11-1(T), 35.7 mol% for strain FN15-2(T) and 37.2 mol% for strain KS2-1(T)), and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that those strains belong to the genus Bartonella. Sequence comparisons of gltA and rpoB genes suggested that all of the strains should be classified as novel species of the genus Bartonella. In phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences of five loci, including the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes and the ITS region, and on the concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of three housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gltA and rpoB), all strains formed distinct clades and had unique mammalian hosts that could be discriminated from other known species of the genus Bartonella. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strains OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T) should be classified as representing novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. Type strains of Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are OY2-1(T) ( = JCM 17712(T) = KCTC 23655(T)), BR11-1(T) ( = JCM 17709(T) = KCTC 23909(T)), FN15-2(T) ( = JCM 17714(T) = KCTC 23657(T)) and KS2-1(T) ( = JCM 17706(T

  12. Cyanobactericidal effect of Rhodococcus sp. isolated from eutrophic lake on Microcystis sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2010-11-01

    A bacterium, which was observed in all cultivations of Microcystis sp., was isolated and designated as Rhodococcus sp. KWR2. The growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including four strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena variabilis, was suppressed by up to 75-88% by 2% (v/v) culture broth of KWR2 after 5 days. But KWR2 did not inhibit eukaryotic algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp. An extracellular algicidal substance produced by KWR2 showed a cyanobactericidal activity of 94% and was water-soluble with a molecular weight of lower than 8 kDa. PMID:20640876

  13. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  14. New anamorphic yeast species: Candida infanticola sp. nov., Candida polysorbophila sp. nov., Candida transvaalensis sp. nov., and Trigonopsis californica sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Candida and a new species of Trigonopsis are described based on their recognition from phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from large subunit ribosomal RNA, ITS1/ITS2 rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II. Candida infanticola sp. nov. (type strain...

  15. Lagenidium sp. Ocular Infection Mimicking Ocular Pythiosis

    PubMed Central

    Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. PMID:23740721

  16. Lagenidium sp. ocular infection mimicking ocular pythiosis.

    PubMed

    Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Kasetsuwan, Ngamjit; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-08-01

    This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. PMID:23740721

  17. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. (Amorphea, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Gorfu, Lydia A; Anderson, O Roger

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Cochliopodium isolated from freshwater at Arabia Lake in Lithonia, GA, USA is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp., previously labeled as "isolate Con1" in prior publications, has been shown to group within the genus Cochliopodium in our molecular phylogenetic analysis. Light microscopy and fine structure evidence indicates the new isolate not only shares characters of the genus but also unique distinctive features. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. is typically round when stationary; or oval to sometimes broadly flabellate or triangular in shape during locomotion, with average length of 35 μm and breadth of 51 μm. Fine structure evidence indicates C. arabianum n. sp. has tower-like scales, lacking a terminal spine, sharing high similarity with its closest relative C. actinophorum. However, the scales of C. arabianum n. sp. are unique in height and the breadth of the base plate. Both morphological and molecular data, including SSU-rDNA and COI, indicate that this new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species. PMID:25851131

  18. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  19. Evoluation of SP-100 System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, Alan T.; Fujita, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    The current phase of the SP-100 program was initiated in 1986 with the objectives of developing the technology for Space Reactor Power Systems (SRPS) in the 10-1000k. We power range and perfoming ground system tests of both nuclear and non-nuclear major assemblies.

  20. Nitrogen fixation in Asaia sp. (family Acetobacteraceae).

    PubMed

    Samaddar, Neeloy; Paul, Arundhati; Chakravorty, Somnath; Chakraborty, Writachit; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Chowdhuri, Debarati; Gachhui, Ratan

    2011-08-01

    The genus Asaia (family Acetobacteraceae) was first introduced with a single species-Asaia bogorensis and later six more species were described namely A. siamensis, A. krungthepensis, A. lannaensis, A. platycodi, A. prunellae, and A. astilbes. Acetobacteraceae family has been divided into ten genera but, only three of them include nitrogen fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Acetobacter, and Swaminathania. This article originated from our study primarily aimed to isolate new endosymbiotic nitrogen fixer among Acetobacteraceae during which we have isolated, for the first time in India, four different strains of Asaia sp. from three different sources: Michalia champaca flower, Anopheles mosquito, and ant Tetraponera rufonigra. All the endosymbiotic strains isolated possess the ability to fix nitrogen. Evidence for both nitrogenase activity and the presence of nifH gene in isolated Asaia sp. is presented. Asaia bogorensis (MTCC 4041(T)) and A. siamensis (MTCC 4042(T)), two of the validated type strains available from the repository, were tested positive for the presence of functional nitrogenase. The nifH gene sequences from these type strains were also confirmed and compared with other nitrogen fixing members of the family Acetobacteraceae. Our result corroborate with the previous reports that Asaia sp. are indeed widely distributed in nature but this is the first time demonstration of their functional nitrogenase activity. This study shows Asaia sp. as fourth genera of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the family Acetobacteraceae. PMID:21681635

  1. Scaling study for SP-100 reactor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. C.; McKissock, B.

    Several ways were explored of extending SP-100 reactor technology to higher power levels. One approach was to use the reference SP-100 pin design and increase the fuel pin length and the number of fuel pins as needed to provide higher capability. The impact on scaling of a modified and advanced SP-100 reactor technology was also explored. Finally, the effect of using alternative power conversion subsystems, with SP-100 reactor technology was investigated. One of the principal concerns for any space based system is mass; consequently, this study focused on estimating reactor, shield, and total system mass. The RSMASS code (Marshall 1986) was used to estimate reactor and shield mass. Simple algorithms developed at NASA-Lewis were used to estimate the balance of system mass. Power ranges from 100 kWe to 10 MWe were explored assuming both one year and seven years of operation. Thermoelectric, Stirling, Rankine, and Brayton power conversion systems were investigated. The impact on safety, reliability, and other system attributes, caused by extending the technology to higher power levels, was also investigated.

  2. The retinoblastoma gene product RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transcription by liberating Sp1 from a negative regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L I; Nishinaka, T; Kwan, K; Kitabayashi, I; Yokoyama, K; Fu, Y H; Grünwald, S; Chiu, R

    1994-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, RB, can either positively or negatively regulate expression of several genes through cis-acting elements in a cell-type-dependent manner. The nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma control element (RCE) motif, GCCACC or CCACCC, and the Sp1 consensus binding sequence, CCGCCC, can confer equal responsiveness to RB. Here, we report that RB activates transcription of the c-jun gene through the Sp1-binding site within the c-jun promoter. Preincubation of crude nuclear extracts with monoclonal antibodies to RB results in reduction of Sp1 complexes in a mobility shift assay, while addition of recombinant RB in mobility shift assay mixtures with CCL64 cell extracts leads to an enhancement of DNA-binding activity of SP1. These results suggest that RB is directly or indirectly involved in Sp1-DNA binding activity. A mechanism by which RB regulates transactivation is indicated by our detection of a heat-labile and protease-sensitive Sp1 negative regulator(s) (Sp1-I) that specifically inhibits Sp1 binding to a c-jun Sp1 site. This inhibition is reversed by addition of recombinant RB proteins, suggesting that RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transactivation by liberating Sp1 from Sp1-I. Additional evidence for Sp1-I involvement in Sp1-mediated transactivation was demonstrated by cotransfection of RB, GAL4-Sp1, and a GAL4-responsive template into CV-1 cells. Finally, we have identified Sp1-I, a approximately 20-kDa protein(s) that inhibits the Sp1 complexes from binding to DNA and that is also an RB-associated protein. These findings provide evidence for a functional link between two distinct classes of oncoproteins, RB and c-Jun, that are involved in the control of cell growth, and also define a novel mechanism for the regulation of c-jun expression. Images PMID:8007947

  3. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways. PMID:27250970

  4. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  5. Remote sensing data of SP mountain and SP lava flow in north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain and SP flow in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization and compared with surface and aerial photography, Landsat multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is brighter on direct-polarization K-band images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data.

  6. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Chang-Jin; Lee, Jae-Chan; Ju, Yoon Jung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2012-12-01

    Members of the actinomycetes family are a rich source of bioactive compounds including diverse antibiotics. This study sought to identify novel and non-toxic biofilm inhibitors from the actinomycetes library for reducing the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. After the screening of 4104 actinomycetes strains, we found that the culture spent medium (1 %, v/v) of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by 90 % without affecting the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa cells, while the spent media enhanced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 induced expression of phenazine, pyoverdine, pyochelin synthesis genes, and iron uptake genes in P. aeruginosa. The addition of exogenous iron restored the biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa in the presence of the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230, which suggests that the Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 strain interfered iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. Experiments on solvent extraction, heat treatment, and proteinase K treatment suggested that hydrophilic compound(s), possibly extracellular peptides or proteins from Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 cause the biofilm reduction of P. aeruginosa. Together, this study indicates that actinomycetes strains have an ability to control the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. PMID:22722911

  7. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  8. 76 FR 22694 - SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 12, 2011, SP 49 Pipeline LLC (``SP 49'') submitted a request for waiver of the requirement to file the FERC Form... Pipe Line Company's (``Chevron'') pipeline system and associated equipment, specifically the South...

  9. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  10. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  11. Sp6 and Sp8 transcription factors control AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning in limb development.

    PubMed

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C; Ros, Marian A

    2014-08-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6-/-;Sp8+/-) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  12. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  13. Sarcocystis sp. from cattle slaughtered in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Kubo, M; Itagaki, H

    2000-11-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was detected from cattle slaughtered in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The cysts were 3,400-4,400 x 198-238 microm in size and had the thick cyst wall which was 7 to 10 microm thick and provided with finger-like villar protrusions. The protrusions were 8-9.5 x 2-2.5 microm in size and had microtubules in the core. PMID:11129868

  14. Chlamydomonas sajao nov. sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Ralph A.

    1984-06-01

    A new species of Chlamydomonas, namely, C. sajao nov. sp. of the Volvocales, Chlorophyta was isolated from a duckweed growing near a ricefield in the vicinity of Guangzhou, China. This interesting unicellular green alga, similar to C. mexicana from Mexico, secretes quantities of extracellular mucilaginous polysaccharides, and may be employed in improving soil quality. The new species resembles C. waldenburgensis Moewus in most characteristics but differs in three important features.

  15. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  16. Sterols from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ(5), Δ(7) and Δ(5,7), were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ(5,7) sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays. PMID:21339959

  17. The homopentameric chlorite dismutase from Magnetospirillum sp.

    PubMed

    Freire, Diana M; Rivas, Maria G; Dias, André M; Lopes, Ana T; Costa, Cristina; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; González, Pablo J

    2015-10-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a b-type heme containing enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of chlorite into chloride plus dioxygen. This enzyme has gained attention because it can be used in the development of bioremediation processes, biosensors, and controlled dioxygen production. In the present work, Cld was purified from Magnetospirillum sp. cells cultured anaerobically with acetate/perchlorate until stationary phase. Biochemical, spectroscopic and X-ray crystallography methods showed that Cld from Magnetospirillum sp. is a ~140 kDa homopentamer comprising ~27.8 kDa monomers. Preliminary X-ray crystallography studies confirmed the quaternary structure and the presence of one b-type heme per monomer. The EPR spectroscopic signature of the as-purified Cld samples is affected by the buffer composition used during the purification. Potassium phosphate buffer is the only buffer that affected neither the spectral nor the kinetic properties of Cld. Kinetic studies in solution revealed that Cld from Magnetospirillum sp. decomposes chlorite at high turnover rates with optimal pH6.0. A temperature below 10 °C is required to avoid enzyme inactivation due to cofactor bleaching during turnover, and to achieve full substrate consumption. Cld kinetic parameters were not affected when kinetic assays were performed in the presence of air or under argon atmosphere, but chloride is a weak mixed inhibitor that modifies the EPR signal of as-prepared samples. PMID:26218477

  18. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromate using permeabilized Brevibacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shimei; Ge, Shichao; Zhou, Maohong; Dong, Xinjiao

    2015-07-01

    Bioremediation has been found to be a useful method for removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which is very toxic, from wastewater. Two strains of bacteria that were able to reduce Cr(VI) effectively were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil samples and identified as Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 could grow in Luria-Broth medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 1000 and 1600 mg/L, respectively, and they completely reduced the Cr(VI) in LB medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 200 mg/L within 72 h. Further analyses revealed that permeabilized K1 and D6 cells reduced Cr(VI) more effectively than did the resting cells. Triton X-100 was the best permeabilizing agent that was tested. The permeabilized cells of both strains could completely reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewater twice before needing to be replenished. The results suggested that these chromate-reducing bacteria are potential candidates for practical use biotreating industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) with Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 being the more effective bacterium. PMID:25881152

  19. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history. PMID:27054834

  20. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase. PMID:26340746

  1. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase. PMID:26340746

  2. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. PMID:23890544

  3. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed. PMID:26031294

  4. Sulfitobacter geojensis sp. nov., Sulfitobacter noctilucae sp. nov., and Sulfitobacter noctilucicola sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Eom, Mi Kyung; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-11-01

    Four Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strains, MM-124, MM-126, NB-68 and NB-77, were isolated from the coastal seawater or a region with a bloom of sea sparkle around Geoje island in Korea. The sequence similarity values of the 16S rRNA gene between the isolates and Sulfitobacter mediterraneus DSM 12244(T) ranged from 97.7 to 98.2%, and phylogenetic relationships suggested that they belong to a phylogenetic branch that includes the genera Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter. The isoprenoid quinone of all three novel strains was ubiquinone-10 and the major fatty acid was cis-vaccenic acid, as in other species of the genus Sulfitobacter. However, there were several differences in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics among the four strains and the reference species of the genus Sulfitobacter. Moreover, the average nucleotide identity values between the three sequenced isolates and the reference strains were below 76.33, indicating that genomic variation exists between the isolates and reference strains. Chemotaxonomic characteristics together with phylogenetic affiliations and genomic distances illustrate that strains MM-124, NB-68 and NB-77 represent novel species of the genus Sulfitobacter, for which the names Sulfitobacter geojensis sp. nov. (type strain MM-124(T) =KCTC 32124(T) =JCM 18835(T)), Sulfitobacter noctilucae sp. nov. (type strain NB-68(T) =KCTC 32122(T) =JCM 18833(T)) and Sulfitobacter noctilucicola sp. nov. (type strain NB-77(T) =KCTC 32123(T) =JCM 18834(T)) are proposed. PMID:25122614

  5. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. PMID:22225994

  6. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain. PMID:27088819

  7. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp2and sp3Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-01

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp2 bonding found in graphitic C and sp3 bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semi-metallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain.

  8. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  9. O-Linked N-acetylglucosaminylation of Sp1 interferes with Sp1 activation of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kihong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Ha, Chang Hoon

    Glycolysis, the primary pathway metabolizing glucose for energy production, is connected to the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) which produces UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a GlcNAc donor for O-linked GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAc), as well as for traditional elongated glycosylation. Thus, glycolysis and O-GlcNAc are intimately associated. The present study reports the transcriptional activation of glycolytic genes by the transcription factor Sp1 and the O-GlcNAc-mediated suppression of Sp1-dependent activation of glycolytic genes. O-GlcNAc-deficient mutant Sp1 stimulated the transcription of nine glycolytic genes and cellular production of pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Consistently, this mutant Sp1 increased the protein levels of the two key glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Finally, the mutant Sp1 occupied GC-rich elements on PFK and GAPDH promoters more efficiently than wild-type Sp1. These results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 suppresses Sp1-mediated activation of glycolytic gene transcription. PMID:26499076

  10. O-GlcNAc modification of Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors negatively regulates their transcriptional activities.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changhoon; Lim, Kihong

    2015-11-13

    The addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine or threonine modifies a myriad of proteins and regulates their function, stability and localization. O-GlcNAc modification is common among chromosome-associated proteins, such as transcription factors, suggesting its extensive involvement in gene expression regulation. In this study, we demonstrate the O-GlcNAc status of the Sp family members of transcription factors and the functional impact on their transcriptional activities. We highlight the presence of O-GlcNAc residues in Sp3 and Sp4, but not Sp2, as demonstrated by their enrichment in GlcNAc positive protein fractions and by detection of O-GlcNAc residues on Sp3 and Sp4 co-expressed in Escherichia coli together with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) using an O-GlcNAc-specific antibody. Deletion mutants of Sp3 and Sp4 indicate that the majority of O-GlcNAc sites reside in their N-terminal transactivation domain. Overall, using reporter gene assays and co-immunoprecipitations, we demonstrate a functional inhibitory role of O-GlcNAc modifications in Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors. Thereby, our study strengthens the current notion that O-GlcNAc modification is an important regulator of protein interactome. PMID:26431879

  11. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-09-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

  12. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  13. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    SciTech Connect

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Kirpich, A.S.; Murata, R.; Smith, M.A.; Stephen, J.D. )

    1993-01-10

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kW[sub e] system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW[sub 2], Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kW[sub e] in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  14. SP-100, a project manager's view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, Vincent C.

    1983-01-01

    Born to meet the special needs of America's space effort, the SP-100 Program testifies to the cooperation among government agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are working together to produce a 100-kW power system for use in outer space. At this point in the effort, it is appropriate to review: The approach to meet program goals; the status of activities of the Project Office, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and, because this is a meeting on materials, answers beings developed by the Project Office to vital questions on refractory alloy technology.

  15. Succinylated Apoptolidins from Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Fotso, Serge; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Shahab, Salmah; Santosa, Dwi Andreas; Ishmael, Jane E; Proteau, Philip J; Zabriskie, T Mark; Mahmud, Taifo

    2015-05-15

    Two new apoptolidins, 2'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (11) and 3'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (12), were isolated from the culture broth of an Indonesian Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242. These compounds inhibit the proliferation and viability of human H292 and HeLa cells. However, in contrast to apoptolidin A (1), they do not inhibit cellular respiration in H292 cells. It is proposed that apoptolidins are produced and secreted in their succinylated forms and 1 is the hydrolysis product of 11 and 12. PMID:25945812

  16. Superoxide radical production by sponges Sycon sp.

    PubMed

    Peskin, A V; Labas, Y A; Tikhonov, A N

    1998-08-28

    Using the catechol Tiron as an O2-. scavenger, we showed that sea sponges (Sycon sp.) produce superoxide radicals in sea water at a high rate without any stimuli added. The rate of O2-. outflow from sponges to their water surroundings reaches a value of 0.5 nmol/min per sponge at pH 6.5. The generation of O2-. was inhibited by Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and restored by the addition of KCN. We also confirmed the abiotic production of O2-. in sea water, detected earlier with a different method by Petasne and Zika [Nature 325 (1987) 516-518]. PMID:9738478

  17. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1990-07-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  18. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  19. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  20. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  1. Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. and Zelinkaderes brightae sp. nov. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Martin V.; Heiner, Iben; Ziemer, Ole; Neuhaus, Birger

    2007-12-01

    One new kinorhynch genus and species and one new species from the genus Zelinkaderes are described from sandy sediment off Fort Pierce, Florida. The new genus and species, Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the first trunk segment consisting of a closed ring, the second segment of a bent tergal plate with a midventral articulation and the following nine segments consisting of a tergal and two sternal plates. Cuspidate spines are not present, but flexible tubules are located on several segments, and in particular concentrated on the ventral side of the second segment. Middorsal spines are present on all trunk segments and are alternatingly offset to a position slightly lateral to the middorsal line. Zelinkaderes brightae nov. sp. is characterized by its spine formula in having middorsal spines on trunk segments 4, 6 and 8-11, lateroventral acicular spines on segment 2, lateral accessory cuspidate spines on segments 2 and 8, ventrolateral cuspidate spines on segments 4-6 and 9, lateroventral acicular spines present on segments 8 and 9, and midterminal, lateral terminal and lateral terminal accessory spines on segment 11. The spine formula of Z. brightae nov. sp. places it in a position in between Z. submersus and a clade consisting of Z. klepali and Z. floridensis. The new findings on Z. brightae nov. sp. have led us to propose an emended diagnosis for the genus.

  2. Coexisting bacterial populations responsible for multiphasic mineralization kinetics in soil. [Janthinobacterium sp. Rhodococcus sp

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.K.; Gier, M.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to study populations of indigenous microorganisms capable of mineralizing 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in two soils. Previous kinetic analyses indicated the presence of two coexisting populations of DNP-mineralizing microorganisms in a forest soil (soil 1). Studies in which eucaryotic and procaryotic inhibitors were added to this soil indicated that both populations were bacterial. Most-probable-number counts with media containing different concentrations of DNP indicated that more bacteria could mineralize low concentrations of DNP than could metabolize high concentrations of it. Enrichments with varying concentrations of DNP and various combinations of inhibitors consistently resulted in the isolation of the same two species of bacteria from soil 1. This soil contained a large number and variety of fungi, but no fungi capable of mineralizing DNP were isolated. The two bacterial isolates were identified as a Janthinobacterium sp. and a Rhodococcus sp. The Janthinobacterium sp. had a low {mu}{sub max} and a low K{sub m} for DNP mineralization, whereas the Rhodococcus sp. had much higher values for both parameters. These differences between the two species of bacteria were similar to differences seen when soil was incubated with different concentrations of DNP. Values for {mu}{sub max} from soil incubations were similar to {mu}{sub max} values obtained in pure culture studies. In contrast, K{sub s} and K{sub m} values showed greater variation between soil and pure culture studies.

  3. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8807

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady D.; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-12-01

    Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Microcosm experiments were performed in which Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and bicarbonate concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Disappearance of soluble calcium was used as an indicator of CaCO3 formation; results from metabolically active microcosms were compared to controls with no cells or no carbonate added. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment with approximately 18.6 mg of calcium in the solid phase. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of calcium was removed in the solid phase. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. Removal of inorganic carbon by fixation into biomass was insignificant compared to the mass of inorganic carbon removed by incorporation into the growing CaCO3 solid.

  4. Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov., two yeast species isolated from natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Hagler, Allen N; Ribeiro, José R A; Pinotti, T; Brandão, Luciana R; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lins, U; Lee, Ching-Fu; Hsieh, Chin-Wen; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-08-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated during three independent studies of yeasts associated with natural substrates in Brazil and Taiwan. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that these novel species belong to the Wickerhamiella clade. The first was isolated from freshwater and a leaf of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) in Brazil and from leaves of Wedelia biflora in Taiwan. Described here as Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov., it differs by 56 nucleotide substitutions and 19 gaps in the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene from Candida sorbophila, the least divergent species. The second species, named Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov., was isolated from leaves and the rhizosphere of sugar cane collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species differs by 54 nucleotide substitutions and nine gaps in the D1/D2 domains from Candida drosophilae, its least divergent relative. The type strains are Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov. IMUFRJ 52096(T) (= CBS 12417(T) = DBVPG 8032(T)) and Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov. IMUFRJ 52102(T) (= CBS 12419(T) = DBVPG 8034(T)). PMID:23710055

  5. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments are defined. SP-100 payloads will float 100 V negative of the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. Choice of proper geometries and materials will prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in LEO. Care in selecting surface coatings will prevent dielectric breakdown. Sputtering is a concern for long-duration LEO missions. Atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials will be tested in ground and flight tests. Evaluation of SP-100 in lunar and planetary environments has begun. The report of a recent workshop on Chemical and Electrical Interactions on Mars identified many of the primary interactions.

  6. IBM SP high-performance networking with a GRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, J.P.

    1999-05-27

    Increasing use of highly distributed applications, demand for faster data exchange, and highly parallel applications can push the limits of conventional external networking for IBM SP sites. In technical computing applications we have observed a growing use of a pipeline of hosts and networks collaborating to collect, process, and visualize large amounts of realtime data. The GRF, a high-performance IP switch from Ascend and IBM, is the first backbone network switch to offer a media card that can directly connect to an SP Switch. This enables switch attached hosts in an SP complex to communicate at near SP Switch speeds with other GRF attached hosts and networks.

  7. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied. PMID:20175511

  8. Arsenite Oxidase from Ralstonia sp. 22

    PubMed Central

    Lieutaud, Aurélie; van Lis, Robert; Duval, Simon; Capowiez, Line; Muller, Daniel; Lebrun, Régine; Lignon, Sabrina; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Lett, Marie-Claire; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We characterized the aro arsenite oxidation system in the novel strain Ralstonia sp. 22, a β-proteobacterium isolated from soil samples of the Salsigne mine in southern France. The inducible aro system consists of a heterodimeric membrane-associated enzyme reacting with a dedicated soluble cytochrome c554. Our biochemical results suggest that the weak association of the enzyme to the membrane probably arises from a still unknown interaction partner. Analysis of the phylogeny of the aro gene cluster revealed that it results from a lateral gene transfer from a species closely related to Achromobacter sp. SY8. This constitutes the first clear cut case of such a transfer in the Aro phylogeny. The biochemical study of the enzyme demonstrates that it can accommodate in vitro various cytochromes, two of which, c552 and c554, are from the parent species. Cytochrome c552 belongs to the sox and not the aro system. Kinetic studies furthermore established that sulfite and sulfide, substrates of the sox system, are both inhibitors of Aro activity. These results reinforce the idea that sulfur and arsenic metabolism are linked. PMID:20421652

  9. The ANL/IBM SP scheduling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lifka, D.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately five years ago scientists discovered that modern UNLX workstations connected with ethernet and fiber networks could provide enough computational performance to compete with the supercomputers. As this concept became increasingly popular, the need for distributed queuing and scheduler systems became apparent. Systems such as DQS from Florida State University were developed and worked very well. Today however, supercomputers such as Argonne National Laboratory`s IBM SP system can provide more CPU and networking speed than can be obtained from these networks of workstations. Nevertheless, because modern super computers look like clusters of workstations developers felt that the scheduling systems previously used on clusters of workstations should still apply. After trying to apply some of these scheduling systems to Argonne`s SP environment it became obvious that these two computer environments have very different scheduling needs. Recognizing this need, and realizing that no one has addressed it, we at Argonne developed a new scheduling system. The approach taken in creating this system was unique in that user input and interaction were encouraged throughout the development process. Thus a scheduler was built that actually works the way the users want it to.

  10. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency. PMID:20842292

  11. SP-100 Space Reactor Power System readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, A. T.; Matteo, D. N.; Bailey, H. S.

    The SP-100 Space Reactor Power System is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An effective infrastructure of Industry, National Laboratories and Government agencies has made substantial progress since the 1988 System Design Review. Hardware development and testing has progressed to the point of resolving all key technical feasibility issues. The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety, performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996 - 1997 time frame.

  12. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia-Min; Shen, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Song-Xi; Qi, Dan-Dan; Luo, Li; Ren, Xiao-Xuan; Ji, Bo; Zhang, Lu-Fen; Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation). Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations. PMID:24665334

  13. Chryseobacterium zeae sp. nov., Chryseobacterium arachidis sp. nov., and Chryseobacterium geocarposphaerae sp. nov. isolated from the rhizosphere environment.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; McInroy, John A; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2014-03-01

    Four yellow pigmented strains (91A-561(T), 91A-576, 91A-593(T), and JM-1085(T)) isolated from plant materials, showed 97.2-98.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities among each other and were studied in a polyphasic approach for their taxonomic allocation. Cells of all four isolates were rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the four bacteria had highest sequence similarities to Chryseobacterium formosense (97.2-98.7 %), Chryseobacterium gwangjuense (97.1-97.8 %), and Chryseobacterium defluvii (94.6-98.0 %). Sequence similarities to all other Chryseobacterium species were below 97.5 %. Fatty acid analysis of the four strains showed Chryseobacterium typical profiles consisting of major fatty acids C15:0 iso, C15:0 iso 2-OH/C16:1 ω7c, C17:1 iso ω9c, and C17:0 iso 3-OH, but showed also slight differences. DNA-DNA hybridizations with type strains of C. gwangjuense, C. formosense, and C. defluvii resulted in values below 70 %. Isolates 91A-561(T) and 91A-576 showed DNA-DNA hybridization values >80 % indicating that they belonged to the same species; but nucleic acid fingerprinting showed that the two isolates represent two different strains. DNA-DNA hybridization results and the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed, that both strains 91A-561(T) and 91A-576 represent a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium geocarposphaerae sp. nov. (type strain 91A-561(T)=LMG 27811(T)=CCM 8488(T)) is proposed. Strains 91A-593(T) and JM-1085(T) represent two additional new species for which we propose the names Chyrseobacterium zeae sp. nov. (type strain JM-1085(T)=LMG 27809(T), =CCM 8491(T)) and Chryseobacterium arachidis sp. nov. (type strain 91A-593(T)=LMG 27813(T), =CCM 8489(T)), respectively. PMID:24379020

  14. Genetic complexity of the human surfactant-associated proteins SP-A1 and SP-A2

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; Floros, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a key role in innate lung host defense, in surfactant-related functions, and in parturition. In the course of evolution, the genetic complexity of SP-A has increased, particularly in the regulatory regions (i.e. promoter, untranslated regions). Although most species have a single SP-A gene, two genes encode SP-A in humans and primates (SFTPA1and SFTPA2). This may account for the multiple functions attributed to human SP-A, as well as the regulatory complexity of its expression by a relatively diverse set of protein and non-protein cellular factors. The interplay between enhancer cis-acting DNA sequences and trans-acting proteins that recognize these DNA elements is essential for gene regulation, primarily at the transcription initiation level. Furthermore, regulation at the mRNA level is essential to ensure proper physiological levels of SP-A under different conditions. To date, numerous studies have shown significant complexity of the regulation of SP-A expression at different levels, including transcription, splicing, mRNA decay, and translation. A number of trans-acting factors have also been described to play a role in the control of SP-A expression. The aim of this report is to describe the genetic complexity of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes, as well as to review regulatory mechanisms that control SP-A expression in humans and other animal species. PMID:23069847

  15. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sioud, Samiha; Aigle, Bertrand; Karray-Rebai, Ines; Smaoui, Slim; Bejar, Samir; Mellouli, Lotfi

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002), as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA) from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch. PMID:19547659

  16. Siladifluoromethylation and Difluoromethylation onto C(sp(3)), C(sp(2)), and C(sp) Centers Using Ruppert-Prakash Reagent and Fluoroform.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Maruyama, Kenichi; Nitta, Junki; Hashimoto, Ryota; Mikami, Koichi

    2016-07-15

    Siladifluoromethylations and difluoromethylations on sp(3), sp(2), and sp carbons of lithiated carbamates, arenes, and terminal alkynes, respectively, have been attained by employing the Ruppert-Prakash reagent (CF3TMS) and fluoroform (CF3H) as the CF2 sources. The advantage of this reaction is that the (sila)difluoromethylated compounds can be obtained by simple treatment of easily accessible substrates, lithium bases, and CF3TMS or CF3H. Furthermore, the products bearing the TMS group can be transformed into the valuable compounds with the CF2 fragment via the carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. PMID:27340753

  17. SP Monitoring of Intermittent Flow Through Covered-Karst Sinkholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    A year of continuous SP (self-potential) monitoring was combined with high-resolution 3-D GPR surveys and intermittent water table monitoring over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. SP readings were logged over ~30 electrodes at 2-minute intervals. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Three distinct SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: fast flow through the conduit to the underlying aquifer, slow flow to the confining layer through the collapse conduit walls, and a conduit plugged high enough to behave like the rest of the confining layer. SP responses after rain events appear to measure the effects of two wetting front curves, one striking the monitoring electrode, one the reference. By comparing curve shapes for all possible pairs of electrodes, it may be possible to establish surficial infiltration and flow patterns. SP is also strongly affected by soil conductivity, rainfall history, and cultural noise. Further concurrent study of moisture content and SP with a suite of reference electrodes placed in various topographic, vegetative, geologic, and climatic settings will help distinguish groundwater flow from other sources affecting SP measurements.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  19. Progress in the SP-100 FSQ reactor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M. B.

    1991-09-01

    The reactor for the SP-100 Space Power Supply System is described in this paper. The various components that make up the reactor are discussed and the testing programs to assure that the design will meet the SP-100 requirements are described.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  1. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  2. Meroterpenes from Penicillium sp found in association with Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Geris dos Santos, Regina M; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2002-12-01

    A Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach and cultivated over sterilized rice. After chromatographic procedures, two meroterpenes, named preaustinoid A and B, were obtained in addition to the known alkaloid verruculogen. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic studies, and they exhibited moderate bacteriostatic effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. PMID:12453515

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPORULATION OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA F. SP. SPHENOCLEAE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted on agar media to characterize the factors for the optimization of sporulation of Alternaria alternata f. sp. sphenocleae, a fungal pathogen being evaluated as a biological control agent for Sphenoclea zeylanica (gooseweed). A. alternata f. sp. sphenocleae conidiation was affec...

  4. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  5. Pneumonitis and emphysema in sp-C gene targeted mice.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Stephan W; Detmer, Emily A; Ikegami, Machiko; Na, Cheng-Lun; Stahlman, Mildred T; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2003-04-18

    SP-C-deficient (SP-C -/-) mice developed a severe pulmonary disorder associated with emphysema, monocytic infiltrates, epithelial cell dysplasia, and atypical accumulations of intracellular lipids in type II epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Whereas alveolar and tissue surfactant phospholipid pools were increased, levels of other surfactant proteins were not altered (SP-B) or were modestly increased (SP-A and SP-D). Analysis of pressure-volume curves and forced oscillatory dynamics demonstrated abnormal respiratory mechanics typical of emphysema. Lung disease was progressive, causing weight loss and cardiomegaly. Extensive alveolar remodeling was accompanied by type II cell hyperplasia, obliteration of pulmonary capillaries, and widespread expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating myofibroblast transformation in the lung parenchyma. Dysplastic epithelial cells lining conducting airways stained intensely for the mucin, MUC5A/C. Tissue concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were not substantially altered in the SP-C (-/-) mice. Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was increased in alveolar macrophages from SP-C (-/-) mice. Absence of SP-C caused a severe progressive pulmonary disorder with histologic features consistent with interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:12519727

  6. Meroterpenoids from a Tropical Dysidea sp. Sponge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kwon; Woo, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Cho, Eunji; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-11-25

    Six new meroterpenoids (1-6), along with arenarol (7), a known rearranged drimane sesquiterpene hydroquinone, were isolated from a Dysidea sp. sponge collected from the Federated States of Micronesia. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analysis, compound 1 was determined to be the cyclic ether derivative of 7, whereas 2 and 3 were assigned as the corresponding sesquiterpene quinones containing taurine-derived substituents. Compounds 4-6 possess a novel tetracyclic skeleton formed by a direct linkage between the quinone and sesquiterpene moieties. The configurations of these new compounds were assigned on the basis of combined NOESY and ECD analysis. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and weak inhibition against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26551342

  7. Biodegradation of Xanthan Gum by Bacillus sp

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus, Martin C.; Jackson, Linda K.; Burton, Kermit A.; Plattner, Ronald D.; Slodki, Morey E.

    1982-01-01

    Strains tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. were isolated from sewage sludge and soil and shown to elaborate extracellular enzymes that degrade the extracellular polysaccharide (xanthan gum, polysaccharide B-1459) of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. Enzyme production by one strain was greatly enhanced when the strain was incubated in a mixed culture. Products of degradation were identified as d-glucuronic acid, d-mannose, pyruvylated mannose, 6-O-acetyl d-mannose, and a (1→4)-linked glucan. These products correlate with the known structure of the gum. The complexity of the product mixture indicated that the xanthanase was a mixture of carbohydrases. The xanthanase complexes were similar to one another in temperature stability, pH and temperature optima, degree of substrate degradation, and enzymolysis products. Differences in pH stability, salt tolerance, recoverability, and yields of enzyme were observed. PMID:16346068

  8. Electron microscope study of Sarcocystis sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeve, V.H.; Price, D.L.; Herman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which appear to be mechanically produced by the parasite. The microtubules within the villus-like projections of the cyst suggest that their possible function is absorptive and/or conductive with regard to the production of a toxin or the conveyance of nutritive material to the developing cells. The proposed function of submembranous filaments and their relation to the conoid is discussed. Similarities in the ultrastructure to Toxoplasma and other protozoa tend to negate the relegation of Sarcocystis to the fungi and further emphasize its protozoan nature.

  9. SP-100 Control Drive Assembly Development Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Scott F.

    1994-07-01

    The Control Drive Assemblies are the only active components in the entire SP-100 system. Consequently, the design challenges dealing with self-welding, wear, and misalignment in the high temperature and high radiation environment are significant. Because of the harsh environment, it has been necessary to test a variety of materials for such components as bearings, electromagnetic coils, clutches, brakes, and gears. The current Control Drive Assembly technology status is adequate for the 20-KWe design with a five-year life, but has not yet been completely demonstrated for the 100-KWe design with a full ten-year life. The difference in technology status for the 20-KWe and 100-KWe designs is due to the shorter lifetime requirement of the 20-KWe system.

  10. Chitinase Production by Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Kolla J.P.; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2009-01-01

    Chitinase production by a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277 was studied under sub-merged fermentation. Chitinase production started after 24 h of incubation and reached maximum levels after 60 h of cultivation. A high level of chitinase activity was observed in the culture medium with pH 6 at 35°C. Culture medium amended with 1% chitin was found to be suitable for maximum production of chitinase. An optimum concentration of colloidal chitin for chitinase production was determined. Studies on the influence of additional carbon and nitrogen sources on chitinase production revealed that starch and yeast extract served as good carbon and nitrogen sources to enhance chitinase yield. Chitinase was purified from crude enzyme extract by single step gel filtration by Sephadex G-100. Purified chitinase of the strain exhibited a distinct protein band near 45 kDa by means of SDS-PAGE. PMID:24031419

  11. Improvement of the basidiomycete Coprinus sp.

    PubMed

    Pavlíková, E; Fuska, J; Růzicková, V; Jílek, R; Zezula, V

    1982-01-01

    Coprinus sp. C-1 (obtained from uranium mines) was subjected to improvement procedures with the aim of preparing a strain that could degrade cellulose in the straw substrate more rapidly and effectively. The original C-1 strain was highly resistant to UV and X radiation but it was rather sensitive to tris(2-chloroethyl)amine, the effect of which increased when applying simultaneously compounds reacting with mercapto groups of some enzymes. The mutants obtained synthesized during the same interval by up to 94% more N compounds than the original strain the rate of cellulose degradation increasing by about 40%. In certain mutants the content of some essential amino acids simultaneously increased by up to 110%. PMID:7200932

  12. The Behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Banchetti, R; Nicola, R

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. was studied with the same approach as those already used for many species of ciliates. The ethogram we drew comprehends both helicoidal swimming (n = 20, r = 52.5 +/-12.2 mum, pitch = 512 +/- 101 mum, v--> = 215 +/- 43 mum/sec), periodically interrupted by irregular patterns changing the direction of the swimming of random angles and creeping on the substrate. The latter behavioral state, very common for the species we studied, occurs along tracks formed by successive elements (circular, C, vs linear segments, S) joined to each other by two kinds of reactions, which change their trajectory. The surprising similarities and the unexpected differences between the behavior of this gastrotrich and those of the ciliates already studied from this point of view are discussed, on the basis of the dimensional ranges and ecological niches shared by these two, definitely unrelated groups of organisms. PMID:18429665

  13. Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., isolated from lichen.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-01-01

    A novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, strain LDG1-22T, for which we propose the name Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., was isolated from a lichen sample collected from tree bark in Thailand. The taxonomic position of the species has been described based on a polyphasic approach. Strain LDG1-22T produced irregular sporangia on agar media. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylglycerol. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose, mannose and small amounts of arabinose and xylose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.2 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (14.2 %). Mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content was 73.6 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LDG1-22T showed highest similarity (98.8 %) to Actinoplanes friuliensis DSM 45797T and it clustered with Actinoplanes nipponensis JCM 3264T and Actinoplanes missouriensis JCM 3121T in phylogenetic tree analysis. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain LDG1-22T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Actinoplanes and so represents a novel species of this genus. The type strain of Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov. is LDG1-22T ( = JCM 30485T = TISTR 2343T = PCU 344T). PMID:26552374

  14. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. and Microlaimus validus sp. n. (Nematoda) from the coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Tu, Nguyen Dinh

    2014-01-01

    Two nematode species isolated from sediments of the littoral zone of South China Sea on the coast of Vietnam are described and illustrated. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. is closely related to P. elegans Gagarin & Thanh, 2009 and P. lissum Gagarin & Thanh, 2009. It differs from the former species in the shorter body, longer and more slender tail, longer cephalic setae and shorter spicules, and from the latter species in the shorter body, longer cephalic setae, presence of cervical setae and smaller number of precloacal supplements in males. Microlaimus validus sp. n. is morphologically closest to M. citrus Gerlach, 1959 and M. nanus Blome, 1982 and differs from both species in the longer body, relatively shorter pharynx and relatively shorter and thicker tail.  PMID:25284664

  15. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Khandeparker, Rakhee; Jalal, Thasneem

    2015-01-01

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase (α-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp. and Lactobacillus sp. was investigated using different carbon sources. Induction and repression of all these enzymes differed with carbon source and also with the organism. Wheat bran was the best carbon source for the production of xylanase and α-l-AFase, whereas both isolates showed maximum Axe production when grown on oat bran as a carbon source. Preferential utilization of a carbon source for enzyme production can give us better insights into regulatory mechanism in these marine bacteria. Elution profile as well as zymogram analysis indicated the possibility of bifunctional α-l-AFase-Axes in both marine bacteria. PMID:24888562

  16. Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov., Antarctic basidioblastomycetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    New yeasts from the Ross Desert (dry valley area) of Antarctica include Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov. Cryptococcus socialis MYSW A801-3aY1 (= ATCC 56685) requires no vitamins, assimilates L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, soluble starch, sucrose, and trehalose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production, cellobiose assimilation, and failure to utilize nitrate, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%. Cryptococcus consortionis MYSW A801-3aY92 (= ATCC 56686) requires thiamine, assimilates L-arabinose, D-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, succinate, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production and failure to utilize nitrate, cellobiose, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%.

  17. Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granules and Bioemulsifiers from Pseudomonas sp. and Burkholderia sp. Isolates Growing on Glucose.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Laís Postai; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-03-01

    A Burkholderia and Pseudomonas species designated as AB4 and AS1, respectively, were isolated from soil containing decomposing straw or sugar cane bagasse collected from Brazil. This study sought to evaluate the capacities of culture media, cell-free medium, and crude lysate preparations (containing PHB inclusion bodies) from bacterial cell cultures to stabilize emulsions with several hydrophobic compounds. Four conditions showed good production of bioemulsifiers (E24 ≥ 50 %), headed by substantially cell-free media from bacterial cell cultures in which bacterial isolates from Burkholderia sp. strain AB4 and Pseudomonas sp. strain AS1 were grown. Our results revealed that the both isolates (AB4 and AS1 strains) exhibited high emulsification indices (indicating usefulness in bioremediation) and good stabilities. PMID:26578147

  18. Haloalkylphosphorus Hydrolases Purified from Sphingomonas sp. Strain TDK1 and Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yuto; Mori, Junichi; Doi, Yuka; Takahashi, Shouji; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Phosphotriesterases catalyze the first step of organophosphorus triester degradation. The bacterial phosphotriesterases purified and characterized to date hydrolyze mainly aryl dialkyl phosphates, such as parathion, paraoxon, and chlorpyrifos. In this study, we purified and cloned two novel phosphotriesterases from Sphingomonas sp. strain TDK1 and Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 that hydrolyze tri(haloalkyl)phosphates, and we named these enzymes haloalkylphosphorus hydrolases (TDK-HAD and TCM-HAD, respectively). Both HADs are monomeric proteins with molecular masses of 59.6 (TDK-HAD) and 58.4 kDa (TCM-HAD). The enzyme activities were affected by the addition of divalent cations, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis suggested that zinc is a native cofactor for HADs. These enzymes hydrolyzed not only chlorinated organophosphates but also a brominated organophosphate [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate], as well as triaryl phosphates (tricresyl and triphenyl phosphates). Paraoxon-methyl and paraoxon were efficiently degraded by TCM-HAD, whereas TDK-HAD showed weak activity toward these substrates. Dichlorvos was degraded only by TCM-HAD. The enzymes displayed weak or no activity against trialkyl phosphates and organophosphorothioates. The TCM-HAD and TDK-HAD genes were cloned and found to encode proteins of 583 and 574 amino acid residues, respectively. The primary structures of TCM-HAD and TDK-HAD were very similar, and the enzymes also shared sequence similarity with fenitrothion hydrolase (FedA) of Burkholderia sp. strain NF100 and organophosphorus hydrolase (OphB) of Burkholderia sp. strain JBA3. However, the substrate specificities and quaternary structures of the HADs were largely different from those of FedA and OphB. These results show that HADs from sphingomonads are novel members of the bacterial phosphotriesterase family. PMID:25038092

  19. Carbon-Binding Designer Proteins that Discriminate between sp2- and sp3-Hybridized Carbon Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Brandon L.; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2013-01-01

    Robust and simple strategies to directly functionalize graphene- and diamond-based nanostructures with proteins are of considerable interest for biologically driven manufacturing, biosensing and bioimaging. Here, we identify a new set of carbon binding peptides that vary in overall hydrophobicity and charge, and engineer two of these sequences (Car9 and Car15) within the framework of E. coli Thioredoxin 1 (TrxA). We develop purification schemes to recover the resulting TrxA derivatives in a soluble form and conduct a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the interaction of the fusion proteins with carbonaceous surfaces. Although equilibrium quartz crystal microbalance measurements show that TrxA∷Car9 and TrxA∷Car15 have similar affinity for sp2-hybridized graphitic carbon (Kd = 50 and 90 nM, respectively), only the latter protein is capable of dispersing carbon nanotubes. Further investigation by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy reveals that TrxA∷Car15 interacts with sp2-bonded carbon through a combination of hydrophobic and π-π interactions but that TrxA∷Car9 exhibits a cooperative mode of binding which relies on a combination of electrostatics and weaker π-stacking. Consequently, we find that TrxA∷Car9 binds equally well to sp2- and sp3-bonded (diamond-like) carbon particles, while TrxA∷Car15 is capable of discriminating between the two carbon allotropes. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding both bulk and molecular recognition events when exploiting the adhesive properties of solid-binding peptides and proteins in technological applications. PMID:23510486

  20. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  1. Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain PAMC 26621, an Arctic-Lichen-Associated Bacterium Isolated from a Cetraria sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoungseok; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bum-Keun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye

    2012-01-01

    The lichen-associated bacterial strain Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 was isolated from an Arctic lichen Cetraria sp. on Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide novel insights into the molecular principles of lichen-microbe interactions. PMID:22582384

  2. Two new species, Caenanthura koreana sp. nov. and Apanthura koreaensis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Anthuridae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Hun; Min, Gi-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of anthuroid isopods, Caenanthura koreana sp. nov. and Apanthura koreaensis sp. nov. are described from the southern and western coasts of the Korean Peninsula. A key to the species and the type locality of Caenanthura are provided. Additionally, we determined the partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) from two new species. PMID:25947475

  3. Life cycle and secondary production of two mayflies Leptophlebia sp. and Ephemera sp. in Heizhuchong stream, Hubei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Yan, Yunjun

    2008-02-01

    From June 2003 to June 2004, an investigation on the life cycle, production and trophic basis of dominant species of macrozoobenthos community in a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin, Hubei, China was carried out. The results showed that the dominant species Leptophlebia sp. and Ephemera sp. appeared to develop two generations per year, and there was a small overlap in the two generations of both species. The pupation of Leptophlebia sp. mainly occurred in autumn and winter, while pupation of Ephemera sp. mainly took place in summer and winter. The standing stocks of the Leptophlebia sp. population and Ephemera sp. population had two peaks in a year. The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Leptophlebia sp. population estimated by size frequency method were 19.018 1 g/m2.a and 5.7 respectively, while its annual production and P/B ratio were 38.036 2 g/m2.a and 11.4. The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Ephemera sp. population were 38.015 9 g/m2.a and 5.9, while its annual production and P/B ratio were 76.031 8 g/m2.a and 11.8.

  4. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  5. Competition between sp³-C-N vs sp³-C-F reductive elimination from Pd(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Temprano, Mónica H; Racowski, Joy M; Kampf, Jeff W; Sanford, Melanie S

    2014-03-19

    This communication describes the design of a model system that allows direct investigation of competing sp(3)-C-N and sp(3)-C-F bond-forming reductive elimination from a Pd(IV) fluoro sulfonamide complex. The reductive elimination selectivity varies dramatically as a function of reaction additives. A mechanism is proposed that provides a rationale for these effects. PMID:24579653

  6. Descriptions of Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. from Kashmir Valley, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. are described and illustrated from freshwater stream soil in Kashmir Valley, India. Kashmira gen. n. is characterized by having dimorphic tails: coinoid-spicate tail in female and subcylindroid with rounded, non-spicate tip wi...

  7. Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...

  8. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp2 hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices.

  9. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp2 hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  10. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp(2)-sp(3) hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp(2) hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  11. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. and Paramononchus major sp. n. (Nematoda) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Naumova, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species found in Lake Baikal (Russia) are described and illustrated. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. is morphologically close to E. pilosus Shoshin, 1998 and E. lanatus Shoshin, 1998. The new species differs from E. pilosus by the longer and thinner body (L = 1228-1501 µm, a = 26-34 vs L = 720-1070 µm, a = 19-23), larger stoma (26-32 µm long vs 19-24 µm long), longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 32-37 µm long and 8 µm long). E. riparius sp. n. differs from E. lanatus by the longer body (L = 1228-1501 µm vs L = 680-1180), shorter cephalic setae (its length is equal 1.1-1.4 labial region diameter vs 1.6-2.1 labial region diameter) and longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 25-30 µm long and 7-8 µm long). Paramononchus major sp. n is close to P. orientalis Gagarin & Naumova, 2012, but differs from it by the longer body (L = 5926-7820 µm vs L = 3081-3778 µm), longer spicules (410-475 µm long vs 208-238 µm long) and larger number of precloacal supplements (52-61 vs 21-24). Keys for the identification of valid species of the genera Ethmolaimus and Paramononchus are given. PMID:27394603

  12. All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures: Geometrical properties, current rectification, and current amplification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junjun; Kwong, Gordon; Li, Ji; Fan, Zhiqiang; Deng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guiping

    2013-01-01

    All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures comprised of a zigzag-edged trigonal graphene (ZTG)and carbon chains are proposed and constructed as nanojunctions. It has been found that such simple hybrid structures possess very intriguing propertiesapp:addword:intriguing. The high-performance rectifying behaviors similar to macroscopic p-n junction diodes, such as a nearly linear positive-bias I-V curve (metallic behavior), a very small leakage current under negative bias (insulating behavior), a rather low threshold voltage, and a large bias region contributed to a rectification, can be predicted. And also, a transistor can be built by such a hybrid structure, which can show an extremely high current amplification. This is because a sp-hybrid carbon chain has a special electronic structure which can limit the electronic resonant tunneling of the ZTG to a unique and favorable situation. These results suggest that these hybrid structures might promise importantly potential applications for developing nano-scale integrated circuits. PMID:23999318

  13. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis. PMID:25662709

  14. Identification of a novel clip domain serine proteinase (Sp-cSP) and its roles in innate immune system of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanwei; Li, Zhongzhen; Wang, Shasha; Wan, Weisong; Wang, Shuqi; Wen, Xiaobo; Zheng, Huaiping; Zhang, Yueling; Li, Shengkang

    2015-11-01

    Clip domain serine proteinases and their homologs are involved in the innate immunity of invertebrates. To identify the frontline defense molecules against pathogenic infection, we isolated a novel clip domain serine proteinase (Sp-cSP) from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length 1362 bp Sp-cSP contains a 1155 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 384 amino acids. Multiple alignment analysis showed that the putative amino acid sequence of Sp-cSP has about 52% and 51% identity with Pt-cSP2 (AFA42360) and Pt-cSP3 (AFA42361) from Portunus trituberculatus, respectively, while the similarity with other cSP sequences was lower than 30%. However, all cSP sequences possess a conserved clip domain at the N-terminal and a Tryp-SPc domain at the C-terminal. The genomic organization of Sp-cSP consists of nine exons and eight introns, with some introns containing one or more tandem repeats. RT-PCR results indicated that Sp-cSP transcripts were predominantly expressed in the subcuticular epidermis, muscle and mid-intestine, but barely detectable in the brain and heart. Further, Sp-cSP transcripts were significantly up-regulated after challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, in vitro, the recombinant Sp-cSP revealed a strong antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and four Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila) bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the acute-phase response to immune challenges and the antimicrobial activity assay indicate that Sp-cSP is a potent immune protector and plays an important role in host defense against pathogen invasion in S. paramamosain. PMID:26272638

  15. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  16. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-07-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes. PMID:27060138

  17. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes. PMID:27060138

  18. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  19. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of ∼115 deg2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its “warm” mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z ≥slant 3 to test various models for “feedback” from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z ≥slant 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5σ depths of 6.13 μJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 μJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (∼98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (∼55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z ≥slant 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 μm only detection catalog containing ∼6.1 million sources, a 4.5 μm only detection catalog containing ∼6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing ∼5.4 million sources.

  20. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  1. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of ˜115 deg2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its “warm” mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z ≥slant 3 to test various models for “feedback” from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z ≥slant 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5σ depths of 6.13 μJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 μJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (˜98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (˜55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z ≥slant 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.1 million sources, a 4.5 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing ˜5.4 million sources.

  2. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.).

    PubMed

    Moura, M A; Kubitza, F; Cyrino, J E

    2000-11-01

    The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp.) is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m3 hapas and fed ground fish flesh with 35% success. Then, 1.3 g fish were pooled, stocked in six 25 L cages and fed two pellet sequences with 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% ground fish flesh (GFF). One sequence was flavored with 10% krill meal (Euphausia sp.). Training success of fish fed the GFF-00 diet flavored with krill reached 12%a compared to 11.6%a (p < 0.05) for diets without krill meal. A second experiment was set up with 969, 1.5 g fish, trained with GFF with 39.8% success. After the feed training period, 2.2 g fish were then fed a sequence of moist pellets containing 80%, 60% and 45% GFF. Fish trained to feed on moist pellets with 45% ground fish were pooled and stocked into nine 25 L cages. Fish were weaned to dry pellets without ground fish flesh (GFF-00) using three diet sequences: 1) dry pellets; 2) moist pellets; and 3) dry pellets flavored with 4% cod liver oil; all three diets contained 30, 10 and 0% GFF. The three sequences yielded, respectively 30.8%a, 23.6%a, and 24.7%a (p < 0.05) fish feeding on GFF-00. There were no apparent beneficial effects of increasing moisture or addition of cod liver oil as flavor enhancers in the weaning diets. This study revealed the feasibility of training peacock bass to accept dry pellets, but feeding young fish ground fish flesh seemed to be a major bottleneck in improving feed training success. PMID:11241964

  3. SP-NET: A draft signal processor network protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David M.

    SP-net, a synchronous high-speed switched network that has been designed for signal processor backplanes, is discussed. The network uses bit-slicing to improve fault tolerance and to allow growth in the width of the data path. In addition, single-bit error detection has been included in the protocol. Although no company at present is building a network to the draft SP-net specifications, SP-net has several similarities to signal processor network designs by major defense contractors.

  4. A review of the OvidSP platform.

    PubMed

    FitzSimmons, Marie; Gross, Valerie A

    2008-01-01

    As part of its mission to advance the technological capabilities of its products, Ovid introduced a redesign of its database platform in fall 2007. The platform redesign brought new features and enhancements to an already robust system. The transition between Ovid Gateway and the OvidSP platform was orchestrated seamlessly. With the OvidSP platform came innovative changes such as the incorporation of Natural Language Processing associated with the new Basic Search mode. Discussed are OvidSP features, advantages and disadvantages of the new platform, customizable settings, and future direction. PMID:19042719

  5. The sea urchin metallothionein system: Comparative evaluation of the SpMTA and SpMTB metal-binding preferences☆

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, Mireia; Domènech, Jordi; Capdevila, Mercè; Bofill, Roger; Atrian, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a superfamily of ubiquitous metal-binding proteins of low molecular weight and high Cys content. They are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification, amongst other proposed biological functions. Two MT isoforms (SpMTA and SpMTB) have been reported in the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin), both containing 20 Cys residues and presenting extremely similar sequences, although showing distinct tissular and ontogenic expression patterns. Although exhaustive information is available for the Cd(II)-SpMTA complex, this including the full resolution of its 3D structure, no data has been reported concerning either SpMTA Zn(II) and Cu(I) binding properties, or the characterization of SpMTB at protein level. In this work, both the SpMTA and SpMTB isoforms, as well as their separate α and β domains, have been recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Zn(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II), and the corresponding metal complexes have been analyzed using electrospray mass spectrometry, and CD, ICP-AES and UV–vis spectroscopies. The results clearly show a better performance of isoform A when binding Zn(II) and Cd(II), and of isoform B when coordinating Cu(I). Thus, our results confirm the differential metal binding preference of SpMTA and SpMTB, which, together with the reported induction pattern of the respective genes, highlights how also in Echinodermata the MT polymorphism may be linked to the evolution of different physiological roles. PMID:23847757

  6. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils. PMID:23775888

  7. Chryseobacterium defluvii sp. nov., isolated from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Dreyer, Ute; Neef, Alexander; Dott, Wolfgang; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, yellow-pigmented bacterium (strain B2T) isolated from wastewater of a sequence batch reactor showing enhanced phosphorus removal was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the organism should be placed in the genus Chryseobacterium. The strain contained a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major compound, menaquinone MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and ai-C15:0, i-C15:0 and C16:1 as the major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids were detected in the polar lipid profile. Phylogenetically, strain B2T was most closely related to Chryseobacterium indoltheticum and Chryseobacterium gleum (96.2 and 95-9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The phylogenetic distance from any validly described species within the genus Chryseobacterium, as indicated from 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, and its phenotypic properties demonstrate that strain B2T represents a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is B2T (=DSM 14219T =CIP 107207T). PMID:12656158

  8. Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov., from chicken intestine.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takao; Arihara, Keizo; Ikeda, Ami; Nomura, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Ohori, Hitoshi

    2003-11-01

    Four strains isolated from chicken small intestine and strains JCM 1038 and JCM 1039 (designated as Lactobacillus acidophilus) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. These strains had similar phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intergroup DNA relatedness values of >77 %, indicating that they comprised a single species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain, JCM 1039(T) (designated as type strain in this study), was determined and aligned with those of other Lactobacillus species. JCM 1039(T) was placed in the Lactobacillus delbrueckii cluster of the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and formed an independent cluster that was distinct from its closest neighbours, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and whole-cell protein profiles clearly indicated that these strains represent a novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of this species is JCM 1039(T). PMID:14657145

  9. SP-100 program - Where we are today

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, H.S. )

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 ground engineering system (GES) program is in the process of validating the technology/components on which the generic flight system (GFS) design is based. A major step in this validation process is the nuclear assembly test (NAT) to be built by General Electric and operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company in an existing containment building at the US Department of Energy's Hanford facilities in the state of Washington. Other segments of the GES program include the development of the thermoelectric converter assembly, the thermoelectro-magnetic (TEM) pump, and the gas separator. The evolution of all these segments from design to hardware is in full swing. Nuclear fuel development and manufacture is under way at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. An important activity in the GES program is materials development and testing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) plays a key role in this effort with support from Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems. Encouraging progress in other GES activities not directly associated with the NAT includes the successful manufacture of multicouple thermoelectric modules incorporating the compliant pad coupling to the heat source and sink and the necessary sapphire electrical insulation in a mass-efficient configuration. Successful tests of both the TEM pump and gas separator concepts lend validity to proposed flight system designs.

  10. Blastocystis sp. from food animals in India.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, C; Selvaraj, J; Gomathinayagam, S; Thangapandiyan, M; Ravikumar, G; Roy, Parimal; Balachandran, C

    2014-12-01

    Blastocystis, a zoonotic protozoan found in the intestinal tracts of a wide range of animals, has not been reported from non-human hosts from India so far. Organisms indistinguishable from Blastocystis sp. were identified in the Giemsa stained intestinal scrapings collected from carcasses of piglet and poultry that were brought for necropsy to the Central University Laboratory, Chennai. The 'central vacuole forms' of the parasite, with number of nuclei ranging from 1 to 12 were identified. The intensity of infection was low, with less than one organism per oil immersion field, indicating that their presence was unconnected to the cause of death. Caecal scraping was found to be more ideal than duodenal scraping for the diagnosis of Blastocystis, and can be a potential specimen for definitive diagnosis. Identical organisms were also detected in the dung samples of a buffalo calf which showed clinical signs of diarrhoea The presence of Blastocystis in food animals acquires public health significance, as many subtypes of the parasite from poultry and pigs are transmissible to humans. PMID:25320500

  11. Exiguobacterium enclense sp. nov., isolated from sediment.

    PubMed

    Dastager, Syed G; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Thorat, Meghana N; Mual, Poonam; Verma, Ashish; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Tang, Shan-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive bacterium, designated strain NIO-1109(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample from Chorao Island, Goa, India. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and data from phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NIO-1109(T) was related to the genus Exiguobacterium . Strain NIO-1109(T) exhibited >98.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to Exiguobacterium indicum HHS 31(T) (99.5%) and Exiguobacterium acetylicum NCIMB 9889(T) (99.1%); the type strains of other species showed <98% similarity. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NIO-1109(T) and E. acetylicum DSM 20416(T) and E. indicum LMG 23471(T) were less than 70% (33.0 ± 2.0 and 37 ± 3.2%, respectively). Strain NIO-1109(T) also differed from these two closely related species in a number of phenotypic traits. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain NIO-1109(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Exiguobacterium , for which the name Exiguobacterium enclense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1109(T) ( =NCIM 5457(T) =DSM 25128(T)  = CCTCC AB 2011124(T)). PMID:25716950

  12. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications. PMID:17705506

  13. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-09-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  14. Mycobacterium heraklionense sp. nov.: A case series

    PubMed Central

    NEONAKIS, IOANNIS K.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; GITTI, ZOE

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium heraklionense sp. nov. (M. heraklionense) is a novel non-tuberculous mycobacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium terrae complex that has recently been described. It has a world-wide distribution. Recently, a case of tenosynovitis in an immunocompetent individual caused by M. heraklionense was reported, indicating that it has the ability to cause diseases. In the present study, in order to provide a more detailed profile of this mycobacterium and to obtain a more complete overall picture of its clinical significance, we report all available data regarding the initial 12 cases of its isolation. Of the 12 patients, 5 (42%) eventually died within a period of 3 months following the isolation of the mycobacterium. However, any connection between the presence of M. heraklionense and these deaths could not be documented. These 5 patients were all males with a mean age of 74.6 years suffering from serious underlying diseases, which most probably were the cause of death. Additional data from possible new cases of M. heraklionense isolation are anticipated. PMID:26622497

  15. Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nevzat; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodfellow, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain positive actinobacterial strain, designated KT1403(T), was isolated from a soil sample, collected from Karpaz, Magusa, Northern Cyprus, and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Morphological characteristics and chemotaxonomic data indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Phytomonospora. The cell wall of the novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and galactose, glucose and mannose as the major sugars in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids in the cell membrane were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H4). The major fatty acids were found to be iso C15:0 , anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KT1403(T) belongs to the genus Phytomonospora with a sequence similarity of 99.73 % with Phytomonospora endophytica, the type species of the genus. DNA-DNA hybridization further differentiated strain KT1403(T) from its near phylogenetic neighbour, P. endophytica DSM 45386(T) (29.0 ± 2.2 % DNA relatedness). Therefore, it is proposed that strain KT1403(T) represents a novel species of the genus Phytomonospora, for which the name Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KT1403(T) (=KCTC 29479(T) = DSM 46767(T)). PMID:26427856

  16. Systematic Enumeration of sp(3) Nanothreads.

    PubMed

    Xu, En-shi; Lammert, Paul E; Crespi, Vincent H

    2015-08-12

    Slow decompression of crystalline benzene in large-volume high-pressure cells has recently achieved synthesis of a novel one-dimensional allotrope of sp(3) carbon in which stacked columns of benzene molecules rehybridize into an ordered crystal of nanothreads. The progenitor benzene molecules function as six-valent one-dimensional superatoms with multiple binding sites. Here we enumerate their hexavalent bonding geometries, recognizing that the repeat unit of interatomic connectivity ("topological unit cell") need not coincide with the crystallographic unit cell, and identify the most energetically favorable cases. A topological unit cell of one or two benzene rings with at least two bonds interconnecting each adjacent pair of rings, accommodates 50 topologically distinct nanothreads, 15 of which are within 80 meV/carbon atom of the most stable member. Optimization of aperiodic helicity reveals the most stable structures to be chiral. We generalize Euler's rules for ring counting to cover this new form of very thin one-dimensional carbon, calculated their physical properties, and propose a naming convention that can be generalized to handle nanothreads formed from other progenitor molecules. PMID:26207926

  17. Paracoccus angustae sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuelian; Luo, Patrick; Li, Mingshun

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, coccus-shaped, aerobic bacterium, strain E6T, was isolated from soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a cluster containing strain E6T and Paracoccus sediminis CMB17T (the highest 16S rRNA gene similarity of 97.2 %). The other strains investigated showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of less than 97 % to strain E6T. The DNA–DNA relatedness between strain E6T and P. sediminis DSM 26170T was 59.2 %. Strain E6T also shows some differences compared with other Paracoccus strains such as motility and inability to utilize lactate and propionate as sole carbon sources. The major fatty acids of strain E6T were C18 : 1ω7c and C18 : 0 and ubiquinone-10 was the only respiratory quinone. Strain E6T had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unknown aminolipid and an unknown glycolipid as major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 68.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain E6T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus angustae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E6T ( = KCTC 42473T = CCTCC AB 2015056T). PMID:26296343

  18. Altererythrobacter marensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seong Hae; Lee, Soon Dong

    2010-02-01

    A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated MSW-14(T), was isolated from seawater collected around Mara Island, Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organism was motile by means of a flagellum and showed optimum growth at 0-4 % NaCl, 30 degrees C and pH 7.1. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the family Erythrobacteraceae. The strain's closest phylogenetic neighbours were Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans JCS350(T) (97.7 % sequence similarity), Altererythrobacter luteolus SW-109(T) (97.3 %) and Altererythrobacter indicus MSSRF26(T) (95.0 %). The dominant cellular fatty acid was C(18 : 1) (summed feature 7, 52.8 %). The major ubiquinone was UQ-10. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain MSW-14(T) and A. epoxidivorans KCCM 42314(T) and A. luteolus KCTC 12311(T) were 26.0-27.3 % and 9.8-15.2 %, respectively. On the basis of the data from the polyphasic characterization, strain MSW-14(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Altererythrobacter marensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MSW-14(T) (=KCTC 22370(T)=DSM 21428(T)). PMID:19651736

  19. Dickeya aquatica sp. nov., isolated from waterways.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil; DeVos, Paul; Pirhonen, Minna; Elphinstone, John

    2014-07-01

    Pectinolytic Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from different waterways in the UK and Finland. Three strains (174/2(T), 181/2 and Dw054) had the same 16S rRNA gene sequences which shared 99% sequence similarity to species of the genus Dickeya, and a phylogeny of related genera confirmed attribution to this genus. Fatty acid profile analysis of all three strains found a high proportion of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0 fatty acids, and library profile searches found closest matches to Dickeya chrysanthemi. Production of a concatenated phylogeny using six loci, recA, gapA, atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB, provided a high-resolution phylogeny which placed strains 174/2(T) and 181/2 as a distinct clade, separated from the other species of the genus Dickeya by a relatively long branch-length. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis with a limited number of reference species also supported the distinctiveness of strains 174/2(T) and 181/2 within the genus Dickeya. All three strains could be phenotypically distinguished from other species of the genus by fermentation of melibiose and raffinose but not D-arabinose or mannitol. The name Dickeya aquatica sp. nov. is proposed for the new taxon; the type strain is 174/2(T) ( = NCPPB 4580(T) = LMG 27354(T)). PMID:24719023

  20. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements. PMID:23399474

  1. Chryseobacterium solincola sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Benmalek, Yam; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Bouanane, Nabila A; Hacene, Hocine; Fauque, Guy; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2010-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain 1YB-R12T, was isolated from a soil sample in western Algeria. The novel isolate was heterotrophic, chemoorganotrophic, halotolerant and psychrotolerant. The temperature and pH optima for growth were 28-30 degrees C and pH 7.3-8. The bacterium tolerated up to 6% (w/v) NaCl. Cells were non-motile, non-gliding and non-spore-forming, and were characterized by a variable morphological cycle. Flexirubin-type pigments were not detected. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 1YB-R12T occupied a distinct lineage within the genus Chryseobacterium and shared highest sequence similarity with Chryseobacterium haifense LMG 24029T (96.5%). The DNA G+C content of strain 1YB-R12T was 40.9 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (41.4%) and iso-C15:0 (14.4%). On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain 1YB-R12T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium solincola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1YB-R12T (=DSM 22468T=CCUG 55604T). PMID:19767354

  2. SP-100 reactor and shield design update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deane, Nelson A.; Stewart, Samuel L.; Marcille, Thomas F.; Newkirk, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 technical specification for the generic flight system has been updated to eliminate design specific and unnecessarily restrictive requirements. Relaxation of these requirements allows considerably more flexibility to the reactor and shield designer to minimize the mass of the system. Ground Engineering System (GES) Program test results are also beginning to become available to the designer. Some of these test results in combination with the design requirement changes have lead to design changes in 1) the fuel pin to include an aft axial reflector, 2) the reflector control mechanism concept from a hinged to an aft sliding system, 3) the number of safety rods from seven to three, and 4) the use of Be and B4C instead of LiH in the forward neutron field section. These changes have been developed to minimize the mass of the total system. Generic Flight System Design Option/Update Studies are ongoing activities with mass reduction as the primary objective to assure that the Flight System Qualification Program adequately defines and achieves the development needs.

  3. Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Yuan, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Jie

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T3T, was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. Analysis of the16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain T3T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens DSM 19382T (96.8 %). The novel strain was able to grow at 10-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown glycolipids, five unknown aminolipids and four unidentified lipids, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant fatty acids were C16  :  1ω7c and/or C16  :  1ω6c and iso-C15  :  0. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36 mol  %. Based on these data, strain T3T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = CGMCC 1.12926T = JCM 30113T). PMID:25969476

  4. Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-Bin; Wang, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Li, Shun-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Strain YF-2(T), a Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, light-yellow-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from soil samples collected in the city of Yuncheng, Shanxi province of China. Strain YF-2(T) grew over a temperature range of 25-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YF-2(T) was closely related to strains Flavobacterium akiainvivens CIP 110358(T) and Flavobacterium hauense KCTC 32147(T) with 95.99 and 95.92 % sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-2(T) were Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (21.97 %), iso-C15:0 (18.65 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (11.41 %), C16:0 (9.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (6.21 %). It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone MK-6 as major polar lipid and respiratory quinone, respectively. Strain YF-2(T) differs from other Flavobacterium species in many characteristics and represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain YF-2(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014079(T) = JCM 30153(T)). PMID:25726422

  5. Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zenghu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain SW230(T), was isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from the South Pacific Gyre. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SW230(T) shared highest similarity with members of the genus Dokdonia (95.0-94.5%), exhibiting 95.0% sequence similarity to Dokdonia genika NBRC 100811(T). Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 8.0 and at 28 °C. The DNA G+C content of strain SW230(T) was 36 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10% of the total) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic study, strain SW230(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW230(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12184(T) = JCM 18216(T)). PMID:25862384

  6. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

    1993-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  7. The Growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Cells in the Presence of Thorium

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Juliana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23 × 106 to 4.27 × 105 and 8.57 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65 × 104 cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25 × 105 and 5.12 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22649297

  8. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  9. Medical management of suspected Paecilomyces sp. deep keratitis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Lee; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman developed a deep keratitis presenting with an endothelial plaque without overlying stromal involvement. Owing to the characteristic clinical appearance, she was provisionally diagnosed with a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Corneal scrapings and aqueous humour samples were culture negative. The difficulties in diagnosing Paecilomyces sp. keratitis are discussed. The patient's keratitis was managed with a combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole. This medical management strategy was successful in achieving good infection control and visual outcome. We report a rarely encountered presentation of keratitis in which the clinical appearance and response to voriconazole are highly suggestive evidence of a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. We believe the combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole represents a novel treatment approach for Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Our case supports the potential for a medical approach as initial treatment in this otherwise devastating form of oculomycosis. PMID:26135494

  10. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-03-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  11. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, William R; Muscarella, Mario E; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments. PMID:26089434

  12. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments. PMID:26089434

  13. Itinerant ferromagnetism in fermionic systems with SP (2 N) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wang; Wu, Congjun

    The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of systems with SP (2 N) symmetry describes a second order phase transition on the mean field level, since the Casimir invariants of the SP (2 N) group can be only of even order combinations of the generators of the SP (2 N) group. This is in contrast with systems having the SU (N) symmetry, where the allowance of cubic term generally makes the phase transition into first order. In this work, we consider the Hertz-Millis type itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting fermionic system with SP (2 N) symmetry, where the ferromagnetic orders are enriched by the multi-component nature of the system. The quantum criticality is discussed near the second order phase transition point.

  14. 'PROCTOECES' SP. (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) IN THE AMERICAN OYSTER, 'CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histological examination of over 6,000 oysters, Crassostrea virginica, inhabiting northern Gulf Coast estuaries revealed unencysted junvenile and possible adult stages of digenetic trematode, Proctoeces sp., inhabiting the gonadal ducts of the mollusc. The morphology of the worm ...

  15. Lustromycin, a new antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, H; Iwata, R; Takahashi, Y; Iwai, Y; Oiwa, R; Omura, S

    1986-09-01

    A new antibiotic, lustromycin, was isolated from the cultured broth of Streptomyces sp. SK-1071. It exhibits selective antibacterial activity against anaerobic bacteria including Clostridium sp. The molecular formula C32H38O13 as determined by high resolution mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis and the NMR spectrum suggest structural resemblance of this antibiotic to luminamicin, an anti-anaerobic antibiotic reported previously. PMID:3781918

  16. Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

  17. Sarcocystis sp. in the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, M; Wiggins, J P; Rothenbacher, H

    1982-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was observed in 100 of 185 (54.1%) Eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) examined in Pennsylvania over a three year period. Gross and histologic examination commonly revealed cysts in skeletal muscle of the fore and hind legs, flanks and loins. Two rabbits had cysts in esophageal skeletal muscle. Host response to Sarcocystis sp. is described. Adult rabbits had a significantly greater rate of infection (69.3%) than juveniles (20.7%) (P less than 0.01). PMID:6808158

  18. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  19. Genome sequencing and annotation of Serratia sp. strain TEL.

    PubMed

    Lephoto, Tiisetso E; Gray, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    We present the annotation of the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KP711410). This organism was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KM492926) collected from grassland soil and has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp and 542 subsystems. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LDEG00000000. PMID:26697332

  20. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  1. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Kasberg, Abigail D.; Brunskill, Eric W.; Potter, S. Steven

    2014-01-01

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  2. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera. PMID:26732137

  3. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W

    2010-08-01

    Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef. PMID:19783617

  4. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2014-12-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid libraries using degenerate probes that harbor highly conserved sequences from the Sphigomonas elodea-derived crtI and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120-dervied crtW genes. Selected positive gene clusters were fully sequenced and annotated, revealing genes encoding six putative carotenogenic enzymes: phytoene synthase (CrtB), phytoene desaturase (CrtI), lycopene cyclase (CrtY), carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ), carotene ketolase (CrtW), and glycosyltransferase (CrtX). All of the carotenogenic enzymes, except for CrtX, were functional in the recombinant host Escherichia coli expressing synthetic carotenogenic modules from Pantoea agglomerans. CrtX did not take up UDP-glucose or GDP-fucose as sugar substrates during the in vitro reaction. Although no direct experimental evidence was obtained for the function of Sphingomonas sp. PB304 CrtX, it can be categorized as a putative deoxyglycosyltransferase based on the presence of astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, a putative corresponding gene in the carotenoid biosynthetic gene cluster, and high amino acid sequence homology to the existing glycosyltransferases. Therefore, we propose that astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside can be synthesized in Sphingomonas sp. PB304 via sequential reactions of six pathway enzymes, including CrtX on the phytoene intermediate. PMID:25193422

  5. Calibration of Regional S/P Amplitude-ratio Discriminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, R. D.; Sereno, T. J., Jr.

    - S/P amplitude ratios have proven to be a valuable discriminant in support of monitoring a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Regional S and P phases attenuate at different rates and the attenuation can vary geographically. Therefore, calibration is needed to apply the S/P discriminant in new regions. Calibration includes application of frequency-dependent source and distance corrections for regional Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases.Jenkins etal. (1998) developed Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg amplitude models for nine geographic regions and two global composite models, stable and tectonic. They determined frequency-dependent source and attenuation corrections from a large data set obtained from the Prototype International Data Center (PIDC). We use their corrections to evaluate calibrated S/P discriminants.Our discrimination data set includes >1000 amplitude ratios from earthquakes, industrial explosions, chemical explosions, and nuclear explosions from Lop Nor, India and Pakistan. We find that the calibrated S/P ratio is largest for earthquakes and smallest for the nuclear explosions, as expected. However, the discriminant is not universally valid. In particular, the S/P ratio for the Pakistan nuclear explosion fell within the normal range for the earthquakes. This event was recorded by only a few stations at far-regional distances and appears to have an anomalously high Sn amplitude. The industrial explosions overlap with the earthquake population, however the buried chemical explosions generally register lower S/P ratio than earthquakes.

  6. GLUT1 glucose transporter gene transcription is repressed by Sp3. Evidence for a regulatory role of Sp3 during myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fandos, C; Sánchez-Feutrie, M; Santalucía, T; Viñals, F; Cadefau, J; Gumà, A; Cussó, R; Kaliman, P; Canicio, J; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1999-11-19

    GLUT1 glucose transporters are highly expressed in proliferating and transformed cells as well as in tissues during fetal life. However, the mechanisms that regulate GLUT1 gene expression remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Sp3 proteins bind to the GLUT1 proximal promoter gene and inhibit transcriptional activity in muscle and non-muscle cells. Two different Sp3 translational products (110 and 74 kDa) derived from differential translational initiation were detected in nuclear extracts from myoblast cells, and both Sp3 protein species inhibited GLUT1 gene transcriptional activity. The inhibitory effect of Sp3 was dominant over the stimulatory effect of Sp1 on transcriptional activity of GLUT1 gene. Furthermore, abolition of Sp3 binding to the proximal promoter of GLUT1 gene completely blocked the response to Sp3. We provide evidence that the expression of Sp3 protein is subject to regulation in muscle cells and that this is likely to control GLUT1. Thus, Sp3 protein was up-regulated in the absence of changes in Sp1 early after the induction of IGF-II-dependent myogenesis. Furthermore, forced over-expression of MyoD caused an enhancement in the cellular Sp3/Sp1 ratio which was concomitant to a reduced GLUT1 expression. Later during myogenesis, Sp3 expression was substantial whereas Sp1 was markedly down-regulated. In summary, we provide direct evidence that the transcription factor Sp3 represses gene expression in non-muscle and muscle cells and this is likely to operate in fetal heart by binding to the GLUT1 gene promoter. This is the first description of a repressor of GLUT1 gene transcription. Furthermore, we propose that variations in the ratio of Sp3 versus Sp1 regulate GLUT1 promoter activity and this is crucial in the down-regulation of GLUT1 associated to myogenesis. PMID:10556032

  7. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis. PMID:25398907

  8. [Purification and physico-chemical properties of Streptomyces sp. 1349 collagenase and Streptomyces sp. 1382 keratinase].

    PubMed

    Ivanko, O V; Varbanets', L D

    2004-01-01

    The schemes of isolation and purification of collagenolytic enzymes of Streptomyces sp. 1349 and keratinolyte enzymes of Streptomyces sp. 1382, which include fractionation by ammonium sulphate separation on TSK-gels: ion-exchange chromatography on Toyopearl DEAE-650(M) and gel-filtration on Toyopearl HW-50, as well as highly efficient liquid chromatography. The purified enzyme preparations proved to be proteases of serine type (collagenase 2 and keratinases) as well as metalloproteases (collagenases 1 and 3). It has seen established that collagenases are enzymes of broad specificity, which are active in respect of proteins of both globular and fibrillar nature. And vice versa, keratinases are proteolytic enzymes of narrow specificity which hydrolyze native keratin. Molecular masses of purified enzyme preparations, from the data of SDS-PAAG are approximately 30-40 kDa (collagenases 1-3) and about 15-20 kDa (keratinases 1 and 2). It is shown that the charged aminoacid residues (about 85%) prevail in enzyme molecules. The enzymes are distinguished by pH- and thermooptima. PMID:15208850

  9. Bacillus infantis sp. nov. and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Oh, Won Sup; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Jang Ho; Lee, Hyuck; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2006-11-01

    Two Gram-positive bacilli, designated as strains SMC 4352-1T and SMC 4352-2T, were isolated sequentially from the blood of a newborn child with sepsis. They could not be identified by using conventional clinical microbiological methods. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that both strains belonged to the genus Bacillus but clearly diverged from known Bacillus species. Strain SMC 4352-1T and strain SMC 4352-2T were found to be closely related to Bacillus firmus NCIMB 9366T (98.2% sequence similarity) and Bacillus cibi JG-30T (97.1% sequence similarity), respectively. They also displayed low DNA-DNA reassociation values (less than 40%) with respect to the most closely related Bacillus species. On the basis of their polyphasic characteristics, strain SMC 4352-1T and strain SMC 4352-2T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus infantis sp. nov. (type strain SMC 4352-1T=KCCM 90025T=JCM 13438T) and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov. (type strain SMC 4352-2T=KCCM 90024T=JCM 13437T) are proposed. PMID:17082387

  10. Achromobacter insolitus sp. nov. and Achromobacter spanius sp. nov., from human clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Coenye, Tom; Vancanneyt, Marc; Falsen, Enevold; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2003-11-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study (employing whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses, 16S rDNA sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, determination of DNA G+C content, antibiotic susceptibility testing and extensive phenotypic characterization) was performed on 10 isolates that appeared to be related to Alcaligenes faecalis. The isolates were recovered from diverse environments that included human clinical samples. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that these isolates belonged to the genus ACHROMOBACTER: Whole-cell protein analysis distinguished two groups, which were confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Based on the results of this study, the organisms were classified as two novel Achromobacter species, Achromobacter insolitus sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 6003(T)) and Achromobacter spanius sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 5911(T)). Achromobacter insolitus can be distinguished from Achromobacter spanius by its ability to grow on acetamide and to assimilate mesaconate and aconitate, and by its inability to assimilate diaminobutane. Various tests allow the differentiation of both novel species from other Achromobacter species, including growth on acetamide, denitrification and assimilation of D-glucose, D-xylose, mesaconate, aconitate and diaminobutane. PMID:14657110

  11. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. PMID:24786712

  12. Geobacter bremensis sp. nov. and Geobacter pelophilus sp. nov., two dissimilatory ferric-iron-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Straub, K L; Buchholz-Cleven, B E

    2001-09-01

    Two strictly anaerobic, dissimilatory ferric-iron-reducing bacteria, strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T, were isolated from freshwater mud samples with ferrihydrite as electron acceptor. Both strains also grew by reducing Mn(IV), S0 and fumarate. Electron donors used by strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T for growth with ferric iron as electron acceptor included hydrogen, formate, acetate, pyruvate, succinate, fumarate and ethanol. An affiliation with the family Geobacteraceae was revealed by comparative analysis of 165 rRNA gene sequences. Strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T shared 92.5% sequence identity and their closest known relative was Geobacter sulfurreducens, with approximately 93% sequence identity. Cultures and colonies of strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T were intensely red in colour, due to the presence of c-type cytochromes. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic data, strain Dfr1T (= DSM 12179T = OCM 796T) is described as Geobacter bremensis sp. nov. and strain Dfr2T (= DSM 12255T = OCM 797T) as Geobacter pelophilus sp. nov. PMID:11594612

  13. Novel application of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Anshu

    2012-10-01

    The present study explored the utilization of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers, a major non-timber forest product (NTFP) of India, as a low-cost, natural substrate for protease production under submerged fermentation. Bacterial strain Aeromonas sp. Si1, previously reported by us, was used as the protease producer. Using Mahua flower extract (MFE) as the medium additive, the protease production could successfully be enhanced by 5.6-fold (564.5 UmL-1) after 24 h of fermentation under optimized conditions compared with initial production of 99.9 UmL' in the absence of MFE. The cultural parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be: incubation time-24 h; pH-7.0; MFE concentration-5% (v/v); inoculum size-0.3% (v/v) and agitation rate-200 rpm. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of cheaper and abundantly available Mahua flowers for induction of proteases, and thus offer a new approach for value addition to this biomass through industrial enzyme production. PMID:23157010

  14. Aphelenchoides microstylus n. sp. and Seinura onondagensis n. sp. (Nemata: Aphelenchina) from New York

    PubMed Central

    Kaisa, T. R.

    2000-01-01

    Aphelenchoides microstylus n. sp. and Seinura onondagensis n. sp., a nematode predator, are described from dead Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Onondaga County, New York. Females of A. microstylus are 370 to 485 µm long. The body is slender and tapers posteriorly to an amucronate, pointed terminus. The head is continuous with the body, and lips bear a stylet guide. Diagnostic characters of females are three incisures in the lateral field, a short stylet (6-7.5 µm) with small basal knobs, a single row of oocytes, and a long postuterine sac (25-50 µm). Males are characterized by small spicules (10-11µm); two pairs of post-anal, subventral papillae; and a single row of spermatocytes. A bursa and gubernaculum are absent. Seinura onondagensis females are characterized by a body of moderate length (475-595 µm), finely annulated cuticle, and a slightly set-off head. Diagnostic characters are four incisures in the lateral field, long stylet without basal knobs (17-22 µm), single row of oocytes, and presence of a postuterine sac (14-38 µm). Males are unknown. The monospecific genus Indaphelenchus is proposed as a synonym of Seinura, and S. siddiqii n. comb. is proposed for the only species, I. siddiqii. PMID:19270994

  15. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo.

    PubMed

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2-10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment. PMID:24135818

  16. Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2014-05-01

    Four strains of actinomycete, designated strains JR-19T, JR-12, JR-29 and JR-41T were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil. Phylogenetic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the four strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the four strains produced spirales spore chains with spiny surfaces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the four strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains and the members of the genus Streptomyces exhibited moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-99.3%, with the most closely related strains being Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115T and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. [to accommodate strains JR-19T (type strain; =KACC 16472T=NBRC 108883T), JR-12 (=KACC 16471) and JR-29 (=KACC 16473)] and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov. [for strain JR-41T (=KACC 16580T=NBRC 108885T)] are proposed. PMID:24478213

  17. Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov., isolated from various terrestrial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, I.R.; Kampfer, P.; Topp, E.; Warner, K.L.; Cox, M.J.; Connell, Hancock T.L.; Miller, L.G.; Larkin, M.J.; Ducrocq, V.; Coulter, C.; Harper, D.B.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial strains IMB-1T and CC495T, which are capable of growth on methyl chloride (CH3Cl, chloromethane) and methyl bromide (CH3Br, bromomethane), were isolated from agricultural soil in California fumigated with CH3Br, and woodland soil in Northern Ireland, respectively. Two pesticide- /herbicide-degrading bacteria, strains ER2 and C147, were isolated from agricultural soil in Canada. Strain ER2 degrades N-methyl carbamate insecticides, and strain C147 degrades triazine herbicides widely used in agriculture. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, these four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Aminobacter, for which the names Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. (type strain IMB-1T=ATCC 202197T=CIP 108660T=CCUG 50580T; strains ER2 and C147) and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov. (type strain CC495T=NCIMB 13798T=CIP 108661T=CCUG 50579T) are proposed. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  18. Methylobacterium pseudosasicola sp. nov. and Methylobacterium phyllostachyos sp. nov., isolated from bamboo leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj

    2014-07-01

    Two strains of Gram-negative, methylotrophic bacteria, isolated because of their abilities to promote plant growth, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The isolates were strictly aerobic, motile, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic, non-spore-forming rods. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates included the presence of C18 : 1ω7c as the major cellular fatty acid. The DNA G+C contents of strains BL36(T) and BL47(T) were 69.4 and 69.8 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strains BL36(T) and BL47(T) placed them under the genus Methylobacterium, with the pairwise sequence similarity between them and the type strains of closely related species ranging from 97.2 to 99.0%. On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, the isolates represent two novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium pseudosasicola sp. nov. (type strain BL36(T) = NBRC 105203(T) = ICMP 17621(T)) and Methylobacterium phyllostachyos sp. nov. (type strain BL47(T) = NBRC 105206(T) = ICMP 17619(T)) are proposed. PMID:24760798

  19. Gordonia didemni sp. nov. an actinomycete isolated from the marine ascidium Didemnum sp.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Parma, Márcia; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana

    2016-02-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated isolate B204(T), was isolated from a marine ascidian Didemnum sp., collected from São Paulo, Brazil, and its taxonomic position established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Gordonia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Gordonia 16S rRNA gene tree. It was closely related to Gordonia terrae DSM 43249(T) (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Gordonia lacunae DSM 45085(T) (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) but was distinguished from these strains by a moderate level of DNA-DNA relatedness (63.0 and 54.7 %) and discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the data obtained, the isolate B204(T) (=CBMAI 1069(T) = DSM 46679(T)) should therefore be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia didemni sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26678782

  20. Treponema berlinense sp. nov. and Treponema porcinum sp. nov., novel spirochaetes isolated from porcine faeces.

    PubMed

    Nordhoff, Marcel; Taras, David; Macha, Moritz; Tedin, Karsten; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Wieler, Lothar H

    2005-07-01

    Limit-dilution procedures were used to isolate seven, helically coiled bacterial strains from faeces of swine that constituted two unidentified taxa. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed highest similarity values with species of the genus Treponema indicating that the isolates are members of this genus. Strain 7CPL208(T), as well as five further isolates, and 14V28(T) displayed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Treponema pectinovorum ATCC 33768(T) (92.3%) and Treponema parvum OMZ 833(T) (89.9%), respectively. Polar lipid profiles distinguished 7CPL208(T) and 14V28(T) from each other as well as from related species. Based on their phenotypic and genotypic distinctiveness, strains 7CPL208(T) and 14V28(T) are suggested to represent two novel species of the genus Treponema, for which the names Treponema berlinense sp. nov. and Treponema porcinum sp. nov. are proposed. The type strain for Treponema berlinense is 7CPL208(T) (=ATCC BAA-909(T)=CIP 108244(T)=JCM 12341(T)) and for Treponema porcinum 14V28(T) (=ATCC BAA-908(T)=CIP 108245(T)=JCM 12342(T)). PMID:16014500

  1. Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov., isolated from medicinal plants in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sheng; Chen, Hua-Hong; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T), were isolated from the roots of Scoparia dulcis and Maytenus austroyunnanensis, two Chinese medicinal plants, and their taxonomic status was established based on a polyphasic investigation. The organisms were found to have chemical and morphological markers typical of members of the genus Glycomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that they were closely related to each other and to Glycomyces sambucus E71(T). A battery of physiological characteristics and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that strains YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from the related known Glycomyces species. On the basis of the data presented, it is evident that each of these strains represents a novel species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 56256(T) =KCTC 19158(T) =DSM 44968(T)) and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov. (type strain YIM 61331(T) =KCTC 19527(T) =CCTCC AA 208004(T)) are proposed. PMID:19406786

  2. Bacteroides plebeius sp. nov. and Bacteroides coprocola sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ike, Masako; Sakata, Shinji; Benno, Yoshimi

    2005-09-01

    Nine strains of Gram-negative, anaerobic rod were isolated from human faeces. Based on phylogenetic analysis and specific phenotypic characteristics, these strains were included within the Bacteroides cluster and were divided into two clusters. Strains from the two clusters showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 90.4 and 92.7% to the nearest recognized species, Bacteroides vulgatus. The strains also formed two clusters exhibiting a 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence of approximately 6%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed that the two novel strain clusters were distinct from each other. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, two novel species, Bacteroides plebeius sp. nov. and Bacteroides coprocola sp. nov., are proposed, each representing one of the two strain clusters. The DNA G+C content of the type strains were 43.9 mol% for B. plebeius (M12(T)=JCM 12973(T)=DSM 17135(T)) and 42.4 mol% for B. coprocola (M16(T)=JCM 12979(T)=DSM 17136(T)). PMID:16166722

  3. Catabolism of Naphthalenesulfonic Acids by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22

    PubMed Central

    Brilon, C.; Beckmann, W.; Knackmuss, H.-J.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene and two naphthalenesulfonic acids were degraded by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22 by the same enzymes. Gentisate is a major metabolite. Catabolic activities for naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid are induced by growth with naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, methylnaphthalene, or salicylate. Gentisate is also an inducer in strain A3. Inhibition kinetics show that naphthalene and substituted naphthalenes are hydroxylated by the same naphthalene dioxygenase. Substrates with nondissociable substituents such as CH3, OCH3, Cl, or NO2 are hydroxylated in the 7,8-position, and 4-substituted salicylates are accumulated. If CO2H, CH2CO2H, or SO3H are substituents, hydroxylation occurs with high regioselectivity in the 1,2-position. Thus, 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-2-carboxylic acids are formed quantitatively from the corresponding naphthalenecarboxylic acids. Utilization of naphthalenesulfonic acids proceeds by the same regioselective 1,2-dioxygenation which labilizes the C—SO3− bond and eliminates sulfite. PMID:16345814

  4. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains. PMID:22922536

  5. Corynebacterium frankenforstense sp. nov. and Corynebacterium lactis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow milk.

    PubMed

    Wiertz, Raika; Schulz, Stefanie Christine; Müller, Ute; Kämpfer, Peter; Lipski, André

    2013-12-01

    Two groups of Gram-stain positive, aerobic bacterial strains were isolated from raw cow's milk, from a milking machine and from bulk tank milk. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences these isolates formed two distinct groups within the genus Corynebacterium. The sequence similarities of the isolates to the type strains of species of the genus Corynebacterium were below 98.4%. The presence of menaquinones MK-8(H2) and MK-9(H2), the predominant fatty acid 18:1 cis 9 and a polar lipid pattern with several phospholipids but without aminolipids was in accord with the characteristics of this genus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic properties allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from all known species of the genus Corynebacterium. Therefore, the isolates were assigned to two novel species of this genus for which the names Corynebacterium frankenforstense sp. nov. (type strain ST18(T) =DSM 45800(T) = CCUG 63371(T)), and Corynebacterium lactis sp. nov. (type strain RW2-5(T) = DSM 45799(T) = CCUG 63372(T)) are proposed, respectively. PMID:23907219

  6. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Kominek, Jacek; Cadete, Raquel M; Soares, Marco A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Fonseca, César; Lachance, Marc-André; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Three novel D-xylose-fermenting yeast species of Spathaspora clade were recovered from rotting wood in regions of the Atlantic Rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Differentiation of new species was based on analyses of the gene encoding the D1/D2 sequences of large subunit of rRNA and on 642 conserved, single-copy, orthologous genes from genome sequence assemblies from the newly described species and 15 closely-related Debaryomycetaceae/Metschnikowiaceae species. Spathaspora girioi sp. nov. produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends; ascospore formation was not observed for the other two species. The three novel species ferment D-xylose with different efficiencies. Spathaspora hagerdaliae sp. nov. and Sp. girioi sp. nov. showed xylose reductase (XR) activity strictly dependent on NADPH, whereas Sp. gorwiae sp. nov. had XR activity that used both NADH and NADPH as co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and Sp. gorwiae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y312(T) (=CBS 13472). PMID:27188884

  7. Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov., Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov., freshwater magnetotactic bacteria isolated from three distinct geographical locations in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Marina; Koziaeva, Veronika; Grouzdev, Denis; Burganskaya, Ekaterina; Baslerov, Roman; Kolganova, Tatjana; Chernyadyev, Alexander; Osipov, Georgy; Andrianova, Ekaterina; Gorlenko, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Three strains of helical, magnetotactic bacteria, SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T, were isolated from freshwater sediments collected from three distinct locations in European Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains belong to the genus Magnetospirillum. Strains SO-1T and SP-1T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1T (99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively), and strain BB-1T with Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1T (97.3 %). The tree based on concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of the MamA, B, K, M, O, P, Q and T proteins, which are involved in magnetosome formation, was congruent with the tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T were 65.9, 63.0 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. As major fatty acids, C18 : 1ω9, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0 were detected. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the novel strains and their closest relatives in the genus Magnetospirillum were less than 51.7 ± 2.3 %. In contrast to M. magnetotacticum MS-1T, the strains could utilize butyrate and propionate; strains SO-1T and BB-1T could also utilize glycerol. Strain SP-1T showed strictly microaerophilic growth, whereas strains SO-1T and BB-1T were more tolerant of oxygen. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from each other as well as from the two species of Magnetospirillum with validly published names. Therefore, the strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov. (type strain SO-1T = DSM 28995T = VKM B-2936T), Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. (type strain SP-1T = DSM 29006T = VKM B-2938T) and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov. (type strain BB-1T = DSM 29455T = VKM B-2939T). PMID:26921147

  8. sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes: astounding structural variability and mild sources of nucleophilic boron for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Rian D; Neeve, Emily C; Braunschweig, Holger; Marder, Todd B

    2015-06-14

    Despite the widespread use of organoborane reagents in organic synthesis and catalysis, a major challenge still remains: very few boron-centered nucleophiles exist for the direct construction of B-C bonds. Perhaps the most promising emerging solution to this problem is the use of sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes, in which one boron atom of a conventional diborane(4) is quaternised by either a neutral or anionic nucleophile. These compounds, either isolated or generated in situ, serve as relatively mild and convenient sources of the boryl anion [BR2](-) for use in organic synthesis and have already proven their efficacy in metal-free as well as metal-catalysed borylation reactions. This Feature article documents the history of sp(2)-sp(3) diborane synthesis, their properties and surprising structural variability, and their burgeoning utility in organic synthesis. PMID:25912808

  9. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  10. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H.; McKeon, Gabriel P.; Ruby, Norman F.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  11. Pseudogulbenkiania gefcensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Geol; Im, Dong-Moon; Kang, HeeCheol; Yun, Pyeong; Park, Sun-Ki; Hyun, Seung-Su; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2013-01-01

    A novel strain, yH16, was isolated on nutrient agar from soil samples collected at KyungHee University, Suwon City, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain yH16(T) were short rods, Gram-negative-staining, motile and non-spore-forming, with a polar flagellum. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed that this strain was most similar to Pseudogulbenkiania subflava BP-5(T). Further 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies revealed that the new strain clustered with Pseudogulbenkiania subflava BP-5(T) (95.9 % similarity), Paludibacterium yongneupense 5YN8-15(T) (95.2 % similarity), Gulbenkiania mobilis E4FC31-5(T) (94.6 % similarity) and Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SE-YA-1(T) (93.9 % similarity). The isolate was able to grow at 25-40 °C, 0.3-2 % NaCl and pH 5.5-7. The DNA G+C content was 65.9 ± 1.0 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) and C(16:0). Ubiquinone 8 was the major respiratory quinone. It was evident from the data obtained that the strain should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudogulbenkiania. The name proposed for this taxon is Pseudogulbenkiania gefcensis sp. nov., and the type strain is yH16(T) (=KCCM 90100(T) = JCM 17850(T)). PMID:22389280

  12. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)). PMID:25351880

  13. Chryseobacterium shandongense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-bin; Wang, Xiang; Li, Shun-peng; Hong, Qing

    2015-06-01

    YF-3T is a Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, yellow-orange, rod-shaped bacterium. Optimal growth conditions were at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and 1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis, on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain YF-3T was closely related to the strains Chryseobacterium hispalense AG13T and Chryseobacterium taiwanense Soil-3-27T with 98.71 % and 96.93 % sequence similarity, respectively. Strain YF-3T contained MK-6 as the main menaquinone and had a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major component. Its major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-3T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The DNA G+C content of strain YF-3T was 37 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain YF-3T and the most closely related strains, C. hispalense AG13T and C. taiwanense Soil-3-27T, were 31.7 ± 2.1 % and 28.4 ± 5.4 %, respectively. Based on these results, a novel species named Chryseobacterium shandongense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YF-3T ( = CCTCC AB 2014060T = JCM 30154T). PMID:25762725

  14. Novosphingobium marinum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ying-Yi; You, Hong; Li, Zheng-Yang; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, strain LA53(T), was isolated from a deep-sea water sample collected from the eastern Pacific Ocean. Strain LA53(T) grew in the presence of 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at 15-37 °C; optimum growth was observed with 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at 35 °C. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed ubiquinone-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c) as major fatty acids, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingoglycolipid as major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain LA53(T) belongs to the genus Novosphingobium. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain LA53(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Novosphingobium with validly published names ranged from 93.1 to 96.3 %. In addition, strain LA53(T) could be differentiated from Novosphingobium pentaromativorans DSM 17173(T) and Novosphingobium indicum DSM 23608(T) as well as the type strain of the type species of the genus, Novosphingobium capsulatum DSM 30196(T), by some phenotypic characteristics, including hydrolysis of substrates, utilization of carbon sources and susceptibility to antibiotics. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain LA53(T) represents a novel species within the genus Novosphingobium, for which the name Novosphingobium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LA53(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12918(T) = JCM 30307(T)). PMID:25424486

  15. Pseudorhodoferax aquiterrae sp. nov., isolated from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Lin, Yang-Shun; Young, Chiu-Chung; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-containing bacterial strain, designated NAFc-7(T), was isolated from groundwater in Taiwan and was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and with 0-3 % NaCl (optimum, 0-1 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain NAFc-7(T), together with Pseudorhodoferax soli TBEA3(T) (98.2 % sequence similarity) and Pseudorhodoferax caeni SB1(T) (98.0 %), formed a deep line within the family Comamonadaceae. Strain NAFc-7(T) contained summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c), C(16 : 0) and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the predominant fatty acids. The major 3-hydroxy fatty acid was C(10 : 0) 3-OH. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content was 67.6 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and an uncharacterized phospholipid. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain NAFc-7(T) with respect to recognized species of the genus Pseudorhodoferax was less than 70 %. On the basis of the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain NAFc-7(T) represents a novel member of the genus Pseudorhodoferax, for which the name Pseudorhodoferax aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NAFc-7(T) (= BCRC 80210(T) = LMG 26333(T) = KCTC 23314(T)). PMID:22368172

  16. Deinococcus humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Kim, Myung Kyum

    2012-12-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic, spherical, non-motile, red-pigmented bacterium, designated strain MK03(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in South Korea. The taxonomic position of the novel strain was investigated using a polyphasic approach. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MK03(T) was placed in a clade formed by members of the genus Deinococcus in the family Deinococcaceae and appeared to be most closely related to Deinococcus aerolatus 5516T-9(T) (97.4% sequence similarity), Deinococcus marmoris AA-63(T) (97.2%), Deinococcus radiopugnans ATCC 19172(T) (97.2%) and Deinococcus saxicola AA-1444(T) (96.9%). The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 64.5 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MK03(T) were typical of members of the genus Deinococcus: MK-8 was identified as the predominant respiratory quinine, the major fatty acids were C(16:1)ω7c, C(15:1)ω6c, C(16:0) and C(15:0, )ornithine was found to be the diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and the novel strain showed resistance to gamma radiation, with a D(10) value (i.e. the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) in excess of 9 kGy. In hybridization experiments, only low DNA-DNA relatedness values (11.6-34.5%) were recorded between the novel strain and its closest relatives in the genus Deinococcus. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, strain MK03(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MK03(T) ( = KCTC 13619(T)  = JCM 17915(T)). PMID:22228662

  17. Tenacibaculum geojense sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    A Gram-negative, non-flagellated, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated YCS-6(T), that was motile by gliding, was isolated from seawater on the southern coast of Korea. Strain YCS-6(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and with 2% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YCS-6(T) fell within the genus Tenacibaculum and was most closely associated with Tenacibaculum litopenaei B-I(T), with which the isolate exhibited 95.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Sequence similarity between strain YCS-6(T) and other members of the genus Tenacibaculum was 93.8-95.7%. Strain YCS-6(T) contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the predominant respiratory quinone and iso-C(15:0), summed feature 3 (iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c), iso-C(15:0) 3-OH and iso-C(15:1) G as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 32.7 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness distinguished strain YCS-6(T) from all other members of the genus Tenacibaculum. On the basis of our phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YCS-6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum geojense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YCS-6(T) (=KCTC 23423(T) =CCUG 60527(T)). PMID:21257684

  18. Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2012-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SSW-35(T), was isolated from seawater in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells were motile, short rods; colonies were circular, smooth, convex, translucent and beige in colour. No diffusible pigment formed on any of the media tested. The bacterium grew at 4-30 °C and pH 7.1-10.1. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Loktanella, its closest recognized relatives being Loktanella rosea Fg36(T) (98.1% sequence similarity) and Loktanella maricola DSW-18(T) (97.8%). Levels of 16S rRNA gene similarity between strain SSW-35(T) and other recognized species of the genus Loktanella were all <97%. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown lipid as major components, as well as small amounts of two unknown phospholipids. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The major cellular fatty acid was C(18:1) (summed feature 7), and the 3-hydroxy fatty acids detected were C(12:1) 3-OH and C(10:0) 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 55.0 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the relatedness values between strain SSW-35(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest recognized species were all <11%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness, a novel species, Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is SSW-35(T) (=KCTC 12722(T)=JCM 14020(T)). PMID:21515703

  19. Loktanella litorea sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Jung, Yong-Taek; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated DPG-5(T), was isolated from seawater of the South Sea, Korea and subjected to a study using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain DPG-5(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 30 °C and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DPG-5(T) fell within the clade comprising members of the genus Loktanella, and formed a cluster with the type strains of Loktanella rosea, Loktanella maricola, Loktanella koreensis and Loktanella tamlensis, with which it exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.7, 96.5, 96.2 and 96.7 %, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain DPG-5(T) and the type strains of the other species of the genus Loktanella were in the range of 94.4-96.0 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DPG-5(T) was 57.6 mol%. Strain DPG-5(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(18 : 1)ω7c and 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids found in strain DPG-5(T) were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, showed that strain DPG-5(T) is differentiated from other species of the genus Loktanella. On the basis of the data presented, strain DPG-5(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Loktanella, for which the name Loktanella litorea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DPG-5(T) (= KCTC 23883(T) = CCUG 62113(T)). PMID:22389278

  20. Loktanella ponticola sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Taek; Park, Sooyeon; Park, Ji-Min; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated W-SW2(T), was isolated from seawater in the South Sea of South Korea. The novel strain grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 25 °C and in the presence of approximately 2% (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain W-SW2(T) fell within the clade comprising the type strains of species of the genus Loktanella, clustering and sharing the highest sequence similarity value (96.3%) with the type strain of Loktanella koreensis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain W-SW2(T) and the type strains of the other species of the genus Loktanella were in the range 93.1-96.0%. The DNA G+C content of strain W-SW2(T) was 55.9 mol%. Strain W-SW2(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c as the predominant fatty acid. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain W-SW2(T) is separated phylogenetically from other species of the genus Loktanella. On the basis of the data presented, strain W-SW2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Loktanella, for which the name Loktanella ponticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W-SW2(T) ( =KCTC 42133(T) =NBRC 110409(T)). PMID:25106924

  1. Acinetobacter kookii sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Ko, Gwangpyo; Jheong, Weonghwa; Huys, Geert; Seifert, Harald; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2013-12-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, non-fermentative bacterial strains, designated 11-0202(T) and 11-0607, were isolated from soil in South Korea, and four others, LUH 13522, LUH 8638, LUH 10268 and LUH 10288, were isolated from a beet field in Germany, soil in the Netherlands, and sediment of integrated fish farms in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and gyrB gene sequences, they are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed greatest pairwise similarity to Acinetobacter beijerinckii NIPH 838(T) (97.9-98.4 %). They shared highest rpoB and gyrB gene sequence similarity with Acinetobacter johnsonii DSM 6963(T) and Acinetobacter bouvetii 4B02(T) (85.4-87.6 and 78.1-82.7 %, respectively). Strain 11-0202(T) displayed low DNA-DNA reassociation values (<40 %) with the most closely related species of the genus Acinetobacter. The six strains utilized azelate, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol and dl-lactate as sole carbon sources. Cellular fatty acid analyses showed similarities to profiles of related species of the genus Acinetobacter: summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 1ω6c; 24.3-27.2 %), C18 : 1ω9c (19.9-22.1 %), C16 : 0 (15.2-22.0 %) and C12 : 0 (9.2-14.2 %). On the basis of the current findings, it is concluded that the six strains represent a novel species, for which the name Acinetobacter kookii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 11-0202(T) ( = KCTC 32033(T) = JCM 18512(T)). PMID:23950148

  2. Sinosporangium fuscum sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Thawai, Chitti; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-01

    A novel actinomycete, A-T 8343T was isolated from a moist evergreen forest soil sample collected in the Trat Province, Thailand. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain A-T 8343T belonged to the genus Sinosporangium and was closely related to Sinosporangium siamense A-T 1946T (98.81 %) and Sinosporangium album 6014T (98.54 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values were 21.8-27 % with S. siamense A-T 1946T and 31.1-31.9 % with S. album 6014T, which were significantly below 70 %. The result differentiated A-T 8343T from the closest species. The organism developed spherical sporangia containing non-motile spores on aerial mycelia. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars contained rhamnose, ribose, madurose and glucose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H4). The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-mannosides, aminophosphoglycolipid and one unknown phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acids were saturated C16 : 0, iso C16 : 0, unsaturated C16 : 1 and C18 : 1. Following an evaluation of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, the new isolate is proposed as a representative novel species of the genus Sinosporangium to be named Sinosporangiumfuscum sp. nov. The type strain is A-T 8343T ( = BCC 52770T = NBRC 109516T). PMID:25744582

  3. Jatrophihabitans soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2015-06-01

    One bacterial strain, designated KIS75-12T, isolated from a soil sample collected from Wonsando island located in Boryeong city, Republic of Korea, was characterized as aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-flagellated and a short rod. It grew between temperatures of 15-37 °C, pH 4-9 and 0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed the strain was moderately related to Jatrophihabitans endophyticus S9-650T (97.7 %) and revealed low sequence similarity (≤94.7 %) with all the other species with validly published names. Its major fatty acid was iso-C16 : 0. The predominant menaquinone of strain KIS75-12T was MK-9(H4). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol and several small amounts of phosphatidylinositol, aminolipids and glycolipid. The peptidoglycan contained meso-A2pm as diagnostic diamino acid and the peptidoglycan type is A4γ. The genomic DNA G+C content of the type strain was 72.1 mol%. The combined phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed that strain KIS75-12T could be clearly distinguished from the only member of the genus Jatrophihabitans,J. endophyticus. Therefore, the results of this study indicate the existence of a representative of a novel species of the genus Jatrophihabitans, for which we propose the name Jatrophihabitans soli sp. nov., with strain KIS75-12T ( = KACC 17298T = DSM 45908T  = NBRC 109658T) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Jatrophihabitans is also given. PMID:25744581

  4. Massilia flava sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiewei; Zhang, Jianli; Pang, Huancheng; Zhang, Yabo; Li, Yuyi; Fan, Jinping

    2012-03-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Y9(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in Ningxia Province in China and was characterized to determine its taxonomic position. Strain Y9(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone. Major fatty acid components were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH) and C(16:0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Y9(T) was 68.7 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Massilia. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Y9(T) and the type strains of recognized Massilia species ranged from 95.2 to 98.2%, the highest values being with Massilia albidiflava 45(T) (98.2%) and Massilia lutea 101(T) (98.0%). However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain Y9(T) and M. albidiflava KCTC 12343(T) and M. lutea KCTC 12345(T) were 37 and 26%, respectively. Strain Y9(T) was clearly differentiated from its nearest phylogenetic relatives in the genus Massilia based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties. Therefore, strain Y9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y9(T) (=CGMCC 1.10685(T) =KCTC 23585(T)). PMID:21515701

  5. Friedmanniella aerolata sp. nov., isolated from air.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-05-01

    A novel bacterium, strain 7515T-26T, was isolated from an air sample collected in Taean region, Republic of Korea. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-flagellated cocci, growing in the temperature, pH and NaCl ranges of 10-33 °C, pH 5.0-9.0 and 0-2 % (w/v). It shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Friedmanniella lacustris EL-17AT (97.6 %), Friedmanniella lucida FA2T (96.9 %) and Friedmanniella luteola FA1T (96.9 %), showing high sequence similarities of 96.5-97.6 % with members of the genus Friedmanniella. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 7515T-26T and members of the genus Friedmanniella formed a compact cluster separable from other genera. The isolate contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids, and MK-9(H4) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone. Polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unknown phospholipids and one unknown lipid, and the DNA G+C content was 73.1 mol%. The peptidoglycan type was A3γ. It showed DNA-DNA hybridization values of less than 70 % with F. lacustris EL-17AT. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, a novel species, Friedmanniella aerolata sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is 7515T-26T ( = KACC 17306T = DSM 27139T). PMID:26873462

  6. Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Tamura, Tomohiko; Shibata, Chiyo; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain KC-112T, was isolated from soil collected from Similan Islands, Phang-Nga Province, Thailand. The strain exhibited morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The formation of smooth spiral spore chains was observed on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in whole-cell hydrolysates, but no diagnostic sugars were detected and the strain lacked mycolic acids. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain KC-112T was closely related to Streptomyces fumanus NBRC 13042T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces anandii NBRC 13438T (98.8 %) and Streptomyces capillispiralis NBRC 14222T (98.8 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain KC-112T and type strains of closely related species were lower than 70 %. On the basis of evidence from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain KC-112T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov. The type strain is KC-112T ( = KCTC 29502T = NBRC 110085T = PCU 347T = TISTR 2401T). PMID:26908169

  7. Loktanella aquimaris sp. nov., Isolated from Seawater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kunho; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-02-01

    Two novel bacterial strains, designated C5(T) and C9 were isolated from a fish cage at Tongyeong, South Korea and were characterized to determine their taxonomic position. The strains were Gram-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic and short rod shaped. Growth occurred between 20 and 32 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and at 0-10 % NaCl (optimum at 2 % NaCl). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, they were identified as a member of the genus Loktanella that belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria. Strains C5(T) and C9 were analyzed by a polyphasic approach, revealing variations in their phenotypic characters but reciprocal DNA-DNA hybridization values confirmed that they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of closely related species indicated their similarities were below 97 %. The predominant isoprenoid quinone is ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0, and C18:1 ω7c. Major polar lipid contained phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidycholine (PC), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), unidentified amino lipid (AL) and unidentified lipids (L1-3). Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic data, the isolated strains represent a novel species of the genus Loktanella, for which the name Loktanella aquimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strains were C5(T) (=KEMB 3-892(T) = JCM 30382(T)), and a second strain is C9 (=KEMB 3-893 = JCM 30383). PMID:26607359

  8. Flavobacterium buctense sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Min; Tan, Xu; Jia, Li; Long, Ping-Ping; Han, Lu; Lv, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A gram-negative, non-gliding motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain T7(T), was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Flavobacterium and that shared less than 97 % sequence similarities with recognized Flavobacterium species. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Flavobacterium dankookense (96.9 %), followed by Flavobacterium cheonhonense (96.8 %) and Flavobacterium macrobrachii (96.7 %). The strain formed smooth yellow colonies on R2A plates, and cells were observed to be short rods. Strain T7(T) was found to be able to grow at 15-30 °C (optimum 25 °C), at NaCl concentration of 0-0.5 % (optimum 0 %) and at pH 6.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). Catalase and oxidase tests were positive. Polar lipids of strain T7(T) included phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified polar lipids, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified aminolipid. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed menaquinone-6 as the dominant respiratory quinone and C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:1) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain T7(T) was determined to be 38.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and genetic data obtained in this study, strain T7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium buctense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T7(T) (=JCM 30750=CGMCC 1.15216). PMID:26374244

  9. Transcription factor Sp3 is essential for post-natal survival and late tooth development

    PubMed Central

    Bouwman, Peter; Göllner, Heike; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Eckhoff, Gabriele; Karis, Alar; Grosveld, Frank; Philipsen, Sjaak; Suske, Guntram

    2000-01-01

    Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor closely related to Sp1 (specificity protein 1). We have disrupted the mouse Sp3 gene by homologous recombination. Sp3-deficient embryos are growth retarded and invariably die at birth of respiratory failure. The cause for the observed breathing defect remains obscure since only minor morphological alterations were observed in the lung, and surfactant protein expression is indistinguishable from that in wild-type mice. Histological examinations of individual organs in Sp3–/– mice show a pronounced defect in late tooth formation. In Sp3 null mice, the dentin/enamel layer of the developing teeth is impaired due to the lack of ameloblast-specific gene products. Comparison of the Sp1 and Sp3 knockout phenotype shows that Sp1 and Sp3 have distinct functions in vivo, but also suggests a degree of functional redundancy. PMID:10675334

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of the Antimicrobial Producers Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 Isolated from Antarctic Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Presta, Luana; Inzucchi, Ilaria; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Miceli, Elisangela; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Lo Giudice, Angelina; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 strains, isolated from Antarctic sediments during a summer campaign near coastal areas of Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica). Genome sequence knowledge allowed the identification of genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, it will be instrumental for comparative genomics and the fulfillment of both basic and application-oriented investigations. PMID:27469957

  11. Nitrimines as reagents for metal-free formal C(sp(2) )-C(sp(2) ) cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Dunham, Veronica V; Nickerson, David M; Ray, Devin M; Mattson, Anita E

    2014-12-22

    Nitrimines are employed as powerful reagents for metal-free formal C(sp(2) )-C(sp(2) ) cross-coupling reactions. The new chemical process is tolerant of a wide array of nitrimine and heterocyclic coupling partners giving rise to the corresponding di- or trisubstituted alkenes, typically in high yield and with high stereoselectivity. This method is ideal for the metal-free construction of heterocycle-containing drug targets, such as phenprocoumon. PMID:25365926

  12. Transcription factors YY1, Sp1 and Sp3 modulate dystrophin Dp71 gene expression in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Becerril-Esquivel, Carolina; Mendoza-de-León, Laura C; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Dávila-Velderrain, José; Cisneros, Bulmaro; de León, Mario Bermúdez

    2016-07-01

    Dystrophin Dp71, the smallest product encoded by the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene, is ubiquitously expressed in all non-muscle cells. Although Dp71 is involved in various cellular processes, the mechanisms underlying its expression have been little studied. In hepatic cells, Dp71 expression is down-regulated by the xenobiotic β-naphthoflavone. However, the effectors of this regulation remain unknown. In the present study we aimed at identifying DNA elements and transcription factors involved in Dp71 expression in hepatic cells. Relevant DNA elements on the Dp71 promoter were identified by comparing Dp71 5'-end flanking regions between species. The functionality of these elements was demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis. Using EMSAs and ChIP, we showed that the Sp1 (specificity protein 1), Sp3 (specificity protein 3) and YY1 (Yin and Yang 1) transcription factors bind to the Dp71 promoter region. Knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and YY1 in hepatic cells increased endogenous Dp71 expression, but reduced Dp71 promoter activity. In summary, Dp71 expression in hepatic cells is carried out, in part, by YY1-, Sp1- and Sp3-mediated transcription from the Dp71 promoter. PMID:27143785

  13. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov., two ascosporic yeast species isolated from the gut of beetles.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Xu, Long-Long; Zhang, Lin; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-10-01

    Four yeast strains were isolated from the gut of beetles collected on Baotianman Mountain and People's Park of Nanyang in Henan Province, China. These strains produced unconjugated asci with one or two ellipsoidal to elongate ascospores in a persistent ascus. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates represent two novel sexual species in the Candida/Lodderomyces clade. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. was located in a statistically well-supported branch together with Candida maltosa. Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. formed a subclade with its closest relative Candida viswanathii supported by a strong bootstrap value. The two novel species were distinguished from their most closely related described species, Candida maltosa and Candida viswanathii, in the D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and in phenotypic traits. The type strain of Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14719T ( = CBS 13915T = CICC 33052T), and the type strain of Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. is NYNU 14772T ( = CBS 13916T = CICC 33053T). The MycoBank numbers for Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. are MB 812621 and MB 812622. PMID:26297152

  14. Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Pathi, Satya; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Basha, Riyaz; Abdelrahim, Maen; Samudio, Ismael; Safe, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, and epidemiology studies for pancreatic and other cancers indicate that metformin exhibits both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Several metformin-induced responses and genes are similar to those observed after knockdown of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference, and we hypothesized that the mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells was due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors. Treatment of Panc1, L3.6pL and Panc28 pancreatic cancer cells with metformin downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes including bcl-2, survivin, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, and fatty acid synthase. Metformin induced proteasome-dependent degradation of Sps in L3.6pL and Panc28 cells, whereas in Panc1 cells metformin decreased microRNA-27a and induced the Sp repressor, ZBTB10, and disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 by metformin was phosphatase dependent. Metformin also inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in tumors in an orthotopic model where L3.6pL cells were injected directly into the pancreas. The results demonstrate for the first time that the anticancer activities of metformin are also due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes. PMID:23803693

  15. Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Safe, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, and epidemiology studies for pancreatic and other cancers indicate that metformin exhibits both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Several metformin-induced responses and genes are similar to those observed after knockdown of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference, and we hypothesized that the mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells was due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors. Treatment of Panc1, L3.6pL and Panc28 pancreatic cancer cells with metformin downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes including bcl-2, survivin, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, and fatty acid synthase. Metformin induced proteasome-dependent degradation of Sps in L3.6pL and Panc28 cells, whereas in Panc1 cells metformin decreased microRNA-27a and induced the Sp repressor, ZBTB10, and disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 by metformin was phosphatase dependent. Metformin also inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in tumors in an orthotopic model where L3.6pL cells were injected directly into the pancreas. The results demonstrate for the first time that the anticancer activities of metformin are also due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes. PMID:23803693

  16. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century. PMID:25054386

  17. Sumoylation differentially regulates Sp1 to control cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lili; Ji, Wei-Ke; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Wen-Feng; Tang, Xiang-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Li, Ling; Liu, Mugen; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Wu, Erxi; Woodward, Zachary; Liu, Yi-Zhi; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Li, David Wan-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are actively involved in regulating differentiation of different cell types. However, the functional differences between SUMO isoforms and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Using the ocular lens as a model system, we demonstrate that different SUMOs display distinct functions in regulating differentiation of epithelial cells into fiber cells. During lens differentiation, SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 displayed different expression, localization, and targets, suggesting differential functions. Indeed, overexpression of SUMO2/3, but not SUMO1, inhibited basic (b) FGF-induced cell differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3, also inhibited bFGF action. Mechanistically, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a major transcription factor that controls expression of lens-specific genes such as β-crystallins, was positively regulated by SUMO1 but negatively regulated by SUMO2. SUMO2 was found to inhibit Sp1 functions through several mechanisms: sumoylating it at K683 to attenuate DNA binding, and at K16 to increase its turnover. SUMO2 also interfered with the interaction between Sp1 and the coactivator, p300, and recruited a repressor, Sp3 to β-crystallin gene promoters, to negatively regulate their expression. Thus, stable SUMO1, but diminishing SUMO2/3, during lens development is necessary for normal lens differentiation. In support of this conclusion, SUMO1 and Sp1 formed complexes during early and later stages of lens development. In contrast, an interaction between SUMO2/3 and Sp1 was detected only during the initial lens vesicle stage. Together, our results establish distinct roles of different SUMO isoforms and demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that Sp1 acts as a major transcription factor target for SUMO control of cell differentiation. PMID:24706897

  18. Methylation of halogenated phenols and thiophenols by cell extracts of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. [Rhodococcus sp. ; Pseudomonas sp. ; Acinetobacter sp

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, A.H.; Lindgren, C.; Hynning, P.A.; Remberger, M.

    1988-02-01

    O-methylation of 2,6-dibromophenol was studied in cell extracts prepared from Rhodococcus sp. strain 1395. O-methylation activity was also demonstrated in extracts from two other Rhodococcus sp. strains, an Acinetobacter sp. strain, and a Pseudomonas sp. strain. A diverse range of chloro- and bromophenols, chlorothiophenols, chloro- and bromoguaiacols, and chloro- and bromocatechols were assayed as the substrates by using extracts prepared from strain 1395; all of the compounds were methylated to the corresponding anisoles, veratroles, or guaiacols. The specific activity of the enzyme towards the thiophenols was significantly higher than it was towards all the other substrates-high activity was found with pentafluorothiophenol, although the activity with pentafluorophenol was undetectable with the incubation times used. For the chlorophenols, the position of the substituents was of cardinal importance. The enzyme had higher activity towards the halogenated catechols than towards the corresponding guaiacols, and selective O-methylation of the 3,4,5-trihalogenocatechols yielded predominantly the 3,4,5-trihalogenoguaiacols. Neither 2,4-dinitrophenol, hexachlorophene, nor 5-chloro- or 5-bromovanillin was O-methylated. The results showed conclusively that the methylation reactions were enzymatic and confirmed the conclusion from extensive studies using whole cells that methylation of halogenated phenols may be a significant alternative to biodegradation.

  19. Chryseobacterium gwangjuense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Jin; Son, Heung-Min; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ju Han; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Choi, Ki Ju; Shin, Hun-Sub; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, THG-A18(T), was isolated from soil of Gwangju province in South Korea. Strain THG-A18(T) grew optimally at 25-30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Strain THG-A18(T) displayed β-glucosidase activity, which enabled it to convert ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain THG-A18(T) was shown to belong to the genus Chryseobacterium. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were Chryseobacterium ginsenosidimutans THG 15(T) (97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similariity), C. defluvii B2(T) (97.7 %), C. daeguense K105(T) (97.6 %), C. taiwanense BCRC 17412(T) (97.5 %), C. indoltheticum LMG 4025(T) (97.4 %), C. gregarium P 461/12(T) (97.4 %) and C. lathyri RBA2-6(T) (97.3 %), but DNA-DNA relatedness values between these strains and strain THG-A18(T) were below 41.9 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.4 mol%. The major respiratory quinone (MK-6) and fatty acids [iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0)] supported the affiliation of strain THG-A18(T) with the genus Chryseobacterium. The polar lipids of strain THG-A18(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified aminolipids and seven unidentified lipids. A number of physiological and biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain THG-A18(T) from recognized species of the genus Chryseobacterium. The name Chryseobacterium gwangjuense sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-A18(T) ( = KACC 16227(T) = LMG 26579(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23907230

  20. Altererythrobacter aestiaquae sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Taek; Park, Sooyeon; Lee, Jung-Sook; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, coccoid- or oval-shaped, gliding bacterial strain, designated HDW-31(T), belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria, was isolated from seawater of the Yellow Sea, Korea, and was subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain HDW-31(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 30 °C and in the presence of 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HDW-31(T) fell within the clade comprising the genus Altererythrobacter, clustering with the type strains of Altererythrobacter luteolus and Altererythrobacter gangjinensis, with which strain HDW-31(T) exhibited 97.0 and 96.0 % sequence similarity values, respectively. Sequence similarities to the type strains of the other recognized species of the genus Altererythrobacter were 93.5-96.0 %. The DNA G+C content was 57.9 mol% and mean DNA-DNA relatedness between strain HDW-31(T) and the type strain of A. luteolus was 5.3 %. Strain HDW-31(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, a sphingoglycolipid, two unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain HDW-31(T) is distinguishable from recognized species of the genus Altererythrobacter. On the basis of the data presented, strain HDW-31(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Altererythrobacter, for which the name Altererythrobacter aestiaquae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HDW-31(T) ( = KCTC 42006(T) = CECT 8527(T)). PMID:25201916

  1. Hymenobacter roseus sp. nov., isolated from sand.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-12-01

    Strain JC245(T) was isolated from a sand sample, and appeared as dark pink colonies on agar plates with cells staining Gram-negative. Catalase and oxidase activities were positive. Casein was hydrolysed while chitin, gelatin and starch were not. Major (>5 %) fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1ω5c, C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c, anteiso-C17 : 1 B/iso-C17 : 1 I and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Strain JC245(T) contained phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids as the major polar lipids, with minor amounts of four unidentified lipids and an unidentified amino lipid. Bacterial hopane derivatives and adenosylhopane were the major hopanoids. Hydroxyflexixanthin was identified as one of the major carotenoids of strain JC245(T) along with five unidentified carotenoids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 52.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain JC245(T) represents a member of the genus Hymenobacter within the family Cytophagaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain JC245(T) shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Hymenobacter roseosalivarius AA-718(T) (98.3 %) and other members of the genus Hymenobacter (<95.1 %). However, strain JC245(T) showed 21±2 % relatedness (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with H. roseosalivarius DSM 11622(T). Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC245(T) as a representative of a novel species in the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter roseus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC245(T) ( = KCTC 42090(T) = LMG 28260(T)). PMID:25242537

  2. Bacillus luteus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-05-01

    Two bacterial strains (JC167T and JC168) were isolated from a soil sample collected from Mandpam, Tamilnadu, India. Colonies of both strains were orange and cells Gram-stain-positive. Cells were small rods, and formed terminal endospores of ellipsoidal to oval shape. Both strains were positive for catalase, oxidase and hydrolysis of starch/gelatin, and negative for chitin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production and nitrate reduction activity. Major fatty acids of both strains (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:0 with minor (<5 but >1%) amounts of iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0 B/iso-C17:0 I and C16:1ω11c. Diphosphatydilglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids of both strains. Cell wall amino acids were L-alanine, D-alanine, D-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. β-Carotene and five unidentified carotenoids were present in both strains. Mean genomic DNA G+C content was 53.4±1 mol% and the two strains were closely related (mean DNA-DNA hybridization>90%). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons of both strains indicated that they represent species of the genus Bacillus within the family Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes. Both strains had a sequence similarity of 97.6% with Bacillus saliphilus 6AGT and <96.8% with other members of the genus Bacillus. Sequence similarity between strain JC167T and 168 was 100%. Strain JC167T showed 25.8±1% reassociation (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with B. saliphilus DSM 15402T (=6AGT). Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC167T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC167T (=KCTC 33100T=LMG 27257T). PMID:24478212

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. ME121, Isolated from Soil as a Mixed Single Colony with Kaistia sp. 32K

    PubMed Central

    Fujinami, Shun; Takeda-Yano, Kiyoko; Onodera, Takefumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Shimizu, Tetsu; Wakabayashi, Yuu; Narumi, Issay; Nakamura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Methylobacterium sp. ME121 was isolated from soil as a mixed single colony with Kaistia sp. 32K, and its growth was enhanced by coculture. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Methylobacterium sp. ME121, which may contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. PMID:26337893

  4. Enantiospecific sp2-sp3 coupling of secondary and tertiary boronic esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, Amadeu; Odachowski, Marcin; Leonori, Daniele; Essafi, Stephanie; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-07-01

    The cross-coupling of boronic acids and related derivatives with sp2 electrophiles (the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is one of the most powerful C-C bond formation reactions in synthesis, with applications that span pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and high-tech materials. Despite the breadth of its utility, the scope of this Nobel prize-winning reaction is rather limited when applied to aliphatic boronic esters. Primary organoboron reagents work well, but secondary and tertiary boronic esters do not (apart from a few specific and isolated examples). Through an alternative strategy, which does not involve using transition metals, we have discovered that enantioenriched secondary and tertiary boronic esters can be coupled to electron-rich aromatics with essentially complete enantiospecificity. As the enantioenriched boronic esters are easily accessible, this reaction should find considerable application, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry where there is growing awareness of the importance of, and greater clinical success in, creating biomolecules with three-dimensional architectures.

  5. Oceanobacillus damuensis sp. nov. and Oceanobacillus rekensis sp. nov., isolated from saline alkali soil samples.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiufeng; Ye, Renyuan; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yuqin; Zeng, Zhigang; Tian, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Two moderately halophilic strains, PT-11(T) and PT-20(T), were isolated from saline alkali soil samples collected in Shache County, Xinjiang Province, China. Both strains are aerobic, Gram-positive, motile rods. Strain PT-11(T) grows at 15-40 °C and at pH 6.5-10.0, while PT-20(T) grows at 15-40 °C and at pH 6.5-11.0. The major cellular fatty acids in both strains include anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0. For both strains, the polar lipids consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid and several unidentified lipids. In addition, strain PT-20(T) also contains phosphatidylcholine. The major isoprenoid quinone for both strains is MK-7. The genomic G+C content is 36.7 % for PT-11(T) and 39.2 % for PT-20(T). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these two isolates are members of the genus Oceanobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strains PT-11(T) and PT-20(T) should be considered two distinct species. On the basis of both phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data analyses, therefore, we conclude that PT-11(T) and PT-20(T) represent two novel species within the genus Oceanobacillus, for which we propose the names Oceanobacillus rekensis sp. nov. and Oceanobacillus damuensis sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are PT-11(T) (=KCTC 33144(T) = DSM 26900(T)) and PT-20(T) (=KCTC 33146(T) = DSM 26901(T)). PMID:26168852

  6. Serratia myotis sp. nov. and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov., isolated from bats hibernating in caves.

    PubMed

    García-Fraile, P; Chudíčková, M; Benada, O; Pikula, J; Kolařík, M

    2015-01-01

    During the study of bacteria associated with bats affected by white-nose syndrome hibernating in caves in the Czech Republic, we isolated two facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacteria, designated strains 12(T) and 52(T). Strains 12(T) and 52(T) were motile, rod-like bacteria (0.5-0.6 µm in diameter; 1-1.3 µm long), with optimal growth at 20-35 °C and pH 6-8. On the basis of the almost complete sequence of their 16S rRNA genes they should be classified within the genus Serratia; the closest relatives to strains 12(T) and 52(T) were Serratia quinivorans DSM 4597(T) (99.5 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences) and Serratia ficaria DSM 4569(T) (99.5% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences), respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 12(T) and S. quinivorans DSM 4597(T) was only 37.1% and between strain 52(T) and S. ficaria DSM 4569(T) was only 56.2%. Both values are far below the 70% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Serratia as representatives of Serratia myotis sp. nov. (type strain 12(T) =CECT 8594(T) =DSM 28726(T)) and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov. (type strain 52(T) =CECT 8595(T) =DSM 28727(T)). PMID:25281728

  7. Crystal structures of aldehyde deformylating oxygenase from Limnothrix sp. KNUA012 and Oscillatoria sp. KNUA011.

    PubMed

    Park, Ae Kyung; Kim, Il-Sup; Jeon, Byung Wook; Roh, Soo Jung; Ryu, Min-Young; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jo, Seoung-Woo; Kim, Young-Saeng; Park, Hyun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Kim, Han-Woo

    2016-08-26

    The cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (cADO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the unusual deformylation of aliphatic aldehydes for alkane biosynthesis and can be applied to the production of biofuel in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we determined crystal structures of two ADOs from Limnothrix sp. KNUA012 (LiADO) and Oscillatoria sp. KNUA011 (OsADO). The structures of LiADO and OsADO resembled those of typical cADOs, consisting of eight α-helices found in ferritin-like di-iron proteins. However, structural comparisons revealed that while the LiADO active site was vacant of iron and substrates, the OsADO active site was fully occupied, containing both a coordinated metal ion and substrate. Previous reports indicated that helix 5 is capable of adopting two distinct conformations depending upon the existence of bound iron. We observed that helix 5 of OsADO with an iron bound in the active site presented as a long helix, whereas helix 5 of LiADO, which lacked iron in the active site, presented two conformations (one long and two short helices), indicating that an equilibrium exists between the two states in solution. Furthermore, acquisition of a structure having a fully occupied active site is unique in the absence of higher iron concentrations as compared with other cADO structures, wherein low affinity for iron complicates the acquisition of crystal structures with bound iron. An in-depth analysis of the ADO apo-enzyme, the enzyme with substrate bound, and the enzyme with both iron and substrate bound provided novel insight into substrate-binding modes in the absence of a coordinated metal ion and suggested a separate two-step binding mechanism for substrate and iron co-factors. Moreover, our results provided a comprehensive structural basis for conformational changes induced by binding of the substrate and co-factor. PMID:27329814

  8. Pseudochelatococcus lubricantis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Pseudochelatococcus contaminans sp. nov. from coolant lubricants.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gräber, Marco; Rabenstein, Andreas; Kuever, Jan; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria, isolated from metal working fluids were investigated to determine their taxonomic positions. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, both strains (MPA 1113(T) and MPA 1105(T)) formed a distinct cluster with 97.7 % sequence similarity between them, which was in the vicinity of members of the genera Methylobacterium, Camelimonas, Chelatococcus, Bosea, Salinarimonas and Microvirga to which they showed low sequence similarities (below 94 %). The predominant compounds in the polyamine pattern and in the quinone system of the two strains were spermidine and ubiquinone Q-10, respectively. The polar lipid profiles were composed of the major compounds: phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, major or moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified glycolipids and three unidentified aminolipids. Several minor lipids were also detected. The major fatty acids were either C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c or C18 : 1ω7c. The results of fatty acid analysis and physiological and biochemical tests allowed both, the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from each other, while the chemotaxonomic traits allowed them to be differentiated from the most closely related genera. In summary, low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and marked differences in polar lipid profiles, as well as in polyamine patterns, is suggestive of a novel genus for which the name Pseudochelatococcus gen. nov. is proposed. MPA 1113(T) ( = CCM 8528(T) = LMG 28286(T) = CIP 110802(T)) and MPA 1105(T) ( = CCM 8527(T) = LMG 28285(T)) are proposed to be the type strains representing two novel species within the novel genus, Pseudochelatococcus gen. nov., for which the names Pseudochelatococcus lubricantis sp. nov. and Pseudochelatococcus contaminans sp. nov. are suggested, respectively. PMID:25301542

  9. Martelella radicis sp. nov. and Martelella mangrovi sp. nov., isolated from mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Chao; Margesin, Rosa

    2014-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated BM5-7(T) and BM9-1(T) were isolated from soil of the root system of a mangrove forest. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two isolates belong to the genus Martelella. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates included the presence of C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C18 : 1ω7c as the major cellular fatty acids and Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains BM5-7(T) and BM9-1(T) were 61.0 and 59.7 mol% (HPLC method), respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 98.1 %, but DNA-DNA hybridization indicated 44 % relatedness. Strains BM5-7(T) and BM9-1(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.0-99.2 % and 97.7-98.1 %, respectively, with type strains of Martelella endophytica and Martelella mediterranea. Combined data from phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness studies demonstrated that strains BM5-7(T) and BM9-1(T) are representatives of two novel species of the genus Martelella, for which the names Martelella radicis sp. nov. (type strain BM5-7(T) = DSM 28101(T) = LMG 27958(T)) and Martelella mangrovi sp. nov. (type strain BM9-1(T) = DSM 28102(T) = LMG 27959(T)) are proposed. PMID:24944336

  10. Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Gui-Ding; Li, Qin-Yuan; Hu, Cai-Juan; Qiu, Shu-Mei; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Han, Li; Huang, Xue-Shi

    2015-12-01

    Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T), were isolated from Lama pacos (alpaca) and Viverra zibetha (civet) faeces in Yunnan Wild Animal Park in Yunnan province, southwestern China. Both strains should be placed in genus Enteractinococcus based on phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 101617(T) exhibits high similarity to Enteractinococcus fodinae DSM 22966(T) (97.70 %) and Enteractinococcus coprophilus YIM 100590(T) (97.45 %), whilst YIM 101632(T) exhibits high similarity to Enteractinococcus coprophilus YIM 100590(T) (97.25 %), and the similarity between YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T) is 95.90 %. However, DNA-DNA hybridization values of the two strains with the type strains in the genus Enteractinococcus were low (<70 %). Most morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains were found to be similar to those of species in the genus Enteractinococcus but also some differences were observed. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T) were determined to be 55.9 and 56.4 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, the two strains are concluded to represent two different novel species in the genus Enteractinococcus. The names Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 101617(T)=DSM 27612(T)=CCTCC AB 2013230(T)) and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 101632(T)=KCTC 39552(T)=CCTCC AB 2013280(T)) are proposed, respectively. PMID:26423082

  11. Nocardioides endophyticus sp. nov. and Nocardioides conyzicola sp. nov., isolated from herbaceous plant roots.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Hye; Kim, Tae-Su; Joung, Yochan; Kim, Mi Na; Shin, Kee-Sun; Bae, Taeok; Kim, Seung Bum

    2013-12-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped actinobacterial strains were isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of mugwort (Artemisia princeps) and horse-weed (Conyza canadensis), and subjected to taxonomic characterization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolates, designated MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T), should be placed in the genus Nocardioides of the family Nocardioidaceae. The strains were closely related to Nocardioides hankookensis DS-30(T), which exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.99 and 99.09 % with strains MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T), respectively. The genome relatedness of N. hankookensis DS-30(T) with strain MWE 3-5(T) was 35.8 %, and that with strain HWE 2-02(T) was 36.4 %, whereas that between the two isolates was 43.2 %. Strains MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T) possessed MK-8(H4) as the major isoprenoid quinone, and ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The main fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c for strain MWE 3-5(T) and iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl C18 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c for strain HWE 2-02(T). Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic studies, the following two novel species are proposed: Nocardioides endophyticus sp. nov. (type strain, MWE 3-5(T) = KCTC 29122(T) = JCM 18532(T)) and Nocardioides conyzicola sp. nov. (type strain, HWE 2-02(T) = KCTC 29121(T) = JCM 18531(T)). PMID:23990649

  12. Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., from the north-west Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Zhukova, Natalia V; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bowman, John P

    2005-09-01

    One whitish and four pinkish strains of Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacteria were isolated from sea-water and sediment samples collected in Chazhma Bay (Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belonged to the 'Alphaproteobacteria', having highest sequence similarity of about 94-97% with species of the genus Loktanella. None of the strains degraded gelatin, casein, chitin, agar, DNA or starch and they had limited ability to utilize carbon sources. The four pinkish strains, Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117, degraded Tween 80. Sea-water strain R10SW5(T) grew at 3-6% NaCl and a temperature range of 8-35 degrees C, whilst strains Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117 grew at NaCl concentrations of 1-12% and a temperature range of 4-35 degrees C. Phosphatidylglycerol (58/79%), diphosphatidylglycerol (11/6%) and phosphatidylcholine (28/22%) were the major phospholipids. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (12.2/8.6%) and 18:1omega7 (76.6/68.4%). The DNA G+C content of strain R10SW5(T) was 59.1 mol% and those of the four pinkish strains ranged from 60.5 to 61.8 mol%. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic investigation, two novel species, Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains are R10SW5(T) (=KMM 3788(T)=CIP 107883(T)) and Fg36(T) (=KMM 6003(T)=CIP 107851(T)=LMG 22534(T)), respectively. PMID:16166733

  13. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T) = CCTCC AA 2013003(T) = NRRL B-59998(T) = KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T) = CCTCC AA 2013004(T) = NRRL B-24927(T) = KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

  14. Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium bohemicum sp. nov., from the bumblebee digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Killer, J; Kopečný, J; Mrázek, J; Koppová, I; Havlík, J; Benada, O; Kott, T

    2011-06-01

    Our previous study, based primarily on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, focused on the isolation of four bifidobacterial groups from the digestive tract of three bumblebee species. In that study, we proposed that these isolated groups potentially represented novel species of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. One of the four, Bifidobacterium bombi, has been described recently. Strains representing two of the other groups have been classified as members of the genus Bifidobacterium on the basis of positive results for fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity and analysis of partial 16S rRNA and heat-shock protein 60 (hsp60) gene sequences. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities revealed that the isolates of the first group were affiliated to Bifidobacterium asteroides YIT 11866(T), B. indicum JCM 1302(T) and B. coryneforme ATCC 25911(T) (96.2, 96.0 and 95.9 % sequence similarity, respectively), together with other bifidobacteria showing lower sequence similarity. Additional representatives of the second group were found to be affiliated to Bifidobacterium minimum YIT 4097(T) and B. coryneforme ATCC 25911(T) (96.0 and 96.3 % sequence similarity) and also to other bifidobacteria with lower sequence similarity. These results indicate that the isolates of the two groups belong to novel species within the genus Bifidobacterium. This observation was further substantiated by the results of partial sequencing of hsp60. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses and analysis of 16S rRNA and partial hsp60 gene sequences, we propose two novel species, Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme sp. nov. (type strain LISLUCIII-P2(T)  = DSM 22766(T)  = CCM 7728(T)) and Bifidobacterium bohemicum sp. nov. (type strain JEMLUCVIII-4(T)  = DSM 22767(T)  = CCM 7729(T)). PMID:20656822

  15. Kroppenstedtia pulmonis sp. nov. and Kroppenstedtia sanguinis sp. nov., isolated from human patients.

    PubMed

    Bell, Melissa E; Lasker, Brent A; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hoyles, Lesley; Spröer, Catherine; Schumann, Peter; Brown, June M

    2016-05-01

    Three human clinical strains (W9323(T), X0209(T) and X0394) isolated from a lung biopsy, blood and cerebral spinal fluid, respectively, were characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the three strains belong to two novel branches within the genus Kroppenstedtia: 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of W9323(T) showed close sequence similarity to Kroppenstedtia eburnea JFMB-ATE(T) (95.3 %), Kroppenstedtia guangzhouensis GD02(T) (94.7 %) and strain X0209(T) (94.6 %); sequence analysis of strain X0209(T) showed close sequence similarity to K. eburnea JFMB-ATE(T) (96.4 %) and K. guangzhouensis GD02(T) (96.0 %). Strains X0209(T) and X0394 were 99.9 % similar to each other by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The DNA-DNA relatedness was 94.6 %, confirming that X0209(T) and X0394 belong to the same species. Chemotaxonomic data for strains W9323(T) and X0209(T) were consistent with those described for the members of the genus Kroppenstedtia: the peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid; the major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15 and anteiso-C15; and the major menaquinone was identified as MK-7. Differences in endospore morphology, carbon source utilisation profiles, and cell wall sugar patterns of strains W9323(T) and X0209(T), supported by phylogenetic analysis, enabled us to conclude that the strains each represent a new species within the genus Kroppenstedtia, for which the names Kroppenstedtia pulmonis sp. nov. (type strain W9323(T) = DSM 45752(T) = CCUG 68107(T)) and Kroppenstedtia sanguinis sp. nov. (type strain X0209(T) = DSM 45749(T) = CCUG 38657(T)) are proposed. PMID:26910402

  16. Description of Leifsonia kafniensis sp. nov. and Leifsonia antarctica sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Kishore, K Hara; Reddy, G S N; Shivaji, S

    2009-06-01

    Strains KFC-22(T) and SPC-20(T) are yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that were isolated from a soil sample near the Kafni glacier in the Himalayan mountain ranges in India, and from a spade core sediment sample from the Antarctic Ocean at Larsemann Hill, respectively. In both cases, the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diamino acid, anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0) were the predominant fatty acids and MK-11 was the major isoprenoid quinone in the cell membrane. On the basis of the above-mentioned characteristics, both strains can be assigned to the genus Leifsonia. The strains share 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.7 % and DNA relatedness of only 10 %, indicating that they represent different species. A blast analysis indicated that Leifsonia pindariensis PON10(T) was the closest phylogenetic neighbour of strains SPC-20(T) and KFC-22(T), showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.3 and 97.7 %, respectively. However, at the whole-genome level, strains KFC-22(T) and SPC-20(T) shared 42 and 11 % DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, with L. pindariensis PON10(T). In addition, both strains exhibited several phenotypic differences with respect to L. pindariensis PON10(T). Thus, on the basis of the differences that the two strains exhibited with respect to L. pindariensis, both were identified as representing novel species of the genus Leifsonia, for which the names Leifsonia kafniensis sp. nov. (type strain KFC-22(T) =NCCB 100216(T) =LMG 24362(T)) and Leifsonia antarctica sp. nov. (type strain SPC-20(T) =NCCB 100227(T) =LMG 24541(T)) are proposed. PMID:19502314

  17. Methanosalsum natronophilum sp. nov., and Methanocalculus alkaliphilus sp. nov., haloalkaliphilic methanogens from hypersaline soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Merkel, Alexander Y; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Sukhacheva, Marina V; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-10-01

    Two groups of haloalkaliphilic methanogenic archaea were dominating in enrichments from hypersaline soda lake sediments at pH 10. At moderate salt concentrations with formate or H2 as electron donor, methanogens belonging to the genus Methanocalculus were enriched, while at high salt concentrations with methylated substrates, a group related to Methanosalsum zhilinae was dominating. For both groups, several pure cultures were obtained including the type strains AMF2T for the Methanocalculus group and AME2T for the Methanosalsum group. The Methanocalculus group is characterized by lithoheterotrophic growth with either formate (preferable substrate) or H2 at moderate salinity up to 1.5-2 M total Na+ and obligate alkaliphilic growth with an optimum at pH 9.5. According to phylogenetic analysis, the group also includes closely related strains isolated previously from the low-salt alkaline Lonar Lake. The novel Methanosalsum group is characterized by high salt tolerance (up to 3.5 M total Na+) and obligate alkaliphilic growth with an optimum at pH 9.5. It has a typical methylotrophic substrate profile, utilizing methanol, methylamines and dimethyl sulfide (at low concentrations) as methanogenic substrates. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic data, it is proposed that the two groups of soda lake methanogenic isolates are assigned into two novel species, Methanocalculus alkaliphilus sp. nov. (type strain AMF2T = DSM 24457T = UNIQEM U859T) and Methanosalsum natronophilum sp. nov. (type strain AME2T = DSM 24634T = NBRC 110091T). PMID:26228570

  18. Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. and Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow's milk.

    PubMed

    von Neubeck, M; Huptas, C; Glück, C; Krewinkel, M; Stoeckel, M; Stressler, T; Fischer, L; Hinrichs, J; Scherer, S; Wenning, M

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of the microbiota of raw cow's milk and semi-finished milk products yielded seven isolates assigned to the genus Pseudomonas that formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis based on partial rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The two groups could be differentiated from each other and also from their closest relatives as well as from the type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values within the groups were higher than 97.3 %, whereas similarity values to the closest relatives were 85 % or less. The major cellular lipids of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; the major quinone was Q-9 in both strains, with small amounts of Q-8 in strain WS4917T. The DNA G+C contents of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were 58.08 and 57.30 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, strains WS4917T, WS4995 ( = DSM 29141 = LMG 28434), WS4999, WS5001 and WS5002 should be considered as representatives of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas helleri is strain WS4917T ( = DSM 29165T = LMG 28433T). Strains WS4993T and WS4994 ( = DSM 29140 = LMG 28438) should be recognized as representing a second novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis is strain WS4993T ( = DSM 29166T = LMG 28437T). PMID:26675012

  19. Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium jicamae sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Pachyrhizus erosus.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Peix, Alvaro; Rivas, Raúl; Camacho, María; Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce N; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    Several strains isolated from the legume Pachyrhizus erosus were characterized on the basis of diverse genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic approaches. These novel strains formed two groups closely related to Bradyrhizobium elkanii according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strains PAC48T and PAC68T, designated as the type strains of these two groups, presented 99.8 and 99.1% similarity, respectively, in their 16S rRNA gene sequences with respect to B. elkanii USDA 76T. In spite of these high similarity values, the analysis of additional phylogenetic markers such as atpD and glnII genes and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) showed that strains PAC48T and PAC68T represented two separate novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with B. elkanii as their closest relative. Phenotypic differences among the novel strains isolated from Pachyrhizus and B. elkanii were found regarding the assimilation of carbon sources and antibiotic resistance. All these differences were congruent with DNA-DNA hybridization analysis which revealed 21% genetic relatedness between strains PAC48T and PAC68T and 46% and 25%, respectively, between these strains and B. elkanii LMG 6134T. The nodD and nifH genes of strains PAC48T and PAC68T were phylogenetically divergent from those of bradyrhizobia species that nodulate soybean. Soybean was not nodulated by the novel Pachyrhizus isolates. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, the new strains represent two novel species for which the names Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi sp. nov. (type strain PAC48T=LMG 24246T=CECT 7396T) and Bradyrhizobium jicamae sp. nov. (type strain PAC68T=LMG 24556T=CECT 7395T) are proposed. PMID:19567584

  20. Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov., isolated from the oleaginous microalga Picochlorum sp.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Yi; Wang, Guanghua; Chen, Yao; Lai, Qiliang; Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Liao, Pingping; Zhu, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, orange-pigmented, non-motile, aerobic bacterial strain, designated GYP20T, was isolated from a culture of the alga Picochlorum sp., a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, which was isolated from the India Ocean. Growth was observed at temperatures from 20 to 37 °C, salinities from 0 to 3% and pH from 5 to 9.Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions were required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Phaeodactylibacter, which belongs to the family Saprospiraceae. Strain GYP20T was most closely related to Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis KD52T (95.5% sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The polar lipids of strain GYP20T were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Phaeodactylibacter, but can readily be distinguished from Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis GYP20T. The name Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain GYP20T ( = MCCC 1F01222T = KCTC 42180T). PMID:25964516

  1. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. and Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov., two sexual yeast species associated with insects and rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-09-01

    Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)). PMID:25999593

  2. Identification and characterization of Theileria ovis surface protein (ToSp) resembled TaSp in Theileria annulata.

    PubMed

    Shayan, P; Jafari, S; Fattahi, R; Ebrahimzade, E; Amininia, N; Changizi, E

    2016-05-01

    Ovine theileriosis is an important hemoprotozoal disease of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions which caused high economic loses in the livestock industry. Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSp) was used previously as a tool for serological analysis in livestock. Since the amino acid sequences of TaSp is, at least, in part very conserved in T. annulata, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria china I and II, it is very important to determine the amino acid sequence of this protein in Theileria ovis as well, to avoid false interpretation of serological data based on this protein in small animal. In the present study, the nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of T. ovis surface protein (ToSp) were determined. The comparison of the nucleotide sequence of ToSp showed 96, 96, 99, and 86 % homology to the corresponding nucleotide sequence of TaSp genes by T. annulata, T. China I, T. China II and T. lestoquardi, previously registered in GenBank under accession nos. AJ316260.1, AY274329.1, DQ120058.1, and EF092924.1 respectively. The amino acid sequence analysis showed 95, 81, 98 and 70 % homology to the corresponding amino acid sequence of T. annulata, T chinaI, T china II and T. lestoquardi, registered in GenBank under accession nos. CAC87478.1, AAP36993.1, AAZ30365.1 and AAP36999.11, respectively. Interestingly, in contrast to the C terminus, a significant difference in amino acid sequence in the N teminus of the ToSp protein could be determined compared to the other known corresponding TaSp sequences, which make this region attractive for designing of a suitable tool for serological diagnosis. PMID:26833323

  3. Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes of the Cyanophyte, Nostoc sp. 1

    PubMed Central

    Rusckowski, Mary; Zilinskas, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    Four chlorophyll-protein complexes have been resolved from the cyanophyte, Nostoc sp., by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at 4 C. Complexes solubilized by SDS from Spinacia oleracea were run for comparison. As has been well documented, the P700-chlorophyll a-protein complex from the higher plant and blue-green algal samples are similar, and the light-harvesting pigment protein complex is present only in the former. Most noteworthy are two closely migrating chlorophyll proteins in Nostoc sp. which have approximately the same mobility as a single chlorophyll-protein band resolvable from spinach. The absorption maximum of the complex from spinach is at 667 nanometers, and those of the two complexes from Nostoc sp. are at 667 and 669 nanometers; the fluorescence emission maximum at −196 C is at 685 nanometers, and the 735 nanometer fluorescence peak, characteristic of the P700-chlorophyll a-protein complex, is absent. The apoproteins of these new complexes from Nostoc sp. and spinach are in the kilodalton range. It appears that at least one of these two chlorophyll-protein complexes from Nostoc sp. compares with those recently described by others from higher plants and green algae as likely photosystem II complexes, perhaps containing P680, although no photochemical data are yet available. Images PMID:16661198

  4. Molecular characterization of Sp110 gene in pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Zu; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Han, Li-Xin; Wang, Jin-Kui; Shao, Si-Yu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Di; Yang, Xiu-Qin

    2016-06-01

    Speckled 110 kDa (Sp110) plays an important role in infectious diseases, as revealed by studies in humans. However, little is known regarding porcine Sp110. To elucidate its potential role in porcine resistance to viral diseases, here, the complete coding sequence of porcine Sp110 gene and its 26 alternatively spliced isoforms were isolated using reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and another seven splicing patterns were obtained using a minigene construct. Subcellular distribution of 11 representative isoforms was characterized in PK-15 cells transiently transfected with their respective GFP fusion constructs, and only isoforms (R and V) bearing all functional domains were localized in nucleus, indicating all the other isoforms lose normal functions of Sp110 owing to alternative splicing. Real-time quantitative PCR and competitive RT-PCR showed that both isoforms R and V had similar tissue expression profile, half-life and response to poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, while the longer one (isoform R) was transcribed at a higher level. The results indicated that porcine Sp110 has a role in viral infection and that isoform R is the dominant active form. Overall the data provide potential resource for molecular breeding of pig resistant to diseases and contributes to breeding pigs resistant to viral infection. PMID:26995495

  5. Sp3 regulates fas expression in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, H; Miranda, K; Fine, A

    1998-01-01

    By transducing an apoptotic signal in immune effector cells, Fas has been directly implicated in the control of immunological activity. Expression and functional results, however, have also suggested a role for Fas in regulating cell turnover in specific epithelial populations. To characterize factors responsible for Fas expression in epithelial cells, approximately 3 kb of the 5' flanking region of the mouse Fas gene was isolated. By rapid amplification of cDNA ends and primer extension, transcriptional start sites were identified within 50 bp upstream of the translation start site. Transient transfection of promoter-luciferase constructs in a mouse lung epithelial cell line, MLE-15, localized promoter activity to the first 77 bp of upstream sequence. By using a 60 bp DNA probe (-18 to -77) in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, three shifted complexes were found. Incubation with excess cold Sp1 oligonucleotide or an anti-Sp3 antibody inhibited complex formation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Sp1 site resulted in 60-70% loss of promoter activity. In Drosophila SL-2 cells, promoter activity was markedly increased by co-transfection of an Sp3 expression construct. These results show that the Sp3 protein is involved in regulating Fas gene expression in lung epithelial cells. PMID:9639581

  6. Surfactant Protein A (SP-A)-mediated Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus Involves Binding of SP-A to the Staphylococcal Adhesin Eap and the Macrophage Receptors SP-A Receptor 210 and Scavenger Receptor Class A*

    PubMed Central

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap+) but not Eap-deficient (Eap−) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap+ S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap+ but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap+ S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap− S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210L and SP-R210S. The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210L, whereas SR-A−/− alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210L expressing only SP-R210S. Accordingly, SR-A−/− mice were highly susceptible to both Eap+ and Eap− S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210L mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A. PMID:21123169

  7. Sp(8) invariant higher spin theory, twistors and geometric BRST formulation of unfolded field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    We discuss twistor-like interpretation of the Sp(8) invariant formulation of 4d massless fields in ten dimensional Lagrangian Grassmannian Sp(8)/P which is the generalized space-time in this framework. The correspondence space C is SpH(8)/PH where SpH(8) is the semidirect product of Sp(8) with Heisenberg group SpHM and PH is some quasiparabolic subgroup of SpH(8). Spaces of functions on Sp(8)/P and SpH(8)/PH consist of QP closed functions on Sp(8) and QPH closed functions on SpH(8), where QP and QPH are canonical BRST operators of P and PH. The space of functions on the generalized twistor space T identifies with the SpH(8) Fock module. Although T cannot be realized as a homogeneous space, we find a nonstandard SpH(8) invariant BRST operator Q (Q2 = 0) that gives rise to an appropriate class of functions via the condition Qf = 0 equivalent to the unfolded higher-spin equations. The proposed construction is manifestly Sp(8) invariant, globally defined and coordinate independent. Its Minkowski analogue gives a version of twistor theory with both types of chiral spinors treated on equal footing. The extensions to the higher rank case with several Heisenberg groups and to the complex case are considered. A relation with Riemann theta functions, that are Q-closed, is discussed.

  8. SP-R210 (Myo18A) Isoforms as Intrinsic Modulators of Macrophage Priming and Activation

    PubMed Central

    DiAngelo, Susan L.; Silveyra, Patricia; Umstead, Todd M.; Halstead, E. Scott; Davies, Michael L.; Hu, Sanmei; Floros, Joanna; McCormack, Francis X.; Christensen, Neil D.; Chroneos, Zissis C.

    2015-01-01

    The surfactant protein (SP-A) receptor SP-R210 has been shown to increase phagocytosis of SP-A-bound pathogens and to modulate cytokine secretion by immune cells. SP-A plays an important role in pulmonary immunity by enhancing opsonization and clearance of pathogens and by modulating macrophage inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing of the Myo18A gene results in two isoforms: SP-R210S and SP-R210L, with the latter predominantly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In this study we show that SP-A is required for optimal expression of SP-R210L on alveolar macrophages. Interestingly, pre-treatment with SP-A prepared by different methods either enhances or suppresses responsiveness to LPS, possibly due to differential co-isolation of SP-B or other proteins. We also report that dominant negative disruption of SP-R210L augments expression of receptors including SR-A, CD14, and CD36, and enhances macrophages’ inflammatory response to TLR stimulation. Finally, because SP-A is known to modulate CD14, we used a variety of techniques to investigate how SP-R210 mediates the effect of SP-A on CD14. These studies revealed a novel physical association between SP-R210S, CD14, and SR-A leading to an enhanced response to LPS, and found that SP-R210L and SP-R210S regulate internalization of CD14 via distinct macropinocytosis-like mechanisms. Together, our findings support a model in which SP-R210 isoforms differentially regulate trafficking, expression, and activation of innate immune receptors on macrophages. PMID:25965346

  9. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-01-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity. PMID:25367790

  10. Purification of soyasaponin -β-galactosidase from Aspergillus sp.39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Yi

    In order to increase physiological activity of soyasaponin, enzyme hydrolysis of soyasaponin was studied. The enzyme which hydrolyzes soyasaponin to lower sugar soyasaponin was obtained from Aspergillus sp.39s. And it was purified by the method of biologic chromatography system. The method of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to determine the molecular weight of the enzyme produced by Aspergillus sp.39s. The molecular weight was about 50 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of soyasaponin-β-galactosidase produced from sp.39s was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. Soyasaponin-β-galactosidase was comparatively stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 7.0 and in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C.

  11. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-11-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity. PMID:25367790

  12. [Characterization of manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na-Na; Bai, Yao-Hui; Liang, Jin-Song; Luo, Jin-Ming; Liu, Rui-Ping; Hu, Cheng-Zhi; Yuan, Lin-Jiang

    2014-02-01

    A manganese-oxidizing bacteria (QJX-1) was isolated from the soil of a manganese mine. It was identified as Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 by 16S rDNA sequencing. Experimental results showed that the Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 has a multi-copper oxidase gene CumA, which is an essential component for manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas sp. Under the condition of low initial inoculum level (D600, 0.020), 5.05 mg x L(-1 Mn2+ could be oxidized by QJX-1 within 48 h with a conversion rate of as high as 99.4%. In comparison with the eutrophic conditions, the oligotrophic condition dramatically increased the biological manganese oxidation rate. Biofilm formation by employing the quartz sand could further improve the oxidation rate of Mn2+. Based on these results, it is speculated that biological manganese oxidation in underground water treatment is comparatively high. PMID:24812972

  13. Center vortex model for Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, M.; Sperisen, B.

    2006-12-15

    The question whether the center vortex picture of the strongly interacting vacuum can encompass the infrared dynamics of both SU(2) as well as Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory is addressed. These two theories contain the same center vortex degrees of freedom, and yet exhibit deconfinement phase transitions of different order. This is argued to be caused by the effective action governing the vortices being different in the two cases. To buttress this argument, a random vortex world-surface model is constructed which reproduces available lattice data characterizing Sp(2) Yang-Mills confinement properties. A new effective action term which can be interpreted in terms of a vortex stickiness serves to realize a first-order deconfinement phase transition, as found in Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory. Predictions are given for the behavior of the spatial string tension at finite temperatures.

  14. Substituent effects in intermolecular C(sp 3)-H ⋯ O(sp 3) contacts: how strong can a C(sp 3)-H ⋯ O(sp 3) hydrogen bond be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoa, Juan J.; Mota, Fernando

    1997-02-01

    The dependence of the strength of the C(sp 3)-H ⋯ interaction, with functional groups attached to the carbon atom, has been investigated for various families of R 1R 2R 3CH ⋯ OH 2 model complexes, totalling 14 model complexes, the simplest of which is CH 4 ⋯ OH 2. The study has ben carried out using the Hartree-Fock and second-order Møller-Plesset methods, and also with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (B-LYP) functional. The substituent effect can be important. Thus, the C(sp 3)-H ⋯ O(sp 3) interaction becomes eight times stronger (-2.41 kcal/mol) when R 1 = R 2 = R 3 = F than when R 1 = R 2 = R 3 = H. The B-LYP functional reproduces the trends but the energies are always 0.7-1.2 kcal/mol weaker.

  15. SP1 protein-based nanostructures and arrays.

    PubMed

    Medalsy, Izhar; Dgany, Or; Sowwan, Mukhles; Cohen, Hezy; Yukashevska, Alevtyna; Wolf, Sharon G; Wolf, Amnon; Koster, Abraham; Almog, Orna; Marton, Ira; Pouny, Yehonathan; Altman, Arie; Shoseyov, Oded; Porath, Danny

    2008-02-01

    Controlled formation of complex nanostructures is one of the main goals of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Stable Protein 1 (SP1) is a boiling-stable ring protein complex, 11 nm in diameter, which self-assembles from 12 identical monomers. SP1 can be utilized to form large ordered arrays; it can be easily modified by genetic engineering to produce various mutants; it is also capable of binding gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and thus forming protein-GNP chains made of alternating SP1s and GNPs. We report the formation and the protocols leading to the formation of those nanostructures and their characterization by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrostatic force microscopy. Further control over the GNP interdistances within the protein-GNP chains may lead to the formation of nanowires and structures that may be useful for nanoelectronics. PMID:18193911

  16. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas sp. to caffeine and related methylxanthines.

    PubMed

    Dash, Swati Sucharita; Sailaja, Nori Sri; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2008-04-01

    Pseudomonas sp. isolated from soil of coffee plantation area has been shown to degrade higher concentrations of caffeine ( approximately 15 g l(-1)) by N-demethylation at a rate higher than what has been reported for any strain so far. This strain exhibits positive chemotaxis towards caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) in swarm plate assay and modified capillary assay in a dose dependant manner. Related methylxanthines and xanthine also act as chemoattractants for the strain with the highest relative chemotactic response (RCR) seen for xanthine. Chemotaxis in Pseudomonas sp. is possibly plasmid mediated as indicated by positive chemotaxis of plasmid transformed E. coli DH5alpha. The chemotactic abilities of Pseudomonas sp. combined with higher rates of degradation of caffeine can be used in the development of strategies for biodecaffeination of caffeine containing wastes. PMID:18383225

  17. Lymphocytic meningoencephalomyelitis associated with Myxobolus sp. (Bivalvulidae: Myxozoa) infection in the Amazonian fish Eigenmannia sp. (Sternopygidae: Gymnotiformes).

    PubMed

    Sindeaux, José Ledamir; Velasco, Michele; Silva, José Mauro Vianna da; Santos, Patricia de Fátima Saco Dos; Sanches, Osimar; Matos, Patricia; Matos, Edilson

    2016-04-12

    The genus Myxobolus, parasites that infect fishes, which cause myxobolosis, includes spore organisms belonging to the phylum Myxozoa and represents approximately 36% of all species described for the entire phylum. This study describes lymphocytic meningoencephalomyelitis associated with Myxobolus sp. infection in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system, CNS) of Eigenmannia sp., from the Amazon estuary region, in the Administrative District of Outeiro (DAOUT), Belém, Pará, Brazil. In May and June 2015, 40 Eigenmannia sp. specimens were captured from this region and examined. The fish were anesthetized, slaughtered and dissected for sexing (gonad evaluation) and studying parasites and cysts; after diagnosing the presence of the myxozoans using a light microscope, small fragments of the brain and spinal cord were removed for histological processing and Hematoxylin-Eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Histopathological analysis of the brain and spinal cord, based on histological sections stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, pronounced and diffuse edema in these tissues, and congestion, degeneration, and focal necrosis of the cerebral cortex. The present study describes lymphocytic meningoencephalomyelitis associated with infection by Myxobolus sp. in the central nervous system of Eigenmannia sp. PMID:27096533

  18. Polymorphic phases of sp3-hybridized carbon under cold compression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rulong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2012-05-01

    It is well established that graphite can be transformed into superhard carbons under cold compression (Mao et al. Science 2003, 302, 425). However, structure of the superhard carbon is yet to be determined experimentally. We have performed an extensive structural search for the high-pressure crystalline phases of carbon using the evolutionary algorithm. Nine low-energy polymorphic structures of sp(3)-hybridized carbon result from the unbiased search. These new polymorphic carbon structures together with previously reported low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures (e.g., M-carbon, W-carbon, and Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) can be classified into three groups on the basis of different ways of stacking two (or more) out of five (A-E) types of buckled graphene layers. Such a classification scheme points out a simple way to construct a variety of sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes via stacking buckled graphene layers in different combinations of the A-E types by design. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that, among the nine low-energy crystalline structures, seven are energetically more favorable than the previously reported most stable crystalline structure (i.e., Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) in the pressure range 0-25 GPa. Moreover, several newly predicted polymorphic sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures possess elastic moduli and hardness close to those of the cubic diamond. In particular, Z-carbon-4 possesses the highest hardness (93.4) among all the low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures predicted today. The calculated electronic structures suggest that most polymorphic carbon structures are optically transparent. The simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of a few polymorphic structures are in good agreement with the experimental spectrum, suggesting that samples from the cold-compressed graphite experiments may consist of multiple polymorphic phases of sp(3)-hybridized carbon. PMID:22490007

  19. Coupling Algorithm for Sp (3 , R) Irreducible Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Germaine-Fuller, James; McCoy, Anna; Caprio, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The nuclear symplectic model based on Sp (3 , R) - the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra - connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot SU (3) model to multiple shells. However, Sp (3 , R) is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus, where the symmetry can be broken by spin-orbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will the break Sp (3 , R) symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for coupling symplectic irreps that should assist in performing such multi-irrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. The nuclear symplectic model based on Sp (3 , R) - the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra - connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot SU (3) model to multiple shells. However, Sp (3 , R) is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus, where the symmetry can be broken by spin-orbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will the break Sp (3 , R) symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for coupling symplectic irreps that should assist in performing such multi-irrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. Supported by the US NSF under Grant NSF-PHY05-52843, the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934, and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, mussels ( Brachidontes sp., Tagelus sp.) and fish ( Odontesthes sp.) from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Andres H.; Spetter, Carla V.; Freije, Rubén H.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

    2009-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one of the major groups of anthropogenic environmental pollutants, were firstly identified and measured in coastal waters, native mussels and fish of an industrialized South American estuary. The aim of this study was to measure the PAHs concentrations and evaluate distribution and sources in surface seawater, native mussels ( Brachidontes sp. and Tagelus sp.) and fish ( Odontesthes sp.) from various coastal sites of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, in order to put the estuary in a global context and assess it ecotoxicological risk. For this, 40 samples of surface water were collected between August 2004 and February 2006 and analyzed by GC/MS for 17 PAHs, including the 16 EPA priority PAHs. In addition, main physicochemical parameters, nutrients and pigments were simultaneously obtained as key parameters to evaluate possible relationships. Finally, several native mussel communities and fish specimens were also analyzed for PAHs contents. The area of study is located at the Argentinean coast and presents an intensive human and industrial activity at the north shoreline. Total PAHs (Σ17 PAHs) in whole surface waters ranged from undetected to more than 4 μg/l. Seasonal PAHs levels relationship with master parameters suggested a relationship between the phytoplankton microbiological cycling and the dissolved/suspended PAHs occurrence in water. In addition, Cluster Analysis was performed to identify the homogeneous groups of individual PAHs in water and Principal Component Analysis to extract underlying common factors. The result of PCA was similar to that of the cluster analysis; both could differentiate two subsets of pyrogenic sources and a petrogenic origin. PAHs levels in indigenous mussels ( Brachidontes sp. and Tagelus sp.) ranged from 348 to 1597 ng/g (dry weight). Fish specimens ( Odontesthes sp.) showed a mean concentration of 1095 ng/g d.w. in whole tissues. Mussel source ratios and PCA results were in good agreement with

  1. SP-100 advanced radiator designs for thermoelectric and Stirling applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarty, M. P.; Determan, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced radiator designs employing carbon-carbon liquid metal heat pipe technology, which significantly reduce the mass of the heat rejection subsystem for high temperature space technology systems such as the SP-100 are discussed. This technology is being developed to address the need for lightweight heat transfer components and structures for space applications. Heat pipe and subsystem designs were optimized for thermoelectric- and Stirling-engine-based SP-100 system designs. A multiple, deployed-petal radiator concept was selected for the heat rejection subsystem design as it provided minimum mass. Radiator stowage in the space transportation system cargo bay and deployment schemes were investigated for each of the optimized designs.

  2. Aquatic Fern (Azolla Sp.) Assisted Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic pteridophyte (Azolla sp.) was taken to assess its potential to synthesize the metal (Au) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray, UV-visible, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the sizes of 5-17nm are found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 538nm. Responsible phytochemicals for the transformation were principally phenolics, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and sugars present abundantly in the plant thereby bestowing it adaptive prodigality. Also, the use of Azolla sp. for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles offers the benefit of eco-friendliness.

  3. Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri sp. n. (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Král, David; Hillert, Oliver; Drožová, Dana; Šípek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped. PMID:24146588

  4. SpF: Enabling Petascale Performance for Pseudospectral Dynamo Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Clune, T.; Vriesema, J.; Gutmann, G.

    2013-12-01

    Pseudospectral (PS) methods possess a number of characteristics (e.g., efficiency, accuracy, natural boundary conditions) that are extremely desirable for dynamo models. Unfortunately, dynamo models based upon PS methods face a number of daunting challenges, which include exposing additional parallelism, leveraging hardware accelerators, exploiting hybrid parallelism, and improving the scalability of global memory transposes. Although these issues are a concern for most models, solutions for PS methods tend to require far more pervasive changes to underlying data and control structures. Further, improvements in performance in one model are difficult to transfer to other models, resulting in significant duplication of effort across the research community. We have developed an extensible software framework for pseudospectral methods called SpF that is intended to enable extreme scalability and optimal performance. High-level abstractions provided by SpF unburden applications of the responsibility of managing domain decomposition and load balance while reducing the changes in code required to adapt to new computing architectures. The key design concept in SpF is that each phase of the numerical calculation is partitioned into disjoint numerical 'kernels' that can be performed entirely in-processor. The granularity of domain-decomposition provided by SpF is only constrained by the data-locality requirements of these kernels. SpF builds on top of optimized vendor libraries for common numerical operations such as transforms, matrix solvers, etc., but can also be configured to use open source alternatives for portability. SpF includes several alternative schemes for global data redistribution and is expected to serve as an ideal testbed for further research into optimal approaches for different network architectures. In this presentation, we will describe the basic architecture of SpF as well as preliminary performance data and experience with adapting legacy dynamo codes

  5. Naphthomycins L-N, ansamycin antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. CS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin-He; Fu, Xiao-Li; Li, Liang-Qun; Zeng, Ying; Li, Cheng-Yun; He, Yi-Neng; Zhao, Pei-Ji

    2012-07-27

    Previous analyses of the naphthomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and a comparison with known naphthomycin-type products from Streptomyces sp. CS have suggested that new products can be found from this strain. In this study, screening by LC-MS of Streptomyces sp. CS products formed under different culture conditions revealed several unknown peaks in the product spectra of extracts derived from oatmeal medium cultures. Three new naphthomycins, naphthomycins L (1), M (2), and N (3), and the known naphthomycins A (4), E (5), and D (6) were obtained. The structures were elucidated using spectroscopic data from 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. PMID:22742732

  6. Biodegradation and dissolution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by Stenotrophomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Bhagyashree; Manickam, N; Kumari, Smita; Tiwari, Akhilesh

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodegradation capabilities of a locally isolated bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87 to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and also check the preferential biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). From preferential substrate degradation studies, it was found that Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87 first utilized phenanthrene (three membered ring), followed by pyrene (four membered ring), then benzo[α]pyrene (five membered ring). Dissolution study of PAHs with surfactants, rhamnolipid and tritonX-100 showed that the dissolution of PAHs increased in the presence of surfactants. PMID:27342606

  7. Three-dimensional carbon allotropes comprising phenyl rings and acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 hybrid networks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jian -Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han -Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-18

    Here, we here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells R-3m symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, whilemore » phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties.« less

  8. B-C-N Compounds with Mixed Hybridization of sp2-Like and sp3-Like Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-Guang; He, Ju-Long

    2012-03-01

    We perform first-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of hypothetical bc6-BC4N and N-substituted bc6-BC4N, which are derived from a body-center-cubic carbon structure. Our calculations show that the former is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.91 eV and the latter is metallic. The calculated bond length, bond population, and charge density of N-substituted bc6-BC4N indicate that one C-N bond has been broken after N-substitution, which means that the structure contains a mixed hybridization of sp2-like and sp3-like bonds. At the pressure above 100 GPa, the structure changes to a pure sp3-like hybridization.

  9. Three-Dimensional Carbon Allotropes Comprising Phenyl Rings and Acetylenic Chains in sp+sp(2) Hybrid Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han-Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp(2) bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp(2)-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells in the symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, while phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties. PMID:27087405

  10. Three-Dimensional Carbon Allotropes Comprising Phenyl Rings and Acetylenic Chains in sp+sp2 Hybrid Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han-Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells in the symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, while phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties. PMID:27087405

  11. Three-Dimensional Carbon Allotropes Comprising Phenyl Rings and Acetylenic Chains in sp+sp2 Hybrid Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han-Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    We here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells in the symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, while phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties.

  12. Nosema tyriae n.sp. and Nosema sp., microsporidian parasites of Cinnabar moth Tyria jacobaeae.

    PubMed

    Canning, E U; Curry, A; Cheney, S A; Lafranchi-Tristem, N J; Kawakami, Y; Hatakeyama, Y; Iwano, H; Ishihara, R

    1999-07-01

    Nosema tyriae n.sp. was found in 63% of a population of Cinnabar moth larvae (Tyria jacobaeae). The infection was found in the gut wall, silk glands, and fat body and was probably generalized but appeared to be of low pathogenicity. Merogony and sporogony were by binary fission of diplokaryotic stages. Fresh spores were elongate, slightly pointed at the anterior end, and measured 4.7 x 2.0 microm. Ultrastructural features of special interest were 20-nm tubules connecting the surface of sporonts with host cell cytoplasm and, in the spores, a deeply domed polar sac, polaroplast consisting of closely packed longitudinally arranged membranes and loosely packed horizontally arranged membranes, and 10.5-14 coils of the polar tube in a single rank. The 16S rRNA genes of N. tyriae and Nosema bombycis from silkworms, Bombyx mori, differed by only six nucleotides and N. tyriae spores gave a moderately positive reaction with a monoclonal antibody raised to N. bombycis. N. tyriae was infective to B. mori but was less virulent than N. bombycis. However, no amplification product was obtained by PCR using N. tyriae DNA and primers considered to be specific for N. bombycis. Also, the spores of the two species are of entirely different shapes. A second diplokaryotic microsporidium, Nosema sp., found as a light infection in only one of the larvae had much smaller developmental stages and spores measuring 3.8 x 2.0 microm (fixed). Ultrastructurally it was distinguished by an abundance of dense membranes in cytoplasmic vesicles in both meronts and sporonts. Spores with up to 15 coils of the polar tube in irregular clusters or with about 12 coils in a single rank were observed in the tissues fixed from the one larva infected with this parasite. As this larva had been kept with N. tyriae-infected larvae for a few days before examination, it is possible that the two types of spores resulted from a double infection. PMID:10388544

  13. Microvirga makkahensis sp. nov., and Microvirga arabica sp. nov., isolated from sandy arid soil.

    PubMed

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Inan, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Tuncer, Munir; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-02-01

    The taxonomic positions of two Gram-negative strains, SV1470(T) and SV2184P(T), isolated from arid soil samples, were determined using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the concatenated sequences of three housekeeping gene loci (dnaK, rpoB and gyrB) confirmed that the strains belong to the genus Microvirga. Strain SV1470(T) was found to be closely related to Microvirga vignae BR3299(T) (98.8 %), Microvirga flocculans TFB(T) (98.3 %) and Microvirga lupini Lut6(T) (98.2 %), whilst similarity to other type strains of the genus ranged from 97.8 to 96.3 %; strain SV2184P(T) was found to be closely related to Microvirga aerilata 5420S-16(T) (98.0 %), Microvirga zambiensis WSM3693(T) (97.8 %) and M. flocculans ATCC BAA-817(T) (97.4 %), whilst similarity to other type strains of the genus ranged from 97.2 to 95.9 %. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 61.5 mol % for strain SV1470(T) and 62.1 mol % for strain SV2184P(T). Both strains were found to have the same quinone system, with Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The polar lipid profile of strain SV1470(T) was found to consist of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified aminolipid, while that of strain SV2184P(T) consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified phospholipids. DNA-DNA relatedness studies showed that the two strains belong to different genomic species. The strains were also distinguished using a combination of phenotypic properties. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, the novel species Microvirga makkahensis sp. nov. (type strain SV1470(T) = DSM 25394(T) = KCTC 23863(T) = NRRL-B 24875(T)) and Microvirga arabica sp. nov. (type strain SV2184P(T) = DSM 25393(T) = KCTC 23864(T) = NRRL-B 24874(T)) are proposed. PMID:26671415

  14. Pseudorhodobacter sinensis sp. nov. and Pseudorhodobacter aquaticus sp. nov., isolated from crater lakes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Can; Hou, Wei-Guo; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Three Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T, isolated from two crater lakes of the Daxinganling Mountains, northern China, were studied to determine their taxonomic position. They grew at 4-30 °C (optimally at 20-25 °C), at pH 6.0-7.5 (optimally at pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, these strains showed 95.3-96.6 % similarity to members of the genus Pseudorhodobacter, including Pseudorhodobacter ferrugineus DSM 5888T, Pseudorhodobacter wandonensis WT-MW11T, Pseudorhodobacter antarcticus ZS3-33T and Pseudorhodobacter aquimaris HDW-19T. All strains contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The main polar lipids for strains Y1R2-4T and Y3R2-3 were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified aminolipid, three unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified lipids, and those for strain DC2N1-10T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and several unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T were 61.9, 61.0 and 60.0 mol%, respectively. In addition, strain Y1R2-4T shared less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness to strain DC2N1-10T. Based on these differences in genetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, strains Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T were considered to represent two novel species of the genus Pseudorhodobacter, for which the names Pseudorhodobacter sinensis sp. nov. (type strain Y1R2-4T=CGMCC1.14435T=KCTC 52039T) and Pseudorhodobacter aquaticus sp. nov. (type strain DC2N1-10T=CGMCC1.14433T=KCTC 52040T) are proposed. PMID:27045957

  15. Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, moderately halophilic bacteria (strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T) were isolated from Lake Xiaochaidan, a salt lake in Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, China. Cells of X15M-6T were rod-like or coccoid, 0.5-0.9 μm wide and 0.9-1.5 μm long; cells of X15M-8T were rods, 0.3-0.6 μm wide and 1.2-2.2 μm long. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-14.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) for both. X15M-6T and X15M-8T grew at 10-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and 4-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), respectively. Both contained iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids, and menaquinone MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C contents were 32.8 and 35.0 mol% for X15M-6T and X15M-8T, respectively. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains belonged to the genus Psychroflexus and formed a separate lineage. In addition, strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T shared 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed highest similarities to members of the genus Psychroflexus (92.7-93.5 and 91.8-93.1 %, respectively). Based on the above data, it is concluded that strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T represent two novel species of the genus Psychroflexus, for which the names Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. (type strain X15M-6T = CGMCC 1.12925T = JCM 30615T) and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov. (type strain X15M-8T = CGMCC 1.12931T = JCM 30616T) are proposed. PMID:26475261

  16. Actinomadura amylolytica sp. nov. and Actinomadura cellulosilytica sp. nov., isolated from geothermally heated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-Yu; Liu, Lan; Zhou, En-Min; Wei, Da-Qiao; Ming, Hong; Xian, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Zhong, Jing-Mei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-positive actinomycetes, designated YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T), were isolated from geothermally heated soil of Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic position of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) belong to the genus Actinomadura. Both strains form extensively-branched substrate and aerial mycelia which differentiated into short spore chains. The cell wall of the two strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, while the whole-cell sugars detected were glucose, madurose, mannose and rhamnose. The polar lipid profile of strain YIM 77502(T) was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylinositol, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified polar lipid, while strain YIM 77510(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and phosphatidylinositol. The respiratory quinones of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain YIM 77502(T) were C17:0, iso-C16:0, C17:010-methyl and iso-C18:0, and those of strain YIM 77510(T) were iso-C16:0, C17:010-methyl and iso-C18:0. The G+C contents of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were determined to be 71.3 and 70.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of strains YIM 77502(T), YIM 77510(T) and their closest phylogenetic neighbours Actinomadura echinospora BCRC 12547(T) and Actinomadura umbrina KCTC 9343(T) were less than 70 %. Based on the morphological and physiological properties, and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the names Actinomadura amylolytica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 77502(T) = DSM 45822(T) = CCTCC AA 2012024(T)) and Actinomadura cellulosilytica sp. nov. (type

  17. Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov., isolated from a composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Kosowski, Kornelia; Schmidt, Marie; Pukall, Rüdiger; Hause, Gerd; Kämpfer, Peter; Lechner, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Two strains, 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T), were isolated from a biowaste composting reactor. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains belong to the genus Bacillus. Strain 8-4-E12(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus shackletonii, B. acidicola, B. sporothermodurans and B. oleronius (96.4, 96.3, 96.0 and 95.6 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, respectively), whereas strain 8-4-E13(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Bacillus humi (96.5 % sequence similarity). Strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) shared 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E12(T) was dominated by saturated iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids (iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0), and also contained considerable amounts of C16 : 0. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E13(T) showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 (65 %), with smaller amounts of other saturated branched-chain fatty acids along with an unsaturated alcohol. Both strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids. Additionally, strain 8-4-E12(T) contained an unknown lipid and strain 8-4-E13(T) two unknown (amino-)phospholipids. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed phenotypic differentiation of the two strains from each other and from related Bacillus species. On the basis of their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E12(T) = DSM 23947(T) = LMG 27601(T)) and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E13(T) = DSM 23948(T) = LMG 27602(T)) are proposed. PMID:24021730

  18. Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov., isolated from air and soil, respectively.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Ahn, Tae-Young; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-03-01

    Two strains, designated 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T), were isolated from the air and forest soil, respectively, in South Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, polar-flagellated and rod-shaped. According to the phylogenetic tree, strains 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T) fell into the cluster of Sphingomonas sensu stricto. Strain 5413J-26(T) showed the highest sequence similarities with Sphingomonas trueperi LMG 2142(T) (96.6%), Sphingomonas molluscorum KMM 3882(T) (96.5%), Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497(T) (96.3 %) and Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (96.1 %), while strain KIS18-15(T) had the highest sequence similarity with Sphingomonas soli T5-04(T) (96.8%), Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (96.6%), Sphingomonas leidyi ATCC 15260(T) (96.6 %), Sphingomonas asaccharolytica NBRC 15499(T) (96.6 %) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS26(T) (96.6 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T) was 95.4 %. Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant respiratory quinone and homospermidine was the major polyamine. The major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and several unidentified phospholipids and lipids. The main cellular fatty acids (>10% of the total fatty acids) of strain 5413J-26(T) were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C14 : 0 2-OH, and those of strain KIS18-15(T) were summed feature 8 and C16 : 0. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and physiological and biochemical characterization, two novel species with the suggested names Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. (type strain 5413J-26(T) = KACC 16533(T) = NBRC 108942(T)) and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov. (type strain KIS18-15(T) = KACC 16534(T) = NBRC 108943(T)) are proposed. PMID:24425812

  19. Marmoricola ginsengisoli sp. nov. and Marmoricola pocheonensis sp. nov. isolated from a ginseng-cultivating field.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Yeon; Liu, Qingmei; Kang, Myung-Suk; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Soon-Youl; Im, Wan-Taek

    2016-05-01

    Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains Gsoil 097T and Gsoil 818T, isolated from soil of a ginseng field, South Korea, were characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic positions. They were Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both isolates belong to the genus Marmoricola and were related most closely to Marmicola solisilvae KIS18-7T (99.1 and 98.3 % similarity, respectively), Marmicola terrae JOS5-1T (97.9 and 97.9 %), Marmicola scoriae Sco-D01T (97.8 and 97.1 %) and Marmicola aequoreus SST-45T (97.5 and 97.0 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.8 and 70.0 mol%, respectively. Both strains were characterized chemotaxonomically as having ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone and C17 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω9c, C18 : 0 10-methyl and iso-C16 : 0 as major fatty acids. These chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of both strains to the genus Marmoricola. However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains and closely related type strains of Marmoricola species were less than 30 %. Moreover, the results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strains Gsoil 097T and Gsoil 818T from other Marmoricola species with validly published names. Therefore, the two isolates represent two novel species, for which the names Marmoricola ginsengisoli sp. nov. (type strain Gsoil 097T = KACC 14267T = DSM 22772T) and Marmoricola pocheonensis sp. nov. (type strain Gsoil 818T = KACC 14275T = DSM 22773T) are proposed. PMID:26883120

  20. Marinomonas gallaica sp. nov. and Marinomonas atlantica sp. nov., isolated from reared clams (Ruditapes decussatus).

    PubMed

    Lasa, Aide; Pichon, Phillip; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2016-08-01

    Three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Cmf 17.2T, Rd 20.33 and Cmf 18.22T) isolated from reared clams in Galicia were subjected to a taxonomic study, based on genetic and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the identification of the strains as members of the genus Marinomonas, sharing the highest similarity with Marinomonas aquimarina CECT 5080T (97.8 %-98.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed that the three isolates formed two different groups distantly related to their closest relative, M. aquimarina. DNA-DNA hybridizations were performed to confirm the taxonomic position and the results were below the recommended threshold for species delimitation, specifically 44.5 % (Cmf 17.2T with M. aquimarina CECT 5080T) and 55 % (Cmf 18.22Twith M. aquimarina CECT 5080T). Furthermore, the average nucleotide identity (ANIb, ANIm and OrthoANI) and in silico estimated DNA-DNA reassociation values among Cmf 17.2T, Cmf 18.22T and M. aquimarina CECT 5080T were in all cases below the respective threshold for species differentiation. The estimated G+C content of the genomic DNA was found to be 45.3 % (Cmf 17.2T) and 44.6 % (Cmf 18.22T). The principal fatty acids of the strains were found to be summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0, C12 : 0 and C10 : 0 3-OH. The results obtained on the characterization of the clam isolates indicate that they represent two novel species of the genus Marinomonas, for which the names Marinomonas gallaica sp. nov. (type strain Cmf 17.2T=CECT 9049T=LMG 29243T) and Marinomonas atlantica sp. nov. (type strain Cmf 18.22T=CECT 9050T=LMG 29244T) are proposed. PMID:27199280

  1. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy. PMID:27400526

  2. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

  3. Transcription factor Sp3 is silenced through SUMO modification by PIAS1

    PubMed Central

    Sapetschnig, Alexandra; Rischitor, Grigore; Braun, Harald; Doll, Andreas; Schergaut, Marion; Melchior, Frauke; Suske, Guntram

    2002-01-01

    Sp3 is a ubiquitous transcription factor closely related to Sp1. Here we show that Sp3 is a target for SUMO modification in vivo and in vitro. SUMO modification of Sp3 occurs at a single lysine located between the second glutamine-rich activation domain and the DNA-binding domain. Mutational analyses identified the sequence IKXE as essential for SUMO conjugation to Sp3. We identified the protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as an interaction partner of Sp3 and Ubc9. Moreover, PIAS1 strongly stimulated SUMO conjugation to Sp3, thus acting as an E3 ligase for SUMO conjugation to Sp3. All mutations that prevented SUMO modification in vitro strongly enhanced the transcriptional activity of Sp3, showing that SUMO modification silences Sp3 activity. SUMO-modified Sp3 bound to DNA with similar specificity and affinity as unmodified Sp3. However, DNA-bound Sp3 did not act as a substrate for SUMO modification. PMID:12356736

  4. [USAGE OF FUMARATE BY SULPHATE-REDUCING BACTERIA DESULFOMICROBIUM SP. CrR3 AND DESULFOTOMACULUM SP].

    PubMed

    Sholiak, K V; Peretyatko, T B; Gudz, S P; Hnatush, S O; Verkholyak, N S; Halushka, A A

    2015-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria Desulfomicrobium sp. CrR3 and Desulfotomaculum. sp. are able to use fumarate as electron donor and acceptor. When they use fumarate as an electron acceptor succinate accumulates in the medium. If fumarate serves as electron donor, minor amounts of citrate, isocitrate and acetate are detected except succinate. In the case of simultaneous introduction of fumarate, SO4(2-) and Cr2O7(2-), the last inhibits usage of fumarate and SO4(2-). PMID:26638481

  5. Friction and conductance imaging of sp2- and sp3-hybridized subdomains on single-layer graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Son, Narae; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Tae Gun; Bang, Gyeong Sook; Kim, Jong Yun; Shim, Gi Woong; Goddeti, Kalyan C.; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Wondong; Kim, Sehun; Choi, Sung-Yool; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp2-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp3-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp2/sp3 carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify the composition of heterogeneous single-layer GO at nanometer scale, which is essential for understanding charge transport in nanoelectronic devices.We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp2-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp3-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp2/sp3 carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify

  6. Unexpected copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cleavage of C(sp3)-C(sp3) bond of glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Quan; Zhao, Lixing; Shang, Xiaojie; Cui, Zili

    2012-06-15

    An unexpected Cu-catalyzed oxidative cleavage of the C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond in glycol ethers by using air or molecular oxygen as the terminal stoichiometric oxidant is demonstrated. As a result, the corresponding α-acyloxy ethers and formates of 1,2-ethanediol are formed by direct coupling of carboxylic acids and aldehydes with glycol ethers under the reaction conditions. This method represents the first example of Cu-catalyzed aerobic cleavage of saturated C-C bond in ethers. PMID:22668348

  7. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    PubMed

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides. PMID:25240180

  8. Formation of C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) Bonds through Nickel-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Olefin Hydroalkylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Xiao, Bin; Liu, Lei; Fu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    Olefins and carboxylic acids are among the most important feedstock compounds. They are commonly found in natural products and drug molecules. We report a new reaction of nickel-catalyzed decarboxylative olefin hydroalkylation, which provides a novel practical strategy for the construction of C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) bonds. This reaction can tolerate a variety of synthetically relevant functional groups and shows good chemo- and regioselectivity. It enables cross-coupling of complex organic molecules containing olefin groups and carboxylic acid groups in a convergent fashion. PMID:27245257

  9. Dual gold photoredox C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) cross couplings - development and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Gauchot, Vincent; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2016-08-01

    A dual visible light photoredox and gold-catalysed C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) cross coupling is described. The success of this mild, oxidant- and base-free cross coupling is highly dependent on the amount of water added. Mechanistic studies show two distinct pathways depending on the gold catalyst employed: transmetallation of the arylboronic acid with gold(i) occurs prior to oxidation of gold(i) to gold(iii) using cationic gold(i) catalysts, whereas oxidation of gold(i) to gold(iii) precedes transmetallation using neutral gold(i) catalysts. PMID:27461567

  10. Selective Oxidative Decarbonylative Cleavage of Unstrained C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) Bond: Synthesis of Substituted Benzoxazinones.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-09-01

    A transition metal (TM)-free practical synthesis of biologically relevant benzoxazinones has been established via a selective oxidative decarbonylative cleavage of an unstrained C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) bond employing iodine, sodium bicarbonate, and (t)butyl hydroperoxide in DMSO at 95 °C. Control experiments and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the reaction involves a [1,5]H shift and extrusion of CO gas as the key steps. The extrusion of CO has also been established using PMA-PdCl2. PMID:27549986

  11. Infrared study of the hydrogen bonding site in a poly-functional schiff base: N( sp2) or N( sp)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureys, C.; Zeegers-Huyskens, Th.

    1987-05-01

    The hydrogen bond complexes between phenol derivatives and the Schiff base [(diphenylmethylene)amino]-acetonitrile have been studied by infrared spectroscopy in carbon tetrachloride solution. The thermodynamic data and the infrared spectra investigated in the ν OH, ν CN and ν CN region indicate that complex formation occurs at the nitrogen atom of the nitrile function. The hydrogen bonding site is in this case governed by the accessibility of the lone pair which is markedly higher for the N( sp) than the N( sp2) electrons.

  12. Re-examination of the genus Acetobacter, with descriptions of Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cleenwerck, I; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Janssens, D; Swings, J

    2002-09-01

    Thirty-four Acetobacter strains, representing Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter peroxydans, Acetobacter lovaniensis, Acetobacter estunensis, Acetobacter orleanensis, Acetobacter indonesiensis and Acetobacter tropicalis, were subjected to a polyphasic study that included DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base ratio determinations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic characterization. Two novel species are proposed, Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov. The type strains of these species are respectively LMG 1625T (= DSM 14362T = NCIB 8894T = ATCC 23765T) and LMG 1746T (= DSM 14337T). PMID:12361257

  13. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH. PMID:27148718

  14. Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov., Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov., isolated from plant roots, and emended description of the genus Phytohabitans.

    PubMed

    Inahashi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko

    2012-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated K09-0627(T), was isolated from the roots of an orchid collected in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Two actinomycete strains K11-0047(T) and K11-0057(T) were isolated from the roots of Rumex acetosa and Houttuynia cordata collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Phytohabitans, and that they were closely related to each other and to Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the three isolates and Phytohabitans suffuscus were below 70%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values and phenotypic characteristics, the strains should be classified as novel species in the genus Phytohabitans, for which the names Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov. (type strain, K09-0627(T)=JCM 17387(T)=NBRC 107702(T)=DSM 45551(T)), Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0047(T)=JCM 17829(T)=NBRC 108638(T)=BCC 48146(T)) and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0057(T)=JCM 17830(T)=NBRC 108639(T)=BCC 48147(T)) are proposed. PMID:22228668

  15. Rosenbergiella australoborealis sp. nov., Rosenbergiella collisarenosi sp. nov. and Rosenbergiella epipactidis sp. nov., three novel bacterial species isolated from floral nectar.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, Marijke; Alvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Vega, Clara; Van Assche, Ado; Johnson, Steven D; Willems, Kris A; Herrera, Carlos M; Jacquemyn, Hans; Lievens, Bart

    2014-09-01

    The taxonomic status of nine strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from floral nectar of wild Belgian, French, South African and Spanish insect-pollinated plants was investigated following a polyphasic approach. Confirmation that these strains belonged to the genus Rosenbergiella was obtained from comparative analysis of partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and other core housekeeping genes (atpD [ATP synthase β-chain], gyrB [DNA gyrase subunit B] and rpoB [RNA polymerase β-subunit]), DNA-DNA reassociation data, determination of the DNA G+C content and phenotypic profiling. Two strains belonged to the recently described species Rosenbergiella nectarea, while the other seven strains represented three novel species within the genus Rosenbergiella. The names Rosenbergiella australoborealis sp. nov. (with strain CdVSA 20.1(T) [LMG 27954(T)=CECT 8500(T)] as the type strain), Rosenbergiella collisarenosi sp. nov. (with strain 8.8A(T) [LMG 27955(T)=CECT 8501(T)] as the type strain) and Rosenbergiella epipactidis sp. nov. (with strain 2.1A(T) [LMG 27956(T)=CECT 8502(T)] as the type strain) are proposed. Additionally, the description of the genus Rosenbergiella is updated on the basis of new phenotypic and molecular data. PMID:24794950

  16. Pedobacter nyackensis sp. nov., Pedobacter alluvionis sp. nov. and Pedobacter borealis sp. nov., isolated from Montana flood-plain sediment and forest soil.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nathan S; Valenzuela, Alejandra; Adams, Sandra M; Ramsey, Philip W; Pollock, Jarrod L; Holben, William E; Gannon, James E

    2009-07-01

    Three Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming eubacterial strains were isolated in western Montana, USA, and subjected to taxonomic studies. Strains NWG-II14(T) and NWER-II11(T) were isolated from hyporheic sediments of a large alluvial flood plain, whereas strain G-1(T) was isolated from a conifer forest soil. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains NWG-II14(T), NWER-II11(T) and G-1(T) were shown to belong to the family Sphingobacteriaceae and are most closely related to various species of the genus Pedobacter. The results of molecular, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of these three strains from 23 Pedobacter species with validly published names. The three isolates therefore represent novel species, for which the names Pedobacter nyackensis sp. nov. (type strain NWG-II14(T) =DSM 19625(T) =LMG 24260(T)), Pedobacter alluvionis sp. nov. (type strain NWER-II11(T) =DSM 19624(T) =LMG 24258(T)) and Pedobacter borealis sp. nov. (type strain G-1(T) =DSM 19626(T) =LMG 24259(T)) are proposed. PMID:19542109

  17. Rhodium-catalyzed cascade oxidative annulation leading to substituted naphtho[1,8-bc]pyrans by sequential cleavage of C(sp2)-H/C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H/O-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xing; Liu, Bingxian; Li, Xiangyu; Li, Bin; Xu, Shansheng; Song, Haibin; Wang, Baiquan

    2012-10-01

    The cascade oxidative annulation reactions of benzoylacetonitrile with internal alkynes proceed efficiently in the presence of a rhodium catalyst and a copper oxidant to give substituted naphtho[1,8-bc]pyrans by sequential cleavage of C(sp(2))-H/C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H/O-H bonds. These cascade reactions are highly regioselective with unsymmetrical alkynes. Experiments reveal that the first-step reaction proceeds by sequential cleavage of C(sp(2))-H/C(sp(3))-H bonds and annulation with alkynes, leading to 1-naphthols as the intermediate products. Subsequently, 1-naphthols react with alkynes by cleavage of C(sp(2))-H/O-H bonds, affording the 1:2 coupling products. Moreover, some of the naphtho[1,8-bc]pyran products exhibit intense fluorescence in the solid state. PMID:22989331

  18. Isolation of Indole Utilizing Bacteria Arthrobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. From Livestock Waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsu; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Eonmi; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Jintae

    2016-06-01

    Indole is an interspecies and interkingdom signaling molecule widespread in different environmental compartment. Although multifaceted roles of indole in different biological systems have been established, little information is available on the microbial utilization of indole in the context of combating odor emissions from different types of waste. The present study was aimed at identifying novel bacteria capable of utilizing indole as the sole carbon and energy source. From the selective enrichment of swine waste and cattle feces, we identified Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter and Alcaligenes. Bacteria belonging to the genus Alcaligenes showed higher rates of indole utilization than Arthrobacter. Indole at 1.0 mM for growth was completely utilized by Alcaligenes sp. in 16 h. Both strains produced two intermediates, anthranilic acid and isatin, during aerobic indole metabolism. These isolates were also able to grow on several indole derivatives. Interestingly, an adaptive response in terms of a decrease in cell size was observed in both strains in the presence of indole. The present study will help to explain the degradation of indole by different bacteria and also the pathways through which it is catabolized. Furthermore, these novel bacterial isolates could be potentially useful for the in situ attenuation of odorant indole and its derivatives emitted from different types of livestock waste. PMID:27570307

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus sp. Strain 311R

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Jauregui, Ruy; Geffers, Robert; Jareck, Michael; Boon, Nico; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus sp. strain 311R, which was isolated from a site contaminated with alkanes and aromatic compounds. Strain 311R shares 90% of the genome of Rhodococcus erythropolis SK121, which is the closest related bacteria. PMID:25999565

  20. Civilian and military missions SP-100 preliminary user requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-29

    This document defines the top level requirements of potential users of a space based nuclear electric power supply. This provides the SP-100 Project and information required to design the modular (10-1000 KWe) space power systems to meet the needs of most potential users.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. F-3.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaomeng; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijia; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Wang, Lushan

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. F-3 is a kind of thermophilic Streptomyces strain that can produce cellulolytic enzymes and diverse secondary metabolites. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism, whose genome length is 5,303,958 bp, containing 6,041 protein-coding genes, 69 tRNA operons, and three rRNA operons. PMID:27492002

  2. Polydactyly in the central pacific gecko, Lepidodactylus sp. (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, A.M.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of naturally occurring polydactyly in a gekkotan lizard. A single individual from Palmyra Atoll exhibited a triplication of digit III of the m hand. No obvious teratogenic sources are present on the atoll and the causal factors of polydactyly in Lepidodactylus sp. remain unknown.

  3. Role of sp3 Defect in Ordered Nanoporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Enshi; Lueking, Angela; Crespi, Vincent; Lammert, Paul; Maleski, Kathleen

    Schwarzite is considered an ideal model for nanoporous carbon and is energetically more stable than fullerene. However, carbon don't form well-ordered Schwarzite-type nanoporous material possibly due to kinetic arrests under pyrolytic conditions. We computationally discovered a new thermodynamically stable local defect in carbon sp2 networks: an sp3 carbon defect, which inspires new solutions to the problem. The defect is most stable in nanoporous carbon (i.e., networks with negative curvatures, known as Schwarzites) and its topological merit, carrying negative curvature, results in the design of new model structures of nanoporous materials (periodic, negatively-curved networks), and provides a handle of the negative curvature carrier in nanoporous carbon, and we propose a kinetics-dominated synthetic route to novel nanoporous carbon with long range order by controlling the sp3 defect through sp3 carbon atom injection or Si atom substitution, with the aid of first principle molecular dynamics simulation. Calculations also suggest the defect can be observed by Raman.

  4. Tylopilus orsonianus sp. nov. and Tylopilus eximius from Guyana.

    PubMed

    Fulgenzi, Tara D; Henkel, Terry W; Halling, Roy E

    2007-01-01

    Tylopilus orsonianus sp. nov. and Tylopilus eximius (Boletaceae, Basidiomycota) are described for the first time from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. Both boletes occur in forests dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees in the genus Dicymbe (Caesalpiniaceae). A key to Tylopilus species distinguishes those known to occur in Guyana. PMID:18065013

  5. THE SAGA OF A MALE FERTILITY PROTEIN (SP22)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic studies designed to identify chemical-induced alterations in the structure and function of the epididymis, particularly the acquisition of fertility by proximal cauda epididymal sperm, have lead to the discovery of a novel sperm protein (SP22) that is well correlated ...

  6. Description of Nemophora acaciae sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Adelidae) from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Agassiz, David J L; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-01-01

    Nemophora acaciae sp. nov. is described from Kenya on the basis of a large series bred from flowers of Acacia seyal and A. lahai. The new species differs from all Afrotropical Nemophora species by its dark brown forewing fascia with white medial stripe near the costal margin of forewing. The key to the Afrotropical Nemophora species is provided. PMID:26701526

  7. Ultrastructure of superficial mycosidic integuments of Mycobacterium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K S; Salton, M R; Barksdale, L

    1976-01-01

    Cells from pellicle growth of Mycobacterium sp. NQ are enveloped in a mycoside layer which extends outward as long filaments, 5 nm in diameter. Underneath this outer mycosidic casement, ramified ropelike structure, embedded in a dense matrix, overlay the rigid peptidoglycan of the cell wall. Images PMID:1245469

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. 33047

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the complete nucleotide sequence of Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 (Anabaena CA), a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium, which under salt stress conditions accumulates sucrose internally. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the understanding of cyanobacterial diversity. PMID:27516507

  9. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief review of research on Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. race 4 in California is presented. Fusarium wilt has recently emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., G. barbadense L.) growers in California. An es...

  10. Biscalitheca suzanneana, N. Sp., from the uppermost Pennsylvanian of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1972-01-01

    Biscalitheca suzanneana, n. sp., is described from specimens found in an uppermost Pennsylvanian deposit in north-central Texas. The genus was identified primarily on the basis of impressions of the unique sporangial annuli. The occurrence establishes for Biscalitheca a stratigraphic range equivalent to nearly the entire Upper Pennsylvanian Series. ?? 1972.

  11. A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

  12. Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. from Sabah (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A; Afendy, Aqilah; Rahman, Homathevi

    2016-01-01

    Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. (holotype male, from Borneo, Sabah, West Coast division, Crocker Range National Park, Inobong, Kimamabang waterfall stream system, 21 ix 2012, deposited in RMNH) is described from Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the male anal appendages. PMID:27394744

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. F-3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomeng; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijia; Zhang, Huaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. F-3 is a kind of thermophilic Streptomyces strain that can produce cellulolytic enzymes and diverse secondary metabolites. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism, whose genome length is 5,303,958 bp, containing 6,041 protein-coding genes, 69 tRNA operons, and three rRNA operons. PMID:27492002

  14. cDNAs from Nylanderia sp nr pubens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    7 new gene sequences were identified from workers of Rasberry crazy ant, Nylanderia sp.nr. pubens, and submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank. GenBank accession numbers are HQ636472-HQ636478. This information will provide scientists with genetic tools to study the pop...

  15. Soil treatments against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few economically feasible disease management options are available for California cotton producers with fields infested with race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. For treating soil to reduce inoculum levels, past studies indicate that solarization and fumigation with metam-sodium may be a...

  16. A thermostable cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from the thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K was purified and characterized. The enzyme was purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by a-CD-bound, epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. Molecular weight of the purifie...

  17. A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone from Fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yabin; Yang, Fangfang; Zhao, Lixing; Duang, Rongting; Chen, Guangyi; Li, Xiaozhan; Li, Qiling; Qin, Shaohuan; Ding, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone, peniginsengin A (1), was isolated from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. YIM PH30003, an endophytic fungus associated with Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. The structure was assigned based on a combination of 1 D and 2 D NMR and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of compound 1 were investigated. PMID:25906789

  18. New Xenia diterpenoids from the Indonesian soft coral Xenia sp.

    PubMed

    Anta, Cristina; González, Noemí; Santafé, Gilmar; Rodríguez, Jaime; Jiménez, Carlos

    2002-05-01

    Two new xeniolides, xeniolide-F (1) and 9-hydroxyxeniolide-F (2), along with isoxeniolide-A (3) and 7,8-oxido-isoxeniolide-A (4), have been isolated from Xenia sp. and their structures established on the basis of extensive NMR and MS studies. PMID:12027764

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Antarctic Bacterium Psychrobacter sp. Strain G

    PubMed Central

    Che, Shuai; Song, Lai; Song, Weizhi; Yang, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Psychrobacter sp. strain G, isolated from King George Island, Antarctica, which can produce lipolytic enzymes at low temperatures. The genomics information of this strain will facilitate the study of the physiology, cold adaptation properties, and evolution of this genus. PMID:24051316

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. NIES-3755

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Takatomo; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Katayama, Mitsunori; Misawa, Naomi; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Shimura, Yohei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kawachi, Masanobu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Eki, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya comprises genetically diverse species, but the availability of their complete genome information is limited. Here, we isolated Leptolyngbya sp. strain NIES-3755 from soil at the Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan. We determined the complete genome sequence of the NIES-3755 strain, which is composed of one chromosome and three plasmids. PMID:26988037

  1. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  2. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  3. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  4. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  5. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  6. Expression of Heterologous Cellulases in Thermotoga sp. Strain RQ2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Han, Dongmei; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Thermotoga spp. to degrade cellulose is limited due to a lack of exoglucanases. To address this deficiency, cellulase genes Csac_1076 (celA) and Csac_1078 (celB) from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were cloned into T. sp. strain RQ2 for heterologous overexpression. Coding regions of Csac_1076 and Csac_1078 were fused to the signal peptide of TM1840 (amyA) and TM0070 (xynB), resulting in three chimeric enzymes, namely, TM1840-Csac_1078, TM0070-Csac_1078, and TM0070-Csac_1076, which were carried by Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vectors pHX02, pHX04, and pHX07, respectively. All three recombinant enzymes were successfully expressed in E. coli DH5α and T. sp. strain RQ2, rendering the hosts with increased endo- and/or exoglucanase activities. In E. coli, the recombinant enzymes were mainly bound to the bacterial cells, whereas in T. sp. strain RQ2, about half of the enzyme activities were observed in the culture supernatants. However, the cellulase activities were lost in T. sp. strain RQ2 after three consecutive transfers. Nevertheless, this is the first time heterologous genes bigger than 1 kb (up to 5.3 kb in this study) have ever been expressed in Thermotoga, demonstrating the feasibility of using engineered Thermotoga spp. for efficient cellulose utilization. PMID:26273605

  7. Complete genome sequence of Halomonas sp. R5-57.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adele; De Santi, Concetta; Altermark, Bjørn; Karlsen, Christian; Hjerde, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors to bioplastics. The percentage identity of these biosynthetic genes from Halomonas sp. R5-57 and current production strains varies between 99 % for some to 69 % for others, thus it is plausible that R5-57 may have a different production capacity to currently used strains, or that in the case of PHAs, the properties of the final product may vary. Here we present the finished genome sequence (LN813019) of Halomonas sp. R5-57 which will facilitate exploitation of this bacterium; either as a whole-cell production host, or by recombinant expression of its individual enzymes. PMID:27610212

  8. Testicular expression of SP-A, SP-D and MBL-A is positively regulated by testosterone and modulated by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Rokade, Sushama; Madan, Taruna

    2016-09-01

    Pattern recognition proteins viz., Surfactant Protein-A (SP-A), Surfactant Protein-D (SP-D) and Mannan Binding Lectin-A (MBL-A) regulate inflammatory immune responses. In view of their plausible contribution to immune privilege in testis, the present study explored their expression and regulation in murine testis. The testicular expression of SP-A, SP-D and MBL-A significantly increased at puberty and was significantly down-regulated in testosterone suppression model. Of the isolated germ cells, Sertoli cells, myoid cells and Leydig cells, germ cells expressed SP-A, SP-D and MBL-A while myoid cells were found to express MBL-A. SP-A and SP-D were localised on head and tail of murine caudal sperm, whereas MBL-A was observed on the connecting piece and tail. Systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge significantly up-regulated SP-A and SP-D levels in murine testis after 24h. Positive regulation of collectins by testosterone and their modulation in response to inflammation implicates their involvement in testicular immune-privilege. PMID:27262512

  9. ε-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.

    PubMed

    Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

    2013-06-01

    The ε-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ε-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ≤20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ε-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ε-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ε-caprolactam utilization. PMID:24426112

  10. 3'-untranslated region of SP-B mRNA mediates inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha on SP-B expression.

    PubMed

    Pryhuber, G S; Church, S L; Kroft, T; Panchal, A; Whitsett, J A

    1994-07-01

    Surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is a small hydrophobic polypeptide that enhances spreading and stability of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolus of the lung. Decreased expression of SP-B is associated with respiratory failure in premature infants and in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) cause ARDS-like lung injury in vivo. Inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha on SP-B mRNA expression in vitro were mediated by decreased SP-B mRNA stability rather than by decreased rate of SP-B gene transcription. In the present study, a human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI H441-4, was stably transfected with expression vectors consisting of the thymidine kinase (TK) promotor and human growth hormone (hGH) gene, in which the hGH 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was replaced by the 2.0-kb human SP-B cDNA [pTKGH(SP-B2.0)] or the 837-bp human SP-B 3'-UTR [pTKGH(SP-B.837)]. The mRNAs and cellular growth hormone protein generated from the chimeric TKGH(SP-B2.0) and TKGH(SP-B.837) genes were each inhibited by approximately 50% by TPA and TNF-alpha. Dexamethasone decreased the inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha. The inhibition of steady-state hGH-SP-B mRNA by TPA and TNF-alpha was mediated by a cis-active element located in the 3-UTR region of SP-B mRNA. PMID:8048538

  11. Tandem C(sp(2))-OMe Activation/C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) Coupling in Early Transition-Metal Complexes: Aromatic C-O Activation beyond Late Transition Metals.

    PubMed

    Radkov, Vasily; Roisnel, Thierry; Trifonov, Alexander; Carpentier, Jean-François; Kirillov, Evgueni

    2016-04-01

    We report on combined structural, kinetic, and computational studies unraveling the mechanism of a unique, highly selective intramolecular C(sp(2))-OMe cleavage/C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) coupling tandem reaction in group 3 metal (Y and Sc) complexes of amidine-amidopyridinate ligands. The latter process represents a rare stoichiometric model of the nonredox cleavage of inert C(sp(2))-O bonds relevant to cross-coupling reactions of aromatic ethers catalyzed by late transition metals. PMID:26999638

  12. A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta, Solitaria) from the White Sea: Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Borisanova, Anastasiya O; Krylova, Elena M

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov., is described. The species was found on the gymnolaemate bryozoans Cribrilina sp. and Electra sp. in Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with a total length up to 650 µm, eight tentacles and a conspicuous horn-shaped appendage on the top part of calyx.  PMID:25283409

  13. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae. PMID:25870923

  14. Friction and conductance imaging of sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized subdomains on single-layer graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Son, Narae; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Tae Gun; Bang, Gyeong Sook; Kim, Jong Yun; Shim, Gi Woong; Goddeti, Kalyan C; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Wondong; Kim, Sehun; Choi, Sung-Yool; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-02-21

    We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp(2)-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp(3)-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp(2)/sp(3) carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify the composition of heterogeneous single-layer GO at nanometer scale, which is essential for understanding charge transport in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:26819189

  15. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  16. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Castilla Casadiego, D. A.; Albis Arrieta, A. R.; Angulo Mercado, E. R.; Cervera Cahuana, S. J.; Baquero Noriega, K. S.; Suárez Escobar, A. F.; Morales Avendaño, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids. PMID:27376085

  17. Whole-Genome Sequence of Enterobacter sp. Strain SST3, an Endophyte Isolated from Jamaican Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) Stalk Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; McGroty, Sean E.; Chew, Teong Han; Chan, Kok Gan; Buckley, Larry J.; Savka, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SST3 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from Saccharum spp. Here we present its annotated draft genome that may shed light on its role as a bacterial endophyte of sugarcane. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a sugarcane-associated bacterium from the genus Enterobacter. PMID:23045495

  18. Nucleolin enhances internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of Sp1 in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chia-Yang; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wang, Shao-An; Hsu, Tsung-I; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Our previous study indicated that specificity protein-1 (Sp1) is accumulated during hypoxia in an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent manner. Herein, we found that the Sp1 was induced strongly at the protein level, but not in the mRNA level, in lung tumor tissue, indicating that translational regulation might contribute to the Sp1 accumulation during tumorigenesis. A further study showed that the translation of Sp1 was dramatically induced through an IRES-dependent pathway. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis of proteins bound to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of Sp1 identified interacting protein - nucleolin. Knockdown of nucleolin significantly inhibited IRES-mediated translation of Sp1, suggesting that nucleolin positively facilitates Sp1 IRES activation. Further analysis of the interaction between nucleolin and the 5'-UTR of Sp1 mRNA revealed that the GAR domain was important for IRES-mediated translation of Sp1. Moreover, gefitinib, and LY294002 and MK2206 compounds inhibited IRES-mediated Sp1 translation, implying that activation of the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway via Akt activation triggers the IRES pathway. In conclusion, EGFR activation-mediated nucleolin phosphorylated at Thr641 and Thr707 was recruited to the 5'-UTR of Sp1 as an IRES trans-acting factor to modulate Sp1 translation during lung cancer formation. PMID:25173817

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CLONING OF XENOPUS LAEVIS SP22, A PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILIZATION IN MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    SP22 is a protein that has been characterized in rats where it has been related with fertility. SP22 homologues have been studied in mouse and man and a definitive role for the protein has not been assigned yet. By means of a polyclonal IgG to recombinant rat SP22...

  20. 76 FR 72505 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 2290/SP/FR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 2290/SP/FR Heavy Highway... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 2290/SP/FR AGENCY: Internal Revenue...: Heavy Highway Vehicle Use Tax Return. OMB Number: 1545-0143. Abstract: Form 2290/SP/FR is used...

  1. 75 FR 53021 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 2848, 2848(SP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... 594,833 Form 2848 (on line) 100,000 1.61 161,000 Form 2848 (SP) 80,000 2.26 180,800 538,333 935,633... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 2848, 2848(SP) AGENCY: Internal...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 2848, 2848(SP) Power...

  2. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  3. Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., Isolated from Sea Water

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K.; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2014-01-01

    Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4°C and 40°C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10T represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1T ( =  LMG 27497T  =  JCM 19399T  =  CIP 110588T  =  KMM 7502T) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10T ( =  JCM 19398T  =  CIP

  4. Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., isolated from sea water.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-01-01

    Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4 °C and 40 °C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10(T) represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1(T) ( =  LMG 27497(T)  =  JCM 19399(T)  =  CIP 110588(T)  =  KMM 7502(T)) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10(T) ( =  JCM

  5. Descriptions of Eumonhystera borealis n. sp., Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp., and a Redescription of S. gracilis de Man 1876 (Nemata) from Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    TurpeenniemI, T. A.

    1997-01-01

    The free-living nematodes Eumonhystera borealis n. sp., Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp., and S. gracilis de Man 1876 from Bothnian Bay in the northern Baltic Sea are described and illustrated. Eumonhystera borealis n. sp. differs from other species by its small body size (314-393 μm), narrow body (a = 37-49), and large anterior amphids. In Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp. the amphids are posterior to the buccal cavity, and it differs from other similar species by having two sclerotized rings in the posterior part of the buccal cavity. An intersex is reported for S. gracilis. Sphaerolaimus gracilis is cannibalistic or a predator of other species, with a preference for E. borealis n. sp. Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp. coexists with S. gracilis at depths of 80 m but not at 12 m. PMID:19274135

  6. The effect of aspect ratio and sp2/sp3 content on the field emission properties of carbon films grown by Ns-spiked PECVD

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.; Felter, T.E.; Pan, L.S.; Anders, S.; Cossy-Facre, A.; Stammler, T.

    1998-04-01

    The authors have deposited carbon films from mixtures of methane and N{sub 2} using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. By changing the percentage of N{sub 2} in the feed gas, they were able to produce films that have various aspect ratios and sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} contents. The film with the highest field emission contains spears of aspect ratio of 10:1. They also found that in their sp{sup 3}-rich films, higher sp{sup 2} content enhanced field emission. This is ascribed to improved charge transport to the field emission sites.

  7. [A STUDY OF THE ISOLATED BACTERIOPHAGE ΦAB-SP7 ADSORPTION ON THE CELL SURFACE OF THE AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE SP7].

    PubMed

    Guliy, O I; Karavaeva, O A; Velikov, V A; Sokolov, O I; Pavily, S A; Larionova, O S; Burov, A M; Ignatov, O V

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 was isolated from the cells of the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. The morphology, size of the gram-negative colonies, and range of lytic activity against other strains and species of the genus Azospirillum was tested. The isolated phage DNA was examined using electrophoretic and restriction analysis, and the size of the genome were established. The electron microscopy. resuIts show that the phage (capsid) has a strand-like form. The electron microscopy study of the bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 adsorption on the A. brasilense Sp7 bacterial surface was performed. PMID:27145602

  8. Pharmacokinetic interaction between metoprolol and SP-8203 in rats: competitive inhibition for the metabolism of metoprolol by SP-8203 via hepatic CYP2D subfamily.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Yon; Yoon, Insoo; Chin, Young-Won; Cho, Il Whan; Lee, Myung Gull; Choi, Young Hee

    2012-10-01

    1. The occurrence of cerebral ischemia is prevalent in patients with hypertension and the combination drug therapy is needed. Thus, the pharmacokinetic interaction between metoprolol (anti-hypertension drug) and SP-8203 (a new drug candidate for cerebral ischemia) with respect to the metabolism via CYP isozymes was evaluated. 2. Metoprolol and SP-8203 were administered intravenously or orally to rats. Concentrations (I) of each drug in the liver and intestine in in vivo studies, the disappearance and apparent K(i) of each drug in in vitro microsomes and [I]/K(i) ratios for each drug were determined. In addition, the disappearance of each drug via CYPs in rat and human microsomes were measured. 3. The AUC and CL(NR) of intravenously administered metoprolol with SP-8203 were significantly greater and slower, respectively, than without SP-8203. However, pharmacokinetic parameters of oral metoprolol and intravenous/oral SP-8203 were not altered. 4. The hepatic metabolism of metoprolol via CYP2D was inhibited by SP-8203 in a competitive manner. However, the intestinal metabolism of metoprolol was not influenced by SP-8203. SP-8203 was not metabolized via CYP isozymes in rats and then co-administration of metoprolol did not affect the metabolism of SP-8203. PMID:22568632

  9. Delimiting the genus Staphylococcus through description of Macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and Macrococcus equipercicus sp. nov., and Macrococcus bovicus sp. no. and Macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kloos, W E; Ballard, D N; George, C G; Webster, J A; Hubner, R J; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H; Fiedler, F; Schubert, K

    1998-07-01

    Four species of the newly proposed genus Macrococcus, namely macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. (formerly Staphylococcus caseolyticus Schleifer, Kilpper-Bälz, Fischer, Faller and Endl 1982, 19VP), Macrococcus equipercicus sp. nov., Macrococcus bovicus sp. nov. Macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov., are described on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis comparing 16S rRNA sequences, DNA-DNA liquid hybridization, DNA base composition, normalized ribotype patterns, macrorestriction pattern analysis and estimation of genome size using PFGE, cell wall composition, phenotypic characteristics and plasmid profiles. Compared with their closet relatives, members of the genus Staphylococcus, these organisms demonstrated significantly lower 16S rRNA sequence similarities (93.4-95.3%), higher DNA G+C content (38-45 mol%), absence of cell wall teichoic acids (with the possible exception of M. caseolyticus), unique ribotype pattern types and macrorestriction patterns, smaller genome size (approx. 1500-1800 kb) and generally larger Gram-stained cell size (1.1-2.5% microns in diameter). Macrococci can be distinguished from most species of staphylococci (except Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus vitulus and Staphylococcus lentus) by thier oxidase activity. The four Macrococcus species can be distinguished from one another on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, ribotype pattern types, macrorestriction patterns and their phenotypic properties, including colony morphology, cell morphology, haemolysins, Staphy Latex agglutination, acid production from a variety of carbohydrates, acetoin production, nitrate reduction, aesculin hydrolysis, and DNase and urease activities. The type species is M. equipercicus. The type strains of M. equipercicus, M. caseolyticus, M. bovicus and M. carouselicus are ATTCC 51831T (= DD 9350T) ATCC 13548T (= TDD 4508T) (Schleifer et al. 1982, ATCC 51825T (= DD 4516T) and ATCC 51828T (= DD 9348), respectively. PMID:9734040

  10. Loktanella salsilacus gen. nov., sp. nov., Loktanella fryxellensis sp. nov. and Loktanella vestfoldensis sp. nov., new members of the Rhodobacter group, isolated from microbial mats in Antarctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Van Trappen, Stefanie; Mergaert, Joris; Swings, Jean

    2004-07-01

    A taxonomic study was performed on 26 strains isolated from microbial mats in Antarctic lakes of the Vestfold Hills and the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these strains within the Rhodobacter group of the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria. Sequence similarity values for the strains with their nearest phylogenetic neighbours (Jannaschia, Octadecabacter and Ketogulonicigenium) ranged between 94.0 and 95.8%. DNA-DNA hybridizations and comparison of repetitive extragenic palindromic DNA-PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting patterns revealed that these strains are members of three distinct species. The isolates are Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic, non-motile rods and their DNA G+C contents range from 59.4 to 66.4 mol%. Whole-cell fatty acid profiles are similar and the primary fatty acid in all the strains is 18 : 1 omega7c (74.1-87.7% of total). Genotypic results together with phenotypic characteristics allowed the differentiation of these species from related recognized species of the alpha-Proteobacteria and the strains are assigned to a new genus, Loktanella gen. nov., with three novel species: Loktanella salsilacus sp. nov. (type species), consisting of ten strains with LMG 21507T (=CIP 108322T) as type strain; Loktanella fryxellensis sp. nov., consisting of 12 strains with LMG 22007T (=CIP 108323T) as type strain; and Loktanella vestfoldensis sp. nov., consisting of four strains with LMG 22003T (=CIP 108321TT) as type strain. PMID:15280301

  11. Average nucleotide identity of genome sequences supports the description of Rhizobium lentis sp. nov., Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. from lentil (Lens culinaris) nodules.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M Harun-or; Young, J Peter W; Everall, Isobel; Clercx, Pia; Willems, Anne; Santhosh Braun, Markus; Wink, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Rhizobial strains isolated from effective root nodules of field-grown lentil (Lens culinaris) from different parts of Bangladesh were previously analysed using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and glnII) and three nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD), DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of housekeeping gene sequences and DNA fingerprints indicated that the strains belonged to three novel clades in the genus Rhizobium. In present study, a representative strain from each clade was further characterized by determination of cellular fatty acid compositions, carbon substrate utilization patterns and DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analyses from whole-genome sequences. DNA-DNA hybridization showed 50-62% relatedness to their closest relatives (the type strains of Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium phaseoli) and 50-60% relatedness to each other. These results were further supported by ANI values, based on genome sequencing, which were 87-92% with their close relatives and 88-89% with each other. On the basis of these results, three novel species, Rhizobium lentis sp. nov. (type strain BLR27(T) = LMG 28441(T) = DSM 29286(T)), Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. (type strain BLR175(T) = LMG 28442(T) = DSM 29287(T)) and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. (type strain BLR195(T) = LMG 28443(T) = DSM 29288(T)), are proposed. These species share common nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD) that are similar to those of the symbiovar viciae. PMID:26060217

  12. Dendromonocotyle lasti n. sp. from the skin and Monocotyle caseyae n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the gills of Himantura sp. (Dasyatidae) in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Leslie A; Whittington, Ian D

    2005-02-01

    Seven specimens of rays of the genus Himantura which could not be identified to species were collected from waters near Dunwich, Stradbroke Island, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. The five smallest specimens of Himanturasp. (disc width 218-302 mm; four female, one male) had a banded tail and the dorsal surface was uniformly grey/brown. The two largest individuals of Himantura sp. (disc widths 460, 533 mm; female and male, respectively) also had a banded tail but the grey/brown dorsal surface had white spots. Two new monogenean species (Monocotylidae: Monocotylinae) are described from both the 'plain' and 'white-spotted' specimens of Himantura. Dendromonocotyle lastin. sp. is distinguished from other species in the genus by the number of papillae on the haptor, by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and by the morphology of the proximal portion of the vagina. The muscular sheath which surrounds the male copulatory organ is also unique having sclerotised spines at the distal end. Dendromonocotyle species are skin parasites, but a total of five juvenile specimens of D. lasti were found on the gills of four rays. Monocotyle caseyae n. sp. from the gills is characterised by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and its accessory piece. One specimen of M. spiremae Measures, Beverley-Burton & Williams, 1990, originally described from the gills of Himantura fai Jordan & Seale off Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, was also found on the gills of one Himantura specimen. The site and host-specificity of the parasites and the identity of the hosts are discussed. PMID:15841345

  13. Herbaspirillum canariense sp. nov., Herbaspirillum aurantiacum sp. nov. and Herbaspirillum soli sp. nov., isolated from volcanic mountain soil, and emended description of the genus Herbaspirillum.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Rivas, Raúl; León-Barrios, Milagros; González-Tirante, María; Velázquez, Encarna; Valverde, Angel

    2012-06-01

    Three Gram-negative, motile and slightly curved rod-shaped bacteria, strains SUEMI03(T), SUEMI08(T) and SUEMI10(T), were isolated from an old volcanic mountain soil on Tenerife (Canary Islands). The three strains were related phylogenetically to Herbaspirillum seropedicae. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was 99.2-99.6 % among strains SUEMI03(T), SUEMI08(T) and SUEMI10(T), which presented 97.5, 97.8 and 97.7 % identity, respectively, with respect to H. seropedicae DSM 6445(T). The three strains grew optimally in TSB at 28 °C and contained summed features 3 (C(16:1)ω6c and/or C(16:1)ω7c) and 8 (C(18:1)ω6c and/or C(18:1)ω7c) and C(16:0) as major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of strains SUEMI03(T), SUEMI08(T) and SUEMI10(T) were 61.6, 60.4 and 61.9 mol%, respectively. Strains SUEMI03(T), SUEMI08(T) and SUEMI10(T) presented less than 60 % interstrain DNA relatedness and less than 30 % relatedness with respect to H. seropedicae DSM 6445(T). In spite of their common geographical origin, the three strains isolated in this study presented several phenotypic differences, presenting phenotypic profiles highly divergent from that of H. seropedicae. Therefore, we propose that the strains isolated in this study represent three novel species of the genus Herbaspirillum, named Herbaspirillum canariense sp. nov. (type strain SUEMI03(T) = LMG 26151(T) = CECT 7838(T)), Herbaspirillum aurantiacum sp. nov. (type strain SUEMI08(T) = LMG 26150(T) = CECT 7839(T)) and Herbaspirillum soli sp. nov. (type strain SUEMI10(T) = LMG 26149(T) = CECT 7840(T)). PMID:21788228

  14. Acetobacter okinawensis sp. nov., Acetobacter papayae sp. nov., and Acetobacter persicus sp. nov.; novel acetic acid bacteria isolated from stems of sugarcane, fruits, and a flower in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

    2012-01-01

    Eleven strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated from stems of sugarcane, fruits, and a flower in Japan. The isolates were separated into three groups, Groups I, II, and III, in the genus Acetobacter according to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences. The isolates had sequence similarities of 99.8-100% within the Group, 99.3-99.6% to those of the type strains of each related Acetobacter species, and less than 98.4% to those of the type strains of other Acetobacter species. Genomic DNA G+C contents of Groups I, II, and III were 59.2-59.4, 60.5-60.7, and 58.7-58.9 mol%, respectively. The isolates in the Group showed high values of DNA-DNA relatedness to each other, but low values less than 46% to the type strains of related Acetobacter species. A good correlation was found between the three Groups and groups based on DNA G+C contents and DNA-DNA relatedness. All the strains had Q-9 as the main component, and Q-8 and Q-10 as minor components. The isolates in the three Groups did not completely match with any Acetobacter species on catalase reaction, the production of ketogluconic acids from D-glucose, growth on ammoniac nitrogen with ethanol (Hoyer-Frateur medium and Frateur modified Hoyer medium), growth on 30% (w/v) D-glucose, growth in 10% (v/v) ethanol, or DNA G+C contents. On the basis of phylogenetic relationships in the genus Acetobacter and chemosystematic and phenotypic characteristics, the three Groups were regarded as novel species in the genus Acetobacter. Acetobacter okinawensis sp. nov. is proposed for Group I, Acetobacter papayae sp. nov. for Group II, and Acetobacter persicus sp. nov. for Group III. PMID:22878741

  15. Super-parameterization in GRAPES: The construction of SP-GRAPES and associated preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Wang, Yuhong

    2015-04-01

    Super-parameterization (SP) aims to explicitly represent deep convection within a coarse resolution global model by embedding a cloud resolving model (CRM) in each column of the mother model. For the first time, we implemented the SP in a mesoscale regional weather model, the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES). The constructed SP-GRAPES uses a two-dimensional (2D) CRM in each grid column. A control and two SP simulations are conducted for the Beijing "7.21" heavy rainfall event to evaluate improvements in GRAPES using SP. The SP-run-I is a basic SP run delivering microphysics feedback only, whereas the SP-run-II delivers both microphysical and cloud fraction feedbacks. A comparison of the runs indicates that the SP-run-I has a slightly positive impact on the precipitation forecast than the control run. However, the inclusion of cloud fraction feedback leads to an evident overall improvement, particularly in terms of cloud fraction and 24-h cumulative precipitation. Although this is only a preliminary study using SP-GRAPES, we believe that it will provide considerable guidance for follow-up studies using SP in China.

  16. On the trajectories of Sp(1) -Kepler problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guowu

    2015-10-01

    The classical Sp(1) -Kepler problems are formulated with the help of an idea from S. Sternberg. The trajectories of these models are determined via an idea originated from Levi-Civita. It is found that, for a non-colliding trajectory, its shadow-its projection to the external configuration space-is an ellipse, a parabola or a branch of hyperbola according as the total energy is negative, zero or positive. Moreover, it is shown that, for the Sp(1) -Kepler problems at level n ≥ 2, the group SL(n, H) ×R+ acts transitively on both the set of elliptic shadow trajectories and the set of parabolic shadow trajectories.

  17. NSS5/SP-STM2 Joint International Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Saw-Wai Hla

    2009-05-03

    The NSS5/SP-STM2 conference was held in Athens, Ohio July 15-19, 2008. The conference brought together a prestigious group of scientists from all over the globe to focus for 3 ½ days on a variety of nanoscience topics, particularly on nanoscale spectroscopy and spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. The conference was attended by many young scientists as well as senior scientists. Attendees to the conference were drawn from more than 10 countries and included 28 invited speakers, who are the leading scientists in their respective research areas. Included among the invited speakers were 4 plenary speakers - eminent scientists in their fields. The conference was divided into two parallel sessions – the NSS5 session and the SP-STM2 session.

  18. Genomic analysis of novel phytopathogenic Georgenia sp. strain SUB25

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja P.; Rakhashiya, Purvi M.; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2015-01-01

    A Gram positive bacterium, Georgenia sp. SUB25 was isolated from infected leaves of Solanum lycopersicum L. in Rajkot (22.30°N, 70.78°E), Gujarat, India. We sequenced and analyzed Georgenia sp. SUB25 that is novel plant pathogen using next generation sequencing platform and assembly yielded contigs representing a size of 4.84 Mb with 81 tRNAs and 88 rRNAs. The whole genome sequencing has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number JNFL00000000. This genome sequence contains Type II secretion system genes, which involved in pathogenicity mechanism that may help to understand plant microbial interaction. PMID:26484278

  19. Effect of temperature on ammonium removal in Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Martínez, A; Serralta, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-09-01

    The effect of temperature on microalgal ammonium uptake was investigated by carrying out four batch experiments in which a mixed culture of microalgae, composed mainly of Scenedesmus sp., was cultivated under different temperatures within the usual temperature working range in Mediterranean climate (15-34 °C). Ammonium removal rates increased with temperature up to 26 °C and stabilized thereafter. Ratkowsky and Cardinal temperatures models successfully reproduced the experimental data. Optimum (31.3 °C), minimum (8.8 °C) and maximum (46.1 °C) temperatures for ammonium removal by Scenedesmus sp. under the studied conditions were obtained as model parameters. These temperature-related parameters constitute very useful information for designing and operating wastewater treatment systems using these microalgae. PMID:26027902

  20. Genome sequence and description of Anaerosalibacter massiliensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Dione, N.; Sankar, S.A.; Lagier, J.-C.; Khelaifia, S.; Michele, C.; Armstrong, N.; Richez, M.; Abrahão, J.; Raoult, D.; Fournier, P.-E.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerosalibacter massiliensis sp. nov. strain ND1T (= CSUR P762 = DSM 27308) is the type strain of A. massiliensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Anaerosalibacter. This strain, the genome of which is described here, was isolated from the faecal flora of a 49-year-old healthy Brazilian man. Anaerosalibacter massiliensis is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic rod and member of the family Clostridiaceae. With the complete genome sequence and annotation, we describe here the features of this organism. The 3 197 911 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid) contains 3271 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes, including six rRNA genes. PMID:26937282

  1. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; St. John, Franz J.; Dickstein, Ellen; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Brettin, Thomas S; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Martin, Joel; Copeland, A; Land, Miriam L; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.; Preston, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of -1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources.

  3. Dechlorination of Atrazine by a Rhizobium sp. Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Bouquard, C.; Ouazzani, J.; Prome, J.; Michel-Briand, Y.; Plesiat, P.

    1997-01-01

    A Rhizobium sp. strain, named PATR, was isolated from an agricultural soil and found to actively degrade the herbicide atrazine. Incubation of PATR in a basal liquid medium containing 30 mg of atrazine liter(sup-1) resulted in the rapid consumption of the herbicide and the accumulation of hydroxyatrazine as the only metabolite detected after 8 days of culture. Experiments performed with ring-labeled [(sup14)C]atrazine indicated no mineralization. The enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of atrazine was partially purified and found to consist of four 50-kDa subunits. Its synthesis in PATR was constitutive. This new atrazine hydrolase demonstrated 92% sequence identity through a 24-amino-acid fragment with atrazine chlorohydrolase AtzA produced by Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. PMID:16535552

  4. Novel linear megaplasmid from Brevibacterium sp. isolated from extreme environment.

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián Rafael; Wagenknecht, Martin; Hill, Russell T; Farías, María Eugenia; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2010-06-01

    Brevibacterium sp. Ap13, isolated from flamingo's feces in Laguna Aparejos, a high-altitude lake located at approximately 4,200 m in the northwest of Argentina was previously found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics, and was therefore screened for plasmids that may be implicated in antibiotic resistance. Brevibacterium sp. Ap13 was found to contain two plasmids of approximately 87 and 436 kb, designated pAP13 and pAP13c, respectively. Only pAP13 was stably maintained and was extensively characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to reveal that this plasmid is linear and likely has covalently linked terminal proteins associated with its 5' ends. This is the first report of a linear plasmid in the genus Brevibacterium and may provide a new tool for genetic manipulation of this commercially important genus. PMID:20473959

  5. Mitochondrial genome of Boleophthalmus sp. nov. (Osteichthyes: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Takita, Toru; Muchtar, Agusnimar; Chen, Changmao; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Boleophthalmus is a genus that consists of six valid species and possesses a number of specializations in terms of amphibious life. The complete mtDNA sequence of Boleophthalmus sp. nov. (17,113 bp in length) has 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes (12S and 16 S rRNA), and one control region. By comparing the COI sequences, Boleophthalmus sp. nov. is closely related of B. pectinirostris but exhibits 8.93% genetic distance with B. pectinirostris and 13.26% with B. boddarti. This finding may fill some gaps remaining on the taxonomy and biodiversity of this taxon and contribute to the understanding of the phylogeographic relationships between the continental coast and Southeast Asia. PMID:25738219

  6. Biodegradation of 4-chloroindole by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-03-01

    Exiguobacterium sp. PMA utilized 4-chloroindole as its sole source of carbon and energy. The effect of initial concentrations of substrate on the 4-chloroindole degradation was studied and observed that strain PMA was capable of degrading 4-chloroindole up to concentration of 0.5mM. The degradation pathway of 4-chloroindole was studied for Exiguobacterium sp. PMA based on metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 4-Chloroindole was initially dehalogenated to indole that was further degraded via isatin, anthranilic acid, and salicylic acid. The potential of strain PMA to degrade 4-chloroindole in soil was monitored using soil microcosms, and it was observed that the cells of strain PMA efficiently degraded 4-chloroindole in the soil. The results of microcosm studies show that strain PMA may be used for bioremediation of 4-chloroindole-contaminated sites. This is the first report of the bacterial degradation of 4-chloroindole. PMID:25463241

  7. Genome sequence and description of Corynebacterium ihumii sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Dubourg, Grégory; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Couderc, Carine; Michelle, Caroline; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium ihumii strain GD7T sp. nov. is proposed as the type strain of a new species, which belongs to the family Corynebacteriaceae of the class Actinobacteria. This strain was isolated from the fecal flora of a 62 year-old male patient, as a part of the culturomics study. Corynebacterium ihumii is a Gram positive, facultativly anaerobic, nonsporulating bacillus. Here, we describe the features of this organism, together with the high quality draft genome sequence, annotation and the comparison with other member of the genus Corynebacteria. C. ihumii genome is 2,232,265 bp long (one chromosome but no plasmid) containing 2,125 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes, including 4 rRNA genes. The whole-genome shotgun sequence of Corynebacterium ihumii strain GD7T sp. nov has been deposited in EMBL under accession number GCA_000403725. PMID:25197488

  8. Novel cyclohexane monooxygenase from Acidovorax sp. CHX100.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Diego; Karande, Rohan; Schmid, Andreas; Dobslaw, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Acidovorax sp. CHX100 has a remarkable ability for growth on short cycloalkanes (C5-C8) as a sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions via an uncharacterized mechanism. Transposon mutagenesis of Acidovorax sp. CHX100 revealed a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP450chx) which catalyzed the transformation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol. Primer walking methods categorized CYP450chx as cytochrome P450 class I taking into account its operon structure: monooxygenase, FAD oxidoreductase, and ferredoxin. CYP450chx was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The activity of CYP450chx was demonstrated by means of the indole co-oxidation. Biotransformation capability of CYP450chx was confirmed through the catalysis of cycloalkanes (C5-C8) to their respective cyclic alcohols. PMID:25935342

  9. Ultrastructure of Frenkelia sp. from a Norwegian lemming in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H

    2000-04-01

    An apparently healthy Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus) caught in northern Finland was observed to have a whitish body 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter in the external layer of the cerebral cortex. By light microscopy a highly lobulated cyst of Frenkelia sp. was observed. By transmission electron microscopy lemmus) collected in the cyst wall was seen consisting of a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, an underlying electron-dense layer and a granular layer. The membrane was only slightly convoluted. The protrusions of the cyst wall appeared round but were often not distinctive. A very thin septum divided the interior of the cyst into compartments packed with bradyzoites and maturing zoites. The bradyzoites were elongate measuring 5-8 x 1.5-2 microm. This is the first electron microscopical study of Frenkelia sp. from L. lemmus. PMID:10813619

  10. Role of zinc finger structure in nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Azumano, Makiko; Uwatoko, Chisana; Itoh, Kohji Kuwahara, Jun

    2009-02-27

    Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates gene expression. Our previous study demonstrated that the carboxyl terminal region of Sp1 containing 3-zinc finger region as DNA binding domain can also serve as nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 has not been well understood. In this study, we performed a gene expression study on mutant Sp1 genes causing a set of amino acid substitutions in zinc finger domains to elucidate nuclear import activity. Nuclear localization of the GFP-fused mutant Sp1 proteins bearing concomitant substitutions in the first and third zinc fingers was highly inhibited. These mutant Sp1 proteins had also lost the binding ability as to the GC box sequence. The results suggest that the overall tertiary structure formed by the three zinc fingers is essential for nuclear localization of Sp1 as well as dispersed basic amino acids within the zinc fingers region.

  11. Nitrate levels modulate the abundance of Paracoccus sp. in a biofilm community.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shantanu; Nerurkar, Anuradha S; Srinandan, C S

    2015-06-01

    Conditions required to enhance a particular species efficient in degradative capabilities is very useful in wastewater treatment processes. Paracoccus sp. is known to efficiently reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to the branched denitrification pathway. Individual-based simulations showed that the relative fitness of Paracoccus sp. to Pseudomonas sp. increased significantly with nitrate levels above 5 mM. Spatial structure of the biofilm showed substantially less nitrite levels in the areas of Paracoccus sp. dominance. The simulation was validated in a laboratory reactor harboring biofilm community by fluorescent in situ hybridization, which showed that increasing nitrate levels enhanced the abundance of Paracoccus sp. Different levels of NOx did not display any significant effect on biofilm formation of Paracoccus sp., unlike several other bacteria. This study shows that the attribute of Paracoccus sp. to tolerate and efficiently reduce NOx is conferring a fitness payoff to the organism at high concentrations of nitrate in a multispecies biofilm community. PMID:25838197

  12. Siphateles (Gila) sp. and Catostomus sp. from the Pleistocene OIS-6 Lake Gale, Panamint Valley, Owens River system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which

  13. Cytotoxic Sesterterpenoids Isolated from the Marine Sponge Scalarispongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun

    2014-01-01

    Eight scalarane sesterterpenoids, including four new compounds, were isolated from the marine sponge Scalarispongia sp. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 2D-NMR and HRMS analyses. All of the isolated compounds, with the exception of 16-O-deacetyl-12,16-epi-scalarolbutanolide, showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity (GI50 values down to 5.2 μM) against six human cancer cell lines. PMID:25375188

  14. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    PubMed

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula. PMID:26874670

  15. Ultrastructure of Bonamia sp. in Ostrea chilensis in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, K B; Hine, P M; Campalans, M

    2009-07-23

    Oyster Ostrea chilensis samples were collected from Quihua Island, Chile, in December 2003 and February 2005, and examined in May 2004, and March, April and July 2005, for an ultrastructural comparison of the Chilean Bonamia sp. with other Bonamia spp. Only uni-nucleate stages were encountered, except in the July sample. The Chilean parasite differs from B. perspora in the apparent lack of a plasmodial stage and of sporulation. It resembles B. ostreae in size, the low number of mitochondrial profiles, and the prevalence and mean number of lipid droplets. It differs from B. ostreae in the greater prevalence of nuclear membrane-bound Golgi (NM-BG), associated haplosporogenesis, and smaller size of haplosporosomes. The Chilean Bonamia sp. resembles B. exitiosa in the number of haplosporosomes, prevalence of lipid droplets, anastomosing endoplasmic reticulum and NM-BG, presence of circles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), confronting cisternae (CC), and cylindrical CC (CCC). It also appears to have a similar developmental cycle to B. exitiosa with larger forms occurring in winter (August). The circles of sER, CC, and CCC have only been reported from B. exitiosa, and it appears that Chilean Bonamia sp. and B. exitiosa are more closely related than they are to B. perspora or B. ostreae. Similarities in ultrastructure and developmental stages between New Zealand and Chilean parasites suggest that the 2 species are related, and that the Chilean Bonamia sp. is either B. exitiosa, a sub-species of B. exitiosa, or a separate species closely related to B. exitiosa. PMID:19750808

  16. New Oxidized Zoanthamines from a Canary Islands Zoanthus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Cen-Pacheco, Francisco; Norte Martín, Manuel; Fernández, José Javier; Hernández Daranas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Three new norzoanthamine-type alkaloids, named 2-hydroxy-11-ketonorzoanthamide B (1), norzoanthamide B (2) and 15-hydroxynorzoanthamine (3), were isolated from Zoanthus sp. specimens collected at the Canary Islands. Their structures were determined by interpretation of NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Relative configurations of their chiral centers were proposed on the basis of ROESY spectra and by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those of the well-known compound, norzoanthamine. PMID:25317536

  17. Morphology and Phylogeny of Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp. nov. (Botryosphaeriaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi-Ke; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Phillips, Alan J L; Dai, Dong-Qin; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Wen, Ting-Chi; Bahkali, Ali H; Hyde, Kevin D; Kang, Ji-Chuan

    2016-06-01

    A coelomycete with characters resembling the asexual morphs in the family Botryosphaeriaceae was isolated from a fallen leaf of an orchid collected in Thailand. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses placed the strain in Neoscytalidium. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoscytalidium species were inferred by analyzing internal transcribed spacers and large subunit of rRNA sequence data and indicate that our strain is a new species, which is introduced and illustrated herein as Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp. nov. PMID:27433117

  18. Morphology and Phylogeny of Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp. nov. (Botryosphaeriaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shi-Ke; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Dai, Dong-Qin; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Wen, Ting-Chi; Bahkali, Ali H.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    A coelomycete with characters resembling the asexual morphs in the family Botryosphaeriaceae was isolated from a fallen leaf of an orchid collected in Thailand. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses placed the strain in Neoscytalidium. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoscytalidium species were inferred by analyzing internal transcribed spacers and large subunit of rRNA sequence data and indicate that our strain is a new species, which is introduced and illustrated herein as Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp. nov. PMID:27433117

  19. Aberrant Ancylostoma sp. in the brain of a dog.

    PubMed

    Perry, Amie; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Bolling, Melanie; Rodrigues-Hoffmann, Aline

    2016-06-15

    A 14-month-old, male American Bulldog presented to Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital in August of 2012 for anorexia, hydrophobia and gradually worsening neurologic signs. Grossly hemorrhage on the left side of the caudal cerebrum and cerebellum was observed and histologically corresponded with necrohemorrhagic and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis associated with adult nematodes. Based on morphology and molecular analysis, these were identified as Ancylostoma sp. PMID:27198802

  20. New cytotoxic cyclic peroxide acids from Plakortis sp. marine sponge

    PubMed Central

    Hoye, Thomas R.; Alarif, Walied M.; Basaif, Salim S.; Abo-Elkarm, Mohamed; Hamann, Mark T.; Wahba, Amir E.; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N.

    2016-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of Jamaican marine sponge Plakortis sp. followed by preparative TLC and HPLC yielded several known methyl ester cyclic peroxides (1a, 2a, 3a, 4, 5), known plakortides (6,7), known bicyclic lactone (8) and new cyclic peroxide acids (1b, 2b, 3b). The chemical structures were elucidated by extensive interpretation of their spectroscopic data. These natural products showed remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. PMID:26835518

  1. Screening and productivity of penicillin antibiotic from Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Sivakumari, V; Dhinakaran, J; Rajendran, A

    2009-10-01

    This paper highlights the antagonism effect of Penicillium isolates, which were screened against the test organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Penicillium sp. Penicillium notatum and Penicillium chrysogenum isolates were used for penicillin biosynthesis. The antibacterial activities of fermented crude penicillin extract were assayed by disc diffusion method. Maximum antibacterial activity was observed in Gram positive organisms (Staphylococcus aureus) when compared with Gram negative organisms. The isolated Penicillium chrysogenum can be used for large-scale penicillin antibiotic production. PMID:21117415

  2. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran. PMID:23950668

  3. Genome sequencing and annotation of Proteus sp. SAS71

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Samy; Hassan, Sherif; Hagagy, Nashwa

    2015-01-01

    We report draft genome sequence of Proteus sp. strain SAS71, isolated from water spring in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome size is 3,037,704 bp with a G + C content of 39.3% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA). The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDIU00000000. PMID:26697338

  4. Draft Genome of the Arthrobacter sp. Strain Edens01

    PubMed Central

    Couger, M. B.; Hanafy, Radwa A.; Edens, Curtis; Budd, Connie; French, Donald P.; Hoff, Wouter D.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain Edens01, isolated from a leaf surface of a Rosa hybrid plant as part of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute-funded Student Initiated Microbial Discovery (SIMD) project. The genome has a total size of 3,639,179 bp and contig N50 of 454,897 bp. PMID:26679586

  5. Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae) from southeastern Indochina.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, Dak Dam village environs, a tall grass forest swamp, 12°25' N 107°19' E, ~780 m a.s.l., 16 June 2014, RMNH), the second species in its genus, is described from Central Plateau of the Annamese Mountains. The new species is most probably separated from R. dohrni by a 1000-km gap of the range of the genus in Thailand and most of Cambodia. PMID:26249427

  6. Lasiodiplodins from mangrove endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. 318.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xue, Yanyu; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Four new lasiodiplodins (1-4), together with three known analogues, have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Lasiodiplodia sp. 318#. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines THP1, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2 and HCT-116. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:26222141

  7. SP-100 reactor diassembly remote handling test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Charles E.; Potter, Jerry D.; Maiden, Glenn E.; Vader, David P.

    This paper is presented as an overview of the remote handling equipment validation testing, which will be conducted before installation and use in the ground engineeering test facility. This equipment will be used to defuel the SP-100 reactor core after removing it from the Test Assembly following nuclear testing. A series of full scale mock-up operational tests will be conducted at a Hanford Site facility to verify equipment design, operation, and capabilities.

  8. Five New Diterpenoids from an Okinawan Soft Coral, Cespitularia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Prodip K.; Maarisit, Wilmar; Roy, Michael C.; Taira, Junsei; Ueda, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Five new diterpenoids 1–5 were isolated from an Okinawan soft coral, Cespitularia sp., together with the known diterpenoid, alcyonolide (6). New diterpenoid structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison of their NMR data with those of related compounds. Alcyonolide (6) was cytotoxic against HCT 116 cells (IC50 5.85 μM), while these new diterpenoids 1–5 were much less active (IC50 28.2–91.4 μM). PMID:23201595

  9. Safety provisions for the SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Mark I.; Damon, Dennis R.; Hackford, Norman E.; Ha, Chuong T.; Mapes, Robert L.; Miller, David D.; Smith, Michael A.

    The SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) article is charged with the validation of such a fast-spectrum, liquid metal-cooled reactor's integrated reactor, control, and shield performance characteristics in a spacelike environment. The NAT facility is designed for safe assembly, operation, disassembly, and disposal. Attention is presently given to the selection and classification of postulated accidents, safety design criteria, reactor trip parameters, and the structure of accident analyses.

  10. Molasses as fermentation substrate for levan production by Halomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Küçükaşik, Faruk; Kazak, Hande; Güney, Dilvin; Finore, Ilaria; Poli, Annarita; Yenigün, Orhan; Nicolaus, Barbara; Oner, Ebru Toksoy

    2011-03-01

    Levan is a homopolymer of fructose with many outstanding properties like high solubility in oil and water, strong adhesiveness, good biocompatibility, and film-forming ability. However, its industrial use has long been hampered by costly production processes which rely on mesophilic bacteria and plants. Recently, Halomonas sp. AAD6 halophilic bacteria were found to be the only extremophilic species producing levan at high titers in semi-chemical medium containing sucrose, and in this study, pretreated sugar beet molasses and starch molasses were both found to be feasible substitutes for sucrose. Five different pretreatment methods and their combinations were applied to both molasses types. Biomass and levan concentrations reached by the Halomonas sp. AAD6 cells cultivated on 30 g/L of pretreated beet molasses were 6.09 g dry cells/L and 12.4 g/L, respectively. When compared with literature, Halomonas sp. was found to stand out with its exceptionally high levan production yields on available fructose. Molecular characterization and monosaccharide composition studies confirmed levan-type fructan structure of the biopolymers. Rheological properties under different conditions pointed to the typical characteristics of low viscosity and pseudoplastic behaviors of the levan polymers. Moreover, levan polymer produced from molasses showed high biocompatibility and affinity with both cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. PMID:21161209

  11. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. from Puerto Madryn, Argentina (Polychaeta, Polynoidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; González, Norma Emilia; Salazar-Silva, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among polychaetes, polynoids have the highest number of symbiotic species found living with a wide variety of marine invertebrates, including other polychaetes. Lepidasthenia Malmgren, 1867 and Lepidametria Webster, 1879 were regarded as synonyms but belong to different subfamilies, although both have species associated with thelepodid or terebellid polychaetes. In this contribution Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. is described from several specimens associated with the thelepodid Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg, 1867, collected on a rocky shore near Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. can be confused with Lepidasthenia esbelta Amaral & Nonato, 1982 because both live with Thelepus, are of similar sizes with similar pigmentation patterns, and have giant neurochaetae. However, in Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. all eyes are of the same size, cephalic and parapodial cirri are tapered and mucronate, the second pair of elytra is larger than the third, the ventral cirri arise at the base of parapodia such that they do not reach chaetal lobe tips, and neuraciculae are tapered. On the contrary, in Lepidasthenia esbelta the posterior eyes are larger than anterior ones, cephalic and parapodial appendages are swollen subdistally, the second and third pairs of elytra are of the same size, the ventral cirri arise medially such that their tips reach the neurochaetal lobe tips, and the neuraciculae have falcate tips. Some comments about other genera in the Lepidastheniinae, a simplified key to its genera, and a key to Lepidasthenia species with giant neurochaetae are also included. PMID:26798303

  12. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%. PMID:25976916

  13. Users guide to the Argonne SP scheduling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lifka, D.A. |; Henderson, M.W.; Rayl, K.

    1995-05-01

    During the past five years scientists discovered that modern UNIX workstations connected with ethernet and fiber networks could provide enough computational performance to compete with the supercomputers of the day. As this concept became increasingly popular, the need for distributed queuing and scheduling systems became apparent. Today, supercomputers, such as Argonne National Laboratory`s IBM SP system, can provide more CPU and networking speed than can be obtained from these networks of workstations. These modern supercomputers look like clusters of workstations, however, so developers felt that the scheduling systems that were previously used on clusters of workstations should still apply. After trying to apply some of these scheduling systems to Argonne`s SP environment, it became obvious that these two computer environments have very different scheduling needs. Recognizing this need and realizing that no one has addressed it, we developed a new scheduling system. The approach taken in creating this system was unique in that user input and interaction were encouraged throughout the development process. Thus, a scheduler was built that actually worked the way the users wanted it to work. This document serves a dual purpose. It is both a user`s guide and an administrator`s guide for the ANL SP scheduling system. Look for revisions to this guide that will be appearing.

  14. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  15. Candida pseudorugosa sp. nov., a Novel Yeast Species from Sputum▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Xu, Ying-Chun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2006-01-01

    Two yeast strains, strains XH 1026 and XH 1164, isolated from the sputum of an intensive care unit patient with acute pneumonia, were originally identified as Candida albicans and C. tropicalis, respectively. Sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the two strains represent a novel yeast species closely related to C. rogusa. The name Candida pseudorugosa sp. nov. is therefore proposed (type strain, AS 2.3107 [CBS 10433]). The new species is able to grow at 42°C and is resistant or insusceptible to amphotericin B (MIC, 2 μg/ml), caspofungin (MIC, 64 μg/ml), itraconazole (MIC, 1 μg/ml), and nystatin (MIC, 16 μg/ml); dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole (MIC, 16 μg/ml); and susceptible to flucytosine (MIC, 0.125 μg/ml) and voriconazole (MIC, 0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml). The code for C. pseudorugosa sp. nov. provided by the API 20C AUX system is identical to that for C. rugosa. The colonies of the new species on CHROMagar Candida appear blue-green, similar to those of C. albicans. In addition to the molecular method based on D1/D2 domain or ITS region sequencing, use of the combination of the API system and CHROMagar Candida is helpful for the correct identification of C. pseudorugosa sp. nov. PMID:17021068

  16. Production of volatile organic compounds by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, M.; Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton are known to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and decomposition of stratospheric ozone. For example, picophytoplankton, such as Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, are distributed in freshwater and oceans worldwide, accounting for a large proportion of biomass and primary production in the open ocean. However, to date, little is known about the production of VOCs by picophytoplankton. In this study, VOCs production by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. (NIES-981) was investigated. Synechococcus sp. was obtained from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, and cultured at 24°C in autoclaved f/2-Si medium under 54 ± 3 µE m-2 s-1 (1 E = 1 mol of photons) with a 12-h light and 12-h dark cycle. VOCs concentrations were determined using a purge-and-trap gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Agilent 5973). The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) were also determined using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). Bromomethane (CH3Br) and isoprene were produced by Synechococcus sp. Isoprene production was similar to those of other phytoplankton species reported earlier. Isoprene was produced when Chl a was increasing in the early stage of the incubation period (5-15 days of incubation time, exponential phase), but CH3Br was produced when Chl a was reduced in the late stage of the incubation period (30-40 days of incubation time, death phase).

  17. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

  18. SP-100 reactor with Brayton conversion for lunar surface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Rodriguez, Carlos D.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Hanlon, James C.; Mansfield, Brian C.

    1992-04-01

    Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power system with a lunar lander. This system is intended to meet early lunar mission power needs while minimizing on-site installation requirements. Man-rated radiation protection is provided by an integral multilayer, cylindrical lithium hydride/tungsten (LiH/W) shield encircling the reactor vessel. Design emphasis is on ease of deployment, safety, and reliability, while utilizing relatively near-term technology. The second design combines Brayton conversion with the SP-100 reactor in a erectable 550-kWe powerplant concept intended to satisfy later-phase lunar base power requirements. This system capitalizes on experience gained from operating the initial 100-kWe module and incorporates some technology improvements. For this system, the reactor is emplaced in a lunar regolith excavation to provide man-rated shielding, and the Brayton engines and radiators are mounted on the lunar surface and extend radially from the central reactor. Design emphasis is on performance, safety, long life, and operational flexibility.

  19. SP-100 reactor with Brayton conversion for lunar surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Rodriguez, Carlos D.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Hanlon, James C.; Mansfield, Brian C.

    1992-01-01

    Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power system with a lunar lander. This system is intended to meet early lunar mission power needs while minimizing on-site installation requirements. Man-rated radiation protection is provided by an integral multilayer, cylindrical lithium hydride/tungsten (LiH/W) shield encircling the reactor vessel. Design emphasis is on ease of deployment, safety, and reliability, while utilizing relatively near-term technology. The second design combines Brayton conversion with the SP-100 reactor in a erectable 550-kWe powerplant concept intended to satisfy later-phase lunar base power requirements. This system capitalizes on experience gained from operating the initial 100-kWe module and incorporates some technology improvements. For this system, the reactor is emplaced in a lunar regolith excavation to provide man-rated shielding, and the Brayton engines and radiators are mounted on the lunar surface and extend radially from the central reactor. Design emphasis is on performance, safety, long life, and operational flexibility.

  20. Coupling Algorithm for Sp(3 , R) Irreducible Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Germaine-Fuller, James F.; McCoy, Anna E.; Caprio, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear symplectic model based on Sp(3 , R) - the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra - connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot SU(3) model to multiple shells. However, Sp(3 , R) is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus which can be broken by spin-orbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will break Sp(3 , R) symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for enumerating the irreps that arise from the coupling of two symplectice irreps and evaluating their multiplicities in the product. This should assist in performing such multi-irrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. Supported by the US NSF under Grant NSF-PHY05-52843, the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934, and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  1. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators. PMID:24102740

  2. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents of Xylaria sp. NC1214, a fungal endophyte of the moss Hypnum sp.

    PubMed

    Wei, Han; Xu, Ya-ming; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Liu, Manping X; Luo, Jiang-Guang; U'Ren, Jana M; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenated guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, xylaguaianols A-D (1-4), an iso-cadinane-type sesquiterpene isocadinanol A (5), and an α-pyrone 9-hydroxyxylarone (6), together with five known sesquiterpenes (7-11), and four known cytochalasins (12-15) were isolated from a culture broth of Xylaria sp. NC1214, a fungal endophyte of the moss Hypnum sp. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data and relative configurations of 1-5 were determined with the help of NMR NOESY experiments. Cytochalasins C (12), D (13), and Q (14) were investigated for their cytotoxic activity against five tumor cell lines. Cytochalasin D showed significant cytotoxicity against all five cell lines, with IC50s ranging from 0.22 to 1.44 μM, whereas cytochalasins C and Q exhibited moderate, but selective cytotoxicity. PMID:26324074

  3. Identification of Arthrobacter oxydans, Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov., and Arthrobacter albus sp. nov., Isolated from Human Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Wauters, Georges; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Delmée, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Five Arthrobacter isolates from clinical specimens were studied by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genetic characterization. Two strains had characteristics consistent with those of Arthrobacter oxydans. One strain was related to A. citreus; however, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics indicated that this strain belongs to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. Two strains were closely related to A. cumminsii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, but DNA-DNA hybridization, peptidoglycan type, and some phenotypic features indicated that they should be assigned to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter albus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. luteolus is CF25 (DSM 13067). The type strain of A. albus is CF43 (DSM 13068). PMID:10835019

  4. Chemical reactivity of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 hemoglobins: covalent heme attachment and bishistidine coordination

    PubMed Central

    Nothnagel, Henry J.; Preimesberger, Matthew R.; Pond, Matthew P.; Winer, Benjamin Y.; Adney, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    In the absence of an exogenous ligand, the hemoglobins from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 coordinate the heme group with two axial histidines (His46 and His70). These globins also form a covalent linkage between the heme 2-vinyl substituent and His117. The in vitro mechanism of heme attachment to His117 was examined with a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, NMR spectroscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The results supported an electrophilic addition with vinyl protonation being the rate-determining step. Replacement of His117 with a cysteine demonstrated that the reaction could occur with an alternative nucleophile. His46 (distal histidine) was implicated in the specificity of the reaction for the 2-vinyl group as well as protection of the protein from oxidative damage caused by exposure to exogenous H2O2. PMID:21240532

  5. Moniliella carnis sp. nov. and Moniliella dehoogii sp. nov., two novel species of black yeasts isolated from meat processing environments.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Hai, Dao Anh; Hien, Dinh Duc; Takashima, Masako; Lachance, Marc-André

    2012-12-01

    Thirteen strains of yeasts typical of the genus Moniliella were isolated from fermenting meat and meat processing tools in Vietnam. PCR fingerprints generated by primer (GAC)(5) subdivided the strains into two distinctive genetic groups. In a phylogenetic tree based on D1/D2 large subunit rRNA gene sequences, the strains formed a well-supported clade with Moniliella spathulata and Moniliella suaveolens but represented two new lineages. The names Moniliella carnis sp. nov. and Moniliella dehoogii sp. nov. are proposed. The two novel species can be distinguished from each other and from known species of Moniliella based on phenotypic characteristics. It is assumed that the yeasts were associated with fatty substances that contaminated the meat processing tools. The type strain of Moniliella carnis is KFP 246(T) ( = CBS 126447(T) = NRRL Y-48681(T)) and the type strain of Moniliella dehoogii is KFP 211(T) ( = CBS 126564(T) = NRRL Y-48682(T)). PMID:22863989

  6. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)). PMID:21478396

  7. Wickerhamiella dulcicola sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella cachassae sp. nov., yeasts isolated from cachaça fermentation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badotti, Fernanda; Silva, Pollyana A B; Mendonça, Michelle C; Gomes, Fatima C O; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-03-01

    Six strains of two novel yeast species were isolated from sugar-cane juice and fermentation vats of cachaça production in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that these species belong to the Wickerhamiella clade, and their closest described relative in terms of sequence similarity is Candida (iter. nom. Wickerhamiella) drosophilae. The type strain of Wickerhamiella cachassae sp. nov. is UFMG-D5L7(T) ( = CBS 12587(T)  = CBMAI 1469(T)) and the type strain of Wickerhamiella dulcicola sp. nov. is UFMG-TOL15(T) ( = CBS 12588(T)  = CBMAI 1468(T)). PMID:23203623

  8. Pseudoparamoeba microlepis n. sp., Korotnevella fousta n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida), with notes on the evolution of scales among dactylopodid amoebae.

    PubMed

    Udalov, Ilya A

    2016-06-01

    The present paper describes two new species of lobose amoebae belonging to the family Paramoebidae within the order Dactylopodida: Pseudoparamoeba microlepis n. sp. and Korotnevella fousta n. sp. Among them, P. microlepis formally fits the diagnosis of the genus Korotnevella, because it has scales and lacks a parasome. At the same time its 18S rDNA gene sequence robustly groups with Pseudoparamoeba pagei and never branches among those of Korotnevella spp. Korotnevella fousta in 18S rDNA tree groups among other species of the genus Korotnevella. It has uniform scales with an elliptical basal plate and spine arising from its central part and surrounded by an "inverted skirt" structure. These findings show that the current differentiation between the genera Korotnevella and Pseudoparamoeba based on the presence of scales is not entirely valid. At the moment only molecular data can reliably differentiate these two genera. PMID:27131041

  9. Sarcocystis dubeyella n. sp. and Sarcocystis phacochoeri n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stolte, M; Odening, K; Quandt, S; Bengis, R G; Bockhardt, I

    1998-01-01

    Sarcocystis dubeyella n. sp. and S. phacochoeri n. sp. from muscle fibers of the skeletal musculature of two warthogs in South Africa are described by light and and electron microscopy. Sarcocystis dubeyella sarcocysts are macroscopic (up to 12 mm long and 1 mm wide), with a parasite-induced encapsulation of the host muscle fiber in which the plasma membrane of the latter remained unaltered. The sarcocyst wall is characterized by evenly arranged, irregularly semicircular or rectangular villar protrusions (5.0 x 2.8-11.0 microns) with indented margins and no specific content. Sarcocystis phacochoeri formed filiform microcysts (up to 4 mm long and 0.13 mm wide). Its cyst wall is provided with tightly packed, molarlike villar protrusions (1.6-3.3 x 1.7-3.3 microns), with smooth margins, hollow on one side, and with longitudinal condensations of the fine granular matrix at various locations in the interior. PMID:9495038

  10. Funaria maryanneae n. sp. and Proleptonchus weischeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Europe and New Synonyms in Leptonchoidea

    PubMed Central

    Goseco, C. G.; Ferris, V. R.

    1976-01-01

    Funaria maryanneae n. sp., distinguished by its large size and long prerectum, is described from specimens collected in Bad Sooden, Germany, D. B. R. This nematode was collected also from Fräkmüntegg (Mt. Pilatus), Switzerland. Proleptonchus weischeri n. sp., with short hemispheroid female tail and relatively anterior vulva, is described from specimens collected in Kaufunger Wald near Kassel, Germany, D. B. R. This is the first report of either genus from the continent of Europe. Leptonchus parisii Zullini, 1973, from Chiapas, Mexico, becomes a junior synonym of Funaria obtusa (Thorne, 1939) Goseco, Ferris and Ferris, 1974. Leptonchus acutus Zulliui, 1973 becomes Funaria acuta n. comb., and Funaria rothi Goseco, Ferris and Ferris, 1974 becomes a junior synonym of Funaria acuta. PMID:19308225

  11. Funaria maryanneae n. sp. and Proleptonchus weischeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Europe and new synonyms in Leptonchoidea.

    PubMed

    Goseco, C G; Ferris, V R

    1976-07-01

    Funaria maryanneae n. sp., distinguished by its large size and long prerectum, is described from specimens collected in Bad Sooden, Germany, D. B. R. This nematode was collected also from Fräkmüntegg (Mt. Pilatus), Switzerland. Proleptonchus weischeri n. sp., with short hemispheroid female tail and relatively anterior vulva, is described from specimens collected in Kaufunger Wald near Kassel, Germany, D. B. R. This is the first report of either genus from the continent of Europe. Leptonchus parisii Zullini, 1973, from Chiapas, Mexico, becomes a junior synonym of Funaria obtusa (Thorne, 1939) Goseco, Ferris and Ferris, 1974. Leptonchus acutus Zulliui, 1973 becomes Funaria acuta n. comb., and Funaria rothi Goseco, Ferris and Ferris, 1974 becomes a junior synonym of Funaria acuta. PMID:19308225

  12. Sandbox experiments on Uraninite Ore: ERT and SP measurments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear energy, considering its own intrinsic merits, would be a leading source for meeting the energy requirement in present and future scenario. Concealed Uranium deposits under sedimentary cover, with poor surface indications calls for reorientation of survey with large inputs involving integrated geophysical approach. Sand Box experiments have been carried out over Uraninite ore. The tank is a glass fish tank (height 39 cm, length 75 cm, width 30 cm). It was filled with sand up to 35 cm high. The sand was saturated from below to minimize the entrapment of the gas bubbles. The average size for sand grains is ~ 0.295mm. The formation factor of the sand is 3.5, with a negligible surface conductivity because of the coarse nature of the sand grains. The dimension of considered Uraninite ore sample is 4cm x 4cm x 4cm. The depth of top of the ore sample is kept at 3cm. In this paper both resistivity and self-potential measurements were carried out for possible detection of Uraninite. The resistivity measurements were made with 64 non-polarizable electrodes using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) equipment of FlashRes Universal developed by ZZ Resistivity Imaging Pty. Ltd. We have used screws of length 3cm as electrodes. The separation between these electrodes are ~ 1cm. The resistivity tomography results clearly outlines the target Uraninite body. The resistivity tomography results also detects small heterogeneities associated with air bubbles possibly due to unsaturated pore spaces. SP measurements were made using two non-polarizing Pb/PbCl2 electrodes and a Fluke 289 voltmeter (sensitivity 0.001 mV, internal impedance 100 MOhm). The reference electrode was located on the corner of the sandbox. The other electrode was used to scan the electrical potential at the surface of the sand. SP measurements were made with a spacing of 3 cm over the same ERT profile. The SP results also shows a dip (or a low SP anomaly) over the target ore body sample. Thus, both SP and

  13. Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Keis, S; Shaheen, R; Jones, D T

    2001-11-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA reassociation, industrial solvent-producing clostridia have been assigned to four species. In this study, the phenotypic characteristics of Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii, 'Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum', and an unnamed Clostridium sp. represented by the strains NCP 262T and NRRL B643 are compared. In addition, a further 40 strains of solvent-producing clostridia have been classified by biotyping, DNA fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These included 14 C. beijerinckii strains, two strains currently designated as 'Clostridium kaneboi' and 'Clostridium butanologenum', and 24 production strains used in the commercial acetone-butanol fermentation. All of the C. beijerinckii strains were confirmed to have been classified correctly. The 'C. kaneboi' and 'C. butanologenum' strains require reclassification as C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii, respectively. The commercial production strains were found to belong either to C. beijerinckii or to the unnamed Clostridium sp. For the comparative phenotypic studies of the four species, representative strains were selected from each of the DNA-fingerprint subgroups within each species. These strains were analysed for their ability to utilize different carbohydrates, hydrolyse gelatin or aesculin, and produce indole, and were tested for the presence of catalase and urease. On the basis of these results, several phenotypic traits were found to be useful for differentiating between the four species. The descriptions of C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii have been emended. The names Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. [type strain = N1-4 (HMT) = ATCC 27021T] and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. (type strain = DSM 13864T = ATCC BAA-117T) are proposed for the two new species. PMID:11760952

  14. Sulfurospirillum barnesii sp. nov. and Sulfurospirillum arsenophilum sp. nov., new members of the Sulfurospirillum clade of the ε-Proteobacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolz, J.F.; Ellis, D.J.; Blum, J.S.; Ahmann, D.; Lovley, D.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two strains of dissimilatory arsenate-reducing vibrio-shaped bacteria are assigned to the genus Sulfurospirillum. These two new species, Sulfurospirillum barnesii strain SES-3(T) and Sulfurospirillum arsenophilum strain MIT-13(T), in addition to Sulfurospirillum sp. SM-5, two strains of Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, and Sulfurospirillum arcachonense, form a distinct clade within the ?? subclass of the Proteobacteria based on 16S rRNA analysis.

  15. Lipid Profile Remodeling in Response to Nitrogen Deprivation in the Microalgae Chlorella sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) and Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Ian L. D.; Bergamin, Amanda; Shears, Melanie J.; Dias, Daniel A.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Scales, Peter J.; Botté, Cyrille Y.; Callahan, Damien L.

    2014-01-01

    Many species of microalgae produce greatly enhanced amounts of triacylglycerides (TAGs), the key product for biodiesel production, in response to specific environmental stresses. Improvement of TAG production by microalgae through optimization of growth regimes is of great interest. This relies on understanding microalgal lipid metabolism in relation to stress response in particular the deprivation of nutrients that can induce enhanced TAG synthesis. In this study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. in response to nitrogen deprivation (N-deprivation) was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress. As expected, an increase in TAGs and an overall decrease in polar lipids were observed. However, while most membrane lipid classes (phosphoglycerolipids and glycolipids) were found to decrease, the non-nitrogen containing phosphatidylglycerol levels increased considerably in both algae from initially low levels. Of particular significance, it was observed that the acyl composition of TAGs in Nannochloropsis sp. remain relatively constant, whereas Chlorella sp. showed greater variability following N-deprivation. In both algae the overall fatty acid profiles of the polar lipid classes were largely unaffected by N-deprivation, suggesting a specific FA profile for each compartment is maintained to enable continued function despite considerable reductions in the amount of these lipids. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were due primarily to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study provides the most detailed lipidomic information on two different microalgae with utility in biodiesel production and nutraceutical industries and proposes the mechanisms for this rearrangement. This research also highlights the usefulness of the latest MS-based approaches for microalgae lipid research. PMID:25171084

  16. Integrated Bacillus sp. immobilized cell reactor and Synechocystis sp. algal reactor for the treatment of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Nagalakshmi, C; Mandal, A B

    2013-01-01

    The wastewater discharged from leather industries lack biodegradability due to the presence of xenobiotic compounds. The primary clarification and aerobic treatment in Bacillus sp. immobilized Chemo Autotrophic Activated Carbon Oxidation (CAACO) reactor removed considerable amount of pollution parameters. The residual untreated organics in the wastewater was further treated in algal batch reactor inoculated with Synechocystis sp. Sodium nitrate, K(2)HPO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O, NH(4)Cl, CaCl(2)·2H(2)O, FeCl(3) (anhydrous), and thiamine hydrochloride, rice husk based activated carbon (RHAC), immobilization of Bacillus sp. in mesoporous activated carbon, sand filter of dimensions diameter, 6 cm and height, 30 cm; and the CAACO reactor of dimensions diameter, 5.5 cm and height, 30 cm with total volume 720 ml, and working volume of 356 ml. In the present investigation, the CAACO treated tannery wastewater was applied to Synechocystis sp. inoculated algal batch reactor of hydraulic residence time 24 h. The BOD(5), COD, and TOC of treated wastewater from algal batch reactor were 20 ± 7, 167 ± 29, and 78 ± 16 mg/l respectively. The integrated CAACO system and Algal batch reactor was operated for 30 days and they accomplished a cumulative removal of BOD(5),COD, TOC, VFA and sulphide as 98 %, 95 %, 93 %, 86 %, and 100 %, respectively. The biokinetic constants for the growth of algae in the batch reactor were specific growth rate, 0.095(day(-1)) and yield coefficient, 3.15 mg of algal biomass/mg of COD destructed. The degradation of xenobiotic compounds in the algal batch reactor was confirmed through HPLC and FT-IR techniques. The integrated CAACO-Algal reactor system established a credible reduction in pollution parameters in the tannery wastewater. The removal mechanism is mainly due to co-metabolism between algae and bacterial species and the organics were completely metabolized rather than by adsorption. PMID:22528997

  17. Identification of KLF13 and KLF14 (SP6), novel members of the SP/XKLF transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Scohy, S; Gabant, P; Van Reeth, T; Hertveldt, V; Drèze, P L; Van Vooren, P; Rivière, M; Szpirer, J; Szpirer, C

    2000-11-15

    Using the sequence of the SP1 zinc-finger DNA-binding domain as a probe to screen a mouse EST database, we identified two novel members of the SP/XKLF transcription factor family, KLF13 and KLF14. The mouse Klf13 cDNA (1310 bp in length) contains a single open reading frame of 288 amino acids with a DNA-binding domain closely related to that of the human RFLAT-1 protein and a putative transactivator N-terminal domain rich in proline and alanine residues. The mouse Klf13 gene seems to be the homologue of the human RFLAT1 gene. The mouse Klf14 sequence is homologous to a human genomic sequence from chromosome 17 that is believed to code for a protein with three zinc fingers at the end of its C-terminal domain. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we showed ubiquitous expression of Klf13 and Klf14 in adult mice. A third member of this family was also identified in a human EST database; this sequence was found to be identical to KLF11 (TIEG2), recently identified by Cook et al. (1998, J. Biol. Chem. 273: 25929-25936). The corresponding mouse cDNA was isolated and sequenced. The three genes were localized in the human and the rat: chromosomes 15 (human KLF13), 17q21.3-q22 (human KLF14; HGMW-approved symbol SP6), and 2p25 (human KLF11) and chromosomes 1q31-q32 (rat Klf13), 10q31-q32.1 (rat Klf14) (SP6), and 6q16-q21 (rat Klf11). PMID:11087666

  18. Spermatozoal ultrastructure in four genera of Homolidae (crustacea, decapoda): Exemplified by Homologenus sp., Latreillopsis sp., Homolomannia sibogae and Paromolosis boasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, B. G. M.; Guinot, D.; Forges, B. Richer De

    1993-10-01

    The spermatozoa of Homologenus sp., Latreillopsis sp., Homolomannia sibogae and Paromolopsis boasi confirm characteristics of a distinctive homolid spermatozoon previously established for Homola sp., Paromola sp. and Paromola petterdi. Homolid features are (1) moderate anteroposterior depression of the acrosome (ratio of length: width 0.4 0.6) as in lyreidine raninids (0.5), depression being greater in dromiids and dynomenids (both 0.3); (2) the capitate form of the perforatorium, shared with dromiids, dynomenids and lyreidine raninids; (3)the autapomorphic spiked-wheel form of the anterior expansion of the perforatorium; (4) horizontal zonation of the acrosome is possibly a unique synapomorphy of homolids with dromiids and dynomenids, and therefore an autapomorphy of the dromioid-homolid assemblage. In dromiids the posterior zone is proportionately the larger, while in homolids the anterior zone is the larger. The anterior zone is complexly subdivided in dynomenids; (5) the autapomorphic presence of numerous radial arranged extension of the acrosomal operculum into the perforatorium; (6) presence of nuclear arms, a symplesiomorphy of all investigated crabs, but small or questionably sometimes absent in Dromiidae; (7) absence of microtubules from the nuclear arms, as in dromiids, raninids, higher heterotremes and thoracotremes; (8) transient presence of a posterior median process of the nucleus. The process is not seen in dromiids but occurs in anomurans and lower heterotremes; (9) apical perforation of the operculum, also seen, apparently symplesiomorphically, in dromiids, raninids, and lower heterotreme families; (10) absence of an acrosome ray zone, probably homoplasic with absence in raninids; (11) location of most of the cytoplasm, including tortuous membranes and degenerating mitochondria, below the acrosome, also seen in Lyreidus; (12) presence, in at least some species, of centrioles, unknown in dromiids and raninids and variable in occurrence in

  19. Characterization and Optimization of Bioflocculant Exopolysaccharide Production by Cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990 in Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Onkar Nath; Khangembam, Romi; Shamjetshabam, Minerva; Sharma, Aribam Subhalaxmi; Oinam, Gunapati; Brand, Jerry J

    2015-08-01

    Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by 40 cyanobacterial strains during their photoautotrophic growth was investigated. Highest levels of EPS were produced by Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990. EPS production was maximum during stationary growth phase, when nitrogenase activity was very low. Maximum EPS production occurred at pH 8.0 in the absence of any combined nitrogen source. The cyanobacterial EPS consisted of soluble protein and polysaccharide that included substantial amounts of neutral sugars and uronic acid. The EPS isolated from Anabaena sp. BTA990 and Nostoc sp. BTA97 demonstrated high flocculation capacity. There was a positive correlation between uronic acid content and flocculation activity. The flocculant bound a cationic dye, Alcian Blue, indicating it to be polyanionic. The 16S rRNA gene sequences for Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990 were deposited at NCBI GenBank, and accession numbers were obtained as KJ830951 and KJ830948, respectively. The results of these experiments indicate that strains Anabaena sp. BTA990 and Nostoc sp. BTA97 are good candidates for the commercial production of EPS and might be utilized in industrial applications as an alternative to synthetic and abiotic flocculants. PMID:26041059

  20. Formation of C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) Bonds by Palladium Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of α-Diazoketones and Allylboronic Acids.

    PubMed

    Belhomme, Marie-Charlotte; Wang, Dong; Szabó, Kálmán J

    2016-05-20

    Palladium catalyzed cross-coupling of allylboronic acids with α-diazoketones was studied. The reaction selectively affords the linear allylic product. The reaction proceeds with formation of a new C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond. The reaction was performed without an external oxidant, likely without the Pd-catalyst undergoing redox reactions. PMID:27166509

  1. Copper-mediated C-H(sp²)/C-H(sp³) coupling of benzoic acid derivatives with ethyl cyanoacetate: an expedient route to an isoquinolinone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Dengyou; Yang, Nan; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-21

    A facile, copper-mediated, direct C-H(sp(2))/C-H(sp(3)) bond coupling of benzoic acid derivatives with ethyl cyanoacetate by the deployment of an 8-aminoquinoline moiety as a bidentate directing group is disclosed. Such a unique transformation provides a new strategy for the construction of an isoquinolinone scaffold as one of the privileged cores. PMID:25074033

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1 and Sphingomonas sp. Strain TDK1, Haloalkyl Phosphate Flame Retardant- and Plasticizer-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Katsumasa; Kasai, Daisuke; Fukuda, Masao; Takahashi, Shouji

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 and Sphingomonas sp. strain TDK1 are haloalkyl phosphate flame retardant- and plasticizer-degrading bacteria. We report here the draft genome sequences of these strains to provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying their degradation ability. PMID:27417843

  3. Sp5 and Sp8 recruit β-catenin and Tcf1-Lef1 to select enhancers to activate Wnt target gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mark W; Chalamalasetty, Ravindra B; Thomas, Sara; Garriock, Robert J; Jailwala, Parthav; Yamaguchi, Terry P

    2016-03-29

    The ancient, highly conserved, Wnt signaling pathway regulates cell fate in all metazoans. We have previously shown that combined null mutations of the specificity protein (Sp) 1/Klf-like zinc-finger transcription factorsSp5andSp8(i.e.,Sp5/8) result in an embryonic phenotype identical to that observed when core components of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are mutated; however, their role in Wnt signal transduction is unknown. Here, we show in mouse embryos and differentiating embryonic stem cells that Sp5/8 are gene-specific transcriptional coactivators in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Sp5/8 bind directly to GC boxes in Wnt target gene enhancers and to adjacent, or distally positioned, chromatin-bound T-cell factor (Tcf) 1/lymphoid enhancer factor (Lef) 1 to facilitate recruitment of β-catenin to target gene enhancers. BecauseSp5is itself directly activated by Wnt signals, we propose that Sp5 is a Wnt/β-catenin pathway-specific transcripton factor that functions in a feed-forward loop to robustly activate select Wnt target genes. PMID:26969725

  4. Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Yousef; Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1–10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamide (11), 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12) and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a). When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes. PMID:24857962

  5. New host record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid of Microdon sp. larvae associated with the ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host of Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) is newly reported as Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a genus of obligatory myrmecophilous fly that predates ant brood, in this case Camponotus sp. aff. textor, in southern Mexico. The biology of Microdon spp. is reported as is that o...

  6. Influence of sp(3)-sp(2) Carbon Nanodomains on Metal/Support Interaction, Catalyst Durability, and Catalytic Activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Campos-Roldán, Carlos A; Ramos-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Huerta, Rosa G; Vargas García, Jorge R; Balbuena, Perla B; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    In this work, platinum nanoparticles were impregnated by two different techniques, namely the carbonyl chemical route and photodeposition, onto systematically surface-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The different interactions between platinum nanoparticles with sp(2)-sp(3) carbon nanodomains were investigated. The oxidation of an adsorbed monolayer of carbon monoxide, used to probe electronic catalytic modification, suggests a selective nucleation of platinum nanoparticles onto sp(2) carbon nanodomains when photodeposition synthesis is carried out. XPS attests the catalytic center electronic modification obtained by photodeposition. DFT calculations were used to determine the interaction energy of a Pt cluster with sp(2) and sp(3) carbon surfaces as well as with oxidized ones. The interaction energy and electronic structure of the platinum cluster presents dramatic changes as a function of the support surface chemistry, which also modifies its catalytic properties evaluated by the interaction with CO. The interaction energy was calculated to be 8-fold higher on sp(3) and oxidized surfaces in comparison to sp(2) domains. Accelerated Stability Test (AST) was applied only on the electronic-modified materials to evaluate the active phase degradation and their activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The stability of photodeposited materials is correlated with the surface chemical nature of supports indicating that platinum nanoparticles supported onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes with the highest sp(2) character show the higher stability and activity toward ORR. PMID:27494283

  7. Gap junctional communication modulates gene transcription by altering the recruitment of Sp1 and Sp3 to connexin-response elements in osteoblast promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stains, Joseph P.; Lecanda, Fernando; Screen, Joanne; Towler, Dwight A.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of gap junction proteins, connexins, represent a mechanism of disease in a variety of tissues. We have shown that recessive (gene deletion) or dominant (connexin45 overexpression) disruption of connexin43 function results in osteoblast dysfunction and abnormal expression of osteoblast genes, including down-regulation of osteocalcin transcription. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gap junction-sensitive transcriptional regulation, we systematically analyzed the rat osteocalcin promoter for sensitivity to gap junctional intercellular communication. We identified an Sp1/Sp3 containing complex that assembles on a minimal element in the -70 to -57 region of the osteocalcin promoter in a gap junction-dependent manner. This CT-rich connexin-response element is necessary and sufficient to confer gap junction sensitivity to the osteocalcin proximal promoter. Repression of osteocalcin transcription occurs as a result of displacement of the stimulatory Sp1 by the inhibitory Sp3 on the promoter when gap junctional communication is perturbed. Modulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment also occurs on the collagen Ialpha1 promoter and translates into gap junction-sensitive transcriptional control of collagen Ialpha1 gene expression. Thus, regulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment to the promoter may represent a potential general mechanism for transcriptional control of target genes by signals passing through gap junctions.

  8. Bioactive metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. 1 and sp. 2, two endophytes associated with Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila M; Silva, Geraldo H; Regasini, Luis O; Zanardi, Lisinéia M; Evangelista, Alana H; Young, Maria C M; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Araujo, Angela R

    2009-01-01

    In the course of our continuous search for bioactive metabolites from endophytic fungi living in plants from the Brazilian flora, leaves of Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae) were submitted to isolation of endophytes, and two species of Penicillium were isolated. The acetonitrile fraction obtained in corn from a culture of Penicillium sp. 1 afforded orcinol (1). On the other hand, Penicillium sp. 1 cultivated in potato-dextrose-broth furnished two different compounds, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (2) and uracil (3). The chromatographic fractionation of the acetonitrile fraction obtained from Penicillium sp. 2 led to three dihydroisocoumarins, 4-hydroxymellein (4), 8-methoxymellein (5) and 5-hydroxymellein (6). Compounds 5 and 6 were obtained from the Penicillium genus for the first time. Additionally, metabolites 1-6 were evaluated for their antifungal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. The most active compounds 1 and 4 exhibited detection limits of 5.00 and 10.0 microg against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. Compound 2 showed a detection limit of 10.0 microg, displaying potent AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20158153

  9. Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. strains from decaying woods and characterization of their potential for cellulose deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Silvina; Lorenzo, Gonzalo Sabarís Di; Lia, Verónica; Talia, Paola; Cataldi, Angel; Grasso, Daniel; Campos, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    Prospection of cellulose-degrading bacteria in natural environments allows the identification of novel cellulases and hemicellulases that could be useful in second-generation bioethanol production. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from decaying native forest soils by enrichment on cellulose as sole carbon source. There was a predominance of Gram positive isolates that belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Many primary isolates with cellulolytic activity were not pure cultures. From these consortia, isolation of pure constituents was attempted in order to test the hypothesis whether microbial consortia are needed for full degradation of complex substrates. Two isolates, CB1-2-A-5 and VG-4-A-2, were obtained as the pure constituents of CB1-2 and VG-4 consortia, respectively. Based on 16S RNA sequence, they could be classified as Variovorax paradoxus and Paenibacillus alvei. Noteworthy, only VG-4 consortium showed measurable xylan degrading capacity and signs of filter paper degradation. However, no xylan or filter paper degrading capacities were observed for the pure cultures isolated from it, suggesting that other members of this consortium were necessary for these hydrolyzing activities. Our results indicated that Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. as well as VG-4 consortium, might be a useful source of hydrolytic enzymes. Moreover, although Variovorax sp. had been previously identified in metagenomic studies of cellulolytic communities, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of this microorganism as a cellulolytic genus. PMID:23301200

  10. Description of Acetobacter oboediens sp. nov. and Acetobacter pomorum sp. nov., two new species isolated from industrial vinegar fermentations.

    PubMed

    Sokollek, S J; Hertel, C; Hammes, W P

    1998-07-01

    Two strains of Acetobacter sp., LTH 2460T and LTH 2458T, have been isolated from running red wine and cider vinegar fermentations, respectively. Taxonomic characteristics of the isolates were investigated. Comparative analysis of the 165 rRNA sequences revealed > 99% similarity between strain LTH 2460T and the type strains of the related species Acetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter xylinus and between strain LTH 2458T and Acetobacter pasteurianus. On the other hand, low levels of DNA relatedness (< 34%) were determined in DNA-DNA similarity studies. This relatedness below the species level was consistent with specific physiological characteristics permitting clear identification of these strains within established species of acetic acid bacteria. Based on these results, the names Acetobacter oboediens sp. nov. and Acetobacter pomorum sp. nov. are proposed for strains LTH 2460T and LTH 2458T, respectively. The phylogenetic positions of the new species are reflected by a 16S rRNA-based tree. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe specific for A. oboediens was constructed. PMID:9734049

  11. Streptosporangium lutulentum sp. nov., Streptosporangium fenghuangense sp. nov. and Streptosporangium corydalis sp. nov., three novel actinobacterial species isolated from National Forest Park of Fenghuang Mountain.

    PubMed

    Fang, Baozhu; Liu, Hui; Pan, Tong; Liu, Chongxi; Guan, Xuejiao; He, Hairong; Yan, Kai; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-03-01

    Three novel actinobacteria, designated strains NEAU-FSHN1(T), NEAU-hd-3(T) and NEAU-Y6(T), were isolated from a stream base, soil adjacent to the stream and a root of Corydalis yanhusuo L, respectively, collected from Wuchang, Heilongjiang Province, China. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these strains. The three strains were observed to form scant aerial hyphae that differentiated into spherical spore vesicles. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains NEAU-FHSN1(T), NEAU-hd-3(T) and NEAU-Y6(T) showed that the three novel isolates exhibit 99.2 % (NEAU-FHSN1(T)/NEAU-hd-3(T)), 99.2 % (NEAU-FHSN1(T)/NEAU-Y6(T)) and 99.7 % (NEAU-hd-3(T)/NEAU-Y6(T)) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with each other and that they are closely related to strains Streptosporangium shengliense NEAU-GH7(T) (sequence similarities 98.72, 98.85, 98.99 %), Streptosporangium roseum DSM 43021(T) (98.65, 98.51, 98.58 %) and Streptosporangium album DSM 43023(T) (98.41, 98.96, 98.89 %). However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strains NEAU-FSHN1(T), NEAU-hd-3(T) and NEAU-Y6(T) were 61.2 % (NEAU-FSHN1(T)/NEAU-hd-3(T)), 63.5 % (NEAU-FHSN1(T)/NEAU-Y6(T)) and 65.8 % (NEAU-hd-3(T)/NEAU-Y6(T)), and the values between the three strains and their close phylogenetic relatives were also below 70 %. With reference to phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization results, the three strains can be distinguished from each other and their close phylogenetic relatives. Thus, strains NEAU-FHSN1(T), NEAU-hd-3(T) and NEAU-Y6(T) are concluded to represent three novel species of the genus Streptosporangium, for which the names Streptosporangium lutulentum sp. nov., Streptosporangium fenghuangense sp. nov. and Streptosporangium corydalis sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are NEAU-FHSN1(T) (=CGMCC 4.7141(T) = DSM 46740(T)), NEAU-Y6(T) (=CGMCC 4.7150(T) = DSM 46722(T)) and NEAU-hd3(T) (CGMCC 4

  12. Elevation of three subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum to species level: Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov., Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Gardan, Louis; Gouy, Cécile; Christen, Richard; Samson, Régine

    2003-03-01

    A collection of 42 strains belonging to the five subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum (subspecies atrosepticum, betavasculorum, carotovorum, odoriferum and wasabiae) and 11 reference and type strains of biovars of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, Pectobacterium cacticidum and Brenneria paradisiaca were studied by DNA-DNA hybridization, numerical taxonomy of 120 phenotypic characteristics, serology and new phylogenetic analysis of previously reported sequences from a database of aligned 16S rDNA sequences. The P. carotovorum subspecies formed a clade according to neighbour-joining methods, but they formed two paraphyletic clusters according to maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony. However, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences alone is not sufficient to justify generic differentiation and therefore, it is proposed to retain the P. carotovorum subspecies in the genus Pectobacterium. The strains of P. carotovorum were distributed in four genomospecies: genomospecies 1, harbouring all strains of subsp. atrosepticum, genomospecies 2, including the strains of subsp. betavasculorum isolated from sugar beet, sunflower, potato, hyacinth and artichoke, genomospecies 3, clustering all strains of subsp. wasabiae isolated from wasabi in Japan, and genomospecies 4, gathering together strains of subsp. carotovorum and strains of subsp. odoriferum. Four strains of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum remained unclustered. Biochemical criteria, deduced from a numerical taxonomy study of phenotypic characteristics and serological reactions, allowed discrimination of strains belonging to the four genomospecies. Thus, it is proposed that three genomospecies be elevated to species level as Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 1526T =LMG 2386T =NCPPB 549T =ICMP 1526T), Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 2122T =LMG 2464T =NCPPB 2795T =ICMP 4226T) and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 3304T =LMG 8404T =NCPPB 3701T =ICMP 9121T

  13. Microbacterium agarici sp. nov., Microbacterium humi sp. nov. and Microbacterium pseudoresistens sp. nov., isolated from the base of the mushroom Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Young, C-C; Busse, H-J; Langer, S; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Schumann, P; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D; Kämpfer, P

    2010-04-01

    proposed for these organisms are Microbacterium agarici sp. nov. [type strain CC-SBCK-209( T) (=DSM 21798(T)=CCM 7686(T))], Microbacterium humi sp. nov. [type strain CC-12309(T) (=DSM 21799(T)=CCM 7687(T))] and Microbacterium pseudoresistens sp. nov. [type strain CC-5209(T) (=DSM 22185(T)=CCM 7688(T))]. PMID:19661494

  14. Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov., Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov.: Three novel taxa from the faeces of cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Samanta; Modesto, Monica; Filippini, Gianfranco; Spiezio, Caterina; Sandri, Camillo; Biavati, Bruno; Pisi, Annamaria; Mattarelli, Paola

    2016-06-01

    Forty-five microorganisms were isolated on bifidobacteria selective medium from one faecal sample of an adult subject of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.). All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, and asporogenous rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, only eight out of the forty-five strains were characterized more deeply, whereas the others are still currently under investigation. They were grouped by BOX-PCR into three clusters: Cluster I (TRE 17(T), TRE 7, TRE 26, TRE 32, TRE 33, TRE I), Cluster II (TRE C(T)), and Cluster III (TRE M(T)). Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the results from the cluster analysis and revealed relatively low level similarities to each other (mean value 95%) and to members of the genus Bifidobacterium. All eight isolates showed the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Bifidobacterium scardovii DSM 13734(T) (mean value 96.6%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes (hsp60, rpoB, clpC, dnaJ and dnaG) supported their independent phylogenetic position to each other and to related species of Bifidobacterium. The G+C contents were 63.2%, 65.9% and 63.0% for Cluster I, Cluster II and Cluster III, respectively. Peptidoglycan types were A3α l-Lys-l-Thr-l-Ala, A4β l-Orn (Lys)-d-Ser-d-Glu and A3β l-Orn-l-Ser-l-Ala in Clusters I, II and III, respectively. Based on the data provided, each cluster represented a novel taxon for which the names Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov. (TRE 17(T)=DSM 100689=JCM 30941; TRE 26=DSM 100690=JCM 30942), Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. (TRE C(T)=DSM 100685=JCM 30943) and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov. (TRE M=DSM 100688=JCM 30944) are proposed. PMID:27236565

  15. Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov., Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov., isolated from faeces of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Samanta; Oki, Kaihei; Yanokura, Emiko; Shimakawa, Yasuhisa; Modesto, Monica; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno; Watanabe, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study on bifidobacterial distribution in New World monkeys, six strains belonging to the Bifidobacteriaceae were isolated from faecal samples of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.). All the isolates were Gram-positive-staining, anaerobic, asporogenous and fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed relatively low levels of similarity (maximum identity 96 %) to members of the genus Bifidobacterium, and placed the isolates in three independent clusters: strains of cluster I (MRM_5.9T and MRM_5.10) and cluster III (MRM_5.18T and MRM_9.02) respectively showed 96.4 and 96.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bifidobacterium callitrichos DSM 23973T, while strains of cluster II (MRM_8.14T and MRM_9.14) showed 95.4 % similarity to Bifidobacterium stellenboschense DSM 23968T. Phylogenetic analysis of partial hsp60 and clpC gene sequences supported an independent phylogenetic position of each cluster from each other and from the related type strains B. callitrichos DSM 23973T and B. stellenboschense DSM 23968T. Clusters I, II and III respectively showed DNA G+C contents of 64.9-65.1, 56.4-56.7 and 63.1-63.7 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of MRM_5.9T were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c dimethylacetal, while C16 : 0 was prominent in strains MRM_5.18T and MRM_8.14T, followed by C18 : 1ω9c and C14 : 0. Biochemical profiles and growth parameters were recorded for all the isolates. Based on the data provided, the clusters represent three novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov. (type strain MRM_5.9T = DSM 100196T = JCM 30796T), Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov. (type strain MRM_8.14T = DSM 100202T = JCM 30799T) and Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. (type strain MRM_5.18T = DSM 100201T = JCM 30798T) are proposed. PMID:26515885

  16. Human Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-A1 Provides Maximal Efficiency of Lung Interfacial Films.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pascual, Alicia; Arroyo, Raquel; Floros, Joanna; Perez-Gil, Jesus

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that reduces surface tension to prevent alveolar collapse and contributes to the protection of the respiratory surface from the entry of pathogens. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a hydrophilic glycoprotein of the collectin family, and its main function is related to host defense. However, previous studies have shown that SP-A also aids in the formation and biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant films at the air-water interface. Humans, unlike rodents, have two genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2. The encoded proteins, SP-A1 and SP-A2, differ quantitatively or qualitatively in function. It has been shown that both gene products are necessary for tubular myelin formation, an extracellular structural form of lung surfactant. The goal of this study was to investigate potential differences in the biophysical properties of surfactants containing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both. For this purpose, we have studied for the first time, to our knowledge, the biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant from individual humanized transgenic mice expressing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both SP-A1 and SP-A2, in the captive bubble surfactometer. We observed that pulmonary surfactant containing SP-A1 reaches lower surface tension after postexpansion interfacial adsorption than surfactants containing no SP-A or only SP-A2. Under interfacial compression-expansion cycling conditions, surfactant films containing SP-A1 also performed better, particularly with respect to the reorganization of the films that takes place during compression. On the other hand, addition of recombinant SP-A1 to a surfactant preparation reconstituted from the hydrophobic fraction of a porcine surfactant made it more resistant to inhibition by serum than the addition of equivalent amounts of SP-A2. We conclude that the presence of SP-A1 allows pulmonary surfactant to adopt a particularly favorable structure with optimal biophysical properties. PMID:27508436

  17. Stramenopile microorganisms associated with the massive coral Favia sp.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Nachshon; Rasoulouniriana, Diana; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Sivan, Alex; Loya, Yossi; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    The surfaces of massive corals of the genus Favia from Eilat, Red Sea, and from Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, are covered by a layer of eukaryotic microorganisms. These microorganisms are embedded in the coral mucus and tissue. In the Gulf of Eilat, the prevalence of corals covered by patches of eukaryotic microorganisms was positively correlated with a decrease in water temperatures (from 25-28 degrees C in the summer to 20-23 degrees C in winter). Comparisons carried out using transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed morphological similarities between the microorganisms from the two geographically distant reefs. The microorganisms found on and in the tissues were approximately 5-15 microm in diameter, surrounded by scales in their cell wall, contained a nucleus, and included unique auto-florescent coccoid bodies of approximately 1 mum. Such morphological characters suggested that these microorganisms are stramenopile protists and in particular thraustochytrids. Molecular analysis, carried out using specific primers for stramenopile 18S rRNA genes, revealed that 90% (111/123) of the clones in the gene libraries were from the Thraustochytriidae. The dominant genera in this family were Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp., and Labyrinthuloides sp. Ten stramenopile strains were isolated and cultured from the corals. Some strains showed > or =97% similarity to clones derived from libraries of mucus-associated microorganisms retrieved directly from these corals. Fatty acid characterization of one of the prevalent strains revealed a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3. The possible association of these stramenopiles in the coral holobiont appeared to be a positive one. PMID:20236189

  18. Coculture degradation of selected PCB congeners by two Acinetobacter sp

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.

    1989-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been introduced in the environment for nearly six decades and are considered to be refractile to microbial attack, since PCBs have to be degraded via cometabolic processes, which occur in the obligate presence of an alternative growth substrate. However, cometabolism of PCBs has been demonstrated to accumulate chlorobenzoates as the main intermediates. Therefore, the complete mineralization of PCBs can only be obtained by coculturing at least a PCB cometabolizing and a chlorobenzoate utilizing microorganism, or by constructing a recombinant strain harboring the complementary pathways of both strains. Therefore, coculture mineralization of PCBs in suspended culture was obtained by providing biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl as the growth substrate for Acinetobacter sp. strain P6, a PCB cometabolizer, while the chlorobenzoates were used as growth substrates by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1, which was isolated on 4-chlorobenzoate. 4-Chlorobenzoate (4-CB) was metabolized after hydrolytic dehalogenation to 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HB) via the protocatechuate pathway. Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 has the metabolic ability to carry out the degradation of 3,4-DCB. Although this strain does not grow on this compound, it cometabolizes 3,4-DCB to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which is used as a growth substrate and further metabolized via 4-carboxy-1,2-benzoquinone. This degradation process was termed cryptic cometabolism. 3,4-DCB has shown to be a substrate inhibitor (Ki = 1,840 {mu}M) and an uncompetitive inhibitor for 4-CB metabolism. Additionally, 3-C-4-OHB was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 12 {mu}M) for the 4-HB monooxygenase, while the quinone uncompetitively inhibited 4-CB metabolism (Ki = 50 {mu}M).

  19. Low prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in active ulcerative colitis patients.

    PubMed

    Rossen, N G; Bart, A; Verhaar, N; van Nood, E; Kootte, R; de Groot, P F; D'Haens, G R; Ponsioen, C Y; van Gool, T

    2015-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is thought to originate from a disbalance in the interplay between the gut microbiota and the innate and adaptive immune system. Apart from the bacterial microbiota, there might be other organisms, such as parasites or viruses, that could play a role in the aetiology of UC. The primary objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in a cohort of patients with active UC and compare that to the prevalence in healthy controls. We studied patients with active UC confirmed by endoscopy included in a randomised prospective trial on the faecal transplantation for UC. A cohort of healthy subjects who served as donors in randomised trials on faecal transplantation were controls. Healthy subjects did not have gastrointestinal symptoms and were extensively screened for infectious diseases by a screenings questionnaire, extensive serologic assessment for viruses and stool analysis. Potential parasitic infections such as Blastocystis were diagnosed with the triple faeces test (TFT). The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. were compared between groups by Chi-square testing. A total of 168 subjects were included, of whom 45 had active UC [median age 39.0 years, interquartile range (IQR) 32.5-49.0, 49 % male] and 123 were healthy subjects (median age 27 years, IQR 22.0-37.0, 54 % male). Blastocystis sp. was present in the faeces of 40/123 (32.5 %) healthy subjects and 6/45 (13.3 %) UC patients (p = 0.014). Infection with Blastocystis is significantly less frequent in UC patients as compared to healthy controls. PMID:25680316

  20. Geobacillus sp., a thermophilic soil bacterium producing volatile antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuhao; Strobel, Gary; Sears, Joe; Park, Melina

    2010-07-01

    Geobacillus, a bacterial genus, is represented by over 25 species of Gram-positive isolates from various man-made and natural thermophilic areas around the world. An isolate of this genus (M-7) has been acquired from a thermal area near Yellowstone National Park, MT and partially characterized. The cells of this organism are globose (ca. 0.5 mu diameter), and they are covered in a matrix capsule which gives rise to elongate multicelled bacilliform structures (ranging from 3 to 12 mum) as seen by light and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The organism produces unique petal-shaped colonies (undulating margins) on nutrient agar, and it has an optimum pH of 7.0 and an optimum temperature range of 55-65 degrees C. The partial 16S rRNA sequence of this organism has 97% similarity with Geobacillus stearothermophilus, one of its closest relatives genetically. However, uniquely among all members of this genus, Geobacillus sp. (M-7) produces volatile organic substances (VOCs) that possess potent antibiotic activities. Some of the more notable components of the VOCs are benzaldehyde, acetic acid, butanal, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, and benzeneacetaldehyde. An exposure of test organisms such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae, and Geotrichum candidum produced total inhibition of growth on a 48-h exposure to Geobacillus sp.(M-7) cells (ca.10(7)) and killing at a 72-h exposure at higher bacterial cell concentrations. A synthetic mixture of those available volatile compounds, at the ratios occurring in Geobacillus sp. (M-7), mimicked the bioactivity of this organism. PMID:20091406

  1. [Biofilm Formation by the Nonflagellated flhB1 Mutant of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    PubMed

    Shelud'ko, A V; Filip'echeva, Yu A; Shumiliva, E M; Khlebtsov, B N; Burov, A M; Petrova, L P; Katsy, E I

    2015-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 with mixed flagellation are able to form biofilms on various surfaces. A nonflagellated mutant of this strain with inactivated chromosomal copy of the flhB gene (flhB1) was shown to exhibit specific traits at the later stages of biofilm formation on a hydrophilic (glass) surface. Mature biofilms of the flhB1::Omegon-Km mutant Sp245.1063 were considerably thinner than those of the parent strain Sp245. The biofilms of the mutant were more susceptible to the forces of hydrodynamic shear. A. brasilense Sp245 cells in biofilms were not found to possess lateral flagella. Cells with polar flagella were, however, revealed by atomic force microscopy of mature native biofilms of strain Sp245. Preservation of a polar flagellum (probably nonmotile) on the cells of A. brasilense Sp245 may enhance the biofilm stability. PMID:26263623

  2. Sewage effluent as a source of Campylobacter sp. in a surface water catchment.

    PubMed

    Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Campylobacter sp. can regularly be found in wastewater-affected surface waters. The occurrence of Campylobacter sp. in rivers, treated sewage and combined sewer overflows was analysed in a catchment with sparse annual precipitation. During regular treatment the reduction efficacy for Campylobacter sp. varies between 1.75 and 3.5 log(10). However, Campylobacter sp. concentrations do not increase downstream in the river as more sewage treatment plants discharge into it. During rain events, the Campylobacter sp. concentration in the river upstream of any sewage plant rises and in the sewer overflow water it is more than 150-fold higher than the average concentration in the river water at the river mouth. The highest Campylobacter sp. loads and the highest risk of infection occur during summertime after heavy rainfall. Risk management strategies should focus on problems regarding water scarcity, reuse of sewage effluent and the impact of heavy rain events. PMID:20183194

  3. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the SP-100 space nuclear power system program is compared to that of more familiar solar-power systems. The SP-100 program develops, validates, and demonstrates the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kilowatts electric for use in future military and civilian space missions. Mission applications, including earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power, are enhanced or made possible by SP-100 technology. Attention is given to the SP-100 reference flight system design, the SP-100 nuclear reactor and nuclear-reactor shield, the platform-mounted, tethered, and free-flying reactors, and installation, operation, and disposal options, as well as lunar-Mars surface applications. The SP-100 is presented as one of the nuclear energy sources needed for long-life, compact, lightweight, continuous high power independent of solar orientation, specific orbits, or missions.

  4. Three new cembranoids from the Bornean soft coral Nephthea sp.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takahiro; Kamada, Takashi; Vairappan, Charles S

    2016-05-01

    Three new cembranoid diterpenes, 10-hydroxy-nephthenol acetate (1), 7,8-epoxy-10-hydroxy-nephthenol acetate (2), and 6-acetoxy-7,8-epoxy-10-hydroxy-nephthenol acetate (3), along with a known compound, 6-acetoxy-7,8-epoxy-nephthenol acetate (4), were isolated from the Bornean soft coral Nephthea sp. Antibacterial and anticancer activities were exhibited by compounds 1 and 2 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538)/Escherichia coli (ATCC 13311) and Hela/MCF-7, respectively. PMID:26983053

  5. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Zaid, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group. PMID:26516192

  6. Two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Schulz, Barbara; Draeger, Siegfried; Nazir, Mamona; Saleem, Muhammad

    2012-03-01

    Two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid A and B (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, R-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4R-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. The structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. A mixture of compounds 1 and 2 showed strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:22545398

  7. Methylenolactocin, a novel antitumor antibiotic from Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Park, B K; Nakagawa, M; Hirota, A; Nakayama, M

    1988-06-01

    A novel antitumor antibiotic, methylenolactocin, was isolated from the culture filtrate of a new isolate of fungus identified as Penicillium sp. The fermentation yield reached about 100 mg per liter of the broth. Methylenolactocin has the molecular formula of C11H16O4 and possess an exomethylene lactone structure. Its structure was determined to be 3-carboxy-2-methylene-4-nonanolide by spectroscopic data. It is active against some Gram-positive bacteria and it prolongs the life span of mice inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:3403369

  8. A new dimeric anthraquinone from endophytic Talaromyces sp. YE3016.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Song; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Shou-Peng; Wei, Hong-Xia; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A new unsymmetrical dimeric anthraquinone, 3-demethyl-3-(2-hydroxypropyl)-skyrin (1) was isolated from the solid-state fermentation extract of an endophytic fungal strain Talaromyces sp. YE 3016, together with five known compounds, skyrin (2), oxyskyrin (3), emodin (4), 1,3,6-trihydroxy-8-methyl-anthraquinone (5) and ergosterol (6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 cell line. PMID:26815015

  9. Highly brominated antimicrobial metabolites from a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Domonkos; Barlow, Russell; McAtee, Jesse; Hemscheidt, Thomas K

    2010-11-29

    Extracts of a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. (CMMED 290) isolated from the surface of a nudibranch collected in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, displayed significant antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the lipophilic extract led to the isolation and structure elucidation of two new highly brominated compounds, 2,3,5,7-tetrabromobenzofuro[3,2-b]pyrrole (1) and 4,4',6-tribromo-2,2'-biphenol (2). In addition, we have identified the known compounds pentabromopseudilin and bromophene. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of the compounds 1 and 2 together with their antimicrobial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:20973551

  10. Cupriavidus plantarum sp. nov., a plant-associated species.

    PubMed

    Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Solano-Rodríguez, Roosivelt; Matsumura-Paz, Lucía Tomiko; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes

    2014-11-01

    During a survey of plant-associated bacteria in northeast Mexico, a group of 13 bacteria was isolated from agave, maize and sorghum plants rhizosphere. This group of strains was related to Cupriavidus respiraculi (99.4 %), but a polyphasic investigation based on DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, other genotypic studies and phenotypic features showed that this group of strains actually belongs to a new Cupriavidus species. Consequently, taking all the results together, the description of Cupriavidus plantarum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25098225

  11. Novel biodegradation pathways of cyclohexane by Rhodococcus sp. EC1.

    PubMed

    Yi, Taewoo; Lee, Eun-Hee; Ahn, Yun Gyong; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2011-07-15

    The metabolism of cyclohexanes by Rodococcus sp. EC1 was investigated using a sequential tracking method of degradation intermediate. Evidence for the formation of cyclohexanol, cyclohexaone, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, and phenol was presented. EC1 metabolized cyclohexane to phenol by aromatization of 2-cyclohexen-1-one, and furthermore gamma-butyrolactone as an intermediate of 2-cyclohexen-1-one was formed. Aromatization by EC1 was confirmed using tetrahydrofuran. Tetrahydrofuran was metabolized through aromatization reaction, involving furan and 2,3-dihydrofuran as key intermediates. EC1 can degrade cyclohexane and tetrahydrofuran in aromatization via desaturation. PMID:21571424

  12. Polyketides from a Marine-Derived Fungus Xylariaceae sp.

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen polyketides (1–18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. PMID:23697953

  13. A new ascochlorin derivative from Cylindrocarpon sp. FKI-4602.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Mio; Fukuda, Takashi; Uchida, Ryuji; Nonaka, Kenichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Cylindrol A₅, a new ascochlorin congener, was isolated along with 14 known compounds from the culture broth of Cylindrocarpon sp. FKI-4602 by solvent extraction, octadecylsilane column chromatography and HPLC. The structure of cylindrol A₅ was elucidated by spectral analyses, including NMR. The compound has an ascochlorin skeleton consisting of a resorcin aldehyde and a cyclohexanone moieties. Cylindrol A₅ showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Kocuria rhizophila, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Acholeplasma laidlawii. The biosynthetic pathway to cylindrol A₅ was deduced from the 14 isolated metabolites of the fungal strain. PMID:23168404

  14. Bacillus sp. BS061 Suppresses Powdery Mildew and Gray Mold

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Sook; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yeo, Woon-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    The use of a microorganism, or its secretions, to prevent plant disease offers an attractive alternative or supplement to synthetic fungicides for the management of plant disease without the negative effects of chemical control mechanisms. During a screening for microorganisms with the potential to be used as microbial fungicides, Bacillus sp. BS061 was isolated from a plant leaf. The strain BS061 potently inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, and significantly reduced disease incidence of powdery mildew in cucumber and strawberry. We also found that the culture filtrate of BS061 inhibited the mycelial growth of various plant pathogens. PMID:23874134

  15. Cylindrocyclin A, a new cytotoxic cyclopeptide from Cylindrocarpon sp.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniela; Erosa, Gilda; Sterner, Olov; Anke, Timm

    2006-08-01

    In the course of a screening of fungal extracts for new metabolites with cytotoxic activities cylindrocyclin A (1) was isolated. The producing strain was identified as Cylindrocarpon sp. by microscopy and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. 1 is a novel compound that exhibits cytotoxic acticity against six different cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 11 to 53 microM. 1 has no antibacterial or antifungal activity. The compound is a cyclic nonapeptide comprising three alanines, five leucines and one isoleucine. Four amino acids are N-methylated. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:17080686

  16. New Cembrane Diterpenoids from a Hainan Soft Coral Sinularia sp

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Zhou, Xuefeng; Huang, Hui; Yang, Xian-Wen; Liu, Juan; Lin, Xiuping; Li, Xiubao; Peng, Yan; Liu, Yonghong

    2012-01-01

    Five new cembrane diterpenoids, named sinuflexibilins A–E (1–5), along with nine other known diterpenoids (6–14), have been isolated from the organic extract of a Hainan soft coral Sinularia sp. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of their spectral data with those of related metabolites. Compound 13, flexibilide, exhibited significant inhibitory activity of NF-κB activation using the cell-based HEK293 NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay. PMID:23118718

  17. Antiparasitic chaiyaphumines from entomopathogenic Xenorhabdus sp. PB61.4.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Florian; Kaiser, Marcel; Schiell, Matthias; Batzer, Andreas; Kurz, Michael; Thanwisai, Aunchalee; Chantratita, Narisara; Bode, Helge B

    2014-04-25

    A new class of four depsipentapeptides called chaiyaphumines A-D (1-4) was isolated from Xenorhabdus sp. PB61.4. Their structures were elucidated by detailed 1D and 2D NMR experiments and by a Marfey's analysis following flash hydrolysis of the peptide. Verification of the structure was achieved by three-dimensional modeling using NOE-derived distance constraints, molecular dynamics, and energy minimization. Chaiyaphumine A (1) showed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 of 0.61 μM), the causative agent of malaria, and was active against other protozoal tropical disease causing agents. PMID:24673206

  18. Photosynthetic production of itaconic acid in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Chin, Taejun; Sano, Mei; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ohara, Hitomi; Aso, Yuji

    2015-02-10

    Here, we report the photosynthetic production of itaconic acid (IA), a promising building block, from carbon dioxide (CO₂) by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The engineered PCC6803 strain expressing cis-aconitate decarboxylase, the key enzyme in IA biosynthesis, produced 0.9 mg/L and 14.5 mg/L of IA at production rates of 42.8 μgL(-1)day(-1) and 919.0 μgL(-1)day(-1), under conditions of constant bubbling with air and 5% CO₂, respectively. This is the first report on the possibility of IA production from CO₂ via the photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria. PMID:25554635

  19. Adeninealkylresorcinol, the first alkylresorcinol tethered with nucleobase from Lasiodiplodia sp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Meng; Sun, Tian-Yu; Ma, Min; Chen, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Zheng-Qun; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Hu, Dan; Chen, Li-Guo; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Adeninealkylresorcinol (1), an unusual alkylresorcinol with adenine-alkylresorcinol conjoined skeleton, was isolated from an endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. obtained from a traditional Chinese medicine Houttuynia cordata Thunb., together with three new biogenetically related compounds (2-4). Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by the modified Mosher's method and quantum chemical calculation. Among them, adeninealkylresorcinol (1) is the first alkylresorcinol tethered with nucleobase. In addition, the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities of 1-3 were evaluated. PMID:27343368

  20. Scheffersomyces parashehatae f.a., sp. nov., Scheffersomyces xylosifermentans f.a., sp. nov., Candida broadrunensis sp. nov. and Candida manassasensis sp. nov., novel yeasts associated with wood-ingesting insects, and their ecological and biofuel implications.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Houseknecht, Janice L; Gujjari, Pushpa; Zhou, Jianlong J

    2013-11-01

    During a survey of yeasts associated with wood-ingesting insects, 69 strains in the Scheffersomyces clade and related taxa were isolated from passalid and tenebrionid beetles and the decayed wood inhabited by them. The majority of these yeasts was found to be capable of fermenting xylose, and was recognized as Scheffersomyces stipitis or its close relative Scheffersomyces illinoinensis, which are known to be associated with wood-decaying beetles and rotten wood. Yeasts in 'Scheffersomyces' ( = Candida) ergatensis and 'Scheffersomyces' ( = Candida) coipomoensis were also frequently isolated. The remaining six strains were identified as representing four novel species in the genera Scheffersomyces and Candida based on multilocus sequence analyses of nuclear rRNA genes and four protein-coding genes, as well as other taxonomic characteristics. Two xylose-fermenting species, Scheffersomyces parashehatae f.a., sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4653(T) = CBS 12535(T) = EH045(T); MycoBank MB805440) and Scheffersomyces xylosifermentans f.a., sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4859(T) = CBS 12540(T) = MY10-052(T); MycoBank MB805441), formed a clade with Scheffersomyces shehatae and related Scheffersomyces species. Interestingly, S. xylosifermentans can survive at 40 °C, which is a rare property among xylose-fermenting yeasts. Candida broadrunensis sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4650(T) = CBS 11838(T) = EH019(T); MycoBank MB805442) is a sister taxon of C. ergatensis, while Candida manassasensis sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4652(T) = CBS 12534(T) = EH030(T); MycoBank MB805443) is closely related to Candida palmioleophila in the Candida glaebosa clade. The multilocus DNA sequence comparisons in this study suggest that the genus Scheffersomyces needs to be circumscribed to the species near S. stipitis (type species) and S. shehatae that can be characterized by the ability to ferment xylose. PMID:24014624