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Sample records for dibenzo-p-dioxine und dibenzofurane

  1. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR BROMINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Brominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide healt...

  2. ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are toxic compounds which are dispersed through the environment by atmospheric transport and deposition. It has been previously shown that there is a varying mixture of these compounds produced by c...

  3. KEY PARAMETERS FOR DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    De novo formation of polychlorinated- dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was investigated in an Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) to simulate combustion conditions. The parameters investigated were carbon content and nature in fly ash; type of gas- phase environment...

  4. EVALUATION OF METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYHALOGENATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    General Metals works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated...

  5. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A short-term study for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in ambient air in Green Bay, Wisconsin, has been completed. eneral Metals Works PS-1 air samplers equipped with particle filters and polyurethane foam (PUF)...

  6. MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BROMOCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans containing both chlorine and bromine substituents are known to be constituents of municipal incinerator fly ash. his report presents analytical confirmation criteria for these compounds based upon GC/MS parameters. ass spectra of 26 representat...

  7. The toxicity of brominated and mixed-halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.W.D. |; Greim, H.

    1997-02-21

    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans can be formed under laboratory conditions by pyrolysis of flame retardants based on polybrominated biphenyls and biphenyl ethers. Their occurrence in the environment, however, is due to combustion processes such as municipal waste incineration and internal combustion engines. As these processes generally take place in the presence of an excess of chlorine, predominantly mixed brominated and chlorinated compounds have been identified so far in environmental samples. Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins or dibenzofurans bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor about as avidly as their chlorinated congeners and induce hepatic microsomal enzymes with comparable potency. The same holds true for mixed brominated-chlorinated compounds. Gross pathologic symptoms-hypothyroidism, thymic atrophy, wasting of body mass, lethality-also occur at doses that, on a molar concentration basis, are virtually identical to those seen with the chlorinated compounds. Their potency to induce malformations in mice following prenatal exposure is equivalent to that of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Possible activities as (co)carcinogens and endocrine disrupters have not been evaluated, but are likely to exist. Considering the overall similarity in action of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, environmental and health assessment should be based on molar body burdens without discrimination for the nature of the halogen. 107 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. DECONVOLUTING THE FORMATION PATHWAYS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS/ DIBENZOFURANS (PCDD/F)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) during the operation a sooting flame have been observed in prior work on an entrained flow reactor (EFR) in a project addressing the parameters important for such formation (i.e., fly ash type and amount,...

  9. Formation of mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs).

    PubMed

    Saeed, Anam; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-10-01

    This contribution investigates mechanistic and kinetic parameters pertinent to formation of mixed dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) from the condensation reactions involving 2-chlorophenoxy (2-CPxy) and 2-bromophenoxy (2-BPxy) radicals. Keto-ether structures act as direct intermediates for the formation of DD, 1-MCDD, 1-MBDD, 1-B,6-CDD and 1-B,9-CDD molecules. Likewise, diketo adducts initiate the formation of 4-MCDF, 4-MBDF and 4-B,6-CDF compounds through interconversion and rearrangement reactions. As formation mechanisms of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from precursors of brominated and chlorinated phenols are insensitive to substitution at meta and para sites, our mechanistic and kinetic analysis of reactions involving 2-BPxy and 2-CPxy should also apply to higher halogenated phenoxy radicals. PMID:26159067

  10. Evaluation of methodology for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and 13C12-1234-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hours to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with 13C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to clean-up procedures using microcolumns of silica gel, alumina and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from this study satisfied QA/QC requirements for analytical data and demonstrated that the methodology could accurately determine pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of these compounds in ambient air. Background levels detected in ambient air are also discussed.

  11. ISOMER DEPENDENT BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR FLY ASH TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The isomer dependent bioavailability of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous flow exposure readily accumulated selec...

  12. EVALUATION OF A SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high esolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were valuated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibe...

  13. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  14. ON-ROAD SAMPLING OF DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to sample mobile heavy duty diesel engine emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran ("PCDD/F") during highway and in-city driving routes was conducted. The post-muffler stacks of two diesel tractors hauling loaded tra...

  15. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHLORINE SPECIATION ON DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of chlorine speciation on de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been thoroughly studied in an entrained flow reactor during simulated waste combustion. Namely, the affects of gas-phase chlorine species suc...

  17. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: CORRELATION BETWEEN IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (SARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) elicit a number of common biologic and toxic responses which are triggered by their initial binding to a cytosolic receptor protein. hese effects include the induction of several cytochrome P-448 dependent monoox...

  18. THE EFFECT OF METAL CATALYSTS ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds were examined for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulati...

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  20. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  1. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors. PMID:10448567

  2. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively. PMID:25083749

  3. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Brominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine a Reference Dose (RfD) or a carcinogenic potency factor for brominated diben-p- dioxins and dibenzofurans. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  5. ROLE OF COMBUSTION AND SORBENT PARAMETERS IN PREVENTION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN FORMATION DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research uses experimental data and a statistical approach to determine the effect of combustion- and sorbent-injection-related parameters on the mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF, respectively) formation and preven...

  6. Prevalence of low chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans in human serum.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyokeun; Kim, Jongchul; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-02-01

    Mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (DD/Fs) have not been studied as extensively as the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. In this study for the first time, mono- to octa-chlorinated DD/Fs were analyzed for seventy one human serum samples collected from incinerator workers as well as residents living near and far from the facility. The mean concentrations of ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs and 17-toxic congeners were 1890 and 398 pg g(-1) lipid (11.9 TEQ pg g(-1) lipid), respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD were predominant congeners that accounted for more than 78% of the TEQ concentrations. The profile for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) was dominated by the most chlorinated congener, OCDD (>58%), while decreasing concentrations with increasing degree of chlorination were seen for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs); MoCDFs (>83%) and DiCDFs (>6%). ∑Cl(1-3)DD/Fs accounted for 77% of the serum concentrations of ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs. These findings confirm that human beings are exposed to a large amount of ∑Cl(1-3)DD/Fs. Moreover, MoCDFs contributed more than 60% of the ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs and was highly correlated with ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs. Thus, 2-MoCDF could be a predictive indicator for ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs (r(s)=0.96), and the combination of 2-MoCDF and OCDD could explain the 95.9% variation in the serum of ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs. These results suggest that low chlorinated DD/Fs should be studied extensively until these low chlorinated congeners will have been elucidated for their toxicities. PMID:23062831

  7. Environmental applications for the analysis of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, E.J.; Schellenberg, D.H.; Taguchi, V.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    A mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-multiple reaction monitoring (MS/MS-MRM) technique for the analysis of all tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Cl{sub x}DD, x = 4-8) and dibenzofurans (Cl{sub x}DF, x = 4-8) has been developed at the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) utilizing a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Optimization of instrumental parameters using the analyte of interest in a direct insertion probe (DIP) resulted in sensitivities approaching those obtainable by high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) methods. All congeners of dioxins and furans were detected in the femtogram range. Results on selected samples indicated that for some matrices, fewer chemical interferences were observed by MS/MS than by HRMS. The technique used to optimize the instrument for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) analysis is adaptable to other analytes.

  8. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins and other chlorinated contaminants in cow milk from various locations in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.; Lindstroem, G.; Buser, H.R.; Blaser, O.; Wuethrich, C.

    1987-10-01

    Six samples of cow milk from various locations in Switzerland were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and other chlorinated contaminants. Sub parts per trillion levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs and PCDDs were found in all samples. The levels were higher in samples collected in the vicinity of incinerators. Non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were not found in the milk samples.

  9. Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sook Hyeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Matsuda, Muneaki; Wakimoto, Tadaaki

    2002-09-01

    Soil samples were collected from Changwon and Masan Cities, Korea, and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). Nearly all tetra- through octachlorinated PCDDs/DFs including the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/DFs were detected in all samples. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TeCDD) equivalents (TEGs) in soils ranged from 35 to 121,400 pg/g, dry weight, and from 0.2 to 3720 pg of I-TEQ/g, respectively. On the basis of guidelines for TEQ concentrations established in Germany and the United States, 9 of 23 soil samples (39% of the total samples analyzed) could not be expected to pose human health hazards. The rest of 61% of soils need measures such as investigations of source identification, soil decontamination, and/or soil removal. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs were greater at or near four industrial sites, which are concerned with the steel industry, petrochemical-related industry, and industrial waste incineration, than other areas. This indicates the presence of potential source areas. Soil collected from a site 50 m from an open-burning industrial waste incinerator in an industrial complex was heavily contaminated, containing a total concentration of PCDDs/DFs of 121,400 pg/g, dry weight. PCDDs/DFs were also detected in soils from the top of a 200 m mountain indicating a wide dispersal of PCDDs/DFs by atmospheric transport from point source areas. The congener pattern and relative proportions of PCDFs in soils suggest that commercial PCB preparations such as Kanechlors may be one of the sources. The wide range of PCDD/DF isomers detected in soils from many locations also suggests a multitude of sources, in addition to commercial PCBs, such as incineration of industrial wastes such as car tires, scrap wires, plastics, papers, and emission of automobile exhaust. PMID:12322740

  10. Photodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Ng, How-Yong

    2008-03-01

    This study employed direct photolysis to treat mixed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) solutions. The solutions included a synthetic standard 17 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners solution and a practical liquid extracted from the bag filter ash of an electric arc furnace. Additionally, this work utilized a coupled catalyst (ZnO/SnO2) under UV irradiation for photocatalytic degradation of 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-HxCDD and OCDD. The direct photolysis rate of PCDFs was faster than that of PCDDs. The degradation rate of international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) for PCDDs and PCDFs in the synthetic standard solution was 1.369 and 1.472 h(-1), respectively, and that in the ash-extracted solution was 0.061 and 0.117 h(-1), respectively. The rate of photocatalytic degradation declined as the number of chlorine atoms increased. No 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners were identified during photocatalytic degradation; additionally, the photolytic rate of the UV/coupled catalyst was higher than that of UV/single catalyst system. Experimental results suggested that the primary degradation pathway for direct photolysis and photocatalysis of PCDD/Fs was the CCl cleavage and CO cleavage, respectively. PMID:17656019

  11. PCDDs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins) and PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.E. ); Erickson, M.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Numerous instances of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been documented. Following the development of sufficiently specific and sensitive analytical methods during the past few years, many reports have appeared on PCDD and PCDF levels in human blood and adipose tissues. Studies have examined the PCDD and PCDF levels resulting from accidental and occupational exposures of various groups, including chemical plant workers, forestry and tannery workers, and Niet Nam veterans who had handled Agent Orange. The general background levels in the US, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and Sweden were also determined. The results of these studies indicate that a background level of PCDDs and PCDFs is present in the overall population. In some cases, individuals exposed to specific PCDDs or PCDFs exhibit higher levels than the general population. Isomer distribution patterns are relatively consistent and indicative of sources and metabolism. This paper reviews the available data on human PCDD and PCDF levels in exposed and general populations. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane. PMID:26476048

  13. Human dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Ching; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lin, Long-Full; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-05-30

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) levels in a total of 25 food items in Taiwan were surveyed. It was observed that shellfish and saltwater fish possessed the highest PCDD/Fs levels, 9.82 and 3.60 pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively, on the lipid basis. The dietary intakes of humans at the ages of 12-18, 19-64, and over 65 were determined. The estimated intake were between 21.8 pg (female teenagers) and 37.6 pg (male seniors) WHO-TEQ/day; the levels varied with the dietary habits. The PCDD/F intakes for all human groups are far below the tolerable limit of 70 pg WHO-TEQ/kg b.w./month. In addition, the daily PCDD/F intake levels for duck-farmers consuming average and large amounts of PCDD/F contaminated duck eggs were examined. The result shows that consuming more than one duck egg with level higher than 10 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid of PCDD/Fs per day could lead to a PCDD/F intake level higher than the tolerable limit. However, for normal population, there is a little risk to ingest intolerable amount of PCDD/Fs because of consuming contaminated duck eggs. PMID:18829161

  14. Uptake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shun-I; Wang, I-Ching; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-07-01

    Uptake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in laying ducks was determined at different degree of feed contamination. To observe the extent of the transfer of 17 PCDD/Fs from feed to the duck eggs and duck meat, 18 ducks were divided into 3 groups (6 in each group) and fed feed with two different levels of PCDD/Fs. As a control, one group of ducks was fed with the non-contaminated feed for comparison, while the other 2 groups were exposed to the feed doped with EAF dusts (fly ash). The experiment lasted for 60 days, with an exposure duration of 41 days and the subsequent non-contaminated feed being given for an additional 19 days. PCDD/F levels in the eggs of the all 3 groups were observed to increase significantly on the 15th day. For the low contaminated group, PCDD/F levels reached 2.61 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid at day 41, whereas those of the high contaminated group accounted exceeded 3 pg/g lipid on the 15th day. Furthermore, PCDD/Fs levels in the duck meat were analyzed before and after exposure duration, and at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the level of PCDD/F in the duck eggs and the duck meat may reach unacceptable levels due to the effect of accumulation, although the PCDD/Fs in the duck feed were at acceptable levels. PMID:19731837

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in municipal and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Emily N; Balasubramani, Aparna; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were quantified in 45 effluent samples in the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) system in Texas. Total PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 13.23 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase and from 0.79 to 682.27 pg L(-1) in the suspended phase. Generally, industrial facilities contained more PCDD/F contamination than municipal wastewater treatment plants or refuse facilities. World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (WHO-TEQs) ranged from 0.007 to 0.279 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase and 0.021-1.851 pg L(-1) in the suspended phase. The major TEQ contributor was 2,3,7,8-TCDD and overall, TEQs were greatest in industrial effluents. A correlation between high solids and high PCDD/F concentrations was observed and based on the results obtained in this study, the abundance of suspended solids may have largely contributed to high PCDD/F contamination in the suspended phase. Homolog profiles revealed that PCDD/F contamination increased with increasing chlorination and the highest concentrations were primarily from the octa-chlorinated congeners (OCDD/F) in both the dissolved and suspended phase. PMID:25935498

  16. An IARC evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as risk factors in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D B; Partensky, C; Wilbourn, J; Rice, J M

    1998-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs program reevaluated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and evaluated polychlorinated dibenzofurans as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans in February 1997, using the most recent epidemiologic data on exposed human populations, experimental carcinogenicity bioassays in laboratory animals, and supporting evidence on relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated as carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1 classification) on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans derived from follow-up of workers who had been heavily exposed in industrial accidents and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. The evaluation also considered the following supporting evidence: TCDD is a multisite carcinogen in experimental animals and has been shown by several lines of evidence to act through a mechanism involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; this receptor is highly conserved in an evolutionary sense and functions the same way in humans as in experimental animals; tissue concentrations of TCDD are similar in heavily exposed human populations in which an increased overall cancer risk was observed and in exposed rats that developed tumors in carcinogenicity tests. Other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, the nonchlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans were evaluated as not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (group 3). PMID:9599727

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surface sediment and bivalve from the Changjiang Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Sheng; Hui, Yang; Yang, Fangxing; Liu, Zhengtao; Xu, Ying

    2008-02-01

    Surface sediments and bivalves were collected from the Changjiang Estuary in December 2003 and November 2004, respectively. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in these samples were measured with high-resolution chromatography (HRGC)/High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). The concentrations of total PCDD/Fs and toxic equivalent (TEQ) were 169.83±119.63 and 0.81±0.36 pg/g dry weight (dw) in sediments, and 580.33±240.17 and 7.24±3.65 pg/g dw in bivalves. The homolog compositions of PCDD/Fs were similar among samples, the most abundant congener was octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and then octa-chlorinated dibenzofuran (OCDF) and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD). The herbicide pentachlorophenol (PCP) and sodium pentachlorophenol (Na-PCP) were proved the main source of PCDD/Fs in this area.

  18. Cluster analysis for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans concentrations in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Lien-Te; Wang, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Gia-Hao; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the ambient air of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs: GS and RW) and a coal-fired power plant (PW) in the Kaohsiung County (KC) area in Taiwan. The results show that the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration in the flue gas of GS and RW averaged 0.090 and 0.044 ng international toxic equivalents (I-TEQ)/N m3, respectively. The TEQ concentration in the flue gas of PW averaged 0.050 ng I-TEQ/N m3. All PCDD/Fs concentrations from the stack flue gas are lower than the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration emission standard. Furthermore, the mean I-TEQ concentration in the ambient atmosphere ranged from approximately 0.019 to 0.165 pg I-TEQ/N m3, much lower than the environmental quality standards for dioxins in Japan (0.6 pg TEQ/ N m3). This work classified all sampling sites into three clusters according to k-means cluster analysis. The result shows a probable direct correlation between the GS incinerator and site C. Although the concentration from the PW plant did not exceed the emission standard, it was much higher than that in Fernández-Martínez's study. For proper environmental management of dioxins, establishing a complete emission inventory of PCDD/Fs is necessary. The government of Taiwan should particularly pay more attention to power plants to address the information shortage. PMID:20066913

  19. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-01

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall. PMID:17912921

  20. Key parameters for de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Evalena; Ryan, Shawn; Touati, Abderrahmane; Gullet, Brian K

    2003-05-01

    De novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was investigated in an Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) to simulate combustion conditions. The parameters investigated were carbon content and nature in fly ash; type of gas-phase environment (oxidative versus reducing conditions) influence of combustion gases such as water, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide; amount of gas-phase chlorine; reaction temperature (250-600 degrees C); and reaction time (minutes vs hours). The comprehensive data set was further evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA) to statistically determine the role and importance of each parameter for de novo formation of PCDDs and PCDFs. Results revealed that an initial fast de novo formation occurs within the first minutes with a formation rate in the orders of hundreds of pmol per minutes; however, the reactivity of the ash was found to decline with time. An average formation rate as low as 3 pmol/min was measured after 6 h. The slower de novo formation of PCDDs and PCDFs was found to be through different reaction mechanisms and, thus, controlled by different parameters. The amount of Cl2 in the gas phase was observed to be an important parameter for PCDFs formation; meanwhile the levels of O2 were not found to be a PCDF rate controlling parameter. The formation rate of PCDDs was significantly lower than the PCDFs, and two mechanisms appear to be controlling the formation, one depending on the amount of O2 and one on the amount of Cl2 present in the gas phase. Overall the most significant parameter for the rate of formation for both PCDDs and PCDFs was revealed to be the reaction temperature. A maximum rate of formation was observed between 300-400 degrees C for the PCDDs and 400-500 degrees C for the PCDFs. PMID:12775072

  1. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hsing-Wang Li; Yee-Lin Wu; Wen-Jhy Lee; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2007-09-15

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall. 20 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured. Background levels of these compounds in the ambient air were also determined. Total PCDDs, PCDFs, TBDFs, and PeBDFs were detected in a low concentration range of 0.3 to 3.0 pg/cu m.

  3. Effect of metal catalysts on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran precursors (reannouncement)

    SciTech Connect

    Gullett, B.K.; Bruce, K.R.; Beach, L.O.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of an examination of the catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulating that of municipal waste fly ash. Cl2 formed as a result of a metal-catalyzed reaction of HCl with O2. Catalytic activity was greatest at a temperature of about 400 C, supporting a theory of de novo synthesis of PCDDs and PCDFs on fly ash particles downstream of waste combustion.

  4. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenz-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cubic meter ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C-12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cubic meter and sub-pg/cubic meter levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured.

  5. A worldwide survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related contaminants in butter.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jana; Päpke, Olaf; Bergman, Ake

    2005-12-01

    The main source of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is, in general, food. In this study, 64 butter samples from 37 countries were analyzed to assess the global contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) together with its major metabolites. The objectives of the study were to assess the presence of major organohalogen contaminants in butter, to trace geographical differences, and to determine toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in butter. The highest PCDD/F concentrations were found in butter from Korea with an average of 1.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid weight (l.w.). from PCDD/F and an additional contribution from the non- and mono-ortho-PCBs of 0.55 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Belgian butter showed average levels of 0.53 and 1.2 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. for PCDDs/Fs and PCBs, respectively, but one sample of Belgium butter had a total TEQ level as high as 4.0 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Three out of five butter samples from Portugal showed similarly high PCDD/F TEQ levels. The sigmaPCB levels in European butter appeared to be somewhat higher than in the samples from the rest of the world. The average contribution of CB-153 to the total PCB concentration was 22% (SD 6.4, coefficient of variation 29%). Generally, the PCBs contributed around 60% of the total TEQ value, with CB-126 contributing approximately half of this value. This shows the important TEQ contribution from dioxinlike PCBs to the total TEQs. The highest HCB levels were found in butter samples from Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Slovenia. Low levels of HCB in butter were generally found in the Southern Hemisphere. Butter samples from countries from Eastern Europe had elevated sigmaDDT concentrations, with a particularly high concentration in Ukraine butter, followed by some Russian samples, Brazil, and the U.S. PMID:16521833

  6. Microbial degradation of dibenzofuran, fluorene, and dibenzo-p-dioxin by staphylococcus auriculans DBF63

    SciTech Connect

    Monna, L.; Omori, Toshio; Kodama, Tohru )

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) and dibezonfuran (DBF), well known for their toxicity and mutagenicity, have created serious environmental contamination problems. They are formed during combustion of dust or bleaching of pulp as well as production of halogen-containing aromatics such as herbicides. Information on the microbial degradation of these compounds is limited. This papers describes the isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus auriculans DBF63, which can be grown on either DBF or FN as the sole source of carbon and energy. The resting cell reaction of DD is also investigated, leading to proposed metabolic degradation pathways of DBF, FN, and DD. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  7. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  8. EVALUATION OF AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HIGH-VOLUME AIR SAMPLER FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A High-Volume air sampler was evaluated for collection of poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). The sampler consists of a filter, polyurethane foam adsorbent cartridge, air pump, and environmental housing. The use of an alternative ad...

  9. INTERIM PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURES TO MIXTURES OF CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS (CDDS AND CDFS) AND 1989 UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its effort to address risks posed by chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDDs and CDFs) in the environment, EPA has adopted an interim procedure, based on dioxin toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs), for estimating the hazard and dose-response o...

  10. Optimization of separation and detection conditions for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the most toxic compounds known. The current predominant method of analysis is too expensive and cumbersome, and comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spect...

  11. INTERIM PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURES TO MIXTURES OF CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS (CDDS AND CDFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its effort to address risks posed by chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(CDDs and CDFs) in the environment, EPA has adopted an interim procedure, based on dioxin "toxicity equivalence" factors (TEFs), for estimating the hazard and dose-response of complex m...

  12. INCLUSION OF 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS IN U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290

    EPA Science Inventory

    13C12-labeled mono-, di-, and tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) and -chlorinated dibenzofuran (CDF) standards have been tested for their applicability to standard EPA sampling and analytical Methods 0023A/8290. These methods target for analysis only the tetra- through octa-C...

  13. FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS OVER FLY ASH: INFLUENCE OF WATER VAPOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To offer a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) parameter for plant operation control, the on-line estimation of PCDD/Fs emissions by surrogates like chlorophenols is useful. Formation of PCDD/Fs over fly ash was studied in an isothermal (310 degree...

  14. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  15. Modeling study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans behavior in flue gases under electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Gennady

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of the electron beam treatment of industrial flue gases for the removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides was investigated as applied to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) using methods of mathematical modeling. The proposed kinetic model of the process includes mechanism of PCDD/Fs decomposition caused by their interaction with OH radicals generated in the flue gases under the electron beam (EB) irradiation as well as PCDD/Fs formation from unburned aromatic compounds. The model allows to predict the main features of the process, which are observed in pilot plant installations, as well as to evaluate the process efficiency. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data. PMID:27258900

  16. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, S; Nakamura, M; Matsueda, T; Kondo, R; Sakai, K

    1996-01-01

    A method for the degradation of dioxins by white rot fungi was developed. Degradation of a mixture of 10 kinds of tetra- to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs]) and tetra- to octachlorodibenzofurans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), which were chlorinated at 2-, 3-, 7-, and 8-positions of the molecules, by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was studied in a stationary low-nitrogen medium. The percent degradation values of PCDDs and PCDFs were approximately 40 (tetra-chloro-) to 76% (hexachloro-) and 45 (tetrachloro-) to 70% (hexachloro-), respectively. Metabolites of 2,3,7,8-tetra- and octaCDD formed by P. sordida YK-624 included 4,5-dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol, respectively. These results suggest that white rot fungus is able to substantially degrade both PCDDs and PCDFs. This is the first report of the degradation of highly chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs by a microorganism. PMID:8953705

  17. Determination of body burdens for polychlorinated dibenzo-'p'-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) in california residents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.M.; Turman, K.; Boggess, K.; Cramer, P.

    1989-10-26

    Determination of body burden levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in residents of California was conducted based on a stratified survey design. Stratification factors included two geographical locations (San Francisco and Los Angeles), three age groups (12 to 34, 35 to 49, and 50 plus years), and sex. A total of 57 adipose tissue specimens were collected across the 12 specific strata. Analysis for the specific 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers was achieved based on high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Detectable levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were measured in all samples with isomer patterns consistent with findings in other studies conducted within the United States, Canada, and Europe. A questionnaire focused on the lifestyles of participants in the program was conducted to determine residual and occupational information and possible exposure routes to PCDDs and PCDFs. The data base provides a reference for comparison in future human monitoring programs.

  18. High-resolution mass spectrometric determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using an alternative lockmass system

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, V.Y.; Reiner, E.J.; Wang, D.T.; Meresz, O.; Hallas, B.

    1988-07-15

    A high-resolution mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (HRMS-SIM) methodology for the analysis of all tetra-through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Cl/sub x/DD, x = 4-8) and dibenzofurans (Cl/sub x/DF, x = 4-8) utilizing an alternative lockmass system has been developed at the Ministry of the Environment (MOE). Incorporation of the MOE lockmass system gives an enhancement in sensitivity, easier control of the lockmass concentration in the ion source, and greater resolution between the lockmass and the sample ion signals than dose the conventional perfluorokerosene (PFK) lockmass system. In addition, the method can be adapted to any sector instrument having a similar lockmass facility and to any HRMS-SIM analysis with the appropriate choice of reference standards. A comparison of the MOE and PFK systems is reported.

  19. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided. PMID:25510612

  20. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  1. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Li, Haifeng; Tian, Zhenyu; Xie, Huiting; Li, Changliang

    2013-10-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are usually considered to be important sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). To examine the influence of PCDD/Fs emissions from a MSWI on the surrounding environment, 21 soil samples were collected from various sampling sites distributed at distances of 300-1,700 m away from the stack of a MSWI. International Toxic Equivalent (I-TEQ) concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 2.07 pg I-TEQ g(-1), with average and median concentrations of 1.08 and 1.05 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. Comparison of the results presented herein with other worldwide studies suggested that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the ambient soil were relatively low, indicating a limited impact on the surrounding environment. The emission concentrations from the incinerator were the critical factor in generating an environmental impact on the surrounding environment. An exponential function was developed, indicating a slight decline in TEQs of PCDD/Fs with increasing distance from the MSWI stack. The ordinary kriging interpolation technique was selected to create a contour map, which intuitively showed that a limited surrounding area (≤1,000 m from the stack) was obviously influenced by the MSWI. PMID:23801339

  2. Mechanistic evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and naphthalene isomer fingerprints in microwave pyrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuju; Cieplik, Mariusz K; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Gronnow, Mark; Jansson, Stina

    2016-05-01

    Isomer distribution patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and naphthalenes (PCNs) were investigated in microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) products of woody biomass. The feedstocks included bark and impregnated wood. The results indicated that isomer distributions in MAP are more selective compared to those reported from wood burning and waste incineration. Favored formation of 4-MoCDF and highly selective chlorine substitution at the 2,4-position observed during MAP suggested a preferred formation pathway of PCDFs involving (chloro)phenol precursors followed by subsequent chlorination. The PCDD distribution was dominated by isomers typically formed from chlorophenol condensation at relatively low temperature. The PCN isomer distributions showed a tendency for sequential chlorination from non-substituted naphthalene at successive positions. The presence of isomers such as 1-MoCDD, 4-MoCDF, 1,2,3-TriCN with low thermodynamic stability indicates that kinetic factors may be important in the MAP process. PMID:26901473

  3. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in particulate and oily films on impervious surfaces.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2015-12-15

    During this study wipe sampling was applied to various impervious surfaces for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) area concentrations. To that end, a wipe sampling method based on solvent wetted cotton wipes was evaluated and transfer efficiencies of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in particulate films (PFs) and oily liquid films (OFs) during sampling were investigated. For PFs sufficient transfer efficiencies of low concentrated PCB and PCDD/PCDF congeners in 1g/m(2) spiking surrogate were achieved after the first wipe using n-hexane as wetting solvent. Transfer efficiencies for OFs were the highest in the first wipe if n-hexane or n-heptane were used rather than toluene. The spiking experiments of OFs showed a log-linear correlation between the number of wiping procedures and transfer efficiency which indicates that transfer efficiencies were constant in subsequent wipes. Furthermore, it was successfully demonstrated that pressurized liquid extraction is a suitable tool for the extraction of wipe samples. Finally, the feasibility of this wipe sampling method was demonstrated on various impervious surfaces of different origin, and concentration levels of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in wipe samples are discussed. Hereby, remarkably high ∑CB6 concentrations of up to 1400μg/m(2) (taken at a transformer recycling site) were detected. PMID:26318221

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Ten Dam, Guillaume; van Bruggen, Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Theelen, Rob M C; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2016-05-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and a highest level of 18.9 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. A number of samples showed clearly elevated ndl-PCB levels with a median of 13 ng g(-1) fat and a highest level of 80 ng g(-1) fat. There were no clear regional differences, even though part of the samples were derived from the rather industrial Rotterdam/Rijnmond area. Based on the congener patterns, former backyard burning of waste seems the most likely source for most eggs, with two exceptions where other sources contributed to the contamination. Similar is true for the ndl-PCBs. The study shows that average levels are about ten-fold higher than commercial eggs and may substantially contribute to the intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs by consumers. Intervention measures to reduce the intake of these contaminants by laying hens are advised. PMID:26921584

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentration profiles in sediment and fish tissue of the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are highly hydrophobic compounds that have been implicated as carcinogens and, more recently, as estrogen disrupters. An occurrence and distribution study of these compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Bed sediment was collected from 22 sites; fish tissue was collected from eight sites. PCDD/F were found to be ubiquitous in Willamette Basin sediment. A distinct homolog profile, dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, was observed in sediment throughout the basin. The PCDD homolog profile was consistent at all sites, regardless of total PCDD/F concentration, presence of point sources, subbasin size, geographic location or land use. Principal components analysis revealed a gradient among the homolog profiles that showed increasing dominance of highly chlorinated congeners where human and industrial activity increased. Tissue and bed sediment obtained from the same site did not have similar PCDD/F concentrations or homolog profiles. Fish tissue showed enrichment in less chlorinated congeners and congeners with chlorine substitutions in the 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions.

  6. Theoretical and experimental formation of low chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the Fenton oxidation of chlorophenol solutions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castro, Pablo; San Román, M Fresnedo; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2016-10-01

    The formation of chlorinated and non-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has been experimentally investigated after the Fenton oxidation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP, 15.56 mM) aqueous solutions by assessing the influence of iron concentration (0.09-2.88 mM), hydrogen peroxide dose (40.44-202.20 mM), temperature (20-70 °C) and chloride concentration (0-56.35 mM). The presence of chloride in the medium together with room temperature and substoichiometric Fenton conditions (40.44 mM H2O2) led to an increase in total PCDD/Fs concentration from less than 1 ng L(-1) to 2 μg L(-1). Results showed a dominance of the dichlorinated species (DCDD/Fs) in the homologue profile of total PCDD/Fs reaching values up to 1.5 μg L(-1). Furthermore, the products distribution exhibited a gradual decrease in the homologue concentration as the chlorination degree increased from di-to octachloro-substituted positions. Considering the characteristics of the reaction medium, the experimental results, and the information gathered in bibliography with regard to the generation of active radicals from 2-chlorophenol, a mechanism describing the formation of low chlorinated PCDD/Fs in a Fenton oxidizing aqueous system has been proposed. PMID:27424055

  7. Matrix effects on the de novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and benzenes.

    PubMed

    Pekárek, Vladimír; Weber, Roland; Grabic, Roman; Solcová, Olga; Fiserová, Eva; Syc, Michal; Karban, Jindrich

    2007-05-01

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and benzenes in de novo synthesis experiments have been studied on model fly ashes with a wide range of matrices. The model fly ash consisted of 18 selected matrices with the addition of CuCl(2) x 2H(2)O, activated charcoal and NaCl. The studied matrices were not restricted to the commonly investigated matrices with defined chemical composition (silica gel, alumina, florisil) and industrially produced adsorbents with silicate structures (diatomaceous earths), but also included natural occurring matrices (clays, kaolin, bentonite and feldspars). In addition fly ashes from a hazardous waste incinerator were included in the study for comparison. Differences in the isomer composition (homologue profiles and isomer patterns) of the substances formed by de novo synthesis experiments are discussed in dependence on the chemical composition of the studied matrices. The de novo synthesis experiments on matrices with silicate structures resulted in high concentration of mainly perchlorinated aromatic compounds while for other matrices in particular alkaline matrices a homologue shift to lower chlorinated homologues and lower formation rates were found. The paper discusses the resulting PCDD/PCDF pattern and compares them to the PCDD/PCDF profile found in naturally occurring kaolin and ball clay (illite). PMID:17291561

  8. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl sources in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Masunaga, Shigeki; Takada, Hideshige; Nakanishi, Junko

    2002-05-01

    A dated sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was used to assess the historical inputs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) from multiple sources. The levels, patterns, and profiles of these compounds in the core were congener-specifically investigated, and the results show that the PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) and the Co-PCB inputs increased abruptly from the late 1950s and peaked during the period 1967 to 1972. From 1972 to 1981, the inputs decreased continuously and then generally leveled off. Using principal component analysis, two herbicides widely used in the past, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitrofen (CNP), as well as combustion processes were identified as the major dioxin sources in Tokyo Bay. The PCB formulations and combustion processes were estimated to be the major sources of Co-PCBs. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed for dioxin-source apportioning, and it was found that the herbicides PCP and CNP have mainly contributed to the PCDD/F burdens since the late 1950s. This study suggests that herbicide-derived PCDD/Fs remaining in agricultural land will continue to run off and pollute the aquatic environment in Japan for a long time. PMID:12013146

  9. The effect of dibenzo-p-dioxin- and dibenzofuran-contaminated soil on the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Procházková, Petra; Elhottová, Dana; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants, highly toxic environmental pollutants that include hydrophobic compounds with the tendency to bioaccumulate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed to PCDD/Fs-contaminated soil, and changes in their lipophilic structures and the gene expression of their defense molecules were followed. Damage to the intestinal wall and adjacent chloragogenous tissue was observed. Further, the up-regulation of the expression of several genes was detected. On the basis of these results, the mechanism of the impact of PCDD/Fs on earthworms has been proposed. Dioxins that accumulate in the lipophilic structures cause an increase in reactive oxidative species that triggers oxidative stress followed by the gene expression of two molecules that play a role in protection against oxidant toxicity, calreticulin (CRT) and Hsp70. Moreover, the effect of microbial biomass on the expression of coelomic cytolytic factor (CCF), a pattern recognition receptor, was also observed. PMID:24992343

  10. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins in subsurface soil, superficial dust, and air extracts from a contaminated landfill.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; O'Keefe, P W

    1996-08-01

    Extracts of soil, dust and air from a National Priorities List Landfill have been found to contain distinct profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The different extracts show subtle differences in toxicities and the soil extract has been shown to cause both Ah receptor mediated effects and Ah receptor independent effects in immature female rats. Evidence of open burning at the site dictated quantitation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) for a more accurate tabulation of dioxin equivalencies. High volume air sampling on XAD-2 resin cartridges captured trace amounts of PCDFs and no detectable PCDDs. Acetone:Hexane (1:1) extracts of soil and dust contained 762 microg/ml and 250 microg/ml PCDFs, respectively, and less than 10% as much PCDD. Subsequent benzene:methylene chloride (1:1) extracts were enriched in coplanar compounds relative to total PCBs. PCDF:PCB ratios in all extracts were higher than in the rice oils contaminated with heated PCBs in the Yusho and Yu-Cheng incidents. No 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected, and total PCB+PCDD+PCDF toxic equivalencies were dominated by the high proportions of PCDFs. PMID:8785012

  12. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Inhibition of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran formation from the pyrolysis of printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-02-01

    Waste printed circuit boards containing brominated flame retardants were pyrolyzed in a high-temperature melting system to observe the formation behaviors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). In this study, the results showed that the formation of PBDD/ Fs during pyrolysis can be destroyed under controlled primary combustion conditions. There were two significant factors that influenced the extent of PBDD/F formation. The first factor was temperature. The results showed that, both the total PBDD/F content in the bottom ash and the total PBDD/F emission factor from the flue gas decrease by approximately 50% with an increase of the pyrolysis temperature from 850 to 1200 degrees C. The second factor was the addition of CaO. The possible mechanism involves the reaction between CaO and HBr to form the solid-phase product CaBr2. Thus, the addition of CaO is effective in adsorbing HBr and results in the inhibition of PBDD/F synthesis by more than 90% and further prevents the acid gases (HCl and HBr) that corrode the equipment. In conclusion, due to the persistence and toxicity of PBDD/Fs, a combined regulation for controlling both PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs is of great importance for environmental protection issues. PMID:17328209

  14. Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  15. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas.

    PubMed

    White, D H; Hoffman, D J

    1995-05-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p < 0.05) at the bayou sites compared with the reference site, and egg TCDD-EQs were inversely correlated (p < 0.001) with productivity in corresponding nests. The threshold range of toxicity, where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks (based on TCDD-EQs), was > 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants. PMID:7556022

  16. Evaluation of the Spanish hot dip galvanising sector as a source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Angeles; Sanz, Paloma; Ruiz, M Luisa; Fabrellas, Begoña; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    A survey to estimate the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions of Spanish hot dip galvanising sector was carried out during 2002. This investigation is the first presenting Spanish experimental data related to this industrial sector. Three different matrices: flue gas, ash and filter dust were tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs generated during the galvanising process. The organic source of PCDD/F formation could be from the insufficient degreasing o from inhibitors or additives used in the pickling steps such as quinoline, isoquinoline, 8-methylquinoline or polyether phosphoric acid. Low levels PCDD/Fs were achieved in air emissions when air control devices are used. On the contrary, filter dusts are highly contaminated; indicating that the absence of air control devices would increase the risk of fugitive emissions. Homologue profiles and Principal Component Analysis demonstrate there are differences in the formation mechanisms in the bath zone (ashes) compared to the stack location (filter dusts and air emissions), related to the de novo synthesis and reaction time. The annual PCDD/F emission to the atmosphere for this sector during 2002 has been estimated in 0.023g I-TEQ. The emission factor of plants with air control devices has been calculated at 0.030microg I-TEQ/ton of galvanised steel. PMID:18083211

  17. Natural formation of chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in soil of a Douglas fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, E.J.; De Weerd, H. ); De Leer, E.W.B. ); Brinkman, U.A.T. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1999-08-01

    The natural formation of 4-MCP, 24/25- and 26-DCP, and 245-TrCP was detected in four selected areas of a rural Douglas fir forest where the humic layer was spiked in situ with a solution of Na[sup 37]Cl and covered by an enclosure, after 1 year of incubation. Chlorinated phenols (CP) can be formed naturally from organic matter and inorganic chloride by either de novo synthesis or chloroperoxidase (CPO)-catalyzed chlorination. The natural CP congeners were found to be present in high concentrations in soil compared to the other congeners, except for the 245-TrCP which was present in a relatively low concentration. This study did not reveal which source, natural or anthropogenic, caused the observed concentrations. Some 20 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDD/F) were found to be formed naturally in soil of the Douglas fir forest; the formation of three 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, 2378-TeCDD, 12378-PeCDD, and 123789-HxCDD, deserves special attention. A formation mechanism has been proposed which starts from naturally formed CP congeners and which probably involves peroxidase mediation. Chlorination of CDD/F congeners by the CPO-mediated reaction cannot be ruled out, but seems to be less likely due to the absence of several predicted congeners.

  18. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis. PMID:24863628

  19. Quasi-dynamic leaching characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from raw and solidified waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Wang, Lin-Chi; Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Quasi-dynamic leaching characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from raw and solidified air pollution control (APC) residues were examined via a nine-time multiple leaching test. The effect of injected activated carbon in the APC residues on the PCDD/F leachability was also evaluated. When humic acid solution was used as a leachant, the leaching concentrations of PCDD/Fs fluctuated between the first and the fifth leaching, followed by a gradual increase and then suddenly reached maximum values at the leaching sequences around seventh and eighth. This significant enhancement in PCDD/F leachability was mainly due to an increase in the release of highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs. Leaching of PCDD/Fs with n-hexane was, in contrast, primarily caused by the partitioning of hydrophobic PCDD/Fs between the APC residue surface and the liquid phase of n-hexane. Consequently, the largest leaching concentrations for n-hexane tests achieved at the first leaching, followed by a decrease and reached plateaus. Solidification/stabilization (S/S) decreased the PCDD/F leachability up to the fifth leaching by the use of humic acid solution. However, S/S increased the PCDD/F leaching concentrations and rates with n-hexane. The activated carbon in APC residues significantly inhibited the release of PCDD/F with n-hexane. The inhibiting effect provided by activated carbon was, however, less significant by the use of humic acid solution. PMID:18028984

  20. Formation Pathways of Mono- to Octa-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Main Organochemical Industries.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Pan, Wenxiao; Wang, Pu; Tian, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Mengjing; Chen, Xuebin; Liao, Xiao; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-15

    The concentrations and formation pathways of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were investigated in main organochemical industries. High levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were detected. The total concentrations of 27 PCDD/F congeners in chloranil, 2,4-D, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were 5302397 ± 8944449, 20963 ± 15908, and 242 ± 67 pg g(-1), respectively, and the less-chlorinated PCDD/F levels were 12006 ± 20155, 9536 ± 5594, and 195 ± 94 pg g(-1), respectively. The distribution trends of less and more chlorinated PCDD/Fs were similar in different chemical plants because of their similar formation pathways, which may also be related to the degree of chlorination of chemical products and purification processes. 1,2,3,4-TeCDF and 2,4,8-TrCDF were selected as model molecules to calculate the bond dissociation energy, showing that 2-MCDF, 3-MCDF, and 2,8-DCDF are more easily formatted as shown by the analytical results. The formation pathways of less to more chlorinated PCDFs are proposed to explain why 2-MoCDF, 2,8-DiCDF, 2,4,8-TrCDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF are the dominant congeners and to explain why 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor of I-TEQs in most studies. PMID:26301518

  1. Spatial distibution and temporal accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Kankaanpää, Harri; Mattila, Jukka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Verta, Matti; Salo, Simo; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2002-06-15

    Dated sediment cores and surface sediments were analyzed from the Gulf of Finland, a part of the Baltic Sea, to study the sources, levels, distribution, and total amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The gulf was found to be severely polluted, with PCDD/F sum concentrations as high as 101000 ng/kg and 479 ng/kg WHO-TEQ in dry weight. The source of pollution was the former manufacturing and use of a chlorophenol based wood preservative along the Kymijoki River. It was estimated thatthe impacted sedimentary area stretched a distance of 75 km away out from the coast and that the PCDD/F sum load attributed to the wood preservative source was 1770 kg of PCDD/Fs or 12.4 (+/-2.8) kg WHO-TEQ. The surface sediments contained 24-66% of the maximum concentrations present in the 1960-1970s, showing that the river still acts as a significant PCDD/F source and may contribute to the high levels in fish. Moreover, the reduced PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were partly due to the dilution by increased dry matter deposition. PCBs were uniformly distributed over the gulf, and the PCB load in the polluted area was 2020 kg or 0.14 kg WHO-TEG. PMID:12099450

  2. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia. PMID:24392728

  3. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN THE REMOTE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE ATMOSPHERE (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a sampling strategy that allows us to determine
    femtogram/cubic meter concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
    and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in remote marine atmospheres. Using
    this sampling strategy, a total of 37 a...

  4. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  5. Investigating differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soil and soil components using selective supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Chai, Yunzhou; Grabanski, Carol B; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Miller, David J; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure carbon dioxide was performed at increasingly strong conditions to investigate differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two impacted soils, in their sieved size fractions, and in small (a few mg) samples of industry-related waste products separated from impacted soil. The binding strengths of PCDD/Fs were shown to be different in the two soils, and in their different soil particle size fractions. As might be expected based on surface area considerations, one soil showed the strongest binding in the smallest (<5μm) sieved fraction. However, the other soil showed the strongest binding in the larger sized fractions, possibly indicating that process-related particles could be controlling PCDD/F binding. Selective SFE of various types of particles including black carbon and charcoal (separated from soil), and from a suspected process anode residue did show different PCDD/F binding behavior ranging from quite weak binding (charcoal) to very strong binding (anode particles). Shifts to the stronger SFE fractions in the soils after activated carbon treatment agreed well with the decreases previously found in the uptake of PCDD/Fs by earthworms, as well as decreases in their freely-dissolved aqueous concentrations in soil/water slurries. These results show that, as previously demonstrated for PAHs and PCBs, selective SFE can be a useful tool to investigate differences in PCDD/F binding behaviors in impacted soils and sediments and their component parts, as well as a rapid tool for estimating the effectiveness of activated carbon treatments on decreasing the bioavailability of PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments. PMID:22406311

  6. Assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans contribution from different media to surrounding duck farms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Shih, Shun-I; Li, Hsing-Wang; Lin, Long-Full; Yu, Kuei-Min; Lu, Kueiwan; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2009-04-30

    Since the "Toxic Egg Event" broke out in central Taiwan, the possible sources of the high content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in eggs have been a serious concern. In this study, the PCDD/F contents in different media (feed, soil and ambient air) were measured. Evaluation of the impact from electric arc furnace dust treatment plant (abbreviated as EAFDT plant), which is site-specific to the "Toxic Egg Event", on the duck total-PCDD/F daily intake was conducted by both Industrial Source Complex Short Term model (ISCST) and dry and wet deposition models. After different scenario simulations, the worst case was at farm A and at 200 g feed and 5 g soil for duck intake, and the highest PCDD/F contributions from the feed, original soil and stack flue gas were 44.92, 47.81, and 6.58%, respectively. Considering different uncertainty factors, such as the flow rate variation of stack flue gas and errors from modelling and measurement, the PCDD/F contribution fraction from the stack flue gas of EAFDT plant may increase up to twice as that for the worst case (6.58%) and become 13.2%, which was still much lower than that from the total contribution fraction (86.8%) of both feed and original soil. Fly ashes contained purposely in duck feed by the farmers was a potential major source for the duck daily intake. While the impact from EAFDT plant has been proven very minor, the PCDD/F content in the feed and soil, which was contaminated by illegal fly ash landfills, requires more attention. PMID:18771851

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in estuarine and coastal North Sea sediments: Sources and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Evers, E.H.G.; Klamer, H.J.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M. . Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management); Govers, H.A.J. . Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry)

    1993-09-01

    Sediments from two depositional zones of the North Sea (the Wadden Sea and Oyster Grounds) and from the estuaries of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Ems, and Humber were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) using a congener-specific procedure. A simple grain-size correction procedure was utilized for the comparison of PCDF and PCDD concentrations in sediments from different origin. PCDFs were more widely encountered than PCDDs in all sediments, except for the Ems-Dollard and the Humber estuary. The highest concentrations were found in the outflow sediments of the rivers Rhine and Humber. Concentrations up to 2,980 ng/kg PCDFs, principally 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF, and up to 1,760 ng/kg PCDDs, principally OCDD, were determined in the River Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of PCDD and PCDF profiles in the sediments. Two-dimensional projections based on sample scores from the principal component models showed a marked influence of the River Rhine on the presence of these compounds in the western Wadden Sea and the Oyster Grounds. Based on a chemometric evaluation of chromatographic profiles of these coastal, estuarine and related freshwater sediments, the authors have deduced that these compounds originate from industrial operation discharges, related to the production of chloroaliphatic compounds and the chloralkali compounds and the chloralkali industry along the River Rhine. The atmospheric deposition of combustion-generated PCDDs and PCDFs appeared significant only for remote marine environments.

  8. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples. PMID:15752488

  9. Contamination of Russian Baltic fish by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Shenderyuk, Vladimir V; Brodsky, Efim S; Feshin, Denis; Baholdina, Lidia P; Gorogankin, S K

    2008-03-01

    Nineteen species of fish products caught and produced in the Russian economic zone of the Baltic region in 2002-2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (WHO-PCBs). Freshwater fish had significantly lower PCDD/PCDFs levels than most saltwater fish, except cod's fillet for which TEQ was comparable. In some cases pollutant levels of sea fish tissues essentially exceeded current regulatory values. Concentration of WHO(PCDD/F)-TEQ ranged from 0.06 to 0.57pg/g f.w. for freshwater fish, and from 0.16 to 17.83pg/g f.w. for sea fish. The special concern is caused by the high concentration of dioxin-like PCBs, whose contribution to the WHO-TEQ(PCDD/F,PCB) considerably exceeded that of PCDDs and PCDFs. Concentration of WHO(PCB)-TEQ ranged from 2.56 to 124.40pg/g f.w. Profiles of PCDD/Fs congeners in fish were rather similar: in our opinion, the most probable sources of pollution were chlorine bleaching and outflow of PCBs. There is no real reason to assume that fish contamination was affected by the fungicide Ky-5 or similar chlorophenols mixtures. Relative contributions of each dioxin-like PCBs congener to total TEQ in fish tissue are presented in Fig. 2. Profiles of dioxin-like PCBs in general are close to Aroclor 1254, though in some cases there are essential differences. PMID:21783849

  10. Effectiveness of activated carbon and biochar in reducing the availability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soils.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunzhou; Currie, Rebecca J; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Fishman, Vyacheslav N; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-01-17

    Five activated carbons (ACs) and two biochars were tested as amendments to reduce the availability of aged polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two soils. All sorbents (ACs and biochars) tested substantially reduced the availability of PCDD/Fs measured by polyoxymethylene (POM) passive uptake and earthworm (E. fetida) biouptake. Seven sorbents amended at a level of 0.2 × soil total organic carbon (0.2X) reduced the passive uptake (physicochemical availability) of total PCDD/Fs in POM by 40% to 92% (or toxic equivalent by 48% to 99%). Sorbents with finer particle sizes or more macropores showed higher reduction efficiencies. The powdered regenerated AC and powdered coconut AC demonstrated to be the most effective and the two biochars also performed reasonably well especially in the powdered form. The passive uptake of PCDD/F in POM increased approximately 4 to 5 fold as the contact time between POM and soil slurry increased from 24 to 120 d while the efficacy of ACs in reducing the physicochemical availability remained unchanged. The reduction efficiencies measured by POM passive uptake for the regenerated AC were comparable to those measured by earthworm biouptake (bioavailability) at both dose levels of 0.2X and 0.5X. The biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) values for unamended soil ranged from 0.1 for tetra-CDD/F to 0.02 for octa-CDD/F. At both dose levels, the regenerated AC reduced the BSAFs to below 0.03 with the exception of two hexa-CDD/Fs. The reduction efficiencies measured by earthworm for coconut AC and corn stover biochar were generally less than those measured by POM probably due to larger particle sizes of these sorbents that could not be ingested by the worms. PMID:22136630

  11. Biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E. |; Norstrom, R.J.; Lorenzen, A.; Kennedy, S.W.; Hart, L.E.; Bellward, G.D.; Cheng, K.M.; Philibert, H.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    During the 1992 breeding season, eggs of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were collected within a gradient of exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants on the southern coast of British Columbia. Twenty-five eggs were placed in a laboratory incubator, of which 18 hatched; chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success was not significantly different between eggs taken from pulp mill sites and reference sites. A hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was induced nearly sixfold in chicks from near a pulp mill at Powell River compared to those from a reference site. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) activities were also significantly elevated in chicks from nests located near pulp mills compared to reference sites. A hepatic CYP2B cross-reactive protein was threefold higher in chicks from pulp mill versus reference sites, but the difference was not significant. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected near pulp mill sites contained greater concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) compared to reference areas. No significant differences in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho congeners, and organochlorine pesticides occurred among sites. Regressions showed that the hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein and EROD and BROD activities were positively correlated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, and toxic equivalents (TEQs{sub WHO}--World Health Organization toxic equivalence factors) in yolk sacs. No significant concentration-related effects were found for morphological, physiological, or histological parameters, such as chick growth, edema, or density of thymic lymphocytes. Using hepatic CYP1A induction as a biomarker, a no-observed-effect-level of 100 ng/kg and a lowest-observed-effect-level of 210 ng/kg TEQs{sub WHO} on a whole egg (wet weight basis) are suggested for bald eagle chicks.

  12. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility. PMID:16169571

  13. Serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans among people eating contaminated home-produced eggs and beef.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L R; Harnly, M; Flattery, J; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L

    2000-01-01

    We compared serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) among residents of two homes to levels among age- and sex-matched comparison subjects. The residents of the two homes consumed contaminated eggs and beef from animals raised at the homes. The animals had greater soil contact than those raised with conventional commercial husbandry practices. The comparison subjects were from a similar rural area, but did not consume home-produced beef and eggs. Serum levels of 2,3,7, 8-substituted tetra-, penta-, and hexaCDDs and penta-, hexa-, and heptaCDFs were increased between 2- and 6-fold in residents from one home; contaminated eggs and beef were consumed by residents for 2-15 years. Elevations were less for those in the other index home, where only home-produced eggs were consumed for 2 years; a 3-fold elevation of 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexaCDD as compared to controls was most apparent. Very strong bivariate correlations among all of the 2,3,7, 8 penta- and hexaCDDs/CDFs were observed. The elevations observed verify that PCDD/PCDF-contaminated food contributed to the body burden of these compounds. The blood levels among the highest exposed participants are generally higher than those observed in other studies of U.S. contaminated-fish consumers and higher than average adipose tissue levels observed in U.S. urban populations. There are sufficient animal toxicologic and human epidemiologic data to recommend that exposures be reduced. In the study area, pentachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol incineration sources have been identified, and the animal contamination and blood elevations probably reflect these sources. Soil reference values and site-specific risk assessments should include estimates of exposures to contamination in home-produced animal products. Such estimates can be verified with limited PCDD/PCDF sampling of animals and humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10620519

  14. Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-06-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters. PMID:23395527

  15. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged. PMID:23159200

  16. Uptake by roots and translocation to shoots of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in typical crop plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Qing; Zhao, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Root uptake and subsequent translocation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 12 agricultural crops were comparatively investigated. All crop plants were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of three kinds of dioxin congeners over 4d. The root concentration factor (RCF) of dioxin showed a logarithmic correlation with extractable lipid content in plant root. On the assumption that the dioxin escaping via gas phase from nutrient solution in the closed container can evenly diffuse in the air and equally absorb onto the shoot tissues of the dioxin-exposed plant and their nearby blank control plant, the amount of translocated dioxin was estimated by subtracting dioxin content in the shoot tissues of the blank control plant from that of the dioxin-exposed plant, and then the transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) of dioxin was calculated. The TSCF values of PCDD/Fs largely varied according to the plant species, and the TSCF values of 2,4,8-TrCDF were a little higher than those for 1,3,6,8-TeCDD expect for zucchini. For 1,3,6,8-TeCDD, zucchini had the highest TSCF value of 0.0089, followed by pumpkin (0.0064) towel gourd (0.0027), and cucumber (0.0010), verifying plants of the genus Cucurbita have the higher abilities of dioxin translocation. The TSCF values of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD for wheat and sorghum were 0.0013 and 0.0012, respectively. For maize, soybean, rice, Chinese cabbage, tomato and garland chrysanthemum, translocation was an insignificant mechanism of dioxin contamination in shoot tissues. PMID:19541345

  17. Reduction of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during the 2008 Beijing Olympic games.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingming; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Ding, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, An; Jiang, Guibin

    2011-04-15

    A total of 120 air samples were collected at three urban and one rural location in Beijing, China in the summers of 2007-2010, and before, during, and after the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (BOG), in order to assess the effectiveness of long-term and short-term emission-control measures in reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the atmosphere. During the BOG (August, 2008), the PCDD/Fs concentrations decreased to an average value of 1150 fg m(-3) (63 fg I-TEQ m(-3)), which was reduced by approximately 70% from the average in 2007 and by 29% from that in July 2008, before the Olympic event began. Although 2009-2010 levels of PCDD/Fs were significantly higher than 2008, the overall temporal trend was decreasing for summer months during the sampling campaign period. The apparent half-lives of atmospheric PCDD/Fs were estimated to be 3.2-5.8 years by statistically regressing the logarithm PCDD/Fs concentrations versus the number of years passed since 2006. The air concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP) during the BOG ranged between 135 and 183 μg m(-3), showing a 52% reduction from 2007 and 26% decrease from those prior to the Olympic event. No significant relationships were found between meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) and PCDD/Fs or TSP during the BOG, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentrations were significantly dependent on the air quality (p < 0.05, positive against TSP and negative against visibility). This work is one of few temporal trend studies of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in mainland China, and provides unique insight into the effects of large-scale control measures in improving air quality and reducing one of the most ubiquitous and toxic organic pollutants in the environment. PMID:21417223

  18. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congener and homologue distributions in tree bark from Sauget, Illinois, U.S.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Mark H; Johnson, Glenn W

    2015-01-20

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) are ubiquitous urban/industrial contaminants found in tree bark, which acts as a long-term passive atmospheric sampler. Twenty seven bark samples (tree age 8–92 years) were collected from residential and industrial areas near Sauget, IL to identify the trends of 2,3,7,8-Cl PCDD & PCDF congener distributions, toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCDD & PCDF homologue distributions. The Sauget area is heavily industrialized, with a long history of chlorine production, and is the largest single contributor to air pollution exposure risk in St. Louis. Analysis of seven 2,3,7,8 Cl-substituted PCDD and 10 PCDF congeners showed ∑PCDD7 ranging from 2214 to 71821 pg g(–1) lipid and ∑PCDF10 from 355 to 13707 pg g(–1) lipid, the highest in trees <20 years old in both cases. OctaCCD and octaCDF respectively dominated ∑PCDD7 (89% average) and ∑PCDF10 (57% average). The 2,3,7,8-Cl congener profiles showed slight differences among samples showing that all were affected by similar sources but at different magnitudes. ∑TEQ ranged from 35 to 624 pg g(–1) lipid, dominated by 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD (average = 41.3% of total TEQ). Tetra-Cl through hepta-Cl homologues were dominated by non-2,3,7,8-Cl compounds for both CDD and CDF. Homologue profiles for 26 samples had a “sink” profile dominated by octaCDD, whereas one sample showed effects of a local source. PMID:25496230

  19. Mono- to Octachlorinated Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Emissions from Sintering Plants Synergistically Controlled by the Desulfurization Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Li, Haifeng; Yan, Nan; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-05-17

    The influence of desulfurization systems in sintering plants on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations, profiles, and emission factors was studied. Mono- to tri-CDD/Fs and tetra- to octa-CDD/F concentrations were 4.4 ± 2.3 and 10.5 ± 8.3 ng m(-3), respectively, at the inlets and 0.87 ± 0.48 and 0.47 ± 0.22 ng m(-3), respectively, after desulfurization. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 0.95 ± 0.093 and 0.51 ± 0.040 ng of I-TEQ m(-3) at the inlets and after desulfurization, respectively. The congener profiles and homologue distributions were dominated by 2-MoCDF and MoCDF, respectively. The PCDD/F removal efficiencies achieved by desulfurization increased as the chlorination level increased. The PCDD/Fs became adsorbed to gypsum. Annual mono- to tri-CDD/Fs PCDD/F and TEQ (tetra- to octa-CDD/F) emission factors for flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were determined. The total amounts of mono- to tri-CDD/Fs emitted in flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were 10.7 and 10.2 kg, respectively. The total TEQs emitted in flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were estimated to be 15486 and 1878 g of I-TEQ, respectively. PCDD/Fs adsorbed to gypsum are not effectively eliminated. The PCDD/F concentrations increased as the fly ash surface area increased moving through the electrostatic precipitator stages. PMID:27124088

  20. Origin attribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediment and soil from a Japanese freshwater lake area through congener-specific data analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, T; Suzuki, N; Masunaga, S; Nakanishi, J

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in sediment and soil from a freshwater lake area were congener-specifically determined. The obtained data were examined to estimate the major origins of these compounds, with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA). Four major principal components (PCs) were obtained, and three of them were attributed to PCDDs/PCDFs in the atmosphere, in a diphenyl ether herbicide and in pentachlorophenol, based on congener-specific comparisons with references. One PC remained unattributed. These four were interpreted as the major origins of PCDDs/PCDFs in the area. The relative influence of the origins was also investigated. PMID:9828338

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  2. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  3. Thermochemical Formation of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans Mediated by Secondary Copper Smelter Fly Ash, and Implications for Emission Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Zhao, Yuyang; Jin, Rong

    2016-07-19

    Heterogeneous reactions mediated by fly ash are important to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) formation. However, the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) through heterogeneous reactions is not yet well understood. Experiments were performed to investigate the thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs at 150-450 °C through heterogeneous reactions on fly ash from a secondary copper smelter. The maximum PBDD/F concentration was 325 times higher than the initial PBDD/F concentration in the fly ash. The PBDD/F concentration after the experiment at 150 °C was five times higher than the initial concentration. PBDD/Fs have not previously been found to form at such a low temperature. Secondary-copper-smelter fly ash clearly promoted PBDD/F formation, and this conclusion was supported by the low activation energies that were found in Arrhenius's law calculations. Thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs mediated by fly ash deposited in industrial facilities could explain "memory effects" that have been found for PCDD/Fs and similar compounds released from industrial facilities. Abundant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that were formed through fly ash-mediated reactions could be important precursors for PBDD/Fs also formed through fly ash-mediated reactions. The amounts of PBDEs that formed through fly ash-mediated reactions suggested that secondary copper smelters could be important sources of reformed PBDEs. PMID:27347728

  4. Chlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans and the human immune system (2) In vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from workers with quantified moderately-increased body burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Neubert, R.; Maskow, L.; Delgado, I.

    1995-11-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation responses were studied in workers with moderately increased body burdens of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and other polyclorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), calculated as International Toxicity Equivalencies [I-TE]. Mitogens (pokeweed mitogen [PWM], phytohemagglutinine [PHA], concanavalin A [Con A], as well as anti-human monoclonal antibody against CD3 were used as proliferation stimulators in vitro. Additionally, the feasibility of using the lymphocyte response to tetanus toxoid was assessed, and the response to this recall-antigen was included in this trial. No decrease in the capacity of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation was observed with any of the proliferation stimulators in the group of volunteers with the increased TCDD-body burden when compared with volunteers exhibiting TCDD-concentrations in blood flat within the reference range. Regression analysis revealed a slight trend towards an increase for {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation during the stimulation with PHA only. It can be concluded from our data that moderates increases in the TCDD- or I-TE-body burdens do not induce any medically significant changes in the capacity for proliferation of lymphocytes, measured as {sub 3}H=thymidine incorporation. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans distributions in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Kang-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-06-15

    This study determined the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contents in ash in the super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), fabric filter (FF), fly ash pit (FAP) and bottom residue (BR) in a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results showed that average PCDD/F contents in ash samples from the SH, EC, SDA, FF, FAP and BR were 0.102, 0.788, 0.210, 1.95, 2.04 and 0.0218 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/F content was very low in the SH and BR due to high temperatures (around 461 degrees C in the SH and 914 degrees C in combustion chamber). Conversely, total PCDD/F content was significantly high in ash samples from the EC (around 340 degrees C), mainly because the temperature is within the favorable range of 250-400 degrees C for PCDD/F formation due to de nova reformation mechanisms. Although the SDA operated at 245 degrees C, the PCDD/F content decreased very significantly, mainly because the temperature was relatively low and because calcium carbonate was introduced into flue gases to dechlorinate and dilute chlorine-containing species. PCDD/Fs were captured by the active carbon in the FF. Furthermore, the duration that fly ash remained in the FF was longer than that for other incinerator units, and thus causing an increasing trend of PCDD/Fs level downstream (except the SDA). Total PCDD/Fs emission factors (microg tonnes-waste(-1); microg I-TEQ tonnes-waste(-1)) in ash samples from different units were: SH (42.3; 0.846), EC (326; 6.12), SDA (58.1; 1.10), FF (1540; 61.3), FAP (2950; 107) and BR (537; 4.31). Most PCDD/Fs in ash were contributed by the FF (about 56%), and the generation of PCDD/Fs in ash was significant (about 35%) during the transfer process from different units to the FAP. A strong and positive correlation in a logarithmic form existed between PCDD/Fs and

  6. EXTENSION OF U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290 TO INCLUDE 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are typically reported only in terms of the tetra-through octa-CDD/CDF isomers, either as homologue sums or as subsets thereof. This practice is common because the toxic isomers ...

  7. RELATIVE POTENCY VALUES FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN, DIBENZOFURAN AND BIPHENYL CONGENERS TO INDUCE CYTOCHROME P4501A MRNA IN A ZEBRAFISH LIVER CELL LINE (ZF-L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYPIA) mRNA by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was measured in a zebrafish liver cell line (ZF-L). ZF-L cells were far less sensitive to PCDD, PCDF and PCB cong...

  8. Estimation of air concentrations and profiles for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from calculated vegetation-air partition coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeller, L.O.; Rappe, C.; Jones, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Air concentrations of vapor and particulate phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted by use of calculated plant-air partition coefficients. The plant-air interaction is reduced to an octanol-air distribution at equilibrium. Partition coefficients are deduced from the fugacity approach and calculated from congener group average data of solubility, vapor pressure and octanol-water partition coefficient. Calculated partition coefficients were used for prediction of the PCDD/F levels and congener profile in air from archived herbage collected pre- and post-1940. Before 1940 the air had a fly ash or combustion derived PCDD/F composition. After 1940 Hp and OCDD/F are superimposed on the combustion pattern, reflection of their release from the extensive use of polychlorinated compounds, notably penta chlorophenol, but also related compounds.

  9. Dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in human breast milk collected in the area of Taranto (Southern Italy): first case study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Zianni, Rosalia; Anzillotta, Giuseppe; Palma, Achille; Vitacco, Vincenzo; Scrano, Laura; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2013-03-01

    We report on the content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 15 breast milk samples of nursing women living in the city of Taranto (Southern, Italy) or nearby. Breast milk samples were collected over the 2008-2009 period and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) upon accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using acetone/n-hexane mixture 1:1 (v/v). The method was validated demonstrating good performing features. Profiles of PCDD/PCDF congeners in breast milk samples exhibited a prevalence of PCDFs compared to PCDDs. Toxic equivalents (TEQs in picogram per gram fat) of four breast milk were far above the legal limit for human consumption of 3.0 pg/g; their estimated daily and weekly dietary intake were almost 5-20 and 10-40 times higher, respectively, than the tolerable intake values established by the World Health Organization. PMID:23344638

  10. Guidelines for the determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in commercial products. Final report, March 1985-July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, D.H.; Stanley, J.S.

    1987-06-19

    The determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) and dibenzofurans (HDFs) in commercial products require specific and sensitive analytical procedures. The development of methods for the measurement of HDD and HDF in commercial products is complicated by the diverse range of matrices, the potentially large number of halogenated (specifically chloro, bromo, or bromo/chloro) HDD and HDF congeners and potential interference due to major components of the product matrices. This report provides: (1) a review of the literature pertaining to commercial product analyses for HDDs and HDFs; (2) detail on the total number of bromo, chloro, and bromo/chloro HDDs and HDFs; (3) a tentative scheme for the analysis of HDDs and HDFs in diverse matrices; and (4) guidelines for the high-resolution gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry or electron capture detector analysis of commercial products for HDDs and HDFs. The guidelines specify a rigorous OA/QC program for the analysis of the commercial products.

  11. Removal efficiencies for 136 tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran congeners with activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal efficiency of 136 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD)/furan (F) congeners from a nitrogen + oxygen carrier gas was studied using a laboratory-scale, fixed bed adsorption system. Two kinds of activated carbon with dissimilar pore structures were used as adsorbents. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in the source gas was 541 ng/Nm(3) and that of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs 96.35 ng/Nm(3), accounting for 17.8% of the total original weight amount. Their toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) was 8.31 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). For both activated carbons, the removal efficiencies of the ten PCDD/F homologue groups rise with chlorine substitution number. The removal efficiencies vary approximately as a power function of vapor pressure (correlation coefficients r(2) = 0.93 and 0.81, respectively). Competitive adsorption and desorption occur as adsorption time went on, causing elution of the lower chlorinated homologues, i.e. tetra-CDD/F and Penta-CDD/F congeners. In addition, there are significantly different concentration distributions for isomers in the same homologue groups. However, their removal efficiencies have weak correlation with their initial concentrations. The correlation coefficients are from -0.47 to 0.32 and from -0.57 to 0.46 respectively for the two kinds of activated carbons. PMID:26154037

  12. Thermochemical Properties, ΔfH°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K), and Cp°(T), of 1,4-Dioxin, 2,3-Benzodioxin, Furan, 2,3-Benzofuran, and Twelve Monochloro and Dichloro Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Bozzelli, Joeseph W.

    2003-12-01

    Values for ΔfH°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K), and Cp°(T) (5⩽T/K⩽6000) are computed by density functional B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) calculation methods for 12 monochloro and dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: 1-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,6-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,8-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,9-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,8-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-chloro dibenzofuran, 4-chloro dibenzofuran, 1,6-dichloro dibenzofuran, 3,6-dichloro dibenzofuran, 3,7-dichloro dibenzofuran, and 4,6-dichloro dibenzofuran. Molecular structures and vibration frequencies are determined at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Isodesmic reactions are utilized at each calculation level to determine the enthalpy of formation of each species. Contributions to the entropy and the heat capacity from translation, vibration, and external rotations are calculated using the rigid-rotor-harmonic-oscillator approximation based on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) structures. The enthalpies of formation for 1,4-dioxin, furan, 2,3-benzodioxin, 2,3-benzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and dibenzofuran are also calculated. Thermochemical properties of two composite central atom groups and four interaction groups are derived for use in a group additivity scheme to calculate these thermochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans detected in bivalve samples from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program.

    PubMed

    Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; Sericano, José L; Defreitas, Debra A; Lauenstein, Gunnar G

    2014-04-30

    Bivalve samples from 142 sites were analyzed to determine the concentration and toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins and furans (D/F) as part of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program. The total concentration of 17 D/F ranged from not detected to 203 pg/g wet weight of tissue. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, OCDD, had a concentration range from not detected to 189 pg/g and a mean concentration of 8.65 pg/g. OCDD was the dominant D/F compound detected and accounted for, on average, over 70% of the total D/F concentration. The TEQ (compared to 2,3,7,8-TCDD) ranged from 0.12 to 7.32 pg TEQ/g. The TEQ for 39% of the bivalves analyzed were below 0.238 pg TEQ/g. TEQ above human consumption advisory concentration of 1.2 pg TEQ/g were found in 9.3% of the samples analyzed. TEQ for D/F indicate very limited human health concerns from consumption of bivalves at most of the locations sampled. PMID:24095200

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the air of Seveso, Italy, 26 years after the explosion.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Elena; Di Guardo, Antonio; Mariani, Giulio; Guzzi, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2003-04-15

    This study reports the current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) in air at Seveso, where an explosion in a 2,4,5,-trichlorophenol production reactor occurred 26 years ago. The aims were to assess if residues of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) released during the accident and still present in soil could contaminate the above air and to investigate other potential sources in the area. Long-term air collection was carried out in zones A and B in Seveso and in a reference location in Milan, and samples were analyzed for PCDD and PCDF concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experimental results showed that no important contribution to the air concentrations is due to the soil contamination and that contemporary sources essentially control the atmospheric burden of PCDDs and PCDFs in the Seveso area. The theoretical release of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from the soils of zones A and B of Seveso was calculated using the SoilFug model. In the worst case, the model simulated an enrichment in atmospheric 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations of 4 and 22% for zones A and B, respectively. The investigation of the potential emission sources in the area indicated that combustion of wood residues from furniture factories may be an additional local source of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:12731830

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofuran mass distribution in both start-up and normal condition in the whole municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Che-Kuan; Lin, Chieh; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Although many researches focused on the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from stack, in the bottom ash and in the surrounding environment, researches focused on PCDD/F mass distributions in the whole incineration plant have seldom been addressed. This study determined PCDD/F emissions in the whole plant. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results displayed that PCDD/Fs were formed during fly ash from super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA) and fabric filter (FF) was transferred to fly ash pit. Mass distribution ratios of PCDD/Fs in g I-TEQ (Toxicity Equivalency Quantity) per week from stack, SH, EC, SDA, FF, generation and bottom residue (BR) in start-up operations were 14.6%, 0.1%, 8.3%, 1.0%, 41.7%, 33.4% and 0.9%, respectively. Above results indicated that main PCDD/F source in the MSWI was from fly ash. However, the fly ash is easily controlled and PCDD/F emitted from stack flue gases will be difficult to be handled. Therefore, we should pay more attention on PCDD/F emission from flue gases especially from start-up procedure. Besides, fly ash should be controlled by sodium hypophosphite before being landfilled. MSWI did require further detoxification treatments for the solid residues and flue gases. PMID:18440134

  16. Characteristics of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere used in carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Peng, Yen-Ping; Yen, Ting-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were estimated for different particle size distributions in a carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant on 15 days in March and April of 2014. A total of 75 integrated air samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI). Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were analyzed using a high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). Concentrations of thoracic particles and total particles produced in the carbon black feeding process of a tire manufacturing plant were measured in ranges of 0.19-2.61 and 0.28-4.22 mg/m(3), respectively. On all sampling days, the three most abundant species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF. The mean concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were 0.74-6.83 pg/m(3) within five particle size ranges. Total I-TEQ in particulate matter (PM)<1.0 was 2.2 and 3.2 times higher than those in PM>18 and PM2.5-10, respectively. However, the total I-TEQ of thoracic PM contributed approximately 74 % of the total I-TEQ of total PM. The assessment of health risk indicates that exposure to fractions of thoracic PM by inhalation poses a significant cancer risk (>10(-6)). PMID:26257121

  17. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. PMID:20855167

  18. Kinetic modeling of the formation and destruction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran from fly ash native carbon at 300 °C.

    PubMed

    Lasagni, Marina; Collina, Elena; Piccinelli, Elsa; Anzano, Manuela Nadia; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Pitea, Demetrio

    2013-05-01

    The kinetics for the oxidative breakdown of native carbon in raw fly ash samples (RFA) and for the formation and destruction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), abbreviated PCDD/F, were investigated using a flow-over solid system in which the RFA samples were thermally treated at 300 °C under synthetic air. This study investigated the correlation between the disappearance of the reagent and the formation of the products to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that govern these reactions at congener groups level. The detailed analyses of the experimental concentration-time data revealed significant differences in the behavior between the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDF, non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF. The chlorine balance for the former was always negative, that is, chlorine was released regardless of reaction time and primarily resulted from the dechlorination of the hepta- and octa-homologues. However, for the others, the balance was substantially positive up to approximately 240 min and became negative at longer intervals when the dechlorination reactions took over. The processes involving PCDD and PCDF in which the thermal destruction was only partial were found to increase the total equivalent toxicity (TEQ) levels rather than reduce them. PMID:23528048

  19. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thu T; Traag, Wim A; Murk, AlberTinka J; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2014-11-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US Army. The latter area now is inhabited and people keep their own laying hens. Egg samples were first screened with an in vitro reporter gene bioassay and a selection was analyzed by GC/HRMS. Samples from Bien Hoa airbase showed very high PCDD/F levels, up to 249 pg dioxin-equivalents (TEQ)/g fat, mainly due to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In the sprayed areas, levels (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1)) were comparable to those observed in background areas (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1) fat). The estimated average consumption of 22 g d(-1) of the highly contaminated eggs will result in a 2-fold exceedance of the current exposure limits for adults and 5-fold for children, even without considering other contaminated food sources. This indicates a potential health risk from consumption of these highly contaminated eggs, which were not yet considered as a source for exposure to PCDD/Fs of people living in the highly contaminated areas. PMID:25113212

  20. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fires of arsenic-free treated wood: role of organic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Tame, Nigel W; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Kennedy, Eric M

    2007-09-15

    This article demonstrates that biocidal organochlorines such as tebuconazole and permethrin, employed in formulations of wood preservatives, produce significant quantities of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) when subjected to thermal decomposition under oxidative conditions. Both tebuconazole and permethrin form PCDD/F during gas-phase oxidation, but much greater yields occurred in the presence of surrogate ash corresponding to wood treated with copper-based fungicides. The significant yields have implications for the increased toxicity of PCDD/F emissions during fires of wood impregnated by combination of organic and copper-based preservatives. The oxidative pyrolysis of tebuconazole and permethrin over simulated wood ash generated amounts of PCDD/F exceeding those of untreated wood by 3 orders of magnitude. We obtained yields of 1000 ng WHO97-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 5500 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin when reacting the organochlorines in an oxidizing atmosphere over surrogate wood ash. Gas-phase oxidation also produce measurable quantities of PCDD/F, corresponding to 1 ng WH097-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 36 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin. In the case of tebuconazole, the present measurements correlate well with those obtained from oxidative pyrolysis of CBA-treated wood in the cone calorimeter. It appears that permethrin and tebuconazole provide phenyl and diphenyl precursors to formation of PCDD/F and both constitute a source of chlorine upon fragmentation. PMID:17948789

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts. PMID:21639085

  2. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer. PMID:24651928

  3. Specific congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blue mussel in Osaka Bay in Japan: Aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hideaki; Takayama, Koji; Mimura, Mayumi; Kashimoto, Takashi ); Fukushima, Shigehiko )

    1989-09-01

    The authors have monitored polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the coastal waters of Japan by using blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biological indicator. The levels of both chemicals were surmised to closely relate to the number of municipal incinerators and the population densities in the cities adjoining the sampling location. The main contamination source in Osaka Bay, which is heavy polluted with PCDDs and PCDFs, was determined to be the fly ash from municipal waste incinerators based upon analytical results of blue mussel from Osaka Bay sediments, sediments from Osaka Bay, and sediments from a river, which is located near a typical urban municipal waste incinerator. However, there was a remarkable difference in congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs between the blue mussel and the fly ash, that is, the mussel mainly contained tetraCDDs and tetraCDFs with congener ratios of 56 {plus minus} 9.7% and 62 {plus minus} 6.0%, respectively, whereas the fly ash contained the higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs as major congeners. In this study, the specific congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs in blue mussel were investigated from the point of view of their water solubilities.

  4. Influence of combustion parameters on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, benzenes, and biphenyls and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in a pilot incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Faengmark, I.; Bavel, B. van; Marklund, S.; Rappe, C. ); Stroemberg, B.; Berge, N. )

    1993-08-01

    A laboratory-scale fluidized-bed incinerator was used to study the influence of several combustion parameters with respect to the emission of important aromatic contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The parameters studied include bed temperature, O[sub 2]-concentration, variations in HCl and H[sub 2]O, and temperature and residence time in the postcombustion zone. A two-level fractional factorial design was used for planning the experiments. Flue gas samples were collected and analyzed on HRGC-HRMS. The most important parameter for the formation of the above chlorinated aromatics was found to be the residence time in the postcombustion zone. A substantial formation of the chlorinated compounds occurred during residence times as short as 1.6 s. PAH formation was found to be influenced by the oxygen concentration in the combustion air, and good combustion conditions favor low PAH emissions. 42 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish, seafood products and fish oil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lucía; Martínez, Aníbal; Ferreira, Martiña; Vieites, Juan; Cabado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 samples of wild and farmed fish, cephalopods and fish oils for animal feeding, traded in Spain, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 2009-2012, by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The method was optimised for screening at moderate costs, allowing PCDD/Fs determination at 1 pg World Health Organization-toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) g⁻¹ wet weight (w w) and dl-PCBs at 0.02 pg WHO-TEQ g⁻¹ w w. Concentrations in fish and cephalopods ranged from values below the limit of detection to 1.7 pg g⁻¹ WHO-TEQ sum PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, considered as safe with regard to EU legislation. Higher levels were found in cod livers (5.4-54.2) and fish oils (3.3-30.7), with one noncompliant sample in each group. PMID:24779909

  6. Effects of burnings of wax apple stubble and rice straw on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in air and soil.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jen-Ho; Chen, Kang-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-04-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were made in ambient air, ash, and soil impacted by the open burning of wax apple and rice straw residues. Measurements showed that the mean PCDD/F concentration (0.458 pg I-TEQ/Nm3; international toxicity equivalence) in air at two wax apple orchards during open burning increased markedly, -8.1 times higher than that (0.057 pg I-TEQ/Nm3); before open burning. In addition, the mean PCDD/F concentration (0.409 pg I-TEQ/Nm3) in ambient air at a rice straw field was 4.6 times higher than that (0.089 pg I-TEQ/Nm3) before open burning. After burning the residues of wax apple stubble and rice straw, the contents of PCDD/F in ashes were 1.393 and 1.568 ng I-TEQ/kg-ash, respectively, and the contents of PCDD/F in soil were 2.258 and 2.890 ng I-TEQ/kg-soil, respectively. Therefore, the turnover of soil with the ash after open burning over years will result in the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in farm soils. PMID:17458464

  7. A novel method to enhance polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans removal by adding bio-solution in EAF dust treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Yang, Kuen-Thyr

    2008-01-15

    In order to understand the effect of different amounts of powder-activated carbon (PAC) injection and bio-solution (NOE-7F) addition on the removal efficiencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant with Waelz rotary kiln process, the PCDD/F concentrations in the stack flue gasses were measured and discussed. In the amount of 20, 40 and 50 kg/h PAC injection, the removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs in the stack flue gas were 86, 96 and 97%, respectively. While adding more amounts of PAC did enhance the removal efficiencies, the reduction fractions of low chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were much higher than those of highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners. Particularly, a lower amount of PAC injection (20 kg/h), not only cannot remove highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs, but also the carbon surface of the PAC can act as a precursor for the formation promotion of highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners. The addition of NOE-7F in the raw materials had the dechlorination effect on the PCDD/F removal and mainly inhibited highly chlorinated PCDD/F formation. The combination of both PAC injection and NOE-7F addition has a high potential for practical application. PMID:17532560

  8. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on secondary combustor/boiler ash from a rotary kiln burning hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Addink, R; Altwicker, E R

    2004-10-18

    Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a considerable amount of these compounds when heated in 10% O(2)/N(2) under "de novo" conditions, i.e., with residual carbon (present on the ash as result of incomplete combustion) as the only organic material. The ash yielded PCDD/F for up to 90 min; gave PCDD/F yields proportional to the amount of ash used in the reaction bed; and displayed an optimum temperature range for formation (397-548 degrees C) higher than seen for most municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ashes. The role of copper and iron as catalytic material on the ash is discussed. PMID:15511574

  9. Radioimmunoassay for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Luster, M.I.; Mckinney, J.D.

    1980-12-09

    The invention provides a double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for the determination of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, particularly, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in environmental samples including animal tissues such as monkey liver and adipose tissues. The limit of detection is approximately 25 picograms for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Assuming an appropriate cleanup procedure is used, chlorinated dibenzofurans are the only likely interferences, and these can be distinguished through the use of two antisers of different dibenzo-furan/dibenzodioxin selectivities. The invention includes the preparation of a reproducible antigen, an appropriate radiolabeled hapten, and effective sample extracts. A feature of the assay method is the use of a nonionic detergent (e.g., ''cutscum'' or ''triton x-305'') to solubilize the extremely hydrophobic dibenzo-p-dioxins in a manner permitting their binding by antibodies. The immunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening, and to routine monitoring for exposure to known chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in potentially contaminated environments.

  10. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  11. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Karin; Sporring, Sune; Haglund, Peter; Björklund, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from various food and feed samples was performed with a selective PLE method previously developed for bulk PCBs. The method utilizes sulfuric acid impregnated silica inside the extraction cell to oxidize coextracted fat. Extractions were performed at 100 degrees C with n-heptane for 5 min in two cycles. Data obtained by selective PLE combined with gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) were compared to concentrations derived from reference laboratories applying conventional sample preparation and GC-HRMS. Experiments performed on spiked vegetable oil, naturally contaminated crude fish oil and oil containing compound feed samples showed good results for these relatively simple matrices. The accuracy was generally +/-20% as compared to spiked levels or to values obtained by the reference laboratories. The precision, measured as the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency values (TEQs), was below 10% in all cases. The method was also tested on naturally contaminated herring tissue, chicken tissue, pork tissue and sepiolitic clay, which all caused some trouble. It was observed that sufficient amounts of sodium sulfate should be used for dehydration of tissue samples and additionally, the cells should not be packed too dense in order to avoid suppressed extraction efficiency. Once this was attended to, satisfactory data could be obtained, except for sepiolithic clay. This study demonstrates that selective PLE can be applied with success to a number of food and feed matrices in analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since the fat removal step is on-line, the selective PLE method will reduce time and solvent consumption for sample preparation as compared to traditional clean-up. PMID:17109872

  12. Characterization of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) in environmental matrices from an intensive electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Jianfang; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Deyi; Bi, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Information on environmental distribution and human exposures of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) are little reported. In the present study, workshop dust, soil and sediment samples from Longtang and Shijiao, the intensive e-waste recycling sites within Qingyuan City, southern China, were collected and analyzed following the standard method. PBDD/F concentrations (sum of eight 2378-substituted PBDD/F congeners) in different environmental matrices were in the range of 122-4667 ng kg(-1) dry wt (dw) for workshop dust, 19.6-3793 ng kg(-1) dw for the top soils, and 527 ng kg(-1) dw for the surface sediment, which were substantially higher than those of reference sites. The long-distance transport of PBDDs/Fs also impacted the adjacent areas. Contribution of the most two toxic congeners (2,3,7,8-TBDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) increased significantly from "source" (dust) to "sink" (sediment). Dismantling and open burning were the two procedures contributing relatively higher level PBDDs/Fs to the atmosphere, while acid leaching would contaminate soils and waters directly. The estimated daily intakes of eight PBDD/F congeners via soil/dust ingestion and dermal absorption for local residents were higher than those contributed by seventeen PCDD/F congeners in the same set of samples. Children and e-waste processing workers were the most affected groups by the low-tech recycling activities there. PMID:26952275

  13. Relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran levels to stable-nitrogen isotope abundance in marine birds and mammals in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hobson, K.A.; Bergqvist, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in common murre (Uria aalge), Brandt`s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) eggs, and Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) blubber collected from the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in 1993. In addition, the samples were analyzed for stable-nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N). Of the PCDDs and PCDFs, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TCDF) congeners were the most prominent in the birds. The levels of TCDD in the eggs ranged from 0.2 to 6.6 ng/wet kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant, respectively. The TCDF ranged from 0.30 to 2.25 ng/kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant eggs, respectively. Other prominent PCDD and PCDF congeners detected in all bird species were 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD. In the Steller sea lion the most prominent congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD at 3.2 ng/kg, 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 2.9 ng/kg, OCDF at 2.2 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD at 1.92 ng/kg, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF at 1.3 ng/kg. Stable-nitrogen values ranged from 16.9% in the pigeon guillemot and rhinoceros auklet to 19.8% in the Steller sea lion.

  14. Distribution and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and p,p'-DDE in tissues of bald eagles from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-07-01

    Liver, muscle, fat, kidney, and gall bladder of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (including coplanar PCBs), p,p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Necropsy results showed that the birds suffered from peritonitis, bacterial infection, or trauma. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in livers ranged from 23 to 4500 pg/g on a wet weight basis (wet wt), whereas the least concentrations were found in blood plasma of bald eagle nestlings (2.3-49 pg/g, wet wt). A maximum total PCB concentration of 280,000 ng/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a dead bald eagle affected by peritonitis. The greatest concentrations of p,p'-DDE and HCB in eagle livers were 17,000 and 120 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Eagles with elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or total PCB concentrations tended to have great TCDD/TCDF or PCB126/PCB77 ratios, hypothesized to be due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and subsequent metabolism of TCDF and PCB77. Concentrations of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the tissues of bald eagles exceeded the thresholds for toxicity in a few avian species. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs accounted for 68-88% of the total TEQs in bald eagle tissues. PCDDs and PCDFs collectively accounted for, on average, 17% of the total TEQs. On the basis of the analysis of a single gall bladder with bile, biliary excretion rates of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were estimated as 0.015-0.02% per day. PMID:12144248

  15. Atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls around a steel plant area, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Ding, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Hongbiao; Jiang, Guibin; Wei, Fusheng

    2010-04-01

    Air monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in June 2008 and January 2009 to investigate the concentrations, profiles and estimating potential inhalation risks to the local residents around a steel plant area in northeast China. The air concentrations and WHO-TEQs of PCDD/Fs ranged 94-4944fgm(-3) (average 1352fgm(-3)) and 3-247fgm(-3) (average 81fgm(-3)), respectively. The WHO-TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs ranged 1-18fgm(-3) (average 5fgm(-3)), contributing to 3.6-26% of the total TEQ. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the winter, whereas higher dioxin-like PCB concentrations were found in the summer. The seasonal trend can be related to the significant correlation between the concentrations of dioxins and the reciprocal of temperature (positive for PCDD/Fs, P<0.01; negative for dioxin-like PCBs, P=0.05). A significant positive correlation (P<0.0001) was found between the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PCDD/F concentrations, but not for PCB congeners. Although the steel plant sites showed higher dioxin levels than the residential and background areas, the PCDD/F levels in the atmosphere of the steel plant area was at a relatively low level. The results from this study provides further aid in evaluating the impact of steel plants as PCDD/Fs emission sources to the ambient air in China. PMID:20176394

  16. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Echols, K R; Peterman, P H; May, T W; Orazio, C E; Tillitt, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.04 microg/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.02 mug/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. PMID:18726540

  17. Occurrence and impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in the air and soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Ren, Yue; Chu, Jiazhi; Li, Nan; Zhen, Sen; Zhao, Hu; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Pengjun; Qi, Li; Liang, Shuting; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on the environment in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), we determined the levels of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples collected around a MSWI, which is the largest in China. The International Toxicity Equivalency Quantity (I-TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air samples were from 0.0300 to 1.03pgI-TEQ/m(3) (0.445-13.6pg/m(3)), with an average of 0.237pgI-TEQ/m(3), while in soil samples they ranged from 0.520 to 3.40pgI-TEQ/g (2.41-88.7pg/g) with an average of 1.49pgI-TEQ/g. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples were comparable to other areas, and PeCDFs were the dominant contributors, which was different from stack gas homologue patterns. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that PCDD/Fs emission from the MSWI did not directly affect the profiles of PCDD/Fs in air and soils, so that vehicles and unidentified emission sources should be considered. The daily inhalation levels of PCDD/Fs for children (0.0110 to 0.392pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) and adults (0.00600 to 0.221pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) near the MSWI were lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1.00 to 4.00pg WHO-TEQ/(kg·day), but in winter the values were higher than in summer. These results can be used as basic data for assessing the risk of PCDD/Fs exposure in residents living around this MSWI, and more monitoring programs and studies should be carried out around MSWIs. PMID:27266321

  18. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.04 ??g/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.02 ??g/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  19. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area. PMID:26774770

  20. Formation and potential mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on fly ash from a secondary copper smelting process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-06-01

    Secondary copper smelting (SeCu) is widely considered to be an important source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs; PCDD/Fs). Laboratory experiments were performed using SeCu fly ash as a matrix for thermochemical reactions to investigate the effects of fly ash on the formation of PCDD/Fs and the potential mechanisms. Thermochemical reactions on SeCu fly ash over a temperature range of 250-450 °C and reaction times of 10-120 min caused the PCDD/F concentrations in the fly ash to increase significantly. The PCDD/F concentrations formed in the thermal reactions were about 99-139 times higher than the PCDD/F concentrations in the original fly ash, clearly indicating that fly ash promoted the formation of PCDD/Fs. The PCDFs dominated the PCDDs, and the PCDF/PCDD concentration ratio was about 30-40. Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF), octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the heptachlorodibenzofurans were the most dominant homologs that were formed. A comparison of the PCDD/F patterns produced in the thermochemical reactions and the patterns in the original fly ash suggested that the chlorination of less chlorinated PCDFs might be an important pathway in the formation of higher chlorinated furans. The results of this study indicated that SeCu fly ash has a high PCDD/F formation potential. It is crucial to have the fly ash filter at low temperature and that fly ash in the cooling system should be minimized. PMID:25572269

  1. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J T; Elliott, J E; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E; Hart, L E; Cheng, K M; Bellward, G D

    1994-04-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r2 = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988. PMID:8145284

  2. Characterization and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soils and sediments at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Natalie A; Bowman, Jennifer; Lopez, Dina; Migliore, Elizabeth; Jackson, Glen P

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is in the early stages of decommissioning and decontamination. During operations, the site drew a large amount of electric power and had multiple large switchyards on site. These are a source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination to both on-site and off-site streams. Some soil remediation has been completed in the main switchyard. During 2011 and 2012, fifteen sites were sampled at the surface (<10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) to characterize the extent of PCB contamination, to identify weathering and migration of PCB contamination and to explore potential polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) contamination due to transformer fires and explosions in the 1950s and 1960s. Stagnant sites tended to exhibit more migration of contamination to deeper sediments than sites with fast-moving waters, and the highest concentrations were found at the bottom of a settling pond. A signature set of five dioxin-like PCBs were consistently found across the site with higher concentrations in carbon rich surface sediments. PCB concentrations had a significant inverse correlation with clay content, suggesting that PCBs did not bind to clays at this site. Remediation has reduced PCB concentrations throughout the site compared to levels found in previous studies and long-term upkeep of sediment lagoons is necessary to retain PCB and dioxin-rich sediments. The flow regimen, organic carbon and clay content play a very important role in the fate of PCBs in the environment at the surface as well as downward migration. PMID:25113188

  3. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. PMID:23806670

  4. Long-term monitoring and modeling of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from municipal solid waste incinerators and surrounding area in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Wan-Ju; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Mwangi, John Kennedy; Wang, Lin Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) have long been the major contributors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to ambient air in Taiwan. After stringent MSWI emission standards were introduced in 2001, the long-term continuous monitoring of flue gas and ambient air quality became necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the related control strategies. Three MSWIs and the surrounding ambient air were investigated in the current study for PCDD/F characteristics during 2006 to 2011. The average concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 0.008 ~ 0.0488 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), which is much less than the emission standard in Taiwan (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)) (I-TEQ is the abbreviation of International Toxic Equivalent). This led to extremely low levels in the ambient air, 0.0255 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3), much less than the levels seen in most urban areas around the world. Additionally, the results obtained using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Dispersion Model (ISCST3) indicate that the PCDD/F contributions from the three MSWIs to the ambient air were only in the range from 0.164 ~ 0.723 %. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the PCDD/Fs in the air samples had very similar characteristics to those from mobile sources. The results thus show that stringent regulations have been an effective control strategy, especially for urban areas, such as Taipei City. PMID:24888609

  5. Contributions of dry and wet depositions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to a contaminated site resulting from a penetachlorophenol manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hwang J; Wang, Shizoom; Wang, Ya F; Li, Hsing W; Wang, Lin C

    2011-04-01

    The soils at a factory for manufacturing pentachlorophenol were heavily contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In order to verify the contributions of dry and wet deposition of PCDD/Fs from the ambient air, the concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air and soil were measured, the partition of particle- and gas-phases of atmospheric PCDD/Fs was calculated, and the annual fluxes of total dry and wet PCDD/F depositions were modeled. Average atmospheric PCDD/F concentration was 1.24 ng Nm(-3) (or 0.0397 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)). Moreover, over 92.8% of total PCDD/Fs were in the particle phase, and the dominant species were high chlorinated congeners. The total PCDD/F fluxes of dry and wet deposition were 119.5 ng m(-2) year(-1) (1.34 ng I-TEQ m(-2) year(-1)) and 82.0 ng m(-2) year(-1) (1.07 ng I-TEQ m(-2) year(-1)), respectively. By scenario simulation, the total fluxes of dry and wet PCDD/F depositions were 87.1 and 68.6 ng I-TEQ, respectively. However, the estimated PCDD/F contents in the contaminated soil were 839.9 μ g I-TEQ. Hence, the contributions of total depositions of atmospheric PCDD/F were only 0.02%. The results indicated that the major sources of PCDD/F for the contaminated soil could be attributed to the pentachlorophenol manufacturing process. PMID:20559715

  6. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    PubMed Central

    NC, Deziel; Nuckols; JS, Colt; AJ, De Roos; A, Pronk; C, Gourley; RK, Severson; W, Cozen; Cerhan; P, Hartge; MH, Ward

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources, including industrial facilities and traffic. Samples from vacuum bag dust from homes of 40 residents of Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, or Iowa who participated in a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma conducted in 1998–2000 were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry for 7 PCDD and 10 PCDF congeners considered toxic by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Locations of 10 types of PCDD/F-emitting facilities were obtained from the EPA; however only 4 types were located near study homes (non-hazardous waste cement kilns, coal-fired power plants, sewage sludge incinerators, and medical waste incinerators). Relationships between concentrations of each PCDD/F and proximity to industrial facilities, freight routes, and major roads were evaluated using separate multivariate regression models for each congener. The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) toxic equivalence (TEQ) concentration of these congeners in the house dust was 20.3 pg/g (IQR=14.3, 32.7). Homes within 3 or 5 km of a cement kiln had 2 to 9-fold higher concentrations of 5 PCDD and 5 PCDF (p<0.1 in each model). Proximity to freight routes and major roads was associated with elevated concentrations of 1 PCDD and 8 PCDF. Higher concentrations of certain PCDD/F in homes near cement kilns, freight routes, and major roads suggest these outdoor sources are contributing to indoor environmental exposures. Further study of the contribution of these sources and other facility types to total PCDD/F exposure in a larger number of homes is warranted. PMID:22832089

  7. An egg injection method for assessing early life stage mortality of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Hufnagle, L.C., Jr.; Clayton, M.K.; Peterson, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    To characterize the risk that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) pose to salmonid early life stage survival, we developed a method to expose rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs to graded doses of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners, using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a prototype. Rainbow trout eggs were injected 24–50 h post-fertilization with 0.2 μl of 50 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes (control) or 0.2 μl of 5–7 graded doses of TCDD incorporated into 50 mM PC liposomes. Injection volume never exceeded 0.6% egg volume. Immediately following injection, the injection site was sealed with Super glue®, resulting in 92–97% of TCDD dose retained by the egg. Following both egg injection and waterborne egg exposure. TCDD toxicity in rainbow trout was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with hemorrhages, pericardial edema, and yolk sac edema. TCDD LD50s, following injection and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout eggs, were 421 (331–489) and 439 (346–519) pg TCDD/g egg (LD50, 95% fiducial limits), respectively. As in rainbow trout, TCDD toxicity in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) following the same two routes of exposure was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality preceded by hemorrhages and yolk sac edema. LD50s, based on the dose of TCDD in lake trout eggs, were 47 (21–65) and 65 (60–71) pg/g following injection and waterborne exposure, respectively. The egg injection method is ideal for assessing the relationship between early life stage mortality in rainbow trout and graded egg doses of individual PCDD, PCDF, or PCB congeners.

  8. Toxicity comparison of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial source samples by HRGC/HRMS and enzyme immunoassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is available on the applicability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) toxicity assays to their brominated counterparts: polybrominated dibenzo-p-dixoins/furans (PBDDs/Fs). We estimated the toxicity of mixtures of chlorinated, brominated, and mi...

  9. Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (Pcdds), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (Pcdfs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Mercury in Rural Soils of the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Pilot Survey Soil Report EPA has released a final report entitled, Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychl...

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments and biota of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brochu, C.; Moore, S.; Pelletier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples and marine organisms were collected in the Saguenay Fjord and at two selected sites of the St. Lawrence Estuary in 1991. Total PCDDs and total PCDFs ranged from 22 to 352 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and 29 to 188 ng kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively in Saguenay sediments, while total PCDFs reached, 287 ng kg{sup {minus}1} in Baie des Anglais, a small and deep bay of the St. Lawrence Estuary impacted by PCBs during the 1970s. All biological samples contained detectable amounts of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, apart from the North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The highest concentrations (up to 59.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1} total PCDFs and 2.54 ng kg{sup {minus}1} 2,3,7,8T4CDD Equivalent (TCDD TEQ)) were observed in crab (Chionoecetes opilio) caught in Saguenay Fjord and in crab and whelk (Buccinwn undatwn) collected in Baie des Anglais. Nordic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) is less contaminated with a maximum total PCDDs and PCDFs concentration of 14.0 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and TCDD TEQ never exceeding 0.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) caught in the Saguenay Fjord contained only 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners in their tissues leading to a low average TCDD TEQ of 1.66 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Based upon this first series of results, benthic organisms and fish from the Saguenay Fjord and the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary are exposed to low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, and carry tissue concentrations well below international guidelines for fisheries products.

  11. Contaminants in ospreys from the Pacific Northwest: I. Trends and Patterns in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in eggs and plasma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Machmer, M.M.; Henny, Charles J.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected from 1991 to 1997 at nests (na??=a??121) upstream and downstream of bleached kraft pulp mills and at reference sites in the Fraser and Columbia River drainage systems of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. Blood samples were collected from nestling ospreys during the 1992 breeding season on the Thompson River. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and -dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD were significantly higher in eggs collected in 1991 at downstream compared to upstream nests near pulp mills at Kamloops and Castlegar, British Columbia. There were no significant temporal trends in 2,3,7,8-TCDD, -TCDF or other measured compounds at a sample of nests monitored between 1991 and 1994 downstream of the Castlegar pulp mill, despite changes in bleaching technology (CIO2 substitution). However, by 1997 concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and -TCDF were significantly lower than previous years in nests sampled downstream at both Castlegar and Kamloops. An unusual pattern of higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs was found in many of the osprey eggs collected in this study, and considerable individual variation in the pattern existed among eggs from the same site. For example, eggs from four different nests at one study area (Quesnel) on the Fraser River had concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD ranging from <1 to 1,100 ng/kg and OCDD from <1 to 7,000 ng/kg wet weight. Higher mean concentrations of HpCDD and OCDD were found in eggs from the Thompson River, a tributary of the Fraser, compared to the Columbia River, and concentrations were generally higher at nests upstream of pulp mills. In plasma samples, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and OCDD were the main compounds detected, with no significant differences measured between samples upstream versus downstream or earlier versus later in the breeding season. Use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives by lumber processors was considered the

  12. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.; Horii, Y.; Wu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D G; Todd, G D; Turner, W E; Maggio, V; Alexander, L R; Needham, L L

    1994-01-01

    We have measured non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in human adipose tissue and serum collected in Atlanta, Georgia. The results show that the concentrations of the coplanar PCBs can be more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Our measurements in pooled serum collected in 1982, 1988, and 1989 show a decrease in coplanar PCB levels from 1982 to 1989. We found that the pattern of relative amounts of coplanar PCBs in adipose tissue varied greatly from person to person unlike the PCDD and PCDF patterns, which were more nearly the same. Age was significantly correlated with the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD,3,3'4,4'-PCB, 3,3',4,4',5-PCB, and 3,3'4,4',5,5'-PCB in adipose tissue. We also measured levels of the mono- and di-ortho chlorine-substituted PCBs in human serum. The levels for some of these PCB congeners were three orders of magnitude higher than the coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. We used the international toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDDs and PCDFs and the TEFs proposed by Safe for PCBs to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Four PCBs (3,3',4,4',5-; 2,3',4,4',5-;2,3,3',4,4'-;2,3,3',4,4',5-) make a larger contribution than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, while four other PCBs (3,3',4,4'5,5'-; 2,2',3,4,4',5'-;2,2',4,4',5,5'-;2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-) make nearly the same contribution as 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted 2,3',4,4',5-PCB, however, is the major contributor to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in general population samples from the United States, Sweden, and Japan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187709

  14. Health effects of chronic exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and coplanar PCB (Co-PCB) of municipal waste incinerator workers.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K; Kikuchi, Y; Watanabe, S; Waechter, G; Sakurai, H; Takada, T

    2000-07-01

    A national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in emission gases from the municipal waste incinerators in 1997 revealed that the Nose Bika Center was heavily contaminated by PCDF. Ninety-four workers underwent a physical examination, and blood biochemistry, lymphocyte marker, and NK activity studies were carried out, along with blood dioxin measurements. Information on working history, life-style, and dietary habits was obtained by questionnaire and interview. The blood dioxin levels were as follows. The median TEQ of dioxins was 39.7 pg I-TEQ/g lipid, and the range was 13.3 to 805.8. The median 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentration was 3.9 pg TEQ/g lipid, and the range was <1 pg TEQ/g lipid (one case) to 13.4 pg TEQ/g lipid. The median TEQ of coplanar PCB was 10.8 pg I-TEQ/g lipid, and the range was 3.1 to 54.2 pg TEQ/g lipid. The congener-specific distribution was quite similar to that in soil around incinerator and waste in the factory. The relationship between dioxin concentrations and work history in the factory showed that the fluidized incinerator and fly ash treatment areas were high-risk work areas. Correlation analyses between body burden, PCDD/PCDF TEQ, Co-PCB TEQ and various laboratory data showed significant positive correlations between dioxin levels and GGT, total protein, uric acid and calcium, and a negative correlation with Fe. However, these correlations disappeared as a result of multivariate analysis adjusted for age, smoking status, and alcohol drinking. Increased NK activity and lower response to PHA stimulation remained significant even after adjusting for age. History of hyperlipidemia and allergy had significantly increased odds ratios. A study on the risk to other workers in the same type of incinerators is under way. Health effects of chronic exposure mainly to PCDF will be clarified by follow-up. PMID:10959609

  15. Discrimination of aerial deposition sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran downwind from a pulp mill near Ketchikan, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Peek, Daniel C; Butcher, Matthew K; Shields, Walter J; Yost, Lisa J; Maloy, John A

    2002-04-15

    Drinking water is supplied by individual roof-catchment systems for homes and businesses near a dissolving sulfite pulp mill (now closed) located just north of Ketchikan in southeast Alaska. This study was conducted to determine if polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) found in the sediments of the roof-catchment cisterns resulted from historical deposition of stack emissions from the pulp mill's multi-fuel power boilers. Fly ash from the power boilers had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 3.08 x 10(5)-3.10 x 10(6) ng/kg, which resulted from combustion of bleach plant wastewater sludge and saltwater-soaked wood waste. Cistern sediments had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 7.71 x 10(4) ng/kg. Potential sources of PCDDs/Fs in the cistern sediments were considered to be automobile exhaust, heating oil combustion, and private trash burning as well as pulp mill boiler emissions. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze differences between profiles of tetra through octa homologue classes of PCDDs/ Fs (defined as proportional contributions to total concentration) from different source terms. Homologue profiles of potential sources from Ketchikan included in this analysis were fly ash collected from the mill's power boilers and soils collected from background areas (areas with similar PCDD/F sources as the residences [e.g., auto exhaust and burn barrels] near the mill but beyond the zone of aerial deposition of emissions from the mill). Profiles for emissions from automobile exhaust, fertilizers, oil heating, residential trash burning, and residential wood heating were also included in the source "training" data set (for the discriminant analysis) using data from published literature. The classification rules developed from the discriminant analysis were applied to the following test media sampled at Ketchikan: roof-catchment cistern sediments and soils collected from areas in the vicinity of the mill's power boilers (i

  16. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  17. Guidelines for the determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in commercial products (re-announcement of PB88-101050 - see notes field for explanation). Final report, March 1985-July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, D.H.; Stanley, J.S.

    1987-09-01

    The determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) and dibenzofurans (HDFs) in commercial products requires specific and sensitive analytical procedures. The development of methods for the measurement of HDD and HDF in commercial products is complicated by the diverse range of matrices, the potentially large number of halogenated (specifically chloro, bromo, or bromo/chloro) HDD and HDF congeners and potential interference due to major components of the product matrices. The report provides (1) a review of the literature pertaining to commercial-product analyses for HDDs and HDFs, (2) detail on the total number of bromo, chloro, and bromo/chloro HDDs and HDFs, (3) a tentative scheme for the analysis of HDDs and HDFs in diverse matrices, and (4) guidelines for the high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or electron-capture-detector analysis of commercial products for HDDs and HDFs. The guidelines specify a rigorous QA/QC program for the analysis of the commercial products.

  18. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  19. Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio, Southern Vietnam and Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Viet, Pham Hung; Kondo, Akira; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio, South Vietnam, and Osaka, Japan. Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator. For comparison, we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi, Vietnam. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue, Hanoi, and suburban areas of Osaka, but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka. The proportion of the World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ value contributed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Can Gio was approximately 30%, higher than the values in the other sample areas. These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio. The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources, as in Hue. In contrast, commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi. In Osaka, agrochemicals used in rice cultivation, the incineration of solid waste, and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations. The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg(-1)dw at urban locations in Osaka. PMID:19892385

  20. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fishes to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Bryanna K; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Wiseman, Steve; Raine, Jason C; Hecker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin-like compounds of varying toxicities are found in complex mixtures. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was developed based on the potency of a dioxin-like compound relative to the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to streamline risk assessment. One limitation of the TEF approach is uncertainty regarding differences in the relative potency of dioxin-like compounds among different species. Relative potencies among fishes are limited, relative to relative potencies among birds and mammals, and TEFs for fishes are based entirely on the model species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An in vitro liver explant assay was used to characterize species-specific responses with regard to up-regulation of CYP1A transcript after exposure to 6 dioxin-like compounds in rainbow trout, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Differences in sensitivities were observed among species after exposure to dioxin-like compounds. The relative potencies developed from liver explants of rainbow trout were comparable to relative potencies developed from embryo toxicity assays. Differences in relative potencies between species with the least and greatest relative potencies were up to 40-fold. To compare relative potencies among species, concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in fish eggs in the Fraser River and in Lake Ontario were used to calculate toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) determined from TEFs or TCDD equivalents determined from relative potencies. The TEQs underestimated TCDD equivalents for white sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and northern pike, indicating uncertainty in application of TEFs to diverse fishes. PMID:26202062

  1. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish. PMID:26468966

  2. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  3. Relationships between dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) congener concentrations in aquatic organisms from Sydney Estuary, Australia and physiology, spatial, seasonality, trophodynamic and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Sezmis, Aysha Laila; Birch, Gavin; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study investigated factors that govern species-specific accumulation patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in a food web from Sydney Estuary (Australia). The results indicated that physiological characteristics, i.e. lipid %, spatial, i.e. distance from Homebush Bay (point source of POPs) and life history characteristics of the organisms, such as diet and home range, influence PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue concentrations to a varying degree. For example, PCDD/F tissue concentrations increased with the presence of detritivorous diet, species with limited home range and close proximity to Homebush Bay. On the other hand, lipid %, piscivorous diet and close proximity to Homebush Bay were the main predictors causing increases in dl-PCB tissue levels. Distance from Homebush Bay was the only predictor affecting both PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue levels at a similar rate, i.e. decreasing tissue concentrations as the distance increases from Homebush Bay. PMID:24840280

  4. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins. PMID:23424046

  5. Capping efficiency of various carbonaceous and mineral materials for in situ remediation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contaminated marine sediments: sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation in boxcosm tests.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Sarah; Schaanning, Morten; Samuelsson, Göran S; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Olofsson, Ida; Eek, Espen; Wiberg, Karin

    2012-03-20

    The efficiency of thin-layer capping in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene, and octachlorostyrene was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials was tested using a three-factor experimental design. The cap materials consisted of a passive material (coarse or fine limestone or a marine clay) and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants. The cap thickness and the type of active material were significant factors, whereas no statistically significant effects of the type of passive material were observed. Sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation by the two test species, the surface-dwelling Nassarius nitidus and the deep-burrowing Nereis spp., decreased with increased cap thickness and with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a ~90% reduction of fluxes and bioaccumulation was achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC. Small increases in fluxes with increased survival of Nereis spp. indicated that bioturbation by Nereis spp. affected the fluxes. PMID:22339559

  6. Metabolism of Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Chlorinated Dibenzo-p- Dioxins by a Beijerinckia Species

    PubMed Central

    Klečka, Gary M.; Gibson, David T.

    1980-01-01

    Whole cells of the parent strain of Beijerinckia, grown with succinate and biphenyl, oxidized dibenzo-p-dioxin and several chlorinated dioxins. The rate of oxidation of the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins decreased with an increasing degree of chlorine substitution. A mutant strain (B8/36) of Beijerinckia oxidized dibenzo-p-dioxin to cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrodibenzo-p-dioxin. The mutant organism also oxidized two monochlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins to cis-dihydrodiols. No metabolites were detected from two dichlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. Growth of the parent strain of Beijerinckia on succinate was inhibited after 4 h when 0.05% dibenzo-p-dioxin was present in the culture medium. Resting cell suspensions of the parent organism, previously grown with succinate and biphenyl, oxidized dibenzo-p-dioxin to a compound identified as 1,2-dihydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin. Further degradation of this metabolite was not detected, as the compound was found to be a potent mixed-type inhibitor of two ring-fission oxygenases present in this organism. PMID:16345500

  7. Placental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids correlate weakly with placental polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and are uncorrelated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) at delivery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng-Chuan; Brenna, J Thomas; Sun, Pei-Yi; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li

    2011-08-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), ARA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) have positive effects and environment pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans(PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have negative effects on neural development during early life. Placental dioxin/PCB serves as markers for cumulative exposure to fetus. Fatty acid composition of placenta depends on nutrient supply during pregnancy, serving as indicators for fetal ARA and DHA accretion. This study investigated correlation between placental PCDD/F and PCB toxic equivalent (TEQ) and LC-PUFA in 34 pregnant women from Taiwan. Placental PCDF TEQ were inversely correlated with placental ARA (p=0.020), C20:3n-6 (p=0.01), C22:4n-6 (p=0.04), C22:5n-6 (p<0.01) and with DHA (p=0.03), but ARA and DHA did not vary with PCDD, dioxin-like and indicator PCB. After adjustment for age and body mass index, a one-unit PCDF TEQ increase was associated with 1.021%w/w and 0.312%w/w decreases in ARA (β=-1.021, p=0.03) and DHA (β=-0.312, p=0.03). Since ARA and DHA were unrelated to three classes of toxins, and a weak negative association was found with PCDF, these data provide no basis for discouraging marine fish consumption during pregnancy for Taiwan women on the basis of these organics. Pregnant women should consume fish for its unique package of nutrients while avoiding few species with high organic pollutant or mercury contamination. PMID:21549173

  8. Distribution characteristics and source identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from River Kanzaki, running through Osaka urban area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao

    2013-03-01

    This is the first to elucidate the distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from Kanzaki River, which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in Japan. The World Health Organization (WHO)-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) in waters from the mainstream exceeded the Japanese environmental standard (1.0 pg-TEQ/L). The PCDD/PCDFs were dominated by highly chlorinated DFs, which predominantly contributed to the WHO-TEQs, suggesting that the main causes would be the incineration-related wastes. To find the sources, the dioxin congener concentrations in water and sediment samples from its tributary small waterways were determined. Abnormally high WHO-TEQs were detected in a water (50 pg-TEQ/L) and a sediment sample (41,000 ng-TEQ/kg dry weight) near the industrial solid waste incinerators (ISWIs). The PCDD/PCDF characteristics agreed well with those of the incinerator-related wastes as seen in the mainstream. These facts indicate that the dioxin pollution in the mainstream could be largely related to the industrial wastes from the ISWIs. Here, a TEQ apportionment method was used to understand the contribution of the pyrogenic sources to the WHO-TEQs. The average contribution ratios of the pyrogenic sources to WHO-TEQs were more than 80% for river waters from the mainstream, indicating that the elevated WHO-TEQs in the mainstream had been largely caused by the ISWIs. PMID:23923415

  9. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both of point and area sources of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant and their impacts to the vicinity environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study was set out to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both the stack (i.e., point source) and plant fugitives (i.e., area source) of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant (EAFDTP) and their impact to the vicinity environments. The emission rate of the point source (2,360 ng I-TEQh(-1)) was determined directly by measuring PCDD/F concentrations of the stack flue gas. The emission rate of the area source (1,080 ng I-TEQ m(-2)h(-1)) was estimated by using the Industrial Sources Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) model based on concentrations measured at the downwind side of the plant. The mean emission factors of 785 and 893 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) ZnO were found for the point and area source, respectively. The above results suggest that the area source accounted for more than 50% of total PCDD/F emissions for the selected EAFDTP. The contribution of the point source to the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations of the upwind site and downwind site of the EAFDTP were 0 and 0.27 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The contributions of the area source were 0.020 and 3.3 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The total contribution of the selected EAFDTP (including both the point and area sources) to the concentrations in both upwind and downwind side vicinities were all less than 10%. Finally, the impact of PCDD/F emissions from the selected EAFDTP to the vicinity atmospheric environments was discussed in the present study. PMID:20598338

  10. Uncertainty assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl analysis in stationary source sample emissions in accordance with the impending European standard EN-1948 using fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, K; Rivera-Austrui, J; Adrados, M A; Abalos, M; Llerena, J J; van Bavel, B; Rivera, J; Abad, E

    2009-07-31

    The analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) present in stack gas emissions and solid residues from incinerators will be mandatory in the foreseeable future. European standard EN-1948 is in the process of being updated through the addition of a new Part 4 related to the analysis of the 12 dl-PCBs. Therefore, either a comprehensive and reliable method capable of analyzing all of these 29 compounds (12 dl-PCBs and 17 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) needs to be developed, or the existing PCDD/F analytical procedure must be adapted to include the dl-PCBs. This study has taken the latter approach of modifying PCDD/F methodology and in particular the fractionation step, by isolating dioxins and dl-PCBs into separate fractions ready for high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analysis. Results obtained from the analysis of Certified Reference Materials (CRM-490 and CRM-615) and fly ashes from the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) intercalibration study demonstrated that the proposed methodology is appropriate to determine the dl-PCBs in accordance with the impending European standard EN-1948. Uncertainty values obtained during the validation of the analytical methodology were 13% total I-TEQ (International Toxic Equivalent) for PCDD/Fs and 31% total WHO-TEQ (World Health Organization Toxic Equivalent) in the case of dl-PCBs. In addition, 'real' samples such as emissions and fly ashes were successfully analyzed following the proposed analytical method. PMID:19560773

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Iona S; Anderson, Wayne A; Crowley, Dominique; Daly, Sean F; Evans, Rhodri I; Fernandes, Alwyn R; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Geary, Michael P; Keane, Declan P; Malisch, Rainer; McBride, John; Morrison, John J; Reilly, Alan; Tlustos, Christina

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002. PMID:22560976

  12. Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange. PMID:24643387

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources. PMID:26282439

  14. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tay-Lung; Liao, Chiu-Jung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are some of the major organic contaminants emitted in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). The distribution of PAHs and PCDD/Fs in different MSWI unit ashes, including bottom residue (BR), fly ash pit (FAP), fabric filter (FF), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), economizer (EC) and super heater (SH), has seldom been discussed. Average PAHs content in ash samples from BR, FAP, FF, SDA, EC and SH were found to be 0.020, 0.237, 0.234, 0.125, 0.037 and 0.034 µg TEQ g(-1), respectively. In addition, the range of total emission factor from different unit ashes varied between 0.30-13.85 mg TEQ tonne(-1) of waste, low molecular weight compounds (2~3-ring) being the dominant species. Furthermore, PAHs in ashes were mainly found in BR (41%) and FAP (31%). The FAP ash included 18% of PAHs coming from FF ash. On the other hand, PCDD/Fs content in BR, FAP, FF, SDA, EC and SH was found to be 0.0329, 1.1589, 1.2807, 0.1476, 0.6868 and 0.0921 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/ Fs emission factors in this study ranged between 1.029-67.740 µg I-TEQ tonne(-1) of waste, most PCDD/Fs being present in FAP (55%). The FAP ash included 33% of PCDD/Fs coming from FF ash. Therefore, PCDD/Fs content in FAP and FF exceeded the legal limit of 1 ng I-TEQ g( -1); therefore, a solidification process is necessary before landfilling in Taiwan. PMID:20022903

  15. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by a population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: assessment of the temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Perelló, Gemma; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-12-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in a number of foodstuffs purchased in various locations near a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs by the population of the area under potential influence of the HWI was subsequently estimated. The results were compared with previous surveys performed in the same area in 1998 (baseline), 2002 and 2006. In the present study, the highest WHO-TEQ corresponded to industrial bakery (0.183 ng/kg wet weight, ww), followed by fish (0.156 ng/kg ww), oils and fats (0.112 ng/kg fat weight), and seafood (0.065 ng/kg ww). In contrast, the lowest values were observed in pulses and tubers (0.003 ng/kg ww), and cereals and fruits (0.004 ng/kg ww). The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs by the general population was 33.1pg WHO-TEQ/day, having fish and seafood (11.6 pg WHO-TEQ), oils and fats (4.61pg WHO-TEQ), dairy products (3.79 pg WHO-TEQ), and industrial bakery (3.49 pg WHO-TEQ) as the groups showing the highest contribution to the total TEQ. The lowest daily contributions corresponded to pulses (0.08 pg WHO-TEQ) and tubers (0.25 pg WHO-TEQ). This intake was considerably lower than that found in the baseline study, 210.1 pgI-TEQ/day, and also notably lower than that found in the 2002 survey (59.6 pgI-TEQ/day), but slightly higher than the intake estimated in the 2006 survey, 27.8 pgWHO-TEQ/day. The results of this study show that any increase potentially found in the biological monitoring of the general population living in the area under evaluation should not be attributed to dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs. PMID:23032645

  16. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    2009-10-01

    In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends. PMID:24645918

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. PMID:23000468

  19. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  20. METABOLISM OF DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS BY A BEIJERINCKIA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole cells of the parent strain of Beijerinckia, grown with succinate and biphenyl, oxidized dibenzo-p-dioxin and several chlorinated dioxins. The rate of oxidation of the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxons decreased with an increasing degree of chlorine substitution. A mutant strain...

  1. Contribution of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the Toxic Equivalency of Dioxin-like Compounds in Archived Biosolids from the U.S. EPA’s 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40–100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630–42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼0.002% vs ∼0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15–672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12–96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530–1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids. PMID:25157505

  2. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (1985)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health assessment document on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins discusses multimedia environmental issues pertaining to the most toxic chlorinated dioxins, namely, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-; 1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-; 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachloro-; and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxi...

  3. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  4. A STATISTICALLY-DESIGNED SURVEY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS AND CO-PLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN U.S. MEAT AND POULTRY, 2002-2003: RESULTS, TRENDS, AND IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To obtain information on dioxin levels in the human diet, the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture recently determined levels of dioxin-like compounds (dioxins/dibenzofurans/PCBs) in four major slaughter classes (steers and heifers, market hogs, young chi...

  5. Physical-chemical properties of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, W.Y.; Doucette, W.; Gobas, F.A.P.C.; Andren, A.; Mackay, D.

    1988-06-01

    Reported and newly determined experimental data for aqueous solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, vapor pressure, and Henry's law constants of the poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins are presented and reviewed. Correlation equations are derived for these properties as a function of chlorine number and molar volume, which enable the solubility and octanol-water partition coefficients of most congeners to be estimated with an accuracy within a factor of 2 and vapor pressure and Henry's law constant within a factor of 5. It is suggested that properties of homologous series are best correlated by a two-stage process. In the first stage, treated here, simple correlations are developed to establish approximate values as a function of molar volume and chlorine number. This should be followed by a more rigorous second stage treating isomer differences and using more refined molecular descriptors. The data presented here should be sufficiently accurate for many environmental assessment purposes.

  6. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS OF SOME DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN RELATION TO THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computational analysis of the electrostatic potentials of eight halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins has been carried out at the ab initio SCF STO-5G level. It focuses upon the relationships between these potentials and the biological activities of the molecules, including toxicity, a...

  7. Transformation processes, pathways, and possible sources of distinctive polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin signatures in sink environments.

    PubMed

    Gaus, Caroline; Brunskill, Gregg J; Connell, W; Prange, Joelle; Müller, Jochen F; Päpke, Olaf; Weber, Roland

    2002-08-15

    In recent years, studies on environmental samples with unusual dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congener profiles were reported from a range of countries. These profiles, characterized by a dominance of octachlorinated dibenzodioxin (OCDD) and relatively low in dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations, could not be attributed to known sources or formation processes. In the present study, the processes that result in these unusual profiles were assessed using the concentrations and isomer signatures of PCDDs from dated estuarine sediment cores in Queensland, Australia. Increases in relative concentrations of lower chlorinated PCDDs and a relative decrease of OCDD were correlated with time of sediment deposition. Preferred lateral, anaerobic dechlorination of OCDD represents a likely pathway for these changes. In Queensland sediments, these transformations result in a distinct dominance of isomers fully chlorinated in the 1,4,6,9-positions (1,4-patterns), and similar 1,4-patterns were observed in sediments from elsewhere. Consequently, these environmental samples may not reflect the signatures of the original source, and a reevaluation of source inputs was undertaken. Natural formation of PCDDs, which has previously been suggested, is discussed; however, based on the present results and literature comparisons, we propose an alternative scenario. This scenario hypothesizes that an anthropogenic PCDD precursor input (e.g. pentachlorophenol) results in the contamination. These results and hypothesis imply further investigations are warranted into possible anthropogenic sources in areas where natural PCDD formation has been suggested. PMID:12214647

  8. Electrostatic potentials of some dibenzo-p-dioxins in relation to their biological activities (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.S.; Politzer, P.

    1987-01-01

    A computational analysis of the electrostatic potentials of eight halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins was carried out at the ab initio SCF STO-5G level. It focuses upon the relationships between these potentials and the biological activities of the molecules, including toxicity, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction and receptor binding. In general, regions of negative potential are found to be associated with the oxygens and with the halogen substituents. Biological activity appears to be related to the presence of an optimum range of negative potentials above the lateral portions of the molecules in conjunction with a weakening of those near the oxygens.

  9. Photodegradation of Polyfluorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins in Organic Solvents: Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Chen, Jing; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) were synthesized by pyrolysis of fluorophenols. Using a 500 W Xe lamp as the light source, the PFDDs photodegradation kinetics in n-hexane were investigated. The photolysis reactions obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate equation, and higher fluorinated PFDDs tended to photolyze more slowly. Theoretically calculated parameters reflecting the molecular structural properties were used to develop a new model of PFDDs photolysis rates. The results indicated that the substitution pattern for fluorine atoms and the C-O bond length were major factors in the photolysis of PFDDs. We selected octafluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OFDD) as a representative PFDDs to explore the influence of solvent on the photolysis rate of PFDDs, and the results indicated that neither the polarity nor donor hydrogen of organic solvents are independent influencing factors. Mechanistic pathways for the photolysis of OFDD in n-hexane were first studied. The results indicated that photodegradation of OFDD produces octafluorinated dihydroxybiphenyls, octafluorinated phenoxyphenols, and fluorinated phenols. The major pathway for photodegradation of OFDD was C-O bond cleavage. Defluorination reactions did not occur during the photolysis process. PMID:27380414

  10. Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3~90.8 × 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total. PMID:24306724

  11. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS / - FURANS IN CHICKENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid-adju...

  12. A theoretical investigation into the conformational changes of dibenzo- p-dioxin, thianthrene, and selenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Kwon, Younghi; Lee, Jong-Phil; Choi, Seung-Youl; Choo, Jaebum

    2003-08-01

    Theoretical ab initio calculations using the HF and B3LYP methods have been carried out to investigate the conformational differences of three cyclic rings, dibenzo- p-dioxin (DPD), thianthrene (THT), and selenanthrene (SET). The physical origin for the conformational preference of each molecule has been studied using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The NBO results indicate that DPD exists in a planar form due to strong electron delocalization caused by the specific orbital interaction, nπ→ πCC∗, around the X atom. On the other hand, THT and SET exist as puckered forms with high inversion barriers due to less effective electron delocalization. The NBO analysis also shows that the conformational stabilization in DPD is caused by a more effective overlap of the 2 pz- πCC∗ orbitals, compared with the overlap of the 3 pz- πCC∗ orbitals in THT.

  13. Differentiation of (Mixed) Halogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins by Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Green, M Kirk; Organtini, Kari; Dorman, Frank; Jones, Rhys; Reiner, Eric J; Jobst, Karl J

    2016-05-17

    Brominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and PXDDs) may well be as toxic as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2378-TCDD), a compound reputed as one of the most toxic chemicals known to exist. However, studies on the occurrence of PXDDs have been hampered by a lack of authentic standards as well as separation techniques capable of resolving the enormous number of potential isomers. Electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry based methods are of limited value due to the lack of isomer specific fragmentation. Negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI(-)) of 2378-TCDD was described in this journal over 30 years ago. Under these conditions, the reaction between O2(-•) and 2378-TCDD results in structure diagnostic cleavages of the C-O bonds, which can distinguish TCDD isomers on the basis of Cl distribution between the two aromatic rings. In the present study, the analogous ether cleavages of PBDDs and PXDDs were studied using a gas chromatograph-quadrupole time-of-flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometer coupled using APCI. The results indicate comparable detection limits for the radical cations [M(•+)] and negative pseudomolecular ions [M-Cl+O](-): approximately 5 fg and 10 fg, respectively, for 2378-TCDD and 5-10 fg and 10-30 fg, respectively, for the 2,3,7,8-substituted PXDDs. Detection limits obtained by monitoring the ether cleavage products were somewhat higher (between 100 and 600 fg) but still acceptable for trace analysis of PXDDs. Such reactions may resolve coeluting isomers, which is crucial for the identification of PXDDs. The technique is demonstrated by differentiating PXDD isomer classes in a sample obtained from a major industrial fire that would not be feasible using EI or positive ion APCI(+). PMID:27074061

  14. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in wood burning stoves and fireplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Ali, B.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of bottom ash and chimney ash were collected from two wood burning stoves, one open fireplace, and from out-of-doors open-air burning. Although only untreated wood was burned, PCDD/PCDF was detected in all samples. Large differences in total PCDD/PCDF and relative congener amounts were observed between samples, although within-congener isomer patterns were very similar and in some cases resembled the patterns detected in municipal incinerator fly ash. Acid treatment of the ash before extraction increased the amounts of PCDD/PCDF detected.

  15. Risk from exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans emitted from municipal incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Maukerjee, D.; Cleverly, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Incineration of wastes seems to be one of the major sources of PCDDs and PCDFs (dioxins). Their prevalence and extreme stability in the environment, bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the biota and human adipose tissues and breast milk are of much concern. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic chemicals known and has been found to have teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in animals. Exposure to TCDD can result in chloracne, general weakness, drastic weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin, hirsutism, porphyria cutanea tarda, liver damage, changes in activities of various liver enzymatic levels, abnormal lipid metabolism, abnormalities of the endocrine and immune systems, and possible teratogenic effects in humans. Moreover, chronic bioassay data indicate that TCDD is one of the most potent carcinogens known. It promotes liver and skin carcinogeneses, and is an initiator for various target organs in rodent test systems. According to the classification system of IARC, the qualitative evidence for carcinogenicity of TCDD is considered to be sufficient in animals and inadequate in humans. Consequently, TCDD has been placed in IARC's 2B category. In the absence of chronic bioassay data on other PCDDs and PCDFs, several TCDD equivalent approaches have been proposed for risk assessment on other congeners or mixtures. The paper compares the various approaches.

  16. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residue levels in food. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.M.

    1989-10-26

    The chemical analysis of selected foods was conducted to provide an estimate of the residue levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. The foodstuffs included saltwater fish, freshwater fish, beef, chicken, pork, bovine milk, and eggs. The foodstuffs were collected from San Francisco and Los Angeles. Emphasis was placed on the collection of foodstuffs of California origin. Individual foods collected from multiple sites within San Francisco and Los Angeles were composited for analysis of the residue levels. Detectable levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were identified in all but the egg samples that were analyzed. Overall, the freshwater fish composites were found to have the highest incidence of detectable levels. The order of highest to lowest incidence of detection follows: freshwater fish > saltwater fish > pork and chicken > beef and milk > eggs. All data were generated from a sample size of approximately 10 g of extractable fatty materials. All data are presented to reflect lipid or fat concentrations such that extrapolation with other data bases can be achieved.

  17. RISK FROM EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS EMITTED FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration of wastes seems to be one of the major sources of PCDDs and PCDFs (dioxins). heir prevalence and extreme stability in the environment, bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the biota and human adipose tissues and breast milk are of much concern. ,3,7,8-TCDD is one o...

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation Based on Carbon Degradation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion experiments in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor were performed to determine the role of temperature and time in PCDD/F formation allowing a global kinetic expression to be written for PCDD/F formation due to soot oxidation in fly ash deposits. Rate constants were c...

  19. Enriching for microbial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Park, Joong-Wook; Häggblom, Max M

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures derived from contaminated Kymijoki River sediments dechlorinated 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,4-tetra-CDF), octachlorodibenzofuran (octa-CDF) and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-tetra-CDD). 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDF was dechlorinated via 1,2,3-, 2,3,4-, and 1,3,4/1,2,4-tri-CDFs to 1,3-, 2,3-, and 2,4-di-CDFs and finally to 4-mono-CDF. The dechlorination rate of 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDF was generally slower than that of 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDD. The rate and extent of 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDD dechlorination was enhanced by addition of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) as a co-substrate. Dechlorination of spiked octa-CDF was observed with the production of hepta-, hexa-, penta- and tetra-CDFs over 6 months. Two major phylotypes of the Chloroflexi community showed an increase, one of which was identical to the Dehalococcoides mccartyi Pinellas subgroup. A set of twelve putative reductive dehalogenase (rdh) genes increased in abundance with addition of 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDF, 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDD and/or PCNB. This information will aid in understanding how indigenous microbial communities impact the fate of PCDFs and in developing strategies for bioremediation of PCDD/F contaminated sediments. PMID:24060741

  20. The concentration and distribution of 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans in chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid adjusted basis for each tissue. While there is a marked difference in the concentration of the 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins in the edible tissues expressed on a whole weight basis, the lipid-adjusted concentrations of the individual dioxins were not statistically different in the various tissues. This validates the use of lipid adjusted concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDDs/PCDFs in abdominal fat for the determination of the presence of these compounds in different tissues.

  1. Theoretical study on the radical anions and reductive dechlorination of selected polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Hu, Jiwei; Zhuang, Yuan; Wei, Xionghui; Huang, Xianfei

    2013-05-01

    For the effective use of remediation technologies for PCDDs contamination, it is essential to study the reactivity and dechlorination pathways of these compounds. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP/6-31+G(d), B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)) were performed to investigate the neutrals and different anionic states of selected PCDD congeners. The calculated adiabatic electron affinities and frontier orbital energies of the PCDD congeners (in gas-phase and in solution) are significantly correlated with the reported dechlorination rate constants, showing that this kind of reductive cleavage reaction is kinetically controlled by the electron transfer step. The predicted major dechlorination pathways of 1,2,3,4-TeCDD and its daughter products based on the energies of the anionic states were found to be satisfactorily consistent with the reported experimental results. Simulation of the 1,2,3,4-TeCDD dechlorination process showed that not only the dechlorination regioselectivity but also the reactivity of the PCDDs played an important role in the distribution of dechlorinated products. An exponential correlation was found between the sum of the concentration of the PCDD congeners and the reaction time in the simulation, indicating that the time required for the conversion of the PCDD congeners to the fully dechlorinated product (dibenzo-p-dioxin) might not be significantly dependent on the initial concentration of 1,2,3,4-TeCDD. PMID:23499218

  2. Mechanisms associated with the high adsorption of dibenzo-p-dioxin from water by smectite clays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Johnston, Cliff T; Boyd, Stephen A

    2009-04-15

    Clay minerals may be an important unrecognized sorptive phase for dioxins in soils and clay deposits. Smectites, especially Cs-saponite, effectively adsorbed dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) from water, reaching 0.8% (wt/wt). Adsorption was promoted by exchangeable cations with low hydration energies, and negative charge in the smectite arising from the tetrahedral siloxane sheets. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that as DD loading increased to > or =8000 mg/kg the clay basal spacing increased abruptly from 12.3 to 15.2 A demonstrating DD intercalation. The 12.3 A spacing provides an interlayer distance that closely matches the molecular thickness of DD. In this configuration DD is essentially dehydrated as it interacts with the opposing hydrophobic siloxane sheets and with coplanar Cs+ via one of the dioxin ring oxygens. Ab initio calculations suggest that geometrical structures form at higher loadings in which intercalated DD molecules adopt a butterfly geometry sandwiched between dehydrated interlayer Cs+ and the siloxane surface, consistent with the 15.2 A spacing, wherein Cs+ interacts with dioxin ring oxygens and benzene ring pi-electrons. Fourier transformation infrared measurements confirm that adsorbed DD is present in orientations that are not parallel with the interlayer planar siloxane surfaces of smectite. PMID:19475949

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Eastern and Northern Europe: Spatiotemporal patterns, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles were sampled to determine levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles at industrial, urban and background sites in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK). Spatial and temporal patterns of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were investigated and principal component analysis (PCA) used to determine spatial patterns, potential sources and transport of PCDD/Fs. Levels of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were generally greatest near to industrial sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (lower bound (LB)): 6 ng kg(-1) - 190 ng kg(-1)) compared to urban and background sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (LB): 0.90 ng kg(-1) - 20 ng kg(-1)). Using metal contamination in pine needles helped to detect spatial patterns and separate local thermal sources of PCDD/Fs. PMID:27160632

  4. Changing sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in sediments and ecological risk for nekton in the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay, New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Barrett, Kirk; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in sediments (surface and deeper sediments) and porewater of the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) to apportion their sources and conduct an ecological risk assessment. Positive matrix factorization was applied to identify sources of PCDD/Fs. Five source profiles were extracted from the positive matrix factorization model applied to the sediment samples including chloranil, combustion, polychlorinated biphenyl impurities, mixed urban sources, and the historical contamination from the former Diamond Alkali plant. The ecological risk assessment was estimated using several lines of evidence depending on site-specific data (blue crab and fish samples representing different feeding habits and positions in the trophic wood web of the river). Porewater concentrations gave the best estimates of lipid concentrations especially in the blue crab samples (with an average factor difference of 3.8). Calculated hazard quotients (HQs) for the fish samples and blue crab were >1 based on the no-effect concentration and tissue screening concentration approaches. At the same time, calculated porewater toxic units were >1. Sediment concentrations exceeded the published sediment quality guidelines for the protection of fish and benthic species, indicating the existence of significant risk to the aquatic life in the Passaic River. Accordingly, further actions and control measures are needed to reduce the emission of PCDD/Fs from ongoing sources. PMID:26315691

  5. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs. PMID:25123135

  6. DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT FROM CERAMICS AND POTTERY PRODUCED FROM BALL CLAY MINED IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had...

  7. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  8. Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -furans at the Portland Harbor Superfund site, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Krumins, Valdis; Curran, Joanna Crowe

    2015-06-16

    The Portland Harbor (Oregon, USA) has been declared a "Superfund" site because it is impacted by a variety of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs). Using data collected in the remedial investigation, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in sediment and water were examined using positive matrix factorization to look for evidence that PCBs and PCDD/Fs are dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. This process has long been known to occur in sediments. Recently, it has been recognized that PCB and PCDD/F dechlorination may also occur in other anaerobic environments, such as in landfills, sewers, and groundwater. The results indicate that a factor related to the dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs was present in the water but not in the sediment. Spatial patterns in dechlorination products suggest that they come primarily from groundwater. Dechlorination products comprise 22% of the PCBs in the water. The Portland Harbor therefore represents the third major US watershed in which PCBs appear to undergo dechlorination in an environment other than sediment, suggesting that the microbial dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs is more common than previously assumed. In addition, the Portland Harbor is impacted by PCBs generated inadvertently during the production of pigments, such as PCB 11, which alone exceeded the 64 pg/L federal water quality standard for the sum of PCBs in two of 120 whole water samples. PMID:26010118

  9. Predictability of physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) based on single-molecular descriptor models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are of global concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Although the fate of PCDDs in the environment is determined by their physical-chemical properties, such as aqueous solubility, vapor pressure, octanol/water-, air/water-, and octanol/water-partition coefficients, experimental property data on the entire set of 75 PCDD congeners are limited. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach is applied to predict the properties of all PCDD congeners. Experimental property data available from the literature are correlated against 16 molecular descriptors of five types. Reported and newly developed QSPR models for PCDDs are presented and reviewed. The values calculated by the best QSPRs are further adjusted to satisfy fundamental thermodynamic relationships. Although the single-descriptor models with chlorine number, molar volume, solvent accessible surface area and polarizability are based on good statistical results, these models cannot distinguish among PCDDs having the same chlorine number. The QSPR model based on the hyper-Wiener index of quantum-chemical descriptor gives useful statistical results and is able to distinguish among congeners with the same chlorine number, as well as satisfying thermodynamic relationships. The resulting consistent properties of the 75 PCDD congeners can be used for environmental modeling. PMID:26878604

  10. Mechanism of formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins produced on municipal incinerator flyash from reactions of chlorinated phenols.

    PubMed

    Dickson, L C; Karasek, F W

    1987-02-27

    All incinerators burning municipal waste produce chlorinated dioxins. The mechanism by which these compounds are formed is unknown. Experiments were performed that show these compounds can be produced from known precursors by surface catalysed reactions on the flyash particulates present in the incineration process. A full range of the tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins were produced from 13C-labelled pentachlorophenol and two trichlorophenols on the surface of flyash from an Ontario municipal incinerator that had been previously freed from organic material. A simple flow-tube apparatus at 300 degrees C under a 10-ml/min nitrogen flow was used for the experiments. The use of 13C-labelled pentachlorophenol gave a direct measure of the extent of the catalytic reactivity of the flyash surface. Much lower amounts of chlorinated dioxins were produced in similar experiments with flyash from a modern Japanese incinerator whose effluents are normally extremely low in these compounds. Only small amounts of octachlorodioxin, the thermal condensation product expected, were formed using ground firebrick or an empty flow-tube for the reactive surface. These results indicate that the flyash surface has constituents and properties that promote the production of chlorinated dioxins from chlorinated phenols and support the catalyzed surface reaction mechanism previously proposed. PMID:3571349

  11. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Study on the Rate Constants of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins with OH Radical

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chuansong; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    The OH-initiated reaction rate constants (kOH) are of great importance to measure atmospheric behaviors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in the environment. The rate constants of 75 PCDDs with the OH radical at 298.15 K have been calculated using high level molecular orbital theory, and the rate constants (kα, kβ, kγ and kOH) were further analyzed by the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study. According to the QSAR models, the relations between rate constants and the numbers and positions of Cl atoms, the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO), the difference ΔEHOMO-LUMO between EHOMO and ELUMO, and the dipole of oxidizing agents (D) were discussed. It was found that EHOMO is the main factor in the kOH. The number of Cl atoms is more effective than the number of relative position of these Cl atoms in the kOH. The kOH decreases with the increase of the substitute number of Cl atoms. PMID:26274950

  12. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. PMID:26761781

  13. Dibenzo-p-dioxins in the environment from ceramics and pottery produced from ball clay mined in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had average PCDD concentrations of 3.2 ng/g toxic equivalents, a congener profile, and isomer distribution consistent with those found previously in raw ball clay. The PCDF concentrations were below the average limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/g. The final fired ceramic products were found to be free of PCDDs/PCDFs at the LODs. A consideration of the conditions involved in the firing process suggests that the PCDDs, if not destroyed, may be released to the atmosphere and could represent an as yet unidentified source of dioxins to the environment. In addition, the PCDDs in clay dust generated during manufacturing operations may represent a potential occupational exposure.

  14. Level and congener profiles of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the atmosphere of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Zhao, Bin; Qi, Li; Xu, Peng-Jun; Ren, Yue; Li, Nan; Zheng, Sen; Zhao, Hu; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Ai-Min; Huang, Ye-Ru

    2014-10-01

    Air samples were collected from six locations during the periods of February, 2011-March, 2012 in Beijing city. PBDD/Fs were analyzed using HRGC-HRMS. The concentrations, congener profiles, spatial distribution, seasonal variation, and inhalation risk assessment were investigated. The mass concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs is 818-5748 fg m-3 with an average of 2490 fg m-3. The highest concentration was observed at site XS in February, 2011 and the lowest was at site BS in July 2011. The TEQ concentrations of PBDD/Fs ranged from 73.3 to 640 fg I-TEQ m-3, with an average of 190 fg I-TEQ m-3. The dominant contributor to total I-TEQ value is 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, with an average contribution of 35%. The PBDD/Fs at six sampling sites did not show obvious spatial variation. The concentration exhibits obvious seasonal variation, so atmospheric PBDD/F concentrations at six sample sites were much higher in winter than in summer. Residents in Beijing were exposed to PBDD/Fs with the daily inhalation doses being 39-138 fg I-TEQ kg-1 day-1 for adult and 69-245 fg TEQ kg-1 day-1 for children in winter, but in summer, the values were 10-33 for adult and 18-59 for children. The rough inhalation risk evaluation showed that the residents in Beijing had relatively higher exposure levels of PBDD/Fs in winter, so more research about PBDD/Fs should be carried out at once.

  15. Levels of brominated diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the extensive use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including brominated diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of brominated chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...

  16. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR A NATIONAL STUDY OF CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FISH - I: POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical Methods were developed to determine the concentration of PCDD/PCDF in fish tissue for a national survey conducted by EPA. he method was designed to achieve a relatively low cost per sample while maintaining adequate quality control. t utilizes a Soxhlet extraction, aci...

  17. CONGENER PROFILES OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in textiles, and electronic equipment to prevent these products from burning. PBDEs have been marketed as penta- (DE-71), octa- (DE-79), and deca-brominated (DE-83) preparations. Commercial PBDE preparations were an...

  18. CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND -DIBENZOFURANS IN TECHNICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER PREPARATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in textiles, electronic equipment and plastics.1 The three major commercial products available in the market are penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE products. Due to their widespread use, persistence, and bio...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION BY POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS ASSOCIATED WITH PULP AND PAPER MILL DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sludge from seven pulp and paper mills was analyzed for 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The level of contamination ranged from not detectable (1pg/g) to over 400 pg/g. Analyses for other planar polychlorinated contaminants indicated high levels of contamination by other PCDDs and PCDFs. Polychlori...

  20. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment-associated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Segstro, M.D.; Webster, G.R.B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Servos, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    The long-term fate of four polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners in sediments and their bioavailability to benthic invertebrates were studied in littoral enclosures located in a small lake at the Experimental Lakes Area in north-western Ontario. The PCDDs sorbed on sediment particles were added to the 5-m-diameter enclosures on June 12, 1985, and concentrations in sediment cores (0 to 6 cm) were determined over 1,800-d ({approximately}5 years). Concentrations of 1,3,6,8-TCDD, 1,3,7,9-TCDD, HpCDD, and OCDD in the sediment declined, with half-lives of 4.4{+-}1.7, 4.6{+-}1.9, 6.2{+-}3.1, and 6.0{+-}2.8 year, respectively. Evaluation of the data for 1,3,6,8-TCDD and OCDD using a sediment-water exchange model suggested that the decline in PCDD concentrations was due to losses to the water column via diffusion of DOC-associated PCDDs in pore water and via particle resuspension. After 5 years the PCDDs remained bioavailable to freshwater mussel (Anodonta grandis) and crayfish (Orconectes virilis) exposed to sediments for up to 78 d. The crayfish had higher mean biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for 1,3,6,8-TCDD and 1,3,7,9-TCDD (0.31--0.53) than did mussels (0.07--0.13), whereas BSAFs for HpCDD and OCDD in the two species were similar (0.03--0.09).

  1. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in aqueous solution by Fe(II)/H2O2/UV system.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Kaneco, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Ohta, Kiyohisa; Yobiko, Yoshihiro

    2006-04-01

    The photodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), which include tetra- to octa-CDDs (TeCDD, PeCDD, HxCDD, HpCDD and OCDD), was carried out in the presence of Fe(II) and H2O2 mixed reagent. The degradation efficiency was strongly influenced by UV irradiation, and the initial concentrations of H2O2 and Fe(II). An initial TeCDD concentration of 10 ng l(-1) was completely degraded within 20 min under the optimum conditions. All PCDDs tested were successfully degraded by Fe(II)/H2O2/UV treatment and complete degradation of TeCDD, PeCDD and HxCDD was achieved within 120 min. PCDD photodegradation rates decreased with the number of chlorine atoms. The degradation process of TeCDD by this system seems to be initiated by an oxidative reaction (OH* radical attack) because less chlorinated DDs as intermediate products were not detected. From the Frontier electron density calculation, the first OH* radical attack positions on TeCDD were found to be four C atoms neighboring two O atoms. The decomposition of TeCDD gave 4,5-dichlorocatechol as an intermediate product. A TeCDD degradation scheme was proposed based on the identified intermediate and the values of Frontier electron density. Based on these results, Fe(II)/H2O2/UV system could be useful technology for the treatment of wastewater containing persistent pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:16213552

  2. Probing the microscopic hydrophobicity of smectite surfaces. A vibrational spectroscopic study of dibenzo-p-dioxin sorption to smectite.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kiran; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Li, Hui; Liu, Cun; Johnston, Cliff T

    2009-04-28

    The interaction of dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), from aqueous suspension, with smectite was investigated using in situ vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman), structural and batch sorption techniques. Batch sorption isotherms were integrated with in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Sorption isotherms revealed that the affinity of DD for smectite in aqueous suspension was strongly influenced both by the type of smectite and by the nature of the exchangeable cation. Cs-saponite showed a much higher affinity over Rb-, K- and Na-exchange saponites. In addition, DD sorption was found to depend on clay type with DD showing a high affinity for the tetrahedrally substituted trioctahedral saponite over SWy-2 and Upton montmorillonites. A structural model is introduced to account for the influence of clay type. Raman and FTIR data provided complementary molecular-level insight into the sorption mechanisms. In the case of Cs-saponite, the selection rules of DD based on D(2h) symmetry were broken indicating a site-specific interaction between DD and intercalated Cs(+) ions in the interlayer of the clay. Polarized in situ ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that the molecular plane of sorbed DD was tilted with respect to the clay surface which was consistent with a d-spacing of 1.49 nm. Finally, cation-induced changes in both the skeletal ring vibrations and the asymmetric C-O-C stretching vibrations provided evidence for site specific interactions between the DD and exchangeable cations in the clay interlayer. Together, the combined macroscopic and spectroscopic data show a surprising link between a hydrophilic material and a planar hydrophobic aromatic hydrocarbon. PMID:19421512

  3. Nature of the Interlayer Environment in an Organoclay Optimized for the Sequestration of Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Cliff T.; Khan, Bushra; Barth, Edwin F.; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Boyd, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    A Na–smectite clay (Na–SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA–SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 × CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% carbon content, which demonstrates DODA+ intercalation. DODA–SWy-2 was evaluated as an archetype of commercial products used to sequester hydrophobic contaminants, and the nature of the primarily C18 alkylhydrocarbon-chain interlayer environment was emhasized. Shifts in ν(CH) and CH2 rocking band positions in DODA–SWy-2-complex FTIR-spectra indicate that DODA C18 chains were more ordered as DODA surface coverage was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated a DODA–SWy-2 gel-to-liquid transition temperature much lower than the melting point of crystalline DODA-Br and similar to that of aqueous DODA-Br vesicles. This suggests that the transition was governed by C18 alkyl tail–tail interactions in the clay interlamellar region. Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) sorption from water by DODA–SWy-2 was compared to DD sorption by the geosorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), K-exchanged saponite, and a muck soil. The linear Kl sorption coefficients (log Kl) from a linear fit of the sorption isotherms were 4.37 for DODA–SWy-2, 5.55 for GAC, 3.19 for muck soil, and 2.46 for K-saponite. The DD-organic-matter-normalized sorption coefficient (Kom) was ~2.4 times the octanol–water partition coefficient (Kow). This indicates that DD has a higher affinity for the nonpolar interlayer DODA organic phase than for octanol. In contrast, the Kom for muck soil DD sorption was ~10 times less than Kow, which reflects the higher polarity of amorphous soil organic matter relative to octanol. Enhanced DD uptake by the DODA-derived lipophilic phase in the organoclay is attributed to the low polarity, “open” C18 alkyl structure due to the physical dimensions of “v-shaped” DODA+ molecular

  4. Nature of the interlayer environment in an organoclay optimized for the sequestration of dibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Cliff T; Khan, Bushra; Barth, Edwin F; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Boyd, Stephen A

    2012-09-01

    A Na-smectite clay (Na-SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA-SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 × CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% carbon content, which demonstrates DODA(+) intercalation. DODA-SWy-2 was evaluated as an archetype of commercial products used to sequester hydrophobic contaminants, and the nature of the primarily C18 alkylhydrocarbon-chain interlayer environment was emhasized. Shifts in ν(CH) and CH(2) rocking band positions in DODA-SWy-2-complex FTIR-spectra indicate that DODA C18 chains were more ordered as DODA surface coverage was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated a DODA-SWy-2 gel-to-liquid transition temperature much lower than the melting point of crystalline DODA-Br and similar to that of aqueous DODA-Br vesicles. This suggests that the transition was governed by C18 alkyl tail-tail interactions in the clay interlamellar region. Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) sorption from water by DODA-SWy-2 was compared to DD sorption by the geosorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), K-exchanged saponite, and a muck soil. The linear K(l) sorption coefficients (log K(l)) from a linear fit of the sorption isotherms were 4.37 for DODA-SWy-2, 5.55 for GAC, 3.19 for muck soil, and 2.46 for K-saponite. The DD-organic-matter-normalized sorption coefficient (K(om)) was ∼2.4 times the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)). This indicates that DD has a higher affinity for the nonpolar interlayer DODA organic phase than for octanol. In contrast, the K(om) for muck soil DD sorption was ~10 times less than K(ow), which reflects the higher polarity of amorphous soil organic matter relative to octanol. Enhanced DD uptake by the DODA-derived lipophilic phase in the organoclay is attributed to the low polarity, "open" C18 alkyl structure due to the physical dimensions of "v-shaped" DODA(+) molecular, and low

  5. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  6. EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION PARAMETERS ON POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN HOMOLOGUE PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL CO-COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale (0.6 MWt, 2x106 Btu/hr), co-fired-fuel [densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur Illinois coal] combustion system was used to provide i...

  7. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  8. Theoretical study on the degradation reaction of octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin with atomic oxygen O((3)P) in dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chen; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Hu, Jingtian; Qi, Chuansong

    2014-11-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) have been used in the degradation of dioxins due to the large number of excimers and free radicals produced in discharge process. In this article, the density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the degradation mechanism of octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) with the atomic oxygen O((3)P) in DBD reactor. The reactants, intermediates, transition states and products are optimized at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. The vibrational frequencies have been calculated at the same level. The reaction pathways and mechanisms are analyzed in detail. The effect of removing the chlorine atom on environment also has been discussed. PMID:25458683

  9. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters early embryonic development in a rat IVF exposure model

    PubMed Central

    Petroff, Brian K.; Valdez, Kelli E.; Brown, Sara B.; Piasecka, Joanna; Albertini, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), accelerate reproductive senescence and one proposed target is the early embryo. To discriminate between direct effects on the oocyte and early embryo and those mediated by complex ovarian interactions with TCDD, IVF was carried out in the presence of TCDD (10, 100 nM) and the aryl hydrocarbon antagonist CH-223191 (1 μM) combined factorially. TCDD-induced Cyp1a1 mRNA expression was absent in 2-cell embryos; however morulae exhibit dose-dependent Cyp1a1 expression. TCDD induced accumulation of sperm in the perivitelline space and displacement of blastomere nuclei. At 100 nM TCDD, aberrations in cytokinesis and nuclear positioning were observed 2-cell embryos and morula and these effects were reversed in the presence of CH-223191. Our data suggest that acute exposure to TCDD has direct effects on early development in the rat that permit discrimination of AHR- mediated and AHR-independent mechanisms through which environmental toxicants impair mammalian reproduction. PMID:21835239

  10. Evaluation of a finite multipole expansion technique for the computation of electrostatic potentials of dibenzo-p-dioxins and related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.S.; Grice, M.E.; Politzer, P.; Rabinowitz, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The electrostatic potential V(r) that the nuclei and electrons of a molecule create in the surrounding space is well established as a guide in the study of molecular reactivity, and particularly, of biological recognition processes. Its rigorous computation is, however, very demanding of computer time for large molecules, such as those of interest in recognition interactions. The authors have accordingly investigated the use of an approximate finite multicenter multipole expansion technique to determine its applicability for producing reliable electrostatic potentials of dibenzo-p-dioxins and related molecules, with significantly reduced amounts of computer time, at distances of interest in recognition studies. A comparative analysis of the potentials of three dibenzo-q-dioxins and a substituted naphthalene molecule computed using both the multipole expansion technique and GAUSSIAN 82 at the STO-5G level has been carried out. Overall they found that regions of negative and positive V(r) at 1.75 A above the molecular plane are very well reproduced by the multipole expansion technique, with up to a twenty-fold improvement in computer time.

  11. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:26884244

  12. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment. PMID:22765049

  13. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in primipara breast milk from Taiwan: estimation of dioxins and furans intake for breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Su, Pen-Hua; Yu, Hui-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Tsung; Päpke, Olaf

    2005-05-20

    Postnatal exposure to dioxins in breastfed infants occurs mainly during breast-feeding. The exposure to a substantial amount of endocrine disruptors in the early days of life may cause long-term health effects. Test subjects were healthy and primiparous mothers with a mean age of 28 (S.D. = 3.8) in 2001. The PCDD/F congeners were analyzed in the breast milk using gas chromatograph/high resolution mass spectrometry. The mean level of PCDD/Fs was 7.4 pg-WHO-TEQ/g lipid, which is significantly lower than the level found in individuals from other countries. The total PCDD WHO-TEQ levels in breast milk had a significant positive association with maternal age and a slightly negative association with perinatal BMI (body mass index of the period before and after the delivery). The estimated daily intake of 10.5 pg-WHO-TEQ/kg/day from individual breast milk was predicted for a breastfed infant at 6 months of age with proper assumption of 8 kg body weight, 854 milk per day of consumption, 95% of dioxin absorption rate, and linear decline of dioxin during lactation. Based on the lower WHO-TEQ levels in the breast milk, breast-feeding should still be encouraged and continued in Taiwan. PMID:15885400

  14. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS AND DISTRIBUTION IN ASH/RESIDUE OF A REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartfo...

  15. Effect of raw materials on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from the stack flue gases of secondary aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-08-25

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of raw materials on PCDD/F emission from secondary aluminum smelters (ALS). Four plants each of aluminum ingot smelters (over 50% ingot) and secondary ALS (over 70% waste or recycled aluminum) were selected and the results compared. The secondary ALS yield much higher PCDD/Fs than the aluminum ingot smelters, or 7.94-22.76ng/Nm(3) versus 0.57-2.67ng/Nm(3), due to the large percentage of waste or recycled aluminum used. As for air pollution control devices (APCDs), the wet scrubber system in one of the aluminum ingot smelters exhibits an adverse effect on PCDD/F removal, due to the continuous recycle of the contaminated water through the scrubber system. Another ingot plant equipped with cartridge filter, there is a significant reduction in PCDD/F TEQ (52%). The powdered activated carbon injection at 2kg/h (110mg/Nm(3)) in one ALS reduces 70% of the total PCDD/Fs. The average emission factor of four secondary ALS is much higher than that of aluminum ingot smelters, or 20-fold higher based on either raw materials or product. Consequently, more attention should be paid to the emission reduction of PCDD/Fs from the secondary ALS, including installation of a secondary burner, additional APCDs and the pre-cleaning of raw materials. PMID:17324506

  16. Decontamination of metals, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorined dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans polluted soil in alkaline conditions using an amphoteric biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Reynier, Nicolas; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Besner, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, flotation in acidic conditions and alkaline leaching soil washing processes were compared to decontaminate four soils with variable contamination with metals, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and polychlorodibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). The measured concentrations of the four soils prior treatment were between 50 and 250 mg/kg for As, 35 and 220mg/kg for Cr, 80 and 350mg/kg for Cu, and 2.5 and 30mg/kg for PCP. PCDD/F concentrations reached 1394, 1375, 3730, and 6289ng/kg for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively. The tests were carried out with masses of 100g of soil (fraction 0-2 mm) in a 2 L beaker or in a 1 L flotation cell. Soil flotation in sulphuric acid for 1 h at 60 degreeC with three flotation cycles using the surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (BW) at 1% allows the solubilization of metals and PCP with average removal yields of 85%, 51%, 90%, and 62% for As, Cr, Cu, and PCP, respectively. The alkaline leaching for 2 h at 80 degreeC solubilizes As, Cr, Cu, and PCP with average removal yields of 60%, 32%, 77%, and 87%, respectively. Tests on PCDD/F solubilization with different surfactants were carried out in combination with the alkaline leaching process. PCDD/F removal yields of 25%, 72%, 70%, and 74% for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively, were obtained using the optimized conditions. PMID:24600855

  17. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  18. RELATIVE CONGENER SCALING OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS TO ESTIMATE BUILDING FIRE CONTRIBUTIONS IN AIR, SURFACE WIPES, AND DUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA collected ambient air samples in lower Manhattan for about nine months following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Measurements were made of a host of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydroca...

  19. Colloid facilitated transport of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to the groundwater at Ma Da area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thilo; Wendelborn, Anke

    2007-06-01

    PCDD/Fs are hydrophobic organic substances and strongly sorbing to soil particles. Once adsorbed to soil particles they are believed to be virtually immobile. However, research in the last decades confirmed that strong sorbing contaminants may reach the groundwater via colloid-facilitated transport. This pathway has not been investigated before in Vietnam. Ma Da area, 100 km north of Ho Chi Minh City, was repeatedly sprayed during the Vietnam War (1962-1971) with herbicides like Agent Orange containing, beside others, the teratogenic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). 11 surface soil samples and 12 water samples were collected in Ma Da area for analysis of PCDD/Fs in solids. Soil TCDD concentrations ranged from 1-41 ppt with a mean of 8.8 ppt and a mean I-TEQ of 9.7 ppt. Two surface water samples showed colloid bound TCDD (7 and 19 ppt). Groundwater samples showed elevated colloid bound PCDD concentrations (mean 770 ng/kg), mainly octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Groundwater colloids separated by filtration did not show any TCDD. The results support that TCDD/Fs can be relocated from the top soil to the groundwater by colloidal pathway. They did not provide evidence that the dioxins bound to groundwater colloids are leftovers from the Second Indochinese War. However, this study reinforces that the colloidal transport pathway has to be included investigating the relocation of strong sorbing organic contaminants. PMID:17668815

  20. EFFECTS OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL ON HEPATIC DRUG-METABOLIZING ENZYMES AND PORPHYRIA RELATED TO CONTAMINATION WITH CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hepatic effects of technical and pure grade pentachlorophenol were investigated in female rats fed 20, 100 and 500 ppm of each for 8 months. Technical pentachlorophenol was contaminated with 8 ppm hexa-, 520 ppm hepta-, and 1380 ppm octachlorodibenzodioxins; pure pentachlorop...

  1. Long-time monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans over a decade in the ambient air of Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M; Albuquerque, M; Silva, A P; Rodrigues, J; Borrego, C

    2015-10-01

    As part of a monitoring program initiated in 1998 and conducted by IDAD - Institute for Environment and Development and supported by regional municipal solid waste (MSW) management authorities, an extensive database of dioxins' and furans' (PCDD/PCDF) concentrations in ambient air was collected in Porto, in two sites classified as suburban. The present paper summarizes the analytical results of PCDD/PCDF in ambient air obtained from 2001 to 2014 through this intensive monitoring work. The toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ 1998) concentrations of the PCDD/PCDF in the air ranged from 8.2 to 904.4 fg TEQ m(-3), with an average and median values of 104.5 fg TEQ m(-3) and 49.8 fg TEQ m(-3), respectively. The PCDD/PCDF concentration trend in Porto's ambient air shows a clear drop of the annual average values occurred during the study period. The presence of seasonal variations is very clear in the present study. Winter levels (average: 154.3 fg TEQ m(-3)) are significantly higher than summer levels (average: 42.9 fg TEQ m(-3)). The PCDD/PCDF profiles' details show that several differences occurred over time. The homologue profiles presented changes and the PCDD congeners have decreased in terms of mass. The analysis of concentrations in combination with specific homologue and congener patterns of PCDD/PCDF allowed identification of potential emission sources. PMID:26246045

  2. Distribution and depth profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tri, Tran Manh; Anh, Hoang Quoc; Tham, Trinh Thi; Van Quy, Tran; Long, Nguyen Quang; Nhung, Dao Thi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Nishida, Masayo; Maeda, Yasuaki; Van Boi, Luu; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-05-15

    Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were measured in 35 surface sediment samples collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam. The mean concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, and DDTs in surface sediments were 86.5, 37.0, and 44.5pgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, nine PCDDs, eleven PCDFs, and twelve dl-PCBs were also examined in 19 sediment core samples collected from five locations. Concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dl-PCBs ranged from 200 to 460, 0.39 to 2.9, and 1.6 to 22pgg(-1), respectively. OCDD was detected at the highest concentration, ranged from 100 to 300pgg(-1). Generally, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs at shallower depths were higher, meanwhile the depth profiles of dl-PCBs in sediment cores were different than the depth profiles of PCDD/Fs. The results suggest that the pollution of PCBs might be from many different sources leading to the variation between depths. PMID:26994835

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: Removal from flue gas and distribution in ash/residue of a refuse-derived fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Brna, T.G.; Kilgroe, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford), performance data on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustor and its lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (FGC) system were obtained under good, intermediate, and poor combustor operation and high, normal, and low sulfur dioxide (SO2) control by the FGC system. The independent combustion system variables included steam load, air supply rate, and its distribution. For the FGC system, the outlet gas temperature from the spray dryer absorber served as an easily measurable surrogate for the approach to saturation temperature, while SO2 concentration in the flue gas at the fabric filter outlet continuously represented the lime stoichiometry. Test data included acid gas, trace organic, trace metal, and particulate concentrations, as well as material collection for the determination of ash/residue composition and production rates. In addition, process data and RDF feed and ash/residue generation rates were obtained. Correlations between combustion conditions and furnace emission of organic pollutants are presented.

  4. The bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in cooked plant and animal origin foods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Starr, James; Han, Jianlong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Dasheng; Guan, Rongfa; Xu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jingguang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of boiling and frying food preparation methods in determining the bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in rice, cabbage, milk powder, eggs, beef, and fresh water fish. We then used these data to calculate a toxic equivalent (TEQ) for risk assessment and compared it to published values that did not account for bioaccessibility. When the foods were prepared by boiling, the mean bioaccessibility (%) in rice (PCBs: 16.5±1.0, PCDD/Fs: 4.9±0.3) and cabbage (PCBs: 4.2±0.9, PCDD/Fs: 1.9±0.7) were lower than in animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 49.0±3.3, PCDD/Fs: 7.8±0.9; egg, PCBs: 29.7±3.1, PCDD/Fs: 8.6±1.3; fish, PCBs: 26.9±2.5, PCDD/Fs: 7.9±1.3; milk powder, PCBs: 72.3±1.6, PCDD/Fs: 28.4±1.2). When fried in cooking oil, the bioaccessibilities of all analytes in all foods increased, but the increase in plant based foods (rice, PCBs: 3.4×, PCDD/Fs: 3.6×; cabbage, PCBs: 10.3×, PCDD/Fs: 7.9×) was greater than that of animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 1.6×, PCDD/Fs: 3.4×; egg, PCBs: 2.1×, PCDD/Fs: 1.8×; fish, PCBs: 2.8, PCDD/Fs: 3.2×). Comparison of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility in rice and cabbage showed that bioaccessibility was greater in the low fat, high carbohydrate/protein content food (rice) than in the low carbohydrate/protein, low fat content food (cabbage), regardless of the method used to prepare the food. Adjusting for bioaccessibility reduced the gross estimated daily intake (EDI) of 112pgWHO-TEQ/day, by 88% and 63% respectively for foods prepared by boiling and frying. Our results indicate that: 1) The method used for cooking is an important determinant of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility, especially for plant origin foods, 2) there might be a joint fat, carbohydrate and protein effect that influences the bioaccessibilities of PCBs/PCDD/Fs in foods, and 3) use of bioaccessibility estimates would reduce the uncertainty in TEQ calculations

  5. Estimation of the cumulated exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and standardized mortality ratio analysis of cancer mortality by dose in an occupationally exposed cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Flesch-Janys, D; Steindorf, K; Gurn, P; Becher, H

    1998-01-01

    For a cohort of 1189 male German former herbicide and insecticide workers with exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F), we report an extended standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on a new quantitative exposure index. This index characterizes the cumulative lifetime exposure by integrating the estimated concentration of PCDD/F at every point in time (area under the curve). Production department-specific dose rates were derived from blood levels and working histories of 275 workers by applying a first-order kinetic model. These dose rates were used to estimate exposure levels for all cohort members. Total mortality was elevated in the cohort; 413 deaths yielded an SMR of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.05, 1.27) compared to the mortality of the population of Germany. Overall cancer mortality (n = 124) was significantly increased (SMR = 1.41, 95% Cl 1.17, 1.68). Various cancer sites showed significantly increased SMRs. The exposure index was used for an SMR analysis of total cancer mortality by dose. For 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) a significant trend (p = 0.01) for the SMRs with increasing cumulative PCDD/F exposure was observed. The SMR in the first exposure quartile (0-125.2 ng/kg x years) was 1.24 (95% Cl 0.82, 1.79), increasing to 1.73 (95% Cl 1.21, 2.40) in the last quartile (> or = 2503.0 ng/kg x years). For all congeners combined as toxic equivalencies (TEQ) using international toxic equivalency factors, a significant increase in cancer mortality was observed in the second quartile (360.9-1614.4 ng/kg x years, SMR 1.64; 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29) and the fourth quartile (> or = 5217.7 ng/kg x years TEQ, SMR 1.64, 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29). The trend test was not significant. The results justify the use of this cohort for a quantitative risk assessment for TCDD and to a lesser extent for TEQ. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599713

  6. Dibenzofuran

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dibenzofuran ; CASRN 132 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  7. Determination of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans at the part per trillion level in United States beef fat using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; McDaniel, D.; Dupuy, A. Jr; Harless, R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment Program, the 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were measured at part per trillion (ppt) levels in beef fat collected from slaughter facilities in the United States. This is the first statistically designed national survey of these compounds in the U.S. beef supply. Analyte concentrations were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, using isotope dilution methodology. Method limits of detection on a whole weight basis were 0.05 ppt for TCDD and 0.10 ppt for TCDF, 0.50 ppt for the pentas (PeCDDs/PeCDFs)/hexas (HxCDDs/HxCDFs)/heptas (HpCDDs/HpCDFs), and 3.00 ppt for the octas (OCDD/OCDF). Method detection and quantitation limits were established on the basis of demonstrated performance criteria utilizing fortified samples rather than by conventional signal-to-noise or variability of response methods. The background subtraction procedures developed for this study minimized the likelihood of false positives and increased the confidence associated with reported values near the detection limits. Mean and median values for each of the 2,3,7,8-Cl-substituted dioxins and furans are reported, along with the supporting information required for their interpretation. The mean toxic equivalence values for the samples are 0.35 ppt (nondetects = 0) and 0.89 ppt (nondetects = 1/2 LOD).

  8. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk. PMID:27178547

  9. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in breast milk in Shanghai, China: A temporal upward trend.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 150 mothers in 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China and analyzed for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). The up-bound Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) ranged from 0.27 to 16.8 pg TEQ/g lipid (mean 5.4 pg TEQ/g lipid) for ∑PCDD/Fs and from 0.75 to 10.2 pg TEQ/g lipid (mean 2.9 pg TEQ/g lipid) for ∑DL-PCBs. TEQs in our study were lower than those in most countries worldwide, and displayed a notable uptrend, in contrast with those in China's national survey in 2007. TEQs in mother milks from urban areas were higher than those from rural areas, and an orderly distribution was found in four geographical regions: Eastern China>Central China≈Southwestern China>Northwestern China. Levels of analytes in Shanghai native mothers' milk ranked the first among those from all provinces and cities investigated. Migrant mothers to Shanghai from other inland provinces could potentially represent the population for exposure and risk assessment in their birth and grown-up places. Both the distribution and the uptrend were associated with release of these pollutants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. Fine correlations were observed between TEQs and age of mothers, and weak correlations between TEQs and consumption of meat & meat products. Participants, who preferred both fresh water and marine fish to freshwater fish only, were prone to be exposed to higher level of PCBs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) doses for breastfed neonates entirely exceeded the tolerable intake dose by WHO. PMID:25966445

  10. Long-term hazards of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J E; Moore, J A; Saracci, R; Tomatis, L

    1980-01-01

    During January 10-11, 1978 in Lyon, France, a joint National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/International Agency for Research on Cancer ad hoc Working Group considered and discussed the feasibility of coordinating epidemiological studies on the long-term hazards associated with the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs and and PCDFs). Nineteen invited scientists from eight countries presented introductory working papers summarizing the most up-to-date and relevant information available from their individual programs. This report represents the collective views and scientific opinions of the Working Group. The greater part of this document comprises epidemiological studies related to episodes of human exposures. The review begins with a brief section concerning possible routes of human exposure, an overview of the pertinent chemical characteristics, and the salient toxicological properties of the structurally similar PCDDs/PCDFs. The Working Group report ends with recommendations for future activities. PMID:6448744

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polyschlorinated dibenzofurans in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Weerasinghe, N.C.A.; Gross, M.L.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, New York and a largely domestic sludge from Sodus, New York were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using combined gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). Concentrations in ppt of the following PCDDs were found in the Syracuse sludge: tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDDs), 150, hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HxCDDs), 2100, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HCDDs), 6300, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (OCDDs), greater than 60,000. The following ppt concentrations were found in the Sodus sludge: TCDDs, 7200, HxCDDs, 300 HCDDs, 900, OCDDs 7500. The TCDD was a single but not the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-isomers. PCDFs were mostly nondetectable in the sludges. The toxicology and potential for environmental contamination by these compounds are discussed.

  12. Time-integrated Monitoring of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Urban and Industrial Wastewaters Using a Ceramic Toximeter and the CALUX Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Addeck, Amr; Croes, Kim; Van Langenhove, Kersten; Denison, Michael S.; Elhamalawy, Ahmed; Elskens, Marc; Baeyens, Willy

    2015-01-01

    The ceramic toximeter as a passive sampler in combination with the CALUX bioassay was utilized as a time-integrated pollution-assessment technique for dioxin-like PCDD/Fs in wastewaters. Toximeters filled with XCARB and enclosed in stainless steel cages were submerged in wastewater of Belbeis drainage-canal and EMAK paper-mill, located in Egypt, for 28 days. Two samplers were removed every week from each site. Extracts from toximeters, from bottom-sediments, and from paper-mill sludge were analyzed by the CALUX. Results showed a regular increase in the amounts of PCDD/Fs trapped by the toximeters as sampling time increased. Time-weighted average concentrations (TWA) of PCDD/Fs in the wastewaters of the drainage-canal and paper-mill were 231 (214-281) and 26 (24.1-32.6) pg-BEQ L-1, respectively. Compared to literature data, this means a high pollution level for the drainage-canal water, while the pollution level in the paper-mill wastewater is similar to that reported for other paper mills. The PCDD/Fs levels in the drainage-canal bottom-sediments and in the paper-mill sludge were 8.3 and 14.6 pg-BEQ g-1 dry-weight, at the lower end of internationally reported values in similar compartments. The sampling rate of the tested toximeters for dissolved PCDD/Fs was about 3.6 mL d-1. Sediment/water partitioning coefficient log Kd of PCDD/Fs in the drainage-canal and the paper-mill was 1.42 and 2.70 respectively. The organic-carbon normalized partition coefficient log Koc was 4.17 and 3.19 respectively, and is lower than the reported values for other sites. PMID:24075528

  13. UPTAKE OF PLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND 2,3,7,8-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS AND DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS BY BIRDS NESTING IN THE LOWER FOX RIVER AND GREEN BAY, WI, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. ccumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyc...

  14. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Klop, Arie; Herbes, Rik; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Zeilmaker, Marco J; van Vuuren, Ad M; Traag, Wim A

    2015-10-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated by a fire with PVC materials, and with sugar beet pulp contaminated by drying with coal, containing particles from a plastic roof. Levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in the maize silage were 0.93 and 0.25 ng TEQ kg(-1), those in beet pulp 1.90 and 0.15 ng TEQ kg(-1) (both on 88% dry matter (DM)). Dairy cows (3 per treatment) received either 16.8 kg DM per day of maize silage or 5.6 kg DM per day of sugar beet pellets for a 33-d period, followed by clean feed for 33 days. This resulted in a rapid increase of PCDD/F levels in milk within the first 10 days with levels at day 33 of respectively 2.6 and 1.7 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for maize silage and beet pulp. Levels of dl-PCBs at day 33 were lower, 1.0 and 0.5 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. In the case of the maize silage, the carry-over rates (CORs) at the end of the exposure were calculated to be 25% and 32% for the PCDD/F- and dl-PCB-TEQ, respectively. For the dried beet pulp the CORs were 18% and 35%. This study shows that the carry-over of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs formed during drying processes or fires can be substantial. PMID:26253955

  15. Investigation of American lobster, Homarus americanus, for the presence of chlorinated dibenzo-rho-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Taguchi, V.; Musial, C.J.; Uthe, J.F.

    1987-12-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) are a group of 75 compounds of current environmental concern. Most attention has been focused on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8,-TCDD) because of high toxicity exhibited in laboratory animal studies. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) comprise 135 compounds similar to the PCDD in structure and toxicity. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) is the most toxic of this group. Two principal sources of PCDD and PCDF in the environment are incineration and as by-products in the manufacture and use of pentachlorophenols. American lobsters (Homarus americanus) have not been previously investigated for the presence of PCDD and PCDF. Lobsters were examined in this study because of their proximity to possible sources of PCDD and PCDF and an ability to concentrate hydrophobic organics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the digestive gland.

  16. Immunological effects of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Kerkvliet, N I

    1995-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally similar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons cause a broad range of immunologic effects in experimental animals including decreased host resistance to infectious disease and suppressed humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the mouse, TCDD immunotoxicity has been shown to be an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-dependent process. However, despite considerable research, the biochemical and molecular alterations that occur subsequent to Ah receptor activation that lead to altered immune reactivity remain to be elucidated. In addition to immune suppression, TCDD promotes inflammatory responses. This effect may result from an upregulation of the production of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Nonhuman primates exposed to TCDD show suppressed antibody responses and changes in lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood. The immunotoxic effects of TCDD in humans are poorly characterized, and few studies have examined the immune status of individuals with known, documented exposure to TCDD. It is important for laboratory research to focus on defining TCDD-sensitive immunologic biomarkers in animal models that can also be used in human subjects. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie species differences in TCDD immunotoxicity is also of critical importance for extrapolation of effects seen in laboratory animals to man. PMID:8635439

  17. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thyroglobulin conjugate of dioxin (thyroglobulin-2 adipamide, 3,7,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) (TG-TCDD) was used to immunize BALB/c mice. ybridomas were produced by cell fusion between immune spleen cells and mouse myelomas SP2/0, P3, or 151. n order to screen the thousands of...

  18. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  19. PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw and clean flue gas during steady state and transient operation of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) were determined in the pre- and post- air pollution control system (APCS) flue gas of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Operationa...

  20. THERMAL TREATMENT OF 1,2,3,4-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P- DIOXIN BY REACTION WITH CA-BASED SORBENTS AT 23-300 DEGREES °C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of combustion-generated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans captured in sorbent-based, air pollution control devices remains uncertain. This process was simulated by passing vapor-phase 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to a...

  1. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSITION STUDIES WITH 1,2,7,8-TETRABROMODIBENZOFURAN (1,2,7,8-TBDF) IN THE TAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans have been identified as potential environmental contaminants. he present studies were designed to characterize the chemical disposition of a tetrabrominated dibenzofuran. he isomer-specific pattern of 1,2,7,8-tetrabromodibenzofur...

  2. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  3. Formation, occurrence and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, dioxins and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buser, H.R.

    1985-05-01

    In several accidents (fires, explosions) involving electrical systems containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or benzenes (PCBZs), the formation of polychlorinated tricyclic aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and biphenylenes (PCBPs) was observed. These findings were not surprising in light of our previous studies on the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs from the thermolysis (500-750C in presence of air) of PCBs or PCBZs. In these experiments we identified three main and a fourth minor reaction pathway leading to PCDFs from PCBs. The three main reactions involved the loss of ortho-Cl2, and the losses of ortho-HCl with and without a 2,3-chlorine shift. The fourth, minor reaction route found with some PCBs, involved the loss of ortho-H2. These reaction pathways were intramolecular cyclizations via oxidation to phenolic compounds. Thermolysis of commercial PCBs (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) yielded the same PCDF isomers as expected from the main PCB components via these four reaction pathways; the isomers formed included the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-, penta- and hexa-CDFs. Thermolysis of PCBZs involved complex condensation reactions with multiple rearrangements leading to PCDFs as well as PCDDs. Again oxidation to phenolic products was involved but the reaction routes are not yet fully elucidated. The results of samples from transformer and capacitor accident sites showed very complex PCDF mixtures with 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers as main components and originating from the PCBs in the transformer liquid. The unusual presence of PCDDs in samples from the Binghamton accident originates from PCBZs present in transformer fluid of that specific installation, thus confirming our previous thermolysis findings.

  4. Microbially mediated reductive dechlorination of weathered polychlorinated dibenzofurans in Kymijoki sediment mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Park, Joong-Wook; Fennell, Donna E; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Verta, Matti; Häggblom, Max M

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the potential for indigenous microorganisms to reductively dechlorinate weathered polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in contaminated sediments. The sediments of River Kymijoki, Finland are heavily contaminated with PCDFs originating from manufacture of the chlorophenol-based fungicide Ky-5. Reductive dechlorination of weathered PCDFs was monitored to examine strategies for stimulating such activities. Amendments with electron donors, a halogenated co-substrate (tetrachlorobenzene, TeCBz), and bioaugmentation with a mixed culture containing Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 were used to stimulate dechlorination activity in 30 L River Kymijoki sediment mesocosms incubated from 18 °C to 21 °C. An initial onset of dechlorination of octa-, hepta- and hexa-CDFs was observed in all mesocosms in the first 2 years of incubation. During this initial 2-year period, the decrease in the mol% contribution of these PCDFs was coupled with an increase in the mol% contribution of tetra- and penta-CDFs. The ratio of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8- to 1,2,3,4,6,8,9-hepta-CDF increased significantly. Subtle differences were observed between amended and unamended mesocosms. For penta-CDFs, a decreasing mol% ratio of peri vs. total chlorines and increasing mol% ratio of lateral vs. total chlorines was observed in mesocosms amended with TeCBz, suggesting that the amendments may affect pathways of dechlorination. Analysis of congener patterns using principal components analysis supported the observation that dechlorination was most pronounced during the first 2 years. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a diverse Chloroflexi community. This study showed evidence for dechlorination of weathered PCDFs in Kymijoki sediment mesocosms mediated by indigenous microorganisms. PMID:23360748

  5. Levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk of women residing in two cities in the Irkutsk Region of Russian Siberia compared with American levels.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Piskac, A L; Grosheva, E I; Matorova, N I; Ryan, J J; Fürst, P; Päpke; Adibi, J; Pavuk, M; Silver, A; Ghaffar, S

    2002-04-01

    The presence of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human tissue, food, and environmental samples from Russia has been monitored since 1988 as part of a research collaboration between a number of countries including Finland, the United States, Germany, the former Soviet Union, and Canada. Although elevated TCDD and PnCDD levels have previously been found in blood of male and female Russian chemical manufacturing workers and in their children, dioxin levels in the general population have usually been found to be lower than in Americans and Europeans. This study continues earlier work in the Irkutsk region of Russian Siberia, where we report levels of dioxin, dibenzofurans, and PCBs in human milk samples taken from general population women living in the industrialized cities of Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye, near Lake Baikal. Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) compared in this paper for the industrialized regions of Siberia, Ukraine, and the US are similar, ranging from 6.1 to 7 parts per trillion (ppt). Recent 1998 milk samples from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye have total mean polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) TEQs of 10 and 21.7 ppt, respectively, with the other industrialized countries ranging from 2.3 to 6.7 ppt. Although dioxin-like PCBs were not measured for the city of Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998), total mean PCDD/F TEQ from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998) were the two highest levels in this study, with 26.9 and 28.5 ppt, respectively, followed by 1993-1994 Ukraine samples with 24 ppt, 1989 Siberian samples with 13.6 ppt, and 1996 USA with 11.4 ppt total TEQ. In this study, higher levels of dioxins are noted in milk from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye than found in earlier Russian studies, with mean levels also exceeding 1996 and 1999 US breast milk dioxin levels. PMID:11993631

  6. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzo-/ital p/-dioxins in transformers and capacitors: Volume 2, Formation of PCDF (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) and PCDD (polychlorinated dibenzo-/ital p/-dioxins) in Askarel and contaminated mineral oil equipment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, W.M.; DeRoos, F.L.

    1988-03-01

    A study was conducted by five independent laboratories to evaluate methods for the measurement of trace levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in utility dielectric liquids. Each laboratory evaluated a different analytical method. The method evaluated by Battelle involved spiking with labelled internal standards, analyte enrichment by column chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Baseline analyses of five dielectric fluids were conducted by each laboratory as an initial test of their methods. The variability of results between the five methods was within expectations, and the five methods were deemed suitable for round robin evaluation. The in-service liquids used in this study were found to have relatively low levels of PCDDs and trace amounts of PCDF. Liquids from transformers with more than 25 years of service had higher PCDF levels than liquids from newer transformers. Liquids from utility appliances exposed to thermal and electrical stresses did not have elevated PCDD or PCDF levels. PCDF levels increased as the Aroclor number (and relative amount of chlorination) increased. 1 fig., 22 tabs.

  7. Brominated dibenzofurans

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Brominated dibenzofurans ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. COMPARING PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as ¿dioxin-like compounds¿] are persistent environmental contaminants that have been found to be ubiquitous in environmental media and bio...

  9. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 1. EVALUATION OF DECISION ANALYSIS METHODS FOR USE IN WEIGHTING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of investigators have recently examined the utility of applying probabilistic techniques in the derivation of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  10. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants with the environmental monitoring of these compounds being of great importance. Immunoassay procedures such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

  11. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SERUM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants and the environmental and biological monitoring of these compounds is of great concern. Immunoassays may be used as screening methods to satisfy the gro...

  12. METHODS FOR DEGRADATION, DESTRUCTION, AND DETOXIFICATION OF DIOXINS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes technical methods of degradation, destruction, detoxification, and disposal of wastes containing chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. ncluded are descriptions of proven methods such as incineration, as well as innovative technologies such as UV ph...

  13. ROLE OF SULFUR IN REDUCING PCDD AND PCDF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has suggested that the presence of sulfur (S) in municipal waste combustors (MWCs) can decrease downstream formation of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Thus, co-firing a...

  14. CONTAMINANT LEVELS IN HARBOR SEALS FROM THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), and mercury (Hg) were determined in blubber and liver tissues of harbor seal...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFINED DATABASE OF RELATIVE POTENCY ESTIMATES TO FACILITATE BETTER CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY IN THE CURRENT MAMMALIAN TEFS FOR PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach has been widely accepted as the most feasible and plausible method presently available for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran...

  16. GEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analyses of sediment samples collected along a transect in New Bedford harbor revealed a gradient of increasing concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydro...

  17. A PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF THE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of halogenated organic compounds--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--poses a challenge because these compounds are resistant to microbial attack and to degradation by many com...

  18. Alternative Approaches for Screening Contaminated Sediments and Soils for PCDD/PCDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generating analytical data for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) using the traditional high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis method, EPA Method 1613B, is time-consuming and expensive. Consequently, alternative methods to ...

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIOXINS AND FURANS BY HIGH RESOLUTION AND ELECTRON CAPTURE MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Known mixtures and unknown atmospheric sample extracts containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/P) were analyzed by both electron impact, high resolution, mass spectrometry (HRMS) and by electron capture, negative ion, low resolution ma...

  20. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

  1. FRAMEWORK FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS, FURANS, AND PCBS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals, and have been demonstrated to cause mortality a...

  2. TRANSIENT PCDD AND PCDF CONCENTRATIONS IN A MWC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time-resolved evaluations of combustor performance have shown that concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) and related pollutants undergo significant changes as a response to upset combustion conditions. During and after tr...

  3. ELECTRONIC ELASTICITY-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN CONGENERS. (R826166)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCF-MO computations have been performed on tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners (PCDD) using an MNDO-PM3 Hamiltonian. Qualitative relationships were developed between empirical, international-toxic equivalence factors for PCDD congeners and their relati...

  4. Evidence of sensitized photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in natural waters under sunlight conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, K.J.; Webster, G.R.B. ); Muir, D.C.G. )

    1990-11-01

    The sunlight photolysis of carbon-14 labeled 1,2,3,4,7-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (P{sub 5}CDD) and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (H{sub 7}CDD) was studied at 50{degree} N latitude in filter-sterilized natural water and in distilled water-acetonitrile (2:3, v/v) solutions to determine the extent of direct versus indirect photolysis under environmental conditions. Under midsummer sunlight conditions, pseudo-first-order sunlight photolysis rate constants (k{sub p}) of 0.74 and 0.28 day{sup {minus}1} were measured for P{sub 5}CDD and H{sub 7}CDD, respectively, in natural water. However, considerably slower direct aqueous photolysis rates were observed for the two PCDD congeners in distilled water-acetonitrile, with rate constants of 0.058 and 0.019 day{sup {minus}1} for P{sub 5}CDD and H{sub 7}CDD, respectively, in relatively good agreement with predicted rates of direct aqueous photolysis. The results indicate that an indirect or sensitized photolytic mechanism may dominate the photodegradation of PCDDs in natural waters. The major degradation product(s) appeared as nonextractable {sup 14}C activity, with increases in this fraction paralleling the disappearance of the parent PCDD.

  5. 78 FR 63981 - Availability of Interaction Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p -Dioxins, Polybrominated Diphenol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Availability of Interaction Profile for... the Department of Health and Human Services announces the availability of the interaction profile for... Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice...

  6. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-06-01

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  7. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F

    2007-06-05

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  8. Formation of dioxin-like compounds from the pyrolysis of some halogenated flame retardants

    SciTech Connect

    Alsabbagh, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans as well as polyhalogenated phenazines have been shown to form from the pyrolysis of some flame retardants. In addition, chlorine-bromine exchange was shown to occur in the formation of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and halogenated phenazines when both chlorine and bromine sources are present in the pyrolysis mixture. There was no chlorine-hydrogen exchange observed in the formation of chloro-bromo-dibenzo-dioxins, chloro-bromo-dibenzofurans and chloro-bromophenazines. At high temperatures, the amino-group of the halogenated anilines may be replaced by oxygen and yield halogenated dibenzo-pdioxins and halogenated dibenzofurans, in addition to the halogenated phenazines. The complete substitution of bromine with chlorine was demonstrated to occur, which is probably why chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans are more widely spread than the brominated analogs, since chlorinated compounds are used in much larger quantities than the brominated compounds. The addition of antimony (III) oxide to the flame-retardant formulations showed initial increase in the formation of the halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and the halogenated phenazines. The mass spectra of bromo-phenazines, chloro-phenazines and chloro-bromo-phenazines have been presented. The similarity in the structure of the halogenated phenazines and the halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins may be of interest to be used in the search of compounds with breast cancer therapeutic use, although the toxicity of the halogenated phenazines should be thoroughly investigated.

  9. Nature of the Interlayer Environment in an Organoclay Optimized for the Sequestration of Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Na-smectite clay (Na-SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA - SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 X CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% c...

  10. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL ANALYSIS OF DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND STRUCTURALLY SIMILAR SYSTEMS IN RELATION TO THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrostatic potential V(r) that is created in the space around a molecule by its nuclei and electrons is a rigorously defined property that is useful in (a) analyzing and predicting the reactive behavior of molecules, and (b) the study of biological recognition processes, s...

  11. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  12. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in sediment by oligochaetes: Influence of exposure pathway and contact time

    SciTech Connect

    Loonen, H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1997-07-01

    Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed simultaneously to radiolabeled [{sup 3}H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and [{sup 14}C]octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) in sediment for 28 d, in order to study accumulation processes of hydrophobic substances. Elimination was studied for a further 20 d. The uptake and elimination rate constants and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were determined for TCDD and OCDD in the presence and absence of sediment (overlying water). Steady-state concentrations in oligochaetes were achieved for TCDD but not for OCDD over the 28-d exposure. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) after a 28-d exposure were 1.6 {+-} 0.27 for TCDD and 0.07 {+-} 0.02 for OCDD. Steady-state log BAF values (lipid based) for TCDD and OCDD in oligochaetes in the overlying water were 5.9 and 5.5 L/kg, respectively. The effect of incubation time between sediment and contaminants was investigated by repeating the accumulation study after a contact period of 21 months. BSAFs of sediment-sorbed TCDD and OCDD were 1.5 to 2-fold lower for the long contact time sediment. Based on comparison of predicted accumulation from pore water and observed accumulation by sediment-exposed oligochaetes, it was concluded that 1.4-fold greater accumulation occurred due to assimilation of TCDD and OCDD from ingested sediment. This additional accumulation in the presence of sediment, not accounted for by uptake only from pore waters, was consistent with literature data for other hydrophobic organochlorines.

  13. Geochemical investigations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in the subsurface environment at an abandoned wood-treatment facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Sisak, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The discharge of effluents containing creosote and pentachlorophenol into two unlined surface impoundments at a wood-treatment facility in Pensacola, Florida, resulted in contamination of the underlying sand and gravel aquifer. These wastes contained significant amounts of chlorinated dioxins, such as isomers of hexa- and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, probably derived from commercial pentachlorophenol. Geochemical investigations of pond sludge, groundwater and porous media from the unsaturated and saturated zones indicated that these geologic materials were contaminated by chlorinated dioxins. The fate and movement of these compounds in the subsurface environment were studied using the technique of GC-MS-MS. Chlorinated dioxins migrated both vertically and horizontally in the subsurface and were present at considerable distances from the source of contamination. Concentrations of chlorinated dioxins in groundwater were several orders of magnitude lower than in porous media from the unsaturated and saturated zones. Ratios of the various isomers remained relatively constant in highly contaminated areas. However, in less contaminated areas, isomer ratios changed dramatically; at certain locations, one hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin isomer predominated. The environmental significance of these compounds is discussed. ?? 1985.

  14. Open dumping site in Asian developing countries: a potential source of polychlorinated dibenz-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Minh; Tu, Binh Minh; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Monirith, In; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Sakai, Shinichi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sasikumar, Karuppian; Pham, Hung Viet; Bui, Cach Tuyen; Tana, Touch S; Prudente, Maricar S

    2003-04-15

    Open landfill dumping areas for municipal wastes in Asian developing countries have recently received particular attention with regard to environmental pollution problems. Because of the uncontrolled burning of solid wastes, elevated contamination by various toxic chemicals including dioxins and related compounds in these dumping sites has been anticipated. In this study, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam. Residue concentrations of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in dumping site soils were apparently greater than those in soils collected in agricultural or urban areas far from dumping sites, suggesting that dumping sites are potential sources of PCDD/Fs and related compounds. Observed PCDD/F concentrations in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines and Cambodia were comparable or higher than those reported for dioxin-contaminated locations in the world (e.g., near the municipal waste incinerators and open landfill dumping sites). Homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in dumping site soils from the Philippines and, to a lesser extent, from Cambodia and India reflected patterns of samples representing typical emissions, while profiles of agricultural or urban soils were similar to those of typical environmental sinks. This result suggests recent formation of PCDD/Fs in dumping site areas and that open dumping sites are a potential source of dioxins in Asian developing countries. Uncontrolled combustions of solid wastes by waste pickers, generation of methane gas, and low-temperature burning can be major factors for the formation of dioxins in dumping sites. Elevated fluxes of PCDD/Fs to soils in dumping sites were encountered in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam-Hanoi, and these levels were higher than those reported for other countries. Considerable loading rates

  15. A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. BEEF: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA completed the first statistically designed survey of the occurrence and concentration of dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), dibenzofurans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the fat of beef animals raised for human consumption in the United Stat...

  16. MECHANISTIC AND SOURCE UNDERSTANDING OF PCDD/F FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses mechanistic and source understanding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) formation. (NOTE: Considerable research effort has been expended over the last 15-plus years to understand how combustion sources result in formation of PCDDs/F...

  17. THE ROLE OF GAS-PHASE CL2 IN THE FORMATION OF PCDD/PCDF DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of previous experiments investigating formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) through low-temperature (300°C), fly-ash-catalyzed reactions are demonstrated to have occurred through intermediate formation of gas-phase Cl2 by deco...

  18. Levels and Trends of Historic POPs (PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and Newer POPs (PBDEs) in U.S. Meat and Poultry and Implications for Human Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of several historic POPs, i.e. polychlorinated dibenzo p dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls, along with a newer class of POPs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were measured in domestic meat and poultry samples from 2002 and 2008. The ...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM FLAME SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDDs/Fs, occur in the combustion of a wide variety of fuels, and is related to poor combustion conditions. This study looks at the importance of flame soot, including associated adsorbed and condensed aeromati...

  20. New and Old POP (PCDD/FS, PCBS, and PBDES) in U.S. Foods: Levels, Trends, and Implications for Human Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of several historic persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls, along with a newer class of POPs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were measured in domestic meat and poultry ...

  1. FRAMEWORK FOR APPLICATION OF THE TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS, FURANS, AND BIPHENYLS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenols (PCBs) commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment, including in animal tissues. For more than a decade the USEPA and other organizations have estimated the combined risks that such mixtures...

  2. A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. POULTRY FAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on the results of a joint survey of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the rate of occurrence and concentration of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDF...

  3. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  4. EFFECT OF SOOT AND COPPER COMBUSTOR DEPOSITS ON DIOXIN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of residual soot and copper combustor deposits on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during the combustion of a chlorinated waste. In a bench-scale set...

  5. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED INGREDIENTS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were ...

  6. ON-ROAD EMISSIONS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS FROM HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work characterized emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVS) under various conditions of city and highway drivi...

  7. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSION AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) are two classes of extremely toxic compounds produced and emitted into the environment as a result of combustion processes. lthough no standard method for sampling or analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs ...

  8. PCDD/F FORMATION RATES FROM FLY ASH AND METHANE COMBUSTION CARBON SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract discusses polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD,F) from fly ash and methane combustion carbon sources. (NOTE: PCDD,Fs are formed in trace quantities in combustion processes via two primary mechanisms: de novo synthesis in which they ...

  9. EVIDENCE OF FEED CONTAMINATION DUE TO SAMPLE HANDLING AND PREPARATION DURING A MASS BALANCE STUDY OF DIOXINS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a mass balance study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in lactating cows in background conditions. The field portion of the study occurred at the US Department of A...

  10. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  11. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PCDD/PCDF AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reassessment of the toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) identifies ingestion as a key route of human exposure to these compounds. The reassessme...

  12. THE USE OF SURROGATE COMPOUNDS AS INDICATORS OF PCDD/F CONCENTRATIONS IN COMBUSTOR STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from stationary combustion sources are of concern because they are carcinogenic and may result in disruption of endocrine systems in human and wildlife populations. PCDDs/Fs are typically ...

  13. BAFS AND BSAFS FOR CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioaccumulation factors and biota-sediment accumulation factors have been measured for tetra- to octa- polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans for forage fishes, i.e., alewife, bloater chub, deep water sculpin, slimy sculpin, smelt and for lake trout, age classes of ...

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been shown to occur from the combustion products of fuels as complex as municipal solid waste and as relatively simple as a methane flame. PCDD/F emissions from flame carbon in th...

  15. AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR DETERMINING DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dioxins comprise a family of compounds chemically referred to as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The most toxic of these compounds is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a known human carcinogen. Dioxins are formed ...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION PROCESS (BCDP) UNIT LOCATED IN GUAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes performance data collected in February 1997 on the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soil fed to a first-stage rotary kiln reactor of the Base Catalyzed Dec...

  17. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HOMOLOGUE CONCENTRATIONS OF PCDD/FS AND TOXIC EQUIVALENCY VALUES IN LABORATORY-, PACKAGE BOILER-, AND FIELD-SCALE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency (TEQ) values of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted with a model based on the homologue concentrations measured from a laboratory-scale reactor (124 data points), a package boiler (61 data points), and ...

  18. A TIME-TRENDS STUDY OF THE OCCURRENCES AND LEVELS OF CDDS, CDFS AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN SEDIMENT CORES FROM 11 GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED LAKES IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and certain non- and mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (cp-PCBs) are a general class of chlorinated aromatic compounds that are considered as dioxin-like. Because these chemicals are hi...

  19. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF PCDD/F INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission samples from a simulated hazardous waste-fired North American Package Boiler (NAPB) and a refuse-derived fuel incineration facility (RDFF) were analyzed separately and combined in order to identify single polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran ...

  20. DIOXIN AND FURAN FORMATION ON FLY ASH FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish the relationship between specific chlorophenol (CP) congener distributions and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) products this work investigated the formation of PCDDs/Fs from different CP mixtures passed over fly ash under selected reaction ...

  1. UNDERSTANDING PCDD/F FORMATION AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work at the U. S. EPA has examined fundamental concepts regarding formation and minimization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in combustion scenarios. This paper summarizes some of these main findings, drawing on work from multiple studies....

  2. CONTROL OF DIOXIN, FURAN, AND MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a significant public and scientific concern over the potential risks of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The primary pollutants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and mercury (Hg). Depending on...

  3. Status report on the US national dioxin study

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; McBride, A.; Jaworski, N.; Harless, R.; Dupuy, A.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) embarked on an extensive investigation of the presence and extent of contamination of the national environment by chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDDs/CDFs). The status report is a prelude to a final report delivered to the U.S. Congress in December 1985.

  4. PCDD/F TEQ INDICATORS AND THEIR MECHANISTIC IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research studies have been conducted to establish indicator compounds for fast and less costly prediction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) toxix equivalent (TEQ) concentrations. Chlorobenzene has been suggested as one potential PCDD/F TEQ predi...

  5. MECHANISTIC STEPS IN THE PRODUCTION OF PCDD AND PCDF DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses work involving a reactor that simulates the down-stream flue gas conditions of a waste combustor and an analytical laboratory to investigate the formation mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) to deve...

  6. MODELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED-DIOXIN AND -FURAN CONGENER PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a model, based on experimental data, that was developed to describe the profile of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners formed in the duct region of a pilot-scale combustor simulating large-scale municipal w...

  7. MECHANISTIC STEPS IN THE PRODUCTION OF PCDD AND PCDF DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during municipal waste combustion can proceed through a three step mechanism including 1) production of Cl2 from a metal-catalyzed reaction of HCl a...

  8. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS DURING SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation mechanisms of the precursors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) were examined in a laboratory reactor. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were studied between 200 and 800°C with HCl, Cl2, and pheno...

  9. ORIGIN OF CARBON IN POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMED DURING SOOTING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an investigation on the importance of solid- and gas-phase carbon precursors for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during sooting combustion. Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  10. CORRELATIONS BETWEEEN PCDD/F HOMOLOGUE CONCENTRATIONS AND TEQ VALUES IN LABORATORY-, BOILER-, AND PRACTICAL-SCALE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalent (TEQ) values of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorianted dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) are predicted, according to proposed equations, from the homologue concentrations measured from a laboratory-scale reactor (124 data points), a commercial package b...

  11. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mortality and adver...

  12. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are commonly found as contaminants in complex mixtures in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mo...

  13. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRE SIMULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was b...

  14. Effect of updated 2005 TEFS on previous USDA food surveys of PCDD/Fs and co-planar PCBS and comparison to initial results from a new survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toxicity of dioxin-like compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo p dioxins/dibenzofurans/biphenyls) was recently reevaluated by an expert panel and changes were made to the toxicity factors (TEFs) of several compounds which directly effects the calculation of toxic equivalents (TEQs), a measure of tot...

  15. VARIABLES AFFECTING EMISSIONS OF PCDDS/FS FROM UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uncontrolled burning of household waste in barrels has recently been implicated as a major source of airborne emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). Based on the need to generate a more accurate emission factor for burn ba...

  16. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities. PMID:26867808

  17. Simultaneous determination of tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and poly-aromatic chlorinated biphenyls in aqueous environment using liquid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikiti, Phumile; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Among the most notable and notorious persistent organic pollutants in many aquatic environments are the dioxins and poly-aromatic chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These compounds are nuisances in the environment due to their toxicities which come mainly as a result of their tendencies to bio accumulate because of their lipophilic nature. Dioxins and PCBs belong to the group of compounds known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Since these compounds are problematic when they are discharged in the environment, strict regulations and guidelines with regard to their use and discharge has been put in place. Of the dioxin congeners, 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-Cl4DD) is the most toxic while a number of PCB congeners such PCB-1, PCB-28 and PCB 101 are also known to cause pollution when present in the environment. In this work, the analytical monitoring strategies for dioxins and PCBs employing extraction and purification of samples using liquid phase microextraction as well as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the separation and detection of the extracts was employed. The extraction results were validated by various statistical tests such as linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility and repeatability data.

  18. The role of CuCl on the mechanism of dibenzo-p-dioxin formation from poly-chlorophenol precursors: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Fernández Pulido, Yoana; Suárez, Ernesto; López, Ramón; Menéndez, M Isabel

    2016-02-01

    A computational study is performed for the elucidation of the role played by CuCl in the condensation of two polychlorophenol molecules to yield PCDDs. The mechanism found consists of six sequential steps, which allow the final recuperation of the CuCl molecule, and applies for phenol molecules with an ortho chlorine. In the temperature range of 453-473 K (previously reported as adequate to diminish PCDDs formation in the post-combustion area), CuCl is able to softly retain chlorophenol molecules, mainly those less chlorinated. After a first HCl release, Cu(I) remains bonded to phenol oxygen atom, thus avoiding the formation of phenoxy radicals and the subsequent radical processes. A temperature raise up to 1200 K destabilizes the initial CuCl-chlorophenol complexes and causes that the rate limiting step change from the formation of the first oxygen bridge to HCl elimination. It has been checked that tetra and penta-chlorophenols undergo essentially the same reaction process of 2-chlorophenol. In view of our results and trying to arrive at a practical way to diminish the rate of formation of PCDDs, we propose that an extra addition of powdered CuCl to the post-combustion zone, cooled down to temperatures lower than 473 K, could act as an inhibitor in the formation of these pollutants. PMID:26684925

  19. 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN MINED CLAY PRODUCTS FROM THE U.S.: EVIDENCE FOR POSSIBLE NATURAL ORIGIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ball clay was the source of dioxin contamination discovered in selected chickens analyzed as part of a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national survey of the U.S. poultry supply conducted in 1997. The affected animals, which had been rai...

  20. EVALUATION OF A FINITE MULTIPOLE EXPANSION TECHNIQUE FOR THE COMPUTATION OF ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS OF DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND RELATED SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrostatic potential V(r) that the nuclei and electrons of a molecule create in the surrounding space is well established as a guide in the study of molecular reactivity, and particularly, of biological recognition processes. ts rigorous computation is, however, very deman...

  1. Carbon injection proves effective in removing dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, D.R.; Sigg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The last several years concerns have grown about the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, both byproducts of the combustion effluent-gas stream. In Europe carbon injection is widley used to effectively control dioxin emissions from hazardous-waste incinerators. Waste Technologies Industries, a hazardous waste incinerator in Ohio, recently completed extensive testing of the effectiveness of carbon injection technology. This article discusses the testing. 1 tab.

  2. Brominated flame retardants and the formation of dioxins and furans in fires and combustion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-03-01

    The widespread use and increasing inventory of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have caused considerable concern, as a result of BFRs emissions to the environment and of the formation of both polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polybromochloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBCDD/Fs or PXDD/Fs). Structural similarities between PBDD/Fs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) suggest the existence of comparable formation pathways of both PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs, yet BFRs also act as specific precursors to form additional PBDD/Fs. Moreover, elementary bromine (Br2) seems to facilitate chlorination by bromination of organics, followed by Br/Cl-exchange based on displacement through the more reactive halogen. Overall, PBDD/Fs form through three possible pathways: precursor formation, de novo formation, and dispersion of parts containing BFRs as impurities and surviving a fire or other events. The present review summarises the formation mechanisms of both brominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed dioxins (PXDD/Fs with X=Br or Cl) from BFRs, recaps available emissions data of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs from controlled waste incineration, uncontrolled combustion sources and accidental fires, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs during BFRs combustion. PMID:26546701

  3. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Stanker, Larry H.; Watkins, Bruce E.; Bailey, Nina R.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  4. PCDD/Fs in sediments of Central Vietnam coastal lagoons: in search of TCDD.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Rossano; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Mugnai, Cristian; Cu, Nguyen Huu; Nhon, Dang Hoai; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Frignani, Mauro

    2010-12-01

    Samples from nine Central Vietnam coastal lagoons, together with three soils and sediments collected in two freshwater reservoirs of the Thua Thien-Hué province, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total concentrations are low, from 192 to 2912 pg g(-1) and depth profiles in Tam Giang-Cau Hai (TG-CH) sediment cores show only minor changes over time in PCDD/F input and composition. Octachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) is the prevailing congener (approximately 90%), indicating combustion as the main PCDD/F source to these coastal systems, whereas natural formation might be partly responsible for the presence at depth. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), largely sprayed together with Agent Orange over the study areas during the war (1961-1971), is absent or very low. This result supports the hypothesis of strong degradation soon after spraying. Multivariate statistical analyses account for the presence of local, short-range sources as observed in the northern part of the TG-CH lagoon. PMID:20952038

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Mixed Halogen Dioxins and Furans in Fire Debris Utilizing Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Organtini, Kari L; Myers, Anne L; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Ross, Brian; Ladak, Adam; Mullin, Lauren; Stevens, Douglas; Dorman, Frank L

    2015-10-20

    Residential and commercial fires generate a complex mixture of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile compounds. This study focused on the semi/nonvolatile components of fire debris to better understand firefighter exposure risks. Using the enhanced sensitivity of gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS), complex fire debris samples collected from simulation fires were analyzed for the presence of potentially toxic polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs). Extensive method development was performed to create multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods for a wide range of PXDD/Fs from dihalogenated through hexa-halogenated homologue groups. Higher halogenated compounds were not observed due to difficulty eluting them off the long column used for analysis. This methodology was able to identify both polyhalogenated (mixed bromo-/chloro- and polybromo-) dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the simulated burn study samples collected, with the dibenzofuran species being the dominant compounds in the samples. Levels of these compounds were quantified as total homologue groups due to the limitations of commercial congener availability. Concentration ranges in household simulation debris were observed at 0.01-5.32 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.18-82.11 ppb (PBDFs). Concentration ranges in electronics simulation debris were observed at 0.10-175.26 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.33-9254.41 ppb (PBDFs). Samples taken from the particulate matter coating the firefighters' helmets contained some of the highest levels of dibenzofurans, ranging from 4.10 ppb to 2.35 ppm. The data suggest that firefighters and first responders at fire scenes are exposed to a complex mixture of potentially hundreds to thousands of different polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans that could negatively impact their health. PMID:26412694

  6. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    PubMed

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review. PMID:25585873

  7. Formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans from polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-01

    Decades after phasing out their production and use, especially in the formulations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) still pose serious environmental and health problems. The oxidation of PBB has been hypothesised as a pathway for the formation of the notorious polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and their dispersion in the environment. However, the exact reaction corridor remains misunderstood, with the existing mechanisms predicting the reaction to proceed via a high energy process that involves the breakage of C-C linkage (∼118.0 kcal mol(-1)) and the subsequent formation of bromophenols molecules, where the latter are supposed to act as precursors for the formation of PBDFs (∼40.0-60.0 kcal mol(-1)). Herein, we show that PBBs produce PBDFs in a facile mechanism through a series of highly exothermic reactions (i.e., overall barriers reside 8.2-10.0 kcal mol(-1) below the entrance channel). Whilst the fate of the ROO-type intermediates in oxidation of all aromatics is to emit CO or CO2, PBDFs constitute the dominant products from the oxidation of PBBs. Initially formed R-OO adduct evolves in a very exoergic mechanism to yield PBDFs. In view of the facile oxidative transformation of PBBs into PBDFs, we conclude that, it is unsafe to dispose BFRs in oxidation processes, as this practice generates high yields of toxic PBDFs. PMID:25303667

  8. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL-1. Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32–37, 20–24, and 16–18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log KLB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which indicates that our approach could be used as a broader biomimetic strategy for toxin removal. PMID:27375673

  9. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL(-1). Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32-37, 20-24, and 16-18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log K LB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which indicates that our approach could be used as a broader biomimetic strategy for toxin removal. PMID:27375673

  10. Modeling the partitioning and bioaccumulation of TCDD and other hydrophobic organic chemicals in lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, D.D.; Cook, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Lake trout and sediment data were used to define the biota-to-sediment ratio (BSR) for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in Lake Ontario, including 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The BSRs for bioaccumulative PCDD/PCDFs were found to be approximately two orders of magnitude (i.e., 100x) lower than for other HOCs of similar hydrophobicity. To evaluate this difference, a modeling framework is applied which accounts for the significant processes affecting BSR: bioaccumulation, partitioning, and sediment-water chemical distribution.

  11. 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in tissues of birds at Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Giesy, J.P.; Newsted, J.L.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Beaver, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The environment has become contaminated with complex mixtures of planar, chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and structurally similar compounds. Because the potencies of individual congeners to cause the same adverse effects vary greatly and the relative as well as absolute concentrations of individual PCH vary among samples from different locations, it is difficult to assess the toxic effects of these mixtures on wildlife. These compounds can cause a number of adverse effects, however, because the toxic effects which occur at ecologically-relevant concentrations such as embryo-lethality and birth defects appear to be mediated through the same mechanism.

  12. Experimental investigation of PIC formation during CFC incineration. Final report, January-July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kryder, G.; Springsteen, B.

    1996-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and (2) the formation of chlorinated and aromatic products of incomplete combustion (PICs), including PCDD/PCDF, during incineration of CFC recycling residue and hydrochlorofuorocarbons (HCFCs). The study of the effect of residual copper on PCDD/PCDF formation included repetition of a test conducted in FY 91 in which high levels of PCDD/PCDF were measured during incineration of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12).

  13. Thermochemical chlorination of carbon indirectly driven by an unexpected sulfide of copper with inorganic chloride.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2011-12-15

    Unintentional anthropogenic thermal chlorination of carbon is known to be a contributor to global environmental pollution of organochlorine compounds. We found unexpected, serious chlorination of carbon promoted by a "sulfide" of copper, which has been generally thought of and studied as an inactive metal catalyst. Our quantitative and X-ray spectroscopic results show that a fraction of cupric sulfide indirectly promoted thermochemical solid-phase formation of a large quantity of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and benzenes that used inactive inorganic chloride as chlorine storage, which partly caused environmental pollution by organochlorine compounds. PMID:22004834

  14. Control of PCDD/PCDF emissions from municipal-waste combustion systems (reannouncement)

    SciTech Connect

    Brna, T.G.; Kilgroe, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The article gives results of tests on five modern municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to characterize or determine the performance of representative combustor types and associated air emission control systems in the regulatory development process. Test results for uncontrolled (combustor outlet) and controlled (flue gas cleaning system outlet) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are reported, along with pertinent information on other tests. The EPA is revising air pollutant emission rules for new MWCs and preparing guidelines for existing MWCs. These rules will limit emissions of PCDDs, PCDFs, CO2, and acid gases (HCl and SO2) as well as require tighter control of particulate matter emissions.

  15. Comparative analysis of dioxins and furans in ambient air by high-resolution and electron-capture mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C.J.; Harless, R.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Known mixtures and unknown atmospheric sample extracts containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were analyzed by both electron impact, high resolution, mass spectrometry (HRMS) and by electron capture, negative ion, low resolution mass spectrometry (ECNI). PCDD/F concentrations measured by the two methods were comparable, typically agreeing with + or - 33%. The major difference between the two techniques is that HRMS easily detects 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin but ECNI does not. Results suggest that ECNI can be a sensitive low cost alternative to HRMS for the determination of PCDD/F concentrations.

  16. Development and validation of in vitro induction assays for toxic halogenated aromatic mixtures: a review.

    PubMed

    Safe, S; Mason, G; Sawyer, T; Zacharewski, T; Harris, M; Yao, C; Keys, B; Farrell, K; Holcomb, M; Davis, D

    1989-10-01

    Halogenated aromatic industrial compounds, typified by the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) have been identified as residues in almost every component of the global ecosystem. Risk assessment of the complex mixtures of halogenated aromatics found in environmental samples is complicated by analytical problems and the lack of toxicological information on individual compounds and mixtures. Research in our laboratory has focused on the development and vadidation of the in vitro aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) induction assay in rat hepatoma H-4-II E cells in culture for quantitating individual toxic halogenated aryl hydrocarbons and their mixtures. For several PCB, PCDD, PCDF congeners, their mixed bromo/chloro analogs and reconstituted mixtures there was an excellent linear correlation between their -log ED50 values for AHH induction in rat hepatoma cells and their -log ED50 values for in vivo hepatic microsomal AHH induction, inhibition of body weight gain and thymic atrophy in the rat. It has also been shown for selected compounds that there was a good correlation between their in vitro AHH induction potencies and their effects in guinea pigs (AHH induction, inhibition of body weight gain) and mice (immunotoxicity). This assay system has been utilized to quantitative the "2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents" present in extracts from diverse sources including fly ash from a municipal incinerator and pyrolyzed brominated flame retardants which contain a complex mixture of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. PMID:2683222

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes. PMID:27400905

  18. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion. PMID:24738886

  19. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in bivalves and sediments from NOAA national status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.; Gardinali, P.; Jackson, T.; Sericano, J.; Chambers, L.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Status and Trends (NS and T) Mussel Watch Program 55 bivalves and 7 sediment samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF) and planar PCBs. Bivalve samples were collected from selected US East Gulf and West coast sites, while the sediment samples were all from the Gulf coast. Sediment concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (TCDD and TCDF) ranged from 0.35 to 25 pg/g and 0.42 to 140 pg/g, respectively. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF represent only a small percentage of the total PCDD and PCDF in the sediments which is the case for most sediment. The concentration of TCDD and TCDF in bivalves ranged from not detected (ND) to 25 pg/g and ND to 140 pg/g, respectively. Most bivalve samples, in contrast to the sediment contained low proportions of the higher molecular weight PCDDs and PCDFs. The relative toxicological importance of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and dioxin-like PCB to the bivalves from different locations will be compared based on toxicity equivalency factors.

  20. Synthesis and Coordination Chemistry of Phosphine Oxide Decorated Dibenzofuran Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario-Amorin, Daniel; Duesler, Eileen N.; Paine, Robert T.; Hay, Benjamin; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Reilly, Sean D.; Gaunt, Andrew J.; Scott, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    A four-step synthesis for 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl)dibenzofuran (4) from dibenzofuran and a two-step synthesis for 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphinoyl)dibenzofuran (5) are reported along with coordination chemistry of 4 with In(III), La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Er(III), and Pu(IV) and of 5 with Er(III). Crystal structure determinations for the ligands, 4 {center_dot} CH{sub 3}OH and 5, the 1:1 complexes [In(4)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}], [Pr(4)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}CN)] {center_dot} 0.5CH{sub 3}CN, [Er(4)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}CN)] {center_dot} CH{sub 3}CN, [Pu(4)Cl4] {center_dot} THF and the 2:1 complex [Nd(4){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} (H{sub 2}O) {center_dot} 4(CH{sub 3}OH) are described. In these complexes, ligand 4 coordinates in a bidentate POP{prime}O{prime} mode via the two phosphine oxide O-atoms. The dibenzofuran ring O-atom points toward the central metal cations, but in every case it is more than 4 {angstrom} from the metal. A similar bidentate POP{prime}O{prime} chelate structure is formed between 5 and Er(III) in the complex, {l_brace}[Er(5){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}](NO{sub 3}) {center_dot} 4(CH{sub 3}OH){r_brace}0.5, although the nonbonded Er{hor_ellipsis} O{sub furan} distance is reduced to 3.6 {angstrom}. The observed bidentate chelation modes for 4 and 5 are consistent with results from molecular mechanics computations. The solvent extraction performance of 4 and 5 in 1,2-dichloroethane for Eu(III) and Am(III) in nitric acid solutions is described and compared against the extraction behavior of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (O{Phi}DiBCMPO) measured under identical conditions.

  1. Persistent synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons in albatross tissue samples from Midway Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Buckland, S.J.

    1996-10-01

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants have been found in even the most remote locations. To assess the global distribution and possible effects of such contaminants, the authors examined the tissues of two species of albatross collected from Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. These birds have an extensive feeding range covering much of the subtropical and northern Pacific Ocean. Anthropogenic contaminants were found at relatively great concentrations in these birds. The sum of 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners ranged from 177 ng/g wet weight in eggs to 2,750 ng/g wet weight in adult fat. Total toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranged from 17.2 to 297 pg/g wet weight in the same tissues, while the inclusion of TEQs from PCBs increased these values to 48.4 and 769 pg/g wet weight, respectively. While contaminant concentrations varied between species and tissues, the contaminant profile was relatively uniform. The profile of contaminants detected was unusual in that much of the TEQs was contributed by two pentachlorinated congeners (2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin), and the profiles of PCB congeners did not match known sources. When compared to other studies the concentrations detected in the Midway Atoll samples were near or above the thresholds known to cause adverse effects in other fish-eating bird species.

  2. Formation of PCDD/Fs in Oxidation of 2-Chlorophenol on Neat Silica Surface.

    PubMed

    Mosallanejad, Seyedehsara; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Kennedy, Eric M; Stockenhuber, Michael; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Assaf, Niveen W; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2016-02-01

    This contribution studies partial oxidation of 2-chlorophenol on surfaces of neat silica at temperatures of 250, 350, and 400 °C; i.e., temperatures that frequently lead to catalytic formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from their precursors. We have identified 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCPh), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCPh), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TriCPh), but have detected no chlorinated benzenes (CBzs). The detected chlorinated and nonchlorinated DD/Fs comprise dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), 1- and 2-monochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1-, 2-MCDD), 1,6-, 1,9-, 1,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,6-, 1,9-, 1,3-DCDD), 4-monochlorodibenzofuran (4-MCDF), and 4,6-dichlorodibenzofuran (4,6-DCDF) at the reaction temperatures of 350 and 400 °C. However, at a lower reaction temperature, 250 °C, we have detected no PCDD/Fs. We have demonstrated that neat silica surfaces catalyze the generation of PCDD/Fs from chlorophenols at the upper range of the catalytic formation temperature of PCDD/F. The present finding proves the generation of PCDD/Fs on particles of fly ash, even in the absence of transition metals. PMID:26713881

  3. Assessment of risk of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in marine and freshwater fish in Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Leung, K S; Wong, M H; Giesy, J; Cai, Z W; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is known to be beneficial to human health. However since the age of industrialization, the released/disposed chemical pollutants into water systems make fish a source of various environmental toxicants to humans. In oceanic cities with heavy industrial activities, fish products contribute the greatest proportion of exposure to pollutants. In this study, risks and potential effects of dioxins to health of coastal populations in the Pearl River Delta were assessed. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in common fish species purchased at local markets. Concentrations of total dioxins in fish ranged from 0.481 to 9.05 pg TEQ/g wet weight were similar to the lesser concentrations reported for fish from other countries. The greatest concentrations of dioxins were measured in mandarin fish, a carnivorous freshwater fish. Exposure of murine primary leydig and ovarian cells to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) reduced the synthesis of progesterone, testosterone and/or estrogen. The reductions were probably via inhibitory effects on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc). Based on these reproductive parameters, the concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like residues represent a moderate health risk due to consumption of fish. PMID:21392810

  4. Simultaneous separation of chlorinated/brominated dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated derivatives from hydroxylated analogues on molecularly imprinted polymers prior to gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important contaminants in the environment. In recent years also polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) have been reported as emerging environmental stressors. It has been suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are important - may be even the most important - precursors of brominated dioxins/furans. The aim of this study was to develop a robust, time-saving analytical procedure to collectively separate in animal tissues such compounds prior to determination of individual substances with a gas/liquid chromatograph coupled to an ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/IT-MS or UPLC/TOF-MS). Two OH-CB/BDE separation methods including alkaline extraction and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were compared. Performance of both methods was validated: absolute recovery values were in the 47-90% range depending on the compound, while recovery relative standard deviation was below 20% in most cases. Levels of the studied compounds have been assessed in some real life samples. PMID:26452807

  5. MFO activity and contaminant analysis of overwintering juvenile chinook salmon in the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.; Glickman, B.; Addison, R.; Gordon, R.; Martens, D.

    1995-12-31

    Various organic contaminants, including some PAHs, PCBs and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, induce liver cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and its associated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD). In this study, analysis of carcasses for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were compared to liver MFO activity. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in March, 1994 at a reference site on the Nechako River free from the influence of industrial activity and at sites near Prince George, Stoner, Longbar and Soda Creek on the Fraser River, and on the Thompson River. Fish from the Nechako site had the lowest MFO activities, accompanied by the lowest whole body dioxin and furan concentrations. Fish from Longbar, Soda Creek and the Thompson River had the highest MFO activities. Fish from Prince George contained the highest dioxin concentrations, but furans and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were highest at the Soda Creek and Thompson sites. MFO activity correlated most strongly with PCB concentrations. The results of this study suggest that liver MFO activity in O. tshawytscha could be employed as one biological index of environmental quality in the Fraser River.

  6. Characterization of a Novel Angular Dioxygenase from Fluorene-Degrading Sphingomonas sp. Strain LB126▿

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Luc; Ní Chadhain, Sinéad M.; Jouanneau, Yves; Meyer, Christine; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Hols, Pascal; Agathos, Spiros N.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genes involved in the initial attack on fluorene by Sphingomonas sp. strain LB126 were investigated. The α and β subunits of a dioxygenase complex (FlnA1-FlnA2), showing 63 and 51% sequence identity, respectively, to the subunits of an angular dioxygenase from the gram-positive dibenzofuran degrader Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63, were identified. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, FlnA1-FlnA2 was responsible for the angular oxidation of fluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 9-fluorenone, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-p-dioxin. Moreover, FlnA1-FlnA2 was able to oxidize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heteroaromatics, some of which were not oxidized by the dioxygenase from Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63. The quantification of resulting oxidation products showed that fluorene and phenanthrene were the preferred substrates of FlnA1-FlnA2. PMID:18156320

  7. General approach to the fractionation and class determination of complex mixtures of chlorinated aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Albro, P W; Parker, C E

    1980-09-19

    Among the "inadvertent" environmental pollutants are polychlorinated biphenyls, terphenyls, quadphenyls, naphthalenes, diphenyl ethers, dibenzofurans, dibenzo-p-dioxins and benzenes. Mixtures of these classes of compounds also occur in commercial products such as transformer fluids. To analyze such mixtures, gas chromatography--mass spectrometry may be combined with pre-fractionation on basic and acidic alumina columns and semi-quantitative perchlorination techniques. These procedures are illustrated for synthetic mixtures as well as for two samples of stored transformer fluid. Although the described procedure is mainly intended to be applied to the characterization of the major class components of such mixtures, it is also applicable to the determination of trace components such as the dibenzofurans in commercial polychlorinated biphenyls. The mass spectral techniques permit the simultaneous patterning, or "fingerprinting", of the compounds comprising each major class of chlorinated aromatics present. PMID:7451593

  8. Comparative ability of various PCBs, PCDFs, and TCDD to induce cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 activity following 4 weeks of treatment (short communication)

    SciTech Connect

    De Vito, M.J.; Maier, W.E.; Diliberto, J.J.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    The toxic equivalency factors (TEF) have been proposed for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The proposed TEFs, which are presently being evaluated in the authors' laboratory are currently used to estimate the potential health risk associated with exposure to complex mixtures containing these chemicals. Hepatic cytochrome P-450 1A1 and 1A2 activities were determined for all chemicals tested and compared to those from TCDD treated mice. These initial studies indicate that the interim TEFs for the dibenzofurans adequately predict the relative induction potency for these compounds. However, the TEFs proposed for the dioxin-like PCBs overestimate the potency of these compounds by factors of 10-10,000. The present study indicates that more experimental data is required before TEFs for PCBs are used in regulatory decision making.

  9. A Dibenzofuran-Based Host Material for Blue Electrophosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchi, Paul A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Qiao, Hong; Sapochak, Linda S.; Burrows, Paul E.

    2006-09-14

    All reactions were performed using standard Schlenk techniques under an atmosphere of pre-purified argon. Dibenzofuran (≥ 99%) was purchased from Aldrich and sublimed in a cold finger prior to use. Bromine (99.5+%), chlorodiphenylphosphine (PPh2Cl, 98%), n-butyllithium (n-BuLi, 2.5 M sltn. in hexanes) and chloroform-d (CDCl3) were purchased from Aldrich and used without further purification. Methylene chloride, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexanes and anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF) were purchased through VWR and used without further purification. Methylene chloride for phosphorescent studies and chloroform for the bromination reaction were purchased from Fisher, distilled over CaH2 under argon, and deoxygenated by 3 freeze-pump-thaw cycles before use.

  10. O-Methyltransferases involved in biphenyl and dibenzofuran biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Brandt, Wolfgang; Beuerle, Till; Reckwell, Dennis; Groeneveld, Josephine; Hänsch, Robert; Gaid, Mariam M; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Malinae involving apple and pear. Biosynthesis of the defence compounds includes two O-methylation reactions. cDNAs encoding the O-methyltransferase (OMT) enzymes were isolated from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) cell cultures after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The preferred substrate for SaOMT1 was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, supplied by the first pathway-specific enzyme, biphenyl synthase (BIS). 3,5-Dihydroxybiphenyl underwent a single methylation reaction in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The second enzyme, SaOMT2, exhibited its highest affinity for noraucuparin, however the turnover rate was greater with 5-hydroxyferulic acid. Both substrates were only methylated at the meta-positioned hydroxyl group. The substrate specificities of the OMTs and the regiospecificities of their reactions were rationalized by homology modeling and substrate docking. Interaction of the substrates with SAM also took place at a position other than the sulfur group. Expression of SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 was transiently induced in rowan cell cultures by the addition of the fungal elicitor. While the immediate SaOMT1 products were not detectable in elicitor-treated cell cultures, noraucuparin and noreriobofuran accumulated transiently, followed by increasing levels of the SaOMT2 products aucuparin and eriobofuran. SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 were N- and C-terminally fused with the super cyan fluorescent protein and a modified yellow fluorescent protein, respectively. All the fluorescent reporter fusions were localized to the cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermis cells. A revised biosynthetic pathway of biphenyls and dibenzofurans in the Malinae is presented. PMID:26017378

  11. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN BIOMARKERS OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADOLESCENT CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is two cohort comparison study of endocrine and cytochrome P450 family 1 biomarkers for risk assessment of polychlorinalted biphenyls (PCBs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) induced developmental toxicities in the human. The subjects will be sexually mature adoles...

  12. Identification and characterization of genes encoding carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase in Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, S I; Nam, J W; Kasuga, K; Nojiri, H; Yamane, H; Omori, T

    1997-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the flanking regions of the carBC genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 revealed that there were two open reading frames (ORFs) ORF4 and ORF5, in the upstream region of carBC. Similarly, three ORFs, ORF6 to ORF8, were found in the downstream region of carBC. The deduced amino acid sequences of ORF6 and ORF8 showed homologies with ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase components of bacterial multicomponent dioxygenase systems, respectively. ORF4 and ORF5 had the same sequence and were tandemly linked. Their deduced amino acid sequences showed about 30% homology with large (alpha) subunits of other terminal oxygenase components. Functional analysis using resting cells harboring the deleted plasmids revealed that the products of ORF4 and -5, ORF6, and ORF8 were terminal dioxygenase, ferredoxin, and ferredoxin reductase, respectively, of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO), which attacks the angular position adjacent to the nitrogen atom of carbazole, and that the product of ORF7 is not indispensable for CARDO activity. Based on the results, ORF4, ORF5, ORF6, and ORF8 were designated carAa, carAa, carAc, and carAd, respectively. The products of carAa, carAd, and ORF7 were shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be polypeptides with molecular masses of 43, 36, and 11 kDa, respectively. However, the product of carAc was not detected in Escherichia coli. CARDO has the ability to oxidize a wide variety of polyaromatic compounds, including dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, biphenyl, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene and phenanthrene. Since 2,2',3-trihydroxydiphenyl ether and 2,2',3-trihydroxybiphenyl were identified as metabolites of dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran, respectively, it was considered that CARDO attacked at the angular position adjacent to the oxygen atom of dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran as in the case with carbazole. PMID:9244274

  13. Management of atmospheric pollutants from waste incineration processes: the case of Bozen.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, Marco; Tirler, Werner; Angelucci, Giulio; Zardi, Dino; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2013-03-01

    This article presents the case study of a waste incinerator located in a region rich in natural and environmental resources, and close to the city of Bozen, where there are about 100,000 inhabitants. Local authorities paid special attention to the effect of the plant on human health and the surrounding environment. Indeed, among the measures adopted to control the emissions, in 2003 an automatic sampling system was installed specifically to monitor polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions during the complete operation time of the plant. The continuous sampling system was coupled directly to aerosol spectrometers for the determination of fine and ultra-fine particles in the emissions of the plant. The measurement results suggest that the waste incineration plant of Bozen is not a significant source of PCDD/F, or fine and ultra-fine particles. Immission measurements from other monitoring systems confirmed these results. PMID:23363737

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. PMID:16949712

  15. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks.

  16. Environmental impact assessment of persistent organic pollutants in the surroundings of various industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holoubek, I.; Helesic, J.; Kocan, A.; Pokorny, B.

    1995-12-31

    During the last decade several studies have been carried out aimed at improving the knowledge on the behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Evidence has been found that many of these compounds create serious problems due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Examples of POPs that behave in this way are polychlorinated pesticides, industrial compounds (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls) and some degradation, industrial, and combustion by-products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene). Although work has been done in order to understand the fate, behavior, and effects of POPs, less information is available on environmental cycling (migration) of these compounds through various environmental media. The major reason for this deficiency in the knowledge is related to a lack of detailed information on emissions of POPs and the parameters affecting their migration through the environment under various meteorological, chemical and physical conditions.

  17. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food samples on the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Papanicolaou, Christina; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2004-11-01

    Food intake is the main source of exposure to dioxin-like compounds for humans. The results of a surveillance programme on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) in 77 food samples from the Greek market and producers are presented. The study included the analyses of milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish, vegetable oil, eggs, fruit, vegetable and rice collected between August and December 2002. After extraction, extracts were cleaned up on a series of carbon column chromatography, silica gel, alumina chromatography, and then analysed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. All samples had a dioxin content far below the EC Regulation (2375/2001/EC) limits. PMID:15331268

  18. Simultaneous removal of mercury, PCDD/F, and fine particles from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Korell, Jens; Paur, Hanns-R; Seifert, Helmut; Andersson, Sven

    2009-11-01

    A multifunctional scrubber (MFS) has been developed to reduce the complexity of flue gas cleaning plants. The MFS integrates an oxidizing scrubber equipped with a dioxin-absorbing tower packing material and a space charge electrostatic precipitator. All these processes have been previously developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In the described multifunctional scrubber, mercury, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and submicrometer particles are removed simultaneously. A MFS pilot plant with a flue gas volume flow of 250 m(3)/h has been installed in a slipstream of a waste incineration pilot plant. Pilot scale testing was performed to measure mercury, particles, and PCDD/F in the raw and clean gas. After optimization of the process these three flue gas components were separated from the flue gas in the range 87-97%. PMID:19924961

  19. Photocatalytic decomposition on nano-TiO₂: destruction of chloroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng-Yong; Wu, Di; Wang, Qiu-Lin; Yan, Jianhua; Buekens, Alfons G; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2011-02-01

    Photocatalysis is applied increasingly in addressing and solving environmental and energy-related problems. Especially the TiO₂-derived catalysts attract attention because of their catalytic efficiency, wide range of applications, ease in use, and low cost (it costs about 150 Yuan a kilogram in China). This review first describes the principles of photocatalytic destruction by semiconductors and then focuses on degradation rates and reaction mechanisms in a variety of photocatalytic uses of modified TiO(2). Finally, these concepts are illustrated by selected examples relating to the photocatalytic degradation of organic persistent pollutants, such as polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz), biphenyls (PCB) and dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). And some approaches towards industrial application are analyzed. PMID:21220149

  20. Experimental investigation of PIC formation during the incineration of recovered CFC-11. Final report, July 1993-July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Springsteen, B.; Ho, L.; Kryder, G.

    1994-09-01

    The report gives results of an investigation of the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) during 'recovered' trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) incineration. Tests involved burning the recovered CFC-11 in a propane gas flame. Combustion gas samples were taken and analyzed for volatile organic compounds as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF). Test results confirm that incineration can be used to effectively destroy recovered CFC-11; CFC destruction efficiencies of greater than 99.9999 (six nines) were consistently demonstrated for CFC-11-to-propane molar ratios of 0.66-0.6. Additionally, low levels were detected when sampling downstream of the flue gas scrubber. Results of a secondary goal of the study, to determine the fate of chlorine (Cl) and fluroine (F), were inconclusive.

  1. Characterization and quantification of unintentional POP emissions from primary and secondary copper metallurgical processes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Zheng, Minghui

    2012-09-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to update and develop unintentional persistent organic pollutant (unintentional POP) emission inventories for the copper metallurgy industry in China. In this study, emissions of six unintentional POPs comprised of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) in stack gas and fly ash samples from primary and secondary copper smelters using different raw materials and technologies were measured and compared. Different concentrations, congener patterns and emission factors of unintentional POPs among four copper smelters were observed. Variations in unintentional POP emissions from several areas of a primary copper smelter were also investigated. The total emissions of unintentional POPs from primary and secondary copper production in 2010 in China were estimated respectively. These results provide a useful reference for the establishment of unintentional POP emission inventories and for policymakers to formulate control strategies to reduce unintentional POPs resulting from copper metallurgy.

  2. Development and characterization of a GC-enabled QLT-Orbitrap for high-resolution and high-mass accuracy GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Amelia C; McAlister, Graeme C; Quarmby, Scott T; Griep-Raming, Jens; Coon, Joshua J

    2010-10-15

    We detail the development and characterization of a GC/QLT-Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer capable of high resolution (up to 100,000 at m/z 400) and sub-parts-per-million mass accuracy GC/MS. A high-duty cycle, innovative scan type, the nested scan, was implemented to synchronize the Orbitrap acquisition rate and the time scale of gas chromatography (up to 6.5 Hz at resolution 7500). We benchmark this instrument's key figures of merit, including resolution, mass accuracy, linear dynamic range, and spectral accuracy, and demonstrate its performance for two challenging applications: the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in environmental samples and the profiling of primary metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana extracts. PMID:20815337

  3. Highly-sensitive micellar electrokinetic chromatographic analysis of dioxin-related compounds using on-line concentration.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, K; Hayashibara, H; Yamauchi, S; Quirino, J P; Terabe, S

    1999-08-20

    An application study of an on-line concentration technique of neutral analytes for micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was carried out in environmental analysis to enhance the UV detection sensitivity. Several dioxins and related compounds, such as dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3- and 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, and 2,3,7-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, were used as test solutes. For a highly sensitive separation and detection, cyclodextrin-modified MEKC (CD-MEKC) under acidic conditions was employed as a separation mode and stacking using reverse migrating micelles and a water plug (SRW) as an on-line concentration technique. Almost a 200-fold gain in detection sensitivity was obtained for the model compounds in SRW-CD-MEKC compared to that in normal CD-MEKC without on-line concentration and the limit of detection was found to be around 0.1 ppm for each solute. PMID:10486748

  4. An overview of methods quantifying the influence of biotransformation on bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sijm, D.T.H.M.; Wolf, W. de

    1994-12-31

    Biotransformation can reduce the concentration of xenobiotic, chemicals in organisms, and may thus be responsible for and can explain relatively low bioconcentration factors of hydrophobic chemicals. Qualitative information on biotransformation is relatively easily obtained by identifying metabolites either in vivo or in vitro. Quantification of biotransformation, however, is more difficult. A number of methods is presented which enables quantification of the influence of biotransformation for organic chemicals. These methods include enzyme inhibition studies, mass balance studies, hydrophobicity/bioconcentration relationships, and quantification of metabolites. The use of these methods will be illustrated by examples of the contribution of biotransformation to decreased bioconcentration for chlorinated anilines, biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish.

  5. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakstan: high levels of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in agricultural villages of southern Kazakstan.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; Petreas, M X; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Druz, N; Seminova, G; Sharmanov, T; Hayward, D; She, J; Visita, P; Winkler, J; McKinney, M; Wade, T J; Grassman, J; Stephens, R D

    1998-01-01

    To assess levels of chlorinated contaminants in breast milk, we measured organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in breast milk samples collected in 1994 according to the World Health Organization protocol from 92 donors that were representative of regional populations in southern Kazakstan. High levels (10-120 pg/g fat) of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic of the PCDD/PCDF congeners, were found in breast milk samples from an agricultural region. TCDD was the major contributor (75%) to the international toxicity equivalents of these samples. The same distinctive PCDD/PCDF congener pattern was found in 15 breast milk samples and 4 serum samples collected in 1996 in a follow-up study, and has now been confirmed by three analytical laboratories. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9831540

  6. Chloracne associated with employment in the production of pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.A.; Carpenter, A.V.; Sweeney, M.H.; Fingerhut, M.A.; Marlow, D.A.; Halperin, W.E.; Mathias, C.G. )

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the association between exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the occurrence of chloracne, we studied the medical and personnel records for individuals employed in the manufacturing of PCP. Forty-seven cases of chloracne were identified among 648 workers (7.0%) assigned to PCP production at a single plant between 1953 and 1978. The annual incidence rate varied considerably, ranging from 0 (in 1953) to 1.46 (in 1978). No linear trend in the risk of chloracne was observed with the duration of employment in the pentachlorophenol department. Workers with a documented episode of direct skin contact with PCP had a significantly increased risk of chloracne compared with workers who did not have a documented episode of direct skin contact (cumulative incidence ratio = 4.6; 95% confidence interval 2.6-8.1). Our results confirm that chloracne is associated with exposure to PCP contaminated with hexachlorinated, heptachlorinated, and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

  7. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  8. Estimation of sources and inflow of dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the sediment core of Lake Suwa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Eun, Heesoo; Watanabe, Eiki; Kumon, Fujio; Miyabara, Yuichi

    2005-12-01

    To elucidate the historical changes in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (co-PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) inflows in Lake Suwa, their concentrations in the sediment core were analyzed in 5 cm interval. The maximum concentrations (depth cm) of PCDDs/DFs, co-PCBs, and PAHs were 25.2 ng/g dry (30-35 cm), 19.0 ng/g dry (30-35 cm), and 738, 795 ng/g dry (50-55 cm, 30-35 cm), respectively. Age and sedimentation rate of the sediment were estimated from the vertical changes in apparent density. Deposition rate of dioxins and PAHs were calculated from the concentration and sedimentation rate of the sediment. The results indicate that large amounts of dioxins and PAHs flowed into the lake in flood stage compared to normal stage. PMID:15964115

  9. Environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and metals around a cement plant in Catalonia, Spain, before and after alternative fuel implementation. Assessment of human health risks.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn, and the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans were determined in samples of soil, vegetation, and air, collected in the vicinity of a cement plant (Catalonia, Spain), before (January 2011 and July 2011) and after (January 2012 and June 2013) alternative fuel partial substitution (fossil fuels by sewage sludge). Seven sampling points were selected at different directions and distances to the facility including two background sampling points. The results were used to assess the health risk assessment for the population living near the facility. Only few significant differences were found before and after alternative fuel partial substitution (Mn in soils and Cd in vegetation). Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety threshold (HQ<1), while carcinogenic risks were below 10(-5), or exceeding slightly that value, always in the range considered as assumable (10(-6)-10(-4)). PMID:24704963

  10. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Some Actions of POPs on Female Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L.; Ptak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated ethers (PBDEs), chloronaftalens (PCNs), and bisphenol A (BPA), are stable, lipophilic pollutants that affect fertility and cause serious reproductive problems, including ovotoxic action, lack of ovulation, premature ovarian failure (POF), or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Most of the representatives of POPs influence the activation of transcription factors, not only activation of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), but also the steroid hormone receptors. This minireview will focus on a variety of PAH activities in oocyte, ovary, placenta, and mammary gland. The complexity and diversity of factors belonging to POPs and disorders of the reproductive function of women indicate that the impact of environmental pollution as an important determinant factor in fertility should not be minimize. PMID:23762054

  11. Levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in raw cow's milk collected in France in 2006.

    PubMed

    Durand, Benoit; Dufour, Barbara; Fraisse, Daniel; Defour, Stéphanie; Duhem, Koenraad; Le-Barillec, Karine

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants. A French national survey was carried out in April 2006 to assess the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in raw cow's milk. A random sampling scheme stratified by region was applied to collect 239 raw milk samples from 93 plants belonging to 17 dairy companies. Compared to a previous survey led in 1998 analyzing half-skimmed drinking milk in France, the PCDD/Fs level was cut by half, with an average concentration of 0.33 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ)/g fat in 2006. The mean DL-PCBs concentration was 0.57 pg TEQ/g fat and subsequently the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was 0.90 pg/g fat, values below the thresholds defined by the European Union regulations. PMID:17707881

  12. Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

  13. Characteristic occurrence patterns of micropollutants and their removal efficiencies in industrial wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seok; Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Chang-Won; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-02-01

    The concentrations and removal efficiencies of various kinds of micropollutants were investigated and the relationships between the input sources of industrial wastewater and occurrence patterns of each micropollutant were identified at nine on-site industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The distribution pattern of each compound varied according to the WWTP type and several micropollutants were significantly related with specific industries: chlorinated phenols (ClPhs) with paper and metal industries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with petrogenic- and pyrogenic-related industries, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) with the paper industry, and chlorinated benzenes (ClBzs) with dye-related industries. The activated sludge (AS) process was very efficient in the removal of ClPhs and PAHs, and the filtration process in the removal of PCDD/Fs and 1,4-dioxane. Generally, the removal efficiencies of each micropollutant varied according to the WWTP type. PMID:21140016

  14. Comparative toxicity of PCBs and related compounds in various species of animals

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, E.E.

    1985-05-01

    There are several basic principles that apply to the clinicopathologic syndrome produced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). They are as follows: the degree of halogenation and position of the halogen atoms determine the potency of PCB, PBB, CDD, CDF and CN; in a given species of animals, the clinicopathologic syndrome induced by PCB is comparable to that induced by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDF), and chlorinated naphthalenes (CN) when an equitoxic dose is achieved; the clinicopathologic syndrome is different in each species of animals; different species of animals vary in their susceptibility to intoxication; intoxication is more readily effected in young animals than in adults; at lethal doses the time between exposure and death is prolonged (> 2 weeks).

  15. Metabolism of dibenzofuran by pseudomonas sp. strain HH69 and the mixed culture HH27

    SciTech Connect

    Fortnagel, P.; Harms, H.; Wittich, R.M. ); Krohn, S.; Meyer, H.; Sinnwell, V.; Wilkes, H.; Francke, W. )

    1990-04-01

    A Pseudomonas sp. strain, HH69, and a mixed culture, designated HH27, were isolated by selective enrichment from soil samples. The pure strain and the mixed culture grew aerobically on dibenzofuran as the sole source of carbon and energy. Degradation proceeded via salicylic acid which was branched into the gentisic acid and the catechol pathway. Both salicylic acid and gentisic acid accumulated in the culture medium of strain HH69. The acids were slowly metabolized after growth ceased. The enzymes responsible for their metabolism showed relatively low activities. Besides the above-mentioned acids, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, benzopyran-4-one (chrome), several 2-substituted chroman-4-ones, and traces of the four isomeric monohydroxydibenzofurans were identified in the culture medium. 2,2{prime},3-Trihydroxybiphenyl was isolated from the medium of a dibenzofuran-converting mutant derived from parent strain HH69, which can no longer grow on dibenzofuran. This gives evidence for a novel type of dioxygenases responsible for the attack on the biarylether structure of the dibenzofuran molecule. A meta-fission mechanism for cleavage of the dihydroxylated aromatic nucleus of 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxybiphenyl is suggested as the next enzymatic step in the degradative pathway.

  16. Deca-brominated diphenyl ether destruction and PBDD/F and PCDD/F emissions from coprocessing deca-BDE mixture-contaminated soils in cement kilns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Huang, Qifei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Xiaohua; Liu, Wenbin

    2012-12-18

    The disposal of soil contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was studied using an industrial coprocessing cement kiln. Two tests, Test 1 and Test 2, studied the destruction, removal, and emissions of PBDE in soils with PBDE concentrations of 4160 and 25,000 mg/kg, respectively. Emissions of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also quantified. The PBDE destruction and removal efficiencies for Tests 1 and 2 were 99.9997% and 99.9998%, respectively. PBDE stack gas concentrations were 39.1 and 85.9 ng/Nm³ for Tests 1 and 2, respectively. The mean PBDD/F TEQ stack gas concentrations related to Tests 1 and 2 were 11.0 and 11.4 pg/Nm³, and PBDFs contributed 60.0-64.2% of the total PBDD/F concentrations. 2,3,7,8-TeBDD made the greatest contribution to the total PBDD/Fs, 40%, of all the homologues. The mean PCDD/F TEQ stack gas concentrations in Tests 1 and 2 were 0.74 and 0.65 pg/Nm³. The total PBDE, PBDD/F, and PCDD/F TEQ at the kiln outlet was 0.006% and 0.001% of the feed material TEQ. Therefore, coprocessing heavily PBDE-contaminated soils in a cement kiln is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology. PMID:23194181

  17. Significance of measuring non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF congeners and the identification of a new mechanism of formation for a high-temperature industrial process.

    PubMed

    Tondeur, Yves; Vining, Bryan; Serne, Jim; Hart, Jerry

    2015-05-01

    Many studies involving polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (Cl4-Cl8) are limited to the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, which are used for the computation of the toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) and often are the basis for regulatory actions. The values determined for total homolog groups may also be reported in some cases, e.g., Total Tetra-Dioxins, and such results provide some additional information but do not reveal the subtle details that can be derived from the study of individual congeners. There are 136 possible structures for tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, including the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. In this work, the valuable role that inclusion of the other 119 congeners plays in understanding emission deviations (upsets) compared to normal operating conditions for a secondary aluminum smelter facility is illustrated. An exponential correlation was observed between the concentrations of specific non-2,3,7,8-substituted tetrachlorinated congeners (e.g., 2,3,6,7/3,4,6,7-TCDFs vs. 1,3,6,8-TCDD and 1,3,7,9-TCDD) and the TEQ-based emissions at the outlet of a baghouse pollution control device. The correlation possibly points to the additional and occasionally essential role played by metal-catalyzed stereoselective chlorination reactions taking place during the melting-purification process, as well as (conceivably) inside the air pollution control device. This chlorination in turn highlights not only the importance of the chlorine addition step and the kinetics involved with regard to regulating emission levels but also the role of measuring all 136 PCDD/F congeners. PMID:25700184

  18. Formation and emission of brominated dioxins and furans during secondary aluminum smelting processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Li, Sumei; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-03-01

    Secondary aluminum smelting (SAl) processes have previously been found to be important sources of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). It is crucial that the key factors that influence the formation and emission of PBDD/Fs are identified to allow techniques for decreasing PBDD/F emissions during SAl processes to be developed. In this study, stack gas samples were collected from four typical secondary aluminum smelters that used different raw materials, and the samples were analyzed to allow differences between PBDD/F emissions from different SAl plants to be assessed. The composition of the raw materials was found to be one of the key factors influencing the amounts of PBDD/Fs emitted. The PBDD/F emission factors (per tonne of aluminum produced) for the plants using 100% (Plant1), 80% (Plant2), and 50% (Plant3) dirty aluminum scrap in the raw material feed were 180, 86, and 14 μg t(-1), respectively. The amounts of PBDD/Fs emitted at different stages of the smelting process (feeding-fusion, refining, and casting) were compared, and the feeding-fusion stage was found to be the main stage in which PBDD/Fs were formed and emitted. Effective aluminum scrap pretreatments could significantly decrease PBDD/F emissions. Much higher polybrominated dibenzofuran concentrations than polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin concentrations were found throughout the SAl process. The more-brominated congeners (including octabromodibenzo-p-dioxin, octabromodibenzofuran, heptabromodibenzo-p-dioxins, and heptabromodibenzofurans) were the dominant contributors to the total PBDD/F concentrations. The results could help in the development of techniques and strategies for controlling PBDD/F emissions during metallurgical processes. PMID:26706932

  19. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  20. EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the postcombustion, downstream region (500-300 °C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC) was investigated. Laboratory experiments simulating t...

  1. Chlorinated and brominated dioxins and dibenzofurans in human tissue following exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Ryan, J J; Masuda, Y; Brandt-Rauf, P; Constable, J; Hoang, D C; Le, C D; Hoang, T Q; Nguyen, T N; Pham, H P

    1994-01-01

    With substantial improvements in analytic techniques over the past decade, it has become possible to measure polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in human tissue in a congener-specific fashion down to the low parts per trillion level. This paper reviews findings using these new techniques from a number of recent medical and environmental case studies. These studies include those of workers exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformer fire in the United States, German chemical workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) while cleaning up after an explosion, workers at a municipal incinerator in New York City, a chemist exposed to brominated and chlorinated dioxins, U.S. veterans and also Vietnamese civilians exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD in Vietnam, and victims of the polychlorinated dibenzofuran and PCB contaminated rice oil (Yusho) incident in Japan. PMID:8187703

  2. Temperature-dependent formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes and dibenzofurans from chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Hyong; Mulholland, James A

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the gas-phase formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from chlorinated phenols in combustion exhaust gas, experiments were performed with each of the three chlorophenols in a laminar flow reactor over the range of 550-750 degrees C under oxidative conditions. Maximum PCN and PCDF yields were observed between 625 and 725 degrees C. The degree of chlorination of naphthalene and dibenzofuran products decreased as temperature increased, and on average, the naphthalene congeners were less chlorinated than the dibenzofuran congeners. Congener distributions are consistent with proposed PCN and PCDF formation pathways, both involving phenoxy radical coupling at unchlorinated ortho-carbon sites to form a dihydroxybiphenyl keto tautomer intermediate. Tautomerization of this intermediate and subsequent fusion via H2O loss results in PCDF formation, whereas CO elimination and subsequent fusion with hydrogen and/or chlorine loss leads to PCN formation. PCDF isomer distributions were found to be weakly dependent on temperature. PCN isomer distributions were found to be more temperature sensitive, however, with selectivity to particular isomers decreasing with increasing temperature. These results contribute to the understanding of PCN and PCDF formation in combustion and provide information on how to predict and minimize these emissions. PMID:16124322

  3. Synthesis, liquid chromatographic fractionation and partial characterization of polybrominated dibenzofuran congeners.

    PubMed

    Gallistl, Christoph; Vetter, Walter

    2016-04-15

    Polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) are a class of highly toxic environmental contaminants which comprises 135 structurally different congeners. While the gas chromatographic separation and analysis of the most polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well-documented, comparably little data is currently available in the case of PBDFs. In this study dibenzofuran was brominated to give a mixture of ∼40 PBDFs with one to seven bromine atoms. This synthesis mixture was fractionated by both countercurrent chromatography (CCC) with the solvent system n-hexane/toluene/acetonitrile and non-aqueous reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with acetonitrile as the mobile phase. All together 80 consecutive CCC fractions and 40 HPLC fractions were taken and analyzed for PBDFs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). CCC and RP-HPLC offered orthogonal separation of the PBDF mixture. As a consequence, selected CCC fractions were further fractionated by RP-HPLC. In this way, eight PBDFs could be isolated and the structures of twelve PBDFs were elucidated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). PMID:26993783

  4. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1997-05-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  5. Physikunterricht und Kalter Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieß, Falk; Kremer, Armin

    Die Indienstnahme des Physikunterrichts für militaristische und politische Zwecke ist in Deutschland nichts Neues: Die Wurzeln liegen im Kaiserreich und im Faschismus ("Wehrphysik"), und die Praxis im Kalten Krieg stellt hier nichts Außergewöhnliches, sondern lediglich eine auffällige Kontinuität dar.

  6. Release of chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxin-related compounds to soils from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana).

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Goto, Akitoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-25

    Although complex mixtures of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) can be released from informal e-waste recycling, DRC contamination in African e-waste recycling sites has not been investigated. This study examined the concentrations of DRCs including chlorinated, brominated, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Ghana. PCDD/F and PBDD/F concentrations in open burning areas (18-520 and 83-3800 ng/g dry, respectively) were among the highest reported in soils from informal e-waste sites. The concentrations of PCDFs and PBDFs were higher than those of the respective dibenzo-p-dioxins, suggesting combustion and PBDE-containing plastics as principal sources. PXDFs were found as more abundant than PCDFs, and higher brominated analogues occurred at higher concentrations. The median total WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in open burning soils was 7 times higher than the U.S. action level (1000 pg/g), with TEQ contributors in the order of PBDFs>PCDD/Fs>PXDFs. DRC emission to soils over the e-waste site as of 2010 was estimated, from surface soil lightness based on the correlations between concentrations and lightness, at 200mg (95% confidence interval 93-540 mg) WHO-TEQ over three years. People living in Agbogbloshie are potentially exposed to high levels of not only chlorinated but also brominated DRCs, and human health implications need to be assessed in future studies. PMID:26474377

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cccc of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxic Equivalency Factors 3 Table 3 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cccc of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Toxic Equivalency Factors 3 Table 3 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5...

  9. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Viger, Jean-Francois; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAE{sub LB400}) metabolizes PCBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAE{sub RR41}, a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAE{sub LB400}, metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAE{sub LB400}. Hence, BphAE{sub RR41} was able to metabolize 2,6,2 Prime ,6 Prime -, 3,4,3 Prime ,5 Prime - and 2,4,3 Prime ,4 Prime -tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAE{sub LB400} is unable to metabolize. BphAE{sub RR41} was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAE{sub LB400} to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  10. Health hazard assessment for chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans other than 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Bellin, J.S.; Barnes, D.G.

    1985-12-01

    EPA is faced with the need to perform health risk assessments of environmental materials containing mixtures of chlorinated dioxins and -dibenzofurans. Preferably, such an assessment must be based on the direct evaluation of chronic health effects of the mixture or on a knowledge of the toxic effects of each of the components. In the absence of such data, the authors have developed two pragmatic approaches that can reasonably be applied to mixtures such as flyash or contaminated soil. The details of these approaches, viewed as interim procedures, are compared and contrasted with those used by other regulatory and public health authorities.

  11. Mechanistic Studies on the Dibenzofuran Formation from Phenanthrene, Fluorene and 9–Fluorenone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanqing; Zhang, Qingzhu

    2015-01-01

    We carried out molecular orbital theory calculations for the homogeneous gas‑phase formation of dibenzofuran from phenanthrene, fluorene, 9-methylfluorene and 9-fluorenone. Dibenzofuran will be formed if ∙OH adds to C8a, and the order of reactivity follows as 9-fluorenone > 9-methylfluorene > fluorene > phenanthrene. The oxidations initiated by ClO∙ are more favorable processes, considering that the standard reaction Gibbs energies are at least 21.63 kcal/mol lower than those of the equivalent reactions initiated by ∙OH. The adding of ∙OH and then O2 to phenanthrene is a more favorable route than adding ∙OH to C8a of phenanthrene, when considering the greater reaction extent. The reaction channel from fluorene and O2 to 9-fluorenone and H2O seems very important, not only because it contains only three elementary reactions, but because the standard reaction Gibbs energies are lower than −80.07 kcal/mol. PMID:25756381

  12. Genetic Analysis of Dioxin Dioxygenase of Sphingomonas sp. Strain RW1: Catabolic Genes Dispersed on the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Armengaud, Jean; Happe, Birgitta; Timmis, Kenneth N.

    1998-01-01

    The dioxin dioxygenase of Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 activates dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran for further metabolism by introducing two atoms of oxygen at a pair of vicinal carbon atoms, one of which is involved in one of the bridges between the two aromatic rings, i.e., an angular dioxygenation. The dxnA1 and dxnA2 cistrons encoding this dioxygenase have been cloned and shown to be located just upstream of a hydrolase gene which specifies an enzyme involved in the subsequent step of the dibenzofuran biodegradative pathway. Genes encoding the electron supply system of the dioxygenase are not clustered with the dioxygenase gene but rather are located on two other distinct and separate genome segments. Moreover, whereas expression of dxnA1A2 is modulated according to the available carbon source, expression of the dbfB gene encoding the ring cleavage enzyme of the dibenzofuran pathway, which is located in the neighborhood of dxnA1A2 but oriented in the opposite direction, is constitutive. The scattering of genes for the component proteins of dioxin dioxygenase system around the genome of Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1, and the differential expression of dioxin pathway genes, is unusual and contrasts with the typical genetic organization of catabolic pathways where component cistrons tend to be clustered in multicistronic transcriptional units. The sequences of the α and β subunits of the dioxin dioxygenase exhibit only weak similarity to other three component dioxygenases, but some motifs such as the Fe(II) binding site and the [2Fe-2S] cluster ligands are conserved. Dioxin dioxygenase activity in Escherichia coli cells containing the cloned dxnA1A2 gene was achieved only through coexpression of the cognate electron supply system from RW1. Under these conditions, exclusively angular dioxygenation of dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin was obtained. The dioxin dioxygenase was not active in E. coli cells coexpressing a class IIB electron supply system. In the course of

  13. Geoinformation und Staat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zypries, Brigitte

    2002-09-01

    Geoinformationen besaßen als Grundlage militärischer Interventionen schon immer einen hohen Stellenwert für den Staat. Im Zeitalter der modernen Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien wächst in demokratischen Staaten die Bedeutung von Geodaten weit über den Verteidigungsbereich hinaus. Brigitte Zypries, Staatssekretärin im Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) und Vorsitzende des Interministeriellen Ausschusses für Geoinformationswesen (IMAGI), sprach mit Dipl.-Geogr. Ute C. Bauerüber die Anwendung und Koordinierung von Geodaten in Politik und Staat.

  14. Roboter und Zuckerstangen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Heike

    Bei Produktion und Logistik denkt man sofort an Fabriken, Lagerhallen und Gabelstapler und nicht unbedingt an Zellbiologie. Sieht man etwas genauer hin erscheint dieser Gedankensprung jedoch gar nicht mehr so unpassend. In einer lebenden Zelle laufen eine Vielzahl von Produktions-, Transport- und Regulationsprozessen ab. Soll etwa ein gerade verfügbarer Rohstoff abgebaut werden, muss vielleicht ein Signal ein Gen erreichen, das ein geeignetes Enzym kodiert. Die Aktivierung des Gens führt über mehrere Zwischenstationen zur Produktion des Enzyms, das schließlich noch dahin gelangen muss, wo es gebraucht wird. Ist der Bedarf gedeckt, muss wiederum die Enzymproduktion eingestellt werden.

  15. Sternbilder und ihre Mythen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasching, Gerhard

    Die Sternbilder, die seit alters her die Menschen in ihren Bann gezogen haben, und die damit verbundenen Mythen werden in zweifacher Weise vorgestellt. Erstens ist es die Absicht, dem Leser zu helfen, sich am Sternenhimmel zurechtzufinden, und zweitens will es ihm die Vielfalt der Bilder vermitteln, die damit verbunden sind. Am Anfang des Buches stehen die prächtigen Erzählungen aus Ovids Metamorphosen. Dann ist vom Sternenhimmel im Jahreskreis die Rede, um den Leser anzuregen, diesen fast unendlichen Bilderreichtum sich selbst durch eigene Beobachtungen zu erschließen. Ein umfangreicher Abschnitt behandelt die einzelnen Sternbilder und das hierzu überlieferte Wissen. Sternkarten und alte Kupferstiche aus dem Bestand der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek zeigen, wie man sich in früheren Jahrhunderten den Sternenhimmel vorgestellt hat. Sternsagen und Mythen werden erzählt und auch das ptolemäische und das kopernikanische Weltsystem werden einander gegenübergestellt. Ausführliche Sachverzeichnisse mit über 3000 Suchbegriffen erleichtern den Zugang zu Stern- und Sternbildnamen und zur Mythologie.

  16. Integument und Anhangsorgane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, Harald

    Das Integument umhüllt den Wirbeltierkörper lückenlos. In der embryonalen Mundbucht (Stomodaeum) und der Afterbucht (Proctodaeum) grenzt es an die Auskleidung des Darmrohres. Über die generelle Bedeutung einer Haut als Abgrenzung zwischen Körperinnenraum und Außenmedium hinaus hat es bei Schädeltieren ein breites Spektrum von Funktionen. Die wichtigsten sind: Mechanischer Schutz durch Verhornungen und Verknöch erungen; Wundheilung; Schutz vor Wasserverlust; Schutz vor Infektionen durch bakterizide Drüsensekrete und immunkompetente Zellen; Schutz vor kurzwelliger Strahlung durch Pigmente; Schutz vor Überwärmung durch Schweißdrüsensekrete und Schutz vor Wärmeverlust durch Federn und Haare; Ausbildung lokomotorisch wichtiger Strukturen wie Federn, Flug- und Schwimmhäute, Krallen und Hufe; Redukt ion des Strömungswiderstandes durch Dämpfungshaut; Abgabe von Sekreten zur Ernährung (Milch); Ausbildung von Strukturen zu Nahrungserwerb und_-bearbeitung, z. B. Zähne, Barten;

  17. EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of S02 on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the post-combustion, downstream region (500 to 300 C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Laboratory ex...

  18. Synthesis of C60-Fused Tetrahydrocarbazole/Dibenzothiophene/Benzothiophene and Dibenzofuran Derivatives via Metal-Free Oxidative Dehydrogenative Carboannulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Xin; Ma, Jinliang; Chao, Di; Zhang, Pengling; Ma, Nana; Liu, Qingfeng; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guisheng

    2016-08-19

    A transition-metal-free oxidative dehydrogenative coupling reaction has been developed for the direct construction of novel C60-fused tetrahydrocarbazoles, dibenzothiophenes, benzothiophenes, and dibenzofurans. This new carboannulation reaction features high atom economy, operational simplicity, broad substrate scope, and excellent functional-group tolerance and provides a convenient access to a scarce class of fullerene derivatives. PMID:27487008

  19. PCDD/Fs formation catalyzed by the copper chloride in the fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yu T; Lin, Chieh; Chang-Chien, Guo P; Wang, Yu M

    2011-01-01

    The secondary formation of dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the flue gas and ash from the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) systems has attracted considerable public concern. The objective of our research was thus to examine reactions in fly ash from an MSWI operated with different precursors with similar chemical compositions, such as dibenzofurans (DFs), and metal chlorides, such as copper chloride (CuCl(2)). We observed that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in CuCl(2) and in a mixture of CuCl(2) and DFs were 369.5 and 5307.8 ng/g, respectively, and thus significantly higher in the latter. Due to the catalytic effect of copper ions and the similar structure of dibenzofurans for PCDFs, the effect of the additive in forming PCDD/Fs were obvious. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in CuCl(2) and copper oxide (CuO) were 369.5 and 97.05 ng/g, respectively. The results also show that the PCDD/Fs concentration when copper chloride was added was four times higher than when copper oxide was added. In addition, the level of activity of the chlorine atoms is greater than that of the oxygen atoms during the formation of PCDD/Fs. This study suggests that the use of metal-containing substances (such as Cu, Cl, Zn) or chlorination precursors (such as DF, chlorobenzene) should be avoided in the combustion process. PMID:21409699

  20. Katzenaugen und Sternsteine: Spielwiese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucke, Christian; Schlichting, Hans-Joachim

    2004-07-01

    Edelsteine vom Typ Chrysoberyll sind auch unter der Kurzbezeichnung Katzenauge bekannt. Im Chrysoberyll eingelagert sind feine, parallel angeordnete, metallisch glänzende Nadeln aus Rutil (Titandioxid). Auch Hohlkanäle und Risse durchziehen das Material. Lichtreflexion an diesen Einlagerungen und Kanälen erklärt das Lichtband, das dem Stein zu seinem Namen verhalf.

  1. Yucheng: health effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yueliang L; Lambert, George H; Hsu, Chen-Chin; Hsu, Mark M L

    2004-04-01

    Yucheng ("oil-disease") victims were Taiwanese people exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their heat-degradation products, mainly polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), from the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1978-1979. Serial studies in Yucheng offspring born between 1978 and 1992 are summarized. Children of the exposed women were born with retarded growth, with dysmorphic physical findings, and, during development, with delayed cognitive development, increased otitis media, and more behavioral problems than unexposed children. Recently, examination of the reproductive system has suggested that prenatal exposure exerts late effects on semen parameters in young men after puberty. Results of the investigation in Yucheng children will provide important information about the human health effects and toxicology of PCB/PCDF exposure. Prenatal exposure to these environmental chemicals causes the fetus to be sensitive to the toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants. PMID:14963712

  2. Antifungal dibenzofuran bis(bibenzyl)s from the liverwort Asterella angusta.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianbo; Xie, Chunfeng; Guo, Huaifang; Yu, Wentao; Lou, Hongxiang

    2007-07-01

    Bioactivity-guided separation of an antifungal extract from the liverwort Asterella angusta afforded four bis(bibenzyl)s, asterelin A (1), asterelin B (2), 11-O-demethyl marchantin I (3), and dihydroptychantol A (4), together with six known ones. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D-NMR, MS), and that of 2 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic diffraction analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples of dibenzofuran bis(bibenzyl)s. The antifungal activity of the isolated bis(bibenzyl)s against the common clinical pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was evaluated using both the thin-layer chromatography bioautographic assay and the broth microdilution method. They showed moderate antifungal activities with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 16 microg/ml to 512 microg/ml. PMID:17570447

  3. Chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans in human tissues from general populations: a selective review

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Fürst, Peter; Fürst, Christiane; Päpke, Olaf; Ball, Michael; Ryan, John J.; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Dai, Le Cao; Quynh, Hoang Trong; Cuong, H. Q.; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Phiet, Pham Hoang; Beim, Albert; Constable, John; Startin, James; Samedy, My; Seng, Yit Kim

    1994-01-01

    During the past decade a considerable amount of data has been generated concerning polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in humans from many geographical locations. To organize these data in a useful fashion for environmental purposes and for consideration of human toxicity, selected portions of our data are presented in a somewhat atypical fashion, by percentage contribution of individual congeners to total PCDD/Fs in human tissue, and to the total dioxin equivalents (TEq). This is done to better characterize congener contributions from environmental contamination in various geographical regions at this time and health-related levels. To present the findings in a global perspective, data from widely different locations are presented including the United States, Germany, Vietnam, the former Soviet Union, Thailand, Cambodia, China, South Africa, and Guam. PMID:8187705

  4. Partial physicochemical properties and relative stability of polyhydroxylated dibenzofurans: theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia-Qi; Qiu, Jing; Sun, Li; Wang, Meng; Wang, Fu-Yang; Wang, Zun-Yao

    2012-09-01

    Polyhydroxylated dibenzofuran (PHODF) is an important degradation product of polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF). Four types of hydrogen bonds (the one between a hydroxyl and the oxygen atom in the matrix, between hydroxyls at ortho positions, between the oxygen atom of hydroxyl at position 1 and the hydrogen atom of the matrix at position 9, and between hydroxyls at positions 1 and 9) exist in PHODFs. The energies of the hydrogen bonds were ascertained by comparing the two configurational isomers as approximately 8-11 kJ mol⁻¹, 16-21 kJ mol⁻¹, 5-8 kJ mol⁻¹ and 23-25 kJ mol⁻¹, respectively. An experiment was designed to verify the bond energies, and the entrance geometry on main paths was studied by AIM 2000 program. The most stable in each group of configurational isomers was ascertained on the basis of evaluating the effect of hydrogen bonds. Their thermodynamic properties (standard state entropy S°, standard enthalpy Δ(f)H° and standard Gibbs energy of formation Δ(f)G°) were calculated from the combination of density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311G** level and isodesmic reactions. Octanol/water partition coefficients (log K(ow)) were calculated on line with molinspiration methodology based on group contributions. The number and position of hydroxyl substitution (N(PHOS)) can be a good indicator of these properties for all stable PHODF congeners. The configurations most likely to form are those with a hydrogen bond (Type IV). How intramolecular hydrogen bond influences ionization was also investigated and the first-order ionization constant for each stable conformation was obtained with the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method. PMID:23085181

  5. Synthesis and aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding properties of radiolabeled polychlorinated dibenzofuran congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, K.; Safe, L.; Safe, S.

    1987-11-15

    Microchlorination of 1,4,9(/sup 3/H)dibenzofuran gave several polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) products and 2,3,7,8-(/sup 3/H)tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-(/sup 3/H)pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 1,2,3,6,7,8-/1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran (HCDF) of high specific activity (57, 34, and 32.5 Ci/mmol, respectively) were purified by preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography. These compounds were investigated as radioligands for the rat liver cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor protein. Like 2,3,7,8-(/sup 3/H)tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the radiolabeled PCDF congeners exhibited saturable binding with the receptor protein and sucrose density gradient analysis of the radiolabeled ligand-receptor complexes gave specific binding peaks with comparable sedimentation profiles. The rank order of radioligand binding affinities (Kd values) was 2,3,7,8-TCDD greater than 2,3,7,8-TCDF greater than 1,2,3,6,7,8-HCDF greater than 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF and the maximum difference in Kd values for the four radioligands was less than 13-fold (0.44-5.9 nM). The interactions of the PCDF radioligands with the cytosolic receptor all exhibited saturable binding curves and linear Scatchard plots and the slopes of their Hill plots were in the range 1.0-1.1, thus indicating that cooperativity was not a factor in these binding interactions. The relative stabilities and dissociation kinetics of the radioligand-receptor complexes were highly dependent on the structure of the radioligand. The dissociation curves of the 2,3,7,8-(/sup 3/H)TCDD and PCDF receptor complexes were biphasic and this suggests that there may be a temporal shift in ligand binding affinities. However, the rates of dissociation did not correlate with the rank order of ligand binding affinities.

  6. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  7. Synthesis of Carbazoles and Dibenzofurans via Cross-Coupling of o-Iodoanilines and o-Iodophenols with Silylaryl Triflates and Subsequent Pd-Catalyzed Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijian; Larock, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    An efficient route to a variety of carbazoles and dibenzofurans has been developed. It involves the reaction of o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols with silylaryl triflates in the presence of CsF to afford the N- or O-arylated products, which are subsequently cyclized using a Pd catalyst to carbazoles and dibenzofurans in good to excellent yields. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been synthesized in 76% overall yield in three steps. PMID:18180808

  8. Messung und Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin

    Für die Beurteilung von Akustik und Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes und Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- und Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.

  9. Getreide, Brot und Feine Backwaren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit

    Getreide und Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot und Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- und Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet und veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz und der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO und dem LFGB geregelt.

  10. Click-based synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of dibenzofuran tethered thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazolyl acetamides.

    PubMed

    Surineni, Goverdhan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2016-08-01

    A series of novel dibenzofuran tethered thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazolyl acetamides, designed by assembling antitubercular pharmacophoric fragments, dibenzofuran, 2-aminothiazole and substituted triazoles in one molecular architecture, were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The new analogues 6a-p accomplished in four step synthetic sequence utilizing click chemistry in the penultimate step, was fully characterized by their NMR and mass spectral data. Among the compounds 6a-p screened for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, three compounds 6j (MIC: 1.56μg/mL); 6a and 6p (MIC: 3.13μg/mL) was found to be most active and exhibited lower cytotoxicity. Among these three, 6j could be a candidate to consider as a drug like hit analogue for further development. PMID:27317646

  11. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos. PMID:14555402

  12. Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grömling, Michael; Scheinost, Ulrich

    Deutschland verfügt über ein gut ausgebautes System amtlicher und nicht amtlicher Unternehmens- und Marktstatistiken, das sich in einem fortwährenden Wandel befindet. Wird es sinnvoll genutzt, können für einzelne Marktteilnehmer wie für die gesamte Gesellschaft kostspielige Fehlentwicklungen vermieden werden. Dazu bedarf es eines sachkundigen Überblicks über die Vielfalt der Statistiken und der zwischen ihnen bestehenden Beziehungen sowie einer ständigen Anpassung an die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Als eine mögliche Orientierung kann der auf der Güter- und Faktorebene zu beobachtende Wandel dienen. Einer adäquaten Abbildung der ökonomischen Realität stehen in Deutschland mit seiner starken Verrechtlichung der Statistik jedoch mancherlei Schwierigkeiten im Wege. Teilweise tiefgreifende Reformbestrebungen sind vor allem auf europäischer Ebene im Gange. Als eine ergebnisorientierte Innovation für das Gesamtsystem der Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik wird ein modular aufgebautes System vorgestellt, das auch bei unterschiedlichen und sich wandelnden Rahmenbedingungen schrittweise realisiert werden kann.

  13. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  14. Geologie der terrestrischen Planeten und Monde.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöffler, D.

    Contents: 1. Inhalt und Aufgabe der Planetologie. 2. Aufbau des Sonnensystems. 3. Methoden der Exploration und Analyse der Planeten und Monde. 4. Geologische Grundprozesse auf den terrestrischen Planeten und Monden. 5. Geologische Formationen der planetaren Oberflächen. 6. Gesteine und Mineralien der planetaren Krusten. 7. Der innere Aufbau der terrestrischen planetaren Körper. 8. Vergleichende geologische Entwicklungsgeschichte der terrestrischen Planeten und des Mondes. 9. Ursprung und Entstehung der terrestrischen planetaren Körper.

  15. Mechanistic studies on the role of PAHs and related compounds in PCDD/F formation on model fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, J; Stieglitz, L; Dinjus, E; Will, R

    2001-01-01

    Model fly ashes containing Florisil, CuCl2.2H2O and PAHs with structures similar to dibenzo-p-dioxin or dibenzofuran were heated at 250 degrees C in He/O2 with regard to a supposed intramolecular reaction mechanism for oxygen incorporation. Highest reactivities in PCDF formation could be found for model compounds containing a biphenyl structure, while condensed pi-systems lead to a decrease in reactivity for such compounds. Biphenyl is almost completely converted to dibenzofuran. PCDD formation from six-membered rings like xanthene/9,10-dihydroanthracene is of minor importance. 18O-labeling of gaseous oxygen reveals no common reaction step for oxygen incorporation using 9-fluorenone, xanthene, diphenyl ether and diphenyl-2-carboxylic acid as model compounds. Pre-existing oxygen in reactants is a major source for ether groups in PCDD and PCDF. Determination of labeled and unlabeled CO and CO2 besides He/O2 reflects higher reactivities towards oxidation for model compounds containing ether groups than for compounds with carbonyl groups. PMID:11219705

  16. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-01-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  17. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of U. S. Vietnam veterans and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.K.; Watanabe, K.K.; Breen, J.; Remmers, J.; Conomos, M.

    1990-08-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of exposure to Agent Orange is for the most part attributable to its toxic contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). A total of 40 Vietnam veterans, 80 non-Vietnam veterans and 80 civilian men were selected from males born between 1936 and 1954 and their adipose tissues were analyzed for 17 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and dibenzofurans. TCDD levels were log normally distributed and the mean level of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in adipose tissue of the Vietnam veterans (13.4 ppt) was not significantly different from that of the non-Vietnam veterans (12.5 ppt) or civilian men (15.8 ppt). Adjusting for demographic variables did not change the conclusions. The study results suggest that heavy exposure to Agent Orange for most Vietnam veterans was very unlikely and that there is no readily available and reliable indirect method of assessing exposure to Agent Orange for Vietnam veterans.

  18. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  19. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, T.O.; Taylor, M.L.; Garrett, J.H.; VanNess, G.F.; Solch, J.G.; Wagel, D.J.; Ferguson, G.L.; Schecter, A.

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed.

  20. Human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzofurans associated with toxicity based on the yusho and yucheng incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.J.; Gasiewicz, T.A.; Brown, J.F. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are one group of man-made toxicants for which reasonably extensive data exist relevant to dose-response relationships in humans. Examination of contaminated food oil consumption from the yusho (Japan) poisoning incident indicates the mean uptake or body burden of 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) equivalents (PEQ) associated with nausea and anorexia to be 4.4 micrograms/kg body wt and that associated with chloracne to be 5.9 micrograms/kg. For the yucheng (Taiwan) poisoning incident, blood measurements for chloracne show a similar body burden of 4.0 micrograms/kg. The latter value is toxicologically equivalent to a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ) body burden of 2.0 micrograms/kg body wt or about 150 micrograms for an adult person. This corresponds to an adipose tissue level of about 10 micrograms/kg fat, and is comparable to that known to cause chloracne in rhesus monkeys. These body burdens on a TEQ basis are more than 200 times higher than the average current levels of PCDDs/PCDFs found in North American populations and are the first to relate human body burdens of PCDFs with a known effect and to compare them to animal data. Since the effects reported may not be the most sensitive indicator of human toxicity, lower body burdens could be associated with more subtle toxicological events.

  1. Cometabolic Degradation of Dibenzofuran and Dibenzothiophene by a Newly Isolated Carbazole-Degrading Sphingomonas sp. Strain▿

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Zhonghui; Yu, Bo; Li, Li; Wang, Ying; Ma, Cuiqing; Feng, Jinhui; Deng, Zixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-01-01

    A carbazole-utilizing bacterium was isolated by enrichment from petroleum-contaminated soil. The isolate, designated Sphingomonas sp. strain XLDN2-5, could utilize carbazole (CA) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Washed cells of strain XLDN2-5 were shown to be capable of degrading dibenzofuran (DBF) and dibenzothiophene (DBT). Examination of metabolites suggested that XLDN2-5 degraded DBF to 2-hydroxy-6-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienic acid and subsequently to salicylic acid through the angular dioxygenation pathway. In contrast to DBF, strain XLDN2-5 could transform DBT through the ring cleavage and sulfoxidation pathways. Sphingomonas sp. strain XLDN2-5 could cometabolically degrade DBF and DBT in the growing system using CA as a substrate. After 40 h of incubation, 90% of DBT was transformed, and CA and DBF were completely removed. These results suggested that strain XLDN2-5 might be useful in the bioremediation of environments contaminated by these compounds. PMID:17337542

  2. Patentierung und Patentlage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Uwe

    Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- und Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums und sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten und geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen und den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente und Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.

  3. Technikwissenschaft - Erfinden und Entdecken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Gerhard

    Umrissen wird das allgemeine Ziel der Technikwissenschaft, konstruktiv zu verwerten und nicht-natürlich Entdeckbares zu erfinden. Wir befinden uns in einer Umwälzung der Technik im Verlauf der wissenschaftlich-technischen Revolution, auf dem Wege zu einem neuen Techniktyp. Dieser schafft und nutzt die künstliche Intelligenz. Dazu benötigt der in der Technik tätige Mensch spezielle Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen in kreativ-konstruktiver, -gestalterischer und erfinderischer Sicht mit dem Einsatz spezieller Strukturen und Sprachen. Vorschläge zur Arbeitsweise in der Technik werden gegeben.Translated AbstractTechnological Science-Invent and DiscoverThe general aim of engineering science is outlined to utilize results constructively and to invent something that cannot be discovered in nature. We are now in a period of transformation of technology in the course of scientific-technological revolution, on the way to a new type of technology. This new type creates and utilizes artificial intelligence. For this, man acitive in this field requires special knowledge and experiences in a creative, constructive, design-oriented and ultimately inventive way by deploying special structures and languages. There are also made some proposals concerning the method of working in the field of technology.

  4. Relative Potency for Altered Humoral Immunity Induced by Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Dioxins/Furans in Female B6C3F1/N Mice

    PubMed Central

    Frawley, Rachel; DeVito, Michael; Walker, Nigel J.; Birnbaum, Linda; White, Kimber; Smith, Matthew; Maynor, Timothy; Recio, Leslie; Germolec, Dori

    2014-01-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants and incineration of bromine-containing materials has lead to an increase in polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in the environment. Measurable amounts of PBDD/Fs have been detected in soil, seafood, and human breast milk and serum. Studies indicate that the relative potencies of some PBDD/Fs based on enzyme induction are equivalent to those of some polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. To assess the humoral immunity relative potencies of PBDD/Fs and compare them to their chlorinated analogs, female B6C3F1/N mice received a single oral exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzofuran (TBDF), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentabromodibenzofuran (1PeBDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentabromodibenzofuran (4PeBDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), 2,3-dibromo-7,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (DBDCDD), or 2,3,7-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin (TriBDD). Inhibition of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody forming cell response was measured 4 days following immunization with sheep red blood cells. The data were fit to a Hill model to estimate the ED50 for inhibition. Expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) and thyroxine transport protein (Ttr) genes in liver was measured by PCR to assess aryl hydrocarbon-mediated responses. TCDD, TBDF, TCDF, 1PeBDF, 4PeBDF, 4PeCDF, and DBDCDD suppressed the IgM antibody response and Ttr gene expression, and upregulated phase I XME genes. 1PeCDF suppressed the IgM antibody response but only upregulated phase I XME genes; TriBDD had no effect on antibody response. The rank order of potency (ED50) for these chemicals was TCDD>TBDF>4PeBDF>TCDF/4PeCDF/1PeBDF>1PeCDF. Whereas TCDD was the most potent compound tested, the brominated analogs were more potent than their chlorinated analogs, suggesting that these compounds should be considered in toxic equivalency factor

  5. Occurrence of chlorinated and brominated dioxins/furans, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants in blood of German adults.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Hilger, Bettina; Albrecht, Michael; Gries, Wolfgang; Leng, Gabriele; Völkel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are widespread in the environment, and are associated with a particular health and ecological concern. The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was determined. Blood samples were collected in Germany, originating from 42 randomly selected subjects between 20 and 68 years old. The median (95th percentile) concentrations, expressed as WHO2005-TEQ for PCDD/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, were 6.2 (19.1) pg/g l.w. and 4.1 (8.8) pg/g l.w., respectively. PBDDs/Fs were found with a median of 2.8 pgTEQ/g l.w. and a 95th percentile of 8.7 pgTEQ/g l.w. (using similar interim TEF values as for PCDDs/Fs) On a median basis, the contribution of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and PBDDs/Fs to total TEQ were 47%, 31%, and 21%, respectively. The sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs exhibited a median of 267ng/g l.w. and a 95th percentile of 834ng/g l.w. The median value for the sum of six tetra- to hepta-PBDE congeners was 1.7ng/g l.w. (95th percentile: 4.9ng/g l.w.). BDE 209 was the most abundant congener with a median of 1.8ng/g l.w. HBCDs were only found in some samples, and concentrations ranged between the limit of detection (5ng/g l.w.) and the limit of quantification (16ng/g l.w.). Results for PBDEs and HBCDs are comparable to other European studies. Our study demonstrated that the body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs declined continously since the last three decades, but exposure may exceed precautionary guideline levels. PMID:27067547

  6. Venture Kapital und Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Sebastian; Beermann, Christian

    Um sich weiter im internationalen Wettbewerb behaupten zu können, müssen deutsche Unternehmen heute in Schlüsseltechnologien wie die Medizintechnik und die Biotechnologie, zusammenfassend unter dem Begriff der Life Sciences bekannt, investieren. Eine führende Wettbewerbsposition erfordert immer die konsequente Weiterentwicklung von Produkten und Lösungen, um Innovationspotenziale in medizinische Verfahren umzusetzen. Die damit unmittelbar verbundenen hohen Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung stellen ein bedeutendes Problem junger Life Science Unternehmen dar. Vor allem die, verglichen mit nicht-medizinischen Branchen, längeren Forschungs- und Entwicklungszyklen in der Frühphase eines Life Science Unternehmens und die längere Dauer bis zur Profitabilität erhöhen das Risiko der Finanzinvestoren. Die Zeitdauer, um ein medizinisches Produkt bis zur Marktreife zu entwickeln und letztlich auf dem Markt anzubieten, kann aufgrund der notwendigen intensiven Forschung nur unscharf geplant werden und erhöht die Unsicherheit über den Zeitpunkt der ersten Einnahmen. Damit verschärfen sich gerade im Life Science Bereich allgemeine Problematiken von Gründungs- und Wachstumsfinanzierungen wie starke Informationsasymmetrien zwischen Gründer und potentiellen Kapitalgebern. Oftmals ist die Entwicklung einer innovativen Technologie abhängig von einzelnen Personen, von deren Wissen und Engagement die Umsetzung und der Erfolg eines gesamten Produktkonzeptes abhängen.

  7. Comparative rates of photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans in organic solvents and in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dung, M.H. ); O'Keefe, P.W. State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY )

    1994-04-01

    A generator-column technique was used to prepare aqueous solutions of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The photolysis rate constants of 2,7-di-, 2,3,7,8-tetra-, and 1,2,7,8-tetra-CDF in aqueous solution irradiated at 300 nm were 1.3, 0.45, and 0.36 h[sup [minus]1], respectively. These photolysis rates were 4-15 times faster than the photolysis rates in organic solutions and, in the cases of 2,7-di CDF and 1,2,7,8-tetra-CDF, 20 times faster than in 60% acetonitrile/water. Thus, a solvent mixture of acetonitrile and water should not be used to study the photolysis of PCDFs in aqueous solution. The contribution of dechlorination to the overall loss of the PCDF compounds was determined. It was found that 10%, 70%, and 50% of photodecomposed 2,7-di-, 1,2,7,8-tetra-, and 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDF, respectively, were dechlorinated under 300-nm irradiation in hexane, compared with <1%, 17%, and 20% in water. Dechlorination may therefore be a major process in the photodecomposition of higher chlorinated PCDFs in hydrocarbon solvents but not in water. These results suggest that the mechanism of photolysis of PCDFs in water differs from that in organic solvents. It was also found that the sunlight photolysis rates of PCDFs in natural water were enhanced by indirect or sensitized photoreactions of chemicals naturally occurring in water. 34 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Mortality after exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dibenzofurans: 30 years after the “Yucheng Accident”

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Rogan, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 1979, approximately 2,000 people in central Taiwan were accidentally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans due to ingestion of contaminated cooking oil. This event was called Yucheng, “oil-syndrome” in Chinese. We followed the exposed persons and compared their cause-specific mortality with that of neighborhood referents 30 years after the accident. METHODS We obtained age- and gender-matched referents from the 1979 neighborhoods of the exposed people. Cause-specific mortality was compared between exposed subjects (N=1803) and their neighborhood referents (N=5170) using standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Total person-years for the Yucheng subjects and neighborhood referents were 48,751 and 141,774, respectively. RESULTS The SMR for all causes (SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.3), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0–1.6), and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (SMR=6.4, 95% CI: 2.8–12.7) were elevated in Yucheng subjects. Among Yucheng males, the SMRs for diseases of the digestive system (SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–2.8), malignant neoplasm of stomach (SMR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.5–7.0), and malignant neoplasm of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (SMR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–6.6) were increased. The SMR for total neoplasms was increased (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.7). CONCLUSION We conclude that exposure to PCBs/PCDFs at levels that produced symptoms in many affects mortality patterns 3 decades after exposure. PMID:23026800

  9. Regio- and stereospecific oxidation of fluorene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene by naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, S M; Gibson, D T

    1996-01-01

    The regio- and stereospecific oxidation of fluorene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene was examined with mutant and recombinant strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. The initial oxidation products were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Salicylate-induced cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain 9816/11 and isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced cells of Escherichia coli JM109(DE3)(pDTG141) oxidized fluorene to (+)-(3S,4R)-cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrofluorene (80 to 90% relative yield; > 95% enantiomeric excess [ee]) and 9-fluorenol (< 10% yield). The same cells oxidized dibenzofuran to (1R,2S)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1, 2-dihydrodibenzofuran (60 to 70% yield; > 95% ee) and (3S,4R)-cis-3, 4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzofuran (30 to 40% yield; > 95% ee). Induced cells of both strains, as well as the purified dioxygenase, also oxidized dibenzothiophene to (+)-(1R,2S)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1, 2-dihydrodibenzothiophene (84 to 87% yield; > 95% ee) and dibenzothiophene sulfoxide (< 15% yield). The major reaction catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase with each substrate was stereospecific dihydroxylation in which the cis-dihydrodiols were of identical regiochemistry and of R configuration at the benzylic center adjacent to the bridgehead carbon atom. The regiospecific oxidation of dibenzofuran differed from that of the other substrates in that a significant amount of the minor cis-3,4-dihydrodiol regioisomer was formed. The results indicate that although the absolute stereochemistry of the cis-diene diols was the same, the nature of the bridging atom or heteroatom influenced the regiospecificity of the reactions catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase. PMID:8899998

  10. Kometen und Asteroiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeest, Ulf; Staude, Jakob; Hahn, Gerhard; Harris, Alan W.; Jaumann, Ralf; Köhler, Ulrich; Kührt, Ekkehard; Schulz, Rita; Neukum, Gerhard; Arnold, Gabriele; Keller, Horst Uwe; Denk, Tilmann; Müller, Thomas; Wulff, André; Maruhn, Nicolaus; Fischer, Daniel; Trieloff, Mario; Althaus, Tilmann

    Contents: Die Kleinkörper des Sonnensystems. Kern, Koma und Schweife. Ziele der Planetenforschung. ROSETTA: Naherkundung von Kometen. Asteroiden: Trümmer aus planetarer Urzeit. Kleinkörper im Infrarotweltall. Selbs beobachten! Apocalypse - not now! Meteoriten - Boten aus der Urzeit des Sonnensystems.

  11. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  12. Arbeitsgestaltung und Mitarbeiterqualifizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin

    Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene und potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985

  13. Enzymatic Synthesis of Polybrominated Dioxins from the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins are arguably among the most toxic molecules known to man. In addition to anthropogenic sources, marine invertebrates also harbor polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins of as yet unknown biogenic origin. Here, we report that the bmp gene locus in marine bacteria, a recently characterized source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, can also synthesize dibenzo-p-dioxins by employing different phenolic initiator molecules. Our findings also diversify the structural classes of diphenyl ethers accessed by the bmp biosynthetic pathway. This report lays the biochemical foundation of a likely biogenetic origin of dibenzo-p-dioxins present in the marine metabolome and greatly expands the toxicity potential of marine derived polyhaloganated natural products. PMID:25061970

  14. STIMULATION OF [3H] ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS BY POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in electronic equipment, plastics, textiles, and building materials. While the presence of other persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin...

  15. MECHANISTIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PCDDS/FS, PCNS, PAHS, CLPHS, AND CLBZS IN MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive investigation was done to understand polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) formation mechanisms and their relationship with other organic compounds. PCDD/F, chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated naphthalenes were ...

  16. CHLOROBENZENES, CHLOROPHENOLS, PAHS AND LOW CHLORINATED DIOXIN/FURAN AS POST-BOILER TOXICITY INDICATORS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research studies have been conducted to establish indicator compounds for fast and less costly predictive monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs). Many studies have shown that chlorobenzenes and chlorophen...

  17. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  18. MONO- TO TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENSODIOXIN (CDD) AND DIBENZOFURAN (CDF) CONGENERS/HOMOLOGUES AS INDICATORS OF CDD AND CDF EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND WASTE/COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total homologue concentrations and select congener concentrations from amongst the mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) are used to model both total (mono- to octa-) CDD + CDF emissions and the toxicity equivalent (TEQ) of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-subst...

  19. ...und Einstein hatte doch recht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.; Leuchs, Anne; Leuchs, Gerd

    Keine wissenschaftliche Theorie ist auf solche Faszination auch außerhalb der Wissenschaft gestoßen wie die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie von Albert Einstein, und keine wurde so nachdrücklich mit den Mitteln der modernen Physik überprüft. Wie hat sie diesen Test mit Raumsonden, Radioastronomie, Atomuhren und Supercomputern standgehalten? Hatte Einstein recht? Mit der Autorität des Fachmanns und dem Flair des unvoreingenommenen Erzählers schildert Clifford Will die Menschen, Ideen und Maschinen hinter den Tests der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Ohne Formeln und Fachjargon wird der leser mit Einsteins Gedanken vertraut und erfährt von der Bestätigung seiner Vorhersagen, angefangen bei der Lichtablenkung im Schwerefeld der Sonne 1919 bis zu den ausgefeilten Kreiselexperimenten auf dem Space Shuttle. Die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie hat nich nur alle diese Tests bestanden, sie hat darüber hinaus wesentlich beigetragen zu unserem Verständnis von Phänomenen wie Pulsaren, Quasaren, Schwarzen Löchern und Gravitationslinsen. Dieses Buch erzählt lebendig und spannend die Geschichte einer der größten geistigen Leistungen unserer Zeit.

  20. Pyropheophorbide und a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll und a degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )

    1990-05-01

    An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {und a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {und a} was observed. HydroxyChl {und a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {und a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {und a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {und a}, chlorophyllide {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a}.

  1. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  2. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  3. Contamination status and accumulation features of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Korean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Hee-Gu; An, Yong-Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Moon, Dae-Yeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-11-15

    Data on the concentrations and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in cetaceans are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were measured in the blubber of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) collected from Korean coastal waters. Total dioxin-like toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations (6.5-31 pg/g lipid weight) in finless porpoises were lower than those reported for cetaceans and pinnipeds from other countries. Significant gender-specific differences were found in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs and this difference was associated with maternal and lactation transfer of contaminants from mature females to their fetus. All of the PCDD/F homologue groups were detected in all of the samples and the proportions of PCDFs were higher than those of PCDDs. The dominant congeners found in finless porpoise blubber were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and OCDD for PCDD/Fs and PCB 118 for DL-PCBs. The accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs in finless porpoise in our study were different from those found for cetaceans from other countries. Total TEQ levels in finless porpoises in Korea were below the suggested threshold values for adverse health effects in marine mammals. PMID:20724068

  4. High levels of PCBs in breast milk of Inuit women from arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E. ); Nantel, A.; Weber, J.P. ); Meyer, F. )

    1989-11-01

    In the last twenty years polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been identified as major contaminants of the natural environment. More recently, the presence of such toxic compounds was described in arctic regions. In this regions, PCBs have been found in water, snow, ice and air. The level of PCB contamination was significantly lower than that found at midlatitudes. PCB levels are often monitored because they could also reflect exposure to several other chemical contaminants such as other organochlorines. Other highly toxic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were found in the blubber from arctic ringed seals caught near the west coast of Spitzbergen. Since the closest known sources of PCDD and PCDF were several thousands of kilometers away, these results were surprising. The consumption of fish and marine mammals by the Inuit people is markedly higher than in the rest of the Canadian population and in some communities, sea mammals represent a significant part of the diet. It is possible that Inuit are exposed to an undesirably high of PCBs and other organochlorinated compounds. Levels of PCBs in the Inuit diet were assessed in Broughton Island, North West Territories, Canada. The present study was designed to assess the PCB levels in the breast milk of lactating Inuit women from the Hudson Bay region of Northern Quebec and of women from Southern Quebec.

  5. PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in food of animal origin (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Chovancová, Jana; Kocan, Anton; Jursa, Stanislav

    2005-12-01

    The levels of 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 73 foodstuff samples of animal origin collected from shops and small farms in selected districts of Slovak Republic are presented in this paper. The concentrations expressed as WHO-TEQ in analysed samples ranged for PCDDs/PCDFs from 0.25 pg/g fat in pork to 75 pg/g fat in cod liver. The TEQ concentrations of non-ortho PCBs were between 0.007 and 181 pg/g fat and mono-ortho PCBs between 0.0083 and 66.5 pg/g fat. The mean concentrations in freshwater fish and imported species of marine fish were 0.089 pg TEQ/g fresh weight for PCDDs/PCDFs, 0.17 pg TEQ/g fresh weight for non-ortho PCBs and 0.034 pg TEQ/g fresh weight for mono-ortho PCBs. The mean total concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in samples of infant milk formula imported from EU countries was 0.98 pg TEQ/g fat. PMID:16291405

  6. Fatty liver and hepatic function for residents with markedly high serum PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Yao, Yei-Jen; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Guo, Yue-Liang; Su, Huey-Jen

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the associations between serum polychtorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) levels and adverse hepatic-related health outcomes. Residents living in the vicinity of a closed pentachlorophenol (PCP) manufacturing factory (exposure area) and other areas nearby (control area) were identified from prior investigation of serum PCDD/Fs measurements. A total of 85 subjects were recruited for the study, 52 from exposure area and 33 from control, respectively. Average level of serum PCDD/Fs was 80.1 6 50.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid for those residing in exposure area, and 25.5 6 18.2 in control area. Statistically higher odds ratio (ORs) for fatty liver and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity was found in subjects with higher serum PCDD/Fs levels and high body mass index (BMI) as compared to those with lower PCDD/Fs levels and less BMI. Data suggest that dioxin exposure and high lipid content affect the prevalence of fatty liver in exposed subjects. Future study should be directed to prevent continuous exposure to environmental PCDD/Fs from the defunct PCP factory, and to characterize prospectively, with a larger study sample size, the potential long-term consequences on hepatic function associated with contaminant exposure. PMID:16455615

  7. Persistent organochlorinated pesticides and mechanisms of their toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mrema, Ezra J; Rubino, Federico M; Brambilla, Gabri; Moretto, Angelo; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-05-10

    Persistent organic pollutants comprised of organic chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and organochlorinated pesticides which have many characteristics in common. Once released in the environment they resist physical, biological, chemical and photochemical breakdown processes and thus persist in the environment. They are subject to long transboundary air pollution transport. They accumulate in the food chain due to their lipophilicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnification properties. Human exposure occurs through inhalation of air, ingestion of food and skin contact. Because most of them bioaccumulate and remain preferentially in fat, their long-term effects are still a matter of public health concern. They are condemned for health adverse effects such as cancer, reproductive defects, neurobehavioral abnormalities, endocrine and immunological toxicity. These effects can be elicited via a number of mechanisms among others include disruption of endocrine system, oxidation stress and epigenetic. However most of the mechanisms are not clear thus a number of studies are ongoing trying to elucidate them. In this review, the underlying possible mechanisms of action and their possible roles in adverse developmental and reproductive processes are discussed and where possible a linkage is made to some existing epidemiological data. Both genomic and nongenomic pathways are used to describe these effects. Understanding of these mechanisms will enable development of strategies to protect the public by reducing these adverse effects. This review is limited to persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and endosulfan. PMID:23219589

  8. Dioxins and human toxicity.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Natalija; Pašalić, Daria; Ferenčak, Goran; Gršković, Branka; Stavljenić Rukavina, Ana

    2010-12-01

    The term dioxins usually refers to polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). As 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has the highest toxic potential, the toxic potentials of other PCDDs and PCDFs are defined in comparison with it. Human exposure to dioxins can be environmental (background), occupational, or accidental pollution. In the human body, dioxins are in part metabolised and eliminated, and the rest is stored in body fat. People vary in their capacity to eliminate TCDD, but it is also dose-dependent; the elimination rate is much faster at higher than lower levels. The liver microsomal P4501A1 enzyme oxygenates lipophilic chemicals such as dioxins. It is encoded by the CYP1A1 gene. Cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates their carcinogenic action. It binds to dioxin, translocates to nucleus and together with hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) and xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) increases the expression of CYP1A1.Dioxins are classified as known human carcinogens, but they also cause noncancerous effects like atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Long-term exposures to dioxins cause disruption of the nervous, immune, reproductive, and endocrine system. Short-term exposure to high levels impairs the liver function and causes chloracne. The most sensitive population to dioxin exposure are the foetuses and infants.A large number of health effects have been documented in the scientific literature, and they all place dioxins among the most toxic chemicals known to man. PMID:21183436

  9. Effects of dioxins on the quantitative levels of immune components in infants.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hideo; Matsui, Eiko; Shinoda, Shinnji; Kawamoto, Norio; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Uehara, Ritei; Matsuura, Nobuo; Morita, Masatoshi; Tada, Hiroshi; Kondo, Naomi

    2006-04-01

    Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)+polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potentially hazardous compounds and have structural similarity with thyroid hormones. Animal studies have demonstrated that PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs can alter immune functions. However, in humans it is not yet elucidated whether dioxins contained in breast milk have any effects on the immune functions in infants. To investigate the effects of dioxins on the immune system, we compared the quantitative levels of immune components between a breast-fed group and bottle-fed group, in which dioxin concentration is almost zero. Ratios of immune cells, such as CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, as well as B-lymphocytes (CD19+ and/or CD20+) and NK cells (CD16+, CD56+) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum immunoglobulin level, and level of specific IgE antibody to allergens in the venous blood at 12 months of age were assessed in a subgroup of 281 infants. The relationship of post-natal dioxin exposure via breast feeding with the ratio of immunological markers and the level of humoral antibodies up to 12 month of age was not demonstrated. In conclusion, it would appear that the content of dioxins in breast milk in the Japanese general population is not enough to induce any change in theses-examined immunological parameters during the first year of life, although long-term effects remain to be evaluated. PMID:16716043

  10. Risk-management recommendations for dioxin contamination at Midland, Michigan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The report sets out risk management recommendations for contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378-TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) in and around Midland, Michigan. Included are: (1) a summary of the results of environmental studies undertaken by the U.S. EPA, the State of Michigan, and the Dow Chemical Company, including monitoring of air, soil, surface water, waste water, fish tissue, and garden vegetables for CDDs/CDFs; (2) a summary of possible health risks to Midland area residents resulting from exposures to CDDs/CDFs; (3) actions for minimizing emissions and discharges to the environment from Dow Chemical; (4) recommendations for residents of the Midland area on how to minimize exposures to CDDs/CDFs, and thus the possible health risks associated with these exposures; and (5) additional monitoring programs to delineate long-term trends in emissions and discharges of CDDs/CDFs, and to document changes in environmental contamination for the more significant human exposure routes. A summary of public comments on the Risk Assessment and on the Risk Management Recommendations is presented in an appendix.

  11. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37-70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms.

  12. Identification of genes potentially involved in solute stress response in Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 by transposon mutant recovery

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Edith; Roggo, Clémence; van der Meer, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The term water stress refers to the effects of low water availability on microbial growth and physiology. Water availability has been proposed as a major constraint for the use of microorganisms in contaminated sites with the purpose of bioremediation. Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium capable of degrading the xenobiotic compounds dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin, and has potential to be used for targeted bioremediation. The aim of the current work was to identify genes implicated in water stress in RW1 by means of transposon mutagenesis and mutant growth experiments. Conditions of low water potential were mimicked by adding NaCl to the growth media. Three different mutant selection or separation method were tested which, however recovered different mutants. Recovered transposon mutants with poorer growth under salt-induced water stress carried insertions in genes involved in proline and glutamate biosynthesis, and further in a gene putatively involved in aromatic compound catabolism. Transposon mutants growing poorer on medium with lowered water potential also included ones that had insertions in genes involved in more general functions such as transcriptional regulation, elongation factor, cell division protein, RNA polymerase β or an aconitase. PMID:25408691

  13. Formation and emission of PCDD/Fs in Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueli; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Xueping; Chen, Jiping

    2012-11-01

    Chlorine bleaching is still practiced by non-wood pulp and paper mills in China, resulting in considerable formation and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). We investigate the distribution of PCDD/Fs in different papermaking processes and dioxin emissions at six typical Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills. Raw materials for papermaking included reed, wheat straw, bamboo, and sugar cane bagasse. The formation and emission of PCDD/Fs varied strikingly according to bleaching processes and raw materials. Elemental chlorine bleaching promoted the formation of tetra- to octa-CDDs and 2,3,7,8-TCDF, while hypochlorite bleaching only gave rise to a significant increase of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Bleaching with elemental chlorine and hypochlorite increased 2,3,7,8-TCDF 0.9-42.5 and 0.3-4.1 times, respectively. Most of the 2,3,7,8-TCDF formed at hypochlorite bleaching stage was partitioned into the effluent, which indicated that hypochlorite bleaching was also an important emission source of dioxins. The removal of PCDD/Fs occurred visibly during alkaline digestion, alkaline extraction, and hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Furthermore, the annual emission of PCDD/Fs from Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills was evaluated. PMID:23067332

  14. Dioxins reformation and destruction in secondary copper smelting fly ash under ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnetta, Giovanni; Hassan, Mohammed Mansour; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Weber, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Secondary copper recovery is attracting increasing interest because of the growth of copper containing waste including e-waste. The pyrometallurgical treatment in smelters is widely utilized, but it is known to produce waste fluxes containing a number of toxic pollutants due to the large amount of copper involved, which catalyses the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (“dioxins”). Dioxins are generated in secondary copper smelters on fly ash as their major source, resulting in highly contaminated residues. In order to assess the toxicity of this waste, an analysis of dioxin-like compounds was carried out. High levels were detected (79,090 ng TEQ kg‑1) in the ash, above the Basel Convention low POPs content (15,000 ng TEQ kg‑1) highlighting the hazardousness of this waste. Experimental tests of high energy ball milling with calcium oxide and silica were executed to assess its effectiveness to detoxify such fly ash. Mechanochemical treatment obtained 76% dioxins reduction in 4 h, but longer milling time induced a partial de novo formation of dioxins catalysed by copper. Nevertheless, after 12 h treatment the dioxin content was substantially decreased (85% reduction) and the copper, thanks to the phenomena of incorporation and amorphization that occur during milling, was almost inactivated.

  15. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  16. Dioxins reformation and destruction in secondary copper smelting fly ash under ball milling.

    PubMed

    Cagnetta, Giovanni; Hassan, Mohammed Mansour; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Weber, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Secondary copper recovery is attracting increasing interest because of the growth of copper containing waste including e-waste. The pyrometallurgical treatment in smelters is widely utilized, but it is known to produce waste fluxes containing a number of toxic pollutants due to the large amount of copper involved, which catalyses the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans ("dioxins"). Dioxins are generated in secondary copper smelters on fly ash as their major source, resulting in highly contaminated residues. In order to assess the toxicity of this waste, an analysis of dioxin-like compounds was carried out. High levels were detected (79,090 ng TEQ kg(-1)) in the ash, above the Basel Convention low POPs content (15,000 ng TEQ kg(-1)) highlighting the hazardousness of this waste. Experimental tests of high energy ball milling with calcium oxide and silica were executed to assess its effectiveness to detoxify such fly ash. Mechanochemical treatment obtained 76% dioxins reduction in 4 h, but longer milling time induced a partial de novo formation of dioxins catalysed by copper. Nevertheless, after 12 h treatment the dioxin content was substantially decreased (85% reduction) and the copper, thanks to the phenomena of incorporation and amorphization that occur during milling, was almost inactivated. PMID:26975802

  17. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  18. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, Rennio F. de Tambosi, Jose L.; Floriani, Silvia L.; Virmond, Elaine; Schroeder, Horst Fr.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J.

    2009-09-15

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  19. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenya; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Arito, Heihachiro; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Takata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician's interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  20. Levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in breast milk of women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: assessment of the temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, Marta; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in breast milk from women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia, Spain. The results were compared with the levels obtained in previous surveys carried out in the same area in 1998 (baseline study), 2002 and 2007. The current total concentrations of 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/Fs in breast milk ranged from 18 to 126 pg g(-1)fat (1.1-12. 3 pg WHO2005-TEQPCDD/F), while the total levels of PCBs ranged from 27 to 405 pg g(-1)fat(0.7-5.3 pg WHO2005-TEQPCB). In turn, PBDE concentrations (sum of 15 congeners) ranged 0.3-5.1 g g(-1)fat, with a mean value of 1.3 ng g(-1)fat. A general decrease in the concentrations for PCDD/Fs, both planar and total PCBs, and PBDEs in breast milk was observed. The levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in milk of women living in urban zones were higher than those corresponding to industrial zones (41%, 26%, and 8%, respectively). For PCDD/Fs and PCBs, the current decreases are in accordance with the reduction in the dietary intake of these pollutants that we have also observed in recent studies carried out in the same area of study. PMID:23978672

  1. Long-term monitoring of dioxins and furans near a municipal solid waste incinerator: human health risks.

    PubMed

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2012-09-01

    Since 1996, a wide surveillance programme has been developed to get overall information on the impact of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have been periodically measured in soil and vegetation samples collected at locations in the incinerator surroundings. Furthermore, air PCDD/F levels have been also monitored by using active and passive sampling devices, generating a huge amount of information regarding the environmental status of the zone. In the last survey (2009-2010), mean PCDD/F levels in vegetation, soil and air were 0.06 ng I-TEQ kg(-1), 0.58 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) and 10.5 fg WHO-TEQ m(-3), respectively. Both soil and herbage showed a notable reduction in the PCDD/F concentrations in comparison with the baseline study, with this decrease only being significant for soils. In contrast, PCDD/F values in air remained similar during the whole assessment period. Human exposure to PCDD/Fs was evaluated under different scenarios, and the associated non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were assessed. The hazard quotient was below unity in all cases, while cancer risks were under 10(-6), which is lower than the maximum recommended guidelines. The current results clearly show that the MSWI of Tarragona does not produce additional health risks for the population living nearby. PMID:22826117

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 88-207-2195, Northwest Incinerator, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.; Bryant, C.J.

    1992-03-01

    In response to a request from the City of Philadelphia and the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, District Council 33, Local 427, an evaluation was undertaken of possible hazardous working conditions at the Northwest Incinerator (SIC-4953), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Full shift personal breathing zone and general area air samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), total dust, respirable dust, crystalline silica (14808607), and metals. Airborne concentrations of respirable nuisance dust were all well below the permissible exposure limits. Concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (1746016) (TCDD) equivalents ranged from 0.01 to 12.8 picograms per cubic meter. There was also significant lead (7439921) surface contamination in one wipe sample. The authors conclude that possible exposures to PCDDs/PCDFs via inhalation and from surface contamination did exist. The facility ceased operations immediately after the evaluation. The authors recommend measures to cut down on exposure should the site be reopened for use or remediation.

  3. Transplanted Lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea as a Multi-Tracer Monitoring Tool Near a Solid Waste Incinerator in Italy: Assessment of Airborne Incinerator-Related Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Owczarek, Malgorzata; Fantozzi, Luca; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    The ability of a transplanted lichen, Pseudovernia (P.) furfuracea, to act as a multi-tracer biomonitoring tool for As, Cd, Ni, Pb, 12 PAHs, 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 27 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated at six areas of varying risk (high, medium, negligible) of pollutant fallout from a municipal waste incinerator in central Italy. Transplanted P. furfuracea proved to be an useful tool to biomonitor PCDDs/Fs and PCBs. Concentrations of As, heavy metals, PAHs, PCDDs/Fs resulted similar for all monitored stations. Small differences in total PCBs (4378 and 4631 pg/g dw vs 3298, 4123, 3676 and 4022 pg/g dw) and dioxin-like PCBs (1235 and 1265 pg/g dw vs 794, 1069, 1106 and 1188 pg/g dw) were observed. Air concentrations of monitored compounds appear to be more related to general air pollution than point emissions from the incinerator. PMID:26205231

  4. Study on PCBs, PCDD/Fs, organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals and arsenic content in freshwater fish species from the River Turia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bordajandi, L R; Gómez, G; Fernández, M A; Abad, E; Rivera, J; González, M J

    2003-10-01

    In this study samples of common trout, European eel and barbel have been analysed for the levels of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and the metalloid arsenic (As). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including three non-ortho substituted PCBs, 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and DDT and its two main metabolites were also analysed in some selected samples, in order to evaluate the extent of contamination of the River Turia basin. All samples presented detectable levels of the elements analysed, presenting zinc the highest concentrations. European eel was the species found to highly accumulate these contaminants. Regarding organochlorinated compounds, seven samples exhibited detectable levels of the most toxic PCDD/Fs congener, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Non-ortho PCBs were not detected or not quantified in almost all samples and the sum of the individual PCB congeners determined were low compared to other aquatic ecosystems with similar fish species. PMID:12892679

  5. Partial removal of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBS, and PCBS from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by a column flotation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash has recently attracted much attention because of its large quantity and enrichment of high toxic combustion generating organohalogen contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since the organohalogen contaminants in MSWI fly ash are known to be enriched in the unburnt carbon (UC) fraction, the organohalogen contaminants can therefore be removed by the removal of UC. In this research, we used a modified column flotation technique to remove the organic contaminants from MSWI fly ash. UC was removed for 27.7% under the flotation condition without chemical flotation aids. The removal efficiencies of UC, PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs, and PCBs are further improved by adding flotation aids during the flotation process. UC was removed for 49.0% by adding a collector assistant with a HLB value of 13.5 and a concentration in the kerosene of 3% during the flotation process. In addition,the UC removal efficiencies are increased with the decrease of the diameter of the micropores in the gas spargers. By optimizing the flotation condition, 41.9% total PCDD/Fs, 40.8% coplanar PCBs, and 44.1% PCBs with 64.0% UC have been successfully removed from MSWI fly ash. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the fly ash was decreased from 6.2 ng/g to 4.2 ng/g in the residue. PMID:17265956

  6. Origin and Health Impacts of Emissions of Toxic By-Products and Fine Particles from Combustion and Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Wastes and Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Stephania A.; Lomnicki, Slawo; Backes, Wayne; Dellinger, Barry

    2006-01-01

    High-temperature, controlled incineration and thermal treatment of contaminated soils, sediments, and wastes at Superfund sites are often preferred methods of remediation of contaminated sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and related legislation. Although these methods may be executed safely, formation of toxic combustion or reaction by-products is still a cause of concern. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans; and toxic metals (e.g., chromium VI) have historically been the focus of combustion and health effects research. However, fine particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine PM, which have been documented to be related to cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and cancer, have more recently become the focus of research. Fine PM and ultrafine PM are effective delivery agents for PAHs, CHCs, and toxic metals. In addition, it has recently been realized that brominated hydrocarbons (including brominated/chlorinated dioxins), redox-active metals, and redox-active persistent free radicals are also associated with PM emissions from combustion and thermal processes. In this article, we discuss the origin of each of these classes of pollutants, the nature of their association with combustion-generated PM, and the mechanisms of their known and potential health impacts. PMID:16759977

  7. An investigation on pollutant emissions from co-firing of RDF and coal.

    PubMed

    Chyang, Chien-Song; Han, Yun-Long; Wu, Li-Wei; Wan, Hou-Peng; Lee, Hom-Ti; Chang, Ying-Hsi

    2010-07-01

    Pollutant emissions from co-firing of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal were investigated in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC). RDF-5 was made of common municipal solid waste (MSW). CaCO(3) was injected in the combustor to absorb HCl at 850 degrees C. The results show that NO(x) and HCl emissions increase with RDF-5 co-firing ratio. The NO(x) concentration in flue gas at the bottom of the combustor is higher than that at the top. However, the trend of HCl released is reverse compared with NO(x) emissions. It was found that the HCl concentration decreases with increasing the molar ratio of Ca/Cl. However, the effect of CaCO(3) addition on HCl retention is not significant when the molar ratio of Ca/Cl is higher than 5. The chlorine content in fly ash increases obviously with the molar ratio of Ca/Cl. PCDD/Fs emissions decrease slightly with an addition of CaCO(3). In this study incomplete combustion is regarded as the main cause for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) formation. PMID:20022739

  8. The occurrence of Dechlorane Plus and related norbornene-based flame retardants in Baltic wild salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Rjabova, Jekaterina; Bartkevics, Vadims; Zacs, Dzintars

    2016-03-01

    Twenty five Baltic wild salmon (Salmo salar) specimens were analysed for the content of Dechlorane-related compounds (DRCs). Out of the ten analysed DRCs, seven compounds were detected in the muscle tissues of salmon, including Dechlorane (Dec) 602, Dec 603, syn- and anti-stereoisomers of Dechlorane Plus (DP), Dechlorane Plus monoadduct (1,3-DPMA), hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (DBHCTD), and Mirex. The concentrations of Dec 604 and two DP dechlorinated compounds - decachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl10DP) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl11DP) - were below the limit of detection in all samples. The aggregated concentrations of DRCs (ΣDRC) were in the range of 551-3339 pg g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.) with 1,3-DPMA being the predominant DRC component contributing up to 70% to the ΣDRC. The fractional abundance of syn- and anti-DP stereoisomers showed a pronounced enrichment of anti-DP and was close to the composition of OxyChem(®) DP commercial product. The obtained concentrations of DRCs were substantially lower than those reported in previous studies of biotic samples (among them fish, mollusks, white stork and peregrine falcon eggs) from inland freshwater reservoirs in more industrialised areas throughout Europe and North America. A statistically significant relationships between the concentrations of Dec 602 and the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was observed. PMID:26766358

  9. PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs in dissolved, suspended and settling particulate matrixes from the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Naef, C.; Broman, D.; Zebuehr, Y.

    1994-12-31

    The occurrence and dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discussed on the basis of results from samples taken at pristine coastal and off shore locations in the Baltic Sea. The sampling techniques used were high volume cross flow filtration and sediment traps for suspended and settling particulate matter, respectively, and polyurethane foam adsorbents for the compounds associated with the apparently dissolved fractions. All samples were Soxhlet extracted with toluene and separated on a HPLC system followed by quantification on GS/MS. The importance of parameters such as concentrations of particulate lipids, particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon, etc. for the distribution of the compounds between the suspended and settling particulate matrixes and the dissolved phase in the water are discussed. In situ determined particulate organic carbon-water partition coefficients as well as predicted dissolved organic carbon-water partition coefficients and approximations of the average ``truly`` dissolved concentrations are presented. The particulate and dissolved concentrations in the mixed surface layer are discussed in perspective to the particulate flux of PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs.

  10. Using exterior building surface films to assess human exposure and health risks from PCDD/Fs in New York City, USA, after the World Trade Center attacks.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations of tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in exterior window films from Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City (NYC), USA, 6 weeks after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 11 September 2001. High concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners (P(2378)CDD/Fs) were observed, at levels up to 6600 pg-TEQ g(-1) nearest the WTC site. An equilibrium partitioning model was developed to reconstruct total gas + particle-phase atmospheric concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs at each site. The reconstructed atmospheric and window film concentrations were subsequently used in a preliminary human health risk assessment to estimate the potential cancer and non-cancer risks posed to residents of lower Manhattan from these contaminants over the 6 week exposure period between the WTC attacks and sampling dates. Residents of lower Manhattan appear to have a slightly elevated cancer risk (up to 1.6% increase over background) and increased P(2378)CDD/F body burden (up to 8.0% increase over background) because of above-background exposure to high concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs produced from the WTC attacks during the short period between 11 September 2001, and window film sampling 6 weeks later. PMID:16314211

  11. Infant exposure assessment for breast milk dioxins and furans derived from waste incineration emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.H.

    1987-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been detected in human milk samples obtained in several countries. Possible sources include emissions from incineration of municipal waste in resource recovery facilities. A formula is presented for calculating the infant daily dose of dioxin equivalents from breast milk on the basis of the maternal daily intake. Application of the formula suggests that an infant breast-fed for 12 months would receive around 10% of the cumulative exposure dose per body weight that would be received by an adult with 50 years of exposure. Further analysis indicated that the contribution of dioxin equivalents from breast milk to an infant's body concentration at the end of 12 months of breast feeding would amount to 1.7 times the concentration in the mother. However, dioxin and furan emissions from a source calculated to result in worst-case lifetime cancer risks of the order of 1 in 100,000 are only likely to increase breast milk concentrations by around 1%-10% of the levels that have been detected in several countries. This finding suggests that there are major sources of dioxins and furans other than from municipal solid waste incineration that need to be identified.

  12. Contamination profiles of selected PCB congeners, chlorinated pesticides, PCDD/Fs in Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Alessandra; Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of some major environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic samples. Concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Antarctic fur seal pups and eggs of three species of penguins. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was the main pollutant, followed by PCBs; other organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCDD/Fs were usually found only in minor quantities. Adélie penguin eggs had significantly higher mean PCB concentrations (p<0.05) compared to the other two penguin species, but there was no difference in DDT levels (p>0.05). TEQ values in fur seal blubber in our study were one order of magnitude lower than those considered to elicit physiological effects in aquatic mammals. In general, POP concentrations in our samples suggested that likely the study populations were not currently at risk for adverse health effects, but indicated a clear need for further monitoring to assess the presence and time trend of a broad range of contaminants, mainly emerging POPs thought to be increasing in polar regions. PMID:19375148

  13. Evaluation of organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and their main prey (Columba livia) inhabiting central Spain.

    PubMed

    Merino, Rubén; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    The population of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus sbs. brookei) inhabiting the Regional Park of southeastern Madrid (RPSM), Spain, has experienced an increase of unsuccessful pairs (from 15% among a total of 20 pairs in 1995 to 55% among a total of 18 pairs in 2001). Traditionally, this area has been known to be contaminated with organochlorine compounds and toxic metals, which are known to be deleterious to the reproductive system of birds. During the breeding seasons of 2000 and 2001, contaminant residues were measured in unhatched eggs of peregrine falcons and liver of their main prey, to determine if they could be affecting the survival of the population. The most abundant contaminants were ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (ortho-PCBs), ranging from 202.56 to 3,335.16 ng/g (wet wt) in falcon eggs and from 10.25 to 53.51 ng/g (wet wt) in pigeon livers. In all samples, the 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected, although these levels never exceeded 20 pg/g (wet wt). The major contributor to total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) were non-ortho-PCBs. Organochlorine levels found in this study may contribute to the entire suite of stressors that are negatively affecting the peregrine population. PMID:16152983

  14. Osprey distribution, abundance, reproductive success and contaminant burdens along lower Columbia River, 1997/1998 versus 2004.

    PubMed

    Henny, C J; Grove, R A; Kaiser, J L

    2008-04-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the lower portion of the Columbia River (river mile 29 to 286) increased from 94 in 1997 to 103 occupied nests in 1998 (9.6% annual rate of increase) to 225 occupied nests in 2004 (13.9% annual rate of increase). The more recent rate of population increase was associated with higher reproductive rates than in 1997/1998, and significantly lower egg concentrations of most organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). A comparison of observed egg residue concentrations in 2004 with effect-level information for ospreys indicated that reproduction at few, if any, nests was adversely affected. As recent as 1997/1998, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was still adversely affecting reproductive success for a portion of this population. Mercury was the only contaminant evaluated in both 1997/1998 and 2004 that showed a significant increase in eggs over time, but concentrations in 2004 (0.09 microg g(-1) ww) remained below established effect levels for birds (generally reported at 0.50 microg g(-1) ww or higher). The significant increase in mercury justifies the need for future monitoring. All contaminants mentioned that biomagnify up food chains can be effectively monitored in osprey eggs. The osprey has been shown to be an excellent sentinel species for long-term monitoring with their many useful traits described. PMID:17926083

  15. Multiple Lines of Evidence Risk Assessment of Terrestrial Passerines Exposed to PCDFs and PCDDs in the Tittabawassee River Floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, Timothy B.; Giesy, John P.; Coefield, Sarah J.; Seston, Rita M.; Tazelaar, Dustin L.; Roark, Shaun A.; Kay, Denise P.; Newsted, John L.; Zwiernik, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    A site-specific multiple lines of evidence risk assessment was conducted for house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) along the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, where concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in flood-plain soils and sediments are greater compared to upstream areas and some of the greatest anywhere in the world. Lines of evidence supporting the population-level assessment endpoints included site-specific dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments and population productivity measurements during breeding seasons 2005–2007. While a hazard assessment based on site-specific diets suggested that populations residing in the downstream floodplain had the potential to be affected, concentrations in eggs compared to appropriate toxicity reference values (TRVs) did not predict a potential for population-level effects. There were no significant effects on reproductive success of either species. The most probable cause of the apparent difference between the dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments was that the dietary-based TRVs were overly conservative based on intraperitoneal injections in the ring-necked pheasant. Agreement between the risk assessment based on concentrations of PCDFs and PCDDs in eggs and reproductive performance in both species supports the conclusion of a small potential for population-level effects at this site. PMID:21804755

  16. Properties of Blood, Porphyrins, and Exposure to Legacy and Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) Overwintering on the South Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L. K.; Harris, M. L.; Trudeau, S.; Ikonomou, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    The surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) is a little-studied species of North American sea duck. Estimates suggest it has experienced a precipitous decline in breeding numbers over the latter half of the past century. To investigate the potential role of contaminant uptake and toxicity in the population decline, this study undertook to measure blood chemistry, porphyrin concentrations, EROD, and organic contaminants in mature surf scoters wintering in the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada. Hepatic organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether, and nonylphenol concentrations were relatively low; for example, ΣTEQs (toxic equivalents) for PCBs, dioxins, and furans combined ranged from 4.7 ng/kg wet weight in reference-site (Baynes Sound) birds to 11.4 ng/kg wet weight in birds from Vancouver Harbour. Nonetheless, elevated EROD activity indicated that birds in Howe Sound were responding to an Ah-receptor-mediated stressor, which was also affecting hematocrit values and possibly vitamin A status. In addition, a low proportion of lymphocytes in individuals across locations in early spring samples was associated with poor body condition. The apparent loss of fitness just prior to the onset of northerly migrations to breeding grounds is of particular concern. Compromised health of mature birds at this point in the season might impact negatively on the productivity and survival of some individuals, particularly those overwintering in Howe Sound. PMID:20204344

  17. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk from populations in Madrid and Paris

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Hernandez, L.M.; Jimenez, B.

    1996-02-01

    Human breast milk represents a good substrate to examine the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) background contamination of a population and also supplies important information about the exposure risk for nursing infants. Although adipose tissue and blood samples are commonly studied in the literature milk Dioxin levels are more specifically of concern because of the facility of sampling and also the potential health damage which may be caused to the breastfed babies by those highly toxic synthetic chemicals. The occurrence of dioxins in mother milk among the general population in all countries studied until now, has confirmed a widespread pollution and intake of those compounds. Dietary and other sources such as contaminated chemicals, industrial activity, waste combustion and leaded car gasoline may be responsible for such a contamination, and also for the differences among levels found in different countries. Human contamination by PCDDs and PCDFs from the environment is clearly a multisource problem. Human milk as well as other human fluids studies up to know have only found the presence of 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDD or PCDF congeners present. The reason for this congener specific retention is usually explained by the metabolic conversion on the 2,3,7, and 8 lateral positions in combination with high binding affinities for the cytosolic receptor proteins.

  18. Health effects three years after potential exposure to the toxic contaminants of an electrical transformer fire.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, E F; Weinstein, A L; Youngblood, L G; Standfast, S J; Melius, J M

    1989-01-01

    A medical surveillance program has been established for 482 persons who were potentially exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from an electrical transformer fire in a Binghamton, NY office building in 1981. Vital Record and Cancer Registry data, medical records, and mail questionnaires were used to assess mortality, symptomatology, cancer incidence, and reproductive events through 1984. The numbers of deaths, cancers, fetal deaths, and infants with low birth weight or congenital malformations were similar to those expected on the basis of age- and sex-specific rates for upstate New York and other comparison populations. Two suicides were observed compared with 0.31 expected, but the difference was not statistically significant. After adjustment for possible confounders, persons with the greatest degree of potential exposure were significantly more likely than those with less exposure to report unexplained weight loss (relative risk [RR] = 12.80), muscle pain (RR = 5.07), frequent coughing (RR = 4.14), skin color changes (RR = 3.49), and nervousness or sleep problems (RR = 3.19). The possibility of recall bias and the intervening effects of stress, however, weaken the conclusion that toxic chemicals caused the symptomatology. Exposure-related systemic disorders, e.g., chloracne or peripheral neuropathy, were not diagnosed by personal physicians; however, some persons refused to release their medical records because of ongoing litigation. The findings are consistent with those of our earlier assessment. PMID:2506840

  19. Submerged arc furnace process superior to the Waelz process in reducing PCDD/F emission during thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-Qian; Huang, Shao-Bin; Liao, Wei-Tung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Besides the Waelz process, the submerged arc furnace (SAF) process has also been extensively used to retain metals from ashes and scraps in the metallurgical industry. However, very little is known about the formation and depletion of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from this thermal process. In this study, an electric arc furnace (EAF) dust treatment plant adopting the SAF process was investigated and compared to the plant adopting the Waelz process. The predominant contributor of PCDD/F I-TEQ input was the EAF dusts, accounting for 98.4% of the total. The PCDD/F contents in the generated fly ashes of the SAF were extremely low, as almost all the organic compounds for PCDD/F formation were decomposed by the high operating temperatures (1500-1700 °C) of the SAF. Therefore, the PCDD/F emission factor of the SAF process (46.9 μg I-TEQ/tonne-EAF dust) was significantly lower than that of the Waelz process (840-1120 μg I-TEQ/tonne-EAF dust). Its PCDD/F output/input ratios (0.23 and 0.50 based on mass and toxicity) were also lower than those of the Waelz process plant (0.62 and 1.19). Therefore, the SAF process is superior to the Waelz process in reducing the potential of PCDD/F formation. PMID:23955252

  20. MSW (municipal solid waste) subscale rotary combustor R D support program

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, D.M.; Yang, W.C.; D'Amico, N.; Newby, R.A.; Ulerich, N.H.; Keairns, D.L.; Chamberlin, R.M.

    1990-01-29

    The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an important source of renewable energy. The objective of the present support studies is to extend our understanding of important hydrodynamic and chemical mechanisms that affect incinerator efficiency and environmental performance. The work is broken down into several tasks, each with specific goals as summarized here. Task 1, Chemical Reaction Phenomena, is intended to develop an understanding of the formation and destruction mechanisms for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). A model basis for examining the effects of incinerator operating conditions and design parameters on the emissions of these species was developed. The objective of Task 2, Hydrodynamics, was to develop an understanding of the solids and gas flow and mixing phenomena in rotary incinerators. The goal of Task 3, Process Design, was to develop the basis for engineering modelling of overall combustor performance, particularly as related to minimization of toxic and regulated emissions. The purpose of Task 5, Monitoring, Instrumentation, and Control, was to make recommendations for the utilization of advanced control techniques, in particular of on-line diagnostics, that can be used to improve rotary combustor operation, particularly with regard to emissions control. 64 refs., 43 figs., 13 tabs.