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Sample records for dibenzo-p-dioxine und dibenzofurane

  1. EVALUATION OF METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYHALOGENATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    General Metals works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated...

  2. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A short-term study for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in ambient air in Green Bay, Wisconsin, has been completed. eneral Metals Works PS-1 air samplers equipped with particle filters and polyurethane foam (PUF)...

  3. MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BROMOCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans containing both chlorine and bromine substituents are known to be constituents of municipal incinerator fly ash. his report presents analytical confirmation criteria for these compounds based upon GC/MS parameters. ass spectra of 26 representat...

  4. DECONVOLUTING THE FORMATION PATHWAYS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS/ DIBENZOFURANS (PCDD/F)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) during the operation a sooting flame have been observed in prior work on an entrained flow reactor (EFR) in a project addressing the parameters important for such formation (i.e., fly ash type and amount,...

  5. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR BROMINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Brominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide healt...

  6. ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are toxic compounds which are dispersed through the environment by atmospheric transport and deposition. It has been previously shown that there is a varying mixture of these compounds produced by c...

  7. KEY PARAMETERS FOR DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    De novo formation of polychlorinated- dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was investigated in an Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) to simulate combustion conditions. The parameters investigated were carbon content and nature in fly ash; type of gas- phase environment...

  8. The toxicity of brominated and mixed-halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.W.D. |; Greim, H.

    1997-02-21

    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans can be formed under laboratory conditions by pyrolysis of flame retardants based on polybrominated biphenyls and biphenyl ethers. Their occurrence in the environment, however, is due to combustion processes such as municipal waste incineration and internal combustion engines. As these processes generally take place in the presence of an excess of chlorine, predominantly mixed brominated and chlorinated compounds have been identified so far in environmental samples. Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins or dibenzofurans bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor about as avidly as their chlorinated congeners and induce hepatic microsomal enzymes with comparable potency. The same holds true for mixed brominated-chlorinated compounds. Gross pathologic symptoms-hypothyroidism, thymic atrophy, wasting of body mass, lethality-also occur at doses that, on a molar concentration basis, are virtually identical to those seen with the chlorinated compounds. Their potency to induce malformations in mice following prenatal exposure is equivalent to that of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Possible activities as (co)carcinogens and endocrine disrupters have not been evaluated, but are likely to exist. Considering the overall similarity in action of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, environmental and health assessment should be based on molar body burdens without discrimination for the nature of the halogen. 107 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  9. Formation of mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs).

    PubMed

    Saeed, Anam; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-10-01

    This contribution investigates mechanistic and kinetic parameters pertinent to formation of mixed dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) from the condensation reactions involving 2-chlorophenoxy (2-CPxy) and 2-bromophenoxy (2-BPxy) radicals. Keto-ether structures act as direct intermediates for the formation of DD, 1-MCDD, 1-MBDD, 1-B,6-CDD and 1-B,9-CDD molecules. Likewise, diketo adducts initiate the formation of 4-MCDF, 4-MBDF and 4-B,6-CDF compounds through interconversion and rearrangement reactions. As formation mechanisms of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from precursors of brominated and chlorinated phenols are insensitive to substitution at meta and para sites, our mechanistic and kinetic analysis of reactions involving 2-BPxy and 2-CPxy should also apply to higher halogenated phenoxy radicals. PMID:26159067

  10. Evaluation of methodology for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and 13C12-1234-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hours to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with 13C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to clean-up procedures using microcolumns of silica gel, alumina and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from this study satisfied QA/QC requirements for analytical data and demonstrated that the methodology could accurately determine pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of these compounds in ambient air. Background levels detected in ambient air are also discussed.

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHLORINE SPECIATION ON DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of chlorine speciation on de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been thoroughly studied in an entrained flow reactor during simulated waste combustion. Namely, the affects of gas-phase chlorine species suc...

  12. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: CORRELATION BETWEEN IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (SARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) elicit a number of common biologic and toxic responses which are triggered by their initial binding to a cytosolic receptor protein. hese effects include the induction of several cytochrome P-448 dependent monoox...

  13. ISOMER DEPENDENT BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR FLY ASH TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The isomer dependent bioavailability of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous flow exposure readily accumulated selec...

  14. EVALUATION OF A SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high esolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were valuated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibe...

  15. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  16. ON-ROAD SAMPLING OF DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to sample mobile heavy duty diesel engine emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran ("PCDD/F") during highway and in-city driving routes was conducted. The post-muffler stacks of two diesel tractors hauling loaded tra...

  17. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  18. THE EFFECT OF METAL CATALYSTS ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds were examined for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulati...

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  20. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  1. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors. PMID:10448567

  2. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively. PMID:25083749

  3. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Brominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine a Reference Dose (RfD) or a carcinogenic potency factor for brominated diben-p- dioxins and dibenzofurans. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  4. ROLE OF COMBUSTION AND SORBENT PARAMETERS IN PREVENTION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN FORMATION DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research uses experimental data and a statistical approach to determine the effect of combustion- and sorbent-injection-related parameters on the mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF, respectively) formation and preven...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  6. Prevalence of low chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans in human serum.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyokeun; Kim, Jongchul; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-02-01

    Mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (DD/Fs) have not been studied as extensively as the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. In this study for the first time, mono- to octa-chlorinated DD/Fs were analyzed for seventy one human serum samples collected from incinerator workers as well as residents living near and far from the facility. The mean concentrations of ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs and 17-toxic congeners were 1890 and 398 pg g(-1) lipid (11.9 TEQ pg g(-1) lipid), respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD were predominant congeners that accounted for more than 78% of the TEQ concentrations. The profile for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) was dominated by the most chlorinated congener, OCDD (>58%), while decreasing concentrations with increasing degree of chlorination were seen for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs); MoCDFs (>83%) and DiCDFs (>6%). ∑Cl(1-3)DD/Fs accounted for 77% of the serum concentrations of ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs. These findings confirm that human beings are exposed to a large amount of ∑Cl(1-3)DD/Fs. Moreover, MoCDFs contributed more than 60% of the ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs and was highly correlated with ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs. Thus, 2-MoCDF could be a predictive indicator for ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs (r(s)=0.96), and the combination of 2-MoCDF and OCDD could explain the 95.9% variation in the serum of ∑Cl(1-8)DD/Fs. These results suggest that low chlorinated DD/Fs should be studied extensively until these low chlorinated congeners will have been elucidated for their toxicities. PMID:23062831

  7. Environmental applications for the analysis of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, E.J.; Schellenberg, D.H.; Taguchi, V.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    A mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-multiple reaction monitoring (MS/MS-MRM) technique for the analysis of all tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Cl{sub x}DD, x = 4-8) and dibenzofurans (Cl{sub x}DF, x = 4-8) has been developed at the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) utilizing a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Optimization of instrumental parameters using the analyte of interest in a direct insertion probe (DIP) resulted in sensitivities approaching those obtainable by high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) methods. All congeners of dioxins and furans were detected in the femtogram range. Results on selected samples indicated that for some matrices, fewer chemical interferences were observed by MS/MS than by HRMS. The technique used to optimize the instrument for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) analysis is adaptable to other analytes.

  8. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins and other chlorinated contaminants in cow milk from various locations in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.; Lindstroem, G.; Buser, H.R.; Blaser, O.; Wuethrich, C.

    1987-10-01

    Six samples of cow milk from various locations in Switzerland were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and other chlorinated contaminants. Sub parts per trillion levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs and PCDDs were found in all samples. The levels were higher in samples collected in the vicinity of incinerators. Non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were not found in the milk samples.

  9. Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sook Hyeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Matsuda, Muneaki; Wakimoto, Tadaaki

    2002-09-01

    Soil samples were collected from Changwon and Masan Cities, Korea, and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). Nearly all tetra- through octachlorinated PCDDs/DFs including the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/DFs were detected in all samples. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TeCDD) equivalents (TEGs) in soils ranged from 35 to 121,400 pg/g, dry weight, and from 0.2 to 3720 pg of I-TEQ/g, respectively. On the basis of guidelines for TEQ concentrations established in Germany and the United States, 9 of 23 soil samples (39% of the total samples analyzed) could not be expected to pose human health hazards. The rest of 61% of soils need measures such as investigations of source identification, soil decontamination, and/or soil removal. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs were greater at or near four industrial sites, which are concerned with the steel industry, petrochemical-related industry, and industrial waste incineration, than other areas. This indicates the presence of potential source areas. Soil collected from a site 50 m from an open-burning industrial waste incinerator in an industrial complex was heavily contaminated, containing a total concentration of PCDDs/DFs of 121,400 pg/g, dry weight. PCDDs/DFs were also detected in soils from the top of a 200 m mountain indicating a wide dispersal of PCDDs/DFs by atmospheric transport from point source areas. The congener pattern and relative proportions of PCDFs in soils suggest that commercial PCB preparations such as Kanechlors may be one of the sources. The wide range of PCDD/DF isomers detected in soils from many locations also suggests a multitude of sources, in addition to commercial PCBs, such as incineration of industrial wastes such as car tires, scrap wires, plastics, papers, and emission of automobile exhaust. PMID:12322740

  10. PCDDs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins) and PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.E. ); Erickson, M.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Numerous instances of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been documented. Following the development of sufficiently specific and sensitive analytical methods during the past few years, many reports have appeared on PCDD and PCDF levels in human blood and adipose tissues. Studies have examined the PCDD and PCDF levels resulting from accidental and occupational exposures of various groups, including chemical plant workers, forestry and tannery workers, and Niet Nam veterans who had handled Agent Orange. The general background levels in the US, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and Sweden were also determined. The results of these studies indicate that a background level of PCDDs and PCDFs is present in the overall population. In some cases, individuals exposed to specific PCDDs or PCDFs exhibit higher levels than the general population. Isomer distribution patterns are relatively consistent and indicative of sources and metabolism. This paper reviews the available data on human PCDD and PCDF levels in exposed and general populations. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Photodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Ng, How-Yong

    2008-03-01

    This study employed direct photolysis to treat mixed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) solutions. The solutions included a synthetic standard 17 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners solution and a practical liquid extracted from the bag filter ash of an electric arc furnace. Additionally, this work utilized a coupled catalyst (ZnO/SnO2) under UV irradiation for photocatalytic degradation of 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-HxCDD and OCDD. The direct photolysis rate of PCDFs was faster than that of PCDDs. The degradation rate of international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) for PCDDs and PCDFs in the synthetic standard solution was 1.369 and 1.472 h(-1), respectively, and that in the ash-extracted solution was 0.061 and 0.117 h(-1), respectively. The rate of photocatalytic degradation declined as the number of chlorine atoms increased. No 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners were identified during photocatalytic degradation; additionally, the photolytic rate of the UV/coupled catalyst was higher than that of UV/single catalyst system. Experimental results suggested that the primary degradation pathway for direct photolysis and photocatalysis of PCDD/Fs was the CCl cleavage and CO cleavage, respectively. PMID:17656019

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in municipal and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Emily N; Balasubramani, Aparna; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were quantified in 45 effluent samples in the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) system in Texas. Total PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 13.23 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase and from 0.79 to 682.27 pg L(-1) in the suspended phase. Generally, industrial facilities contained more PCDD/F contamination than municipal wastewater treatment plants or refuse facilities. World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (WHO-TEQs) ranged from 0.007 to 0.279 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase and 0.021-1.851 pg L(-1) in the suspended phase. The major TEQ contributor was 2,3,7,8-TCDD and overall, TEQs were greatest in industrial effluents. A correlation between high solids and high PCDD/F concentrations was observed and based on the results obtained in this study, the abundance of suspended solids may have largely contributed to high PCDD/F contamination in the suspended phase. Homolog profiles revealed that PCDD/F contamination increased with increasing chlorination and the highest concentrations were primarily from the octa-chlorinated congeners (OCDD/F) in both the dissolved and suspended phase. PMID:25935498

  13. Human dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Ching; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lin, Long-Full; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-05-30

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) levels in a total of 25 food items in Taiwan were surveyed. It was observed that shellfish and saltwater fish possessed the highest PCDD/Fs levels, 9.82 and 3.60 pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively, on the lipid basis. The dietary intakes of humans at the ages of 12-18, 19-64, and over 65 were determined. The estimated intake were between 21.8 pg (female teenagers) and 37.6 pg (male seniors) WHO-TEQ/day; the levels varied with the dietary habits. The PCDD/F intakes for all human groups are far below the tolerable limit of 70 pg WHO-TEQ/kg b.w./month. In addition, the daily PCDD/F intake levels for duck-farmers consuming average and large amounts of PCDD/F contaminated duck eggs were examined. The result shows that consuming more than one duck egg with level higher than 10 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid of PCDD/Fs per day could lead to a PCDD/F intake level higher than the tolerable limit. However, for normal population, there is a little risk to ingest intolerable amount of PCDD/Fs because of consuming contaminated duck eggs. PMID:18829161

  14. Uptake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shun-I; Wang, I-Ching; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-07-01

    Uptake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in laying ducks was determined at different degree of feed contamination. To observe the extent of the transfer of 17 PCDD/Fs from feed to the duck eggs and duck meat, 18 ducks were divided into 3 groups (6 in each group) and fed feed with two different levels of PCDD/Fs. As a control, one group of ducks was fed with the non-contaminated feed for comparison, while the other 2 groups were exposed to the feed doped with EAF dusts (fly ash). The experiment lasted for 60 days, with an exposure duration of 41 days and the subsequent non-contaminated feed being given for an additional 19 days. PCDD/F levels in the eggs of the all 3 groups were observed to increase significantly on the 15th day. For the low contaminated group, PCDD/F levels reached 2.61 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid at day 41, whereas those of the high contaminated group accounted exceeded 3 pg/g lipid on the 15th day. Furthermore, PCDD/Fs levels in the duck meat were analyzed before and after exposure duration, and at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the level of PCDD/F in the duck eggs and the duck meat may reach unacceptable levels due to the effect of accumulation, although the PCDD/Fs in the duck feed were at acceptable levels. PMID:19731837

  15. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane. PMID:26476048

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surface sediment and bivalve from the Changjiang Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Sheng; Hui, Yang; Yang, Fangxing; Liu, Zhengtao; Xu, Ying

    2008-02-01

    Surface sediments and bivalves were collected from the Changjiang Estuary in December 2003 and November 2004, respectively. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in these samples were measured with high-resolution chromatography (HRGC)/High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). The concentrations of total PCDD/Fs and toxic equivalent (TEQ) were 169.83±119.63 and 0.81±0.36 pg/g dry weight (dw) in sediments, and 580.33±240.17 and 7.24±3.65 pg/g dw in bivalves. The homolog compositions of PCDD/Fs were similar among samples, the most abundant congener was octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and then octa-chlorinated dibenzofuran (OCDF) and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD). The herbicide pentachlorophenol (PCP) and sodium pentachlorophenol (Na-PCP) were proved the main source of PCDD/Fs in this area.

  17. An IARC evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as risk factors in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D B; Partensky, C; Wilbourn, J; Rice, J M

    1998-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs program reevaluated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and evaluated polychlorinated dibenzofurans as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans in February 1997, using the most recent epidemiologic data on exposed human populations, experimental carcinogenicity bioassays in laboratory animals, and supporting evidence on relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated as carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1 classification) on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans derived from follow-up of workers who had been heavily exposed in industrial accidents and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. The evaluation also considered the following supporting evidence: TCDD is a multisite carcinogen in experimental animals and has been shown by several lines of evidence to act through a mechanism involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; this receptor is highly conserved in an evolutionary sense and functions the same way in humans as in experimental animals; tissue concentrations of TCDD are similar in heavily exposed human populations in which an increased overall cancer risk was observed and in exposed rats that developed tumors in carcinogenicity tests. Other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, the nonchlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans were evaluated as not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (group 3). PMID:9599727

  18. Key parameters for de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Evalena; Ryan, Shawn; Touati, Abderrahmane; Gullet, Brian K

    2003-05-01

    De novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was investigated in an Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) to simulate combustion conditions. The parameters investigated were carbon content and nature in fly ash; type of gas-phase environment (oxidative versus reducing conditions) influence of combustion gases such as water, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide; amount of gas-phase chlorine; reaction temperature (250-600 degrees C); and reaction time (minutes vs hours). The comprehensive data set was further evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA) to statistically determine the role and importance of each parameter for de novo formation of PCDDs and PCDFs. Results revealed that an initial fast de novo formation occurs within the first minutes with a formation rate in the orders of hundreds of pmol per minutes; however, the reactivity of the ash was found to decline with time. An average formation rate as low as 3 pmol/min was measured after 6 h. The slower de novo formation of PCDDs and PCDFs was found to be through different reaction mechanisms and, thus, controlled by different parameters. The amount of Cl2 in the gas phase was observed to be an important parameter for PCDFs formation; meanwhile the levels of O2 were not found to be a PCDF rate controlling parameter. The formation rate of PCDDs was significantly lower than the PCDFs, and two mechanisms appear to be controlling the formation, one depending on the amount of O2 and one on the amount of Cl2 present in the gas phase. Overall the most significant parameter for the rate of formation for both PCDDs and PCDFs was revealed to be the reaction temperature. A maximum rate of formation was observed between 300-400 degrees C for the PCDDs and 400-500 degrees C for the PCDFs. PMID:12775072

  19. Cluster analysis for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans concentrations in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Lien-Te; Wang, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Gia-Hao; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the ambient air of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs: GS and RW) and a coal-fired power plant (PW) in the Kaohsiung County (KC) area in Taiwan. The results show that the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration in the flue gas of GS and RW averaged 0.090 and 0.044 ng international toxic equivalents (I-TEQ)/N m3, respectively. The TEQ concentration in the flue gas of PW averaged 0.050 ng I-TEQ/N m3. All PCDD/Fs concentrations from the stack flue gas are lower than the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration emission standard. Furthermore, the mean I-TEQ concentration in the ambient atmosphere ranged from approximately 0.019 to 0.165 pg I-TEQ/N m3, much lower than the environmental quality standards for dioxins in Japan (0.6 pg TEQ/ N m3). This work classified all sampling sites into three clusters according to k-means cluster analysis. The result shows a probable direct correlation between the GS incinerator and site C. Although the concentration from the PW plant did not exceed the emission standard, it was much higher than that in Fernández-Martínez's study. For proper environmental management of dioxins, establishing a complete emission inventory of PCDD/Fs is necessary. The government of Taiwan should particularly pay more attention to power plants to address the information shortage. PMID:20066913

  20. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-01

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall. PMID:17912921

  1. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hsing-Wang Li; Yee-Lin Wu; Wen-Jhy Lee; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2007-09-15

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall. 20 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured. Background levels of these compounds in the ambient air were also determined. Total PCDDs, PCDFs, TBDFs, and PeBDFs were detected in a low concentration range of 0.3 to 3.0 pg/cu m.

  3. Effect of metal catalysts on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran precursors (reannouncement)

    SciTech Connect

    Gullett, B.K.; Bruce, K.R.; Beach, L.O.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of an examination of the catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulating that of municipal waste fly ash. Cl2 formed as a result of a metal-catalyzed reaction of HCl with O2. Catalytic activity was greatest at a temperature of about 400 C, supporting a theory of de novo synthesis of PCDDs and PCDFs on fly ash particles downstream of waste combustion.

  4. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenz-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cubic meter ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C-12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cubic meter and sub-pg/cubic meter levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured.

  5. A worldwide survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related contaminants in butter.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jana; Päpke, Olaf; Bergman, Ake

    2005-12-01

    The main source of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is, in general, food. In this study, 64 butter samples from 37 countries were analyzed to assess the global contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) together with its major metabolites. The objectives of the study were to assess the presence of major organohalogen contaminants in butter, to trace geographical differences, and to determine toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in butter. The highest PCDD/F concentrations were found in butter from Korea with an average of 1.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid weight (l.w.). from PCDD/F and an additional contribution from the non- and mono-ortho-PCBs of 0.55 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Belgian butter showed average levels of 0.53 and 1.2 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. for PCDDs/Fs and PCBs, respectively, but one sample of Belgium butter had a total TEQ level as high as 4.0 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Three out of five butter samples from Portugal showed similarly high PCDD/F TEQ levels. The sigmaPCB levels in European butter appeared to be somewhat higher than in the samples from the rest of the world. The average contribution of CB-153 to the total PCB concentration was 22% (SD 6.4, coefficient of variation 29%). Generally, the PCBs contributed around 60% of the total TEQ value, with CB-126 contributing approximately half of this value. This shows the important TEQ contribution from dioxinlike PCBs to the total TEQs. The highest HCB levels were found in butter samples from Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Slovenia. Low levels of HCB in butter were generally found in the Southern Hemisphere. Butter samples from countries from Eastern Europe had elevated sigmaDDT concentrations, with a particularly high concentration in Ukraine butter, followed by some Russian samples, Brazil, and the U.S. PMID:16521833

  6. Microbial degradation of dibenzofuran, fluorene, and dibenzo-p-dioxin by staphylococcus auriculans DBF63

    SciTech Connect

    Monna, L.; Omori, Toshio; Kodama, Tohru )

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) and dibezonfuran (DBF), well known for their toxicity and mutagenicity, have created serious environmental contamination problems. They are formed during combustion of dust or bleaching of pulp as well as production of halogen-containing aromatics such as herbicides. Information on the microbial degradation of these compounds is limited. This papers describes the isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus auriculans DBF63, which can be grown on either DBF or FN as the sole source of carbon and energy. The resting cell reaction of DD is also investigated, leading to proposed metabolic degradation pathways of DBF, FN, and DD. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  7. INTERIM PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURES TO MIXTURES OF CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS (CDDS AND CDFS) AND 1989 UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its effort to address risks posed by chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDDs and CDFs) in the environment, EPA has adopted an interim procedure, based on dioxin toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs), for estimating the hazard and dose-response o...

  8. Optimization of separation and detection conditions for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the most toxic compounds known. The current predominant method of analysis is too expensive and cumbersome, and comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spect...

  9. INTERIM PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURES TO MIXTURES OF CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS (CDDS AND CDFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its effort to address risks posed by chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(CDDs and CDFs) in the environment, EPA has adopted an interim procedure, based on dioxin "toxicity equivalence" factors (TEFs), for estimating the hazard and dose-response of complex m...

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  11. EVALUATION OF AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HIGH-VOLUME AIR SAMPLER FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A High-Volume air sampler was evaluated for collection of poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). The sampler consists of a filter, polyurethane foam adsorbent cartridge, air pump, and environmental housing. The use of an alternative ad...

  12. INCLUSION OF 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS IN U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290

    EPA Science Inventory

    13C12-labeled mono-, di-, and tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) and -chlorinated dibenzofuran (CDF) standards have been tested for their applicability to standard EPA sampling and analytical Methods 0023A/8290. These methods target for analysis only the tetra- through octa-C...

  13. FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS OVER FLY ASH: INFLUENCE OF WATER VAPOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To offer a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) parameter for plant operation control, the on-line estimation of PCDD/Fs emissions by surrogates like chlorophenols is useful. Formation of PCDD/Fs over fly ash was studied in an isothermal (310 degree...

  14. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  15. Determination of body burdens for polychlorinated dibenzo-'p'-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) in california residents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.M.; Turman, K.; Boggess, K.; Cramer, P.

    1989-10-26

    Determination of body burden levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in residents of California was conducted based on a stratified survey design. Stratification factors included two geographical locations (San Francisco and Los Angeles), three age groups (12 to 34, 35 to 49, and 50 plus years), and sex. A total of 57 adipose tissue specimens were collected across the 12 specific strata. Analysis for the specific 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers was achieved based on high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Detectable levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were measured in all samples with isomer patterns consistent with findings in other studies conducted within the United States, Canada, and Europe. A questionnaire focused on the lifestyles of participants in the program was conducted to determine residual and occupational information and possible exposure routes to PCDDs and PCDFs. The data base provides a reference for comparison in future human monitoring programs.

  16. High-resolution mass spectrometric determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using an alternative lockmass system

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, V.Y.; Reiner, E.J.; Wang, D.T.; Meresz, O.; Hallas, B.

    1988-07-15

    A high-resolution mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (HRMS-SIM) methodology for the analysis of all tetra-through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Cl/sub x/DD, x = 4-8) and dibenzofurans (Cl/sub x/DF, x = 4-8) utilizing an alternative lockmass system has been developed at the Ministry of the Environment (MOE). Incorporation of the MOE lockmass system gives an enhancement in sensitivity, easier control of the lockmass concentration in the ion source, and greater resolution between the lockmass and the sample ion signals than dose the conventional perfluorokerosene (PFK) lockmass system. In addition, the method can be adapted to any sector instrument having a similar lockmass facility and to any HRMS-SIM analysis with the appropriate choice of reference standards. A comparison of the MOE and PFK systems is reported.

  17. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, S; Nakamura, M; Matsueda, T; Kondo, R; Sakai, K

    1996-01-01

    A method for the degradation of dioxins by white rot fungi was developed. Degradation of a mixture of 10 kinds of tetra- to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs]) and tetra- to octachlorodibenzofurans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), which were chlorinated at 2-, 3-, 7-, and 8-positions of the molecules, by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was studied in a stationary low-nitrogen medium. The percent degradation values of PCDDs and PCDFs were approximately 40 (tetra-chloro-) to 76% (hexachloro-) and 45 (tetrachloro-) to 70% (hexachloro-), respectively. Metabolites of 2,3,7,8-tetra- and octaCDD formed by P. sordida YK-624 included 4,5-dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol, respectively. These results suggest that white rot fungus is able to substantially degrade both PCDDs and PCDFs. This is the first report of the degradation of highly chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs by a microorganism. PMID:8953705

  18. Modeling study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans behavior in flue gases under electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Gennady

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of the electron beam treatment of industrial flue gases for the removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides was investigated as applied to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) using methods of mathematical modeling. The proposed kinetic model of the process includes mechanism of PCDD/Fs decomposition caused by their interaction with OH radicals generated in the flue gases under the electron beam (EB) irradiation as well as PCDD/Fs formation from unburned aromatic compounds. The model allows to predict the main features of the process, which are observed in pilot plant installations, as well as to evaluate the process efficiency. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data. PMID:27258900

  19. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided. PMID:25510612

  20. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  1. Natural formation of chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in soil of a Douglas fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, E.J.; De Weerd, H. ); De Leer, E.W.B. ); Brinkman, U.A.T. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1999-08-01

    The natural formation of 4-MCP, 24/25- and 26-DCP, and 245-TrCP was detected in four selected areas of a rural Douglas fir forest where the humic layer was spiked in situ with a solution of Na[sup 37]Cl and covered by an enclosure, after 1 year of incubation. Chlorinated phenols (CP) can be formed naturally from organic matter and inorganic chloride by either de novo synthesis or chloroperoxidase (CPO)-catalyzed chlorination. The natural CP congeners were found to be present in high concentrations in soil compared to the other congeners, except for the 245-TrCP which was present in a relatively low concentration. This study did not reveal which source, natural or anthropogenic, caused the observed concentrations. Some 20 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDD/F) were found to be formed naturally in soil of the Douglas fir forest; the formation of three 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, 2378-TeCDD, 12378-PeCDD, and 123789-HxCDD, deserves special attention. A formation mechanism has been proposed which starts from naturally formed CP congeners and which probably involves peroxidase mediation. Chlorination of CDD/F congeners by the CPO-mediated reaction cannot be ruled out, but seems to be less likely due to the absence of several predicted congeners.

  2. Inhibition of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran formation from the pyrolysis of printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-02-01

    Waste printed circuit boards containing brominated flame retardants were pyrolyzed in a high-temperature melting system to observe the formation behaviors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). In this study, the results showed that the formation of PBDD/ Fs during pyrolysis can be destroyed under controlled primary combustion conditions. There were two significant factors that influenced the extent of PBDD/F formation. The first factor was temperature. The results showed that, both the total PBDD/F content in the bottom ash and the total PBDD/F emission factor from the flue gas decrease by approximately 50% with an increase of the pyrolysis temperature from 850 to 1200 degrees C. The second factor was the addition of CaO. The possible mechanism involves the reaction between CaO and HBr to form the solid-phase product CaBr2. Thus, the addition of CaO is effective in adsorbing HBr and results in the inhibition of PBDD/F synthesis by more than 90% and further prevents the acid gases (HCl and HBr) that corrode the equipment. In conclusion, due to the persistence and toxicity of PBDD/Fs, a combined regulation for controlling both PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs is of great importance for environmental protection issues. PMID:17328209

  3. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas.

    PubMed

    White, D H; Hoffman, D J

    1995-05-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p < 0.05) at the bayou sites compared with the reference site, and egg TCDD-EQs were inversely correlated (p < 0.001) with productivity in corresponding nests. The threshold range of toxicity, where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks (based on TCDD-EQs), was > 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants. PMID:7556022

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentration profiles in sediment and fish tissue of the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are highly hydrophobic compounds that have been implicated as carcinogens and, more recently, as estrogen disrupters. An occurrence and distribution study of these compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Bed sediment was collected from 22 sites; fish tissue was collected from eight sites. PCDD/F were found to be ubiquitous in Willamette Basin sediment. A distinct homolog profile, dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, was observed in sediment throughout the basin. The PCDD homolog profile was consistent at all sites, regardless of total PCDD/F concentration, presence of point sources, subbasin size, geographic location or land use. Principal components analysis revealed a gradient among the homolog profiles that showed increasing dominance of highly chlorinated congeners where human and industrial activity increased. Tissue and bed sediment obtained from the same site did not have similar PCDD/F concentrations or homolog profiles. Fish tissue showed enrichment in less chlorinated congeners and congeners with chlorine substitutions in the 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions.

  5. Theoretical and experimental formation of low chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the Fenton oxidation of chlorophenol solutions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castro, Pablo; San Román, M Fresnedo; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2016-10-01

    The formation of chlorinated and non-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has been experimentally investigated after the Fenton oxidation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP, 15.56 mM) aqueous solutions by assessing the influence of iron concentration (0.09-2.88 mM), hydrogen peroxide dose (40.44-202.20 mM), temperature (20-70 °C) and chloride concentration (0-56.35 mM). The presence of chloride in the medium together with room temperature and substoichiometric Fenton conditions (40.44 mM H2O2) led to an increase in total PCDD/Fs concentration from less than 1 ng L(-1) to 2 μg L(-1). Results showed a dominance of the dichlorinated species (DCDD/Fs) in the homologue profile of total PCDD/Fs reaching values up to 1.5 μg L(-1). Furthermore, the products distribution exhibited a gradual decrease in the homologue concentration as the chlorination degree increased from di-to octachloro-substituted positions. Considering the characteristics of the reaction medium, the experimental results, and the information gathered in bibliography with regard to the generation of active radicals from 2-chlorophenol, a mechanism describing the formation of low chlorinated PCDD/Fs in a Fenton oxidizing aqueous system has been proposed. PMID:27424055

  6. Matrix effects on the de novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and benzenes.

    PubMed

    Pekárek, Vladimír; Weber, Roland; Grabic, Roman; Solcová, Olga; Fiserová, Eva; Syc, Michal; Karban, Jindrich

    2007-05-01

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and benzenes in de novo synthesis experiments have been studied on model fly ashes with a wide range of matrices. The model fly ash consisted of 18 selected matrices with the addition of CuCl(2) x 2H(2)O, activated charcoal and NaCl. The studied matrices were not restricted to the commonly investigated matrices with defined chemical composition (silica gel, alumina, florisil) and industrially produced adsorbents with silicate structures (diatomaceous earths), but also included natural occurring matrices (clays, kaolin, bentonite and feldspars). In addition fly ashes from a hazardous waste incinerator were included in the study for comparison. Differences in the isomer composition (homologue profiles and isomer patterns) of the substances formed by de novo synthesis experiments are discussed in dependence on the chemical composition of the studied matrices. The de novo synthesis experiments on matrices with silicate structures resulted in high concentration of mainly perchlorinated aromatic compounds while for other matrices in particular alkaline matrices a homologue shift to lower chlorinated homologues and lower formation rates were found. The paper discusses the resulting PCDD/PCDF pattern and compares them to the PCDD/PCDF profile found in naturally occurring kaolin and ball clay (illite). PMID:17291561

  7. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl sources in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Masunaga, Shigeki; Takada, Hideshige; Nakanishi, Junko

    2002-05-01

    A dated sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was used to assess the historical inputs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) from multiple sources. The levels, patterns, and profiles of these compounds in the core were congener-specifically investigated, and the results show that the PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) and the Co-PCB inputs increased abruptly from the late 1950s and peaked during the period 1967 to 1972. From 1972 to 1981, the inputs decreased continuously and then generally leveled off. Using principal component analysis, two herbicides widely used in the past, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitrofen (CNP), as well as combustion processes were identified as the major dioxin sources in Tokyo Bay. The PCB formulations and combustion processes were estimated to be the major sources of Co-PCBs. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed for dioxin-source apportioning, and it was found that the herbicides PCP and CNP have mainly contributed to the PCDD/F burdens since the late 1950s. This study suggests that herbicide-derived PCDD/Fs remaining in agricultural land will continue to run off and pollute the aquatic environment in Japan for a long time. PMID:12013146

  8. The effect of dibenzo-p-dioxin- and dibenzofuran-contaminated soil on the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Procházková, Petra; Elhottová, Dana; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants, highly toxic environmental pollutants that include hydrophobic compounds with the tendency to bioaccumulate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed to PCDD/Fs-contaminated soil, and changes in their lipophilic structures and the gene expression of their defense molecules were followed. Damage to the intestinal wall and adjacent chloragogenous tissue was observed. Further, the up-regulation of the expression of several genes was detected. On the basis of these results, the mechanism of the impact of PCDD/Fs on earthworms has been proposed. Dioxins that accumulate in the lipophilic structures cause an increase in reactive oxidative species that triggers oxidative stress followed by the gene expression of two molecules that play a role in protection against oxidant toxicity, calreticulin (CRT) and Hsp70. Moreover, the effect of microbial biomass on the expression of coelomic cytolytic factor (CCF), a pattern recognition receptor, was also observed. PMID:24992343

  9. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  10. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Li, Haifeng; Tian, Zhenyu; Xie, Huiting; Li, Changliang

    2013-10-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are usually considered to be important sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). To examine the influence of PCDD/Fs emissions from a MSWI on the surrounding environment, 21 soil samples were collected from various sampling sites distributed at distances of 300-1,700 m away from the stack of a MSWI. International Toxic Equivalent (I-TEQ) concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 2.07 pg I-TEQ g(-1), with average and median concentrations of 1.08 and 1.05 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. Comparison of the results presented herein with other worldwide studies suggested that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the ambient soil were relatively low, indicating a limited impact on the surrounding environment. The emission concentrations from the incinerator were the critical factor in generating an environmental impact on the surrounding environment. An exponential function was developed, indicating a slight decline in TEQs of PCDD/Fs with increasing distance from the MSWI stack. The ordinary kriging interpolation technique was selected to create a contour map, which intuitively showed that a limited surrounding area (≤1,000 m from the stack) was obviously influenced by the MSWI. PMID:23801339

  11. Mechanistic evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and naphthalene isomer fingerprints in microwave pyrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuju; Cieplik, Mariusz K; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Gronnow, Mark; Jansson, Stina

    2016-05-01

    Isomer distribution patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and naphthalenes (PCNs) were investigated in microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) products of woody biomass. The feedstocks included bark and impregnated wood. The results indicated that isomer distributions in MAP are more selective compared to those reported from wood burning and waste incineration. Favored formation of 4-MoCDF and highly selective chlorine substitution at the 2,4-position observed during MAP suggested a preferred formation pathway of PCDFs involving (chloro)phenol precursors followed by subsequent chlorination. The PCDD distribution was dominated by isomers typically formed from chlorophenol condensation at relatively low temperature. The PCN isomer distributions showed a tendency for sequential chlorination from non-substituted naphthalene at successive positions. The presence of isomers such as 1-MoCDD, 4-MoCDF, 1,2,3-TriCN with low thermodynamic stability indicates that kinetic factors may be important in the MAP process. PMID:26901473

  12. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in particulate and oily films on impervious surfaces.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2015-12-15

    During this study wipe sampling was applied to various impervious surfaces for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) area concentrations. To that end, a wipe sampling method based on solvent wetted cotton wipes was evaluated and transfer efficiencies of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in particulate films (PFs) and oily liquid films (OFs) during sampling were investigated. For PFs sufficient transfer efficiencies of low concentrated PCB and PCDD/PCDF congeners in 1g/m(2) spiking surrogate were achieved after the first wipe using n-hexane as wetting solvent. Transfer efficiencies for OFs were the highest in the first wipe if n-hexane or n-heptane were used rather than toluene. The spiking experiments of OFs showed a log-linear correlation between the number of wiping procedures and transfer efficiency which indicates that transfer efficiencies were constant in subsequent wipes. Furthermore, it was successfully demonstrated that pressurized liquid extraction is a suitable tool for the extraction of wipe samples. Finally, the feasibility of this wipe sampling method was demonstrated on various impervious surfaces of different origin, and concentration levels of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in wipe samples are discussed. Hereby, remarkably high ∑CB6 concentrations of up to 1400μg/m(2) (taken at a transformer recycling site) were detected. PMID:26318221

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Ten Dam, Guillaume; van Bruggen, Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Theelen, Rob M C; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2016-05-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and a highest level of 18.9 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. A number of samples showed clearly elevated ndl-PCB levels with a median of 13 ng g(-1) fat and a highest level of 80 ng g(-1) fat. There were no clear regional differences, even though part of the samples were derived from the rather industrial Rotterdam/Rijnmond area. Based on the congener patterns, former backyard burning of waste seems the most likely source for most eggs, with two exceptions where other sources contributed to the contamination. Similar is true for the ndl-PCBs. The study shows that average levels are about ten-fold higher than commercial eggs and may substantially contribute to the intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs by consumers. Intervention measures to reduce the intake of these contaminants by laying hens are advised. PMID:26921584

  14. Formation Pathways of Mono- to Octa-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Main Organochemical Industries.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Pan, Wenxiao; Wang, Pu; Tian, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Mengjing; Chen, Xuebin; Liao, Xiao; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-15

    The concentrations and formation pathways of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were investigated in main organochemical industries. High levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were detected. The total concentrations of 27 PCDD/F congeners in chloranil, 2,4-D, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were 5302397 ± 8944449, 20963 ± 15908, and 242 ± 67 pg g(-1), respectively, and the less-chlorinated PCDD/F levels were 12006 ± 20155, 9536 ± 5594, and 195 ± 94 pg g(-1), respectively. The distribution trends of less and more chlorinated PCDD/Fs were similar in different chemical plants because of their similar formation pathways, which may also be related to the degree of chlorination of chemical products and purification processes. 1,2,3,4-TeCDF and 2,4,8-TrCDF were selected as model molecules to calculate the bond dissociation energy, showing that 2-MCDF, 3-MCDF, and 2,8-DCDF are more easily formatted as shown by the analytical results. The formation pathways of less to more chlorinated PCDFs are proposed to explain why 2-MoCDF, 2,8-DiCDF, 2,4,8-TrCDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF are the dominant congeners and to explain why 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor of I-TEQs in most studies. PMID:26301518

  15. Spatial distibution and temporal accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Kankaanpää, Harri; Mattila, Jukka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Verta, Matti; Salo, Simo; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2002-06-15

    Dated sediment cores and surface sediments were analyzed from the Gulf of Finland, a part of the Baltic Sea, to study the sources, levels, distribution, and total amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The gulf was found to be severely polluted, with PCDD/F sum concentrations as high as 101000 ng/kg and 479 ng/kg WHO-TEQ in dry weight. The source of pollution was the former manufacturing and use of a chlorophenol based wood preservative along the Kymijoki River. It was estimated thatthe impacted sedimentary area stretched a distance of 75 km away out from the coast and that the PCDD/F sum load attributed to the wood preservative source was 1770 kg of PCDD/Fs or 12.4 (+/-2.8) kg WHO-TEQ. The surface sediments contained 24-66% of the maximum concentrations present in the 1960-1970s, showing that the river still acts as a significant PCDD/F source and may contribute to the high levels in fish. Moreover, the reduced PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were partly due to the dilution by increased dry matter deposition. PCBs were uniformly distributed over the gulf, and the PCB load in the polluted area was 2020 kg or 0.14 kg WHO-TEG. PMID:12099450

  16. Evaluation of the Spanish hot dip galvanising sector as a source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Angeles; Sanz, Paloma; Ruiz, M Luisa; Fabrellas, Begoña; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    A survey to estimate the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions of Spanish hot dip galvanising sector was carried out during 2002. This investigation is the first presenting Spanish experimental data related to this industrial sector. Three different matrices: flue gas, ash and filter dust were tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs generated during the galvanising process. The organic source of PCDD/F formation could be from the insufficient degreasing o from inhibitors or additives used in the pickling steps such as quinoline, isoquinoline, 8-methylquinoline or polyether phosphoric acid. Low levels PCDD/Fs were achieved in air emissions when air control devices are used. On the contrary, filter dusts are highly contaminated; indicating that the absence of air control devices would increase the risk of fugitive emissions. Homologue profiles and Principal Component Analysis demonstrate there are differences in the formation mechanisms in the bath zone (ashes) compared to the stack location (filter dusts and air emissions), related to the de novo synthesis and reaction time. The annual PCDD/F emission to the atmosphere for this sector during 2002 has been estimated in 0.023g I-TEQ. The emission factor of plants with air control devices has been calculated at 0.030microg I-TEQ/ton of galvanised steel. PMID:18083211

  17. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis. PMID:24863628

  19. Quasi-dynamic leaching characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from raw and solidified waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Wang, Lin-Chi; Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Quasi-dynamic leaching characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from raw and solidified air pollution control (APC) residues were examined via a nine-time multiple leaching test. The effect of injected activated carbon in the APC residues on the PCDD/F leachability was also evaluated. When humic acid solution was used as a leachant, the leaching concentrations of PCDD/Fs fluctuated between the first and the fifth leaching, followed by a gradual increase and then suddenly reached maximum values at the leaching sequences around seventh and eighth. This significant enhancement in PCDD/F leachability was mainly due to an increase in the release of highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs. Leaching of PCDD/Fs with n-hexane was, in contrast, primarily caused by the partitioning of hydrophobic PCDD/Fs between the APC residue surface and the liquid phase of n-hexane. Consequently, the largest leaching concentrations for n-hexane tests achieved at the first leaching, followed by a decrease and reached plateaus. Solidification/stabilization (S/S) decreased the PCDD/F leachability up to the fifth leaching by the use of humic acid solution. However, S/S increased the PCDD/F leaching concentrations and rates with n-hexane. The activated carbon in APC residues significantly inhibited the release of PCDD/F with n-hexane. The inhibiting effect provided by activated carbon was, however, less significant by the use of humic acid solution. PMID:18028984

  20. Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  1. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia. PMID:24392728

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins in subsurface soil, superficial dust, and air extracts from a contaminated landfill.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; O'Keefe, P W

    1996-08-01

    Extracts of soil, dust and air from a National Priorities List Landfill have been found to contain distinct profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The different extracts show subtle differences in toxicities and the soil extract has been shown to cause both Ah receptor mediated effects and Ah receptor independent effects in immature female rats. Evidence of open burning at the site dictated quantitation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) for a more accurate tabulation of dioxin equivalencies. High volume air sampling on XAD-2 resin cartridges captured trace amounts of PCDFs and no detectable PCDDs. Acetone:Hexane (1:1) extracts of soil and dust contained 762 microg/ml and 250 microg/ml PCDFs, respectively, and less than 10% as much PCDD. Subsequent benzene:methylene chloride (1:1) extracts were enriched in coplanar compounds relative to total PCBs. PCDF:PCB ratios in all extracts were higher than in the rice oils contaminated with heated PCBs in the Yusho and Yu-Cheng incidents. No 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected, and total PCB+PCDD+PCDF toxic equivalencies were dominated by the high proportions of PCDFs. PMID:8785012

  3. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN THE REMOTE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE ATMOSPHERE (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a sampling strategy that allows us to determine
    femtogram/cubic meter concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
    and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in remote marine atmospheres. Using
    this sampling strategy, a total of 37 a...

  4. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged. PMID:23159200

  5. Uptake by roots and translocation to shoots of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in typical crop plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Qing; Zhao, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Root uptake and subsequent translocation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 12 agricultural crops were comparatively investigated. All crop plants were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of three kinds of dioxin congeners over 4d. The root concentration factor (RCF) of dioxin showed a logarithmic correlation with extractable lipid content in plant root. On the assumption that the dioxin escaping via gas phase from nutrient solution in the closed container can evenly diffuse in the air and equally absorb onto the shoot tissues of the dioxin-exposed plant and their nearby blank control plant, the amount of translocated dioxin was estimated by subtracting dioxin content in the shoot tissues of the blank control plant from that of the dioxin-exposed plant, and then the transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) of dioxin was calculated. The TSCF values of PCDD/Fs largely varied according to the plant species, and the TSCF values of 2,4,8-TrCDF were a little higher than those for 1,3,6,8-TeCDD expect for zucchini. For 1,3,6,8-TeCDD, zucchini had the highest TSCF value of 0.0089, followed by pumpkin (0.0064) towel gourd (0.0027), and cucumber (0.0010), verifying plants of the genus Cucurbita have the higher abilities of dioxin translocation. The TSCF values of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD for wheat and sorghum were 0.0013 and 0.0012, respectively. For maize, soybean, rice, Chinese cabbage, tomato and garland chrysanthemum, translocation was an insignificant mechanism of dioxin contamination in shoot tissues. PMID:19541345

  6. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congener and homologue distributions in tree bark from Sauget, Illinois, U.S.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Mark H; Johnson, Glenn W

    2015-01-20

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) are ubiquitous urban/industrial contaminants found in tree bark, which acts as a long-term passive atmospheric sampler. Twenty seven bark samples (tree age 8–92 years) were collected from residential and industrial areas near Sauget, IL to identify the trends of 2,3,7,8-Cl PCDD & PCDF congener distributions, toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCDD & PCDF homologue distributions. The Sauget area is heavily industrialized, with a long history of chlorine production, and is the largest single contributor to air pollution exposure risk in St. Louis. Analysis of seven 2,3,7,8 Cl-substituted PCDD and 10 PCDF congeners showed ∑PCDD7 ranging from 2214 to 71821 pg g(–1) lipid and ∑PCDF10 from 355 to 13707 pg g(–1) lipid, the highest in trees <20 years old in both cases. OctaCCD and octaCDF respectively dominated ∑PCDD7 (89% average) and ∑PCDF10 (57% average). The 2,3,7,8-Cl congener profiles showed slight differences among samples showing that all were affected by similar sources but at different magnitudes. ∑TEQ ranged from 35 to 624 pg g(–1) lipid, dominated by 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD (average = 41.3% of total TEQ). Tetra-Cl through hepta-Cl homologues were dominated by non-2,3,7,8-Cl compounds for both CDD and CDF. Homologue profiles for 26 samples had a “sink” profile dominated by octaCDD, whereas one sample showed effects of a local source. PMID:25496230

  7. Contamination of Russian Baltic fish by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Shenderyuk, Vladimir V; Brodsky, Efim S; Feshin, Denis; Baholdina, Lidia P; Gorogankin, S K

    2008-03-01

    Nineteen species of fish products caught and produced in the Russian economic zone of the Baltic region in 2002-2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (WHO-PCBs). Freshwater fish had significantly lower PCDD/PCDFs levels than most saltwater fish, except cod's fillet for which TEQ was comparable. In some cases pollutant levels of sea fish tissues essentially exceeded current regulatory values. Concentration of WHO(PCDD/F)-TEQ ranged from 0.06 to 0.57pg/g f.w. for freshwater fish, and from 0.16 to 17.83pg/g f.w. for sea fish. The special concern is caused by the high concentration of dioxin-like PCBs, whose contribution to the WHO-TEQ(PCDD/F,PCB) considerably exceeded that of PCDDs and PCDFs. Concentration of WHO(PCB)-TEQ ranged from 2.56 to 124.40pg/g f.w. Profiles of PCDD/Fs congeners in fish were rather similar: in our opinion, the most probable sources of pollution were chlorine bleaching and outflow of PCBs. There is no real reason to assume that fish contamination was affected by the fungicide Ky-5 or similar chlorophenols mixtures. Relative contributions of each dioxin-like PCBs congener to total TEQ in fish tissue are presented in Fig. 2. Profiles of dioxin-like PCBs in general are close to Aroclor 1254, though in some cases there are essential differences. PMID:21783849

  8. Effectiveness of activated carbon and biochar in reducing the availability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soils.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunzhou; Currie, Rebecca J; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Fishman, Vyacheslav N; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-01-17

    Five activated carbons (ACs) and two biochars were tested as amendments to reduce the availability of aged polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two soils. All sorbents (ACs and biochars) tested substantially reduced the availability of PCDD/Fs measured by polyoxymethylene (POM) passive uptake and earthworm (E. fetida) biouptake. Seven sorbents amended at a level of 0.2 × soil total organic carbon (0.2X) reduced the passive uptake (physicochemical availability) of total PCDD/Fs in POM by 40% to 92% (or toxic equivalent by 48% to 99%). Sorbents with finer particle sizes or more macropores showed higher reduction efficiencies. The powdered regenerated AC and powdered coconut AC demonstrated to be the most effective and the two biochars also performed reasonably well especially in the powdered form. The passive uptake of PCDD/F in POM increased approximately 4 to 5 fold as the contact time between POM and soil slurry increased from 24 to 120 d while the efficacy of ACs in reducing the physicochemical availability remained unchanged. The reduction efficiencies measured by POM passive uptake for the regenerated AC were comparable to those measured by earthworm biouptake (bioavailability) at both dose levels of 0.2X and 0.5X. The biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) values for unamended soil ranged from 0.1 for tetra-CDD/F to 0.02 for octa-CDD/F. At both dose levels, the regenerated AC reduced the BSAFs to below 0.03 with the exception of two hexa-CDD/Fs. The reduction efficiencies measured by earthworm for coconut AC and corn stover biochar were generally less than those measured by POM probably due to larger particle sizes of these sorbents that could not be ingested by the worms. PMID:22136630

  9. Biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E. |; Norstrom, R.J.; Lorenzen, A.; Kennedy, S.W.; Hart, L.E.; Bellward, G.D.; Cheng, K.M.; Philibert, H.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    During the 1992 breeding season, eggs of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were collected within a gradient of exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants on the southern coast of British Columbia. Twenty-five eggs were placed in a laboratory incubator, of which 18 hatched; chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success was not significantly different between eggs taken from pulp mill sites and reference sites. A hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was induced nearly sixfold in chicks from near a pulp mill at Powell River compared to those from a reference site. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) activities were also significantly elevated in chicks from nests located near pulp mills compared to reference sites. A hepatic CYP2B cross-reactive protein was threefold higher in chicks from pulp mill versus reference sites, but the difference was not significant. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected near pulp mill sites contained greater concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) compared to reference areas. No significant differences in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho congeners, and organochlorine pesticides occurred among sites. Regressions showed that the hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein and EROD and BROD activities were positively correlated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, and toxic equivalents (TEQs{sub WHO}--World Health Organization toxic equivalence factors) in yolk sacs. No significant concentration-related effects were found for morphological, physiological, or histological parameters, such as chick growth, edema, or density of thymic lymphocytes. Using hepatic CYP1A induction as a biomarker, a no-observed-effect-level of 100 ng/kg and a lowest-observed-effect-level of 210 ng/kg TEQs{sub WHO} on a whole egg (wet weight basis) are suggested for bald eagle chicks.

  10. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility. PMID:16169571

  11. Serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans among people eating contaminated home-produced eggs and beef.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L R; Harnly, M; Flattery, J; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L

    2000-01-01

    We compared serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) among residents of two homes to levels among age- and sex-matched comparison subjects. The residents of the two homes consumed contaminated eggs and beef from animals raised at the homes. The animals had greater soil contact than those raised with conventional commercial husbandry practices. The comparison subjects were from a similar rural area, but did not consume home-produced beef and eggs. Serum levels of 2,3,7, 8-substituted tetra-, penta-, and hexaCDDs and penta-, hexa-, and heptaCDFs were increased between 2- and 6-fold in residents from one home; contaminated eggs and beef were consumed by residents for 2-15 years. Elevations were less for those in the other index home, where only home-produced eggs were consumed for 2 years; a 3-fold elevation of 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexaCDD as compared to controls was most apparent. Very strong bivariate correlations among all of the 2,3,7, 8 penta- and hexaCDDs/CDFs were observed. The elevations observed verify that PCDD/PCDF-contaminated food contributed to the body burden of these compounds. The blood levels among the highest exposed participants are generally higher than those observed in other studies of U.S. contaminated-fish consumers and higher than average adipose tissue levels observed in U.S. urban populations. There are sufficient animal toxicologic and human epidemiologic data to recommend that exposures be reduced. In the study area, pentachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol incineration sources have been identified, and the animal contamination and blood elevations probably reflect these sources. Soil reference values and site-specific risk assessments should include estimates of exposures to contamination in home-produced animal products. Such estimates can be verified with limited PCDD/PCDF sampling of animals and humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10620519

  12. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  13. Investigating differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soil and soil components using selective supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Chai, Yunzhou; Grabanski, Carol B; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Miller, David J; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure carbon dioxide was performed at increasingly strong conditions to investigate differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two impacted soils, in their sieved size fractions, and in small (a few mg) samples of industry-related waste products separated from impacted soil. The binding strengths of PCDD/Fs were shown to be different in the two soils, and in their different soil particle size fractions. As might be expected based on surface area considerations, one soil showed the strongest binding in the smallest (<5μm) sieved fraction. However, the other soil showed the strongest binding in the larger sized fractions, possibly indicating that process-related particles could be controlling PCDD/F binding. Selective SFE of various types of particles including black carbon and charcoal (separated from soil), and from a suspected process anode residue did show different PCDD/F binding behavior ranging from quite weak binding (charcoal) to very strong binding (anode particles). Shifts to the stronger SFE fractions in the soils after activated carbon treatment agreed well with the decreases previously found in the uptake of PCDD/Fs by earthworms, as well as decreases in their freely-dissolved aqueous concentrations in soil/water slurries. These results show that, as previously demonstrated for PAHs and PCBs, selective SFE can be a useful tool to investigate differences in PCDD/F binding behaviors in impacted soils and sediments and their component parts, as well as a rapid tool for estimating the effectiveness of activated carbon treatments on decreasing the bioavailability of PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments. PMID:22406311

  14. Assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans contribution from different media to surrounding duck farms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Shih, Shun-I; Li, Hsing-Wang; Lin, Long-Full; Yu, Kuei-Min; Lu, Kueiwan; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2009-04-30

    Since the "Toxic Egg Event" broke out in central Taiwan, the possible sources of the high content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in eggs have been a serious concern. In this study, the PCDD/F contents in different media (feed, soil and ambient air) were measured. Evaluation of the impact from electric arc furnace dust treatment plant (abbreviated as EAFDT plant), which is site-specific to the "Toxic Egg Event", on the duck total-PCDD/F daily intake was conducted by both Industrial Source Complex Short Term model (ISCST) and dry and wet deposition models. After different scenario simulations, the worst case was at farm A and at 200 g feed and 5 g soil for duck intake, and the highest PCDD/F contributions from the feed, original soil and stack flue gas were 44.92, 47.81, and 6.58%, respectively. Considering different uncertainty factors, such as the flow rate variation of stack flue gas and errors from modelling and measurement, the PCDD/F contribution fraction from the stack flue gas of EAFDT plant may increase up to twice as that for the worst case (6.58%) and become 13.2%, which was still much lower than that from the total contribution fraction (86.8%) of both feed and original soil. Fly ashes contained purposely in duck feed by the farmers was a potential major source for the duck daily intake. While the impact from EAFDT plant has been proven very minor, the PCDD/F content in the feed and soil, which was contaminated by illegal fly ash landfills, requires more attention. PMID:18771851

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in estuarine and coastal North Sea sediments: Sources and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Evers, E.H.G.; Klamer, H.J.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M. . Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management); Govers, H.A.J. . Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry)

    1993-09-01

    Sediments from two depositional zones of the North Sea (the Wadden Sea and Oyster Grounds) and from the estuaries of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Ems, and Humber were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) using a congener-specific procedure. A simple grain-size correction procedure was utilized for the comparison of PCDF and PCDD concentrations in sediments from different origin. PCDFs were more widely encountered than PCDDs in all sediments, except for the Ems-Dollard and the Humber estuary. The highest concentrations were found in the outflow sediments of the rivers Rhine and Humber. Concentrations up to 2,980 ng/kg PCDFs, principally 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF, and up to 1,760 ng/kg PCDDs, principally OCDD, were determined in the River Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of PCDD and PCDF profiles in the sediments. Two-dimensional projections based on sample scores from the principal component models showed a marked influence of the River Rhine on the presence of these compounds in the western Wadden Sea and the Oyster Grounds. Based on a chemometric evaluation of chromatographic profiles of these coastal, estuarine and related freshwater sediments, the authors have deduced that these compounds originate from industrial operation discharges, related to the production of chloroaliphatic compounds and the chloralkali compounds and the chloralkali industry along the River Rhine. The atmospheric deposition of combustion-generated PCDDs and PCDFs appeared significant only for remote marine environments.

  16. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples. PMID:15752488

  17. Reduction of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during the 2008 Beijing Olympic games.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingming; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Ding, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, An; Jiang, Guibin

    2011-04-15

    A total of 120 air samples were collected at three urban and one rural location in Beijing, China in the summers of 2007-2010, and before, during, and after the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (BOG), in order to assess the effectiveness of long-term and short-term emission-control measures in reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the atmosphere. During the BOG (August, 2008), the PCDD/Fs concentrations decreased to an average value of 1150 fg m(-3) (63 fg I-TEQ m(-3)), which was reduced by approximately 70% from the average in 2007 and by 29% from that in July 2008, before the Olympic event began. Although 2009-2010 levels of PCDD/Fs were significantly higher than 2008, the overall temporal trend was decreasing for summer months during the sampling campaign period. The apparent half-lives of atmospheric PCDD/Fs were estimated to be 3.2-5.8 years by statistically regressing the logarithm PCDD/Fs concentrations versus the number of years passed since 2006. The air concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP) during the BOG ranged between 135 and 183 μg m(-3), showing a 52% reduction from 2007 and 26% decrease from those prior to the Olympic event. No significant relationships were found between meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) and PCDD/Fs or TSP during the BOG, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentrations were significantly dependent on the air quality (p < 0.05, positive against TSP and negative against visibility). This work is one of few temporal trend studies of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in mainland China, and provides unique insight into the effects of large-scale control measures in improving air quality and reducing one of the most ubiquitous and toxic organic pollutants in the environment. PMID:21417223

  18. Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-06-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters. PMID:23395527

  19. Mono- to Octachlorinated Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Emissions from Sintering Plants Synergistically Controlled by the Desulfurization Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Li, Haifeng; Yan, Nan; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-05-17

    The influence of desulfurization systems in sintering plants on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations, profiles, and emission factors was studied. Mono- to tri-CDD/Fs and tetra- to octa-CDD/F concentrations were 4.4 ± 2.3 and 10.5 ± 8.3 ng m(-3), respectively, at the inlets and 0.87 ± 0.48 and 0.47 ± 0.22 ng m(-3), respectively, after desulfurization. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 0.95 ± 0.093 and 0.51 ± 0.040 ng of I-TEQ m(-3) at the inlets and after desulfurization, respectively. The congener profiles and homologue distributions were dominated by 2-MoCDF and MoCDF, respectively. The PCDD/F removal efficiencies achieved by desulfurization increased as the chlorination level increased. The PCDD/Fs became adsorbed to gypsum. Annual mono- to tri-CDD/Fs PCDD/F and TEQ (tetra- to octa-CDD/F) emission factors for flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were determined. The total amounts of mono- to tri-CDD/Fs emitted in flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were 10.7 and 10.2 kg, respectively. The total TEQs emitted in flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were estimated to be 15486 and 1878 g of I-TEQ, respectively. PCDD/Fs adsorbed to gypsum are not effectively eliminated. The PCDD/F concentrations increased as the fly ash surface area increased moving through the electrostatic precipitator stages. PMID:27124088

  20. Origin attribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediment and soil from a Japanese freshwater lake area through congener-specific data analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, T; Suzuki, N; Masunaga, S; Nakanishi, J

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in sediment and soil from a freshwater lake area were congener-specifically determined. The obtained data were examined to estimate the major origins of these compounds, with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA). Four major principal components (PCs) were obtained, and three of them were attributed to PCDDs/PCDFs in the atmosphere, in a diphenyl ether herbicide and in pentachlorophenol, based on congener-specific comparisons with references. One PC remained unattributed. These four were interpreted as the major origins of PCDDs/PCDFs in the area. The relative influence of the origins was also investigated. PMID:9828338

  1. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  3. Thermochemical Formation of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans Mediated by Secondary Copper Smelter Fly Ash, and Implications for Emission Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Zhao, Yuyang; Jin, Rong

    2016-07-19

    Heterogeneous reactions mediated by fly ash are important to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) formation. However, the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) through heterogeneous reactions is not yet well understood. Experiments were performed to investigate the thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs at 150-450 °C through heterogeneous reactions on fly ash from a secondary copper smelter. The maximum PBDD/F concentration was 325 times higher than the initial PBDD/F concentration in the fly ash. The PBDD/F concentration after the experiment at 150 °C was five times higher than the initial concentration. PBDD/Fs have not previously been found to form at such a low temperature. Secondary-copper-smelter fly ash clearly promoted PBDD/F formation, and this conclusion was supported by the low activation energies that were found in Arrhenius's law calculations. Thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs mediated by fly ash deposited in industrial facilities could explain "memory effects" that have been found for PCDD/Fs and similar compounds released from industrial facilities. Abundant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that were formed through fly ash-mediated reactions could be important precursors for PBDD/Fs also formed through fly ash-mediated reactions. The amounts of PBDEs that formed through fly ash-mediated reactions suggested that secondary copper smelters could be important sources of reformed PBDEs. PMID:27347728

  4. Chlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans and the human immune system (2) In vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from workers with quantified moderately-increased body burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Neubert, R.; Maskow, L.; Delgado, I.

    1995-11-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation responses were studied in workers with moderately increased body burdens of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and other polyclorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), calculated as International Toxicity Equivalencies [I-TE]. Mitogens (pokeweed mitogen [PWM], phytohemagglutinine [PHA], concanavalin A [Con A], as well as anti-human monoclonal antibody against CD3 were used as proliferation stimulators in vitro. Additionally, the feasibility of using the lymphocyte response to tetanus toxoid was assessed, and the response to this recall-antigen was included in this trial. No decrease in the capacity of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation was observed with any of the proliferation stimulators in the group of volunteers with the increased TCDD-body burden when compared with volunteers exhibiting TCDD-concentrations in blood flat within the reference range. Regression analysis revealed a slight trend towards an increase for {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation during the stimulation with PHA only. It can be concluded from our data that moderates increases in the TCDD- or I-TE-body burdens do not induce any medically significant changes in the capacity for proliferation of lymphocytes, measured as {sub 3}H=thymidine incorporation. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans distributions in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Kang-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-06-15

    This study determined the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contents in ash in the super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), fabric filter (FF), fly ash pit (FAP) and bottom residue (BR) in a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results showed that average PCDD/F contents in ash samples from the SH, EC, SDA, FF, FAP and BR were 0.102, 0.788, 0.210, 1.95, 2.04 and 0.0218 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/F content was very low in the SH and BR due to high temperatures (around 461 degrees C in the SH and 914 degrees C in combustion chamber). Conversely, total PCDD/F content was significantly high in ash samples from the EC (around 340 degrees C), mainly because the temperature is within the favorable range of 250-400 degrees C for PCDD/F formation due to de nova reformation mechanisms. Although the SDA operated at 245 degrees C, the PCDD/F content decreased very significantly, mainly because the temperature was relatively low and because calcium carbonate was introduced into flue gases to dechlorinate and dilute chlorine-containing species. PCDD/Fs were captured by the active carbon in the FF. Furthermore, the duration that fly ash remained in the FF was longer than that for other incinerator units, and thus causing an increasing trend of PCDD/Fs level downstream (except the SDA). Total PCDD/Fs emission factors (microg tonnes-waste(-1); microg I-TEQ tonnes-waste(-1)) in ash samples from different units were: SH (42.3; 0.846), EC (326; 6.12), SDA (58.1; 1.10), FF (1540; 61.3), FAP (2950; 107) and BR (537; 4.31). Most PCDD/Fs in ash were contributed by the FF (about 56%), and the generation of PCDD/Fs in ash was significant (about 35%) during the transfer process from different units to the FAP. A strong and positive correlation in a logarithmic form existed between PCDD/Fs and

  6. EXTENSION OF U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290 TO INCLUDE 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are typically reported only in terms of the tetra-through octa-CDD/CDF isomers, either as homologue sums or as subsets thereof. This practice is common because the toxic isomers ...

  7. RELATIVE POTENCY VALUES FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN, DIBENZOFURAN AND BIPHENYL CONGENERS TO INDUCE CYTOCHROME P4501A MRNA IN A ZEBRAFISH LIVER CELL LINE (ZF-L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYPIA) mRNA by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was measured in a zebrafish liver cell line (ZF-L). ZF-L cells were far less sensitive to PCDD, PCDF and PCB cong...

  8. Estimation of air concentrations and profiles for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from calculated vegetation-air partition coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeller, L.O.; Rappe, C.; Jones, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Air concentrations of vapor and particulate phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted by use of calculated plant-air partition coefficients. The plant-air interaction is reduced to an octanol-air distribution at equilibrium. Partition coefficients are deduced from the fugacity approach and calculated from congener group average data of solubility, vapor pressure and octanol-water partition coefficient. Calculated partition coefficients were used for prediction of the PCDD/F levels and congener profile in air from archived herbage collected pre- and post-1940. Before 1940 the air had a fly ash or combustion derived PCDD/F composition. After 1940 Hp and OCDD/F are superimposed on the combustion pattern, reflection of their release from the extensive use of polychlorinated compounds, notably penta chlorophenol, but also related compounds.

  9. Dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in human breast milk collected in the area of Taranto (Southern Italy): first case study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Zianni, Rosalia; Anzillotta, Giuseppe; Palma, Achille; Vitacco, Vincenzo; Scrano, Laura; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2013-03-01

    We report on the content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 15 breast milk samples of nursing women living in the city of Taranto (Southern, Italy) or nearby. Breast milk samples were collected over the 2008-2009 period and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) upon accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using acetone/n-hexane mixture 1:1 (v/v). The method was validated demonstrating good performing features. Profiles of PCDD/PCDF congeners in breast milk samples exhibited a prevalence of PCDFs compared to PCDDs. Toxic equivalents (TEQs in picogram per gram fat) of four breast milk were far above the legal limit for human consumption of 3.0 pg/g; their estimated daily and weekly dietary intake were almost 5-20 and 10-40 times higher, respectively, than the tolerable intake values established by the World Health Organization. PMID:23344638

  10. Guidelines for the determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in commercial products. Final report, March 1985-July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, D.H.; Stanley, J.S.

    1987-06-19

    The determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) and dibenzofurans (HDFs) in commercial products require specific and sensitive analytical procedures. The development of methods for the measurement of HDD and HDF in commercial products is complicated by the diverse range of matrices, the potentially large number of halogenated (specifically chloro, bromo, or bromo/chloro) HDD and HDF congeners and potential interference due to major components of the product matrices. This report provides: (1) a review of the literature pertaining to commercial product analyses for HDDs and HDFs; (2) detail on the total number of bromo, chloro, and bromo/chloro HDDs and HDFs; (3) a tentative scheme for the analysis of HDDs and HDFs in diverse matrices; and (4) guidelines for the high-resolution gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry or electron capture detector analysis of commercial products for HDDs and HDFs. The guidelines specify a rigorous OA/QC program for the analysis of the commercial products.

  11. Removal efficiencies for 136 tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran congeners with activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal efficiency of 136 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD)/furan (F) congeners from a nitrogen + oxygen carrier gas was studied using a laboratory-scale, fixed bed adsorption system. Two kinds of activated carbon with dissimilar pore structures were used as adsorbents. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in the source gas was 541 ng/Nm(3) and that of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs 96.35 ng/Nm(3), accounting for 17.8% of the total original weight amount. Their toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) was 8.31 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). For both activated carbons, the removal efficiencies of the ten PCDD/F homologue groups rise with chlorine substitution number. The removal efficiencies vary approximately as a power function of vapor pressure (correlation coefficients r(2) = 0.93 and 0.81, respectively). Competitive adsorption and desorption occur as adsorption time went on, causing elution of the lower chlorinated homologues, i.e. tetra-CDD/F and Penta-CDD/F congeners. In addition, there are significantly different concentration distributions for isomers in the same homologue groups. However, their removal efficiencies have weak correlation with their initial concentrations. The correlation coefficients are from -0.47 to 0.32 and from -0.57 to 0.46 respectively for the two kinds of activated carbons. PMID:26154037

  12. Thermochemical Properties, ΔfH°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K), and Cp°(T), of 1,4-Dioxin, 2,3-Benzodioxin, Furan, 2,3-Benzofuran, and Twelve Monochloro and Dichloro Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Bozzelli, Joeseph W.

    2003-12-01

    Values for ΔfH°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K), and Cp°(T) (5⩽T/K⩽6000) are computed by density functional B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) calculation methods for 12 monochloro and dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: 1-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,6-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,8-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,9-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,8-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-chloro dibenzofuran, 4-chloro dibenzofuran, 1,6-dichloro dibenzofuran, 3,6-dichloro dibenzofuran, 3,7-dichloro dibenzofuran, and 4,6-dichloro dibenzofuran. Molecular structures and vibration frequencies are determined at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Isodesmic reactions are utilized at each calculation level to determine the enthalpy of formation of each species. Contributions to the entropy and the heat capacity from translation, vibration, and external rotations are calculated using the rigid-rotor-harmonic-oscillator approximation based on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) structures. The enthalpies of formation for 1,4-dioxin, furan, 2,3-benzodioxin, 2,3-benzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and dibenzofuran are also calculated. Thermochemical properties of two composite central atom groups and four interaction groups are derived for use in a group additivity scheme to calculate these thermochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans detected in bivalve samples from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program.

    PubMed

    Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; Sericano, José L; Defreitas, Debra A; Lauenstein, Gunnar G

    2014-04-30

    Bivalve samples from 142 sites were analyzed to determine the concentration and toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins and furans (D/F) as part of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program. The total concentration of 17 D/F ranged from not detected to 203 pg/g wet weight of tissue. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, OCDD, had a concentration range from not detected to 189 pg/g and a mean concentration of 8.65 pg/g. OCDD was the dominant D/F compound detected and accounted for, on average, over 70% of the total D/F concentration. The TEQ (compared to 2,3,7,8-TCDD) ranged from 0.12 to 7.32 pg TEQ/g. The TEQ for 39% of the bivalves analyzed were below 0.238 pg TEQ/g. TEQ above human consumption advisory concentration of 1.2 pg TEQ/g were found in 9.3% of the samples analyzed. TEQ for D/F indicate very limited human health concerns from consumption of bivalves at most of the locations sampled. PMID:24095200

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the air of Seveso, Italy, 26 years after the explosion.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Elena; Di Guardo, Antonio; Mariani, Giulio; Guzzi, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2003-04-15

    This study reports the current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) in air at Seveso, where an explosion in a 2,4,5,-trichlorophenol production reactor occurred 26 years ago. The aims were to assess if residues of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) released during the accident and still present in soil could contaminate the above air and to investigate other potential sources in the area. Long-term air collection was carried out in zones A and B in Seveso and in a reference location in Milan, and samples were analyzed for PCDD and PCDF concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experimental results showed that no important contribution to the air concentrations is due to the soil contamination and that contemporary sources essentially control the atmospheric burden of PCDDs and PCDFs in the Seveso area. The theoretical release of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from the soils of zones A and B of Seveso was calculated using the SoilFug model. In the worst case, the model simulated an enrichment in atmospheric 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations of 4 and 22% for zones A and B, respectively. The investigation of the potential emission sources in the area indicated that combustion of wood residues from furniture factories may be an additional local source of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:12731830

  15. Influence of combustion parameters on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, benzenes, and biphenyls and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in a pilot incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Faengmark, I.; Bavel, B. van; Marklund, S.; Rappe, C. ); Stroemberg, B.; Berge, N. )

    1993-08-01

    A laboratory-scale fluidized-bed incinerator was used to study the influence of several combustion parameters with respect to the emission of important aromatic contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The parameters studied include bed temperature, O[sub 2]-concentration, variations in HCl and H[sub 2]O, and temperature and residence time in the postcombustion zone. A two-level fractional factorial design was used for planning the experiments. Flue gas samples were collected and analyzed on HRGC-HRMS. The most important parameter for the formation of the above chlorinated aromatics was found to be the residence time in the postcombustion zone. A substantial formation of the chlorinated compounds occurred during residence times as short as 1.6 s. PAH formation was found to be influenced by the oxygen concentration in the combustion air, and good combustion conditions favor low PAH emissions. 42 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish, seafood products and fish oil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lucía; Martínez, Aníbal; Ferreira, Martiña; Vieites, Juan; Cabado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 samples of wild and farmed fish, cephalopods and fish oils for animal feeding, traded in Spain, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 2009-2012, by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The method was optimised for screening at moderate costs, allowing PCDD/Fs determination at 1 pg World Health Organization-toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) g⁻¹ wet weight (w w) and dl-PCBs at 0.02 pg WHO-TEQ g⁻¹ w w. Concentrations in fish and cephalopods ranged from values below the limit of detection to 1.7 pg g⁻¹ WHO-TEQ sum PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, considered as safe with regard to EU legislation. Higher levels were found in cod livers (5.4-54.2) and fish oils (3.3-30.7), with one noncompliant sample in each group. PMID:24779909

  17. Characteristics of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere used in carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Peng, Yen-Ping; Yen, Ting-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were estimated for different particle size distributions in a carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant on 15 days in March and April of 2014. A total of 75 integrated air samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI). Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were analyzed using a high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). Concentrations of thoracic particles and total particles produced in the carbon black feeding process of a tire manufacturing plant were measured in ranges of 0.19-2.61 and 0.28-4.22 mg/m(3), respectively. On all sampling days, the three most abundant species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF. The mean concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were 0.74-6.83 pg/m(3) within five particle size ranges. Total I-TEQ in particulate matter (PM)<1.0 was 2.2 and 3.2 times higher than those in PM>18 and PM2.5-10, respectively. However, the total I-TEQ of thoracic PM contributed approximately 74 % of the total I-TEQ of total PM. The assessment of health risk indicates that exposure to fractions of thoracic PM by inhalation poses a significant cancer risk (>10(-6)). PMID:26257121

  18. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. PMID:20855167

  19. Kinetic modeling of the formation and destruction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran from fly ash native carbon at 300 °C.

    PubMed

    Lasagni, Marina; Collina, Elena; Piccinelli, Elsa; Anzano, Manuela Nadia; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Pitea, Demetrio

    2013-05-01

    The kinetics for the oxidative breakdown of native carbon in raw fly ash samples (RFA) and for the formation and destruction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), abbreviated PCDD/F, were investigated using a flow-over solid system in which the RFA samples were thermally treated at 300 °C under synthetic air. This study investigated the correlation between the disappearance of the reagent and the formation of the products to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that govern these reactions at congener groups level. The detailed analyses of the experimental concentration-time data revealed significant differences in the behavior between the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDF, non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF. The chlorine balance for the former was always negative, that is, chlorine was released regardless of reaction time and primarily resulted from the dechlorination of the hepta- and octa-homologues. However, for the others, the balance was substantially positive up to approximately 240 min and became negative at longer intervals when the dechlorination reactions took over. The processes involving PCDD and PCDF in which the thermal destruction was only partial were found to increase the total equivalent toxicity (TEQ) levels rather than reduce them. PMID:23528048

  20. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thu T; Traag, Wim A; Murk, AlberTinka J; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2014-11-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US Army. The latter area now is inhabited and people keep their own laying hens. Egg samples were first screened with an in vitro reporter gene bioassay and a selection was analyzed by GC/HRMS. Samples from Bien Hoa airbase showed very high PCDD/F levels, up to 249 pg dioxin-equivalents (TEQ)/g fat, mainly due to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In the sprayed areas, levels (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1)) were comparable to those observed in background areas (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1) fat). The estimated average consumption of 22 g d(-1) of the highly contaminated eggs will result in a 2-fold exceedance of the current exposure limits for adults and 5-fold for children, even without considering other contaminated food sources. This indicates a potential health risk from consumption of these highly contaminated eggs, which were not yet considered as a source for exposure to PCDD/Fs of people living in the highly contaminated areas. PMID:25113212

  1. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fires of arsenic-free treated wood: role of organic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Tame, Nigel W; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Kennedy, Eric M

    2007-09-15

    This article demonstrates that biocidal organochlorines such as tebuconazole and permethrin, employed in formulations of wood preservatives, produce significant quantities of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) when subjected to thermal decomposition under oxidative conditions. Both tebuconazole and permethrin form PCDD/F during gas-phase oxidation, but much greater yields occurred in the presence of surrogate ash corresponding to wood treated with copper-based fungicides. The significant yields have implications for the increased toxicity of PCDD/F emissions during fires of wood impregnated by combination of organic and copper-based preservatives. The oxidative pyrolysis of tebuconazole and permethrin over simulated wood ash generated amounts of PCDD/F exceeding those of untreated wood by 3 orders of magnitude. We obtained yields of 1000 ng WHO97-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 5500 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin when reacting the organochlorines in an oxidizing atmosphere over surrogate wood ash. Gas-phase oxidation also produce measurable quantities of PCDD/F, corresponding to 1 ng WH097-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 36 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin. In the case of tebuconazole, the present measurements correlate well with those obtained from oxidative pyrolysis of CBA-treated wood in the cone calorimeter. It appears that permethrin and tebuconazole provide phenyl and diphenyl precursors to formation of PCDD/F and both constitute a source of chlorine upon fragmentation. PMID:17948789

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofuran mass distribution in both start-up and normal condition in the whole municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Che-Kuan; Lin, Chieh; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Although many researches focused on the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from stack, in the bottom ash and in the surrounding environment, researches focused on PCDD/F mass distributions in the whole incineration plant have seldom been addressed. This study determined PCDD/F emissions in the whole plant. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results displayed that PCDD/Fs were formed during fly ash from super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA) and fabric filter (FF) was transferred to fly ash pit. Mass distribution ratios of PCDD/Fs in g I-TEQ (Toxicity Equivalency Quantity) per week from stack, SH, EC, SDA, FF, generation and bottom residue (BR) in start-up operations were 14.6%, 0.1%, 8.3%, 1.0%, 41.7%, 33.4% and 0.9%, respectively. Above results indicated that main PCDD/F source in the MSWI was from fly ash. However, the fly ash is easily controlled and PCDD/F emitted from stack flue gases will be difficult to be handled. Therefore, we should pay more attention on PCDD/F emission from flue gases especially from start-up procedure. Besides, fly ash should be controlled by sodium hypophosphite before being landfilled. MSWI did require further detoxification treatments for the solid residues and flue gases. PMID:18440134

  3. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on secondary combustor/boiler ash from a rotary kiln burning hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Addink, R; Altwicker, E R

    2004-10-18

    Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a considerable amount of these compounds when heated in 10% O(2)/N(2) under "de novo" conditions, i.e., with residual carbon (present on the ash as result of incomplete combustion) as the only organic material. The ash yielded PCDD/F for up to 90 min; gave PCDD/F yields proportional to the amount of ash used in the reaction bed; and displayed an optimum temperature range for formation (397-548 degrees C) higher than seen for most municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ashes. The role of copper and iron as catalytic material on the ash is discussed. PMID:15511574

  4. Effects of burnings of wax apple stubble and rice straw on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in air and soil.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jen-Ho; Chen, Kang-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-04-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were made in ambient air, ash, and soil impacted by the open burning of wax apple and rice straw residues. Measurements showed that the mean PCDD/F concentration (0.458 pg I-TEQ/Nm3; international toxicity equivalence) in air at two wax apple orchards during open burning increased markedly, -8.1 times higher than that (0.057 pg I-TEQ/Nm3); before open burning. In addition, the mean PCDD/F concentration (0.409 pg I-TEQ/Nm3) in ambient air at a rice straw field was 4.6 times higher than that (0.089 pg I-TEQ/Nm3) before open burning. After burning the residues of wax apple stubble and rice straw, the contents of PCDD/F in ashes were 1.393 and 1.568 ng I-TEQ/kg-ash, respectively, and the contents of PCDD/F in soil were 2.258 and 2.890 ng I-TEQ/kg-soil, respectively. Therefore, the turnover of soil with the ash after open burning over years will result in the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in farm soils. PMID:17458464

  5. A novel method to enhance polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans removal by adding bio-solution in EAF dust treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Yang, Kuen-Thyr

    2008-01-15

    In order to understand the effect of different amounts of powder-activated carbon (PAC) injection and bio-solution (NOE-7F) addition on the removal efficiencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant with Waelz rotary kiln process, the PCDD/F concentrations in the stack flue gasses were measured and discussed. In the amount of 20, 40 and 50 kg/h PAC injection, the removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs in the stack flue gas were 86, 96 and 97%, respectively. While adding more amounts of PAC did enhance the removal efficiencies, the reduction fractions of low chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were much higher than those of highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners. Particularly, a lower amount of PAC injection (20 kg/h), not only cannot remove highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs, but also the carbon surface of the PAC can act as a precursor for the formation promotion of highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners. The addition of NOE-7F in the raw materials had the dechlorination effect on the PCDD/F removal and mainly inhibited highly chlorinated PCDD/F formation. The combination of both PAC injection and NOE-7F addition has a high potential for practical application. PMID:17532560

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts. PMID:21639085

  7. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer. PMID:24651928

  8. Specific congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blue mussel in Osaka Bay in Japan: Aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hideaki; Takayama, Koji; Mimura, Mayumi; Kashimoto, Takashi ); Fukushima, Shigehiko )

    1989-09-01

    The authors have monitored polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the coastal waters of Japan by using blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biological indicator. The levels of both chemicals were surmised to closely relate to the number of municipal incinerators and the population densities in the cities adjoining the sampling location. The main contamination source in Osaka Bay, which is heavy polluted with PCDDs and PCDFs, was determined to be the fly ash from municipal waste incinerators based upon analytical results of blue mussel from Osaka Bay sediments, sediments from Osaka Bay, and sediments from a river, which is located near a typical urban municipal waste incinerator. However, there was a remarkable difference in congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs between the blue mussel and the fly ash, that is, the mussel mainly contained tetraCDDs and tetraCDFs with congener ratios of 56 {plus minus} 9.7% and 62 {plus minus} 6.0%, respectively, whereas the fly ash contained the higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs as major congeners. In this study, the specific congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs in blue mussel were investigated from the point of view of their water solubilities.

  9. Radioimmunoassay for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Luster, M.I.; Mckinney, J.D.

    1980-12-09

    The invention provides a double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for the determination of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, particularly, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in environmental samples including animal tissues such as monkey liver and adipose tissues. The limit of detection is approximately 25 picograms for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Assuming an appropriate cleanup procedure is used, chlorinated dibenzofurans are the only likely interferences, and these can be distinguished through the use of two antisers of different dibenzo-furan/dibenzodioxin selectivities. The invention includes the preparation of a reproducible antigen, an appropriate radiolabeled hapten, and effective sample extracts. A feature of the assay method is the use of a nonionic detergent (e.g., ''cutscum'' or ''triton x-305'') to solubilize the extremely hydrophobic dibenzo-p-dioxins in a manner permitting their binding by antibodies. The immunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening, and to routine monitoring for exposure to known chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in potentially contaminated environments.

  10. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  11. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J T; Elliott, J E; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E; Hart, L E; Cheng, K M; Bellward, G D

    1994-04-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r2 = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988. PMID:8145284

  12. Characterization and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soils and sediments at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Natalie A; Bowman, Jennifer; Lopez, Dina; Migliore, Elizabeth; Jackson, Glen P

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is in the early stages of decommissioning and decontamination. During operations, the site drew a large amount of electric power and had multiple large switchyards on site. These are a source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination to both on-site and off-site streams. Some soil remediation has been completed in the main switchyard. During 2011 and 2012, fifteen sites were sampled at the surface (<10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) to characterize the extent of PCB contamination, to identify weathering and migration of PCB contamination and to explore potential polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) contamination due to transformer fires and explosions in the 1950s and 1960s. Stagnant sites tended to exhibit more migration of contamination to deeper sediments than sites with fast-moving waters, and the highest concentrations were found at the bottom of a settling pond. A signature set of five dioxin-like PCBs were consistently found across the site with higher concentrations in carbon rich surface sediments. PCB concentrations had a significant inverse correlation with clay content, suggesting that PCBs did not bind to clays at this site. Remediation has reduced PCB concentrations throughout the site compared to levels found in previous studies and long-term upkeep of sediment lagoons is necessary to retain PCB and dioxin-rich sediments. The flow regimen, organic carbon and clay content play a very important role in the fate of PCBs in the environment at the surface as well as downward migration. PMID:25113188

  13. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. PMID:23806670

  14. Long-term monitoring and modeling of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from municipal solid waste incinerators and surrounding area in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Wan-Ju; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Mwangi, John Kennedy; Wang, Lin Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) have long been the major contributors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to ambient air in Taiwan. After stringent MSWI emission standards were introduced in 2001, the long-term continuous monitoring of flue gas and ambient air quality became necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the related control strategies. Three MSWIs and the surrounding ambient air were investigated in the current study for PCDD/F characteristics during 2006 to 2011. The average concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 0.008 ~ 0.0488 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), which is much less than the emission standard in Taiwan (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)) (I-TEQ is the abbreviation of International Toxic Equivalent). This led to extremely low levels in the ambient air, 0.0255 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3), much less than the levels seen in most urban areas around the world. Additionally, the results obtained using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Dispersion Model (ISCST3) indicate that the PCDD/F contributions from the three MSWIs to the ambient air were only in the range from 0.164 ~ 0.723 %. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the PCDD/Fs in the air samples had very similar characteristics to those from mobile sources. The results thus show that stringent regulations have been an effective control strategy, especially for urban areas, such as Taipei City. PMID:24888609

  15. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    PubMed Central

    NC, Deziel; Nuckols; JS, Colt; AJ, De Roos; A, Pronk; C, Gourley; RK, Severson; W, Cozen; Cerhan; P, Hartge; MH, Ward

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources, including industrial facilities and traffic. Samples from vacuum bag dust from homes of 40 residents of Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, or Iowa who participated in a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma conducted in 1998–2000 were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry for 7 PCDD and 10 PCDF congeners considered toxic by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Locations of 10 types of PCDD/F-emitting facilities were obtained from the EPA; however only 4 types were located near study homes (non-hazardous waste cement kilns, coal-fired power plants, sewage sludge incinerators, and medical waste incinerators). Relationships between concentrations of each PCDD/F and proximity to industrial facilities, freight routes, and major roads were evaluated using separate multivariate regression models for each congener. The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) toxic equivalence (TEQ) concentration of these congeners in the house dust was 20.3 pg/g (IQR=14.3, 32.7). Homes within 3 or 5 km of a cement kiln had 2 to 9-fold higher concentrations of 5 PCDD and 5 PCDF (p<0.1 in each model). Proximity to freight routes and major roads was associated with elevated concentrations of 1 PCDD and 8 PCDF. Higher concentrations of certain PCDD/F in homes near cement kilns, freight routes, and major roads suggest these outdoor sources are contributing to indoor environmental exposures. Further study of the contribution of these sources and other facility types to total PCDD/F exposure in a larger number of homes is warranted. PMID:22832089

  16. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Karin; Sporring, Sune; Haglund, Peter; Björklund, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from various food and feed samples was performed with a selective PLE method previously developed for bulk PCBs. The method utilizes sulfuric acid impregnated silica inside the extraction cell to oxidize coextracted fat. Extractions were performed at 100 degrees C with n-heptane for 5 min in two cycles. Data obtained by selective PLE combined with gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) were compared to concentrations derived from reference laboratories applying conventional sample preparation and GC-HRMS. Experiments performed on spiked vegetable oil, naturally contaminated crude fish oil and oil containing compound feed samples showed good results for these relatively simple matrices. The accuracy was generally +/-20% as compared to spiked levels or to values obtained by the reference laboratories. The precision, measured as the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency values (TEQs), was below 10% in all cases. The method was also tested on naturally contaminated herring tissue, chicken tissue, pork tissue and sepiolitic clay, which all caused some trouble. It was observed that sufficient amounts of sodium sulfate should be used for dehydration of tissue samples and additionally, the cells should not be packed too dense in order to avoid suppressed extraction efficiency. Once this was attended to, satisfactory data could be obtained, except for sepiolithic clay. This study demonstrates that selective PLE can be applied with success to a number of food and feed matrices in analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since the fat removal step is on-line, the selective PLE method will reduce time and solvent consumption for sample preparation as compared to traditional clean-up. PMID:17109872

  17. Characterization of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) in environmental matrices from an intensive electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Jianfang; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Deyi; Bi, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Information on environmental distribution and human exposures of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) are little reported. In the present study, workshop dust, soil and sediment samples from Longtang and Shijiao, the intensive e-waste recycling sites within Qingyuan City, southern China, were collected and analyzed following the standard method. PBDD/F concentrations (sum of eight 2378-substituted PBDD/F congeners) in different environmental matrices were in the range of 122-4667 ng kg(-1) dry wt (dw) for workshop dust, 19.6-3793 ng kg(-1) dw for the top soils, and 527 ng kg(-1) dw for the surface sediment, which were substantially higher than those of reference sites. The long-distance transport of PBDDs/Fs also impacted the adjacent areas. Contribution of the most two toxic congeners (2,3,7,8-TBDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) increased significantly from "source" (dust) to "sink" (sediment). Dismantling and open burning were the two procedures contributing relatively higher level PBDDs/Fs to the atmosphere, while acid leaching would contaminate soils and waters directly. The estimated daily intakes of eight PBDD/F congeners via soil/dust ingestion and dermal absorption for local residents were higher than those contributed by seventeen PCDD/F congeners in the same set of samples. Children and e-waste processing workers were the most affected groups by the low-tech recycling activities there. PMID:26952275

  18. Relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran levels to stable-nitrogen isotope abundance in marine birds and mammals in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hobson, K.A.; Bergqvist, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in common murre (Uria aalge), Brandt`s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) eggs, and Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) blubber collected from the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in 1993. In addition, the samples were analyzed for stable-nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N). Of the PCDDs and PCDFs, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TCDF) congeners were the most prominent in the birds. The levels of TCDD in the eggs ranged from 0.2 to 6.6 ng/wet kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant, respectively. The TCDF ranged from 0.30 to 2.25 ng/kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant eggs, respectively. Other prominent PCDD and PCDF congeners detected in all bird species were 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD. In the Steller sea lion the most prominent congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD at 3.2 ng/kg, 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 2.9 ng/kg, OCDF at 2.2 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD at 1.92 ng/kg, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF at 1.3 ng/kg. Stable-nitrogen values ranged from 16.9% in the pigeon guillemot and rhinoceros auklet to 19.8% in the Steller sea lion.

  19. Distribution and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and p,p'-DDE in tissues of bald eagles from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-07-01

    Liver, muscle, fat, kidney, and gall bladder of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (including coplanar PCBs), p,p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Necropsy results showed that the birds suffered from peritonitis, bacterial infection, or trauma. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in livers ranged from 23 to 4500 pg/g on a wet weight basis (wet wt), whereas the least concentrations were found in blood plasma of bald eagle nestlings (2.3-49 pg/g, wet wt). A maximum total PCB concentration of 280,000 ng/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a dead bald eagle affected by peritonitis. The greatest concentrations of p,p'-DDE and HCB in eagle livers were 17,000 and 120 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Eagles with elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or total PCB concentrations tended to have great TCDD/TCDF or PCB126/PCB77 ratios, hypothesized to be due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and subsequent metabolism of TCDF and PCB77. Concentrations of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the tissues of bald eagles exceeded the thresholds for toxicity in a few avian species. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs accounted for 68-88% of the total TEQs in bald eagle tissues. PCDDs and PCDFs collectively accounted for, on average, 17% of the total TEQs. On the basis of the analysis of a single gall bladder with bile, biliary excretion rates of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were estimated as 0.015-0.02% per day. PMID:12144248

  20. Atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls around a steel plant area, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Ding, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Hongbiao; Jiang, Guibin; Wei, Fusheng

    2010-04-01

    Air monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in June 2008 and January 2009 to investigate the concentrations, profiles and estimating potential inhalation risks to the local residents around a steel plant area in northeast China. The air concentrations and WHO-TEQs of PCDD/Fs ranged 94-4944fgm(-3) (average 1352fgm(-3)) and 3-247fgm(-3) (average 81fgm(-3)), respectively. The WHO-TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs ranged 1-18fgm(-3) (average 5fgm(-3)), contributing to 3.6-26% of the total TEQ. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the winter, whereas higher dioxin-like PCB concentrations were found in the summer. The seasonal trend can be related to the significant correlation between the concentrations of dioxins and the reciprocal of temperature (positive for PCDD/Fs, P<0.01; negative for dioxin-like PCBs, P=0.05). A significant positive correlation (P<0.0001) was found between the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PCDD/F concentrations, but not for PCB congeners. Although the steel plant sites showed higher dioxin levels than the residential and background areas, the PCDD/F levels in the atmosphere of the steel plant area was at a relatively low level. The results from this study provides further aid in evaluating the impact of steel plants as PCDD/Fs emission sources to the ambient air in China. PMID:20176394

  1. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Echols, K R; Peterman, P H; May, T W; Orazio, C E; Tillitt, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.04 microg/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.02 mug/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. PMID:18726540

  2. Occurrence and impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in the air and soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Ren, Yue; Chu, Jiazhi; Li, Nan; Zhen, Sen; Zhao, Hu; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Pengjun; Qi, Li; Liang, Shuting; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on the environment in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), we determined the levels of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples collected around a MSWI, which is the largest in China. The International Toxicity Equivalency Quantity (I-TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air samples were from 0.0300 to 1.03pgI-TEQ/m(3) (0.445-13.6pg/m(3)), with an average of 0.237pgI-TEQ/m(3), while in soil samples they ranged from 0.520 to 3.40pgI-TEQ/g (2.41-88.7pg/g) with an average of 1.49pgI-TEQ/g. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples were comparable to other areas, and PeCDFs were the dominant contributors, which was different from stack gas homologue patterns. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that PCDD/Fs emission from the MSWI did not directly affect the profiles of PCDD/Fs in air and soils, so that vehicles and unidentified emission sources should be considered. The daily inhalation levels of PCDD/Fs for children (0.0110 to 0.392pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) and adults (0.00600 to 0.221pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) near the MSWI were lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1.00 to 4.00pg WHO-TEQ/(kg·day), but in winter the values were higher than in summer. These results can be used as basic data for assessing the risk of PCDD/Fs exposure in residents living around this MSWI, and more monitoring programs and studies should be carried out around MSWIs. PMID:27266321

  3. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.04 ??g/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.02 ??g/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  4. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area. PMID:26774770

  5. Formation and potential mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on fly ash from a secondary copper smelting process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-06-01

    Secondary copper smelting (SeCu) is widely considered to be an important source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs; PCDD/Fs). Laboratory experiments were performed using SeCu fly ash as a matrix for thermochemical reactions to investigate the effects of fly ash on the formation of PCDD/Fs and the potential mechanisms. Thermochemical reactions on SeCu fly ash over a temperature range of 250-450 °C and reaction times of 10-120 min caused the PCDD/F concentrations in the fly ash to increase significantly. The PCDD/F concentrations formed in the thermal reactions were about 99-139 times higher than the PCDD/F concentrations in the original fly ash, clearly indicating that fly ash promoted the formation of PCDD/Fs. The PCDFs dominated the PCDDs, and the PCDF/PCDD concentration ratio was about 30-40. Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF), octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the heptachlorodibenzofurans were the most dominant homologs that were formed. A comparison of the PCDD/F patterns produced in the thermochemical reactions and the patterns in the original fly ash suggested that the chlorination of less chlorinated PCDFs might be an important pathway in the formation of higher chlorinated furans. The results of this study indicated that SeCu fly ash has a high PCDD/F formation potential. It is crucial to have the fly ash filter at low temperature and that fly ash in the cooling system should be minimized. PMID:25572269

  6. Contributions of dry and wet depositions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to a contaminated site resulting from a penetachlorophenol manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hwang J; Wang, Shizoom; Wang, Ya F; Li, Hsing W; Wang, Lin C

    2011-04-01

    The soils at a factory for manufacturing pentachlorophenol were heavily contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In order to verify the contributions of dry and wet deposition of PCDD/Fs from the ambient air, the concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air and soil were measured, the partition of particle- and gas-phases of atmospheric PCDD/Fs was calculated, and the annual fluxes of total dry and wet PCDD/F depositions were modeled. Average atmospheric PCDD/F concentration was 1.24 ng Nm(-3) (or 0.0397 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)). Moreover, over 92.8% of total PCDD/Fs were in the particle phase, and the dominant species were high chlorinated congeners. The total PCDD/F fluxes of dry and wet deposition were 119.5 ng m(-2) year(-1) (1.34 ng I-TEQ m(-2) year(-1)) and 82.0 ng m(-2) year(-1) (1.07 ng I-TEQ m(-2) year(-1)), respectively. By scenario simulation, the total fluxes of dry and wet PCDD/F depositions were 87.1 and 68.6 ng I-TEQ, respectively. However, the estimated PCDD/F contents in the contaminated soil were 839.9 μ g I-TEQ. Hence, the contributions of total depositions of atmospheric PCDD/F were only 0.02%. The results indicated that the major sources of PCDD/F for the contaminated soil could be attributed to the pentachlorophenol manufacturing process. PMID:20559715

  7. An egg injection method for assessing early life stage mortality of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Hufnagle, L.C., Jr.; Clayton, M.K.; Peterson, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    To characterize the risk that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) pose to salmonid early life stage survival, we developed a method to expose rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs to graded doses of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners, using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a prototype. Rainbow trout eggs were injected 24–50 h post-fertilization with 0.2 μl of 50 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes (control) or 0.2 μl of 5–7 graded doses of TCDD incorporated into 50 mM PC liposomes. Injection volume never exceeded 0.6% egg volume. Immediately following injection, the injection site was sealed with Super glue®, resulting in 92–97% of TCDD dose retained by the egg. Following both egg injection and waterborne egg exposure. TCDD toxicity in rainbow trout was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with hemorrhages, pericardial edema, and yolk sac edema. TCDD LD50s, following injection and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout eggs, were 421 (331–489) and 439 (346–519) pg TCDD/g egg (LD50, 95% fiducial limits), respectively. As in rainbow trout, TCDD toxicity in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) following the same two routes of exposure was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality preceded by hemorrhages and yolk sac edema. LD50s, based on the dose of TCDD in lake trout eggs, were 47 (21–65) and 65 (60–71) pg/g following injection and waterborne exposure, respectively. The egg injection method is ideal for assessing the relationship between early life stage mortality in rainbow trout and graded egg doses of individual PCDD, PCDF, or PCB congeners.

  8. Toxicity comparison of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial source samples by HRGC/HRMS and enzyme immunoassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is available on the applicability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) toxicity assays to their brominated counterparts: polybrominated dibenzo-p-dixoins/furans (PBDDs/Fs). We estimated the toxicity of mixtures of chlorinated, brominated, and mi...

  9. Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (Pcdds), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (Pcdfs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Mercury in Rural Soils of the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Pilot Survey Soil Report EPA has released a final report entitled, Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychl...

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments and biota of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brochu, C.; Moore, S.; Pelletier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples and marine organisms were collected in the Saguenay Fjord and at two selected sites of the St. Lawrence Estuary in 1991. Total PCDDs and total PCDFs ranged from 22 to 352 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and 29 to 188 ng kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively in Saguenay sediments, while total PCDFs reached, 287 ng kg{sup {minus}1} in Baie des Anglais, a small and deep bay of the St. Lawrence Estuary impacted by PCBs during the 1970s. All biological samples contained detectable amounts of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, apart from the North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The highest concentrations (up to 59.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1} total PCDFs and 2.54 ng kg{sup {minus}1} 2,3,7,8T4CDD Equivalent (TCDD TEQ)) were observed in crab (Chionoecetes opilio) caught in Saguenay Fjord and in crab and whelk (Buccinwn undatwn) collected in Baie des Anglais. Nordic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) is less contaminated with a maximum total PCDDs and PCDFs concentration of 14.0 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and TCDD TEQ never exceeding 0.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) caught in the Saguenay Fjord contained only 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners in their tissues leading to a low average TCDD TEQ of 1.66 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Based upon this first series of results, benthic organisms and fish from the Saguenay Fjord and the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary are exposed to low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, and carry tissue concentrations well below international guidelines for fisheries products.

  11. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.; Horii, Y.; Wu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Contaminants in ospreys from the Pacific Northwest: I. Trends and Patterns in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in eggs and plasma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Machmer, M.M.; Henny, Charles J.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected from 1991 to 1997 at nests (na??=a??121) upstream and downstream of bleached kraft pulp mills and at reference sites in the Fraser and Columbia River drainage systems of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. Blood samples were collected from nestling ospreys during the 1992 breeding season on the Thompson River. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and -dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD were significantly higher in eggs collected in 1991 at downstream compared to upstream nests near pulp mills at Kamloops and Castlegar, British Columbia. There were no significant temporal trends in 2,3,7,8-TCDD, -TCDF or other measured compounds at a sample of nests monitored between 1991 and 1994 downstream of the Castlegar pulp mill, despite changes in bleaching technology (CIO2 substitution). However, by 1997 concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and -TCDF were significantly lower than previous years in nests sampled downstream at both Castlegar and Kamloops. An unusual pattern of higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs was found in many of the osprey eggs collected in this study, and considerable individual variation in the pattern existed among eggs from the same site. For example, eggs from four different nests at one study area (Quesnel) on the Fraser River had concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD ranging from <1 to 1,100 ng/kg and OCDD from <1 to 7,000 ng/kg wet weight. Higher mean concentrations of HpCDD and OCDD were found in eggs from the Thompson River, a tributary of the Fraser, compared to the Columbia River, and concentrations were generally higher at nests upstream of pulp mills. In plasma samples, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and OCDD were the main compounds detected, with no significant differences measured between samples upstream versus downstream or earlier versus later in the breeding season. Use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives by lumber processors was considered the

  13. Discrimination of aerial deposition sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran downwind from a pulp mill near Ketchikan, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Peek, Daniel C; Butcher, Matthew K; Shields, Walter J; Yost, Lisa J; Maloy, John A

    2002-04-15

    Drinking water is supplied by individual roof-catchment systems for homes and businesses near a dissolving sulfite pulp mill (now closed) located just north of Ketchikan in southeast Alaska. This study was conducted to determine if polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) found in the sediments of the roof-catchment cisterns resulted from historical deposition of stack emissions from the pulp mill's multi-fuel power boilers. Fly ash from the power boilers had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 3.08 x 10(5)-3.10 x 10(6) ng/kg, which resulted from combustion of bleach plant wastewater sludge and saltwater-soaked wood waste. Cistern sediments had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 7.71 x 10(4) ng/kg. Potential sources of PCDDs/Fs in the cistern sediments were considered to be automobile exhaust, heating oil combustion, and private trash burning as well as pulp mill boiler emissions. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze differences between profiles of tetra through octa homologue classes of PCDDs/ Fs (defined as proportional contributions to total concentration) from different source terms. Homologue profiles of potential sources from Ketchikan included in this analysis were fly ash collected from the mill's power boilers and soils collected from background areas (areas with similar PCDD/F sources as the residences [e.g., auto exhaust and burn barrels] near the mill but beyond the zone of aerial deposition of emissions from the mill). Profiles for emissions from automobile exhaust, fertilizers, oil heating, residential trash burning, and residential wood heating were also included in the source "training" data set (for the discriminant analysis) using data from published literature. The classification rules developed from the discriminant analysis were applied to the following test media sampled at Ketchikan: roof-catchment cistern sediments and soils collected from areas in the vicinity of the mill's power boilers (i

  14. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D G; Todd, G D; Turner, W E; Maggio, V; Alexander, L R; Needham, L L

    1994-01-01

    We have measured non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in human adipose tissue and serum collected in Atlanta, Georgia. The results show that the concentrations of the coplanar PCBs can be more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Our measurements in pooled serum collected in 1982, 1988, and 1989 show a decrease in coplanar PCB levels from 1982 to 1989. We found that the pattern of relative amounts of coplanar PCBs in adipose tissue varied greatly from person to person unlike the PCDD and PCDF patterns, which were more nearly the same. Age was significantly correlated with the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD,3,3'4,4'-PCB, 3,3',4,4',5-PCB, and 3,3'4,4',5,5'-PCB in adipose tissue. We also measured levels of the mono- and di-ortho chlorine-substituted PCBs in human serum. The levels for some of these PCB congeners were three orders of magnitude higher than the coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. We used the international toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDDs and PCDFs and the TEFs proposed by Safe for PCBs to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Four PCBs (3,3',4,4',5-; 2,3',4,4',5-;2,3,3',4,4'-;2,3,3',4,4',5-) make a larger contribution than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, while four other PCBs (3,3',4,4'5,5'-; 2,2',3,4,4',5'-;2,2',4,4',5,5'-;2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-) make nearly the same contribution as 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted 2,3',4,4',5-PCB, however, is the major contributor to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in general population samples from the United States, Sweden, and Japan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187709

  15. Health effects of chronic exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and coplanar PCB (Co-PCB) of municipal waste incinerator workers.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K; Kikuchi, Y; Watanabe, S; Waechter, G; Sakurai, H; Takada, T

    2000-07-01

    A national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in emission gases from the municipal waste incinerators in 1997 revealed that the Nose Bika Center was heavily contaminated by PCDF. Ninety-four workers underwent a physical examination, and blood biochemistry, lymphocyte marker, and NK activity studies were carried out, along with blood dioxin measurements. Information on working history, life-style, and dietary habits was obtained by questionnaire and interview. The blood dioxin levels were as follows. The median TEQ of dioxins was 39.7 pg I-TEQ/g lipid, and the range was 13.3 to 805.8. The median 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentration was 3.9 pg TEQ/g lipid, and the range was <1 pg TEQ/g lipid (one case) to 13.4 pg TEQ/g lipid. The median TEQ of coplanar PCB was 10.8 pg I-TEQ/g lipid, and the range was 3.1 to 54.2 pg TEQ/g lipid. The congener-specific distribution was quite similar to that in soil around incinerator and waste in the factory. The relationship between dioxin concentrations and work history in the factory showed that the fluidized incinerator and fly ash treatment areas were high-risk work areas. Correlation analyses between body burden, PCDD/PCDF TEQ, Co-PCB TEQ and various laboratory data showed significant positive correlations between dioxin levels and GGT, total protein, uric acid and calcium, and a negative correlation with Fe. However, these correlations disappeared as a result of multivariate analysis adjusted for age, smoking status, and alcohol drinking. Increased NK activity and lower response to PHA stimulation remained significant even after adjusting for age. History of hyperlipidemia and allergy had significantly increased odds ratios. A study on the risk to other workers in the same type of incinerators is under way. Health effects of chronic exposure mainly to PCDF will be clarified by follow-up. PMID:10959609

  16. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  17. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  18. Guidelines for the determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in commercial products (re-announcement of PB88-101050 - see notes field for explanation). Final report, March 1985-July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, D.H.; Stanley, J.S.

    1987-09-01

    The determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) and dibenzofurans (HDFs) in commercial products requires specific and sensitive analytical procedures. The development of methods for the measurement of HDD and HDF in commercial products is complicated by the diverse range of matrices, the potentially large number of halogenated (specifically chloro, bromo, or bromo/chloro) HDD and HDF congeners and potential interference due to major components of the product matrices. The report provides (1) a review of the literature pertaining to commercial-product analyses for HDDs and HDFs, (2) detail on the total number of bromo, chloro, and bromo/chloro HDDs and HDFs, (3) a tentative scheme for the analysis of HDDs and HDFs in diverse matrices, and (4) guidelines for the high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or electron-capture-detector analysis of commercial products for HDDs and HDFs. The guidelines specify a rigorous QA/QC program for the analysis of the commercial products.

  19. Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio, Southern Vietnam and Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Viet, Pham Hung; Kondo, Akira; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio, South Vietnam, and Osaka, Japan. Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator. For comparison, we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi, Vietnam. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue, Hanoi, and suburban areas of Osaka, but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka. The proportion of the World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ value contributed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Can Gio was approximately 30%, higher than the values in the other sample areas. These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio. The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources, as in Hue. In contrast, commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi. In Osaka, agrochemicals used in rice cultivation, the incineration of solid waste, and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations. The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg(-1)dw at urban locations in Osaka. PMID:19892385

  20. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fishes to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Bryanna K; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Wiseman, Steve; Raine, Jason C; Hecker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin-like compounds of varying toxicities are found in complex mixtures. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was developed based on the potency of a dioxin-like compound relative to the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to streamline risk assessment. One limitation of the TEF approach is uncertainty regarding differences in the relative potency of dioxin-like compounds among different species. Relative potencies among fishes are limited, relative to relative potencies among birds and mammals, and TEFs for fishes are based entirely on the model species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An in vitro liver explant assay was used to characterize species-specific responses with regard to up-regulation of CYP1A transcript after exposure to 6 dioxin-like compounds in rainbow trout, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Differences in sensitivities were observed among species after exposure to dioxin-like compounds. The relative potencies developed from liver explants of rainbow trout were comparable to relative potencies developed from embryo toxicity assays. Differences in relative potencies between species with the least and greatest relative potencies were up to 40-fold. To compare relative potencies among species, concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in fish eggs in the Fraser River and in Lake Ontario were used to calculate toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) determined from TEFs or TCDD equivalents determined from relative potencies. The TEQs underestimated TCDD equivalents for white sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and northern pike, indicating uncertainty in application of TEFs to diverse fishes. PMID:26202062

  1. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins. PMID:23424046

  2. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  3. Relationships between dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) congener concentrations in aquatic organisms from Sydney Estuary, Australia and physiology, spatial, seasonality, trophodynamic and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Sezmis, Aysha Laila; Birch, Gavin; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study investigated factors that govern species-specific accumulation patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in a food web from Sydney Estuary (Australia). The results indicated that physiological characteristics, i.e. lipid %, spatial, i.e. distance from Homebush Bay (point source of POPs) and life history characteristics of the organisms, such as diet and home range, influence PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue concentrations to a varying degree. For example, PCDD/F tissue concentrations increased with the presence of detritivorous diet, species with limited home range and close proximity to Homebush Bay. On the other hand, lipid %, piscivorous diet and close proximity to Homebush Bay were the main predictors causing increases in dl-PCB tissue levels. Distance from Homebush Bay was the only predictor affecting both PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue levels at a similar rate, i.e. decreasing tissue concentrations as the distance increases from Homebush Bay. PMID:24840280

  4. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish. PMID:26468966

  5. Capping efficiency of various carbonaceous and mineral materials for in situ remediation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contaminated marine sediments: sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation in boxcosm tests.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Sarah; Schaanning, Morten; Samuelsson, Göran S; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Olofsson, Ida; Eek, Espen; Wiberg, Karin

    2012-03-20

    The efficiency of thin-layer capping in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene, and octachlorostyrene was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials was tested using a three-factor experimental design. The cap materials consisted of a passive material (coarse or fine limestone or a marine clay) and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants. The cap thickness and the type of active material were significant factors, whereas no statistically significant effects of the type of passive material were observed. Sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation by the two test species, the surface-dwelling Nassarius nitidus and the deep-burrowing Nereis spp., decreased with increased cap thickness and with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a ~90% reduction of fluxes and bioaccumulation was achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC. Small increases in fluxes with increased survival of Nereis spp. indicated that bioturbation by Nereis spp. affected the fluxes. PMID:22339559

  6. Metabolism of Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Chlorinated Dibenzo-p- Dioxins by a Beijerinckia Species

    PubMed Central

    Klečka, Gary M.; Gibson, David T.

    1980-01-01

    Whole cells of the parent strain of Beijerinckia, grown with succinate and biphenyl, oxidized dibenzo-p-dioxin and several chlorinated dioxins. The rate of oxidation of the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins decreased with an increasing degree of chlorine substitution. A mutant strain (B8/36) of Beijerinckia oxidized dibenzo-p-dioxin to cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrodibenzo-p-dioxin. The mutant organism also oxidized two monochlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins to cis-dihydrodiols. No metabolites were detected from two dichlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. Growth of the parent strain of Beijerinckia on succinate was inhibited after 4 h when 0.05% dibenzo-p-dioxin was present in the culture medium. Resting cell suspensions of the parent organism, previously grown with succinate and biphenyl, oxidized dibenzo-p-dioxin to a compound identified as 1,2-dihydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin. Further degradation of this metabolite was not detected, as the compound was found to be a potent mixed-type inhibitor of two ring-fission oxygenases present in this organism. PMID:16345500

  7. Uncertainty assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl analysis in stationary source sample emissions in accordance with the impending European standard EN-1948 using fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, K; Rivera-Austrui, J; Adrados, M A; Abalos, M; Llerena, J J; van Bavel, B; Rivera, J; Abad, E

    2009-07-31

    The analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) present in stack gas emissions and solid residues from incinerators will be mandatory in the foreseeable future. European standard EN-1948 is in the process of being updated through the addition of a new Part 4 related to the analysis of the 12 dl-PCBs. Therefore, either a comprehensive and reliable method capable of analyzing all of these 29 compounds (12 dl-PCBs and 17 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) needs to be developed, or the existing PCDD/F analytical procedure must be adapted to include the dl-PCBs. This study has taken the latter approach of modifying PCDD/F methodology and in particular the fractionation step, by isolating dioxins and dl-PCBs into separate fractions ready for high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analysis. Results obtained from the analysis of Certified Reference Materials (CRM-490 and CRM-615) and fly ashes from the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) intercalibration study demonstrated that the proposed methodology is appropriate to determine the dl-PCBs in accordance with the impending European standard EN-1948. Uncertainty values obtained during the validation of the analytical methodology were 13% total I-TEQ (International Toxic Equivalent) for PCDD/Fs and 31% total WHO-TEQ (World Health Organization Toxic Equivalent) in the case of dl-PCBs. In addition, 'real' samples such as emissions and fly ashes were successfully analyzed following the proposed analytical method. PMID:19560773

  8. Placental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids correlate weakly with placental polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and are uncorrelated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) at delivery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng-Chuan; Brenna, J Thomas; Sun, Pei-Yi; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li

    2011-08-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), ARA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) have positive effects and environment pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans(PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have negative effects on neural development during early life. Placental dioxin/PCB serves as markers for cumulative exposure to fetus. Fatty acid composition of placenta depends on nutrient supply during pregnancy, serving as indicators for fetal ARA and DHA accretion. This study investigated correlation between placental PCDD/F and PCB toxic equivalent (TEQ) and LC-PUFA in 34 pregnant women from Taiwan. Placental PCDF TEQ were inversely correlated with placental ARA (p=0.020), C20:3n-6 (p=0.01), C22:4n-6 (p=0.04), C22:5n-6 (p<0.01) and with DHA (p=0.03), but ARA and DHA did not vary with PCDD, dioxin-like and indicator PCB. After adjustment for age and body mass index, a one-unit PCDF TEQ increase was associated with 1.021%w/w and 0.312%w/w decreases in ARA (β=-1.021, p=0.03) and DHA (β=-0.312, p=0.03). Since ARA and DHA were unrelated to three classes of toxins, and a weak negative association was found with PCDF, these data provide no basis for discouraging marine fish consumption during pregnancy for Taiwan women on the basis of these organics. Pregnant women should consume fish for its unique package of nutrients while avoiding few species with high organic pollutant or mercury contamination. PMID:21549173

  9. Distribution characteristics and source identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from River Kanzaki, running through Osaka urban area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao

    2013-03-01

    This is the first to elucidate the distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from Kanzaki River, which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in Japan. The World Health Organization (WHO)-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) in waters from the mainstream exceeded the Japanese environmental standard (1.0 pg-TEQ/L). The PCDD/PCDFs were dominated by highly chlorinated DFs, which predominantly contributed to the WHO-TEQs, suggesting that the main causes would be the incineration-related wastes. To find the sources, the dioxin congener concentrations in water and sediment samples from its tributary small waterways were determined. Abnormally high WHO-TEQs were detected in a water (50 pg-TEQ/L) and a sediment sample (41,000 ng-TEQ/kg dry weight) near the industrial solid waste incinerators (ISWIs). The PCDD/PCDF characteristics agreed well with those of the incinerator-related wastes as seen in the mainstream. These facts indicate that the dioxin pollution in the mainstream could be largely related to the industrial wastes from the ISWIs. Here, a TEQ apportionment method was used to understand the contribution of the pyrogenic sources to the WHO-TEQs. The average contribution ratios of the pyrogenic sources to WHO-TEQs were more than 80% for river waters from the mainstream, indicating that the elevated WHO-TEQs in the mainstream had been largely caused by the ISWIs. PMID:23923415

  10. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both of point and area sources of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant and their impacts to the vicinity environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study was set out to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both the stack (i.e., point source) and plant fugitives (i.e., area source) of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant (EAFDTP) and their impact to the vicinity environments. The emission rate of the point source (2,360 ng I-TEQh(-1)) was determined directly by measuring PCDD/F concentrations of the stack flue gas. The emission rate of the area source (1,080 ng I-TEQ m(-2)h(-1)) was estimated by using the Industrial Sources Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) model based on concentrations measured at the downwind side of the plant. The mean emission factors of 785 and 893 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) ZnO were found for the point and area source, respectively. The above results suggest that the area source accounted for more than 50% of total PCDD/F emissions for the selected EAFDTP. The contribution of the point source to the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations of the upwind site and downwind site of the EAFDTP were 0 and 0.27 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The contributions of the area source were 0.020 and 3.3 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The total contribution of the selected EAFDTP (including both the point and area sources) to the concentrations in both upwind and downwind side vicinities were all less than 10%. Finally, the impact of PCDD/F emissions from the selected EAFDTP to the vicinity atmospheric environments was discussed in the present study. PMID:20598338

  11. Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange. PMID:24643387

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Iona S; Anderson, Wayne A; Crowley, Dominique; Daly, Sean F; Evans, Rhodri I; Fernandes, Alwyn R; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Geary, Michael P; Keane, Declan P; Malisch, Rainer; McBride, John; Morrison, John J; Reilly, Alan; Tlustos, Christina

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002. PMID:22560976

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources. PMID:26282439

  14. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tay-Lung; Liao, Chiu-Jung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are some of the major organic contaminants emitted in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). The distribution of PAHs and PCDD/Fs in different MSWI unit ashes, including bottom residue (BR), fly ash pit (FAP), fabric filter (FF), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), economizer (EC) and super heater (SH), has seldom been discussed. Average PAHs content in ash samples from BR, FAP, FF, SDA, EC and SH were found to be 0.020, 0.237, 0.234, 0.125, 0.037 and 0.034 µg TEQ g(-1), respectively. In addition, the range of total emission factor from different unit ashes varied between 0.30-13.85 mg TEQ tonne(-1) of waste, low molecular weight compounds (2~3-ring) being the dominant species. Furthermore, PAHs in ashes were mainly found in BR (41%) and FAP (31%). The FAP ash included 18% of PAHs coming from FF ash. On the other hand, PCDD/Fs content in BR, FAP, FF, SDA, EC and SH was found to be 0.0329, 1.1589, 1.2807, 0.1476, 0.6868 and 0.0921 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/ Fs emission factors in this study ranged between 1.029-67.740 µg I-TEQ tonne(-1) of waste, most PCDD/Fs being present in FAP (55%). The FAP ash included 33% of PCDD/Fs coming from FF ash. Therefore, PCDD/Fs content in FAP and FF exceeded the legal limit of 1 ng I-TEQ g( -1); therefore, a solidification process is necessary before landfilling in Taiwan. PMID:20022903

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. PMID:23000468

  16. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by a population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: assessment of the temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Perelló, Gemma; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-12-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in a number of foodstuffs purchased in various locations near a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs by the population of the area under potential influence of the HWI was subsequently estimated. The results were compared with previous surveys performed in the same area in 1998 (baseline), 2002 and 2006. In the present study, the highest WHO-TEQ corresponded to industrial bakery (0.183 ng/kg wet weight, ww), followed by fish (0.156 ng/kg ww), oils and fats (0.112 ng/kg fat weight), and seafood (0.065 ng/kg ww). In contrast, the lowest values were observed in pulses and tubers (0.003 ng/kg ww), and cereals and fruits (0.004 ng/kg ww). The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs by the general population was 33.1pg WHO-TEQ/day, having fish and seafood (11.6 pg WHO-TEQ), oils and fats (4.61pg WHO-TEQ), dairy products (3.79 pg WHO-TEQ), and industrial bakery (3.49 pg WHO-TEQ) as the groups showing the highest contribution to the total TEQ. The lowest daily contributions corresponded to pulses (0.08 pg WHO-TEQ) and tubers (0.25 pg WHO-TEQ). This intake was considerably lower than that found in the baseline study, 210.1 pgI-TEQ/day, and also notably lower than that found in the 2002 survey (59.6 pgI-TEQ/day), but slightly higher than the intake estimated in the 2006 survey, 27.8 pgWHO-TEQ/day. The results of this study show that any increase potentially found in the biological monitoring of the general population living in the area under evaluation should not be attributed to dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs. PMID:23032645

  17. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    2009-10-01

    In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends. PMID:24645918

  19. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  20. METABOLISM OF DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS BY A BEIJERINCKIA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole cells of the parent strain of Beijerinckia, grown with succinate and biphenyl, oxidized dibenzo-p-dioxin and several chlorinated dioxins. The rate of oxidation of the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxons decreased with an increasing degree of chlorine substitution. A mutant strain...

  1. Contribution of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the Toxic Equivalency of Dioxin-like Compounds in Archived Biosolids from the U.S. EPA’s 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40–100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630–42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼0.002% vs ∼0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15–672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12–96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530–1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids. PMID:25157505

  2. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (1985)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health assessment document on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins discusses multimedia environmental issues pertaining to the most toxic chlorinated dioxins, namely, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-; 1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-; 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachloro-; and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxi...

  3. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  4. A STATISTICALLY-DESIGNED SURVEY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS AND CO-PLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN U.S. MEAT AND POULTRY, 2002-2003: RESULTS, TRENDS, AND IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To obtain information on dioxin levels in the human diet, the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture recently determined levels of dioxin-like compounds (dioxins/dibenzofurans/PCBs) in four major slaughter classes (steers and heifers, market hogs, young chi...

  5. Physical-chemical properties of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, W.Y.; Doucette, W.; Gobas, F.A.P.C.; Andren, A.; Mackay, D.

    1988-06-01

    Reported and newly determined experimental data for aqueous solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, vapor pressure, and Henry's law constants of the poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins are presented and reviewed. Correlation equations are derived for these properties as a function of chlorine number and molar volume, which enable the solubility and octanol-water partition coefficients of most congeners to be estimated with an accuracy within a factor of 2 and vapor pressure and Henry's law constant within a factor of 5. It is suggested that properties of homologous series are best correlated by a two-stage process. In the first stage, treated here, simple correlations are developed to establish approximate values as a function of molar volume and chlorine number. This should be followed by a more rigorous second stage treating isomer differences and using more refined molecular descriptors. The data presented here should be sufficiently accurate for many environmental assessment purposes.

  6. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS OF SOME DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN RELATION TO THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computational analysis of the electrostatic potentials of eight halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins has been carried out at the ab initio SCF STO-5G level. It focuses upon the relationships between these potentials and the biological activities of the molecules, including toxicity, a...

  7. Transformation processes, pathways, and possible sources of distinctive polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin signatures in sink environments.

    PubMed

    Gaus, Caroline; Brunskill, Gregg J; Connell, W; Prange, Joelle; Müller, Jochen F; Päpke, Olaf; Weber, Roland

    2002-08-15

    In recent years, studies on environmental samples with unusual dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congener profiles were reported from a range of countries. These profiles, characterized by a dominance of octachlorinated dibenzodioxin (OCDD) and relatively low in dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations, could not be attributed to known sources or formation processes. In the present study, the processes that result in these unusual profiles were assessed using the concentrations and isomer signatures of PCDDs from dated estuarine sediment cores in Queensland, Australia. Increases in relative concentrations of lower chlorinated PCDDs and a relative decrease of OCDD were correlated with time of sediment deposition. Preferred lateral, anaerobic dechlorination of OCDD represents a likely pathway for these changes. In Queensland sediments, these transformations result in a distinct dominance of isomers fully chlorinated in the 1,4,6,9-positions (1,4-patterns), and similar 1,4-patterns were observed in sediments from elsewhere. Consequently, these environmental samples may not reflect the signatures of the original source, and a reevaluation of source inputs was undertaken. Natural formation of PCDDs, which has previously been suggested, is discussed; however, based on the present results and literature comparisons, we propose an alternative scenario. This scenario hypothesizes that an anthropogenic PCDD precursor input (e.g. pentachlorophenol) results in the contamination. These results and hypothesis imply further investigations are warranted into possible anthropogenic sources in areas where natural PCDD formation has been suggested. PMID:12214647

  8. Electrostatic potentials of some dibenzo-p-dioxins in relation to their biological activities (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.S.; Politzer, P.

    1987-01-01

    A computational analysis of the electrostatic potentials of eight halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins was carried out at the ab initio SCF STO-5G level. It focuses upon the relationships between these potentials and the biological activities of the molecules, including toxicity, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction and receptor binding. In general, regions of negative potential are found to be associated with the oxygens and with the halogen substituents. Biological activity appears to be related to the presence of an optimum range of negative potentials above the lateral portions of the molecules in conjunction with a weakening of those near the oxygens.

  9. Photodegradation of Polyfluorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins in Organic Solvents: Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Chen, Jing; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) were synthesized by pyrolysis of fluorophenols. Using a 500 W Xe lamp as the light source, the PFDDs photodegradation kinetics in n-hexane were investigated. The photolysis reactions obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate equation, and higher fluorinated PFDDs tended to photolyze more slowly. Theoretically calculated parameters reflecting the molecular structural properties were used to develop a new model of PFDDs photolysis rates. The results indicated that the substitution pattern for fluorine atoms and the C-O bond length were major factors in the photolysis of PFDDs. We selected octafluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OFDD) as a representative PFDDs to explore the influence of solvent on the photolysis rate of PFDDs, and the results indicated that neither the polarity nor donor hydrogen of organic solvents are independent influencing factors. Mechanistic pathways for the photolysis of OFDD in n-hexane were first studied. The results indicated that photodegradation of OFDD produces octafluorinated dihydroxybiphenyls, octafluorinated phenoxyphenols, and fluorinated phenols. The major pathway for photodegradation of OFDD was C-O bond cleavage. Defluorination reactions did not occur during the photolysis process. PMID:27380414

  10. Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3~90.8 × 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total. PMID:24306724

  11. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS / - FURANS IN CHICKENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid-adju...

  12. A theoretical investigation into the conformational changes of dibenzo- p-dioxin, thianthrene, and selenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Kwon, Younghi; Lee, Jong-Phil; Choi, Seung-Youl; Choo, Jaebum

    2003-08-01

    Theoretical ab initio calculations using the HF and B3LYP methods have been carried out to investigate the conformational differences of three cyclic rings, dibenzo- p-dioxin (DPD), thianthrene (THT), and selenanthrene (SET). The physical origin for the conformational preference of each molecule has been studied using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The NBO results indicate that DPD exists in a planar form due to strong electron delocalization caused by the specific orbital interaction, nπ→ πCC∗, around the X atom. On the other hand, THT and SET exist as puckered forms with high inversion barriers due to less effective electron delocalization. The NBO analysis also shows that the conformational stabilization in DPD is caused by a more effective overlap of the 2 pz- πCC∗ orbitals, compared with the overlap of the 3 pz- πCC∗ orbitals in THT.

  13. Differentiation of (Mixed) Halogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins by Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Green, M Kirk; Organtini, Kari; Dorman, Frank; Jones, Rhys; Reiner, Eric J; Jobst, Karl J

    2016-05-17

    Brominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and PXDDs) may well be as toxic as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2378-TCDD), a compound reputed as one of the most toxic chemicals known to exist. However, studies on the occurrence of PXDDs have been hampered by a lack of authentic standards as well as separation techniques capable of resolving the enormous number of potential isomers. Electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry based methods are of limited value due to the lack of isomer specific fragmentation. Negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI(-)) of 2378-TCDD was described in this journal over 30 years ago. Under these conditions, the reaction between O2(-•) and 2378-TCDD results in structure diagnostic cleavages of the C-O bonds, which can distinguish TCDD isomers on the basis of Cl distribution between the two aromatic rings. In the present study, the analogous ether cleavages of PBDDs and PXDDs were studied using a gas chromatograph-quadrupole time-of-flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometer coupled using APCI. The results indicate comparable detection limits for the radical cations [M(•+)] and negative pseudomolecular ions [M-Cl+O](-): approximately 5 fg and 10 fg, respectively, for 2378-TCDD and 5-10 fg and 10-30 fg, respectively, for the 2,3,7,8-substituted PXDDs. Detection limits obtained by monitoring the ether cleavage products were somewhat higher (between 100 and 600 fg) but still acceptable for trace analysis of PXDDs. Such reactions may resolve coeluting isomers, which is crucial for the identification of PXDDs. The technique is demonstrated by differentiating PXDD isomer classes in a sample obtained from a major industrial fire that would not be feasible using EI or positive ion APCI(+). PMID:27074061

  14. RISK FROM EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS EMITTED FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration of wastes seems to be one of the major sources of PCDDs and PCDFs (dioxins). heir prevalence and extreme stability in the environment, bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the biota and human adipose tissues and breast milk are of much concern. ,3,7,8-TCDD is one o...

  15. Kinetic Modeling of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation Based on Carbon Degradation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion experiments in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor were performed to determine the role of temperature and time in PCDD/F formation allowing a global kinetic expression to be written for PCDD/F formation due to soot oxidation in fly ash deposits. Rate constants were c...

  16. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in wood burning stoves and fireplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Ali, B.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of bottom ash and chimney ash were collected from two wood burning stoves, one open fireplace, and from out-of-doors open-air burning. Although only untreated wood was burned, PCDD/PCDF was detected in all samples. Large differences in total PCDD/PCDF and relative congener amounts were observed between samples, although within-congener isomer patterns were very similar and in some cases resembled the patterns detected in municipal incinerator fly ash. Acid treatment of the ash before extraction increased the amounts of PCDD/PCDF detected.

  17. Risk from exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans emitted from municipal incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Maukerjee, D.; Cleverly, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Incineration of wastes seems to be one of the major sources of PCDDs and PCDFs (dioxins). Their prevalence and extreme stability in the environment, bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the biota and human adipose tissues and breast milk are of much concern. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic chemicals known and has been found to have teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in animals. Exposure to TCDD can result in chloracne, general weakness, drastic weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin, hirsutism, porphyria cutanea tarda, liver damage, changes in activities of various liver enzymatic levels, abnormal lipid metabolism, abnormalities of the endocrine and immune systems, and possible teratogenic effects in humans. Moreover, chronic bioassay data indicate that TCDD is one of the most potent carcinogens known. It promotes liver and skin carcinogeneses, and is an initiator for various target organs in rodent test systems. According to the classification system of IARC, the qualitative evidence for carcinogenicity of TCDD is considered to be sufficient in animals and inadequate in humans. Consequently, TCDD has been placed in IARC's 2B category. In the absence of chronic bioassay data on other PCDDs and PCDFs, several TCDD equivalent approaches have been proposed for risk assessment on other congeners or mixtures. The paper compares the various approaches.

  18. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residue levels in food. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.M.

    1989-10-26

    The chemical analysis of selected foods was conducted to provide an estimate of the residue levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. The foodstuffs included saltwater fish, freshwater fish, beef, chicken, pork, bovine milk, and eggs. The foodstuffs were collected from San Francisco and Los Angeles. Emphasis was placed on the collection of foodstuffs of California origin. Individual foods collected from multiple sites within San Francisco and Los Angeles were composited for analysis of the residue levels. Detectable levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were identified in all but the egg samples that were analyzed. Overall, the freshwater fish composites were found to have the highest incidence of detectable levels. The order of highest to lowest incidence of detection follows: freshwater fish > saltwater fish > pork and chicken > beef and milk > eggs. All data were generated from a sample size of approximately 10 g of extractable fatty materials. All data are presented to reflect lipid or fat concentrations such that extrapolation with other data bases can be achieved.

  19. Enriching for microbial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Park, Joong-Wook; Häggblom, Max M

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures derived from contaminated Kymijoki River sediments dechlorinated 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,4-tetra-CDF), octachlorodibenzofuran (octa-CDF) and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-tetra-CDD). 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDF was dechlorinated via 1,2,3-, 2,3,4-, and 1,3,4/1,2,4-tri-CDFs to 1,3-, 2,3-, and 2,4-di-CDFs and finally to 4-mono-CDF. The dechlorination rate of 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDF was generally slower than that of 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDD. The rate and extent of 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDD dechlorination was enhanced by addition of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) as a co-substrate. Dechlorination of spiked octa-CDF was observed with the production of hepta-, hexa-, penta- and tetra-CDFs over 6 months. Two major phylotypes of the Chloroflexi community showed an increase, one of which was identical to the Dehalococcoides mccartyi Pinellas subgroup. A set of twelve putative reductive dehalogenase (rdh) genes increased in abundance with addition of 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDF, 1,2,3,4-tetra-CDD and/or PCNB. This information will aid in understanding how indigenous microbial communities impact the fate of PCDFs and in developing strategies for bioremediation of PCDD/F contaminated sediments. PMID:24060741

  20. The concentration and distribution of 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans in chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid adjusted basis for each tissue. While there is a marked difference in the concentration of the 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins in the edible tissues expressed on a whole weight basis, the lipid-adjusted concentrations of the individual dioxins were not statistically different in the various tissues. This validates the use of lipid adjusted concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDDs/PCDFs in abdominal fat for the determination of the presence of these compounds in different tissues.

  1. Theoretical study on the radical anions and reductive dechlorination of selected polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Hu, Jiwei; Zhuang, Yuan; Wei, Xionghui; Huang, Xianfei

    2013-05-01

    For the effective use of remediation technologies for PCDDs contamination, it is essential to study the reactivity and dechlorination pathways of these compounds. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP/6-31+G(d), B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)) were performed to investigate the neutrals and different anionic states of selected PCDD congeners. The calculated adiabatic electron affinities and frontier orbital energies of the PCDD congeners (in gas-phase and in solution) are significantly correlated with the reported dechlorination rate constants, showing that this kind of reductive cleavage reaction is kinetically controlled by the electron transfer step. The predicted major dechlorination pathways of 1,2,3,4-TeCDD and its daughter products based on the energies of the anionic states were found to be satisfactorily consistent with the reported experimental results. Simulation of the 1,2,3,4-TeCDD dechlorination process showed that not only the dechlorination regioselectivity but also the reactivity of the PCDDs played an important role in the distribution of dechlorinated products. An exponential correlation was found between the sum of the concentration of the PCDD congeners and the reaction time in the simulation, indicating that the time required for the conversion of the PCDD congeners to the fully dechlorinated product (dibenzo-p-dioxin) might not be significantly dependent on the initial concentration of 1,2,3,4-TeCDD. PMID:23499218

  2. Mechanisms associated with the high adsorption of dibenzo-p-dioxin from water by smectite clays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Johnston, Cliff T; Boyd, Stephen A

    2009-04-15

    Clay minerals may be an important unrecognized sorptive phase for dioxins in soils and clay deposits. Smectites, especially Cs-saponite, effectively adsorbed dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) from water, reaching 0.8% (wt/wt). Adsorption was promoted by exchangeable cations with low hydration energies, and negative charge in the smectite arising from the tetrahedral siloxane sheets. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that as DD loading increased to > or =8000 mg/kg the clay basal spacing increased abruptly from 12.3 to 15.2 A demonstrating DD intercalation. The 12.3 A spacing provides an interlayer distance that closely matches the molecular thickness of DD. In this configuration DD is essentially dehydrated as it interacts with the opposing hydrophobic siloxane sheets and with coplanar Cs+ via one of the dioxin ring oxygens. Ab initio calculations suggest that geometrical structures form at higher loadings in which intercalated DD molecules adopt a butterfly geometry sandwiched between dehydrated interlayer Cs+ and the siloxane surface, consistent with the 15.2 A spacing, wherein Cs+ interacts with dioxin ring oxygens and benzene ring pi-electrons. Fourier transformation infrared measurements confirm that adsorbed DD is present in orientations that are not parallel with the interlayer planar siloxane surfaces of smectite. PMID:19475949

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Eastern and Northern Europe: Spatiotemporal patterns, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles were sampled to determine levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles at industrial, urban and background sites in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK). Spatial and temporal patterns of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were investigated and principal component analysis (PCA) used to determine spatial patterns, potential sources and transport of PCDD/Fs. Levels of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were generally greatest near to industrial sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (lower bound (LB)): 6 ng kg(-1) - 190 ng kg(-1)) compared to urban and background sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (LB): 0.90 ng kg(-1) - 20 ng kg(-1)). Using metal contamination in pine needles helped to detect spatial patterns and separate local thermal sources of PCDD/Fs. PMID:27160632

  4. Changing sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in sediments and ecological risk for nekton in the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay, New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Barrett, Kirk; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in sediments (surface and deeper sediments) and porewater of the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) to apportion their sources and conduct an ecological risk assessment. Positive matrix factorization was applied to identify sources of PCDD/Fs. Five source profiles were extracted from the positive matrix factorization model applied to the sediment samples including chloranil, combustion, polychlorinated biphenyl impurities, mixed urban sources, and the historical contamination from the former Diamond Alkali plant. The ecological risk assessment was estimated using several lines of evidence depending on site-specific data (blue crab and fish samples representing different feeding habits and positions in the trophic wood web of the river). Porewater concentrations gave the best estimates of lipid concentrations especially in the blue crab samples (with an average factor difference of 3.8). Calculated hazard quotients (HQs) for the fish samples and blue crab were >1 based on the no-effect concentration and tissue screening concentration approaches. At the same time, calculated porewater toxic units were >1. Sediment concentrations exceeded the published sediment quality guidelines for the protection of fish and benthic species, indicating the existence of significant risk to the aquatic life in the Passaic River. Accordingly, further actions and control measures are needed to reduce the emission of PCDD/Fs from ongoing sources. PMID:26315691

  5. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs. PMID:25123135

  6. DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT FROM CERAMICS AND POTTERY PRODUCED FROM BALL CLAY MINED IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had...

  7. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  8. Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -furans at the Portland Harbor Superfund site, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Krumins, Valdis; Curran, Joanna Crowe

    2015-06-16

    The Portland Harbor (Oregon, USA) has been declared a "Superfund" site because it is impacted by a variety of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs). Using data collected in the remedial investigation, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in sediment and water were examined using positive matrix factorization to look for evidence that PCBs and PCDD/Fs are dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. This process has long been known to occur in sediments. Recently, it has been recognized that PCB and PCDD/F dechlorination may also occur in other anaerobic environments, such as in landfills, sewers, and groundwater. The results indicate that a factor related to the dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs was present in the water but not in the sediment. Spatial patterns in dechlorination products suggest that they come primarily from groundwater. Dechlorination products comprise 22% of the PCBs in the water. The Portland Harbor therefore represents the third major US watershed in which PCBs appear to undergo dechlorination in an environment other than sediment, suggesting that the microbial dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs is more common than previously assumed. In addition, the Portland Harbor is impacted by PCBs generated inadvertently during the production of pigments, such as PCB 11, which alone exceeded the 64 pg/L federal water quality standard for the sum of PCBs in two of 120 whole water samples. PMID:26010118

  9. Predictability of physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) based on single-molecular descriptor models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are of global concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Although the fate of PCDDs in the environment is determined by their physical-chemical properties, such as aqueous solubility, vapor pressure, octanol/water-, air/water-, and octanol/water-partition coefficients, experimental property data on the entire set of 75 PCDD congeners are limited. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach is applied to predict the properties of all PCDD congeners. Experimental property data available from the literature are correlated against 16 molecular descriptors of five types. Reported and newly developed QSPR models for PCDDs are presented and reviewed. The values calculated by the best QSPRs are further adjusted to satisfy fundamental thermodynamic relationships. Although the single-descriptor models with chlorine number, molar volume, solvent accessible surface area and polarizability are based on good statistical results, these models cannot distinguish among PCDDs having the same chlorine number. The QSPR model based on the hyper-Wiener index of quantum-chemical descriptor gives useful statistical results and is able to distinguish among congeners with the same chlorine number, as well as satisfying thermodynamic relationships. The resulting consistent properties of the 75 PCDD congeners can be used for environmental modeling. PMID:26878604

  10. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. PMID:26761781

  11. Mechanism of formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins produced on municipal incinerator flyash from reactions of chlorinated phenols.

    PubMed

    Dickson, L C; Karasek, F W

    1987-02-27

    All incinerators burning municipal waste produce chlorinated dioxins. The mechanism by which these compounds are formed is unknown. Experiments were performed that show these compounds can be produced from known precursors by surface catalysed reactions on the flyash particulates present in the incineration process. A full range of the tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins were produced from 13C-labelled pentachlorophenol and two trichlorophenols on the surface of flyash from an Ontario municipal incinerator that had been previously freed from organic material. A simple flow-tube apparatus at 300 degrees C under a 10-ml/min nitrogen flow was used for the experiments. The use of 13C-labelled pentachlorophenol gave a direct measure of the extent of the catalytic reactivity of the flyash surface. Much lower amounts of chlorinated dioxins were produced in similar experiments with flyash from a modern Japanese incinerator whose effluents are normally extremely low in these compounds. Only small amounts of octachlorodioxin, the thermal condensation product expected, were formed using ground firebrick or an empty flow-tube for the reactive surface. These results indicate that the flyash surface has constituents and properties that promote the production of chlorinated dioxins from chlorinated phenols and support the catalyzed surface reaction mechanism previously proposed. PMID:3571349

  12. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Study on the Rate Constants of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins with OH Radical

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chuansong; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    The OH-initiated reaction rate constants (kOH) are of great importance to measure atmospheric behaviors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in the environment. The rate constants of 75 PCDDs with the OH radical at 298.15 K have been calculated using high level molecular orbital theory, and the rate constants (kα, kβ, kγ and kOH) were further analyzed by the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study. According to the QSAR models, the relations between rate constants and the numbers and positions of Cl atoms, the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO), the difference ΔEHOMO-LUMO between EHOMO and ELUMO, and the dipole of oxidizing agents (D) were discussed. It was found that EHOMO is the main factor in the kOH. The number of Cl atoms is more effective than the number of relative position of these Cl atoms in the kOH. The kOH decreases with the increase of the substitute number of Cl atoms. PMID:26274950

  13. Dibenzo-p-dioxins in the environment from ceramics and pottery produced from ball clay mined in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had average PCDD concentrations of 3.2 ng/g toxic equivalents, a congener profile, and isomer distribution consistent with those found previously in raw ball clay. The PCDF concentrations were below the average limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/g. The final fired ceramic products were found to be free of PCDDs/PCDFs at the LODs. A consideration of the conditions involved in the firing process suggests that the PCDDs, if not destroyed, may be released to the atmosphere and could represent an as yet unidentified source of dioxins to the environment. In addition, the PCDDs in clay dust generated during manufacturing operations may represent a potential occupational exposure.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION BY POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS ASSOCIATED WITH PULP AND PAPER MILL DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sludge from seven pulp and paper mills was analyzed for 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The level of contamination ranged from not detectable (1pg/g) to over 400 pg/g. Analyses for other planar polychlorinated contaminants indicated high levels of contamination by other PCDDs and PCDFs. Polychlori...

  15. CONGENER PROFILES OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in textiles, and electronic equipment to prevent these products from burning. PBDEs have been marketed as penta- (DE-71), octa- (DE-79), and deca-brominated (DE-83) preparations. Commercial PBDE preparations were an...

  16. Level and congener profiles of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the atmosphere of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Zhao, Bin; Qi, Li; Xu, Peng-Jun; Ren, Yue; Li, Nan; Zheng, Sen; Zhao, Hu; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Ai-Min; Huang, Ye-Ru

    2014-10-01

    Air samples were collected from six locations during the periods of February, 2011-March, 2012 in Beijing city. PBDD/Fs were analyzed using HRGC-HRMS. The concentrations, congener profiles, spatial distribution, seasonal variation, and inhalation risk assessment were investigated. The mass concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs is 818-5748 fg m-3 with an average of 2490 fg m-3. The highest concentration was observed at site XS in February, 2011 and the lowest was at site BS in July 2011. The TEQ concentrations of PBDD/Fs ranged from 73.3 to 640 fg I-TEQ m-3, with an average of 190 fg I-TEQ m-3. The dominant contributor to total I-TEQ value is 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, with an average contribution of 35%. The PBDD/Fs at six sampling sites did not show obvious spatial variation. The concentration exhibits obvious seasonal variation, so atmospheric PBDD/F concentrations at six sample sites were much higher in winter than in summer. Residents in Beijing were exposed to PBDD/Fs with the daily inhalation doses being 39-138 fg I-TEQ kg-1 day-1 for adult and 69-245 fg TEQ kg-1 day-1 for children in winter, but in summer, the values were 10-33 for adult and 18-59 for children. The rough inhalation risk evaluation showed that the residents in Beijing had relatively higher exposure levels of PBDD/Fs in winter, so more research about PBDD/Fs should be carried out at once.

  17. Levels of brominated diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the extensive use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including brominated diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of brominated chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...

  18. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR A NATIONAL STUDY OF CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FISH - I: POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical Methods were developed to determine the concentration of PCDD/PCDF in fish tissue for a national survey conducted by EPA. he method was designed to achieve a relatively low cost per sample while maintaining adequate quality control. t utilizes a Soxhlet extraction, aci...

  19. CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND -DIBENZOFURANS IN TECHNICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER PREPARATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in textiles, electronic equipment and plastics.1 The three major commercial products available in the market are penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE products. Due to their widespread use, persistence, and bio...

  20. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in aqueous solution by Fe(II)/H2O2/UV system.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Kaneco, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Ohta, Kiyohisa; Yobiko, Yoshihiro

    2006-04-01

    The photodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), which include tetra- to octa-CDDs (TeCDD, PeCDD, HxCDD, HpCDD and OCDD), was carried out in the presence of Fe(II) and H2O2 mixed reagent. The degradation efficiency was strongly influenced by UV irradiation, and the initial concentrations of H2O2 and Fe(II). An initial TeCDD concentration of 10 ng l(-1) was completely degraded within 20 min under the optimum conditions. All PCDDs tested were successfully degraded by Fe(II)/H2O2/UV treatment and complete degradation of TeCDD, PeCDD and HxCDD was achieved within 120 min. PCDD photodegradation rates decreased with the number of chlorine atoms. The degradation process of TeCDD by this system seems to be initiated by an oxidative reaction (OH* radical attack) because less chlorinated DDs as intermediate products were not detected. From the Frontier electron density calculation, the first OH* radical attack positions on TeCDD were found to be four C atoms neighboring two O atoms. The decomposition of TeCDD gave 4,5-dichlorocatechol as an intermediate product. A TeCDD degradation scheme was proposed based on the identified intermediate and the values of Frontier electron density. Based on these results, Fe(II)/H2O2/UV system could be useful technology for the treatment of wastewater containing persistent pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:16213552

  1. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment-associated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Segstro, M.D.; Webster, G.R.B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Servos, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    The long-term fate of four polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners in sediments and their bioavailability to benthic invertebrates were studied in littoral enclosures located in a small lake at the Experimental Lakes Area in north-western Ontario. The PCDDs sorbed on sediment particles were added to the 5-m-diameter enclosures on June 12, 1985, and concentrations in sediment cores (0 to 6 cm) were determined over 1,800-d ({approximately}5 years). Concentrations of 1,3,6,8-TCDD, 1,3,7,9-TCDD, HpCDD, and OCDD in the sediment declined, with half-lives of 4.4{+-}1.7, 4.6{+-}1.9, 6.2{+-}3.1, and 6.0{+-}2.8 year, respectively. Evaluation of the data for 1,3,6,8-TCDD and OCDD using a sediment-water exchange model suggested that the decline in PCDD concentrations was due to losses to the water column via diffusion of DOC-associated PCDDs in pore water and via particle resuspension. After 5 years the PCDDs remained bioavailable to freshwater mussel (Anodonta grandis) and crayfish (Orconectes virilis) exposed to sediments for up to 78 d. The crayfish had higher mean biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for 1,3,6,8-TCDD and 1,3,7,9-TCDD (0.31--0.53) than did mussels (0.07--0.13), whereas BSAFs for HpCDD and OCDD in the two species were similar (0.03--0.09).

  2. Probing the microscopic hydrophobicity of smectite surfaces. A vibrational spectroscopic study of dibenzo-p-dioxin sorption to smectite.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kiran; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Li, Hui; Liu, Cun; Johnston, Cliff T

    2009-04-28

    The interaction of dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), from aqueous suspension, with smectite was investigated using in situ vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman), structural and batch sorption techniques. Batch sorption isotherms were integrated with in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Sorption isotherms revealed that the affinity of DD for smectite in aqueous suspension was strongly influenced both by the type of smectite and by the nature of the exchangeable cation. Cs-saponite showed a much higher affinity over Rb-, K- and Na-exchange saponites. In addition, DD sorption was found to depend on clay type with DD showing a high affinity for the tetrahedrally substituted trioctahedral saponite over SWy-2 and Upton montmorillonites. A structural model is introduced to account for the influence of clay type. Raman and FTIR data provided complementary molecular-level insight into the sorption mechanisms. In the case of Cs-saponite, the selection rules of DD based on D(2h) symmetry were broken indicating a site-specific interaction between DD and intercalated Cs(+) ions in the interlayer of the clay. Polarized in situ ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that the molecular plane of sorbed DD was tilted with respect to the clay surface which was consistent with a d-spacing of 1.49 nm. Finally, cation-induced changes in both the skeletal ring vibrations and the asymmetric C-O-C stretching vibrations provided evidence for site specific interactions between the DD and exchangeable cations in the clay interlayer. Together, the combined macroscopic and spectroscopic data show a surprising link between a hydrophilic material and a planar hydrophobic aromatic hydrocarbon. PMID:19421512

  3. Nature of the Interlayer Environment in an Organoclay Optimized for the Sequestration of Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Cliff T.; Khan, Bushra; Barth, Edwin F.; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Boyd, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    A Na–smectite clay (Na–SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA–SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 × CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% carbon content, which demonstrates DODA+ intercalation. DODA–SWy-2 was evaluated as an archetype of commercial products used to sequester hydrophobic contaminants, and the nature of the primarily C18 alkylhydrocarbon-chain interlayer environment was emhasized. Shifts in ν(CH) and CH2 rocking band positions in DODA–SWy-2-complex FTIR-spectra indicate that DODA C18 chains were more ordered as DODA surface coverage was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated a DODA–SWy-2 gel-to-liquid transition temperature much lower than the melting point of crystalline DODA-Br and similar to that of aqueous DODA-Br vesicles. This suggests that the transition was governed by C18 alkyl tail–tail interactions in the clay interlamellar region. Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) sorption from water by DODA–SWy-2 was compared to DD sorption by the geosorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), K-exchanged saponite, and a muck soil. The linear Kl sorption coefficients (log Kl) from a linear fit of the sorption isotherms were 4.37 for DODA–SWy-2, 5.55 for GAC, 3.19 for muck soil, and 2.46 for K-saponite. The DD-organic-matter-normalized sorption coefficient (Kom) was ~2.4 times the octanol–water partition coefficient (Kow). This indicates that DD has a higher affinity for the nonpolar interlayer DODA organic phase than for octanol. In contrast, the Kom for muck soil DD sorption was ~10 times less than Kow, which reflects the higher polarity of amorphous soil organic matter relative to octanol. Enhanced DD uptake by the DODA-derived lipophilic phase in the organoclay is attributed to the low polarity, “open” C18 alkyl structure due to the physical dimensions of “v-shaped” DODA+ molecular

  4. Nature of the interlayer environment in an organoclay optimized for the sequestration of dibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Cliff T; Khan, Bushra; Barth, Edwin F; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Boyd, Stephen A

    2012-09-01

    A Na-smectite clay (Na-SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA-SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 × CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% carbon content, which demonstrates DODA(+) intercalation. DODA-SWy-2 was evaluated as an archetype of commercial products used to sequester hydrophobic contaminants, and the nature of the primarily C18 alkylhydrocarbon-chain interlayer environment was emhasized. Shifts in ν(CH) and CH(2) rocking band positions in DODA-SWy-2-complex FTIR-spectra indicate that DODA C18 chains were more ordered as DODA surface coverage was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated a DODA-SWy-2 gel-to-liquid transition temperature much lower than the melting point of crystalline DODA-Br and similar to that of aqueous DODA-Br vesicles. This suggests that the transition was governed by C18 alkyl tail-tail interactions in the clay interlamellar region. Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) sorption from water by DODA-SWy-2 was compared to DD sorption by the geosorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), K-exchanged saponite, and a muck soil. The linear K(l) sorption coefficients (log K(l)) from a linear fit of the sorption isotherms were 4.37 for DODA-SWy-2, 5.55 for GAC, 3.19 for muck soil, and 2.46 for K-saponite. The DD-organic-matter-normalized sorption coefficient (K(om)) was ∼2.4 times the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)). This indicates that DD has a higher affinity for the nonpolar interlayer DODA organic phase than for octanol. In contrast, the K(om) for muck soil DD sorption was ~10 times less than K(ow), which reflects the higher polarity of amorphous soil organic matter relative to octanol. Enhanced DD uptake by the DODA-derived lipophilic phase in the organoclay is attributed to the low polarity, "open" C18 alkyl structure due to the physical dimensions of "v-shaped" DODA(+) molecular, and low

  5. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  6. EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION PARAMETERS ON POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN HOMOLOGUE PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL CO-COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale (0.6 MWt, 2x106 Btu/hr), co-fired-fuel [densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur Illinois coal] combustion system was used to provide i...

  7. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  8. Theoretical study on the degradation reaction of octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin with atomic oxygen O((3)P) in dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chen; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Hu, Jingtian; Qi, Chuansong

    2014-11-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) have been used in the degradation of dioxins due to the large number of excimers and free radicals produced in discharge process. In this article, the density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the degradation mechanism of octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) with the atomic oxygen O((3)P) in DBD reactor. The reactants, intermediates, transition states and products are optimized at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. The vibrational frequencies have been calculated at the same level. The reaction pathways and mechanisms are analyzed in detail. The effect of removing the chlorine atom on environment also has been discussed. PMID:25458683

  9. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters early embryonic development in a rat IVF exposure model

    PubMed Central

    Petroff, Brian K.; Valdez, Kelli E.; Brown, Sara B.; Piasecka, Joanna; Albertini, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), accelerate reproductive senescence and one proposed target is the early embryo. To discriminate between direct effects on the oocyte and early embryo and those mediated by complex ovarian interactions with TCDD, IVF was carried out in the presence of TCDD (10, 100 nM) and the aryl hydrocarbon antagonist CH-223191 (1 μM) combined factorially. TCDD-induced Cyp1a1 mRNA expression was absent in 2-cell embryos; however morulae exhibit dose-dependent Cyp1a1 expression. TCDD induced accumulation of sperm in the perivitelline space and displacement of blastomere nuclei. At 100 nM TCDD, aberrations in cytokinesis and nuclear positioning were observed 2-cell embryos and morula and these effects were reversed in the presence of CH-223191. Our data suggest that acute exposure to TCDD has direct effects on early development in the rat that permit discrimination of AHR- mediated and AHR-independent mechanisms through which environmental toxicants impair mammalian reproduction. PMID:21835239

  10. Evaluation of a finite multipole expansion technique for the computation of electrostatic potentials of dibenzo-p-dioxins and related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.S.; Grice, M.E.; Politzer, P.; Rabinowitz, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The electrostatic potential V(r) that the nuclei and electrons of a molecule create in the surrounding space is well established as a guide in the study of molecular reactivity, and particularly, of biological recognition processes. Its rigorous computation is, however, very demanding of computer time for large molecules, such as those of interest in recognition interactions. The authors have accordingly investigated the use of an approximate finite multicenter multipole expansion technique to determine its applicability for producing reliable electrostatic potentials of dibenzo-p-dioxins and related molecules, with significantly reduced amounts of computer time, at distances of interest in recognition studies. A comparative analysis of the potentials of three dibenzo-q-dioxins and a substituted naphthalene molecule computed using both the multipole expansion technique and GAUSSIAN 82 at the STO-5G level has been carried out. Overall they found that regions of negative and positive V(r) at 1.75 A above the molecular plane are very well reproduced by the multipole expansion technique, with up to a twenty-fold improvement in computer time.

  11. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:26884244

  12. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment. PMID:22765049

  13. EFFECTS OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL ON HEPATIC DRUG-METABOLIZING ENZYMES AND PORPHYRIA RELATED TO CONTAMINATION WITH CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hepatic effects of technical and pure grade pentachlorophenol were investigated in female rats fed 20, 100 and 500 ppm of each for 8 months. Technical pentachlorophenol was contaminated with 8 ppm hexa-, 520 ppm hepta-, and 1380 ppm octachlorodibenzodioxins; pure pentachlorop...

  14. Decontamination of metals, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorined dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans polluted soil in alkaline conditions using an amphoteric biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Reynier, Nicolas; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Besner, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, flotation in acidic conditions and alkaline leaching soil washing processes were compared to decontaminate four soils with variable contamination with metals, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and polychlorodibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). The measured concentrations of the four soils prior treatment were between 50 and 250 mg/kg for As, 35 and 220mg/kg for Cr, 80 and 350mg/kg for Cu, and 2.5 and 30mg/kg for PCP. PCDD/F concentrations reached 1394, 1375, 3730, and 6289ng/kg for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively. The tests were carried out with masses of 100g of soil (fraction 0-2 mm) in a 2 L beaker or in a 1 L flotation cell. Soil flotation in sulphuric acid for 1 h at 60 degreeC with three flotation cycles using the surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (BW) at 1% allows the solubilization of metals and PCP with average removal yields of 85%, 51%, 90%, and 62% for As, Cr, Cu, and PCP, respectively. The alkaline leaching for 2 h at 80 degreeC solubilizes As, Cr, Cu, and PCP with average removal yields of 60%, 32%, 77%, and 87%, respectively. Tests on PCDD/F solubilization with different surfactants were carried out in combination with the alkaline leaching process. PCDD/F removal yields of 25%, 72%, 70%, and 74% for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively, were obtained using the optimized conditions. PMID:24600855

  15. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  16. RELATIVE CONGENER SCALING OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS TO ESTIMATE BUILDING FIRE CONTRIBUTIONS IN AIR, SURFACE WIPES, AND DUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA collected ambient air samples in lower Manhattan for about nine months following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Measurements were made of a host of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydroca...

  17. Colloid facilitated transport of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to the groundwater at Ma Da area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thilo; Wendelborn, Anke

    2007-06-01

    PCDD/Fs are hydrophobic organic substances and strongly sorbing to soil particles. Once adsorbed to soil particles they are believed to be virtually immobile. However, research in the last decades confirmed that strong sorbing contaminants may reach the groundwater via colloid-facilitated transport. This pathway has not been investigated before in Vietnam. Ma Da area, 100 km north of Ho Chi Minh City, was repeatedly sprayed during the Vietnam War (1962-1971) with herbicides like Agent Orange containing, beside others, the teratogenic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). 11 surface soil samples and 12 water samples were collected in Ma Da area for analysis of PCDD/Fs in solids. Soil TCDD concentrations ranged from 1-41 ppt with a mean of 8.8 ppt and a mean I-TEQ of 9.7 ppt. Two surface water samples showed colloid bound TCDD (7 and 19 ppt). Groundwater samples showed elevated colloid bound PCDD concentrations (mean 770 ng/kg), mainly octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Groundwater colloids separated by filtration did not show any TCDD. The results support that TCDD/Fs can be relocated from the top soil to the groundwater by colloidal pathway. They did not provide evidence that the dioxins bound to groundwater colloids are leftovers from the Second Indochinese War. However, this study reinforces that the colloidal transport pathway has to be included investigating the relocation of strong sorbing organic contaminants. PMID:17668815

  18. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in primipara breast milk from Taiwan: estimation of dioxins and furans intake for breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Su, Pen-Hua; Yu, Hui-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Tsung; Päpke, Olaf

    2005-05-20

    Postnatal exposure to dioxins in breastfed infants occurs mainly during breast-feeding. The exposure to a substantial amount of endocrine disruptors in the early days of life may cause long-term health effects. Test subjects were healthy and primiparous mothers with a mean age of 28 (S.D. = 3.8) in 2001. The PCDD/F congeners were analyzed in the breast milk using gas chromatograph/high resolution mass spectrometry. The mean level of PCDD/Fs was 7.4 pg-WHO-TEQ/g lipid, which is significantly lower than the level found in individuals from other countries. The total PCDD WHO-TEQ levels in breast milk had a significant positive association with maternal age and a slightly negative association with perinatal BMI (body mass index of the period before and after the delivery). The estimated daily intake of 10.5 pg-WHO-TEQ/kg/day from individual breast milk was predicted for a breastfed infant at 6 months of age with proper assumption of 8 kg body weight, 854 milk per day of consumption, 95% of dioxin absorption rate, and linear decline of dioxin during lactation. Based on the lower WHO-TEQ levels in the breast milk, breast-feeding should still be encouraged and continued in Taiwan. PMID:15885400

  19. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS AND DISTRIBUTION IN ASH/RESIDUE OF A REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartfo...

  20. Effect of raw materials on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from the stack flue gases of secondary aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-08-25

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of raw materials on PCDD/F emission from secondary aluminum smelters (ALS). Four plants each of aluminum ingot smelters (over 50% ingot) and secondary ALS (over 70% waste or recycled aluminum) were selected and the results compared. The secondary ALS yield much higher PCDD/Fs than the aluminum ingot smelters, or 7.94-22.76ng/Nm(3) versus 0.57-2.67ng/Nm(3), due to the large percentage of waste or recycled aluminum used. As for air pollution control devices (APCDs), the wet scrubber system in one of the aluminum ingot smelters exhibits an adverse effect on PCDD/F removal, due to the continuous recycle of the contaminated water through the scrubber system. Another ingot plant equipped with cartridge filter, there is a significant reduction in PCDD/F TEQ (52%). The powdered activated carbon injection at 2kg/h (110mg/Nm(3)) in one ALS reduces 70% of the total PCDD/Fs. The average emission factor of four secondary ALS is much higher than that of aluminum ingot smelters, or 20-fold higher based on either raw materials or product. Consequently, more attention should be paid to the emission reduction of PCDD/Fs from the secondary ALS, including installation of a secondary burner, additional APCDs and the pre-cleaning of raw materials. PMID:17324506

  1. Distribution and depth profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tri, Tran Manh; Anh, Hoang Quoc; Tham, Trinh Thi; Van Quy, Tran; Long, Nguyen Quang; Nhung, Dao Thi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Nishida, Masayo; Maeda, Yasuaki; Van Boi, Luu; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-05-15

    Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were measured in 35 surface sediment samples collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam. The mean concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, and DDTs in surface sediments were 86.5, 37.0, and 44.5pgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, nine PCDDs, eleven PCDFs, and twelve dl-PCBs were also examined in 19 sediment core samples collected from five locations. Concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dl-PCBs ranged from 200 to 460, 0.39 to 2.9, and 1.6 to 22pgg(-1), respectively. OCDD was detected at the highest concentration, ranged from 100 to 300pgg(-1). Generally, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs at shallower depths were higher, meanwhile the depth profiles of dl-PCBs in sediment cores were different than the depth profiles of PCDD/Fs. The results suggest that the pollution of PCBs might be from many different sources leading to the variation between depths. PMID:26994835

  2. Long-time monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans over a decade in the ambient air of Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M; Albuquerque, M; Silva, A P; Rodrigues, J; Borrego, C

    2015-10-01

    As part of a monitoring program initiated in 1998 and conducted by IDAD - Institute for Environment and Development and supported by regional municipal solid waste (MSW) management authorities, an extensive database of dioxins' and furans' (PCDD/PCDF) concentrations in ambient air was collected in Porto, in two sites classified as suburban. The present paper summarizes the analytical results of PCDD/PCDF in ambient air obtained from 2001 to 2014 through this intensive monitoring work. The toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ 1998) concentrations of the PCDD/PCDF in the air ranged from 8.2 to 904.4 fg TEQ m(-3), with an average and median values of 104.5 fg TEQ m(-3) and 49.8 fg TEQ m(-3), respectively. The PCDD/PCDF concentration trend in Porto's ambient air shows a clear drop of the annual average values occurred during the study period. The presence of seasonal variations is very clear in the present study. Winter levels (average: 154.3 fg TEQ m(-3)) are significantly higher than summer levels (average: 42.9 fg TEQ m(-3)). The PCDD/PCDF profiles' details show that several differences occurred over time. The homologue profiles presented changes and the PCDD congeners have decreased in terms of mass. The analysis of concentrations in combination with specific homologue and congener patterns of PCDD/PCDF allowed identification of potential emission sources. PMID:26246045

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: Removal from flue gas and distribution in ash/residue of a refuse-derived fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Brna, T.G.; Kilgroe, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford), performance data on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustor and its lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (FGC) system were obtained under good, intermediate, and poor combustor operation and high, normal, and low sulfur dioxide (SO2) control by the FGC system. The independent combustion system variables included steam load, air supply rate, and its distribution. For the FGC system, the outlet gas temperature from the spray dryer absorber served as an easily measurable surrogate for the approach to saturation temperature, while SO2 concentration in the flue gas at the fabric filter outlet continuously represented the lime stoichiometry. Test data included acid gas, trace organic, trace metal, and particulate concentrations, as well as material collection for the determination of ash/residue composition and production rates. In addition, process data and RDF feed and ash/residue generation rates were obtained. Correlations between combustion conditions and furnace emission of organic pollutants are presented.

  4. The bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in cooked plant and animal origin foods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Starr, James; Han, Jianlong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Dasheng; Guan, Rongfa; Xu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jingguang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of boiling and frying food preparation methods in determining the bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in rice, cabbage, milk powder, eggs, beef, and fresh water fish. We then used these data to calculate a toxic equivalent (TEQ) for risk assessment and compared it to published values that did not account for bioaccessibility. When the foods were prepared by boiling, the mean bioaccessibility (%) in rice (PCBs: 16.5±1.0, PCDD/Fs: 4.9±0.3) and cabbage (PCBs: 4.2±0.9, PCDD/Fs: 1.9±0.7) were lower than in animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 49.0±3.3, PCDD/Fs: 7.8±0.9; egg, PCBs: 29.7±3.1, PCDD/Fs: 8.6±1.3; fish, PCBs: 26.9±2.5, PCDD/Fs: 7.9±1.3; milk powder, PCBs: 72.3±1.6, PCDD/Fs: 28.4±1.2). When fried in cooking oil, the bioaccessibilities of all analytes in all foods increased, but the increase in plant based foods (rice, PCBs: 3.4×, PCDD/Fs: 3.6×; cabbage, PCBs: 10.3×, PCDD/Fs: 7.9×) was greater than that of animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 1.6×, PCDD/Fs: 3.4×; egg, PCBs: 2.1×, PCDD/Fs: 1.8×; fish, PCBs: 2.8, PCDD/Fs: 3.2×). Comparison of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility in rice and cabbage showed that bioaccessibility was greater in the low fat, high carbohydrate/protein content food (rice) than in the low carbohydrate/protein, low fat content food (cabbage), regardless of the method used to prepare the food. Adjusting for bioaccessibility reduced the gross estimated daily intake (EDI) of 112pgWHO-TEQ/day, by 88% and 63% respectively for foods prepared by boiling and frying. Our results indicate that: 1) The method used for cooking is an important determinant of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility, especially for plant origin foods, 2) there might be a joint fat, carbohydrate and protein effect that influences the bioaccessibilities of PCBs/PCDD/Fs in foods, and 3) use of bioaccessibility estimates would reduce the uncertainty in TEQ calculations

  5. Estimation of the cumulated exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and standardized mortality ratio analysis of cancer mortality by dose in an occupationally exposed cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Flesch-Janys, D; Steindorf, K; Gurn, P; Becher, H

    1998-01-01

    For a cohort of 1189 male German former herbicide and insecticide workers with exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F), we report an extended standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on a new quantitative exposure index. This index characterizes the cumulative lifetime exposure by integrating the estimated concentration of PCDD/F at every point in time (area under the curve). Production department-specific dose rates were derived from blood levels and working histories of 275 workers by applying a first-order kinetic model. These dose rates were used to estimate exposure levels for all cohort members. Total mortality was elevated in the cohort; 413 deaths yielded an SMR of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.05, 1.27) compared to the mortality of the population of Germany. Overall cancer mortality (n = 124) was significantly increased (SMR = 1.41, 95% Cl 1.17, 1.68). Various cancer sites showed significantly increased SMRs. The exposure index was used for an SMR analysis of total cancer mortality by dose. For 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) a significant trend (p = 0.01) for the SMRs with increasing cumulative PCDD/F exposure was observed. The SMR in the first exposure quartile (0-125.2 ng/kg x years) was 1.24 (95% Cl 0.82, 1.79), increasing to 1.73 (95% Cl 1.21, 2.40) in the last quartile (> or = 2503.0 ng/kg x years). For all congeners combined as toxic equivalencies (TEQ) using international toxic equivalency factors, a significant increase in cancer mortality was observed in the second quartile (360.9-1614.4 ng/kg x years, SMR 1.64; 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29) and the fourth quartile (> or = 5217.7 ng/kg x years TEQ, SMR 1.64, 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29). The trend test was not significant. The results justify the use of this cohort for a quantitative risk assessment for TCDD and to a lesser extent for TEQ. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599713

  6. Dibenzofuran

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dibenzofuran ; CASRN 132 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  7. Determination of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans at the part per trillion level in United States beef fat using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; McDaniel, D.; Dupuy, A. Jr; Harless, R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment Program, the 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were measured at part per trillion (ppt) levels in beef fat collected from slaughter facilities in the United States. This is the first statistically designed national survey of these compounds in the U.S. beef supply. Analyte concentrations were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, using isotope dilution methodology. Method limits of detection on a whole weight basis were 0.05 ppt for TCDD and 0.10 ppt for TCDF, 0.50 ppt for the pentas (PeCDDs/PeCDFs)/hexas (HxCDDs/HxCDFs)/heptas (HpCDDs/HpCDFs), and 3.00 ppt for the octas (OCDD/OCDF). Method detection and quantitation limits were established on the basis of demonstrated performance criteria utilizing fortified samples rather than by conventional signal-to-noise or variability of response methods. The background subtraction procedures developed for this study minimized the likelihood of false positives and increased the confidence associated with reported values near the detection limits. Mean and median values for each of the 2,3,7,8-Cl-substituted dioxins and furans are reported, along with the supporting information required for their interpretation. The mean toxic equivalence values for the samples are 0.35 ppt (nondetects = 0) and 0.89 ppt (nondetects = 1/2 LOD).

  8. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in breast milk in Shanghai, China: A temporal upward trend.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 150 mothers in 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China and analyzed for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). The up-bound Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) ranged from 0.27 to 16.8 pg TEQ/g lipid (mean 5.4 pg TEQ/g lipid) for ∑PCDD/Fs and from 0.75 to 10.2 pg TEQ/g lipid (mean 2.9 pg TEQ/g lipid) for ∑DL-PCBs. TEQs in our study were lower than those in most countries worldwide, and displayed a notable uptrend, in contrast with those in China's national survey in 2007. TEQs in mother milks from urban areas were higher than those from rural areas, and an orderly distribution was found in four geographical regions: Eastern China>Central China≈Southwestern China>Northwestern China. Levels of analytes in Shanghai native mothers' milk ranked the first among those from all provinces and cities investigated. Migrant mothers to Shanghai from other inland provinces could potentially represent the population for exposure and risk assessment in their birth and grown-up places. Both the distribution and the uptrend were associated with release of these pollutants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. Fine correlations were observed between TEQs and age of mothers, and weak correlations between TEQs and consumption of meat & meat products. Participants, who preferred both fresh water and marine fish to freshwater fish only, were prone to be exposed to higher level of PCBs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) doses for breastfed neonates entirely exceeded the tolerable intake dose by WHO. PMID:25966445

  9. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk. PMID:27178547

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polyschlorinated dibenzofurans in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Weerasinghe, N.C.A.; Gross, M.L.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, New York and a largely domestic sludge from Sodus, New York were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using combined gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). Concentrations in ppt of the following PCDDs were found in the Syracuse sludge: tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDDs), 150, hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HxCDDs), 2100, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HCDDs), 6300, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (OCDDs), greater than 60,000. The following ppt concentrations were found in the Sodus sludge: TCDDs, 7200, HxCDDs, 300 HCDDs, 900, OCDDs 7500. The TCDD was a single but not the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-isomers. PCDFs were mostly nondetectable in the sludges. The toxicology and potential for environmental contamination by these compounds are discussed.