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Sample records for diberyllium phosphate hydrophosphate

  1. Nitrogen and hydrophosphate affects glycolipids composition in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Zhouyuan; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Glycolipids had received increasing attention because of their uses in various industries like cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and machinery manufacture. Microalgae were competitive organisms to accumulate metabolic substance. However, using microalgae to produce glycolipid was rare at present. In this study, glycolipid content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Synechococcus sp. under different nitrate and hydrophosphate levels were investigated. The highest glycolipid contents of 24.61% for C. pyrenoidosa and 15.37% for Synechococcus sp. were obtained at nitrate absence, which were 17.19% for C. pyrenoidosa and 10.99% for Synechococcus sp. at 0.01 and 0 g L−1 hydrophosphate, respectively. Glycolipid productivities of two microalgae could reach at more than 10.59 mg L−1 d−1. Nitrate absence induced at least 8.5% increase in MGDG, DGDG and SQDG, while hydrophosphate absence resulted in over 21.2% increase in DGDG and over 48.4% increase in SQDG and more than 22.2% decrease in MGDG in two microalgae. Simultaneous nitrate and hydrophosphate limitation could make further improvement of glycolipid accumulation, which was more than 25% for C. pyrenoidosa and 21% for Synechococcus sp. These results suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus limitation or starvation should be an efficient way to improve microalgal glycolipid accumulation. PMID:27440670

  2. Nitrogen and hydrophosphate affects glycolipids composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Zhouyuan; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Glycolipids had received increasing attention because of their uses in various industries like cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and machinery manufacture. Microalgae were competitive organisms to accumulate metabolic substance. However, using microalgae to produce glycolipid was rare at present. In this study, glycolipid content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Synechococcus sp. under different nitrate and hydrophosphate levels were investigated. The highest glycolipid contents of 24.61% for C. pyrenoidosa and 15.37% for Synechococcus sp. were obtained at nitrate absence, which were 17.19% for C. pyrenoidosa and 10.99% for Synechococcus sp. at 0.01 and 0 g L(-1) hydrophosphate, respectively. Glycolipid productivities of two microalgae could reach at more than 10.59 mg L(-1) d(-1). Nitrate absence induced at least 8.5% increase in MGDG, DGDG and SQDG, while hydrophosphate absence resulted in over 21.2% increase in DGDG and over 48.4% increase in SQDG and more than 22.2% decrease in MGDG in two microalgae. Simultaneous nitrate and hydrophosphate limitation could make further improvement of glycolipid accumulation, which was more than 25% for C. pyrenoidosa and 21% for Synechococcus sp. These results suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus limitation or starvation should be an efficient way to improve microalgal glycolipid accumulation. PMID:27440670

  3. Organic-inorganic materials containing nanoparticles of zirconium hydrophosphate for baromembrane separation.

    PubMed

    Dzyazko, Yuliya S; Rozhdestvenskaya, Ludmila M; Zmievskii, Yu G; Vilenskii, Alexander I; Myronchuk, Valerii G; Kornienko, Ludmila V; Vasilyuk, Sergey V; Tsyba, Nikolay N

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by stepwise modification of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) track membrane with nanoparticles of zirconium hydrophosphate. The modifier was inserted inside pores of the polymer, a size of which is 0.33 μm. Inner active layer was formed by this manner. Evolution of morphology and functional properties of the membranes were investigated using methods of porosimetry, potentiometry and electron microscopy. The nanoparticles (4 to 10 nm) were found to form aggregates, which block pores of the polymer. Pores between the aggregates (4 to 8 nm) as well as considerable surface charge density provide significant transport numbers of counter ions (up to 0.86 for Na(+)). The materials were applied to baromembrane separation of corn distillery. It was found that precipitate is formed mainly inside the pores of the pristine membrane. In the case of the organic-inorganic material, the deposition occurs onto the outer surface and can be removed by mechanical way. Location of the active layer inside membranes protects it against damage. PMID:25852361

  4. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  5. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a laxative to clean the bowels before surgery or intestinal tests. Healthcare providers sometimes give potassium phosphate intravenously (by IV) for treating low phosphate and high calcium levels in the blood, and for preventing low phosphate in patients who are being tube-fed.

  6. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  7. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  8. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), or any other drugs.tell your doctor ... taking chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), or hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil).tell your doctor if you are pregnant ...

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  10. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), or any other drugs.tell your doctor and ... taking chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), or hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil).tell your doctor if you are pregnant ...

  11. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  12. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-02-15

    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships. PMID:26862212

  13. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  14. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  15. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  16. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  17. Biosynthesis of Dolichyl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, H. Esteban; Daleo, Gustavo R.; Romero, Pedro A.; Lezica, Rafael Pont

    1978-01-01

    This is the first report not only on the presence of polyprenyl phosphates and their site of synthesis in algae, but also on the formation of their sugar derivatives in this system. A glucose acceptor lipid was isolated from the nonphotosynthetic alga Prototheca zopfii. The lipid was acidic and resistant to mild acid and alkaline treatments. The glucosylated lipid was labile to mild acid hydrolysis and resistant to phenol treatment and catalytic hydrogenation, as dolichyl phosphate glucose is. These results are consistent with the properties of an α-saturated polyprenyl phosphate. The polyprenylic nature of the lipid was confirmed by biosynthesis from radioactive mevalonate. The [14C]lipid had the same chromatographic properties as dolichyl phosphate in DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex LH-20. Strong alkaline treatment and enzymic hydrolysis liberated free alcohols with chain lengths ranging from C90 to C105, C95 and C100 being the most abundant molecular forms. The glucose acceptor activity of the biosynthesized polyprenyl phosphate was confirmed. The ability of different subcellular fractions to synthesize dolichyl phosphate was studied. Mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus were the sites of dolichyl phosphate synthesis from mevalonate. PMID:16660269

  18. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  19. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  20. Modelling of calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, Lazaro Juan

    This work is a contribution to a large scale joint experimental and theoretical effort to understand the biological properties of silicon doped calcium phosphates undertaken by Queen's University and Millenium Biologix Corp. We have modeled calcium phosphates and silicon doped calcium phosphates in close relation to experiment in order to study possible location of silicon in the lattice. Density functional theory has been used to study the structural and dynamical properties of small systems of calcium phosphates to gain preliminary information on phosphates and the performance of the theoretical methods. The same methods were used to investigate structural and electronic properties of larger scale calcium phosphate systems, while a classical shell model was developed to investigate the dynamical properties of such large and complex systems. In the context of the shell model a method was devised to calculate the dynamical matrix corrected for the long range Coulomb interaction in the long wave length limit. It was necessary also to develop a theoretical expression for the dielectric function in the context of the shell model. Infrared spectra and thermal parameters were calculated based on these methods. We also propose some directions for future research.

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Achari, A; Marshall, S E; Muirhead, H; Palmieri, R H; Noltmann, E A

    1981-06-26

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) is a dimeric enzyme of molecular mass 132000 which catalyses the interconversion of D-glucose-6-phosphate and D-fructose-6-phosphate. The crystal structure of the enzyme from pig muscle has been determined at a nominal resolution of 2.6 A. The structure is of the alpha/beta type. Each subunit consists of two domains and the active site is in both the domain interface and the subunit interface (P.J. Shaw & H. Muirhead (1976), FEBS Lett. 65, 50-55). Each subunit contains 13 methionine residues so that cyanogen bromide cleavage will produce 14 fragments, most of which have been identified and at least partly purified. Sequence information is given for about one-third of the molecule from 5 cyanogen bromide fragments. One of the sequences includes a modified lysine residue. Modification of this residue leads to a parallel loss of enzymatic activity. A tentative fit of two of the peptides to the electron density map has been made. It seems possible that glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase all contain a histidine and a glutamate residue at the active site. PMID:6115414

  2. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  4. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  5. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  6. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  7. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  8. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  9. Phosphonomethyl analogues of hexose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Webster, D; Jondorf, W R; Dixon, H B

    1976-05-01

    The analogue of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in which the phosphate group, -O-PO3H2, on C-6 is replaced by the phosphonomethyl group, -CH2-PO3H2, was made enzymically from the corresponding analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate. It was a substrate for aldolase, which was used to form it, but not for fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. It was hydrolysed chemically to yield the corresponding analogue of fructose 6-phosphate [i.e. 6-deoxy-6-(phosphonomethyl)-D-fructose, or, more strictly, 6,7-dideoxy-7-phosphono-D-arabino-2-heptulose]. This proved to be a substrate for the sequential actions of glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Thus seven out of the nine enzymes of the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways so far tested catalyse the reactions of the phosphonomethyl isosteres of their substrates. PMID:7247

  10. Sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Karen; Evans, Todd; Hla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin. In vertebrates, S1P is secreted into the extracellular environment and signals via G protein-coupled S1P receptors to regulate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, and thereby influence cell migration, differentiation and survival. The expression and localization of S1P receptors is dynamically regulated and controls vascular development, vessel stability and immune cell trafficking. In addition, crucial events during embryogenesis, such as angiogenesis, cardiogenesis, limb development and neurogenesis, are regulated by S1P signalling. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of S1P signalling in development and in disease. PMID:24346695

  11. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  12. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  13. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  14. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of air emissions, water effluents, and solid residues resulting from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. It includes the production of wet process phosphoric acid, superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, and ammonium ...

  16. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polyprenyl phosphates.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Meredith D; Larkin, Angelyn; Imperiali, Barbara

    2008-05-01

    Polyprenyl phosphates, including undecaprenyl phosphate and dolichyl phosphate, are essential intermediates in several important biochemical pathways including N-linked protein glycosylation in eukaryotes and prokaryotes and prokaryotic cell wall biosynthesis. Herein, we describe the evaluation of three potential undecaprenol kinases as agents for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of polyprenyl phosphates. Target enzymes were expressed in crude cell envelope fractions and quantified via the use of luminescent lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs). The Streptococcus mutans diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) was shown to be a very useful agent for polyprenol phosphorylation using ATP as the phosphoryl transfer agent. In addition, the S. mutans DGK can be coupled with two Campylobacter jejuni glycosyltransferases involved in N-linked glycosylation to efficiently biosynthesize the undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-linked disaccharide needed for studies of PglB, the C. jejuni oligosaccharyl transferase. PMID:18374576

  17. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520.823... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance...

  18. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520.823... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate,...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate...

  2. Responses to phosphate deprivation in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Neelima; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential nutrient because it is required for the biosynthesis of nucleotides, phospholipids and metabolites in energy metabolism. During phosphate starvation, phosphatases play a major role in phosphate acquisition by hydrolyzing phosphorylated macromolecules. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHM8 (YER037W), a lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase, plays an important role in phosphate acquisition by hydrolyzing lysophosphatidic acid and nucleotide monophosphate that results in accumulation of triacylglycerol and nucleotides under phosphate limiting conditions. Under phosphate limiting conditions, it is transcriptionally regulated by Pho4p, a phosphate-responsive transcription factor. In this review, we focus on triacylglycerol metabolism in transcription factors deletion mutants involved in phosphate metabolism and propose a link between phosphate and triacylglycerol metabolism. Deletion of these transcription factors results in an increase in triacylglycerol level. Based on these observations, we suggest that PHM8 is responsible for the increase in triacylglycerol in phosphate metabolising gene deletion mutants. PMID:26615590

  3. Solvothermal synthesis of vanadium phosphates in the form of xerogels, aerogels and mesostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sydorchuk, V.; Zazhigalov, V.; Khalameida, S.; Diyuk, E.; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J.; Leboda, R.; Kuznetsova, L.

    2010-09-15

    Regularities and peculiarities of physicochemical changes, first of all phase transformations, during solvothermal treatment (with conventional and microwave heating) of the vanadium pentoxide and orthophosphoric acid mixture in organic solvents in the presence of reducing agents have been studied. Hemihydrate of vanadium hydrophosphate - the precursor of vanadium pyrophosphate, the active phase for n-butane to maleic anhydride oxidation, and ion exchanger with variable physicochemical characteristics, i.e. crystal structure, specific surface area, crystallite size and acidic properties - has been synthesized in the temperature range 170-200 {sup o}C. The obtained phases were examined using XRD, DTA-TG, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption as well as gas chromatographic determination of acidity through organic bases adsorption. The catalytic activity of prepared samples for n-butane oxidation has been investigated.

  4. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Srinivasan, Manali R; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium phosphate as a bone substitute in periapical surgery. PMID:20142892

  5. Uranium phosphate biomineralization by fungi.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinjin; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gray, Nia; Ceci, Andrea; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-06-01

    Geoactive soil fungi were investigated for phosphatase-mediated uranium precipitation during growth on an organic phosphorus source. Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces javanicus were grown on modified Czapek-Dox medium amended with glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) as sole P source and uranium nitrate. Both organisms showed reduced growth on uranium-containing media but were able to extensively precipitate uranium and phosphorus-containing minerals on hyphal surfaces, and these were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as uranyl phosphate species, including potassium uranyl phosphate hydrate (KPUO6 .3H2 O), meta-ankoleite [(K1.7 Ba0.2 )(UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O], uranyl phosphate hydrate [(UO2 )3 (PO4 )2 .4H2 O], meta-ankoleite (K(UO2 )(PO4 ).3H2 O), uramphite (NH4 UO2 PO4 .3H2 O) and chernikovite [(H3 O)2 (UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O]. Some minerals with a morphology similar to bacterial hydrogen uranyl phosphate were detected on A. niger biomass. Geochemical modelling confirmed the complexity of uranium speciation, and the presence of meta-ankoleite, uramphite and uranyl phosphate hydrate between pH 3 and 8 closely matched the experimental data, with potassium as the dominant cation. We have therefore demonstrated that fungi can precipitate U-containing phosphate biominerals when grown with an organic source of P, with the hyphal matrix serving to localize the resultant uranium minerals. The findings throw further light on potential fungal roles in U and P biogeochemistry as well as the application of these mechanisms for element recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25580878

  6. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. PMID:24556272

  7. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  8. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23. PMID:26813504

  9. Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiner, Eugene R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

  10. Long-Sought Vacuolar Phosphate Transporters Identified.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Marcel; Fabiańska, Izabela

    2016-06-01

    The vacuole is an important subcellular compartment that serves as main phosphate storage in plants among other functions. Three recent studies shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms for vacuolar phosphate transport that had long remained unknown. PMID:27160805

  11. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  18. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  3. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772)...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  11. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  19. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  7. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6285 Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  7. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate regulate phagolysosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Andreas; Zehethofer, Nicole; Lindner, Buko; Krupp, Jessica; Schwudke, Dominik; Haneburger, Ina; Jovic, Marko; Backer, Jonathan M.; Balla, Tamas; Hilbi, Hubert; Haas, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Professional phagocytic cells ingest microbial intruders by engulfing them into phagosomes, which subsequently mature into microbicidal phagolysosomes. Phagosome maturation requires sequential fusion of the phagosome with early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Although various phosphoinositides (PIPs) have been detected on phagosomes, it remained unclear which PIPs actually govern phagosome maturation. Here, we analyzed the involvement of PIPs in fusion of phagosomes with various endocytic compartments and identified phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P], phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P], and the lipid kinases that generate these PIPs, as mediators of phagosome–lysosome fusion. Phagosome–early endosome fusion required PI(3)P, yet did not depend on PI(4)P. Thus, PI(3)P regulates phagosome maturation at early and late stages, whereas PI(4)P is selectively required late in the pathway. PMID:25825728

  7. [Regulatory mechanism of circulating inorganic phosphate].

    PubMed

    Michigami, Toshimi

    2016-02-01

    Circulating level of phosphate is altered by age and diet, and is also controlled by several hormones such as parathyroid hormone(PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]and fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23). The main function of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D is maintaining calcium homeostasis, while FGF23 plays a central role in phosphate metabolism. PTH suppresses phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubules to increase the renal phosphate wasting, while 1,25(OH)2D facilitates the intestinal phosphate absorption. FGF23 increases the renal phosphate wasting and reduces the production of 1,25(OH)2D. Of note, these hormones mutually regulate one another. The production of FGF23 is also regulated by various local factors. The mechanism for sensing the phosphate availability still remains unknown, and further investigation is required. PMID:26813498

  8. Phosphate uptake kinetics by Acinetobacter isolates.

    PubMed

    Pauli, A S; Kaitala, S

    1997-02-01

    Acinetobacter isolates from activated sludge treatment plants of forest industry were used as model organisms for polyphosphate accumulating bacteria to study excess phosphate uptake by the overplus phenomenon as well as luxury uptake of phosphate during growth. The initial, rapid phosphate uptake by the phosphorus-starved Acinetobacter isolates (the overplus phenomenon) followed the Michaelis-Menten model (maximum initial phosphate uptake rate 29 mg P g(-1) dry mass (DM) h(-1), half-saturation constant for excess phosphate uptake 17 mg P L(-1)). During the rapid uptake no growth was observed, but most cells contained polyphosphate granules. Also growth and luxury uptake of phosphate could be modeled with the Michaelis-Menten equation (maximum phosphate uptake rate 3.7-12 mg P g(-1) DM h(-1), half-saturation constant for growth 0.47-6.0 mg P L(-1), maximum specific growth rate 0.15-0.55 h(-1)). PMID:18633985

  9. About Calcium Phosphate Cements (CPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñera, Silvia; Piña, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are used in orthopaedic surgery as bone substitution and fixation of metallic implants, showing advantages with respect to other materials like polymeric cements or ceramic blocks also used for bone repair. For example, they are easy to shape and fill bone defects, react at low temperature and their setting product is hydroxyapatite, mineral from it's composed the inorganic part of the bone, resulting a bioabsorbable material that can be replaced by new bone. Nevertheless there are still some complications like their low absorption rate, inyectability, setting times and their low strength that limits their use to only non load bearing applications. In this work we present a brief resume of some investigations that has been proposed to solve some of these problems, like the addition of phosphates solutions or seeds to increase the reaction rate, or fibers and hard particles to produce a composite material.

  10. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. PMID:27040960

  11. Calcium phosphate in catheter encrustation.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; Harries, J E; Hukins, D W; Kennedy, A P; Sutton, T M

    1987-02-01

    Encrusted catheters from nine female patients were the source of samples of deposits which were examined by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, infra-red spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. In eight samples the only crystalline phase which could be clearly distinguished by X-ray diffraction was ammonium magnesium orthophosphate hexahydrate, NH4MgPO4 X 6H2O, which occurs naturally as the mineral struvite. However, atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed an appreciable concentration of calcium in all samples. Calcium phosphates have previously been detected in catheter deposits. Infra-red and EXAFS spectra were consistent with the calcium phosphate being present as a poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite. Thus the deposits appear to consist of a mixture of crystalline struvite and a form of hydroxyapatite which is not fully crystalline. PMID:3030487

  12. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. PMID:24984987

  13. Chloride- and alkali-containing calcium phosphates as basic materials to prepare calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, O; Boltong, M G; Driessens, F C; Ginebra, M P; Fernández, E; Planell, J A

    1994-10-01

    Combinations of an alkali-containing calcium phosphate-like rhenanite, sodium whitlockite or calcium potassium phosphate and a chloride-containing calcium phosphate-like spodiosite or chloroapatite with or without additions of other calcium phosphates like monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, dicalcium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate were made and mixed with water into pastes. The setting time of these pastes was determined. After soaking for a day in Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength were determined. Two of the combinations tried in this study resulted in the formation of cements at room temperature. One cement was of the type dicalcium phosphate, whereas the other gave octocalcium phosphate as the solid reaction product. The byproducts formed were an aqueous solution of NaCl and one of K2HPO4, respectively. Applications for bone repair and augmentation are envisaged. PMID:7841290

  14. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-11-24

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored in the vacuole, allowing plants to adapt to variable Pi availability in the soil. The transporters that mediate Pi sequestration into vacuole remain unknown, however. Here we report the functional characterization of Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter 1 (VPT1), an SPX domain protein that transports Pi into the vacuole in Arabidopsis. The vpt1 mutant plants were stunted and consistently retained less Pi than wild type plants, especially when grown in medium containing high levels of Pi. In seedlings, VPT1 was expressed primarily in younger tissues under normal conditions, but was strongly induced by high-Pi conditions in older tissues, suggesting that VPT1 functions in Pi storage in young tissues and in detoxification of high Pi in older tissues. As a result, disruption of VPT1 rendered plants hypersensitive to both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, reducing the adaptability of plants to changing Pi availability. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated vacuoles showed that the Pi influx current was severely reduced in vpt1 compared with wild type plants. When ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells, VPT1 mediates vacuolar influx of anions, including Pi, SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), and malate with Pi as that preferred anion. The VPT1-mediated Pi current amplitude was dependent on cytosolic phosphate concentration. Single-channel analysis showed that the open probability of VPT1 was increased with the increase in transtonoplast potential. We conclude that VPT1 is a transporter responsible for vacuolar Pi storage and is essential for Pi adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26554016

  15. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored in the vacuole, allowing plants to adapt to variable Pi availability in the soil. The transporters that mediate Pi sequestration into vacuole remain unknown, however. Here we report the functional characterization of Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter 1 (VPT1), an SPX domain protein that transports Pi into the vacuole in Arabidopsis. The vpt1 mutant plants were stunted and consistently retained less Pi than wild type plants, especially when grown in medium containing high levels of Pi. In seedlings, VPT1 was expressed primarily in younger tissues under normal conditions, but was strongly induced by high-Pi conditions in older tissues, suggesting that VPT1 functions in Pi storage in young tissues and in detoxification of high Pi in older tissues. As a result, disruption of VPT1 rendered plants hypersensitive to both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, reducing the adaptability of plants to changing Pi availability. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated vacuoles showed that the Pi influx current was severely reduced in vpt1 compared with wild type plants. When ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells, VPT1 mediates vacuolar influx of anions, including Pi, SO42−, NO3−, Cl−, and malate with Pi as that preferred anion. The VPT1-mediated Pi current amplitude was dependent on cytosolic phosphate concentration. Single-channel analysis showed that the open probability of VPT1 was increased with the increase in transtonoplast potential. We conclude that VPT1 is a transporter responsible for vacuolar Pi storage and is essential for Pi adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26554016

  16. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  17. Phosphate-limited culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, J C; Aladegbami, S L; Vela, G R

    1979-01-01

    Batch cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii grown in phosphate-deficient media were compared with control cultures grown in phosphate-sufficient media. Phosphate limitation was assessed by total cell yield and by growth kinetics. Although cell protein, nucleic acids, and early growth rate were unaffected by phosphate deficiency, cell wall structure, oxygen uptake, and cell viability were significantly affected. Also, phosphate-limited cells contained much larger amounts of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid but lower adenylate nucleotide energy charge than did control cells. The ratio of adenosine 5'-triphosphate to adenosine 5'-diphosphate was much lower in phosphate-deficient cells. The data indicate a substrate saving choice of three metabolic pathways available to this organism under different growth conditions. Images PMID:457614

  18. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  19. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Ishima, Yuya; Takenaka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  20. Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    LC, Chow

    2009-01-01

    It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials. PMID:19280963

  1. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-08-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2,4-diphosphates and aldohexose-2,4,6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2,4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2,4,6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 µm; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2,4,-diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2,4,6-phosphates.

  2. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  3. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene. PMID:27175935

  4. Phosphate transporters and their function.

    PubMed

    Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Forster, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Plasma phosphate concentration is maintained within a relatively narrow range by control of renal reabsorption of filtered inorganic phosphate (P(i)). P(i) reabsorption is a transcellular process that occurs along the proximal tubule. P(i) flux at the apical (luminal) brush border membrane represents the rate-limiting step and is mediated by three Na(+)-dependent P(i) cotransporters (members of the SLC34 and SLC20 families). The putative proteins responsible for basolateral P(i) flux have not been identified. The transport mechanism of the two kidney-specific SLC34 proteins (NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc) and of the ubiquitously expressed SLC20 protein (PiT-2) has been studied by heterologous expression to reveal important differences in kinetics, stoichiometry, and substrate specificity. Studies on the regulation of the abundance of the respective proteins highlight significant differences in the temporal responses to various hormonal and nonhormonal factors that can influence P(i) homeostasis. The phenotypes of mice deficient in NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc indicate that NaPi-IIa is responsible for most P(i) renal reabsorption. In contrast, in the human kidney, NaPi-IIc appears to have a relatively greater role. The physiological relevance of PiT-2 to P(i) reabsorption remains to be elucidated. PMID:23398154

  5. The SLC37 Family of Sugar-Phosphate/Phosphate Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Janice Y.; Mansfield, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The SLC37 family members are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated sugar-phosphate/phosphate (Pi) exchangers. Three of the four members, SLC37A1, SLC37A2, and SLC37A4, function as Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) antiporters catalyzing G6P:Pi and Pi:Pi exchanges. The activity of SLC37A3 is unknown. SLC37A4, better known as the G6P transporter (G6PT), has been extensively characterized, functionally and structurally, and is the best characterized family member. G6PT contains 10 transmembrane helices with both N and C termini facing the cytoplasm. The primary in vivo function of the G6PT protein is to translocate G6P from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen where it couples with either the liver/kidney/intestine-restricted glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) or the ubiquitously expressed G6Pase-β (or G6PC3) to hydrolyze G6P to glucose and Pi. The G6PT/G6Pase-α complex maintains interprandial glucose homeostasis, and the G6PT/G6Pase-β complex maintains neutro-phil energy homeostasis and functionality. G6PT is highly selective for G6P and is competitively inhibited by cholorogenic acid and its derivatives. Neither SLC37A1 nor SLC37A2 can couple functionally with G6Pase-α or G6Pase-β, and the antiporter activities of SLC37A1 or SLC37A2 are not inhibited by cholorogenic acid. Deficiencies in G6PT cause glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), a metabolic and immune disorder. To date, 91 separate SLC37A4 mutations, including 39 missense mutations, have been identified in GSD-Ib patients. Characterization of missense mutations has yielded valuable information on functionally important residues in the G6PT protein. The biological roles of the other SLC37 proteins remain to be determined and deficiencies have not yet been correlated to diseases. PMID:24745989

  6. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate....

  8. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements of this section allowance is made for the added monocalcium phosphate. ... label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for flour by § 137.105, except that: (a) Monocalcium phosphate is added in a quantity not less than 0.25 percent and not more than 0.75 percent of the weight...

  9. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements of this section allowance is made for the added monocalcium phosphate. ... label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for flour by § 137.105, except that: (a) Monocalcium phosphate is added in a quantity not less than 0.25 percent and not more than 0.75 percent of the weight...

  10. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements of this section allowance is made for the added monocalcium phosphate. ... label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for flour by § 137.105, except that: (a) Monocalcium phosphate is added in a quantity not less than 0.25 percent and not more than 0.75 percent of the weight...

  11. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements of this section allowance is made for the added monocalcium phosphate. ... label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for flour by § 137.105, except that: (a) Monocalcium phosphate is added in a quantity not less than 0.25 percent and not more than 0.75 percent of the weight...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6290 Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium...

  13. Drug-pyridoxal phosphate interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, M; Gessert, C F; Al-Sayegh, A

    1982-01-01

    phosphate. Some interesting relationships are pointed out between vitamin B6, picolinic acid, and zinc. It is postulated that the intestinal absorption of zinc is facilitated by picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan. The derivation of picolinic acid from tryptophan depends on the action of the enzyme kynureninase, which is dependent on pyridoxal phosphate; therefore, the adequate absorption of zinc is indirectly dependent on an adequate supply of vitamin B6. The formation of pyridoxal phosphate, on the other hand, appears to be indirectly dependent on Zn2++ which activates pyridoxal kinase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6087425

  14. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  15. Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, T.

    1988-03-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells.Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of P/sub i/. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent K/sub i/ values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

  16. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  17. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  18. Levels of Phosphate Esters in Spirodela

    PubMed Central

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1968-01-01

    The duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza was grown in sterile nutrient solutions that contained 1 mm phosphate-32P at various specific activities. In solutions with activities higher than 2 μc per μmole per ml, plant growth was inhibited after a time, and the physical appearance of the plants was affected. The critical level of radiation, at which growth was first affected, corresponded to 5 kilorads. Plants were grown for 9 days (5 generations) in a culture solution containing phosphate at 0.5 μc per μmole per ml (radiation load approx 0.5 kilorads) so that all phosphorus-containing materials in the tissue became uniformly labeled. The various radioactive compounds were extracted, chromatographed, identified, and their radioactivity was measured. From this radioactivity plus the specific activity of the supplied phosphate, the amount of each compound was calculated. The data constitute a complete balance-sheet for phosphorus in a plant tissue. The identity of 98% of the phosphorus in the tissue was determined. Inorganic phosphate (32,700 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the predominant phosphorus-containing compound; RNA (5100 mμmoles P/g fr wt) was the main organic phosphate; phosphatidyl choline (1600 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the main phospholipid, and glucose-6-phosphate (500 mμmoles/g fr wt) the main acid-soluble phosphate ester. Amounts of other phosphorus compounds are given. Images PMID:16656910

  19. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  20. Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Yoo, Sunkyoung; Ro, Hee-Young; Han, Hye-Jin; Baek, Yong-Wook; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration (EC50) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr EC50 was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, L(E)C50 was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth. PMID:23440935

  1. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  2. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  3. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  4. [Adsorption of Phosphate by Lanthanum Hydroxide/Natural Zeolite Composites from Low Concentration Phosphate Solution].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-wei; Wang, Hong; Zhan, Yan-hui; Chen, Dong-mei

    2016-01-15

    A series of composites of lanthanum hydroxide/natural zeolite ( La( OH) 3/NZ composites) were prepared by co-precipitation method, and these composites were used as adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. The phosphate adsorption capacities of different composites prepared with different precipitated pH values were compared in batch mode. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 was investigated using batch experiments. The results showed that the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH values of 5-7 and 13 had a low adsorption capacity for phosphate in aqueous solution, while the La( OH) 3/NZ composites prepared with the precipitated pH values of 9-12 exhibited much higher phosphate adsorption capacity. The phosphate adsorption capacity of the La (OH)3/NZ composite increased with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 9 to 11, but remained basically unchanged with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 11 to 12. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La ( OH ) 3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model with the predicted maximum phosphate adsorption of 44 mg x g(-1) (phosphate solution pH 7 and 30 degrees C). The kinetic data of phosphate adsorption from low concentration phosphate solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The presence of Cl- and SO4(2-) in low concentration phosphate solution had no negative effect on phosphate adsorption onto the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11, while the presence of HCO3- slightly inhibited the adsorption of phosphate. Coexisting humic acid had a negative effect on the adsorption of phosphate at low concentration on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the

  5. Phosphate stimulates CFTR Cl- channels.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, M R; Travis, S M; Winter, M C; Sheppard, D N; Welsh, M J

    1994-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels appear to be regulated by hydrolysis of ATP and are inhibited by a product of hydrolysis, ADP. We assessed the effect of the other product of hydrolysis, inorganic phosphate (P(i)), on CFTR Cl- channel activity using the excised inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Millimolar concentrations of P(i) caused a dose-dependent stimulation of CFTR Cl- channel activity. Single-channel analysis demonstrated that the increase in macroscopic current was due to an increase in single-channel open-state probability (po) and not single-channel conductance. Kinetic modeling of the effect of P(i) using a linear three-state model indicated that the effect on po was predominantly the result of an increase in the rate at which the channel passed from the long closed state to the bursting state. P(i) also potentiated activity of channels studied in the presence of 10 mM ATP and stimulated Cl- currents in CFTR mutants lacking much of the R domain. Binding studies with a photoactivatable ATP analog indicated that Pi decreased the amount of bound nucleotide. These results suggest that P(i) increased CFTR Cl- channel activity by stimulating a rate-limiting step in channel opening that may occur by an interaction of P(i) at one or both nucleotide-binding domains. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:7532021

  6. Phosphate Oxygen Isotopes as a Tracer for Sources and Cycling of Phosphate in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, K.; Paytan, A.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.

    2004-12-01

    Phosphorous is an essential macro-nutrient for primary productivity, but tracing sources and cycling of P in marine systems has been difficult to assess because P has only one stable isotope and can not be used as an isotopic tracer. Recently a new technique (McLaughlin et al., 2004) has been developed to track sources and cycling of phosphate in aquatic systems. This approach takes advantage of the strong P-O bond in phosphate, which is resistant to inorganic hydrolysis. The exchange of oxygen isotopes therein only occurs due to intracellular biological cycling. Because the d18O of phosphate will largely be determined by the isotopic composition of the water in which it is being recycled and because the isotopic composition of rivers and oceans is significantly different, the d18O of phosphate may be used as a tracer for different sources of phosphate to an estuarine system which is not phosphate limited. Consequently, the d18O of phosphate may be useful for quantifying the mixing of different sources of phosphate in estuarine systems. We applied this method to enhance our understanding of P sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay. To this end we conducted four sampling transects from Coyote Creek in the South Bay to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the North between October 2002 and August 2004. Phosphate d18O ranged from 10.1 to 20.1 per mil, with highest values at the Golden Gate and lowest at the San Joaquin River. Most of the Bay samples showed strong positive correlations with salinity, water d18O, and the inverse of phosphate concentration, suggesting a simple two-component mixing of oceanic and riverine sources. These data suggest that phosphate d18O can be an effective tool for identifying P point sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in the ecosystem.

  7. The oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate in Elkhorn Slough, California: A tracer for phosphate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Karen; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Paytan, Adina

    2006-11-01

    Elkhorn Slough, a small seasonal estuary in central California, has been subjected to increased nutrient loading from agricultural and other non-point sources. However, because nutrients do not behave conservatively, tracing nutrient sources and cycling in ecosystems like Elkhorn Slough has been difficult to assess. This is particularly true of phosphorus (P), which has only one stable isotope and cannot be used as an isotopic tracer. However, isotopic fractionation of oxygen in phosphate at surface water temperatures only occurs as a result of enzyme-mediated, biochemical reactions. Thus, if phosphate demand is low relative to input and is not heavily cycled within the ecosystem, the δ18O of phosphate will reflect the isotopic composition of phosphate sources to the system. We utilized the δ18O of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) within the main channel of the slough and nearby Moss Landing Harbor and the δ18O of reactive phosphate from sediment and soil samples collected within the watershed to understand phosphate sources and cycling within Elkhorn Slough. Trends in the δ18O of DIP were seasonally consistent with high values near the mouth reflecting oceanic phosphate (19.1‰-20.3‰), dropping to a minimum value near Hummingbird Island in the central slough (point source, 14.1‰-14.4‰), and increasing again near the head of the slough, reflecting fertilizer input (18.9‰-19.3‰). Reactive phosphate δ18O values extracted from sediments and soils in the watershed range from 10.6‰ in a drainage ditch to 22.3‰ in creek sediments near agriculture fields. The wide range in phosphate δ18O values reflects the variations in land use and application of different fertilizers in this agriculturally dominated landscape. These data suggest that phosphate δ18O can be an effective tool for identifying P sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine ecosystems.

  8. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marie F; Li, Luen-Luen; Handley-Pendleton, Jocelyn M; van der Lelie, Daniel; Dunn, John J; Wishart, James F

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v. PMID:22001053

  10. Do osteocytes contribute to phosphate homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Feng, Jian Q; Ye, Ling; Schiavi, Susan

    2009-07-01

    Osteocytes, the terminally differentiated cell of the osteoblast lineage, account for over 90% of all bone cells. Due to their relative inaccessibility within mineralized matrix, little is known regarding their specific functions in comparison to the well studied surface bone cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Furthermore, bone is often viewed as a mineral reservoir that passively releases calcium and phosphate in response to hormones secreted from remote organs. Noncollagenous matrix proteins produced in osteocytes, such as dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), have also been viewed as inert scaffolds for calcium-phosphate deposition. Recent discoveries of new genetic mutations in human diseases and development of genetically engineered animal models challenge these classic paradigms, suggesting that the osteocyte plays an active role in both mineralization and total systemic phosphate regulation. In this review, we will focus on roles of osteocytes in mineralization and particularly in phosphate regulation via the DMP1- FGF23 pathway. PMID:19448536

  11. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... phosphoric acid. (b) Magnesium phosphate, dibasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which is incorporated by reference. Copies...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  16. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  17. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1953-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

  18. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. PMID:24261118

  19. Product inhibition of potato tuber pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase by phosphate and pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Stitt, M

    1989-02-01

    The product inhibition of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase by inorganic pyrophosphate and inorganic phosphate has been studied. The binding of substrates for the forward (glycolytic) and the reverse (gluconeogenic) reaction is random order, and occurs with only weak competition between the substrate pair fructose-6-phosphate and pyrophosphate, and between the substrate pair fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and phosphate. Pyrophosphate is a powerful inhibitor of the reverse reaction, acting competitively to fructose-1,6-biphosphate and noncompetitively to phosphate. At the concentrations needed for catalysis of the reverse reaction, phosphate inhibits the forward reaction in a largely noncompetitive mode with respect to both fructose-6-phosphate and pyrophosphate. At higher concentrations, phosphate inhibits both the forward and the reverse reaction by decreasing the affinity for fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and thus, for the other three substrates. These results allow a model to be proposed, which describes the interactions between the substrates at the catalytic site. They also suggest the enzyme may be regulated in vivo by changes of the relation between metabolites and phosphate and could act as a means of controlling the cytosolic pyrophosphate concentration. PMID:16666593

  20. Using phosphate supplementation to reverse hypophosphatemia and phosphate depletion in neurological disease and disturbance.

    PubMed

    Håglin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Hypophosphatemia (HP) with or without intracellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate has been associated with central and peripheral nervous system complications and can be observed in various diseases and conditions related to respiratory alkalosis, alcoholism (alcohol withdrawal), diabetic ketoacidosis, malnutrition, obesity, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. In addition, HP may explain serious muscular, neurological, and haematological disorders and may cause peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and metabolic encephalopathy, resulting in confusion and seizures. The neuropathy may be improved quickly after proper phosphate replacement. Phosphate depletion has been corrected using potassium-phosphate infusion, a treatment that can restore consciousness. In severe ataxia and tetra paresis, complete recovery can occur after adequate replacement of phosphate. Patients with multiple risk factors, often with a chronic disease and severe HP that contribute to phosphate depletion, are at risk for neurologic alterations. To predict both risk and optimal phosphate replenishment requires assessing the nutritional status and risk for re-feeding hypophosphatemia. The strategy for correcting HP depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the goal for re-establishing a phosphate balance to limit the consequences of phosphate depletion. PMID:25909152

  1. Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis and Tissue Mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosamine: poly-peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vita-min-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

  2. Disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

  3. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

    2010-10-28

    Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ∼750 to ∼635 Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life. PMID:20981096

  4. Characterization of phosphate films on aluminum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, B.; Ramamurthy, S.; McIntyre, N.S.

    1997-08-01

    A thin layer of phosphate conversion coating was formed on pure aluminum in a commercial zinc-manganese phosphating bath. A number of surface analytical techniques were used to characterize the phosphate thin films formed after immersion times ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The coating contained mainly a crystalline structure with dispersed micrometer-scale cavities. The major constituents of the phosphate film were zinc, phosphorus, and oxygen; a small amount of manganese was also detected. Based on these results, a three-stage mechanism was proposed for the formation and the growth of phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the corrosion performance of phosphated and uncoated aluminum samples in 0.50 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.10 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. Both types of samples exhibited a passive state in the neutral solution and general corrosion behavior in the acid solution.

  5. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    PubMed

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. PMID:26412420

  6. Transport and signaling through the phosphate-binding site of the yeast Pho84 phosphate transceptor.

    PubMed

    Popova, Yulia; Thayumanavan, Palvannan; Lonati, Elena; Agrochão, Margarida; Thevelein, Johan M

    2010-02-16

    A novel concept in eukaryotic signal transduction is the use of nutrient transporters and closely related proteins as nutrient sensors. The action mechanism of these "transceptors" is unclear. The Pho84 phosphate transceptor in yeast transports phosphate and mediates rapid phosphate activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during growth induction. We have now identified several phosphate-containing compounds that act as nontransported signaling agonists of Pho84. This indicates that signaling does not require complete transport of the substrate. For the nontransported agonist glycerol-3-phosphate (Gly3P), we show that it is transported by two other carriers, Git1 and Pho91, without triggering signaling. Gly3P is a competitive inhibitor of transport through Pho84, indicating direct interaction with its phosphate-binding site. We also identified phosphonoacetic acid as a competitive inhibitor of transport without agonist function for signaling. This indicates that binding of a compound into the phosphate-binding site of Pho84 is not enough to trigger signaling. Apparently, signaling requires a specific conformational change that may be part of, but does not require, the complete transport cycle. Using Substituted Cysteine Accessibility Method (SCAM) we identified Phe(160) in TMD IV and Val(392) in TMD VIII as residues exposed with their side chain into the phosphate-binding site of Pho84. Inhibition of both transport and signaling by covalent modification of Pho84(F160C) or Pho84(V392C) showed that the same binding site is used for transport of phosphate and for signaling with both phosphate and Gly3P. Our results provide to the best of our knowledge the first insight into the molecular mechanism of a phosphate transceptor. PMID:20133652

  7. Phosphate separation and recovery from wastewater by novel electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Desmidt, Evelyn; Van Looveren, Arnaud; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-06-01

    Stimulated by the depletion of phosphate resources, phosphate recovery systems have been studied in recent years. The use of struvite reactors has proven to be an effective phosphate recovery process. However, the struvite reactor effluent still consists of an excessive amount of phosphate that cannot be recovered nor can be directly discharged. In this study, selectrodialysis (SED) was used to improve the efficiency of phosphate recovery from a struvite reactor: SED was implemented in such a way that phosphate from the effluent of an USAB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor was transferred to the recycled effluent of a struvite reactor. Prior to the experiments, synthetic water with chloride and phosphate was used to characterize the efficiency of SED for phosphate separation. Results indicate that SED was successful in concentrating phosphate from the feed stream. The initial current efficiency reached 72%, with a satisfying (9 mmol L(-1)) phosphate concentration. In the experiments with the anaerobic effluent as the phosphate source for enrichment of the effluent of the struvite reactor, the phosphate flux was 16 mmol m(-2) h(-1). A cost evaluation shows that 1 kWh electricity can produce 60 g of phosphate by using a full scale stack, with a desalination rate of 95% on the feed wastewater. Finally, a struvite precipitation experiment shows that 93% of phosphate can be recovered. Thus, an integrated SED-struvite reactor process can be used to improve phosphate recovery from wastewater. PMID:23651001

  8. Ureolytic phosphate precipitation from anaerobic effluents.

    PubMed

    Desmidt, E; Verstraete, W; Dick, J; Meesschaert, B D; Carballa, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the elimination of phosphate from industrial anaerobic effluents was evaluated at lab-scale. For that purpose, the ureolytic method previously developed for the precipitation of Ca(2 + ) from wastewater as calcite was adapted for the precipitation of phosphate as struvite. In the first part of the study, computer simulations using MAPLE and PHREEQC were performed to model phosphate precipitation from wastewater as struvite. The results obtained showed that relative high concentrations of ammonium and magnesium are needed to precipitate phosphate as struvite. The total molar concentrations ratio of Mg(2 + ):PO(4) (3-)-P:NH(4) (+) required to decrease PO(4) (3-)-P concentrations from 20 to 6 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l at pH 8.4-8.5 was estimated on 4.6:1:8. In the second part of the study, lab-scale experiments with either synthetic wastewater or the anaerobic effluent from a vegetable processing industry were carried out in batch and continuous mode. Overall, the continuous operation at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.4 h and an added molar concentration [Mg(2 + )]:[PO(4) (3-)-P]:[NH(4) (+)] ratio of 1.6:1:2.3 resulted in a constant pH value in the reactor (around 8.5) and an efficient phosphate removal (>90%) to residual levels of 1-2 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l. Different operational conditions, such as the initial phosphate concentration, HRT and the use of CaCl(2) or MgO instead of MgCl(2), were analysed and the performance of the reactor was satisfactory under a broad range of them. Yet, overall, optimal results (higher phosphate removal) were obtained with MgCl(2). PMID:19474493

  9. An autosomal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) polymorphism in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Tan, S G; Ashton, G C

    1976-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) from human saliva has been demonstrated by the zymogram technique. Three phenotypes were found. Family and population studies suggested that these phenotypes are the products of an autosomal locus with two alleles Sgd-1 and Sgd-2. PMID:950237

  10. COMPARATIVE KINETIC STUDIES OF PHOSPHATE-LIMITED GROWTH AND PHOSPHATE UPTAKE IN PHYTOPLANKTON IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative kinetic study of phosphate-limited growth and phosphate uptake was carried out in chemostat cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae Lyng. Breb., Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs, Asterionella formosa Hass., Fragilaria crotonensis Kitt., and Microcystis sp. Lemm. For ea...

  11. Mechanism of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate transfer from aldolase to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kvassman, J; Pettersson, G; Ryde-Pettersson, U

    1988-03-01

    The catalytic interaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate has been examined by transient-state kinetic methods. The results confirm previous reports that the apparent Km for oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate decreases at least 50-fold when the substrate is generated in a coupled reaction system through the action of aldolase on fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, but lend no support to the proposal that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is directly transferred between the two enzymes without prior release to the reaction medium. A theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the kinetic behaviour of the coupled two-enzyme system is compatible in all respects tested with a free-diffusion mechanism for the transfer of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate from the producing enzyme to the consuming one. PMID:3350006

  12. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  13. Modulation of the interaction between aldolase and glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase by fructose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Vértessy, B G; Orosz, F; Ovádi, J

    1991-06-24

    Kinetics of fructose-1,6-disphosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13) catalyzed conversion of fructose phosphates was analyzed by coupling the aldolase reactions to the metabolically sequential enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.8), which interacts with aldolase. At low enzyme concentration poly(ethylene glycol) was added to promote complex formation of aldolase and glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase resulting in a 3-fold increase in KM of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and no change in Vmax. Kinetic parameters for fructose-1-phosphate conversion changed inversely upon complex formation: Vmax increased while KM remained unchanged. Gel penetration and ion-exchange chromatographic experiments showed positive modulation of the interaction of aldolase and dehydrogenase by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. The dissociation constant of the heterologous enzyme complex decreased 10-fold in the presence of this substrate. Fructose-1-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate had no effect on the dissociation constant of the aldolase-dehydrogenase complex. In addition, titration of fluorescein-labelled glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase with aldolase indicated that both fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-biphosphate enhanced the affinity of aldolase to glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results of the kinetic and binding experiments suggest that binding of the C-6 phosphate group of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to aldolase complexed with dehydrogenase is sterically impeded while saturation of the C-6 phosphate group site increases the affinity of aldolase for dehydrogenase. The possible molecular mechanism of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate modulated interaction is discussed. PMID:2065091

  14. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands. PMID:25345061

  15. Calcium phosphate cement scaffolds with PLGA fibers.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Letícia Araújo; dos Santos, Luís Alberto

    2013-04-01

    The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials has revolutionized current orthopedics and dentistry in repairing damaged parts of the skeletal system. Among those biomaterials, the cement made of hydraulic grip calcium phosphate has attracted great interest due to its biocompatibility and hardening "in situ". However, these cements have low mechanical strength compared with the bones of the human body. In the present work, we have studied the attainment of calcium phosphate cement powders and their addition to poly (co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers to increase mechanical properties of those cements. We have used a new method that obtains fibers by dripping different reagents. PLGA fibers were frozen after lyophilized. With this new method, which was patented, it was possible to obtain fibers and reinforcing matrix which furthered the increase of mechanical properties, thus allowing the attainment of more resistant materials. The obtained materials were used in the construction of composites and scaffolds for tissue growth, keeping a higher mechanical integrity. PMID:23827539

  16. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis. PMID:26510127

  17. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

  18. Phosphorylation of Kraft fibers with phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Belosinschi, Dan; Brouillette, François; Belfkira, Ahmed; Chabot, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    Phosphate esters, derived from two different long-chain aliphatic alcohols, were used as phosphorylating reagents for Kraft pulp fibers. High phosphorus contents and almost non-degraded fibers were obtained by following this pathway. The phosphorylation efficiency was influenced by the alkyl chain length of PEs since the phosphorus content in modified fibers was higher for the shorter chain reagent. Due to the heterogeneous reaction environment, the amount of grafted phosphorus was found to be almost three times higher at the surface than in the bulk of the fibers. Analyses also indicated that the phosphorus was bonded to fibers as a phosphate-like structure. Furthermore, the situation seemed to be different for the fiber surface where significant amounts of phosphorus were present in more complex structures like pyrophosphate or even oligo-phosphate. PMID:24721058

  19. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Oliver B; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis. PMID:26510127

  20. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  3. The inhibition of mitochondrial dicarboxylate transport by inorganic phosphate, some phosphate esters and some phosphonate compounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R N; Chappell, J B

    1974-02-01

    1. P(i) competitively inhibited succinate oxidation by intact uncoupled mitochondria in the presence of sufficient N-ethylmaleimide to block the phosphate carrier, with a K(i) of 2.5mm. 2. Of a large number of phosphate esters and phosphonate compounds, phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate were found to inhibit competitively uncoupled succinate oxidation by intact but not broken mitochondria. By comparison, benzoate was a relatively weak competitive inhibitor of succinate oxidation by intact mitochondria but a relatively potent inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. 3. Phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate were non-penetrant, and inhibited P(i)-dependent swelling of mitochondria suspended in isosmolar ammonium malate in a manner non-competitive with P(i). The inhibitors did not affect mitochondrial swelling when tested with P(i) alone. 4. It is concluded that: (i) phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate behaved as non-penetrant analogues of P(i), since their inhibitory properties were in strict contrast with those of benzoate; (ii) phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate interacted with the dicarboxylate carrier but not with the phosphate carrier; (iii) P(i) was effective as a competitive inhibitor of succinate oxidation because of its being either an alternative substrate for the dicarboxylate carrier or competitive with succinate for the intramitochondrial cations as proposed by Harris & Manger (1968). PMID:4822730

  4. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  5. Xenobiotic conjugation with phosphate - a metabolic rarity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    1. Although not unknown, the conjugation of a xenobiotic with phosphate appears a rarity amongst the routes available for foreign compound metabolism. This is especially true in mammals and may be somewhat surprising as conjugation with sulphate, a seemingly similar moiety, is commonplace. 2. Information from the literature, where xenobiotic phosphate conjugates have been described or suggested, has been collated and presented in this article. By bringing together this diverse material, hopefully interest will be generated in this unusual xenobiotic reaction, and perhaps further research undertaken to better understand and delineate the reasons for its relative absence from the xenobiotic scene. PMID:26611118

  6. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  7. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  8. Evaluation of Intestinal Phosphate Binding to Improve the Safety Profile of Oral Sodium Phosphate Bowel Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Robijn, Stef; Vervaet, Benjamin A.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Verhulst, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP) is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis) are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage) with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea) and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline). Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline) and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections). Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide) was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders. PMID:25790436

  9. Phosphate application to firing range soils for Pb immobilization: the unclear role of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris; Grubb, Dennis G

    2007-06-01

    Phosphate treatment has emerged as a widely accepted approach to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils and waste media, relying on the formation of the highly insoluble mineral pyromorphite as solubility-controlling phase for Pb. As such, phosphate treatment has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for firing ranges where Pb occurs in its metallic forms and several other phases (carbonates, oxides). While pyromorphite thermodynamically has the potential to control Pb solubility at low levels, its formation is kinetically controlled by pH, the solubility of the phosphate source, and the solubility of Pb species. Treatability studies have shown that excess quantities of soluble and acidic phosphate sources, such as phosphoric acid, are necessary for successful in situ treatment. Even under these conditions, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), the only reliable method to identify and quantify Pb speciation, showed that Pb conversion to pyromorphite in in situ treated soils was less than 45% after 32 months. Furthermore, the use of lime (CaO) to restore soil pH in acidified soil treatments inhibited further conversion. Additionally, phosphate treatment is known to reduce bioavailability through pyromorphite formation in the intestinal tract, and the phytoaccumulation of Pb; both desirable effects for Pb-impacted areas. Given the costs of phosphate treatment, the use of biogenic phosphate sources, such as bone meal, may be a more environmentally sustainable approach toward this end. In the many studies focusing on phosphate treatment, the attendant P leaching and eutrophication have been largely overlooked, along with other issues such as the enhanced leaching of oxyanionic contaminants, such as Se, As and W. The success and sustainability of applying phosphate as a BMP in firing range soils therefore remain questionable. PMID:17360110

  10. Attenuation of Phosphate Starvation Responses by Phosphite in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ticconi, Carla A.; Delatorre, Carla A.; Abel, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    When inorganic phosphate is limiting, Arabidopsis has the facultative ability to metabolize exogenous nucleic acid substrates, which we utilized previously to identify insensitive phosphate starvation response mutants in a conditional genetic screen. In this study, we examined the effect of the phosphate analog, phosphite (Phi), on molecular and morphological responses to phosphate starvation. Phi significantly inhibited plant growth on phosphate-sufficient (2 mm) and nucleic acid-containing (2 mm phosphorus) media at concentrations higher than 2.5 mm. However, with respect to suppressing typical responses to phosphate limitation, Phi effects were very similar to those of phosphate. Phosphate starvation responses, which we examined and found to be almost identically affected by both anions, included changes in: (a) the root-to-shoot ratio; (b) root hair formation; (c) anthocyanin accumulation; (d) the activities of phosphate starvation-inducible nucleolytic enzymes, including ribonuclease, phosphodiesterase, and acid phosphatase; and (e) steady-state mRNA levels of phosphate starvation-inducible genes. It is important that induction of primary auxin response genes by indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of growth-inhibitory Phi concentrations suggests that Phi selectively inhibits phosphate starvation responses. Thus, the use of Phi may allow further dissection of phosphate signaling by genetic selection for constitutive phosphate starvation response mutants on media containing organophosphates as the only source of phosphorus. PMID:11706178

  11. Enteral administration of monosodium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate for the treatment of hypophosphataemia in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Idink, M J; Grünberg, W

    2015-05-01

    Hypohosphataemia is a frequent finding in early lactating and anorectic dairy cows. Sodium phosphate is commonly used for oral phosphorus (P) supplementation, although other phosphate salts may present useful treatment alternatives. Objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) to monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) in P-depleted cows. Furthermore, the effect of concentrated NaH2PO4 on the reticular groove reflex was studied. Six healthy but P-depleted dairy cows underwent four treatments in randomised order. Treatments consisted of intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4, KH2PO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2 providing the equivalent of 60 g P. A fourth treatment consisting of concentrated NaH2PO4 combined with acetaminophen as a marker substance was administered orally to determine whether the reticular groove reflex could be induced. Intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentrations ([Pi]) while intraruminal Ca(H2PO4)2 resulted in lower increases in plasma [Pi]. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar times to peak plasma [Pi] and acetaminophen concentration, indicating that concentrated NaH2PO4 administered orally did not trigger the reticular groove reflex. These results suggest that oral administration of KH2PO4 is equally effective as NaH2PO4. Oral administration of Ca(H2PO4)2 in contrast has a less pronounced effect on the plasma [Pi]. PMID:25721509

  12. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, Bast T, Wolf NI, Zschocke J. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate may be ... Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, Bast T, Wolf NI, Zschocke J. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate may be ...

  13. Regulation of hormone-sensitive renal phosphate transport.

    PubMed

    Gattineni, Jyothsna; Friedman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate is essential for growth and maintenance of the skeleton and for generating high-energy phosphate compounds. Evolutionary adaptation to high dietary phosphorous in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates involves regulated mechanisms assuring the efficient renal elimination of excess phosphate. These mechanisms prominently include PTH, FGF23, and Vitamin D, which directly and indirectly regulate phosphate transport. Disordered phosphate homeostasis is associated with pathologies ranging from kidney stones to kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease results in hyperphosphatemia, an elevated calcium×phosphate product with considerable morbidity and mortality, mostly associated with adverse cardiovascular events. This chapter highlights recent findings and insights regarding the hormonal regulation of renal phosphate transport along with imbalances of phosphate balance due to acquired or inherited diseases states. PMID:25817872

  14. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  15. Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1997-08-01

    Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained from the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.

  16. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  8. IN-SITU MINING OF PHOSPHATE ORES

    SciTech Connect

    H. El-Shall; R. Stana; A. El-Midany; S. Malekzadah

    2004-12-17

    Presently the mining of Florida phosphate requires the movement of over a 100-ton of materials (overburden, sand, clay) for every ton of phosphate concentrate recovered. Not only is this energy intensive, but it also causes significant stress on the environment. In 2003, the Department of Energy solicited ideas for innovative mining ideas that could significantly improve the efficiency of mining. An award was made to the University of Florida Engineering Research Center to evaluate the in situ mining of phosphates using an aqueous CO{sub 2} solution. Tests were carried out in a 15.2 cm (6-inch) diameter column, 1.83 meter (6 feet) long at pressures up to 117.2 kg/cm{sup 2} (40 psi). Results to date demonstrate that initially the MgO is leached from the ore and then the phosphate. While the tests are continuing, so far they have not demonstrated P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations that are economically attractive.

  9. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  10. Insights from Genetic Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Marta; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The molecular identification and characterization of genetic defects leading to a number of rare inherited or acquired disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis has added tremendous detail to our understanding of the regulation of phosphate balance. The identification of the key phosphate-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), as well as other molecules that control its production, such as the glycosyltransferase GALNT3, the endopeptidase PHEX and the matrix protein DMP1, and molecules that function as downstream effectors of FGF23, such as the longevity factor Klotho and the phosphate transporters NPT2a and NPT2c, has permitted us to understand the elegant and complex interplay that exists between the kidneys, bone, parathyroid, and gut. Such insights from genetic disorders have allowed not only the design of potent targeted therapies for some of these rare genetic disorders, such as using anti-FGF23 antibodies for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, but also have led to clinically relevant observations related to the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Thus, we are able to leverage our knowledge of rare human disorders affecting only few individuals, to understand and potentially treat disease processes that affect millions of patients. PMID:23465501

  11. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  12. Psoriatic therapeutics and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cotton, D W; van Rossum, E

    1975-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of various agents on the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase have been studied in vitro. Stress is laid on the calculation of kinetic parameters such as true K-I values. The most active inhibitor was methotrexate, closely followed by cGMP. The increase in inhibitory activity after incubation of methotrexate with liver slices is discussed. PMID:167665

  13. Phosphates in some missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Foord, E.E.; Keller, D.J.; Keller, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays. The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspora, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore ("burley" clay). The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality. The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore host

  14. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material

    PubMed Central

    Isherwood, F. A.; Barrett, F. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol–water–aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether–formic acid–2-methylpropan-2-ol–water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5′-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract

  15. Hexose phosphate synthetase from Methylococcus capsulatus makes d-arabino-3-hexulose phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The product of the reaction catalysed by hexose phosphate synthase prepared from Methylococcus capsulatus was dephosphorylated and the sugar moiety purified. The sugar and derivatives were compared by various chromatographic and other methods with authentic samples of allulose (psicose), d-erythro-l-glycero-3-hexulose and d-erythro-d-glycero-3-hexulose. The sugar is not allulose, as was previously thought on the basis of less extensive evidence (Kemp & Quayle, 1966), but is in fact d-erythro-l-glycero-3-hexulose (d-arabino-3-hexulose). This identification is consistent with recent studies which have shown that hexose phosphate synthase catalyses the condensation of formaldehyde with d-ribulose 5-phosphate rather than with d-ribose 5-phosphate (Kemp, 1972). PMID:4463938

  16. The low temperature formation of octacalcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Stephan; Brown, Paul W.

    1993-09-01

    The low temperature formation of octacalcium phosphate (Ca 8(HPO 4) 2(PO 4) 4·5H 2O) was investigated. Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was formed by the hydrolysis of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), and by reaction between monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and tetracalcium phosphate (TetCP). Relationships between phase formation, microstructural evolution, and variations in solution chemistry were examined. Hydrolysis of α-TCP to form OCP occurs more rapidly at elevated temperatures. At the highest temperature studied, 70°C, initial precipitation of OCP occurs in about one hour, but its inevitable hydrolysis to the more stable HAp phase takes place over several days. At room temperature, nearly three days are required to initiate OCP formation, yet remains a final product phase for well over a period of months. When the initial solution pH is less than 7, pure phase OCP is the final product, while HAp forms when initial pH values are higher than this. Furthermore, OCP precipitates faster at the highest initial pH values where its formation is observed. OCP formation by reaction between MCPM and TetCP is also dependent on temperature and time of reaction. For temperatures between 40 and 55°C and at reasonable times (less than four days) the product is phase pure OCP. After that time, inevitable hydrolysis of the OCP product to HAp occurs. Between 30 and 40°C, DCPD (CaHPO 4·2H 2O) is simultaneously present with OCP, and below 30°C, HAp and DCPD coexist within this aforementioned time span. Conversely, between 55 and 60°C, DCP (CaHPO 4) and OCP are the product phases (in the allowed time of reaction, before the eventual degradation of OCP), and above 60°C HAp and DCP are the final products.

  17. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  1. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section... § 522.1244 Levamisole phosphate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to 136.5 or 182 milligrams of levamisole...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  4. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  5. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...