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Sample records for dictyostelium discoideum cells

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum: Molecular approaches to cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central point of this book is to present Dictyostelium as a valuable eukaryotic organism for those interested in molecular studies that require a combined biochemical, structural, and genetic approach. The book is not meant to be a comprehensive compilation of all methods involving Dictyostelium, but instead is a selective set of chapters that demonstrates the utility of the organism for molecular approaches to interesting cell biological problems.

  2. Dissection of Francisella-Host Cell Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Elisabeth O; Brenz, Yannick; Herrmann, Lydia; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Zingmark, Carl; Sjöstedt, Anders; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Hagedorn, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Francisella bacteria cause severe disease in both vertebrates and invertebrates and include one of the most infectious human pathogens. Mammalian cell lines have mainly been used to study the mechanisms by which Francisella manipulates its host to replicate within a large variety of hosts and cell types, including macrophages. Here, we describe the establishment of a genetically and biochemically tractable infection model: the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum combined with the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Phagocytosed F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the endosomal pathway and escapes further phagosomal maturation by translocating into the host cell cytosol. F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis lacking IglC, a known virulence determinant required for Francisella intracellular replication, follows the normal phagosomal maturation and does not grow in Dictyostelium. The attenuation of the F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC mutant was confirmed in a zebrafish embryo model, where growth of F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC was restricted. In Dictyostelium, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the autophagic machinery. The intracellular bacteria colocalize with autophagic markers, and when autophagy is impaired (Dictyostelium Δatg1), F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis accumulates within Dictyostelium cells. Altogether, the Dictyostelium-F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infection model recapitulates the course of infection described in other host systems. The genetic and biochemical tractability of the system allows new approaches to elucidate the dynamic interactions between pathogenic Francisella and its host organism. PMID:26712555

  3. Dissection of Francisella-Host Cell Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Elisabeth O.; Brenz, Yannick; Herrmann, Lydia; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Zingmark, Carl; Sjöstedt, Anders; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella bacteria cause severe disease in both vertebrates and invertebrates and include one of the most infectious human pathogens. Mammalian cell lines have mainly been used to study the mechanisms by which Francisella manipulates its host to replicate within a large variety of hosts and cell types, including macrophages. Here, we describe the establishment of a genetically and biochemically tractable infection model: the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum combined with the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Phagocytosed F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the endosomal pathway and escapes further phagosomal maturation by translocating into the host cell cytosol. F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis lacking IglC, a known virulence determinant required for Francisella intracellular replication, follows the normal phagosomal maturation and does not grow in Dictyostelium. The attenuation of the F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC mutant was confirmed in a zebrafish embryo model, where growth of F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC was restricted. In Dictyostelium, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the autophagic machinery. The intracellular bacteria colocalize with autophagic markers, and when autophagy is impaired (Dictyostelium Δatg1), F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis accumulates within Dictyostelium cells. Altogether, the Dictyostelium-F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infection model recapitulates the course of infection described in other host systems. The genetic and biochemical tractability of the system allows new approaches to elucidate the dynamic interactions between pathogenic Francisella and its host organism. PMID:26712555

  4. Theoretical model for morphogenesis and cell sorting in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, T.; Inouye, K.

    1999-02-01

    The morphogenetic movement and cell sorting in cell aggregates from the mound stage to the migrating slug stage of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum were studied using a mathematical model. The model postulates that the motive force generated by the cells is in equilibrium with the internal pressure and mechanical resistance. The moving boundary problem derived from the force balance equation and the continuity equation has stationary solutions in which the aggregate takes the shape of a spheroid (or an ellipse in two-dimensional space) with the pacemaker at one of its foci, moving at a constant speed. Numerical calculations in two-dimensional space showed that an irregularly shaped aggregate changes its shape to become an ellipse as it moves. Cell aggregates consisting of two cell types differing in motive force exhibit cell sorting and become elongated, suggesting the importance of prestalk/prespore differentiation in the morphogenesis of Dictyostelium.

  5. Choice of partners: sexual cell interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, H

    1996-08-01

    Recognition of mating partners is of central importance in the sexual processes. In consideration that the most important function of sexuality is to shuffle genetic materials to generate wider variation of characters, mating among different genetic backgrounds is preferable. Wild isolates of cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum are predominantly heterothallic, but homothallic ones also exist. In addition, there are bi-sexual strains which are compatible with either mating type of heterothallic strains but are self-incompatible. How cells of these organisms choose proper mating partners may include the essential mechanisms for sexual cell recognition in general. This minireview addresses studies on sexual cell interactions of D. discoideum with special attention to cell recognition and evolution of the mating system. PMID:8906358

  6. A revision of the Dictyostelium discoideum cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Weijer, C J; Duschl, G; David, C N

    1984-08-01

    We have investigated the Dictyostelium discoideum cell cycle using fluorometric determinations of cellular and nuclear DNA contents in exponentially growing cultures and in synchronized cultures. Almost all cells are in G2 during both growth and development. There is no G1 period, S phase is less than 0.5 h, and G2 has an average length of 6.5 h in axenically grown cells. Mitochondrial DNA, which constitutes about half of the total DNA, is replicated throughout the cell cycle. There is no difference in the nuclear DNA contents of axenically grown and bacterially grown cells. Thus the long cell cycle in axenically grown cells is due to a lengthening of the G2 phase. PMID:6389576

  7. Insights into the Cell Shape Dynamics of Migrating Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Meghan; Homan, Tess; McCann, Colin; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    Dynamic cell shape is a highly visible manifestation of the interaction between the internal biochemical state of a cell and its external environment. We analyzed the dynamic cell shape of migrating cells using the model system Dictyostelium discoideum. Applying a snake algorithm to experimental movies, we extracted cell boundaries in each frame and followed local boundary motion over long time intervals. Using a local motion measure that corresponds to protrusive/retractive activity, we found that protrusions are intermittent and zig-zag, whereas retractions are more sustained and straight. Correlations of this local motion measure reveal that protrusions appear more localized than retractions. Using a local shape measure, curvature, we also found that small peaks in boundary curvature tend to originate at the front of cells and propagate backwards. We will review the possible cytoskeletal origin of these mechanical waves.

  8. Detection and characterisation of NAD(P)H-diaphorase activity in Dictyostelium discoideum cells (Protozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Amaroli, A.; Chessa, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum (D. discoideum), compounds generating nitric oxide (NO) inhibit its aggregation and differentiation without altering cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production. They do it by preventing initiation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pulses. Furthermore, these compounds stimulate adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of a 41 kDa cytosolic protein and regulate the glyceraldehyde-3-phospate dehydrogenase activity. Yet, although D. discoideum cells produce NO at a relatively constant rate at the onset of their developmental cycle, there is still no evidence of the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. In this work, we detect the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity in D. discoideum and we characterise it by specific inhibitors and physical-chemical conditions that allegedly distinguish between NOS-related and -unrelated NADPH-d activity. PMID:23361243

  9. Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation. One of the most important insights gained from these studies is that the synthesis of cellulose by living organisms involves much more than simply the polymerization of glucose into a (1{r_arrow}4)-{beta}-linked polymer. The number of glucoses in a polymer (the degree of polymerization), the crystalline form assumed by the glucan chains when they crystallize to form a microfibril, and the dimensions and orientation of the microfibrils are all subject to cellular control. Instead of cellulose biosynthesis, a more appropriate term might be cellulose biogenesis, to emphasize the involvement of cellular structures and mechanisms in controlling polymerization and directing crystallization and deposition. Dictyostelium discoideum is uniquely suitable for the study of cellulose biogenesis because of its amenability to experimental study and manipulation and the extent of our knowledge of its basic cellular mechanisms (as will be evident from the rest of this volume). In this chapter, I will summarize what is known about cellulose biogenesis in D. discoideum, emphasizing its potential to illuminate our understanding both of D. discoideum development and plant cellulose biogenesis.

  10. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo. PMID:26013485

  11. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-hui

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo. PMID:26013485

  12. Motile activities of Dictyostelium discoideum differ from those in Protista or vertebrate animal cells.

    PubMed

    Waligórska, Agnieszka; Wianecka-Skoczeń, Magdalena; Korohoda, Włodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    Cell movement in the amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum has been examined in media differing in monovalent cation concentration (i.e. Na+ and K+). Under isotonic or even slightly hypertonic conditions, the cells move equally well in solutions in which either potassium or sodium ions dominate. However, in strongly hypertonic solutions the amoebae showed motility in a 2% potassium chloride solution, but remained motionless in a hypertonic 2% sodium chloride solution. This inhibition of D. discoideum amoebae movement in a hypertonic sodium chloride solution was fully reversible. Such behaviour corresponds to that of plant, fungi, and some invertebrate animal cells rather than protozoan or vertebrate cells. These observations suggest that studies using D. discoideum as a model for cell motility in vertebrate animal tissue cells should be considered with caution, and would seem to confirm the classification of cellular slime moulds as related rather to Fungi than to Protista. This also shows that the cell membrane models should consider the asymmetry in sodium/potassium ion concentrations found in vertebrate animal cells as one of various possibilities. PMID:18274250

  13. Motility mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    We describe six motility mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum in this report. They were identified among a group of temperature-sensitive growth (Tsg) mutants that had been previously isolated using an enrichment for phagocytosis-defective cells. The Tsg mutants were screened for their ability to produce tracks on gold-coated cover slips, and several strains were found that were temperature-sensitive for migration in this assay. Analysis of spontaneous Tsg+ revertants of 10 migration-defective strains identified six strains that co-reverted the Tsg and track formation phenotypes. Characterization of these six strains indicated that they were defective at restrictive temperature in track formation, phagocytosis of bacteria, and pseudopodial and filopodial activity, while retaining normal rates of oxygen consumption and viability. Because they had lost this group of motile capabilities, these strains were designated motility mutants. The Tsg+ revertants of these mutants, which coordinately recovered all of the motile activities, were found at frequencies consistent with single genetic events. Analysis of the motility mutants and their revertants suggests a relationship between the motility mutations in some of these strains and genes affecting axenic growth. PMID:7118999

  14. Biological variability in the structures of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates in Dictyostelium discoideum and mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, C; Safrany, S T; Bembenek, M E; Reddy, K M; Reddy, K; Falck, J; Bröcker, M; Shears, S B; Mayr, G W

    1997-01-01

    Previous structural analyses of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates in biological systems have relied largely on NMR analysis. For example, in Dictyostelium discoideum, diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate was determined by NMR to be 4- and/or 6-PPInsP5, and the bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate was found to be 4, 5-bisPPInsP4 and/or 5,6-bisPPInsP4 [Laussmann, Eujen, Weisshuhn, Thiel and Vogel (1996) Biochem. J. 315, 715-720]. We now describe three recent technical developments to aid the analysis of these compounds, not just in Dictyostelium, but also in a wider range of biological systems: (i) improved resolution and sensitivity of detection of PPInsP5 isomers by microbore metal-dye-detection HPLC; (ii) the use of the enantiomerically specific properties of a rat hepatic diphosphatase; (iii) chemical synthesis of enantiomerically pure reference standards of all six possible PPInsP5 isomers. Thus we now demonstrate that the major PPInsP5 isomer in Dictyostelium is 6-PPInsP5. Similar findings obtained using the same synthetic standards have been published [Laussmann, Reddy, Reddy, Falck and Vogel (1997) Biochem. J. 322, 31-33]. In addition, we show that 10-25% of the Dictyostelium PPInsP5 pool is comprised of 5-PPInsP5. The biological significance of this new observation was reinforced by our demonstration that 5-PPInsP5 is the predominant PPInsP5 isomer in four different mammalian cell lines (FTC human thyroid cancer cells, Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, Jurkat T-cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells). The fact that the cellular spectrum of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates varies across phylogenetic boundaries underscores the value of our technological developments for future determinations of the structures of this class of compounds in other systems. PMID:9359429

  15. Mitochondrial Stress Tests Using Seahorse Respirometry on Intact Dictyostelium discoideum Cells.

    PubMed

    Lay, Sui; Sanislav, Oana; Annesley, Sarah J; Fisher, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria not only play a critical and central role in providing metabolic energy to the cell but are also integral to the other cellular processes such as modulation of various signaling pathways. These pathways affect many aspects of cell physiology, including cell movement, growth, division, differentiation, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction which affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and causes oxidative phosphorylation defects can thus lead to altered cellular physiology and manifest in disease. The assessment of the mitochondrial bioenergetics can thus provide valuable insights into the physiological state, and the alterations to the state of the cells. Here, we describe a method to successfully use the Seahorse XF(e)24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer to assess the mitochondrial respirometry of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:27271893

  16. A glycosylation mutation affects cell fate in chimeras of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Houle, J; Balthazar, J; West, C M

    1989-01-01

    Prestalk and prespore cells form a simple pattern in the pseudoplasmodium of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Prestalk cells are distinguished from prespore cells by a low level of expression of a glycoantigen on their surfaces and by reduced intercellular cohesion. We examined the possible significance of these differences, using the modB mutation, which eliminates this glycoantigen genetically, leading to reduced intercellular cohesion, modB mutant cells were allowed to develop together with normal cells to form chimeric slugs. Mutant cells labeled by feeding with fluorescent bacteria were highly enriched in the prestalk cell zone at the anterior end of the slug. In contrast, normal cells, if in a minority, were concentrated in the rear part of the prespore cell zone. Immunoblot analysis and cell-by-cell double-label immunofluorescence of these mixtures showed that mutant cells underproduced several prespore cell markers. Mutant cells tended not to form spores in chimeras unless they exceeded a threshold proportion of ca. 30%. However, mutant cells showed no tendency to produce excess prestalk cells when allowed to develop alone. These findings are most simply explained by postulating that reduced glycoantigen expression and intercellular adhesion encourage a more anterior cell localization, which in turn causes differentiation into a prestalk cell. Since normal prestalk cells also show reduced glycoantigen expression and intercellular adhesion, this suggests that a similar mechanism may contribute to pattern formation during normal development. Images PMID:2726746

  17. Ribosomal protein gene expression is cell type specific during development in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Parrish, S N; Blumberg, D D

    1999-10-01

    Starvation for amino acids initiates the developmental cycle in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. Upon starvation one of the earliest developmental events is the selective loss of the ribosomal protein mRNAs from polysomes. This loss depends upon sequences in the 5' non-translated leader of the ribosomal protein (r-protein) mRNAs. Here evidence is presented which indicates that those cells which will become prestalk cells express the ribosomal protein genes during development under starvation conditions. Cells which enter the prespore pathway shut off r-protein synthesis. The promoter and 5' non-translated leader sequences from two ribosomal protein genes, the rp-L11 and the rp-S9 genes, are fused to the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase reporter gene. While beta-galactosidase enzyme activity is detected in situ in most growing cells, by 15 h of development beta-galactosidase enzyme activity is largely lost from the prespore cells although strong beta-galactosidase enzyme activity is present in the prestalk cells. These observations suggest the possibility that the ribosomal protein mRNAs are excluded from polysomes in a cell-type-specific manner. PMID:10550541

  18. A new member of the GP138 multigene family implicated in cell interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Yamaguchi, N; Tanaka, Y; Urushihara, H

    1999-06-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum reproduces sexually under submerged and dark conditions. Its mating system is polymorphic and particularly interesting with respect to mechanisms of cell recognition. The cell-surface glycoprotein gp138 has been implicated in sexual cell interactions, as it was identified as a target molecule for the antibodies that block sexual cell fusion in D. discoideum. Two mutually homologous genes, GP138A and GP138B, have been cloned, but gene disruption experiments to clarify their functional relationships suggested that there is at least one more gene for gp138. Further protein analysis including peptide mapping also revealed that gp138 exists as three isoforms, DdFRP1, DdFRP2, and DdFRP3. GP138A encodes DdFRP2 and GP138B, DdFRP3, and the presence of a third gp138 gene encoding DdFRP1 was suggested. Here, we isolated and characterized a third GP138 gene, GP138C. Although the deduced amino acid sequences of GP138C matched completely with those of peptide fragments of DdFRP1 in the N-terminal half, the rest did not give complete matches. Overexpression of GP138C caused an increase in the intensity of DdFRP1, but disruption of this gene did not diminish DdFRP1. Our results indicate that GP138C encodes a protein very similar to but distinct from DdFRP1. The GP138 multigene family is thus composed of more members than previously expected, and their functional relationships are of special interest. PMID:10462174

  19. The human homologue of Dictyostelium discoideum phg1A is expressed by human metastatic melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lozupone, Francesco; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Brambilla, Daria; Borghi, Martina; Meschini, Stefania; Barca, Stefano; Marino, Maria Lucia; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; de Milito, Angelo; Fais, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Tumour cannibalism is a characteristic of malignancy and metastatic behaviour. This atypical phagocytic activity is a crucial survival option for tumours in conditions of low nutrient supply, and has some similarities to the phagocytic activity of unicellular microorganisms. In fact, Dictyostelium discoideum has been used widely as a model to study phagocytosis. Recently, phg1A has been described as a protein that is primarily involved in the phagocytic process of this microorganism. The closest human homologue to phg1A is transmembrane 9 superfamily protein member 4 (TM9SF4). Here, we report that TM9SF4 is highly expressed in human malignant melanoma cells deriving from metastatic lesions, whereas it is undetectable in healthy human tissues and cells. TM9SF4 is predominantly expressed in acidic vesicles of melanoma cells, in which it co-localizes with the early endosome antigens Rab5 and early endosome antigen 1. TM9SF4 silencing induced marked inhibition of cannibal activity, which is consistent with a derangement of intracellular pH gradients, with alkalinization of acidic vesicles and acidification of the cell cytosol. We propose TM9SF4 as a new marker of malignancy, representing a potential new target for anti-tumour strategies with a specific role in tumour cannibalism and in the establishment of a metastatic phenotype. PMID:19893578

  20. Scaling law for Dictyostelium Discoideum mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeltz, Camilla; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about how multicellular organisms regulate the size of their tissues during development. The eukaryote Dictyostelium Discoideum, may be studied as a model system. When starved, these amoebae aggregate and form cell mounds. These mounds develop into moving slugs and fruiting bodies consisting of a spore mass held atop a rigid stem of stalk cells. We report experiments on the development of mounds of Dicty-cells when confined to different heights. At the smallest height the amoebae are confined to a monolayer of cells in a 2d-plane. We found that the confinement inhibited the development of moving slugs and fruiting bodies. The cells aggregated and formed mounds whose size was found to be proportional to the height of the mounds. The precise mechanism is yet unknown. We will present the data and discuss possible mechanisms. This work is supported by the NSF through the Biocomplexity Program.

  1. Curcumin inhibits development and cell adhesion in Dictyostelium discoideum: Implications for YakA signaling and GST enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Garige, Mamatha; Walters, Eric

    2015-11-13

    The molecular basis for nutraceutical properties of the polyphenol curcumin (Curcuma longa, Turmeric) is complex, affecting multiple factors that regulate cell signaling and homeostasis. Here, we report the effect of curcumin on cellular and developmental mechanisms in the eukaryotic model, Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium proliferation was inhibited in the presence of curcumin, which also suppressed the prestarvation marker, discoidin I, members of the yakA-mediated developmental signaling pathway, and expression of the extracellular matrix/cell adhesion proteins (DdCAD and csA). This resulted in delayed chemotaxis, adhesion, and development of the organism. In contrast to the inhibitory effects on developmental genes, curcumin induced gstA gene expression, overall GST activity, and generated production of reactive oxygen species. These studies expand our knowledge of developmental and biochemical signaling influenced by curcumin, and lends greater consideration of GST enzyme function in eukaryotic cell signaling, development, and differentiation. PMID:26449461

  2. Expression of growth factors in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Asgari, S; Arun, S; Slade, M B; Marshall, J; Williams, K L; Wheldrake, J F

    2001-07-01

    Growth factors and their binding proteins are important proteins regulating mammalian cell proliferation and differentiation so there is considerable interest in producing them as recombinant proteins, especially in hosts that do not already produce a complex mixture of growth factors. Many growth factors require post-translational modifications making them unsuitable for production in Escherichia coli or other prokaryotes. Since several expression vector systems have been recently developed for foreign protein production in the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, we attempted to use two of these systems to express human insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (hIGFBP6) and bovine beta-cellulin (bBTC) as secreted proteins. Although both proteins were successfully produced in stably transformed amoebae, no secretion was detected in spite of several attempts to facilitate this occurring. PMID:11361083

  3. Dictyostelium discoideum to human cells: pharmacogenetic studies demonstrate a role for sphingolipids in chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen; Min, Junxia; Alexander, Hannah

    2006-03-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for the treatment of cancer and a subject of extensive research. Numerous mechanisms of drug resistance have been proposed, and they differ for different drugs. Nevertheless, it is clear that our understanding of this important problem is still incomplete, and that new targets for modulating therapy still await discovery. The attractive biology and the availability of powerful molecular techniques have made the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a powerful non-mammalian model for drug target discovery, and the problem of drug resistance. To understand the molecular basis of chemoresistance to the widely used drug cisplatin, both genetic and pharmacological approaches have been applied to this versatile experimental system. These studies have resulted in the identification of novel molecular pathways which can be used to increase the efficacy of cisplatin, and brought attention to the role of sphingolipids in mediating the cellular response to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the following review, we will describe the history and utility of D. discoideum in pharmacogenetics, and discuss recent studies which focus attention on the role of sphingolipids in chemotherapy and chemoresistance. PMID:16403600

  4. Actin-binding protein G (AbpG) participates in modulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Wang, Liang-Chen; Pang, Te-Ling; Chen, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is involved in various physiological and pathogenic events, and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum displays chemotactic locomotion in stages of its life cycle. By characterizing a Dictyostelium mutant defective in chemotactic responses, we identified a novel actin-binding protein serving to modulate cell migration and named it actin-binding protein G (AbpG); this 971–amino acid (aa) protein contains an N-terminal type 2 calponin homology (CH2) domain followed by two large coiled-coil regions. In chemoattractant gradients, abpG− cells display normal directional persistence but migrate significantly more slowly than wild-type cells; expressing Flag-AbpG in mutant cells eliminates the motility defect. AbpG is enriched in cortical/lamellipodial regions and colocalizes well with F-actin; aa 401–600 and aa 501–550 fragments of AbpG show the same distribution as full-length AbpG. The aa 501–550 region of AbpG, which is essential for AbpG to localize to lamellipodia and to rescue the phenotype of abpG− cells, is sufficient for binding to F-actin and represents a novel actin-binding protein domain. Compared with wild-type cells, abpG− cells have significantly higher F-actin levels. Collectively our results suggest that AbpG may participate in modulating actin dynamics to optimize cell locomotion. PMID:25609090

  5. Actin-binding protein G (AbpG) participates in modulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Wang, Liang-Chen; Pang, Te-Ling; Chen, Mei-Yu

    2015-03-15

    Cell migration is involved in various physiological and pathogenic events, and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum displays chemotactic locomotion in stages of its life cycle. By characterizing a Dictyostelium mutant defective in chemotactic responses, we identified a novel actin-binding protein serving to modulate cell migration and named it actin-binding protein G (AbpG); this 971-amino acid (aa) protein contains an N-terminal type 2 calponin homology (CH2) domain followed by two large coiled-coil regions. In chemoattractant gradients, abpG(-) cells display normal directional persistence but migrate significantly more slowly than wild-type cells; expressing Flag-AbpG in mutant cells eliminates the motility defect. AbpG is enriched in cortical/lamellipodial regions and colocalizes well with F-actin; aa 401-600 and aa 501-550 fragments of AbpG show the same distribution as full-length AbpG. The aa 501-550 region of AbpG, which is essential for AbpG to localize to lamellipodia and to rescue the phenotype of abpG(-) cells, is sufficient for binding to F-actin and represents a novel actin-binding protein domain. Compared with wild-type cells, abpG(-) cells have significantly higher F-actin levels. Collectively our results suggest that AbpG may participate in modulating actin dynamics to optimize cell locomotion. PMID:25609090

  6. Flow-driven instabilities during pattern formation of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, A.; Steinbock, O.; Zykov, V.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2015-06-01

    The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is a well known model system for the study of biological pattern formation. In the natural environment, aggregating populations of starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells may experience fluid flows that can profoundly change the underlying wave generation process. Here we study the effect of advection on the pattern formation in a colony of homogeneously distributed Dictyostelium discoideum cells described by the standard Martiel-Goldbeter model. The external flow advects the signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) downstream, while the chemotactic cells attached to the solid substrate are not transported with the flow. The evolution of small perturbations in cAMP concentrations is studied analytically in the linear regime and by corresponding numerical simulations. We show that flow can significantly influence the dynamics of the system and lead to a flow-driven instability that initiate downstream traveling cAMP waves. We also show that boundary conditions have a significant effect on the observed patterns and can lead to a new kind of instability.

  7. Establishment of a transient expression system for Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, P K; Ahern, K G; Firtel, R A

    1988-01-01

    We have established a rapid and sensitive transient expression system for Dictyostelium discoideum. We constructed a gene fusion containing the promoter from the Dictyostelium Actin 15 gene fused to the firefly luciferase gene. The enzymatic activity of this gene fusion, expressed at very high levels in stable transformants, was measured to determine optimum conditions for transient expression using electroporation to introduce the DNA into cells. With these conditions, we show that a luciferase gene fusion driven by a prestalk, cell-type specific promoter from the pst-cathepsin gene expresses luciferase at the appropriate developmental stage. In addition, we present results suggesting that the system will be useful for expressing genes in non-axenic cell lines. Finally, we observe that electroporation is more efficient for obtaining stable transformations than the standard calcium phosphate procedure using extrachromosomally replicating shuttle vectors but less efficient for vectors that integrate into the Dictyostelium chromosomes. PMID:3362676

  8. Sentinel cells, symbiotic bacteria and toxin resistance in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Brock, Debra A; Callison, W Éamon; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2016-04-27

    The social amoebaDictyostelium discoideumis unusual among eukaryotes in having both unicellular and multicellular stages. In the multicellular stage, some cells, called sentinels, ingest toxins, waste and bacteria. The sentinel cells ultimately fall away from the back of the migrating slug, thus removing these substances from the slug. However, someD. discoideumclones (called farmers) carry commensal bacteria through the multicellular stage, while others (called non-farmers) do not. Farmers profit from their beneficial bacteria. To prevent the loss of these bacteria, we hypothesize that sentinel cell numbers may be reduced in farmers, and thus farmers may have a diminished capacity to respond to pathogenic bacteria or toxins. In support, we found that farmers have fewer sentinel cells compared with non-farmers. However, farmers produced no fewer viable spores when challenged with a toxin. These results are consistent with the beneficial bacteriaBurkholderiaproviding protection against toxins. The farmers did not vary in spore production with and without a toxin challenge the way the non-farmers did, which suggests the costs ofBurkholderiamay be fixed while sentinel cells may be inducible. Therefore, the costs for non-farmers are only paid in the presence of the toxin. When the farmers were cured of their symbiotic bacteria with antibiotics, they behaved just like non-farmers in response to a toxin challenge. Thus, the advantages farmers gain from carrying bacteria include not just food and protection against competitors, but also protection against toxins. PMID:27097923

  9. Differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum vegetative cells into spores during earth orbit in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Masukawa, M.; Sekikawa, K.; Amano, T.; Nakano, T.; Nagaoka, S.; Ohnishi, T.

    2001-01-01

    We reported previously that emerged amoebae of Dictyosterium ( D.) discoideum grew, aggregated and differentiated to fruiting bodies with normal morphology in space. Here, we investigated the effects of space radiation and/or microgravity on the number, viability, kinetics of germination, growth rate and mutation frequency of spores formed in space in a radiation-sensitive strain, γs13, and the parental strain, NC4. In γs13, there were hardly spores in the fruiting bodies formed in space. In NC4, we found a decrease in the number of spores, a delay in germination of the spores and delayed start of cell growth of the spores formed in space when compared to the ground control. However, the mutation frequency of the NC4 spores formed in space was similar to that of the ground control. We conclude that the depression of spore formation might be induced by microgravity and/or space radiation through the depression of some stage(s) of DNA repair during cell differentiation in the slime mold.

  10. The intracellular location of lysosomal enzymes in developing Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhard, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The author has found that developing Dictyostelium cells contain two distinct acid hydrolase-containing organelles. Vesicles from cells at different stages of development were separated using Percoll density gradients. The lower density vesicles (LDVs or lysosomes) were present in nourished and starved cells. The higher density vesicles (HDVs) arose during starvation-induced differentiation. HDVs lacked two prestalk cell-specific lysosomal enzymes which were contained in LDVs. Prespore cell-specific spore coat proteins were detected in HDVs by ELISA. ({sup 35}S)sulfate labeling revealed that HDVs contained newly made glycoproteins as well as glycoproteins found in preexisting LDVs. Pulse-chase experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine revealed that {alpha}-mannosidase from pre-existing LDVs an newly made {alpha}-mannosidase had entered HDVs. These data suggest that prespore LDVs mature to become HDVs. He has obtained evidence that HDVs are identical to prespore vesicles. Prespore vesicles are specialized secretory organelles which arise during prespore cell differentiation and which secrete their contents during terminal differentiation. As prespore vesicles secreted their contents, there was a co-incidental increase in extracellular acid hydrolase activity and a decrease in HDV-associated enzyme activity. Electron micrographs revealed that prespore cells contained two acid phosphatase-staining organelles, one of which appeared to be identical to lysosomes from nourished cells and a second which had features similar to prespore vesicles. Ricin-gold affinity electron microscopy was used to label the mucopolysaccharide component of prespore vesicles and the spore coat. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed co-localization of {alpha}-mannosidase with ricin-gold in prespore vesicles and the spore coat.

  11. Mutants of thermotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.J.; Fontana, D.R.; Poff, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum, strain HL50 were mutagenized with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cloned, allowed to form pseudoplasmodia and screened for aberrant positive and negative thermotaxis. Three types of mutants were found. Mutant HO428 exhibits only positive thermotaxis over the entire temperature range (no negative thermotaxis). HO596 and HO813 exhibit weakened positive thermotaxis and normal negative thermotaxis. The weakened positive thermotactic response results in a shift toward warmer temperatures in the transition temperature from negative to positive thermotaxis. Mutant HO209 exhibits weakened positive and negative thermotactic responses and has a transition temperature similar to the 'wild type' (HL50).The two types of mutants represented by HO428, HO596 and HO813 support the model that positive and negative thermotaxis have separate pathways for temperature sensing. The type of mutants which contains HO209 suggests that those two pathways converge at some point before the response.

  12. Signaling pathways mediating chemotaxis in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Willard, Stacey S; Devreotes, Peter N

    2006-09-01

    Chemotaxis, or cell migration guided by chemical cues, is critical for a multitude of biological processes in a diverse array of organisms. Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae rely on chemotaxis to find food and to survive starvation conditions, and we have taken advantage of this system to study the molecular regulation of this vital cell behavior. Previous work has identified phosphoinositide signaling as one mechanism which may contribute to directional sensing and actin polymerization during chemotaxis; a mechanism which is conserved in mammalian neutrophils. In this review, we will discuss recent data on genes and pathways governing directional sensing and actin polymerization, with a particular emphasis on contributions from our laboratory. PMID:16962888

  13. Production and secretion of recombinant proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, W; Williams, K L; Slade, M B

    1994-06-01

    We have expressed useful amounts of three recombinant proteins in a new eukaryotic host/vector system. The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum efficiently secreted two recombinant products, a soluble form of the normally cell surface associated D. discoideum glycoprotein (PsA) and the heterologous protein glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum, while the enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli was cell associated. Up to 20mg/l of recombinant PsA and 1mg/l of GST were obtained after purification from a standard, peptone based growth medium. The secretion signal peptide was correctly cleaved from the recombinant GST- and PsA-proteins and the expression of recombinant PsA was shown to be stable for at least one hundred generations in the absence of selection. PMID:7764951

  14. Characterization of the Roco protein family in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Wouter N; van Haastert, Peter J M

    2010-05-01

    The Roco family consists of multidomain Ras-GTPases that include LRRK2, a protein mutated in familial Parkinson's disease. The genome of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum encodes 11 Roco proteins. To study the functions of these proteins, we systematically knocked out the roco genes. Previously described functions for GbpC, Pats1, and QkgA (Roco1 to Roco3) were confirmed, while novel developmental defects were identified in roco4- and roco11-null cells. Cells lacking Roco11 form larger fruiting bodies than wild-type cells, while roco4-null cells show strong developmental defects during the transition from mound to fruiting body; prestalk cells produce reduced levels of cellulose, leading to unstable stalks that are unable to properly lift the spore head. Detailed phylogenetic analysis of four slime mold species reveals that QkgA and Roco11 evolved relatively late by duplication of an ancestor roco4 gene (later than approximately 300 million years ago), contrary to the situation with other roco genes, which were already present before the split of the common ancestor of D. discoideum and Polysphondylium pallidum (before approximately 600 million years ago). Together, our data show that the Dictyostelium Roco proteins serve a surprisingly diverse set of functions and highlight Roco4 as a key protein for proper stalk cell formation. PMID:20348387

  15. Chemotaxis to Excitable Waves in Dictyostelium Discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Arpan; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemically directed motility by eukaryotic cells such as Dictyostelium. In particular, the LEGI model has proven capable of providing a framework for quantitatively explaining many experiments that present Dictyostelium cells with tailored chemical stimuli and monitor their subsequent polarization. Here, we couple the LEGI approach to an excitable medium model of the cAMP wave-field that is self-generated by the cells and investigate the extent to which this class of models enables accurate chemotaxis to the cAMP waveforms expected in vivo. Our results indicate that the ultra-sensitive version of the model does an excellent job in providing natural wave rectification, thereby providing a compelling solution to the ``back-of-the-wave paradox'' during cellular aggregation. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant P01 GM078586.

  16. Excitable signal relay in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestler, Troy; Schwab, David; Mehta, Pankaj; Gregor, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The social amoeba D. discoideum transitions when starved from a collection of individual cells into a multicellular spore-complex. During this process, amoebae display several interesting phenomena including intercellular signaling, pattern formation, and cell differentiation. At the heart of these phenomena is the exchange of the signaling molecule cyclic-AMP, which has previously been extensively studied using a variety of indirect methods. Here we employ a sensor that uses a compound fluorescent protein whose emission spectrum changes in the presence of bound cyclic AMP to directly monitor, in real time and in vivo, intracellular cAMP concentrations. We use cells expressing this sensor in microchemostats to study intracellular cAMP concentrations at the single-cell level in response to precise, dynamically-controlled external cAMP stimulation. Specifically, we show that these cells display excitability much like that found in neurons and agree experimentally quite well with a modified FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamical systems model. This single-cell model sets groundwork for a comprehensive multicellular model that promises to explain emergent behavior in D. discoideum.

  17. Sketch the migration of Dictyostelium discoideum using phase field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunsong; Camley, Brian; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    Cell migration plays an important role in a lot of biological processes, like chemotaxis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. The fact it is highly integrated has brought great challenges, physical and mathematical, to the modeling efforts. Recently, a phase field model, which couples cellular reaction dynamics, intra-cellular hydrodynamics, cell-substrate adhesions and deformable cell boundaries, has successfully captured some characteristics of moving cells, including morphological change, cytosolic actin flow pattern, periodic migration and so on. Here we apply the phase field model to sketch the migration of Dictyostelium discoideum, which shows a completely different moving pattern from the cells (like fish keratocyte) in our previous attempts. And we will also compare our results with some experimental observations, not only on the cell morphology, but also on the traction force patterns on the substrate.

  18. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anupama; Shaulsky, Gad

    2010-02-01

    The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC), a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway. PMID:20195510

  19. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Dictyostelium discoideum Aggregation Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Debord, J. Daniel; Smith, Donald F.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Heeren, Ronald M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Gomer, Richard H.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A.

    2014-06-09

    High resolution imaging mass spectrometry could become a valuable tool for cell and developmental biology, but both, high spatial and mass spectral resolution are needed to enable this. In this report, we employed Bi3 bombardment time-of-flight (Bi3 ToF-SIMS) and C60 bombardment Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60 FTICR-SIMS) to image Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation streams. Nearly 300 lipid species were identified from the aggregation streams. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging (FTICR-SIMS) enabled the generation of multiple molecular ion maps at the nominal mass level and provided good coverage for fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and sterol lipids. The comparison of Bi3 ToF-SIMS and C60 FTICR-SIMS suggested that while the first provides fast, high spatial resolution molecular ion images, the chemical complexity of biological samples warrants the use of high resolution analyzers for accurate ion identification.

  20. Lack of 5-methylcytosine in Dictyostelium discoideum DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S S; Ratner, D I

    1991-01-01

    We find no evidence for the presence of 5-methylcytosine in the DNA of Dictyostelium discoideum. Methylation was absent from CCGG sites in repetitive DNA and in DNA from the actin multigene family. Nor was 5-methylcytosine detected in total DNA when base composition was determined by means of h.p.l.c. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1713034

  1. Pattern formation in Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates in confined microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallou, Adrien; Hersen, Pascal; di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Kabla, Alexandre

    Dictyostelium Discoideum (Dd) is often viewed as a model system to study the complex collective cell behaviours which shape an embryo. Under starvation, Dd cells form multicellular aggregates which soon elongate, starting to display an anterior-posterior axis by differentiating into two distinct cell populations; prestalk (front) and prespore (rear) cells zones. Different models, either based on positional information or on differentiation followed up by cell sorting, have been proposed to explain the origin and the regulation of this spatial pattern.To decipher between the proposed hypotheses, we have developed am experimental platform where aggregates, made of genetically engineered Dd cells to express fluorescent reporters of cell differentiation in either prestalk or prespore cells, are allowed to develop in 20 to 400 μm wide hydrogel channels. Such a setup allows us to both mimic Dd confined natural soil environment and to follow the patterning dynamics using time-lapse microscopy. Tracking cell lineage commitments and positions in space and time, we demonstrate that Dd cells differentiate first into prestalk and prespore cells prior to sorting into an organized spatial pattern on the basis of collective motions based on differential motility and adhesion mechanisms. A. Hallou would like to thank the University of Cambridge for the Award of an ``Oliver Gatty Studentship in Biophysical and Colloid Science''.

  2. Functional characterization of intracellular Dictyostelium discoideum P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Melanie J; Durai, Latha; Ennion, Steven J

    2009-12-11

    Indicative of cell surface P2X ion channel activation, extracellular ATP evokes a rapid and transient calcium influx in the model eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum. Five P2X-like proteins (dP2XA-E) are present in this organism. However, their roles in purinergic signaling are unclear, because dP2XA proved to have an intracellular localization on the contractile vacuole where it is thought to be required for osmoregulation. To determine functional properties of the remaining four dP2X-like proteins and to assess their cellular roles, we recorded membrane currents from expressed cloned receptors and generated a quintuple knock-out Dictyostelium strain devoid of dP2X receptors. ATP evoked inward currents at dP2XB and dP2XE receptors but not at dP2XC or dP2XD. beta,gamma-Imido-ATP was more potent than ATP at dP2XB but a weak partial agonist at dP2XE. Currents in dP2XB and dP2XE were strongly inhibited by Na(+) but insensitive to copper and the P2 receptor antagonists pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin. Unusual for P2X channels, dP2XA and dP2XB were also Cl(-)-permeable. The extracellular purinergic response to ATP persisted in p2xA/B/C/D/E quintuple knock-out Dictyostelium demonstrating that dP2X channels are not responsible. dP2XB, -C, -D, and -E were found to be intracellularly localized to the contractile vacuole with the ligand binding domain facing the lumen. However, quintuple p2xA/B/C/D/E null cells were still capable of regulating cell volume in water demonstrating that, contrary to previous findings, dP2X receptors are not required for osmoregulation. Responses to the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium, however, were reduced in p2xA/B/C/D/E null cells suggesting that dP2X receptors play a role in intracellular calcium signaling. PMID:19833731

  3. Scanning X-Ray Nanodiffraction on Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Marius; Bernhardt, Marten; Blum, Christoph; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Salditt, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We have performed scanning x-ray nanobeam diffraction experiments on single cells of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells have been investigated in 1), freeze-dried, 2), frozen-hydrated (vitrified), and 3), initially alive states. The spatially resolved small-angle x-ray scattering signal shows characteristic streaklike patterns in reciprocal space, which we attribute to fiber bundles of the actomyosin network. From the intensity distributions, an anisotropy parameter can be derived that indicates pronounced local variations within the cell. In addition to nanobeam small-angle x-ray scattering, we have evaluated the x-ray differential phase contrast in view of the projected electron density. Different experimental aspects of the x-ray experiment, sample preparation, and data analysis are discussed. Finally, the x-ray results are correlated with optical microscopy (differential phase contrast and confocal microscopy of mutant strains with fluorescently labeled actin and myosin II), which have been carried out in live and fixed states, including optical microscopy under cryogenic conditions. PMID:25468345

  4. The cell adhesion molecule DdCAD-1 regulates morphogenesis through differential spatiotemporal expression in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Zhu, Yingyue; Manoharan, Kumararaaj; Yang, Chunxia; Siu, Chi-Hung

    2011-06-01

    During development of Dictyostelium, multiple cell types are formed and undergo a coordinated series of morphogenetic movements guided by their adhesive properties and other cellular factors. DdCAD-1 is a unique homophilic cell adhesion molecule encoded by the cadA gene. It is synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported to the plasma membrane by contractile vacuoles. In chimeras developed on soil plates, DdCAD-1-expressing cells showed greater propensity to develop into spores than did cadA-null cells. When development was performed on non-nutrient agar, wild-type cells sorted from the cadA-null cells and moved to the anterior zone. They differentiated mostly into stalk cells and eventually died, whereas the cadA-null cells survived as spores. To assess the role of DdCAD-1 in this novel behavior of wild-type and mutant cells, cadA-null cells were rescued by the ectopic expression of DdCAD-1-GFP. Morphological studies have revealed major spatiotemporal changes in the subcellular distribution of DdCAD-1 during development. Whereas DdCAD-1 became internalized in most cells in the post-aggregation stages, it was prominent in the contact regions of anterior cells. Cell sorting was also restored in cadA(-) slugs by exogenous recombinant DdCAD-1. Remarkably, DdCAD-1 remained on the surface of anterior cells, whereas it was internalized in the posterior cells. Additionally, DdCAD-1-expressing cells migrated slower than cadA(-) cells and sorted to the anterior region of chimeric slugs. These results show that DdCAD-1 influences the sorting behavior of cells in slugs by its differential distribution on the prestalk and prespore cells. PMID:21561987

  5. Glycoproteins That Exhibit Extensive Size Polymorphisms in Dictyostelium Discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E.; Gooley, A. A.; Hudson, G. C.; Williams, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Electrophoretic variants which arise from amino acid substitutions, leading to charge differences between proteins are ubiquitous and have been used extensively for genetic analysis. Less well documented are polymorphisms in the size of proteins. Here we report that a group of glycoproteins, which share a common carbohydrate epitope, vary in size in different isolates of the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum. One of these proteins, PsA, a developmentally regulated prespore-specific surface glycoprotein, has previously been shown to exist in three size forms due to allelic variation at the pspA locus on linkage group I. In this report, a second glycoprotein, PsB, which is also prespore specific but found inside prespore cells, is studied. PsB maps to linkage group II and exhibits at least four different sizes in the isolates examined. We propose that the size polymorphisms are the product of allelic variation at the pspB locus, due to differences in the number of repeat units. PMID:2731733

  6. Mitochondrial large-conductance potassium channel from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Michal; Kicinska, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we describe the existence of a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channel in the mitochondria of Dictyostelium discoideum. A single-channel current was recorded in a reconstituted system, using planar lipid bilayers. The large-conductance potassium channel activity of 258±12 pS was recorded in a 50/150 mM KCl gradient solution. The probability of channel opening (the channel activity) was increased by calcium ions and NS1619 (potassium channel opener) and reduced by iberiotoxin (BKCa channel inhibitor). The substances known to modulate BKCa channel activity influenced the bioenergetics of D. discoideum mitochondria. In isolated mitochondria, NS1619 and NS11021 stimulated non-phosphorylating respiration and depolarized membrane potential, indicating the channel activation. These effects were blocked by iberiotoxin and paxilline. Moreover, the activation of the channel resulted in attenuation of superoxide formation, but its inhibition had the opposite effect. Immunological analysis with antibodies raised against mammalian BKCa channel subunits detected a pore-forming α subunit and auxiliary β subunits of the channel in D. discoideum mitochondria. In conclusion, we show for the first time that mitochondria of D. discoideum, a unicellular ameboid protozoon that facultatively forms multicellular structures, contain a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel with electrophysiological, biochemical and molecular properties similar to those of the channels previously described in mammalian and plant mitochondria. PMID:25596489

  7. Analysis of Rheb in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum: cellular localization, spatial expression and overexpression.

    PubMed

    Swer, Pynskhem Bok; Bhadoriya, Pooja; Saran, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum encodes a single Rheb protein showing sequence similarity to human homologues of Rheb. The DdRheb protein shares 52 percent identity and 100 percent similarity with the human Rheb1 protein. Fluorescence of Rheb yellow fluorescent protein fusion was detected in the D. discoideum cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that rheb is expressed at all stages of development and in prestalk cells in the multicellular structures developed. When the expression of rheb as a fusion with lacZ was driven under its own promoter, the beta-galactosidase activity was seen in the prestalk cells. D. discoideum overexpressing Rheb shows an increase in the size of the cell. Treatment of the overexpressing Rheb cells with rapamycin confirms its involvement in the TOR signalling pathway. PMID:24499792

  8. Anchoring of an immunogenic Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein on the surface of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Reymond, C D; Beghdadi-Rais, C; Roggero, M; Duarte, E A; Desponds, C; Bernard, M; Groux, D; Matile, H; Bron, C; Corradin, G

    1995-05-26

    The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, was expressed in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Fusion of the parasite protein to a leader peptide derived from Dictyostelium contact site A was essential for expression. The natural parasite surface antigen, however, was not detected at the slime mold cell surface as expected but retained intracellularly. Removal of the last 23 amino acids resulted in secretion of CSP, suggesting that the C-terminal segment of the CSP, rather than an ectoplasmic domain, was responsible for retention. Cell surface expression was obtained when the CSP C-terminal segment was replaced by the D. discoideum contact site A glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor signal sequence. Mice were immunized with Dictyostelium cells harboring CSP at their surface. The raised antibodies recognized two different regions of the CSP. Anti-sporozoite titers of these sera were equivalent to anti-peptide titers detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thus, cell surface targeting of antigens can be obtained in Dictyostelium, generating sporozoite-like cells having potentials for vaccination, diagnostic tests, or basic studies involving parasite cell surface proteins. PMID:7759554

  9. Protein and phospholipid methylation during chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum and its relationship to calcium movements.

    PubMed Central

    Mato, J M; Marín-Cao, D

    1979-01-01

    Suspensions of cyclic AMP sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cyclic AMP pulse with increased methylation of a protein of molecular weight about 120,000 and increased phospholipid demethylation. Protein methylation reached its peak 15-30 sec after cyclic AMP addition. Phospholipid demethylation reached its maximum within 2 min and basal levels were recovered in 3 min. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine is probably the methyl donor. In vitro addition of 0.25 mM and 25 microM S-adenosyl-L-methionine to sonicated D. discoideum cells inhibited ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake by 70% and 25%, respectively. Based on these lines of evidence we propose that protein and phospholipid methylation are involved in D. discoideum chemotaxis probably by regulation of intracellular Ca2+ movements. PMID:230497

  10. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  11. Classification and expression analyses of homeobox genes from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Himanshu; Saran, Shweta

    2015-06-01

    Homeobox genes are compared between genomes in an attempt to understand the evolution of animal development. The ability of the protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, to shift between uni- and multicellularity makes this group ideal for studying the genetic changes that may have occurred during this transition. We present here the first genome-wide classification and comparative genomic analysis of the 14 homeobox genes present in D. discoideum. Based on the structural alignment of the homeodomains, they can be broadly divided into TALE and non-TALE classes. When individual homeobox genes were compared with members of known class or family, we could further classify them into 3 groups, namely, TALE, OTHER and NOVEL classes, but no HOX family was found. The 5 members of TALE class could be further divided into PBX, PKNOX, IRX and CUP families; 4 homeobox genes classified as NOVEL did not show any similarity to any known homeobox genes; while the remaining 5 were classified as OTHERS as they did show certain degree of similarity to few known homeobox genes. No unique RNA expression pattern during development of D. discoideum emerged for members of an individual group. Putative promoter analysis revealed binding sites for few homeobox transcription factors among many probable factors. PMID:25963254

  12. Migration in the social stage of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae impacts competition

    PubMed Central

    Buttery, Neil; Adu-Oppong, Boahemaa; Powers, Michael; Thompson, Christopher R.L.; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction conditions can change the balance of cooperation and conflict in multicellular groups. After aggregating together, cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum may migrate as a group (known as a slug) to a new location. We consider this migration stage as an arena for social competition and conflict because the cells in the slug may not be from a genetically homogeneous population. In this study, we examined the interplay of two seemingly diametric actions, the solitary action of kin recognition and the collective action of slug migration in D. discoideum, to more fully understand the effects of social competition on fitness over the entire lifecycle. We compare slugs composed of either genetically homogenous or heterogeneous cells that have migrated or remained stationary in the social stage of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. After migration of chimeric slugs, we found that facultative cheating is reduced, where facultative cheating is defined as greater contribution to spore relative to stalk than found for that clone in the clonal state. In addition our results support previous findings that competitive interactions in chimeras diminish slug migration distance. Furthermore, fruiting bodies have shorter stalks after migration, even accounting for cell numbers at that time. Taken together, these results show that migration can alleviate the conflict of interests in heterogeneous slugs. It aligns their interest in finding a more advantageous place for dispersal, where shorter stalks suffice, which leads to a decrease in cheating behavior. PMID:26528414

  13. Functional characterization of a novel aquaporin from Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae implies a unique gating mechanism.

    PubMed

    von Bülow, Julia; Müller-Lucks, Annika; Kai, Lei; Bernhard, Frank; Beitz, Eric

    2012-03-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a widely used model organism for studying basic functions of protozoan and metazoan cells, such as osmoregulation and cell motility. There is evidence from other species that cellular water channels, aquaporins (AQP), are central to both processes. Yet, data on D. discoideum AQPs is almost absent. Despite cloning of two putative D. discoideum AQPs, WacA, and AqpA, water permeability has not been shown. Further, WacA and AqpA are expressed at the late multicellular stage and in spores but not in amoebae. We cloned a novel AQP, AqpB, from amoeboidal D. discoideum cells. Wild-type AqpB was impermeable to water, glycerol, and urea when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Neither stepwise truncation of the N terminus nor selected point mutations activated the water channel. However, mutational truncation by 12 amino acids of an extraordinary long intracellular loop induced water permeability of AqpB, hinting at a novel gating mechanism. This AqpB mutant was inhibited by mercuric chloride, confirming the presence of a cysteine residue in the selectivity filter as predicted by our structure model. We detected AqpB by Western blot analysis in a glycosylated and a non-glycosylated form throughout all developmental stages. When expressed in D. discoideum amoebae, AqpB-GFP fusion constructs localized to vacuolar structures, to the plasma membrane, and to lamellipodia-like membrane protrusions. We conclude that the localization pattern in conjunction with channel gating may be indicative of AqpB functions in osmoregulation as well as cell motility of D. discoideum. PMID:22262860

  14. Expression of the human muscarinic receptor gene m2 in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Voith, G.; Dingermann, T.

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed a functional human muscarinic M2 receptor, under the control of the homologous discoidin I{gamma} promoter, in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The use of a contact site A leader peptide ensured insertion of the newly synthesized receptor protein into the plasma membrane. Due to the characteristics of the discoidin I{gamma} promoter, the M2 receptor is expressed during late growth and early development. The heterologously expressed M2 receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic receptors. Membranes as well as whole cells can be used in ligand binding assays. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Expression of the human muscarinic receptor gene m2 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Dingermann, T

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed a functional human muscarinic M2 receptor, under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter, in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The use of a contact site A leader peptide ensured insertion of the newly synthesized receptor protein into the plasma membrane. Due to the characteristics of the discoidin I gamma promoter, the M2 receptor is expressed during late growth and early development. The heterologously expressed M2 receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic receptors. Membranes as well as whole cells can be used in ligand binding assays. PMID:9636297

  16. Functional expression of rat GLUT 1 glucose transporter in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, N R; Knecht, D A; Lodish, H F

    1996-01-01

    To facilitate expression of the rat GLUT 1 glucose transporter cDNA in Dictyostelium discoideum, we mutated the 5' end of the coding sequence such that the codons for the first ten amino acids conformed to preferred Dictyostelium codon usage. As determined by Western-blot analysis, a population of Dictyostelium transformed with the mutated cDNA expressed nonglycosylated GLUT 1 protein. Cell lines expressing GLUT 1 transport radiolabelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose at a rate 6-10 times that of cell lines transformed with vector alone. The initial rate of inward transport of 2-deoxy-D-glucose was stimulated several-fold by the presence of unlabelled glucose in the Dictyostelium cytoplasm, exemplifying the trans-activation of GLUT 1 transport characteristic of GLUT 1 present in erythrocyte membranes. The K(m) and Ki values for 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-glucose, D-mannose and D-galactose were 3.7 mM, 2.6 mM, 11 mM and 30 mM respectively, similar to the values for GLUT 1 expressed in mammalian cells. L-Glucose and L-galactose, which are not transported by GLUT 1, do not inhibit uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in Dictyostelium expressing GLUT 1. Thus, even though GLUT 1 expressed in Dictyostelium is not N-glycosylated, it transports hexoses normally; this is the first example of functional expression of a mammalian transport protein in this lower eukaryote. PMID:8645185

  17. Deficiency of huntingtin has pleiotropic effects in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A; Lumsden, Amanda L; Thompson, Morgan N; Wasco, Wilma; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F

    2011-04-01

    Huntingtin is a large HEAT repeat protein first identified in humans, where a polyglutamine tract expansion near the amino terminus causes a gain-of-function mechanism that leads to selective neuronal loss in Huntington's disease (HD). Genetic evidence in humans and knock-in mouse models suggests that this gain-of-function involves an increase or deregulation of some aspect of huntingtin's normal function(s), which remains poorly understood. As huntingtin shows evolutionary conservation, a powerful approach to discovering its normal biochemical role(s) is to study the effects caused by its deficiency in a model organism with a short life-cycle that comprises both cellular and multicellular developmental stages. To facilitate studies aimed at detailed knowledge of huntingtin's normal function(s), we generated a null mutant of hd, the HD ortholog in Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium cells lacking endogenous huntingtin were viable but during development did not exhibit the typical polarized morphology of Dictyostelium cells, streamed poorly to form aggregates by accretion rather than chemotaxis, showed disorganized F-actin staining, exhibited extreme sensitivity to hypoosmotic stress, and failed to form EDTA-resistant cell-cell contacts. Surprisingly, chemotactic streaming could be rescued in the presence of the bivalent cations Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) but not pulses of cAMP. Although hd(-) cells completed development, it was delayed and proceeded asynchronously, producing small fruiting bodies with round, defective spores that germinated spontaneously within a glassy sorus. When developed as chimeras with wild-type cells, hd(-) cells failed to populate the pre-spore region of the slug. In Dictyostelium, huntingtin deficiency is compatible with survival of the organism but renders cells sensitive to low osmolarity, which produces pleiotropic cell autonomous defects that affect cAMP signaling and as a consequence development. Thus, Dictyostelium provides a novel haploid

  18. Deficiency of Huntingtin Has Pleiotropic Effects in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Myre, Michael A.; Lumsden, Amanda L.; Thompson, Morgan N.; Wasco, Wilma; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Huntingtin is a large HEAT repeat protein first identified in humans, where a polyglutamine tract expansion near the amino terminus causes a gain-of-function mechanism that leads to selective neuronal loss in Huntington's disease (HD). Genetic evidence in humans and knock-in mouse models suggests that this gain-of-function involves an increase or deregulation of some aspect of huntingtin's normal function(s), which remains poorly understood. As huntingtin shows evolutionary conservation, a powerful approach to discovering its normal biochemical role(s) is to study the effects caused by its deficiency in a model organism with a short life-cycle that comprises both cellular and multicellular developmental stages. To facilitate studies aimed at detailed knowledge of huntingtin's normal function(s), we generated a null mutant of hd, the HD ortholog in Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium cells lacking endogenous huntingtin were viable but during development did not exhibit the typical polarized morphology of Dictyostelium cells, streamed poorly to form aggregates by accretion rather than chemotaxis, showed disorganized F-actin staining, exhibited extreme sensitivity to hypoosmotic stress, and failed to form EDTA-resistant cell–cell contacts. Surprisingly, chemotactic streaming could be rescued in the presence of the bivalent cations Ca2+ or Mg2+ but not pulses of cAMP. Although hd− cells completed development, it was delayed and proceeded asynchronously, producing small fruiting bodies with round, defective spores that germinated spontaneously within a glassy sorus. When developed as chimeras with wild-type cells, hd− cells failed to populate the pre-spore region of the slug. In Dictyostelium, huntingtin deficiency is compatible with survival of the organism but renders cells sensitive to low osmolarity, which produces pleiotropic cell autonomous defects that affect cAMP signaling and as a consequence development. Thus, Dictyostelium provides a novel haploid

  19. Expression of the rat muscarinic receptor gene m3 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Kramm, H; Zündorf, I; Winkler, T; Dingermann, T

    1998-10-01

    We functionally expressed the rat muscarinic m3 receptor (rm3) in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter. Cells transfected with the authentic rm3 receptor gene expressed about 100 functional receptor molecules per cell, corresponding to a Bmax for [3H]-NMS of 36 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein in isolated membranes. Genetic fusion of the Dictyostelium contact site A (csA) leader peptide to the amino terminus of rm3 increased the receptor expression by about 17-fold. Remarkable, in [3H]-NMS ligand binding experiments performed with whole cells no characteristic saturable binding was observed and there was no significant difference in [3H]-NMS binding to whole cells of rm3 and csA/rm3 transformants. The recombinant rm3 receptor showed an about 10-fold higher affinity to the M3-selective antagonist p-F-HHSiD compared to the M2-selective antagonist AQ-RA 741, suggesting that membranes derived from transgenic D. discoideum cells may be useful for the search of new subtype-specific muscarinic receptor ligands. PMID:9812338

  20. Cellulases released during the germination of Dictyostelium discoideum spores.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T H; de Renobales, M; Pon, N

    1979-01-01

    Dormant spores of Dictyostelium discoideum contained cellulase at a specific activity of 130 to 140 U/mg of protein; when heat activated, the spores germinated, progressively releasing the cellulase activity into the extracellular medium. The cellulase release was a selective process and resulted in recovery of the cellulase activity at a specific activity of 2,000 U/mg of protein; beta-glucosidase in the spores remained completely associated with the emerging amoebae. Release of the cellulase required heat activation of the spores and occurred during the swelling stage of germination; inhibition of the emergence stage with cycloheximide had no effect on the release of the cellulase. The cellulase activity released consisted of two enzymes whose molecular weights were 136,000 and 69,000. Studies of their pH optima, heat lability, and of their sensitivity to inhibition revealed no distinctive differences between these two proteins. Analysis on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex columns showed that the higher-molecular-weight protein could be converted into the lower-molecular-weight component in vitro. PMID:33962

  1. Expression of CSA-hm2 fusion in Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the Dictyostelium ras promoter reveals functional muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Dingermann, T

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed the human m2 muscarinic receptor gene in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Expression under the control of the constitutive actin 6 promoter without a D. discoideum leader peptide results in cells which seem to respond to muscarinic agonists initially, but which quickly revert to non responding cells only after a few generations. However, when expressing the hm2 gene as a fusion gene together with the CSA leader peptide under the control of the regulated D. discoideum ras promoter cells are obtained which express functional muscarinic M2 receptors in a stable manner. As expected from the typical regulation of the ras promoter, M2 receptors are expressed only during development. In ligand binding assays these heterologously expressed receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic M2 receptors. PMID:8570674

  2. A novel human receptor involved in bitter tastant detection identified using Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Robery, Steven; Tyson, Richard; Dinh, Christopher; Kuspa, Adam; Noegel, Angelika A.; Bretschneider, Till; Andrews, Paul L. R.; Williams, Robin S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Detection of substances tasting bitter to humans occurs in diverse organisms including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. To establish a molecular mechanism for bitter tastant detection in Dictyostelium, we screened a mutant library for resistance to a commonly used bitter standard, phenylthiourea. This approach identified a G-protein-coupled receptor mutant, grlJ−, which showed a significantly increased tolerance to phenylthiourea in growth, survival and movement. This mutant was not resistant to a structurally dissimilar potent bitter tastant, denatonium benzoate, suggesting it is not a target for at least one other bitter tastant. Analysis of the cell-signalling pathway involved in the detection of phenylthiourea showed dependence upon heterotrimeric G protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, suggesting that this signalling pathway is responsible for the cellular effects of phenylthiourea. This is further supported by a phenylthiourea-dependent block in the transient cAMP-induced production of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) in wild-type but not grlJ− cells. Finally, we have identified an uncharacterized human protein γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor subunit 1 isoform with weak homology to GrlJ that restored grlJ− sensitivity to phenylthiourea in cell movement and PIP3 regulation. Our results thus identify a novel pathway for the detection of the standard bitter tastant phenylthiourea in Dictyostelium and implicate a poorly characterized human protein in phenylthiourea-dependent cell responses. PMID:24006265

  3. A novel human receptor involved in bitter tastant detection identified using Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Robery, Steven; Tyson, Richard; Dinh, Christopher; Kuspa, Adam; Noegel, Angelika A; Bretschneider, Till; Andrews, Paul L R; Williams, Robin S B

    2013-12-01

    Detection of substances tasting bitter to humans occurs in diverse organisms including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. To establish a molecular mechanism for bitter tastant detection in Dictyostelium, we screened a mutant library for resistance to a commonly used bitter standard, phenylthiourea. This approach identified a G-protein-coupled receptor mutant, grlJ(-), which showed a significantly increased tolerance to phenylthiourea in growth, survival and movement. This mutant was not resistant to a structurally dissimilar potent bitter tastant, denatonium benzoate, suggesting it is not a target for at least one other bitter tastant. Analysis of the cell-signalling pathway involved in the detection of phenylthiourea showed dependence upon heterotrimeric G protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, suggesting that this signalling pathway is responsible for the cellular effects of phenylthiourea. This is further supported by a phenylthiourea-dependent block in the transient cAMP-induced production of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) in wild-type but not grlJ(-) cells. Finally, we have identified an uncharacterized human protein γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor subunit 1 isoform with weak homology to GrlJ that restored grlJ(-) sensitivity to phenylthiourea in cell movement and PIP3 regulation. Our results thus identify a novel pathway for the detection of the standard bitter tastant phenylthiourea in Dictyostelium and implicate a poorly characterized human protein in phenylthiourea-dependent cell responses. PMID:24006265

  4. Global transcriptional responses to cisplatin in Dictyostelium discoideum identify potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, Nancy; Alexander, Hannah; Min, Junxia; Kuspa, Adam; Alexander, Stephen; Shaulsky, Gad

    2007-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a useful model for studying mechanisms of cisplatin drug sensitivity. Our previous findings, that mutations in sphingolipid metabolism genes confer cisplatin resistance in D. discoideum and in human cells, raised interest in the resistance mechanisms and their implications for cisplatin chemotherapy. Here we used expression microarrays to monitor physiological changes and to identify pathways that are affected by cisplatin treatment of D. discoideum. We found >400 genes whose regulation was altered by cisplatin treatment of wild-type cells, including groups of genes that participate in cell proliferation and in nucleotide and protein metabolism, showing that the cisplatin response is orderly and multifaceted. Transcriptional profiling of two isogenic cisplatin-resistant mutants, impaired in different sphingolipid metabolism steps, showed that the effect of cisplatin treatment was greater than the effect of the mutations, indicating that cisplatin resistance in the mutants is due to specific abilities to overcome the drug effects rather than to general drug insensitivity. Nevertheless, the mutants exhibited significantly different responses to cisplatin compared with the parent, and >200 genes accounted for that difference. Mutations in five cisplatin response genes (sgkB, csbA, acbA, smlA, and atg8) resulted in altered drug sensitivity, implicating novel pathways in cisplatin response. Our data illustrate how modeling complex cellular responses to drugs in genetically stable and tractable systems can uncover new targets with the potential for improving chemotherapy. PMID:17878305

  5. NaCS-PDMDAAC immobilized cultivation of recombinant Dictyostelium discoideum for soluble human Fas ligand production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Zeng, Xianhai; Danquah, Michael K; Lu, Yinghua

    2015-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a promising eukaryotic host for the expression of heterologous proteins requiring post-translational modifications. However, the dilute nature of D. discoideum cell culture limits applications for high value proteins production. D. discoideum cells, entrapped in sodium cellulose sulfate/poly-dimethyl-diallyl-ammonium chloride (NaCS-PDMDAAC) capsules were used for biosynthesis of the heterologous protein, soluble human Fas ligand (hFasL). Semi-continuous cultivations with capsules recycling were carried out in shake flasks. Also, a scaled-up cultivation of immobilized D. discoideum for hFasL production in a customized vitreous airlift bioreactor was conducted. The results show that NaCS-PDMDAAC capsules have desirable biophysical properties including biocompatibility with the D. discoideum cells and good mechanical stability throughout the duration of cultivation. A maximum cell density of 2.02 × 10(7) cells mL(-1) (equivalent to a maximum cell density of 2.22 × 10(8) cells mL(-1) in capsules) and a hFasL concentration of 130.40 μg L(-1) (equivalent to a hFasL concentration of 1434.40 μg L(-1) in capsules) were obtained in shake flask cultivation with capsules recycling. Also, a maximum cell density of 1.72 × 10(7) cells mL(-1) (equivalent to a maximum cell density of 1.89 × 10(8) cells mL(-1) in capsules) and a hFasL concentration of 106.10 μg L(-1) (equivalent to a hFasL concentration of 1167.10 μg L(-1) in capsules) were obtained after ∼170 h cultivation in the airlift bioreactor (with a working volume of 200 mL in a 315 mL bioreactor). As the article presents a premier work in the application of NaCS-PDMDAAC immobilized D. discoideum cells for the production of hFasL, more work is required to further optimize the system to generate higher cell densities and hFasL titers for large-scale applications. PMID:25504805

  6. The orientation of nucleus, nucleus-associated body and protruding nucleolus in aggregating Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sameshima, M

    1985-02-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum growing or developing on cellulose dialysis membranes were fixed with acrolein vapour for electron microscopy. In interphase amoebae, nucleoli began to protrude from the nuclei. The percentage of cells with protruding nucleoli increased during aggregation by a value approximately twice as high in aggregation streams as in centers. Cells in pseudoplasmodia showed only a low percentage and protrusions disappeared at early culmination stage. The protrusions did not reappear when cells from dissociated pseudoplasmodia migrated toward cAMP. Thus the formation of the protrusions did not depend solely on chemotaxis; rather, it was specific to the aggregation stage. In aggregation streams, the nucleus was anterior in the cell, with the protrusion at its anterior periphery. In contrast, the nucleus associated body (NAB) was evident at the cell's mid-point. This orientation of nucleus and NAB in the aggregating slime mould amoeba is contrary to that seen in human neutrophils or cultured mouse 3T3 cells. PMID:2981691

  7. Self-organized, near-critical behavior during aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Palo, Giovanna; Yi, Darvin; Gregor, Thomas; Endres, Robert

    During starvation, the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates artfully via pattern formation into a multicellular slug and finally spores. The aggregation process is mediated by the secretion and sensing of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, leading to the synchronized movement of cells. The whole process is a remarkable example of collective behavior, spontaneously emerging from single-cell chemotaxis. Despite this phenomenon being broadly studied, a precise characterization of the transition from single cells to multicellularity has been elusive. Here, using fluorescence imaging data of thousands of cells, we investigate the role of cell shape in aggregation, demonstrating remarkable transitions in cell behavior. To better understand their functional role, we analyze cell-cell correlations and provide evidence for self-organization at the onset of aggregation (as opposed to leader cells), with features of criticality in this finite system. To capture the mechanism of self-organization, we extend a detailed single-cell model of D.discoideum chemotaxis by adding cell-cell communication. We then use these results to extract a minimal set of rules leading to aggregation in the population model. If universal, similar rules may explain other types of collective cell behavior.

  8. Effects of a 50 Hz magnetic field on Dictyostelium discoideum (Protista).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Trielli, Francesca; Bianco, Bruno; Giordano, Stefano; Moggia, Elsa; Corrado, Maria Umberta Delmonte

    2006-10-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that a few biological systems are affected by weak, extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), lower than 10 mT. However, to date there is scanty evidence of this effect on Protists in the literature. Due to their peculiarity as single-cell eukaryotic organisms, Protists respond directly to environmental stimuli, thus appearing as very suitable experimental systems. Recently, we showed the presence of propionylcholinesterase (PrChE) activity in single-cell amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum. This enzyme activity was assumed to be involved in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions, as its inhibition affects cell aggregation and differentiation. In this work, we have exposed single-cell amoebae of D. discoideum to an ELF-EMF of about 200 microT, 50 Hz, for 3 h or 24 h at 21 degrees C. A delay in the early phase of the differentiation was observed in 3 h exposed cells, and a significant decrease in the fission rate appeared in 24 h exposed cells. The PrChE activity was significantly lower in 3 h exposed cells than in the controls, whereas 24 h exposed cells exhibited an increase in this enzyme activity. However, such effects appeared to be transient, as the fission rate and PrChE activity values returned to the respective control values after a 24 h stay under standard conditions. PMID:16715524

  9. The Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum Is Highly Resistant to Polyglutamine Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Santarriaga, Stephanie; Petersen, Amber; Ndukwe, Kelechi; Brandt, Anthony; Gerges, Nashaat; Bruns Scaglione, Jamie; Scaglione, Kenneth Matthew

    2015-10-16

    The expression, misfolding, and aggregation of long repetitive amino acid tracts are a major contributing factor in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including C9ORF72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia, fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome, myotonic dystrophy type 1, spinocerebellar ataxia type 8, and the nine polyglutamine diseases. Protein aggregation is a hallmark of each of these diseases. In model organisms, including yeast, worms, flies, mice, rats, and human cells, expression of proteins with the long repetitive amino acid tracts associated with these diseases recapitulates the protein aggregation that occurs in human disease. Here we show that the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum has evolved to normally encode long polyglutamine tracts and express these proteins in a soluble form. We also show that Dictyostelium has the capacity to suppress aggregation of a polyglutamine-expanded Huntingtin construct that aggregates in other model organisms tested. Together, these data identify Dictyostelium as a novel model organism with the capacity to suppress aggregation of proteins with long polyglutamine tracts. PMID:26330554

  10. The possible role of ammonia in phototaxis of migrating slugs of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, J. T.; Chiang, A.; Lee, J.; Suthers, H. B.

    1988-01-01

    Previously we showed that the rising cell masses of cellular slime molds orient away from high concentrations of ammonia gas, presumably by speeding up the cells on one side. Here we show that in the same way NH3 could also be involved in the highly sensitive phototaxis found in the migrating slugs of Dictyostelium discoideum. We have evidence that light increases their speed of migration and their production of NH3. Since unilateral light is concentrated on the distal side of a cell mass by the “lens effect,” this leads to the obvious hypothesis that the light stimulates the local production of NH3, which, in turn, stimulates the cells in the illuminated region to move faster. PMID:16593935

  11. Tetrahydropteridines possess antioxidant roles to guard against glucose-induced oxidative stress in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Ok; Kim, Hye-Lim; Lee, Soo-Woong; Park, Young Shik

    2013-01-01

    Glucose effects on the vegetative growth of Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 were studied by examining oxidative stress and tetrahydropteridine synthesis in cells cultured with different concentrations (0.5X, 7.7 g L-1; 1X, 15.4 g L-1; 2X, 30.8 g L-1) of glucose. The growth rate was optimal in 1X cells (cells grown in 1X glucose) but was impaired drastically in 2X cells, below the level of 0.5X cells. There were glucose-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial dysfunction in parallel with the mRNA copy numbers of the enzymes catalyzing tetrahydropteridine synthesis and regeneration. On the other hand, both the specific activities of the enzymes and tetrahydropteridine levels in 2X cells were lower than those in 1X cells, but were higher than those in 0.5X cells. Given the antioxidant function of tetrahydropteridines and both the beneficial and harmful effects of ROS, the results suggest glucose-induced oxidative stress in Dictyostelium, a process that might originate from aerobic glycolysis, as well as a protective role of tetrahydropteridines against this stress. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(2): 86-91] PMID:23433110

  12. Quantitative analysis of periodic chemotaxis in aggregation patterns of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbock, Oliver; Hashimoto, Hajime; Müller, Stefan C.

    1991-04-01

    Wave patterns in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum are investigated quantitatively by determining the chemotactic motion of the amoebae cells towards their aggregation center. The velocity of moving cells is analyzed by a pixel-based correlation program applied to digital microscopic video images of approximately 0.4 × 0.3 mm 2 area. The average velocity component in the direction of the center is clearly periodic with periods of 6-9 min, a maximum velocity of 20 to 30 μm/min and a minimum velocity close to zero. Details concerning the asymmetric shape of the velocity function are observed. The new technique allows the detection of oscillating behaviour in chemotactic motion, even after the macroscopic patterns observed by dark-field techniques have disappeared.

  13. Myb-binding site regulates the expression of glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Tabata, K; Matsuda, Y; Viller, E; Masamune, Y; Katayama, T; Yasukawa, H

    2001-10-01

    A homolog of the glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum has been analyzed. The gene disruption mutant was arrested at the mound stage, demonstrating that the gene is important for development. The gene was expressed in vegetatively growing cells, silenced on starvation and expressed again in prestalk cells during the multicellular stages. The upstream region of the gene (1376 bp relative to ATG) was cloned and sequenced to study the transcription control mechanisms. Analysis of deletion mutants and a site-directed mutant indicated that the Myb-binding sequence (5'-AACTG-3') localized in the upstream region is important for gene expression. The results of gel-shift assays showed the presence of an Myb-related protein binding to the sequence at the growing phase and another protein binding to the sequence at developmental stages. PMID:11576175

  14. Analysis of the disruption mutant of the oscillin homolog gene of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Y; Masamune, Y; Kodaira, K; Yasukawa, H

    1999-09-01

    A homolog of oscillin, the Ca2+ oscillation-inducing factor of the hamster, was identified from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and designated Dd-oscillin. In the developmental stages of D. discoideum, the gene is expressed at the prestalk region which contains a higher concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ than the prespore region. The Dd-oscillin null strain aggregated but did not develop further when the cells were plated on non-nutrient agar at a density of 1.5x10(6) cells/cm2, showing that the Dd-oscillin gene is important for development. Since the null cells carrying the hamster oscillin gene formed fruiting body, the hamster oscillin was the homolog of Dd-oscillin as far as function is concerned. In addition, the null cells formed fruiting body in the presence of 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (BHQ: a specific inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum). These results suggest that Dd-oscillin will increase cytosolic Ca2+ in the cells and promote further development. PMID:10513612

  15. Flow-driven two-dimensional waves in colonies of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, A.; Zykov, V.; Steinbock, O.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2015-09-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) is a valuable model organism to study self-organization and pattern formation in biology. Recently we reported flow-driven waves in experiments with uniformly distributed populations of signaling amobae, D.d., and carried out a theoretical study in a one-dimensional model. In this work, we perform two-dimensional numerical simulations using the well-known Martiel-Golbeter model to study the effect of the flow profile and intrinsic noise on the flow-driven waves. We show that, in the presence of flow, a persistence noise due to spontaneous cell firing events can lead to sustained structures that fill the whole length of the system. We also show that external periodic stimuli of cyclic adenosine monophosphate can induce 1:1 and 2:1 entrainments which are in agreement with our experimental observations.

  16. Nucleocytoplasmic protein translocation during mitosis in the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Budniak, Aldona

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis is a fundamental and essential life process. It underlies the duplication and survival of all cells and, as a result, all eukaryotic organisms. Since uncontrolled mitosis is a dreaded component of many cancers, a full understanding of the process is critical. Evolution has led to the existence of three types of mitosis: closed, open, and semi-open. The significance of these different mitotic species, how they can lead to a full understanding of the critical events that underlie the asexual duplication of all cells, and how they may generate new insights into controlling unregulated cell division remains to be determined. The eukaryotic microbe Dictyostelium discoideum has proved to be a valuable biomedical model organism. While it appears to utilize closed mitosis, a review of the literature suggests that it possesses a form of mitosis that lies in the middle between truly open and fully closed mitosis-it utilizes a form of semi-open mitosis. Here, the nucleocytoplasmic translocation patterns of the proteins that have been studied during mitosis in the social amoebozoan D. discoideum are detailed followed by a discussion of how some of them provide support for the hypothesis of semi-open mitosis. PMID:24618050

  17. Regulation by guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate of phospholipid methylation during chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, S; García Gil, M; Mato, J M

    1980-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, the chemoattractant cyclic AMP activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, giving a brief up to 10-fold increase in the intracellular cyclic GMP content. The addition of physiological cyclic GMP concentrations to a homogenate of D. discoideum cells markedly increased the incorporation of the 3H-labeled methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine into mono- and dimethylated phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Lipid methylation was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, which inhibits transmethylation. When whole cells prelabeled with L-[methyl-3H]methionine were exposed to cyclic AMP, a rapid transient increase in the amount of [methyl-3H]phosphatidylcholine was observed. The time course of [methyl-3H]phosphatidylcholine formation agrees with its being mediated by the intracellular increase in cyclic GMP originating during chemotactic stimulation. Addition of the 8-Br derivative of cyclic GMP to whole cells also increased the levels of labeled phosphatidylcholine. It is therefore likely that cyclic GMP contributes to chemotaxis by regulating membrane function via phospholipid methylation. PMID:6261233

  18. Dictyostelium discoideum, a lower eukaryote model for the study of DNA repair: Implications for the role of DNA-damaging chemicals in the evolution of repair proficient cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deering, R. A.

    1994-10-01

    The evolution of the ability of living cells to cope with stress is crucial for the maintenance of their genetic integrity. Yet low levels of mutation must remain to allow adaptation to environmental changes. The cellular slime mold D. discoideum is a good system for studying molecular aspects of the repair of lethal and mutagenic damage to DNA by radiation and chemicals. The wild-type strains of this soil microorganism are extremely resistant to DNA damaging agents. In nature the amoeboid cells in their replicative stage feed on soil bacteria and are exposed to numerous DNA-damaging chemicals produced by various soil microorganisms. It is probable that the evolution of repair systems in this organism and perhaps in others is a consequence of the necessity to cope with chemical damage which also confers resistance to radiation.

  19. Dictyostelium discoideum, a lower eukaryote model for the study of DNA repair: implications for the role of DNA-damaging chemicals in the evolution of repair proficient cells.

    PubMed

    Deering, R A

    1994-10-01

    The evolution of the ability of living cells to cope with stress is crucial for the maintenance of their genetic integrity. Yet low levels of mutation must remain to allow adaptation to environmental changes. The cellular slime mold D. discoideum is a good system for studying molecular aspects of the repair of lethal and mutagenic damage to DNA by radiation and chemicals. The wild-type strains of this soil microorganism are extremely resistant to DNA damaging agents. In nature the amoeboid cells in their replicative stage feed on soil bacteria and are exposed to numerous DNA-damaging chemicals produced by various soil microorganisms. It is probable that the evolution of repair systems in this organism and perhaps in others is a consequence of the necessity to cope with chemical damage which also confers resistance to radiation. PMID:11539974

  20. Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 as an Assay System for Screening of Pharmacological Chaperones for Phenylketonuria Mutations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Min; Yang, Yun Gyeong; Kim, Hye-Lim; Park, Young Shik

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed an assay system for missense mutations in human phenylalanine hydroxylases (hPAHs). To demonstrate the reliability of the system, eight mutant proteins (F39L, K42I, L48S, I65T, R252Q, L255V, S349L, and R408W) were expressed in a mutant strain (pah(-)) of Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 disrupted in the indigenous gene encoding PAH. The transformed pah- cells grown in FM minimal medium were measured for growth rate and PAH activity to reveal a positive correlation between them. The protein level of hPAH was also determined by western blotting to show the impact of each mutation on protein stability and catalytic activity. The result was highly compatible with the previous ones obtained from other expression systems, suggesting that Dictyostelium is a dependable alternative to other expression systems. Furthermore, we found that both the protein level and activity of S349L and R408W, which were impaired severely in protein stability, were rescued in HL5 nutrient medium. Although the responsible component(s) remains unidentified, this unexpected finding showed an important advantage of our expression system for studying unstable proteins. As an economic and stable cell-based expression system, our development will contribute to mass-screening of pharmacological chaperones for missense PAH mutations as well as to the in-depth characterization of individual mutations. PMID:25563416

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum--a promising expression system for the production of eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Alok; Saini, Kulvinder Singh

    2008-12-01

    In general, four different expression systems, namely, bacterial, yeast, baculovirus, and mammalian, are widely used for the overproduction of biochemical enzymes and therapeutic proteins. Clearly, bacterial expression systems offer ease of maneuverability with respect to large-scale production of recombinant proteins, while, a baculovirus expression system ensures proper protein modifications, processing, and refolding of complex proteins. Despite these advantages, mammalian cells remain the preferred host for many eukaryotic proteins of pharmaceutical importance, particularly, those requiring post-translational modifications. Recently, the single-celled slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), has emerged as a promising eukaryotic host for the expression of a variety of heterologous recombinant eukaryotic proteins. This organism possesses the complex cellular machinery required for orchestrating post-translational modifications similar to the one observed in higher eukaryotes. This review summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of Dictyostelium as an alternate system compared to other well-established expression systems. The key lessons learned from the expression of human recombinant proteins in this system are reviewed. Also, the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges associated with industrial-scale production of proteins in Dd expression system are discussed. PMID:18714070

  2. The Dictyostelium discoideum RACK1 orthologue has roles in growth and development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) is a conserved protein belonging to the WD40 repeat family of proteins. It folds into a beta propeller with seven blades which allow interactions with many proteins. Thus it can serve as a scaffolding protein and have roles in several cellular processes. Results We identified the product of the Dictyostelium discoideum gpbB gene as the Dictyostelium RACK1 homolog. The protein is mainly cytosolic but can also associate with cellular membranes. DdRACK1 binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs) in protein-lipid overlay and liposome-binding assays. The basis of this activity resides in a basic region located in the extended loop between blades 6 and 7 as revealed by mutational analysis. Similar to RACK1 proteins from other organisms DdRACK1 interacts with G protein subunits alpha, beta and gamma as shown by yeast two-hybrid, pulldown, and immunoprecipitation assays. Unlike the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans RACK1 proteins it does not appear to take over Gβ function in D. discoideum as developmental and other defects were not rescued in Gβ null mutants overexpressing GFP-DdRACK1. Overexpression of GFP-tagged DdRACK1 and a mutant version (DdRACK1mut) which carried a charge-reversal mutation in the basic region in wild type cells led to changes during growth and development. Conclusion DdRACK1 interacts with heterotrimeric G proteins and can through these interactions impact on processes specifically regulated by these proteins. PMID:24930026

  3. A RabGAP Regulates Life-Cycle Duration via Trimeric G-protein Cascades in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Miyanaga, Yukihiro; Urushihara, Hideko; Ueda, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Background The life-cycle of cellular slime molds comprises chronobiologically regulated processes. During the growth phase, the amoeboid cells proliferate at a definite rate. Upon starvation, they synthesize cAMP as both first and second messengers in signalling pathways and form aggregates, migrating slugs, and fruiting bodies, consisting of spores and stalk cells, within 24 h. In Dictyostelium discoideum, because most growth-specific events cease during development, proliferative and heterochronic mutations are not considered to be interrelated and no genetic factor governing the entire life-cycle duration has ever been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings Using yeast 2-hybrid library screening, we isolated a Dictyostelium discoideum RabGAP, Dd Rbg-3, as a candidate molecule by which the Dictyostelium Gα2 subunit directs its effects. Rab GTPase-activating protein, RabGAP, acts as a negative regulator of Rab small GTPases, which orchestrate the intracellular membrane trafficking involved in cell proliferation. Deletion mutants of Dd rbg-3 exhibited an increased growth rate and a shortened developmental period, while an overexpression mutant demonstrated the opposite effects. We also show that Dd Rbg-3 interacts with 2 Gα subunits in an activity-dependent manner in vitro. Furthermore, both human and Caenorhabditis elegans rbg-3 homologs complemented the Dd rbg-3–deletion phenotype in D. discoideum, indicating that similar pathways may be generally conserved in multicellular organisms. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Dd Rbg-3 acts as a key element regulating the duration of D. discoideum life-span potentially via trimeric G-protein cascades. PMID:24349132

  4. Investigating the Function of Coronin A in the Early Starvation Response of Dictyostelium discoideum by Aggregation Assays.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Stefan K; Brogna, Francesco; Vinet, Adrien; Pieters, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba are found in soil, feeding on bacteria. When food sources become scarce, they secrete factors to initiate a multicellular development program, during which single cells chemotax towards aggregation centers(1-4). This process is dependent on the release of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)(5). cAMP is produced in waves through the concerted action of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases, and binds to G protein-coupled cAMP receptors(6,7). A widely used assay to analyze the mechanisms involved in the developmental cycle of the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum is based on the observation of cell aggregation in submerged conditions(8,9). This protocol describes the analysis of the role of coronin A in the developmental cycle by starvation in tissue-culture plates submerged in balanced salt solution (BSS)(10). Coronin A is a member of the widely conserved protein family of coronins that have been implicated in a wide variety of activities(11,12). Dictyostelium cells lacking coronin A are unable to form multicellular aggregates, and this defect can be rescued by supplying pulses of cAMP, suggesting that coronin A acts upstream of the cAMP cascade(10). The techniques described in these studies provide robust tools to investigate functions of proteins during the initial stages of the developmental cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum upstream of the cAMP cascade. Therefore, utilizing this aggregation assay may allow the further study of coronin A function and advance our understanding of coronin biology. PMID:27403805

  5. Effects of time-variant extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on cholinesterase activity in Dictyostelium discoideum (Protista).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Trielli, Francesca; Bianco, Bruno; Giordano, Stefano; Moggia, Elsa; Corrado, Maria U Delmonte

    2005-12-15

    Recently, we detected propionylcholinesterase (PrChE) activity in single-cell amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum using cytochemical, electrophoretic, and spectrophotometric methods. The involvement of this enzyme activity in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions was suggested. In this work, we found that exposure of single-cell amoebae to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of 300 microT, 50 Hz, from 1 h up to 48 h at 21 +/- 1 degrees C affected PrChE activity. PMID:16425446

  6. The centrosomal component CEP161 of Dictyostelium discoideum interacts with the Hippo signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Salil K.; Blau-Wasser, Rosemarie; Rohlfs, Meino; Gallinger, Christoph; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A

    2015-01-01

    CEP161 is a novel component of the Dictyostelium discoideum centrosome which was identified as binding partner of the pericentriolar component CP250. Here we show that the amino acids 1-763 of the 1381 amino acids CEP161 are sufficient for CP250 binding, centrosomal targeting and centrosome association. Analysis of AX2 cells over-expressing truncated and full length CEP161 proteins revealed defects in growth and development. By immunoprecipitation experiments we identified the Hippo related kinase SvkA (Hrk-svk) as binding partner for CEP161. Both proteins colocalize at the centrosome. In in vitro kinase assays the N-terminal domain of CEP161 (residues 1-763) inhibited the kinase activity of Hrk-svk. A comparison of D. discoideum Hippo kinase mutants with mutants overexpressing CEP161 polypeptides revealed similar defects. We propose that the centrosomal component CEP161 is a novel player in the Hippo signaling pathway and affects various cellular properties through this interaction. PMID:25607232

  7. Morphology and Dynamics of the Endocytic Pathway in Dictyostelium discoideumV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Eva M.; Almers, Wolfhard; Soldati, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a genetically and biochemically tractable social amoeba belonging to the crown group of eukaryotes. It performs some of the tasks characteristic of a leukocyte such as chemotactic motility, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis that are not performed by other model organisms or are difficult to study. D. discoideum is becoming a popular system to study molecular mechanisms of endocytosis, but the morphological characterization of the organelles along this pathway and the comparison with equivalent and/or different organelles in animal cells and yeasts were lagging. Herein, we used a combination of evanescent wave microscopy and electron microscopy of rapidly frozen samples to visualize primary endocytic vesicles, vesicular-tubular structures of the early and late endo-lysosomal system, such as multivesicular bodies, and the specialized secretory lysosomes. In addition, we present biochemical and morphological evidence for the existence of a micropinocytic pathway, which contributes to the uptake of membrane along side macropinocytosis, which is the major fluid phase uptake process. This complex endosomal compartment underwent continuous cycles of tubulation/vesiculation as well as homo- and heterotypic fusions, in a way reminiscent of mechanisms and structures documented in leukocytes. Finally, egestion of fluid phase from the secretory lysosomes was directly observed. PMID:11950947

  8. Primary structure and regulation of vegetative specific genes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, C K; Manning, S S; Ken, R

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the expression and structure of several genes belonging to two classes of vegetative specific genes of the simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum. In amebae grown on bacteria, deactivation of all vegetative specific genes occurred at the onset of development and very little mRNA exists by 8 to 10 hours. In contrast, when cells were grown in axenic broth, the mRNA levels remained constant until a dramatic drop occurred around 10 to 12 hours. Thus, regulation of both classes of genes during the first several hours of development is dependent upon the prior growth conditions. Analysis of genomic clones has resulted in the identification of two V genes, V1 and V18, as ribosomal protein genes. Several other V genes were not found to be ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that in Dictyostelium non-ribosomal protein genes may be coordinately regulated with the ribosomal protein genes. Finally, using deletion analysis we show that the promoters of two of the V genes are composed of a constitutive positive element(s) located upstream of sequences involved in the regulated expression of these genes and within the first 545 upstream bp for V18 and 850 bp for V14. The regions involved in regulated expression were localized between -7 and -222 for V18 and -70 and -368 for V14. The sequences conferring protein synthesis sensitivity were shown to reside between -502 and -61 of the H4 promoter. Images PMID:2602140

  9. Phosphorylation of proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum during development

    SciTech Connect

    Coffman, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoproteins in D. discoideum were studied with respect to their formation, metabolic stability, cellular and subcellular distribution. Special emphasis was on the role of cAMP on the pattern of phosphorylation. Amoebae were metabolically labeled with /sup 32/P/sub i/; subsequently proteins of the total lysate, nuclei and membranes were resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subjected to autoradiography. Numerous changes in the profile of phosphoproteins were observed during development. Functions were assigned to four membranal phosphoproteins; only one protein, the heavy chain of myosin, was susceptible to phosphorylation in vitro when purified membranes and /sup 32/P-ATP were used. A comparison between the time of protein synthesis and phosphorylation, as examined in vivo using /sup 35/S-methionine and /sup 32/P/sub i/ labeling of amoebae and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, indicated that phosphorylation is concurrent with synthesis. It appears then that there are two classes of membranal phosphoproteins in D. discoideum which differ with respect to the stability of the phosphate moiety. It is evident that the turnover of the phosphate moiety in myosin heavy chain plays a crucial role in the function of myosin; a role for the metabolically inert phosphate of other membranal proteins remains to be established. The G protein which couples occupancy of hormone receptor to stimulation of adenylate cyclase in higher multicellular eukaryotes was detected in D. discoideum. The G protein is present in approximately equal amounts in vegetative and in developing amoebae.

  10. Flow-driven waves and sink-driven oscillations during aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Azam; Zykov, Vladimir; Steinbock, Oliver; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d) is a well-known model system for the study of biological pattern formation. Under starvation, D.d. cells aggregate chemotactically towards cAMP signals emitted periodically from an aggregation center. In the natural environment, D.d cells may experience fluid flows that can profoundly change the underlying wave generation process. We investigate spatial-temporal dynamics of a uniformly distributed population of D.d. cells in a flow-through narrow microfluidic channel with a cell-free inlet area. We show that flow can significantly influence the dynamics of the system and lead to a flow- driven instability that initiate downstream traveling cAMP waves. We also show that cell-free boundary regions have a significant effect on the observed patterns and can lead to a new kind of instability. Since there are no cells in the inlet to produce cAMP, the points in the vicinity of the inlet lose cAMP due to advection or diffusion and gain only a little from the upstream of the channel (inlet). In other words, there is a large negative flux of cAMP in the neighborhood close to the inlet, which can be considered as a sink. This negative flux close to the inlet drives a new kind of instability called sink-driven oscillations. Financial support of the MaxSynBio Consortium is acknowledged.

  11. Use of highly sensitive sublethal stress responses in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum for an assessment of freshwater quality.

    PubMed

    Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Torrielli, Sara; Dondero, Francesco; Fenoglio, Stefano; Negri, Alessandro; Boatti, Lara; Viarengo, Aldo

    2008-06-01

    In this work, the sensitivity of a battery of tests on the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has been assessed within a freshwater toxicity study. The results obtained from the evaluation of survival and replication rate of D. discoideum were compared to those derived with a series of widely used tests for freshwater toxicity assessment, i. e. bioassays using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The effects on sublethal endpoints, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) and endocytotic rate, were analysed in conjunction with high-level endpoints to verify the potential to make a typical bioassay more sensitive. The field ecotoxicological investigation employing D. discoideum is part of a monitoring study assessing environmental quality of the Bormida River (Italy), subjected until recently to a chronic industrial pollution. The survey was carried out at several stations (upstream and downstream of a chemical factory outlet) in two different periods. In 2002, the results of chemical analyses performed on river water indicated no contamination. The ecotoxicological data obtained in this period showed that no evidence of biological effects was observed using V. fischeri and D. magna bioassays. In spite of the previous classical acute toxicity tests, significant differences in cell viability of D. discoideum were found. By analysing the effects measured on LMS and endocytotic rate, more relevant changes were observed for these sublethal stress biomarkers compared to survival. The chronic toxicity data showed significant changes in cell growth both of P. subcapitata and D. discoideum. Nevertheless, more sensitive and rapid responses were obtained when assessing the effects of exposure on D. discoideum. The chemical and ecotoxicological data obtained in 2006 indicated a full recovery of the quality of the river water (neither contamination nor toxicity found). Altogether, the results reported in this study underline that the use of a

  12. A deep coverage Dictyostelium discoideum genomic DNA library replicates stably in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rosengarten, Rafael D; Beltran, Pamela R; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-10-01

    The natural history of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has inspired scientific inquiry for seventy-five years. A genetically tractable haploid eukaryote, D. discoideum appeals as a laboratory model as well. However, certain rote molecular genetic tasks, such as PCR and cloning, are difficult due to the AT-richness and low complexity of its genome. Here we report on the construction of a ~20 fold coverage D. discoideum genomic library in Escherichia coli, cloning 4-10 kilobase partial restriction fragments into a linear vector. End-sequencing indicates that most clones map to the six chromosomes in an unbiased distribution. Over 70% of these clones contain at least one complete open reading frame. We demonstrate that individual clones and library composition are stable over multiple replication cycles. Our library will enable numerous molecular biological applications and the completion of additional species' genome sequences, and suggests a path towards the long-elusive goal of genetic complementation. PMID:26028264

  13. Parasexual Genetic Analysis of the Cellular Slime Mold DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM A3

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Frank G.; Alexander, Ellen T.

    1975-01-01

    Haploid strain A3 of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is valuable for biochemical studies because it is capable of axenic growth. Mutants of A3 temperature-sensitive for growth and resistant to the drugs cycloheximide, acriflavin, or methanol were isolated.—Heterozygous diploid recombinants, formed at low frequency by cell and nuclear fusion, were isolated by selecting temperature-resistant progeny of mixed cultures of two nonallelic temperature-sensitive haploids (Loomis 1969). Each drug-resistant mutation was found to be recessive. Two independently isolated methanol-resistant mutants were in one complementation group.—Diploids of A3 heterozygous for drug resistance formed drug-resistant segregants with a frequency of approximately 10-4. Segregants selected for resistance to a single drug were either haploid or diploid; the fraction which was haploid varied from 0.11 to 0.86, depending on the selected marker. Segregants selected for resistance to two or three drugs were almost all haploid.—Using this parasexual cycle of diploid formation and haploidization, linkage of these temperature-sensitive and drug-resistance mutations to each other and to mutations studied by Katz and Sussman (1972) and by Williams, Kessin and Newell (1974b) was analyzed. The methanol-resistant mutants were found to be partially resistant to acriflavin, and unlinked to the mutant selected for acriflavin resistance, which was methanol-sensitive. Of the expected seven linkage groups in D. discoideum, five, and a possible sixth, have been marked.—Linkage analysis of a mutant abnormal in morphogenesis showed that its phenotype results from two unlinked chromosomal mutations. PMID:1238305

  14. Proteomic profiling of the extracellular matrix (slime sheath) of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J; O'Day, Danton H

    2015-10-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum has historically served as a model system for cell and developmental biology, but recently it has gained increasing attention as a model for the study of human diseases. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of this eukaryotic microbe serves multiple essential functions during development. It not only provides structural integrity to the moving multicellular pseudoplasmodium, or slug, it also provides components that regulate cell motility and differentiation. An LC/MS/MS analysis of slug ECM revealed the presence of a large number of proteins in two wild-type strains, NC4 and WS380B. GO annotation identified a large number of proteins involved in some form of binding (e.g. protein, polysaccharide, cellulose, carbohydrate, ATP, cAMP, ion, lipid, vitamin), as well as proteins that modulate metabolic processes, cell movement, and multicellular development. In addition, this proteomic analysis identified numerous expected (e.g. EcmA, EcmD, discoidin I, discoidin II), as well as unexpected (e.g. ribosomal and nuclear proteins) components. These topics are discussed in terms of the structure and function of the ECM during the development of this model amoebozoan and their relevance to ongoing biomedical research. PMID:26152465

  15. A large-scale screen reveals genes that mediate electrotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Runchi; Zhao, Siwei; Jiang, Xupin; Sun, Yaohui; Zhao, Sanjun; Gao, Jing; Borleis, Jane; Willard, Stacey; Tang, Ming; Cai, Huaqing; Kamimura, Yoichiro; Huang, Yuesheng; Jiang, Jianxin; Huang, Zunxi; Mogilner, Alex; Pan, Tingrui; Devreotes, Peter N; Zhao, Min

    2015-05-26

    Directional cell migration in an electric field, a phenomenon called galvanotaxis or electrotaxis, occurs in many types of cells, and may play an important role in wound healing and development. Small extracellular electric fields can guide the migration of amoeboid cells, and we established a large-scale screening approach to search for mutants with electrotaxis phenotypes from a collection of 563 Dictyostelium discoideum strains with morphological defects. We identified 28 strains that were defective in electrotaxis and 10 strains with a slightly higher directional response. Using plasmid rescue followed by gene disruption, we identified some of the mutated genes, including some previously implicated in chemotaxis. Among these, we studied PiaA, which encodes a critical component of TORC2, a kinase protein complex that transduces changes in motility by activating the kinase PKB (also known as Akt). Furthermore, we found that electrotaxis was decreased in mutants lacking gefA, rasC, rip3, lst8, or pkbR1, genes that encode other components of the TORC2-PKB pathway. Thus, we have developed a high-throughput screening technique that will be a useful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of electrotaxis. PMID:26012633

  16. A large scale screen reveals genes that mediate electrotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum**

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Runchi; Zhao, Siwei; Jiang, Xupin; Sun, Yaohui; Zhao, Sanjun; Gao, Jing; Borleis, Jane; Willard, Stacey; Tang, Ming; Cai, Huaqing; Kamimura, Yoichiro; Huang, Yuesheng; Jiang, Jianxin; Huang, Zunxi; Mogilner, Alex; Pan, Tingrui; Devreotes, Peter N; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Directional cell migration in an electric field, a phenomenon called galvanotaxis or electrotaxis, occurs in many types of cells, and may play an important role in wound healing and development. Small extracellular electric fields can guide the migration of amoeboid cells, and here, we established a large-scale screening approach to search for mutants with electrotaxis phenotypes from a collection of 563 Dictyostelium discoideum strains with morphological defects. We identified 28 strains that were defective in electrotaxis and 10 strains with a slightly higher directional response. Using plasmid rescue followed by gene disruption, we identified some of the mutated genes, including some previously implicated in chemotaxis. Amongst these we studied PiaA, which encodes a critical component of TORC2, a kinase protein complex that transduces changes in motility by activating the kinase PKB (also known as Akt). Furthermore, we found that electrotaxis was decreased in mutants lacking gefA, rasC, rip3, lst8 or pkbR1, genes that encode other components of the TORC2-PKB pathway. Thus, we have developed a high-throughput screening technique that will be a useful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of electrotaxis. PMID:26012633

  17. Dictyostelium discoideum RabS and Rab2 colocalize with the Golgi and contractile vacuole system and regulate osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Maringer, Katherine; Yarbrough, Azure; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Saheb, Entsar; Jawed, Sanaa; Bush, John

    2016-06-01

    Small-molecular-weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and is required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex; however, Rab2 has yet to be characterized in Dictyostelium discoideum. DdRabS is a Dictyostelium Rab that is 80 percent homologous to DdRab1 which is required for protein transport between the ER and Golgi. Expression of GFP-tagged DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins showed localization to Golgi membranes and to the contractile vacuole system (CV) in Dictyostelium. Microscopic imaging indicates that the DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins localize at, and are essential for, the proper structure of Golgi membranes and the CV system. Dominant negative (DN) forms show fractionation of Golgi membranes, supporting their role in the structure and function of it. DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins, and their dominant negative and constitutively active (CA) forms, affect osmoregulation of the cells, possibly by the influx and discharge of fluids, which suggests a role in the function of the CV system. This is the first evidence of GTPases being localized to both Golgi membranes and the CV system in Dictyostelium. PMID:27240981

  18. Developmental accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate affects germination and energetic metabolism in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas Miles; Chubb, Jonathan Robert; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-01-26

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is composed of linear chains of phosphate groups linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. However, this simple, ubiquitous molecule remains poorly understood. The use of nonstandardized analytical methods has contributed to this lack of clarity. By using improved polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis we were able to visualize polyP extracted from Dictyostelium discoideum. We established that polyP is undetectable in cells lacking the polyphosphate kinase (DdPpk1). Generation of this ppk1 null strain revealed that polyP is important for the general fitness of the amoebae with the mutant strain displaying a substantial growth defect. We discovered an unprecedented accumulation of polyP during the developmental program, with polyP increasing more than 100-fold. The failure of ppk1 spores to accumulate polyP results in a germination defect. These phenotypes are underpinned by the ability of polyP to regulate basic energetic metabolism, demonstrated by a 2.5-fold decrease in the level of ATP in vegetative ppk1. Finally, the lack of polyP during the development of ppk1 mutant cells is partially offset by an increase of both ATP and inositol pyrophosphates, evidence for a model in which there is a functional interplay between inositol pyrophosphates, ATP, and polyP. PMID:26755590

  19. Developmental accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate affects germination and energetic metabolism in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Livermore, Thomas Miles; Chubb, Jonathan Robert; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is composed of linear chains of phosphate groups linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. However, this simple, ubiquitous molecule remains poorly understood. The use of nonstandardized analytical methods has contributed to this lack of clarity. By using improved polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis we were able to visualize polyP extracted from Dictyostelium discoideum. We established that polyP is undetectable in cells lacking the polyphosphate kinase (DdPpk1). Generation of this ppk1 null strain revealed that polyP is important for the general fitness of the amoebae with the mutant strain displaying a substantial growth defect. We discovered an unprecedented accumulation of polyP during the developmental program, with polyP increasing more than 100-fold. The failure of ppk1 spores to accumulate polyP results in a germination defect. These phenotypes are underpinned by the ability of polyP to regulate basic energetic metabolism, demonstrated by a 2.5-fold decrease in the level of ATP in vegetative ppk1. Finally, the lack of polyP during the development of ppk1 mutant cells is partially offset by an increase of both ATP and inositol pyrophosphates, evidence for a model in which there is a functional interplay between inositol pyrophosphates, ATP, and polyP. PMID:26755590

  20. Biological Activity of the Alternative Promoters of the Dictyostelium discoideum Adenylyl Cyclase A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Centeno, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation. PMID:26840347

  1. Biological Activity of the Alternative Promoters of the Dictyostelium discoideum Adenylyl Cyclase A Gene.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Centeno, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation. PMID:26840347

  2. Cytochemical study of the nucleolus of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Benichou, J.C.; Quiviger, B.; Ryter, A.

    1983-07-01

    The nucleus of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is characterized by the presence of several large dense masses which are all in tight contact with the nuclear membrane. These dense masses, considered as nucleoli, present a rather homogeneous texture, in which dense chromatin, fibrillar, and granular material are not easily detected. The autoradiographic study of (/sup 3/H)uridine pulse-labeled cells showed that the majority of the silver grains were located inside these masses. The use of EDTA regressive-staining, acetylation and enzymatic digestion indicated that they are mostly composed of RNP and are totally devoid of dense chromatin as the rest of the nucleus is. After treatment with actinomycin D, fibrillar and granular material segregated but no chromatin could be found. All these observations confirmed that the dense masses correspond to nucleoli despite their peculiar ultrastructure. It can also be concluded that this type of nucleoli cannot be considered as a taxonomic character of the slime molds because it does not exist in all slime molds and was observed in some dinoflagellates, and ascomycetes.

  3. Relevant Genes Linked to Virulence Are Required for Salmonella Typhimurium to Survive Intracellularly in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Sebastián; Varas, Macarena; Valenzuela, Camila; Velozo, Paula; Chahin, Nicolás; Aguilera, Paulina; Sabag, Andrea; Labra, Bayron; Álvarez, Sergio A.; Chávez, Francisco P.; Santiviago, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be a useful model for studying relevant aspects of the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, D. discoideum was used as a model to study the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive in amoebae and to evaluate the contribution of selected genes in this process. To do this, we performed infection assays using axenic cultures of D. discoideum co-cultured with wild-type S. Typhimurium and/or defined mutant strains. Our results confirmed that wild-type S. Typhimurium is able to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum. In contrast, mutants ΔaroA and ΔwaaL are defective in intracellular survival in this amoeba. Next, we included in our study a group of mutants in genes directly linked to Salmonella virulence. Of note, mutants ΔinvA, ΔssaD, ΔclpV, and ΔphoPQ also showed an impaired ability to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum. This indicates that S. Typhimurium requires a functional biosynthetic pathway of aromatic compounds, a lipopolysaccharide containing a complete O-antigen, the type III secretion systems (T3SS) encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in SPI-6 and PhoP/PhoQ two-component system to survive in D. discoideum. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the requirement of O-antigen and T6SS in the survival of Salmonella within amoebae. In addition, mutants ΔinvA and ΔssaD were internalized in higher numbers than the wild-type strain during competitive infections, suggesting that S. Typhimurium requires the T3SS encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2 to evade phagocytosis by D. discoideum. Altogether, these results indicate that S. Typhimurium exploits a common set of genes and molecular mechanisms to survive within amoeba and animal host cells. The use of D. discoideum as a model for host–pathogen interactions will allow us to discover the gene repertoire used by Salmonella to survive inside the amoeba and to study the cellular processes that are affected

  4. Relevant Genes Linked to Virulence Are Required for Salmonella Typhimurium to Survive Intracellularly in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Sebastián; Varas, Macarena; Valenzuela, Camila; Velozo, Paula; Chahin, Nicolás; Aguilera, Paulina; Sabag, Andrea; Labra, Bayron; Álvarez, Sergio A; Chávez, Francisco P; Santiviago, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be a useful model for studying relevant aspects of the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, D. discoideum was used as a model to study the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive in amoebae and to evaluate the contribution of selected genes in this process. To do this, we performed infection assays using axenic cultures of D. discoideum co-cultured with wild-type S. Typhimurium and/or defined mutant strains. Our results confirmed that wild-type S. Typhimurium is able to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum. In contrast, mutants ΔaroA and ΔwaaL are defective in intracellular survival in this amoeba. Next, we included in our study a group of mutants in genes directly linked to Salmonella virulence. Of note, mutants ΔinvA, ΔssaD, ΔclpV, and ΔphoPQ also showed an impaired ability to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum. This indicates that S. Typhimurium requires a functional biosynthetic pathway of aromatic compounds, a lipopolysaccharide containing a complete O-antigen, the type III secretion systems (T3SS) encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in SPI-6 and PhoP/PhoQ two-component system to survive in D. discoideum. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the requirement of O-antigen and T6SS in the survival of Salmonella within amoebae. In addition, mutants ΔinvA and ΔssaD were internalized in higher numbers than the wild-type strain during competitive infections, suggesting that S. Typhimurium requires the T3SS encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2 to evade phagocytosis by D. discoideum. Altogether, these results indicate that S. Typhimurium exploits a common set of genes and molecular mechanisms to survive within amoeba and animal host cells. The use of D. discoideum as a model for host-pathogen interactions will allow us to discover the gene repertoire used by Salmonella to survive inside the amoeba and to study the cellular processes that are affected

  5. Multiple cysteine proteinase forms during the life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum revealed by electrophoretic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    North, M J; Scott, K I; Lockwood, B C

    1988-01-01

    Proteinases of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum have been analysed using electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels containing gelatin (gelatin/PAGE). Multiple proteinase forms were apparent in vegetative myxamoebae, but the presence of individual enzyme forms depended on the manner in which the cells were grown. Axenic cells had a characteristic A-pattern of proteinases consisting of six bands, the most active enzymes having apparent Mr values of 51,000 and 45,000 (these have been named ddCP51 and ddCP45, respectively). Some of the proteinases were also present in the medium, the major extracellular form was ddCP42, a 42,000-Mr enzyme. Cells grown in association with bacteria had a distinct B-pattern with three main enzymes that had apparent Mr values of 48,000, 43,000 and 38,000. All of the A- and B-pattern proteinases were most active at acid pH in the presence of dithiothreitol and were inhibited by various agents such as trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane (E64), leupeptin and chymostatin, which inactivate cysteine proteinases. One of the enzymes, ddCP30, was identified as cysteine proteinase B which had been purified and characterized previously [North, M.J. & Whyte, A. (1984) J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 123-134]. During starvation of axenic cells in shaken suspensions some of the vegetative proteinases disappeared, ddCP42 was released from the cells and one new enzyme with an apparent Mr of 48,000 appeared. Addition of cyclic AMP had little effect on these changes. When the axenically grown myxamoebae underwent development on filters, similar changes in band pattern were observed and the aggregation stage was characterized by the presence of three cysteine proteinase bands (apparent Mr values of 48,000, 45,000 and 43,000). Proteinases, especially ddCP42, were released from the cells and could be collected from the buffer-saturated pads which supported the filters. The results demonstrate that cysteine proteinases are present

  6. Identification of a high-affinity Ca sup 2+ pump associated with endocytotic vesicles in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, J.L.; Coukell, M.B. )

    1989-11-01

    In the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, changes in free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} are thought to regulate certain processes during cell aggregation and differentiation. To understand the mechanisms controlling free Ca{sup 2+} levels in this organism, the authors previously isolated and characterized an ATP/Mg{sup 2+}-dependent, high-affinity Ca{sup 2+} pump which appeared to be a component of inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. In this report, they demonstrate that a high-affinity Ca{sup 2+} pump, with properties virtually identical to the isolated pump, can be detected in filipin- or digitonin-permeabilized cells of Dictyostelium. Moreover, Ca{sup 2+}-pumping vesicles, which migrate on Percoll/KCl gradients like the vesicles identified earlier, can be isolated from the permeabilized cells. Results of additional experiments suggest that this intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transporter is associated with a high-capacity non-IP{sub 3}-releasable Ca{sup 2+} store which is generated by endocytosis. A possible role for this store in maintaining Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in Dictyostelium is discussed.

  7. Examination of the endosomal and lysosomal pathways in Dictyostelium discoideum myosin I mutants.

    PubMed

    Temesvari, L A; Bush, J M; Peterson, M D; Novak, K D; Titus, M A; Cardelli, J A

    1996-03-01

    The role of myosin Is in endosomal trafficking and the lysosomal system was investigated in a Dictyostelium discoideum myosin I double mutant myoB-/C-, that has been previously shown to exhibit defects in fluid-phase endocytosis during growth in suspension culture (Novak et al., 1995). Various properties of the endosomal pathway in the myoB-/C- double mutant as well as in the myoB- and myoC- single mutants, including intravesicular pH, and intracellular retention time and exocytosis of a fluid phase marker, were found to be indistinguishable from wild-type parental cells. The intimate connection between the contractile vacuole complex and the endocytic pathway in Dictyostelium, and the localization of a myosin I to the contractile vacuole in Acanthamoeba, led us to also examine the structure and function of this organelle in the three myosin I mutants. No alteration in contractile vacuole structure or function was observed in the myoB-, myoC- or myoB-/C- cell lines. The transport, processing, and localization of a lysosomal enzyme, alpha-mannosidase, were also unaltered in all three mutants. However, the myoB- and myoB-/C- cell lines, but not the myoC- cell line, were found to oversecrete the lysosomal enzymes alpha-mannosidase and acid phosphatase, during growth and starvation. None of the mutants oversecreted proteins following the constitutive secretory pathway. Two additional myosin I mutants, myoA- and myoA-/B-, were also found to oversecrete the lysosomally localized enzymes alpha-mannosidase and acid phosphatase. Taken together, these results suggest that these myosins do not play a role in the intracellular movement of vesicles, but that they may participate in controlling events that occur at the actin-rich cortical region of the cell. While no direct evidence has been found for the association of myosin Is with lysosomes, we predict that the integrity of the lysosomal system is tied to the fidelity of the actin cortex, and changes in cortical organization

  8. Identification of Delta5-fatty acid desaturase from the cellular slime mold dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Ochiai, H

    1999-10-01

    cDNA fragments putatively encoding amino acid sequences characteristic of the fatty acid desaturase were obtained using expressed sequence tag (EST) information of the Dictyostelium cDNA project. Using this sequence, we have determined the cDNA sequence and genomic sequence of a desaturase. The cloned cDNA is 1489 nucleotides long and the deduced amino acid sequence comprised 464 amino acid residues containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. The whole sequence was 38.6% identical to the initially identified Delta5-desaturase of Mortierella alpina. We have confirmed its function as Delta5-desaturase by over expression mutation in D. discoideum and also the gain of function mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of the lipids from transformed D. discoideum and yeast demonstrated the accumulation of Delta5-desaturated products. This is the first report concering fatty acid desaturase in cellular slime molds. PMID:10504413

  9. Functional complementation of yeast phosphofructokinase mutants by the non-allosteric enzyme from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Heinisch, J J; Aragón, J J

    1995-10-23

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) from yeast has been replaced by the non-allosteric isozyme from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This has been achieved by overexpression of the latter in a PFK-deficient strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the PFK2 promoter. Transformants complemented the glucose-negative growth phenotype exhibiting generation times on glucose-containing media similar to those of an untransformed strain being wild-type for yeast PFK genes. The PFK produced reacted with an antibody against D. discoideum PFK. It exhibited the same subunit size, quaternary structure and kinetic parameters than those of the wild-type enzyme, and was also devoid of specific regulatory properties. PMID:7589492

  10. Regulation of Spatiotemporal Patterns by Biological Variability: General Principles and Applications to Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Grace, Miriam; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns often emerge from local interactions in a self-organizing fashion. In biology, the resulting patterns are also subject to the influence of the systematic differences between the system's constituents (biological variability). This regulation of spatiotemporal patterns by biological variability is the topic of our review. We discuss several examples of correlations between cell properties and the self-organized spatiotemporal patterns, together with their relevance for biology. Our guiding, illustrative example will be spiral waves of cAMP in a colony of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Analogous processes take place in diverse situations (such as cardiac tissue, where spiral waves occur in potentially fatal ventricular fibrillation) so a deeper understanding of this additional layer of self-organized pattern formation would be beneficial to a wide range of applications. One of the most striking differences between pattern-forming systems in physics or chemistry and those in biology is the potential importance of variability. In the former, system components are essentially identical with random fluctuations determining the details of the self-organization process and the resulting patterns. In biology, due to variability, the properties of potentially very few cells can have a driving influence on the resulting asymptotic collective state of the colony. Variability is one means of implementing a few-element control on the collective mode. Regulatory architectures, parameters of signaling cascades, and properties of structure formation processes can be "reverse-engineered" from observed spatiotemporal patterns, as different types of regulation and forms of interactions between the constituents can lead to markedly different correlations. The power of this biology-inspired view of pattern formation lies in building a bridge between two scales: the patterns as a collective state of a very large number of cells on the one hand, and the internal

  11. Regulation of Spatiotemporal Patterns by Biological Variability: General Principles and Applications to Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Miriam; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns often emerge from local interactions in a self-organizing fashion. In biology, the resulting patterns are also subject to the influence of the systematic differences between the system’s constituents (biological variability). This regulation of spatiotemporal patterns by biological variability is the topic of our review. We discuss several examples of correlations between cell properties and the self-organized spatiotemporal patterns, together with their relevance for biology. Our guiding, illustrative example will be spiral waves of cAMP in a colony of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Analogous processes take place in diverse situations (such as cardiac tissue, where spiral waves occur in potentially fatal ventricular fibrillation) so a deeper understanding of this additional layer of self-organized pattern formation would be beneficial to a wide range of applications. One of the most striking differences between pattern-forming systems in physics or chemistry and those in biology is the potential importance of variability. In the former, system components are essentially identical with random fluctuations determining the details of the self-organization process and the resulting patterns. In biology, due to variability, the properties of potentially very few cells can have a driving influence on the resulting asymptotic collective state of the colony. Variability is one means of implementing a few-element control on the collective mode. Regulatory architectures, parameters of signaling cascades, and properties of structure formation processes can be "reverse-engineered" from observed spatiotemporal patterns, as different types of regulation and forms of interactions between the constituents can lead to markedly different correlations. The power of this biology-inspired view of pattern formation lies in building a bridge between two scales: the patterns as a collective state of a very large number of cells on the one hand, and the internal

  12. Inorganic polyphosphate in Dictyostelium discoideum: Influence on development, sporulation, and predation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyu; Gómez-García, María R.; Brown, Michael R. W.; Kornberg, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum, a social slime mold that forms fruiting bodies with spores, depends on inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) for its cycles of development and for nutritional predation on bacteria. The synthesis of poly P, a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by high energy, ATP-like bonds, is catalyzed in most bacteria by poly P kinase (PPK1). The eukaryote D. discoideum possesses a homolog of PPK1. We report here that mutants of D. discoideum PPK1 (DdPPK1) have reduced levels of poly P and are deficient in development. Fruiting bodies are smaller and produce fewer spores, which appear to germinate like the wild type (WT). The DdPPK1 mutant formed smaller plaques on bacterial lawns compared with those of the WT. Predation by D. discoideum, assessed by uptake and digestion of Klebsiella aerogenes, showed that fewer bacteria were taken up by the DdPPK1 mutant compared with the WT and were killed less rapidly, indicating a role of poly P and/or DdPPK1 in phagocytosis. On Pseudomonas aeruginosa lawns, cleared plaques were observed with the bacterial PPK1 mutant but not with the WT P. aeruginosa. Thus, poly P is important in predation both for the predator and prey. PMID:15701689

  13. The Dictyostelium discoideum cellulose synthase: Structure/function analysis and identification of interacting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Blanton

    2004-02-19

    OAK-B135 The major accomplishments of this project were: (1) the initial characterization of dcsA, the gene for the putative catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum; (2) the detection of a developmentally regulated event (unidentified, but perhaps a protein modification or association with a protein partner) that is required for cellulose synthase activity (i.e., the dcsA product is necessary, but not sufficient for cellulose synthesis); (3) the continued exploration of the developmental context of cellulose synthesis and DcsA; (4) the isolation of a GFP-DcsA-expressing strain (work in progress); and (5) the identification of Dictyostelium homologues for plant genes whose products play roles in cellulose biosynthesis. Although our progress was slow and many of our results negative, we did develop a number of promising avenues of investigation that can serve as the foundation for future projects.

  14. Characterization of a 1,4-. beta. -D-glucan synthase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1992-01-15

    Various aspects of research concerning Dictyostelium discoideum are presented. The initial focus of this project was upon: the characterization of potential probes for the cellulose synthase (antibody and nucleic acid), the determination of the cultural induction conditions of cellulose synthesis, the solubilization of the enzyme activity, the development of a non-inhibitory disruption buffer, the generation and isolation of mutant strains deficient in cellulose synthesis, and the development of the capability to determine the degree of polymerization of the in vitro product. I have briefly summarized our most significant findings with only selected data sets being shown in this report in the interest of brevity.

  15. cAMP diffusion in Dictyostelium discoideum: A Green's function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calovi, Daniel S.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.

    2010-07-01

    A Green’s function method is developed to approach the spatiotemporal equations describing the cAMP production in Dictyostelium discoideum, markedly reducing numerical calculations times: cAMP concentrations and gradients are calculated just at the amoeba locations. A single set of parameters is capable of reproducing the different observed behaviors, from cAMP synchronization, spiral waves and reaction-diffusion patterns to streaming and mound formation. After aggregation, the emergence of a circular motion of amoebas, breaking the radial cAMP field symmetry, is observed.

  16. Guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum with the topology of mammalian adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, J; Snippe, H; Kleineidam, R G; Van Haastert, P J

    2001-01-01

    The core of adenylate and guanylate cyclases is formed by an intramolecular or intermolecular dimer of two cyclase domains arranged in an antiparallel fashion. Metazoan membrane-bound adenylate cyclases are composed of 12 transmembrane spanning regions, and two cyclase domains which function as a heterodimer and are activated by G-proteins. In contrast, membrane-bound guanylate cyclases have only one transmembrane spanning region and one cyclase domain, and are activated by extracellular ligands to form a homodimer. In the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, membrane-bound guanylate cyclase activity is induced after cAMP stimulation; a G-protein-coupled cAMP receptor and G-proteins are essential for this activation. We have cloned a Dictyostelium gene, DdGCA, encoding a protein with 12 transmembrane spanning regions and two cyclase domains. Sequence alignment demonstrates that the two cyclase domains are transposed, relative to these domains in adenylate cyclases. DdGCA expressed in Dictyostelium exhibits high guanylate cyclase activity and no detectable adenylate cyclase activity. Deletion of the gene indicates that DdGCA is not essential for chemotaxis or osmo-regulation. The knock-out strain still exhibits substantial guanylate cyclase activity, demonstrating that Dictyostelium contains at least one other guanylate cyclase. PMID:11237875

  17. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek D N; Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric; Stavrinides, John

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID:27303689

  18. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Derek D. N.; Nickzad, Arvin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID

  19. Loss of Cln3 Function in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum Causes Pleiotropic Effects That Are Rescued by Human CLN3

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of inherited, severe neurodegenerative disorders also known as Batten disease. Juvenile NCL (JNCL) is caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which encodes a transmembrane protein that regulates endocytic pathway trafficking, though its primary function is not yet known. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is increasingly utilized for neurological disease research and is particularly suited for investigation of protein function in trafficking. Therefore, here we establish new overexpression and knockout Dictyostelium cell lines for JNCL research. Dictyostelium Cln3 fused to GFP localized to the contractile vacuole system and to compartments of the endocytic pathway. cln3− cells displayed increased rates of proliferation and an associated reduction in the extracellular levels and cleavage of the autocrine proliferation repressor, AprA. Mid- and late development of cln3− cells was precocious and cln3− slugs displayed increased migration. Expression of either Dictyostelium Cln3 or human CLN3 in cln3− cells suppressed the precocious development and aberrant slug migration, which were also suppressed by calcium chelation. Taken together, our results show that Cln3 is a pleiotropic protein that negatively regulates proliferation and development in Dictyostelium. This new model system, which allows for the study of Cln3 function in both single cells and a multicellular organism, together with the observation that expression of human CLN3 restores abnormalities in Dictyostelium cln3− cells, strongly supports the use of this new model for JNCL research. PMID:25330233

  20. Loss of Cln3 function in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum causes pleiotropic effects that are rescued by human CLN3.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J; Myre, Michael A; Cotman, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of inherited, severe neurodegenerative disorders also known as Batten disease. Juvenile NCL (JNCL) is caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which encodes a transmembrane protein that regulates endocytic pathway trafficking, though its primary function is not yet known. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is increasingly utilized for neurological disease research and is particularly suited for investigation of protein function in trafficking. Therefore, here we establish new overexpression and knockout Dictyostelium cell lines for JNCL research. Dictyostelium Cln3 fused to GFP localized to the contractile vacuole system and to compartments of the endocytic pathway. cln3- cells displayed increased rates of proliferation and an associated reduction in the extracellular levels and cleavage of the autocrine proliferation repressor, AprA. Mid- and late development of cln3- cells was precocious and cln3- slugs displayed increased migration. Expression of either Dictyostelium Cln3 or human CLN3 in cln3- cells suppressed the precocious development and aberrant slug migration, which were also suppressed by calcium chelation. Taken together, our results show that Cln3 is a pleiotropic protein that negatively regulates proliferation and development in Dictyostelium. This new model system, which allows for the study of Cln3 function in both single cells and a multicellular organism, together with the observation that expression of human CLN3 restores abnormalities in Dictyostelium cln3- cells, strongly supports the use of this new model for JNCL research. PMID:25330233

  1. Phospholipase C in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cyclic AMP surface receptor and G-protein-regulated activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bominaar, A A; Kesbeke, F; Van Haastert, P J

    1994-01-01

    The cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum shows several responses after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP, including a transient rise in cyclic AMP (cAMP), cGMP and Ins(1,4,5)P3. In this paper the regulation of phospholipase C in vitro is described. Under our experimental conditions commercial PtdIns(4,5)P2 cannot be used to analyse phospholipase C activity in Dictyostelium lysates, because it is hydrolysed mainly to glycerophosphoinositol instead of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Enzyme activity was determined with endogenous unlabelled PtdInsP2 as a substrate. The product was measured by isotope-dilution assay and identified as authentic Ins(1,4,5)P3. Since phospholipase C is strictly Ca(2+)-dependent, with an optimal concentration range of 1-100 microM, cell lysates were prepared in EGTA and the enzyme reaction was started by adding 10 microM free Ca2+. Phospholipase C activity increased 2-fold during Dictyostelium development up to 8 h of starvation, after which the activity declined to less than 10% of the vegetative level. Enzyme activity in vitro increased up to 2-fold after stimulation of cells with the agonist cAMP in vivo. Addition of 10 microM guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate during lysis activated the enzyme to the same extent, and this effect was antagonized by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. These results strongly suggest that surface cAMP receptors and G-proteins regulate phospholipase C during Dictyostelium development. PMID:8280097

  2. The Ste20-like kinase SvkA of Dictyostelium discoideum is essential for late stages of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs, Meino; Arasada, Rajesh; Batsios, Petros; Janzen, Julia; Schleicher, Michael

    2007-12-15

    The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum encodes approximately 285 kinases, which represents approximately 2.6% of the total genome and suggests a signaling complexity similar to that of yeasts and humans. The behavior of D. discoideum as an amoeba and during development relies heavily on fast rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we describe the knockout phenotype of the svkA gene encoding severin kinase, a homolog of the human MST3, MST4 and YSK1 kinases. SvkA-knockout cells show drastic defects in cytokinesis, development and directed slug movement. The defect in cytokinesis is most prominent, leading to multinucleated cells sometimes with >30 nuclei. The defect arises from the frequent inability of svkA-knockout cells to maintain symmetry during formation of the cleavage furrow and to sever the last cytosolic connection. We demonstrate that GFP-SvkA is enriched at the centrosome and localizes to the midzone during the final stage of cell division. This distribution is mediated by the C-terminal half of the kinase, whereas a rescue of the phenotypic changes requires the active N-terminal kinase domain as well. The data suggest that SvkA is part of a regulatory pathway from the centrosome to the midzone, thus regulating the completion of cell division. PMID:18042625

  3. PTEN Redundancy: Overexpressing lpten, a Homolog of Dictyostelium discoideum ptenA, the Ortholog of Human PTEN, Rescues All Behavioral Defects of the Mutant ptenA−

    PubMed Central

    Lusche, Daniel F.; Wessels, Deborah; Richardson, Nicole A.; Russell, Kanoe B.; Hanson, Brett M.; Soll, Benjamin A.; Lin, Benjamin H.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN are associated with a significant proportion of human cancers. Because the human genome also contains several homologs of PTEN, we considered the hypothesis that if a homolog, functionally redundant with PTEN, can be overexpressed, it may rescue the defects of a PTEN mutant. We have performed an initial test of this hypothesis in the model system Dictyostelium discoideum, which contains an ortholog of human PTEN, ptenA. Deletion of ptenA results in defects in motility, chemotaxis, aggregation and multicellular morphogenesis. D. discoideum also contains lpten, a newly discovered homolog of ptenA. Overexpressing lpten completely rescues all developmental and behavioral defects of the D. discoideum mutant ptenA−. This hypothesis must now be tested in human cells. PMID:25247494

  4. A Cysteine-Rich Extracellular Protein Containing a PA14 Domain Mediates Quorum Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Kolbinger, Alexandra; Gao, Tong; Brock, Debbie; Ammann, Robin; Kisters, Axel; Kellermann, Joseph; Hatton, Diane; Gomer, Richard H.; Wetterauer, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    Much remains to be understood about quorum-sensing factors that allow cells to sense their local density. Dictyostelium discoideum is a simple eukaryote that grows as single-celled amoebae and switches to multicellular development when food becomes limited. As the growing cells reach a high density, they begin expressing discoidin genes. The cells secrete an unknown factor, and at high cell densities the concomitant high levels of the factor induce discoidin expression. We report here the enrichment of discoidin-inducing complex (DIC), an ∼400-kDa protein complex that induces discoidin expression during growth and development. Two proteins in the DIC preparation, DicA1 and DicB, were identified by sequencing proteolytic digests. DicA1 and DicB were expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for their ability to induce discoidin during growth and development. Recombinant DicB was unable to induce discoidin expression, while recombinant DicA1 was able to induce discoidin expression. This suggests that DicA1 is an active component of DIC and indicates that posttranslational modification is dispensable for activity. DicA1 mRNA is expressed in vegetative and developing cells. The mature secreted form of DicA1 has a molecular mass of 80 kDa and has a 24-amino-acid cysteine-rich repeat that is similar to repeats in Dictyostelium proteins, such as the extracellular matrix protein ecmB/PstA, the prespore cell-inducing factor PSI, and the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor PDI. Together, the data suggest that DicA1 is a component of a secreted quorum-sensing signal regulating discoidin gene expression during Dictyostelium growth and development. PMID:15947191

  5. Mitochondrial tRNA 5'-editing in Dictyostelium discoideum and Polysphondylium pallidum.

    PubMed

    Abad, Maria G; Long, Yicheng; Kinchen, R Dimitri; Schindel, Elinor T; Gray, Michael W; Jackman, Jane E

    2014-05-30

    Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) 5'-editing was first described more than 20 years ago; however, the first candidates for 5'-editing enzymes were only recently identified in a eukaryotic microbe (protist), the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. In this organism, eight of 18 mt-tRNAs are predicted to be edited based on the presence of genomically encoded mismatched nucleotides in their aminoacyl-acceptor stem sequences. Here, we demonstrate that mt-tRNA 5'-editing occurs at all predicted sites in D. discoideum as evidenced by changes in the sequences of isolated mt-tRNAs compared with the expected sequences encoded by the mitochondrial genome. We also identify two previously unpredicted editing events in which G-U base pairs are edited in the absence of any other genomically encoded mismatches. A comparison of 5'-editing in D. discoideum with 5'-editing in another slime mold, Polysphondylium pallidum, suggests organism-specific idiosyncrasies in the treatment of U-G/G-U pairs. In vitro activities of putative D. discoideum editing enzymes are consistent with the observed editing reactions and suggest an overall lack of tRNA substrate specificity exhibited by the repair component of the editing enzyme. Although the presence of terminal mismatches in mt-tRNA sequences is highly predictive of the occurrence of mt-tRNA 5'-editing, the variability in treatment of U-G/G-U base pairs observed here indicates that direct experimental evidence of 5'-editing must be obtained to understand the complete spectrum of mt-tRNA editing events in any species. PMID:24737330

  6. Iron metabolism and resistance to infection by invasive bacteria in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Bozzaro, Salvatore; Buracco, Simona; Peracino, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Dictyostelium cells are forest soil amoebae, which feed on bacteria and proliferate as solitary cells until bacteria are consumed. Starvation triggers a change in life style, forcing cells to gather into aggregates to form multicellular organisms capable of cell differentiation and morphogenesis. As a soil amoeba and a phagocyte that grazes on bacteria as the obligate source of food, Dictyostelium could be a natural host of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, many pathogens that occasionally infect humans are hosted for most of their time in protozoa or free-living amoebae, where evolution of their virulence traits occurs. Due to these features and its amenability to genetic manipulation, Dictyostelium has become a valuable model organism for studying strategies of both the host to resist infection and the pathogen to escape the defense mechanisms. Similarly to higher eukaryotes, iron homeostasis is crucial for Dictyostelium resistance to invasive bacteria. Iron is essential for Dictyostelium, as both iron deficiency or overload inhibit cell growth. The Dictyostelium genome shares with mammals many genes regulating iron homeostasis. Iron transporters of the Nramp (Slc11A) family are represented with two genes, encoding Nramp1 and Nramp2. Like the mammalian ortholog, Nramp1 is recruited to phagosomes and macropinosomes, whereas Nramp2 is a membrane protein of the contractile vacuole network, which regulates osmolarity. Nramp1 and Nramp2 localization in distinct compartments suggests that both proteins synergistically regulate iron homeostasis. Rather than by absorption via membrane transporters, iron is likely gained by degradation of ingested bacteria and efflux via Nramp1 from phagosomes to the cytosol. Nramp gene disruption increases Dictyostelium sensitivity to infection, enhancing intracellular growth of Legionella or Mycobacteria. Generation of mutants in other “iron genes” will help identify genes essential for iron homeostasis and resistance to pathogens. PMID

  7. Specific regulation of transcription of the discoidin gene family in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, S; Shinnick, T M

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum strains that carry the dis mutations fail to express the family of developmentally regulated discoidin lectin genes during morphogenesis. We show here that this absence of discoidin lectin expression is due to the failure to transcribe the discoidin genes. Furthermore, the dis mutations appear to affect only discoidin expression and not the expression of other proteins during development, as assessed by a two-dimensional gel analysis of pulse-labeled proteins and by the accumulation of developmentally regulated enzymes. The dis mutations appear to define trans-acting regulatory loci, the products of which act at the transcriptional level to control specifically the developmental expression of the discoidin gene family. Images PMID:4000124

  8. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2006-09-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two approximately 3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  9. Dictyostelium discoideum myoJ: a member of a broadly defined myosin V class or a class XI unconventional myosin?

    PubMed

    Peterson, M D; Urioste, A S; Titus, M A

    1996-08-01

    The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum contains at least 12 unconventional myosin genes. Here we report the characterization of one of these, myoJ, a gene initially identified through a physical mapping screen. The myoJ gene encodes a high molecular weight myosin, and analysis of the available deduced amino acid sequence reveals that it possesses six IQ motifs and sequences typical of alpha helical coiled coils in the tail region. Therefore, myoJ is predicted to exist as a dimer with up to 12 associated light chains (six per heavy chain). The 7.8 kb myoJ mRNA is expressed all throughout the life cycle of D. discoideum. The myoJ gene has been disrupted and a phenotypic analysis of the mutant cells initiated. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of the head region reveals that myoJ is most similar to two plant myosin genes, Arabidopsis MYA1 and MYA2, that have been alternatively suggested to be either members of the myosin V class or founding members of the myosin XI class. PMID:8884597

  10. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid–type III polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ~3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed ‘steely’, as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  11. The Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR Ortholog Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Protein with Roles during Development

    PubMed Central

    Deckstein, Jaqueline; van Appeldorn, Jennifer; Tsangarides, Marios; Yiannakou, Kyriacos; Müller, Rolf; Stumpf, Maria; Sukumaran, Salil K.; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR (Golgi pH regulator)/Gpr89 is a developmentally regulated transmembrane protein present on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Transcript levels are low during growth and vary during development, reaching high levels during the aggregation and late developmental stages. The Arabidopsis ortholog was described as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for abscisic acid present at the plasma membrane, whereas the mammalian ortholog is a Golgi apparatus-associated anion channel functioning as a Golgi apparatus pH regulator. To probe its role in D. discoideum, we generated a strain lacking GPHR. The mutant had different growth characteristics than the AX2 parent strain, exhibited changes during late development, and formed abnormally shaped small slugs and fruiting bodies. An analysis of development-specific markers revealed that their expression was disturbed. The distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were unaltered at the immunofluorescence level. Likewise, their functions did not appear to be impaired, since membrane proteins were properly processed and glycosylated. Also, changes in the external pH were sensed by the ER, as indicated by a pH-sensitive ER probe, as in the wild type. PMID:25380752

  12. Chromosome Fragments in DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM Obtained from Parasexual Crosses between Strains of Different Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keith L.; Robson, Gillian E.; Welker, Dennis L.

    1980-01-01

    The first aneuploid strains of Dictyostelium discoideum have been unambiguously characterized, using cytological and genetic analysis. Three independently isolated, but genetically similar, fragment chromosomes have been observed in segregants from diploids formed between haploid strains derived from the NC4 and V12 isolates of D. discoideum. Once generated, the fragment chromosomes, all of which have V12-derived centromeres, can be maintained in a NC4 genetic background. Genetic evidence is consistent with the view that all three fragment chromosomes studied encompass the region from the centromere to the whiA locus of linkage group II and terminate in the interval between whiA and acrA. From cytological studies, one of the fragment chromosomes consists of approximately half of linkage group II.—We observed no deleterious effect on viability or asexual fruiting-body formation in either haploid or diploid strains carrying an additional incomplete chromosome and hence are disomic or trisomic, respectively, for part of linkage group II. The incomplete chromosome is lost at a frequency of 2 to 3% from disomic and trisomic strains, but surprisingly this loss is not increased in the presence of the haploidizing agent, benlate. A new locus (clyA), whose phenotype is altered colony morphology, is assigned to the region of linkage group II encompassed by the fragment chromosome. PMID:17249037

  13. Dictyostelium discoideum CenB Is a Bona Fide Centrin Essential for Nuclear Architecture and Centrosome Stability ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mana-Capelli, Sebastian; Gräf, Ralph; Larochelle, Denis A.

    2009-01-01

    Centrins are a family of proteins within the calcium-binding EF-hand superfamily. In addition to their archetypical role at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC), centrins have acquired multiple functionalities throughout the course of evolution. For example, centrins have been linked to different nuclear activities, including mRNA export and DNA repair. Dictyostelium discoideum centrin B is a divergent member of the centrin family. At the amino acid level, DdCenB shows 51% identity with its closest relative and only paralog, DdCenA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DdCenB and DdCenA form a well-supported monophyletic and divergent group within the centrin family of proteins. Interestingly, fluorescently tagged versions of DdCenB were not found at the centrosome (in whole cells or in isolated centrosomes). Instead, DdCenB localized to the nuclei of interphase cells. This localization disappeared as the cells entered mitosis, although Dictyostelium cells undergo a closed mitosis in which the nuclear envelope (NE) does not break down. DdCenB knockout cells exhibited aberrant nuclear architecture, characterized by enlarged and deformed nuclei and loss of proper centrosome-nucleus anchoring (observed as NE protrusions). At the centrosome, loss of DdCenB resulted in defects in the organization and morphology of the MTOC and supernumerary centrosomes and centrosome-related bodies. The multiple defects that the loss of DdCenB generated at the centrosome can be explained by its atypical division cycle, transitioning into the NE as it divides at mitosis. On the basis of these findings, we propose that DdCenB is required at interphase to maintain proper nuclear architecture, and before delocalizing from the nucleus, DdCenB is part of the centrosome duplication machinery. PMID:19465563

  14. A matricellular protein and EGF-like repeat signalling in the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-12-01

    Matricellular proteins interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulate cellular processes by binding to cell surface receptors and initiating intracellular signal transduction. Their association with the ECM and the ability of some members of this protein family to regulate cell motility have opened up new avenues of research to investigate their functions in normal and diseased cells. In this review, we summarize the research on CyrA, an ECM calmodulin-binding protein in Dictyostelium. CyrA is proteolytically cleaved into smaller EGF-like (EGFL) repeat containing cleavage products during development. The first EGFL repeat of CyrA binds to the cell surface and activates a novel signalling pathway that modulates cell motility in this model organism. The similarity of CyrA to the most well-characterized matricellular proteins in mammals allows it to be designated as the first matricellular protein identified in Dictyostelium. PMID:22782112

  15. The Discoidin I Gene Family of Dictyostelium Discoideum Is Linked to Genes Regulating Its Expression

    PubMed Central

    Welker, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The discoidin I protein has been studied extensively as a marker of early development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. However, like most other developmentally regulated proteins in this system, no reliable information was available on the linkage of the discoidin genes to other known genes. Analysis of the linkage of the discoidin I genes by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that all three discoidin I genes as well as a pseudogene are located on linkage group II. This evidence is consistent with the discoidin I genes forming a gene cluster that may be under the control of a single regulatory element. The discoidin I genes are linked to three genetic loci (disA, motA, daxA) that affect the expression of the discoidin I protein. Linkage of the gene family members to regulatory loci may be important in the coordinate maintenance of the gene family and regulatory loci. A duplication affecting the entire discoidin gene family is also linked to group II; this appears to be a small tandem duplication. This duplication was mapped using a DNA polymorphism generated by insertion of the Tdd-3 mobile genetic element into a Tdd-2 element flanking the γ gene. A probe for Tdd-2 identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism in strain AX3K that was consistent with generation by a previously proposed Tdd-3 insertion event. A putative duplication or rearrangement of a second Tdd-2 element on linkage group IV of strain AX3K was also identified. This is the first linkage information available for mobile genetic elements in D. discoideum. PMID:3402731

  16. A weak pulsed magnetic field affects adenine nucleotide oscillations, and related parameters in aggregating Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae.

    PubMed

    Davies, E; Olliff, C; Wright, I; Woodward, A; Kell, D

    1999-02-01

    A model eukaryotic cell system was used to explore the effect of a weak pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on time-varying physiological parameters. Dictyostelium discoideum cells (V12 strain) were exposed to a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of flux density 0.4 mT, generated via air-cored coils in trains of 2 ms pulses gated at 20 ms. This signal is similar to those used to treat non-uniting fractures. Samples were taken over periods of 20 min from harvested suspensions of amoebae during early aggregation phase, extracted and derivatised for HPLC fluorescent assay of adenine nucleotides. Analysis of variance showed a significant athermal damping effect (P < 0.002, n = 22) of the PMF on natural adenine nucleotide oscillations and some consistent changes in phase relationships. The technique of nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) revealed a distinctive effect of PMF, caffeine and EGTA in modulating the cellular harmonic response to an applied weak signal. Light scattering studies also showed altered frequency response of cells to PMF, EGTA and caffeine. PMF caused a significant reduction of caffeine induced cell contraction (P < 0.0006, n = 19 by paired t-test) as shown by Malvern particle size analyser, suggesting that intracellular calcium may be involved in mediating the effect of the PMF. PMID:10228582

  17. Different CHD chromatin remodelers are required for expression of distinct gene sets and specific stages during development of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Platt, James L.; Rogers, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Kelley C.; Harwood, Adrian J.; Kimmel, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Control of chromatin structure is crucial for multicellular development and regulation of cell differentiation. The CHD (chromodomain-helicase-DNA binding) protein family is one of the major ATP-dependent, chromatin remodeling factors that regulate nucleosome positioning and access of transcription factors and RNA polymerase to the eukaryotic genome. There are three mammalian CHD subfamilies and their impaired functions are associated with several human diseases. Here, we identify three CHD orthologs (ChdA, ChdB and ChdC) in Dictyostelium discoideum. These CHDs are expressed throughout development, but with unique patterns. Null mutants lacking each CHD have distinct phenotypes that reflect their expression patterns and suggest functional specificity. Accordingly, using genome-wide (RNA-seq) transcriptome profiling for each null strain, we show that the different CHDs regulate distinct gene sets during both growth and development. ChdC is an apparent ortholog of the mammalian Class III CHD group that is associated with the human CHARGE syndrome, and GO analyses of aberrant gene expression in chdC nulls suggest defects in both cell-autonomous and non-autonomous signaling, which have been confirmed through analyses of chdC nulls developed in pure populations or with low levels of wild-type cells. This study provides novel insight into the broad function of CHDs in the regulation development and disease, through chromatin-mediated changes in directed gene expression. PMID:24301467

  18. Tandem Repeats in Extrachromosomal Ribosomal DNA of Dictyostelium Discoideum, Resulting from Chromosomal Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Cole, R. A.; Williams, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA in the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum is readily separated from chromosomal DNA by orthogonal field electrophoresis (OFAGE), forming a prominent band in the 110-kb region of the gel. Here we show that mutations in at least two chromosomal genes give rise to a ladder of rDNA bands increasing in size up to about 300 kb. One of these mutations, the rrcA350 allele, which is recessive to wild type and maps to the centromere-proximal region of linkage group II, has an unstable phenotype; spontaneous revertants, which no longer exhibit the rDNA ladder, have been recovered. Another mutation rrc-351, provisionally mapped to linkage group IV, is dominant to wild type. The rDNA ladder is caused by concatamerization of a 34-kb fragment in the nontranscribed central spacer region of the 88-kb linear rDNA palindrome. Restriction enzyme analysis has revealed that each concatamer is generated by crossovers between two rDNA molecules. PMID:1582557

  19. Microtubules Are Essential for Mitochondrial Dynamics–Fission, Fusion, and Motility–in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Laken C.; Berbusse, Gregory W.; Naylor, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is dependent upon mitochondrial structure which is in turn dependent upon mitochondrial dynamics, including fission, fusion, and motility. Here we examined the relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and the cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum. Using time-lapse analysis, we quantified mitochondrial fission, fusion, and motility in the presence of cytoskeleton disrupting pharmaceuticals and the absence of the potential mitochondria-cytoskeleton linker protein, CluA. Our results indicate that microtubules are essential for mitochondrial movement, as well as fission and fusion; actin plays a less significant role, perhaps selecting the mitochondria for transport. We also suggest that CluA is not a linker protein but plays an unidentified role in mitochondrial fission and fusion. The significance of our work is to gain further insight into the role the cytoskeleton plays in mitochondrial dynamics and function. By better understanding these processes we can better appreciate the underlying mitochondrial contributions to many neurological disorders characterized by altered mitochondrial dynamics, structure, and/or function. PMID:27047941

  20. Identification of Proteins Associated with Multilamellar Bodies Produced by Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Denoncourt, Alix M; Paquet, Valérie E; Sedighi, Ahmadreza; Charette, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae produce and secrete multilamellar bodies (MLBs) when fed digestible bacteria. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the proteic content of MLBs. The lipid composition of MLBs is mainly amoebal in origin, suggesting that MLB formation is a protozoa-driven process that could play a significant role in amoebal physiology. We identified four major proteins on purified MLBs using mass spectrometry in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms governing MLB formation and, eventually, to elucidate the true function of MLBs. These proteins were SctA, PhoPQ, PonC and a protein containing a cytidine/deoxycytidylate deaminase (CDD) zinc-binding region. SctA is a component of pycnosomes, which are membranous materials that are continuously secreted by amoebae. The presence of SctA on MLBs was confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting using a specific anti-SctA antibody. The CDD protein may be one of the proteins recognized by the H36 antibody, which was used as a MLB marker in a previous study. The function of the CDD protein is unknown. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analyses confirmed that the H36 antibody is a better marker of MLBs than the anti-SctA antibody. This study is an additional step to elucidate the potential role of MLBs and revealed that only a small set of proteins appeared to be present on MLBs. PMID:27340834

  1. Mota1552, a Mutation of Dictyostelium Discoideum Having Pleiotropic Effects on Motility and Discoidin I Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kayman, S. C.; Birchman, R.; Clarke, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Dictyostelium discoideum mutant MC2 exhibits temperature-sensitive growth, temperature-sensitive motility, and temperature induction of discoidin I synthesis. These three phenotypes of MC2 were not separated in the genetic experiments reported here. They were therefore assigned to the mutation motA1552, which was mapped to linkage group II by segregation analysis and by analysis of mitotic recombinant diploids. In one motA1552 strain, loss of motility preceded accumulation of discoidin I by 3 hr, indicating that discoidin I is not involved in generation of the motility defect. Expression of motA1552 phenotypes varied both among strains carrying the mutation, and among different clones of a particular strain. MC2 and its derivatives displayed elevated levels of recombination between whiA and acrA on linkage group II, and yielded highly unstable mutations at the acrA locus. Accumulation of large amounts of discoidin I during axenic growth of strain AX3 was found to depend on the presence of a second linkage group II mutation, daxA1551. This mutation was already present in the strain mutagenized to isolate motA1552, complicating explication of motA1552 action. PMID:3366362

  2. Identification of Proteins Associated with Multilamellar Bodies Produced by Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Sedighi, Ahmadreza; Charette, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae produce and secrete multilamellar bodies (MLBs) when fed digestible bacteria. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the proteic content of MLBs. The lipid composition of MLBs is mainly amoebal in origin, suggesting that MLB formation is a protozoa-driven process that could play a significant role in amoebal physiology. We identified four major proteins on purified MLBs using mass spectrometry in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms governing MLB formation and, eventually, to elucidate the true function of MLBs. These proteins were SctA, PhoPQ, PonC and a protein containing a cytidine/deoxycytidylate deaminase (CDD) zinc-binding region. SctA is a component of pycnosomes, which are membranous materials that are continuously secreted by amoebae. The presence of SctA on MLBs was confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting using a specific anti-SctA antibody. The CDD protein may be one of the proteins recognized by the H36 antibody, which was used as a MLB marker in a previous study. The function of the CDD protein is unknown. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analyses confirmed that the H36 antibody is a better marker of MLBs than the anti-SctA antibody. This study is an additional step to elucidate the potential role of MLBs and revealed that only a small set of proteins appeared to be present on MLBs. PMID:27340834

  3. Genomic instability and mobile genetic elements in regions surrounding two discoidin I genes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, S J; Firtel, R A

    1984-01-01

    We have found that the genomic regions surrounding the linked discoidin I genes of various Dictyostelium discoideum strains have undergone rapid changes. Wild-type strain NC-4 has three complete discoidin I genes; its axenic derivative strain Ax-3L has duplicated a region starting approximately 1 kilobase upstream from the two linked genes and extending for at least 8 kilobases past the genes. A separately maintained stock, strain Ax-3K, does not have this duplication but has undergone a different rearrangement approximately 3 kilobases farther upstream. We show that there are repeat elements in these rapidly changing regions. At least two of these elements, Tdd-2 and Tdd-3, have characteristics associated with mobile genetic elements. The Tdd-3 element is found in different locations in related strains and causes a 9- to 10-base-pair duplication of the target site DNA. The Tdd-2 and Tdd-3 elements do not cross-hybridize, but they share a 22-base-pair homology near one end. At two separate sites, the Tdd-3 element has transposed into the Tdd-2 element, directly adjacent to the 22-base-pair homology. The Tdd-3 element may use this 22-base-pair region as a preferential site of insertion. Images PMID:6325889

  4. Differential developmental expression of the rep B and rep D xeroderma pigmentosum related DNA helicase genes from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S K; Yu, S L; Garcia, M X; Alexander, H; Alexander, S

    1997-01-01

    DNA helicases are essential to many cellular processes including recombination, replication and transcription, and some helicases function in multiple processes. The helicases encoded by the Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) B and D genes function in both nucleotide excision repair and transcription initiation. Mutations that affect the repair function of these proteins result in XP while mutations affecting transcription result in neurological and developmental abnormalities, although the underlying molecular and cellular basis for these phenotypes is not well understood. To better understand the developmental roles of these genes, we have now identified and characterized the rep B and rep D genes from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum . Both genes encode DNA helicases of the SF2 superfamily of helicases. The rep D gene contains no introns and the rep B gene contains only one intron, which makes their genomic structures dramatically different from the corresponding genes in mammals and fish. However the predicted Dictyostelium proteins share high homology with the human XPB and XPD proteins. The single copy of the rep B and D genes map to chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. The expression of rep B and D (and the previously isolated rep E) genes during multicellular development was examined, and it was determined that each rep gene has a unique pattern of expression, consistent with the idea that they have specific roles in development. The pattern and extent of expression of these genes was not affected by the growth history of the cells, implying that the expression of these genes is tightly regulated by the developmental program. The expression of the rep genes is a very early step in development and may well represent a key event in the initiation of development in this organism. PMID:9171087

  5. Studies of the cAMP mediated aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum: receptor mediated activation of the adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Theibert, W.E.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum, a eukaryotic amoeba of the cellular slime mold family, provides an interesting paradigm in developmental biology. During development, hundreds of thousands of cells aggregate to form a multicellular aggregate. Aggregation is mediated by chemotaxis and chemical signaling. Waves of adenosine 3'-5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) propagate through the monolayer and provide transient gradients for chemotaxis. The author has used a reversible inhibitor of the cAMP signaling response to demonstrate that adaptation to cAMP is independent of the activation of the adenylate cyclase and therefore is not caused by the rise in intracellular cAMP. Next, it is shown that adenosine inhibits the cAMP signaling response. Inhibition is rapid, reversible, and depends on the cAMP stimulus concentration. Then the specificity of the cAMP receptors which mediates signaling is determined and compared with the receptors which mediate chemotaxis, the cGMP response, and cAMP binding antagonism. The cAMP surface receptor has been identified by photoaffinity labeling intact cells with (/sup 32/P)-8-N/sub 3/-cAMP using an ammonium sulfate binding stabilization technique. The photoactivated ligand specifically labels a polypeptide, localized to the membrane fraction, which migrates as a closely spaced doublet on SDS Page.

  6. Interaction of Dictyostelium discoideum lysosomal enzymes with the mammalian phosphomannosyl receptor. The importance of oligosaccharides which contain phosphodiesters

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, H.H.

    1985-07-25

    Mammalian cell lysosomal enzymes or phosphorylated oligosaccharides derived from them are endocytosed by a phosphomannosyl receptor (PMR) found on the surface of fibroblasts. Various studies suggest that 2 residues of Man-6-P in phosphomonoester linkage but not diester linkage (PDE) are essential for a high rate of uptake. The lysosomal enzymes of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum are also recognized by the PMR on these cells; however, none of the oligosaccharides from these enzymes contain 2 phosphomonoesters. Instead, most contain multiple sulfate esters and 2 residues of Man-6-P in an unusual PDE linkage. In this study the authors have tried to account for the unexpected highly efficient uptake of the slime mold enzymes. The results show that nearly all of the alpha-mannosidase molecules contain the oligosaccharides required for uptake. Competition of SVI-beta-glucosidase uptake by various carbohydrate-containing fractions indicates that the best inhibitors are those with 2 PDE, either with or without sulfate esters. Complete denaturation of SVI-labeled wild-type beta-glucosidase in sodium dodecyl sulfate/dithiothreitol also reduces its uptake by about 10-fold. Taken together, these results suggest that the interactions of multiple, weakly binding oligosaccharides, especially those with 2 PDE, are important for the high rate of uptake of the slime mold enzymes.

  7. Absence of catalytic domain in a putative protein kinase C (PkcA) suppresses tip dominance in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Wasima; Ray, Sibnath; Brazill, Derrick; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-09-01

    A number of organisms possess several isoforms of protein kinase C but little is known about the significance of any specific isoform during embryogenesis and development. To address this we characterized a PKC ortholog (PkcA; DDB_G0288147) in Dictyostelium discoideum. pkcA expression switches from prestalk in mound to prespore in slug, indicating a dynamic expression pattern. Mutants lacking the catalytic domain of PkcA (pkcA(-)) did not exhibit tip dominance. A striking phenotype of pkcA- was the formation of an aggregate with a central hollow, and aggregates later fragmented to form small mounds, each becoming a fruiting body. Optical density wave patterns of cAMP in the late aggregates showed several cAMP wave generation centers. We attribute these defects in pkcA(-) to impaired cAMP signaling, altered cell motility and decreased expression of the cell adhesion molecules - CadA and CsaA. pkcA(-) slugs showed ectopic expression of ecmA in the prespore region. Further, the use of a PKC-specific inhibitor, GF109203X that inhibits the activity of catalytic domain phenocopied pkcA(-). PMID:26183108

  8. Cytosolic acidification as a signal mediating hyperosmotic stress responses in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Pintsch, Tanja; Satre, Michel; Klein, Gérard; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Schuster, Stephan C

    2001-01-01

    Background Dictyostelium cells exhibit an unusual response to hyperosmolarity that is distinct from the response in other organisms investigated: instead of accumulating compatible osmolytes as it has been described for a wide range of organisms, Dictyostelium cells rearrange their cytoskeleton and thereby build up a rigid network which is believed to constitute the major osmoprotective mechanism in this organism. To gain more insight into the osmoregulation of this amoeba, we investigated physiological processes affected under hyperosmotic conditions in Dictyostelium. Results We determined pH changes in response to hyperosmotic stress using FACS or 31P-NMR. Hyperosmolarity was found to acidify the cytosol from pH 7.5 to 6.8 within 5 minutes, whereas the pH of the endo-lysosomal compartment remained constant. Fluid-phase endocytosis was identified as a possible target of cytosolic acidification, as the inhibition of endocytosis observed under hypertonic conditions can be fully attributed to cytosolic acidification. In addition, a deceleration of vesicle mobility and a decrease in the NTP pool was observed. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that hyperosmotic stress triggers pleiotropic effects, which are partially mediated by a pH signal and which all contribute to the downregulation of cellular activity. The comparison of our results with the effect of hyperosmolarity and intracellular acidification on receptor-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells reveals striking similarities, suggesting the hypothesis of the same mechanism of inhibition by low internal pH. PMID:11415467

  9. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate waves in dictyostelium discoideum: a demonstration by isotope dilution-fluorography

    SciTech Connect

    Tomchik, K.J.; Devreotes, P.N.

    1981-04-24

    The distribution of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in fields of aggregating amoebae of Dictyostelium discoidenum was examined by a novel isotope dilution-fluorographic technique. Cellular cyclic AMP was visualized by its competition with exogenous /sup 3/H-labeled cyclic AMP for high-affinity binding sites on protein kinase immobilized on a Millipore filter used to blot the monolayer. The cyclic AMP was distributed in spiral or concentric circular wave patterns which centered on the foci of the aggregations. These patterns were correlated with those of cell shape change that propagate through the monolayers. These observations support the hypothesis that the aggregation process in Dictyostelium is mediated by the periodic relay of cyclic AMP signals and suggest a simple scheme for the dynamics of the aggregation process.

  10. Functional expression of Ca²⁺ dependent mammalian transmembrane gap junction protein Cx43 in slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Weiss, Ingrid M; Eckstein, Volker; Tanaka, Motomu

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we expressed murine gap junction protein Cx43 in Dictyostelium discoideum by introducing the specific vector pDXA. In the first step, the successful expression of Cx43 and Cx43-eGFP was verified by (a) Western blot (anti-Cx43, anti-GFP), (b) fluorescence microscopy (eGFP-Cx43 co-expression, Cx43 immunostaining), and (c) flow cytometry analysis (eGFP-Cx43 co-expression). Although the fluorescence signals from cells expressing Cx43-eGFP detected by fluorescence microscopy seem relatively low, analysis by flow cytometry demonstrated that more than 60% of cells expressed Cx43-eGFP. In order to evaluate the function of expressed Cx43 in D. discoideum, we examined the hemi-channel function of Cx43. In this series of experiments, the passive uptake of carboxyfluorescein was monitored using flow cytometric analysis. A significant number of the transfected cells showed a prominent dye uptake in the absence of Ca(2+). The dye uptake by transfected cells in the presence of Ca(2+) was even lower than the non-specific dye uptake by non-transformed Ax3 orf+ cells, confirming that Cx43 expressed in D. discoideum retains its Ca(2+)-dependent, specific gating function. The expression of gap junction proteins expressed in slime molds opens a possibility to the biological significance of intercellular communications in development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. PMID:22330805

  11. Identification of concanavalin A receptors and galactose-binding proteins in purified plasma membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    West, C M; McMahon, D

    1977-07-01

    Two techniques have been modified to provide simple means for the identification of molecules which bind concanavalin A (Con A). Crossed immunoelectrophoresis was altered by replacing antibody with Con A, and receptors were identified by the precipitin arcs which they produced. Con A, tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was also diffused into prefixed sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels, and additional receptors identified by fluorescence. More than 35 molecules in the plasma membranes of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum which bind Con A were identified with these techniques. At least 12 of these diminish and 12 increase in importance as receptors during differentiation of the cells from the vegetative to the preculmination stage of development. In the course of these experiments, it was possible to confirm the presence of the galactose-binding protein discoidin, in the plasma membrane, by electrophoresing membrane proteins into an agarose gel. This lectin regains its sugar-binding activity after denaturation and electrophoresis in SDS. PMID:559679

  12. Target recognition, RNA methylation activity and transcriptional regulation of the Dictyostelium discoideum Dnmt2-homologue (DnmA)

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sara; Windhof, Indra M.; Maximov, Vladimir; Jurkowski, Tomasz; Jeltsch, Albert; Förstner, Konrad U.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Gräf, Ralph; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Although the DNA methyltransferase 2 family is highly conserved during evolution and recent reports suggested a dual specificity with stronger activity on transfer RNA (tRNA) than DNA substrates, the biological function is still obscure. We show that the Dictyostelium discoideum Dnmt2-homologue DnmA is an active tRNA methyltransferase that modifies C38 in tRNAAsp(GUC) in vitro and in vivo. By an ultraviolet-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation approach, we identified further DnmA targets. This revealed specific tRNA fragments bound by the enzyme and identified tRNAGlu(CUC/UUC) and tRNAGly(GCC) as new but weaker substrates for both human Dnmt2 and DnmA in vitro but apparently not in vivo. Dnmt2 enzymes form transient covalent complexes with their substrates. The dynamics of complex formation and complex resolution reflect methylation efficiency in vitro. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed alterations in dnmA expression during development, cell cycle and in response to temperature stress. However, dnmA expression only partially correlated with tRNA methylation in vivo. Strikingly, dnmA expression in the laboratory strain AX2 was significantly lower than in the NC4 parent strain. As expression levels and binding of DnmA to a target in vivo are apparently not necessarily accompanied by methylation, we propose an additional biological function of DnmA apart from methylation. PMID:23877245

  13. Differentiation-inducing factor 2 modulates chemotaxis via the histidine kinase DhkC-dependent pathway in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Kubohara, Yuzuru

    2016-03-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor 1(DIF-1) and DIF-2 are signaling molecules that control chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum. Whereas DIF-1 suppresses chemotaxis in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-2 enhances chemotaxis under the same conditions via a phosphodiesterase, response regulator A (RegA), which is a part of the DhkC-RdeA-RegA two-component signaling system. In this study, to investigate the mechanism of the chemotaxis regulation by DIF-2, we examined the effects of DIF-2 (and DIF-1) on chemotaxis in rdeA(-) and dhkC(-) mutant strains. In the parental wild-type strains, chemotactic cell movement was suppressed with DIF-1 and enhanced with DIF-2 in shallow cAMP gradients. In contrast, in both rdeA(-) and dhkC(-) strains, chemotaxis was suppressed with DIF-1 but unaffected by DIF-2. The results suggest that DIF-2 modulates chemotaxis via the DhkC-RdeA-RegA signaling system. PMID:26919666

  14. Polyphosphate kinase 1, a conserved bacterial enzyme, in a eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, with a role in cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyu; Gómez-García, María R.; Shi, Xiaobing; Rao, Narayana N.; Kornberg, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Polyphosphate kinase 1 (PPK1), the principal enzyme responsible for reversible synthesis of polyphosphate (poly P) from the terminal phosphate of ATP, is highly conserved in bacteria and archaea. Dictyostelium discoideum, a social slime mold, is one of a few eukaryotes known to possess a PPK1 homolog (DdPPK1). Compared with PPK1 of Escherichia coli, DdPPK1 contains the conserved residues for ATP binding and autophosphorylation, but has an N-terminal extension of 370 aa, lacking homology with any known protein. Polyphosphate or ATP promote oligomerization of the enzyme in vitro. The DdPPK1 products are heterogeneous in chain length and shorter than those of E. coli. The unique DdPPK1 N-terminal domain was shown to be necessary for its enzymatic activity, cellular localization, and physiological functions. Mutants of DdPPK1, as previously reported, are defective in development, sporulation, and predation, and as shown here, in late stages of cytokinesis and cell division. PMID:17940044

  15. Polyphosphate kinase 1, a conserved bacterial enzyme, in a eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, with a role in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyu; Gómez-García, María R; Shi, Xiaobing; Rao, Narayana N; Kornberg, Arthur

    2007-10-16

    Polyphosphate kinase 1 (PPK1), the principal enzyme responsible for reversible synthesis of polyphosphate (poly P) from the terminal phosphate of ATP, is highly conserved in bacteria and archaea. Dictyostelium discoideum, a social slime mold, is one of a few eukaryotes known to possess a PPK1 homolog (DdPPK1). Compared with PPK1 of Escherichia coli, DdPPK1 contains the conserved residues for ATP binding and autophosphorylation, but has an N-terminal extension of 370 aa, lacking homology with any known protein. Polyphosphate or ATP promote oligomerization of the enzyme in vitro. The DdPPK1 products are heterogeneous in chain length and shorter than those of E. coli. The unique DdPPK1 N-terminal domain was shown to be necessary for its enzymatic activity, cellular localization, and physiological functions. Mutants of DdPPK1, as previously reported, are defective in development, sporulation, and predation, and as shown here, in late stages of cytokinesis and cell division. PMID:17940044

  16. Molecular Characterization of Exploitation of the Polyubiquitination and Farnesylation Machineries of Dictyostelium Discoideum by the AnkB F-Box Effector of Legionella Pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Al-Quadan, Tasneem; Kwaik, Yousef Abu

    2011-01-01

    The Dot/Icm-translocated Ankyrin B (AnkB) F-box effector of Legionella pneumophila is essential for intra-vacuolar proliferation and functions as a platform for the docking of polyubiquitinated proteins to the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) within macrophages and ameba. Here we show that ectopically expressed AnkB in Dictyostelium discoideum is targeted to the plasma membrane where it recruits polyubiquitinated proteins and it trans-rescues the intracellular growth defect of the ankB null mutant, which has never been demonstrated for any effector in ameba. Using co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation we show specific interaction of Skp1 of D. discoideum with the F-box domain of AnkB, which has never been demonstrated in ameba. We show that anchoring of AnkB to the cytosolic face of the LCV membrane in D. discoideum is mediated by the host farnesylation of the C-terminal eukaryotic CaaX motif of AnkB and is independent of the F-box and the two ANK domains, which has never been demonstrated in ameba. Importantly, the three host farnesylation enzymes farnesyl transferase, RCE-1, and isoprenyl cysteine carboxyl methyl transferase of D. discoideum are recruited to the LCV in a Dot/Icm-dependent manner, which has never been demonstrated in ameba. We conclude that the polyubiquitination and farnesylation enzymatic machineries of D. discoideum are recruited to the LCV in a Dot/Icm-dependent manner and the AnkB effector exploits the two evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic machineries to proliferate within ameba, similar to mammalian cells. We propose that L. pneumophila has acquired ankB through inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer from primitive eukaryotes, which facilitated proliferation of L. pneumophila within human cells and the emergence of Legionnaires’ disease. PMID:21687415

  17. Extracellular calmodulin regulates growth and cAMP-mediated chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, Danton H.; Huber, Robert J.; Suarez, Andres

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin is present throughout growth and development in Dictyostelium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin localizes within the ECM during development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin inhibits cell proliferation and increases chemotaxis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin exists in eukaryotic microbes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin may be functionally as important as intracellular calmodulin. -- Abstract: The existence of extracellular calmodulin (CaM) has had a long and controversial history. CaM is a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein that has been found in every eukaryotic cell system. Calcium-free apo-CaM and Ca{sup 2+}/CaM exert their effects by binding to and regulating the activity of CaM-binding proteins (CaMBPs). Most of the research done to date on CaM and its CaMBPs has focused on their intracellular functions. The presence of extracellular CaM is well established in a number of plants where it functions in proliferation, cell wall regeneration, gene regulation and germination. While CaM has been detected extracellularly in several animal species, including frog, rat, rabbit and human, its extracellular localization and functions are less well established. In contrast the study of extracellular CaM in eukaryotic microbes remains to be done. Here we show that CaM is constitutively expressed and secreted throughout asexual development in Dictyostelium where the presence of extracellular CaM dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation but increases cAMP mediated chemotaxis. During development, extracellular CaM localizes within the slime sheath where it coexists with at least one CaMBP, the matricellular CaM-binding protein CyrA. Coupled with previous research, this work provides direct evidence for the existence of extracellular CaM in the Dictyostelium and provides insight into its functions in this model amoebozoan.

  18. Derivatives of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor-3 suppress the activities of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Hatabu, Toshimitsu; Hosoi, Yukari; Onizuka, Yoko; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Kubohara, Yuzuru

    2013-06-01

    Chagas disease (human American trypanosomiasis), which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is responsible for numerous deaths each year; however, established treatments for the disease are limited. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) and DIF-3 are chlorinated alkylphenones originally found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum that have been shown to possess pharmacological activities. Here, we investigated the effects of DIF-3 derivatives on the infection rate and growth of T. cruzi by using an in vitro assay system utilizing host human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Certain DIF-3 derivatives, such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3), at micro-molar levels strongly suppressed both the infection rate and growth of T. cruzi in HT1080 cells and exhibited little toxicity for HT1080 cells. For example, the IC50 of DIF-3 and Bu-DIF-3 versus the growth of T. cruzi in HT1080 cells were 3.95 and 0.72μM, respectively, and the LD50 of the two compounds versus HT1080 cells were both greater than 100μM. We also examined the effects of DIF-3 and Bu-DIF-3 on T. cruzi activity in C57BL/6 mice. Intraperitoneally administered Bu-DIF-3 (50mg/kg) significantly suppressed the number of trypomastigotes in blood with no apparent adverse effects. These results strongly suggest that DIF-3 derivatives could be new lead compounds in the development of anti-trypanosomiasis drugs. PMID:23511088

  19. Identification of N-acylethanolamines in Dictyostelium discoideum and confirmation of their hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Alexander C.; Stupak, Jacek; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-based signaling molecules best known for their role in the endocannabinoid system in mammals, but they are also known to play roles in signaling pathways in plants. The regulation of NAEs in vivo is partly accomplished by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyses NAEs to ethanolamine and their corresponding fatty acid. Inhibition of FAAH has been shown to increase the levels of NAEs in vivo and to produce desirable phenotypes. This has led to the development of pharmaceutical-based therapies for a variety of conditions targeting FAAH. Recently, our group identified a functional FAAH homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, leading to our hypothesis that D. discoideum also possesses NAEs. In this study, we provide a further characterization of FAAH and identify NAEs in D. discoideum for the first time. We also demonstrate the ability to modulate their levels in vivo through the use of a semispecific FAAH inhibitor and confirm that these NAEs are FAAH substrates through in vitro studies. We believe the demonstration of the in vivo modulation of NAE levels suggests that D. discoideum could be a good simple model organism in which to study NAE-mediated signaling. PMID:23187822

  20. Excitable waves and direction-sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: steps towards a chemotaxis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Arpan; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemically directed motility by eukaryotic cells such as Dictyostelium. In particular, the local excitation and global inhibition (LEGI) model has proven capable of providing a framework for quantitatively explaining many experiments that present Dictyostelium cells with tailored chemical stimuli and monitor their subsequent polarization. In their natural setting, cells generate their own directional signals via the detection and secretion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Here, we couple the LEGI approach to an excitable medium model of the cAMP wave-field that is propagated by the cells and investigate the possibility for this class of models to enable accurate chemotaxis to the cAMP waveforms expected in vivo. Our results indicate that the ultra-sensitive version of the model does an excellent job in providing natural wave rectification, thereby providing a compelling solution to the ‘back-of-the-wave paradox’ during cellular aggregation.

  1. Characterization of a 1,4-{beta}-D-glucan synthase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Progress report, May 1990--January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1992-01-15

    Various aspects of research concerning Dictyostelium discoideum are presented. The initial focus of this project was upon: the characterization of potential probes for the cellulose synthase (antibody and nucleic acid), the determination of the cultural induction conditions of cellulose synthesis, the solubilization of the enzyme activity, the development of a non-inhibitory disruption buffer, the generation and isolation of mutant strains deficient in cellulose synthesis, and the development of the capability to determine the degree of polymerization of the in vitro product. I have briefly summarized our most significant findings with only selected data sets being shown in this report in the interest of brevity.

  2. Allorecognition, via TgrB1 and TgrC1, mediates the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shigenori; Santhanam, Balaji; Katoh-Kurosawa, Mariko; Shaulsky, Gad; Kuspa, Adam

    2015-10-15

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum integrates into a multicellular organism when individual starving cells aggregate and form a mound. The cells then integrate into defined tissues and develop into a fruiting body that consists of a stalk and spores. Aggregation is initially orchestrated by waves of extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and previous theory suggested that cAMP and other field-wide diffusible signals mediate tissue integration and terminal differentiation as well. Cooperation between cells depends on an allorecognition system comprising the polymorphic adhesion proteins TgrB1 and TgrC1. Binding between compatible TgrB1 and TgrC1 variants ensures that non-matching cells segregate into distinct aggregates prior to terminal development. Here, we have embedded a small number of cells with incompatible allotypes within fields of developing cells with compatible allotypes. We found that compatibility of the allotype encoded by the tgrB1 and tgrC1 genes is required for tissue integration, as manifested in cell polarization, coordinated movement and differentiation into prestalk and prespore cells. Our results show that the molecules that mediate allorecognition in D. discoideum also control the integration of individual cells into a unified developing organism, and this acts as a gating step for multicellularity. PMID:26395484

  3. Virulence of the Pseudomonas fluorescens clinical strain MFN1032 towards Dictyostelium discoideum and macrophages in relation with type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I MFN1032 is a clinical isolate able to grow at 37°C. This strain displays secretion-mediated hemolytic activity involving phospholipase C and cyclolipopeptides, and a cell-associated hemolytic activity distinct from the secreted hemolytic activity. Cell-associated hemolysis is independent of biosurfactant production and remains in a gacA mutant. Disruption of the hrpU-like operon (the basal part of type III secretion system from rhizospheric strains) suppresses this activity. We hypothesized that this phenotype could reflect evolution of an ancestral mechanism involved in the survival of this species in its natural niche. In this study, we evaluated the hrpU-like operon’s contribution to other virulence mechanisms using a panel of Pseudomonas strains from various sources. Results We found that MFN1032 inhibited the growth of the amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum and that this inhibition involved the hrpU-like operon and was absent in a gacA mutant. MFN1032 was capable of causing macrophage lysis, if the hrpU-like operon was intact, and this cytotoxicity remained in a gacA mutant. Cell-associated hemolytic activity and macrophage necrosis were found in other P. fluorescens clinical isolates, but not in biocontrol P. fluorescens strains harbouring hrpU-like operon. The growth of Dictyostelium discoideum was inhibited to a different extent by P. fluorescens strains without correlation between this inhibition and hrpU-like operon sequences. Conclusions In P. fluorescens MFN1032, the basal part of type III secretion system plays a role in D. discoideum growth inhibition and macrophage necrosis. The inhibition of D. discoideum growth is dependent on the GacS/GacA system, while cell-associated hemolytic activity and macrophage lysis are not. Virulence against eukaryotic cells based on the hrpU-like operon may be more than just a stochastic evolution of a conserved system dedicated to survival in competition with natural

  4. Growth and developmental functions of a human immunodeficiency virus Tat-binding protein/26S protease subunit homolog from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J G; Firtel, R A

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a newly identified gene from Dictyostelium discoideum, DdTBP alpha, that encodes a member of the family of eukaryotic proteins. These proteins contain a conserved ATPase domain, include subunits of the 26S protease subunit, and are homologous to the mammalian human immunodeficiency virus Tat-binding protein TBP1. While information indicates that some family members are involved in the regulation of transcription in mammalian and yeast cells during growth, these proteins are also involved in other cellular functions, and nothing is known about their possible function in multicellular development. The Dictyostelium DdTBP alpha gene is developmentally regulated, with its expression at the highest levels occurring during growth and early development. The gene is present in two copies in the genome. Disruption of one copy by homologous recombination leads to aberrant morphogenesis, which lasts from the formation of the first finger until the onset of culmination. The gene appears to be essential for growth since we were unable to obtain a complete null phenotype and since expression of an inducible antisense construct in the partial null background resulted in cell death. Expression of the antisense construct during development accentuated the partial null phenotype and also resulted in very abnormal fruiting bodies. Overexpression of DdTBP alpha from its own promoter leads to very large multinucleated vegetative cells when the cells are grown in suspension culture. When the cells are plated onto petri dishes in growth medium, they rapidly split into multiple cells containing one to two nuclei, in a manner similar to that of wild-type cells. Overexpressing cells are significantly delayed in forming a multicellular aggregate, but development proceeds normally once the first finger stage is reached. The results indicate that DdTBP alpha plays an important role in regulating both growth and morphogenesis in D. discoideum. PMID:7862164

  5. Structure of the 34 kDa F-actin-bundling protein ABP34 from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ji-Sun; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2015-09-01

    The crystal structure of the 34 kDa F-actin-bundling protein ABP34 from Dictyostelium discoideum was solved by Ca(2+)/S-SAD phasing and refined at 1.89 Å resolution. ABP34 is a calcium-regulated actin-binding protein that cross-links actin filaments into bundles. Its in vitro F-actin-binding and F-actin-bundling activities were confirmed by a co-sedimentation assay and transmission electron microscopy. The co-localization of ABP34 with actin in cells was also verified. ABP34 adopts a two-domain structure with an EF-hand-containing N-domain and an actin-binding C-domain, but has no reported overall structural homologues. The EF-hand is occupied by a calcium ion with a pentagonal bipyramidal coordination as in the canonical EF-hand. The C-domain structure resembles a three-helical bundle and superposes well onto the rod-shaped helical structures of some cytoskeletal proteins. Residues 216-244 in the C-domain form part of the strongest actin-binding sites (193-254) and exhibit a conserved sequence with the actin-binding region of α-actinin and ABP120. Furthermore, the second helical region of the C-domain is kinked by a proline break, offering a convex surface towards the solvent area which is implicated in actin binding. The F-actin-binding model suggests that ABP34 binds to the side of the actin filament and residues 216-244 fit into a pocket between actin subdomains -1 and -2 through hydrophobic interactions. These studies provide insights into the calcium coordination in the EF-hand and F-actin-binding site in the C-domain of ABP34, which are associated through interdomain interactions. PMID:26327373

  6. Partial genetic suppression of a loss-of-function mutant of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-associated protease TPP1 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is the most common childhood-onset neurodegenerative disease. NCL is inevitably fatal, and there is currently no treatment available. Children with NCL show a progressive decline in movement, vision and mental abilities, and an accumulation of autofluorescent deposits in neurons and other cell types. Late-infantile NCL is caused by mutations in the lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). TPP1 cleaves tripeptides from the N-terminus of proteins in vitro, but little is known about the physiological function of TPP1. TPP1 shows wide conservation in vertebrates but it is not found in Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we characterize ddTpp1, a TPP1 ortholog present in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Lysates from cells lacking ddTpp1 show a reduced but not abolished ability to cleave a TPP1 substrate, suggesting that other Dictyostelium enzymes can perform this cleavage. ddTpp1 and human TPP1 localize to the lysosome in Dictyostelium, indicating conserved function and trafficking. Cells that lack ddTpp1 show precocious multicellular development and a reduced ability to form spores during development. When cultured in autophagy-stimulating conditions, cells lacking ddTpp1 rapidly decrease in size and are less viable than wild-type cells, suggesting that one function of ddTpp1 could be to limit autophagy. Cells that lack ddTpp1 exhibit strongly impaired development in the presence of the lysosome-perturbing drug chloroquine, and this phenotype can be suppressed through a secondary mutation in the gene that we name suppressor of tpp1(-) A (stpA), which encodes a protein with some similarity to mammalian oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs). Taken together, these results suggest that targeting specific proteins could be a viable way to suppress the effects of loss of TPP1 function. PMID:25540127

  7. Partial genetic suppression of a loss-of-function mutant of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-associated protease TPP1 in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jonathan E.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is the most common childhood-onset neurodegenerative disease. NCL is inevitably fatal, and there is currently no treatment available. Children with NCL show a progressive decline in movement, vision and mental abilities, and an accumulation of autofluorescent deposits in neurons and other cell types. Late-infantile NCL is caused by mutations in the lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). TPP1 cleaves tripeptides from the N-terminus of proteins in vitro, but little is known about the physiological function of TPP1. TPP1 shows wide conservation in vertebrates but it is not found in Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we characterize ddTpp1, a TPP1 ortholog present in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Lysates from cells lacking ddTpp1 show a reduced but not abolished ability to cleave a TPP1 substrate, suggesting that other Dictyostelium enzymes can perform this cleavage. ddTpp1 and human TPP1 localize to the lysosome in Dictyostelium, indicating conserved function and trafficking. Cells that lack ddTpp1 show precocious multicellular development and a reduced ability to form spores during development. When cultured in autophagy-stimulating conditions, cells lacking ddTpp1 rapidly decrease in size and are less viable than wild-type cells, suggesting that one function of ddTpp1 could be to limit autophagy. Cells that lack ddTpp1 exhibit strongly impaired development in the presence of the lysosome-perturbing drug chloroquine, and this phenotype can be suppressed through a secondary mutation in the gene that we name suppressor of tpp1− A (stpA), which encodes a protein with some similarity to mammalian oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs). Taken together, these results suggest that targeting specific proteins could be a viable way to suppress the effects of loss of TPP1 function. PMID:25540127

  8. Cell Sorting in the Mound Stage of Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Levine, Herbert; Glazier, James

    1998-03-01

    In the mound stage of slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, cells differentiated into two types: pre-stalk and pre-spore. Pre-stalk cells sort and form a tip at the apex of the mound of prespore cells. How this pattern forms is as yet unknown. A cellular level model allows us to simulate both differential cell adhesion and chemotaxis, two principle mechanisms for cell migration. Simulations show that with differential adhesion only, pre-stalk cells move to the surface of the mound but form no tip. With chemotaxis driven by an outgoing circular wave only, a tip forms but contains both pre-stalk and pre-spore cells. Only for a narrow range of relative strengths between differential adhesion and chemotaxis, can both mechanisms work in concert to form a tip which contains only pre-stalk cells. The simulations provide a method to determine the processes necessary for patterning and suggest a series of further experiments.

  9. Dictyostelium discoideum has a highly Q/N-rich proteome and shows an unusual resilience to protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Malinovska, Liliana; Palm, Sandra; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many protein-misfolding diseases are caused by proteins carrying prion-like domains. These proteins show sequence similarity to yeast prion proteins, which can interconvert between an intrinsically disordered and an aggregated prion state. The natural presence of prions in yeast has provided important insight into disease mechanisms and cellular proteostasis. However, little is known about prions in other organisms, and it is not yet clear whether the findings in yeast can be generalized. Using bioinformatics tools, we show that Dictyostelium discoideum has the highest content of prion-like proteins of all organisms investigated to date, suggesting that its proteome has a high overall aggregation propensity. To study mechanisms regulating these proteins, we analyze the behavior of several well-characterized prion-like proteins, such as an expanded version of human huntingtin exon 1 (Q103) and the prion domain of the yeast prion protein Sup35 (NM), in D. discoideum. We find that these proteins remain soluble and are innocuous to D. discoideum, in contrast to other organisms, where they form cytotoxic cytosolic aggregates. However, when exposed to conditions that compromise molecular chaperones, these proteins aggregate and become cytotoxic. We show that the disaggregase Hsp101, a molecular chaperone of the Hsp100 family, dissolves heat-induced aggregates and promotes thermotolerance. Furthermore, prion-like proteins accumulate in the nucleus, where they are targeted by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Our data suggest that D. discoideum has undergone specific adaptations that increase the proteostatic capacity of this organism and allow for an efficient regulation of its prion-like proteome. PMID:25941378

  10. Dictyostelium discoideum has a highly Q/N-rich proteome and shows an unusual resilience to protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Malinovska, Liliana; Palm, Sandra; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

    2015-05-19

    Many protein-misfolding diseases are caused by proteins carrying prion-like domains. These proteins show sequence similarity to yeast prion proteins, which can interconvert between an intrinsically disordered and an aggregated prion state. The natural presence of prions in yeast has provided important insight into disease mechanisms and cellular proteostasis. However, little is known about prions in other organisms, and it is not yet clear whether the findings in yeast can be generalized. Using bioinformatics tools, we show that Dictyostelium discoideum has the highest content of prion-like proteins of all organisms investigated to date, suggesting that its proteome has a high overall aggregation propensity. To study mechanisms regulating these proteins, we analyze the behavior of several well-characterized prion-like proteins, such as an expanded version of human huntingtin exon 1 (Q103) and the prion domain of the yeast prion protein Sup35 (NM), in D. discoideum. We find that these proteins remain soluble and are innocuous to D. discoideum, in contrast to other organisms, where they form cytotoxic cytosolic aggregates. However, when exposed to conditions that compromise molecular chaperones, these proteins aggregate and become cytotoxic. We show that the disaggregase Hsp101, a molecular chaperone of the Hsp100 family, dissolves heat-induced aggregates and promotes thermotolerance. Furthermore, prion-like proteins accumulate in the nucleus, where they are targeted by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our data suggest that D. discoideum has undergone specific adaptations that increase the proteostatic capacity of this organism and allow for an efficient regulation of its prion-like proteome. PMID:25941378

  11. Fluorographic detection of tritiated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides separated on polyacrylamide gels: analysis of glycans from Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Prem Das, O.; Henderson, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Previous workers have shown that oligosaccharides and glycopeptides can be separated by electrophoresis in buffers containing borate ions. However, normal fluorography of tritium-labeled structures cannot be performed because the glycans are soluble and can diffuse during equilibration with scintillants. This problem has been circumvented by equilibration of the gel with 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) prior to electrophoresis. The presence of PPO in the gel during electrophoresis does not alter mobility of the glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. After electrophoresis, the gel is simply dried and fluorography performed. This allows sensitive and precise comparisons of labeled samples in parallel lanes of a slab gel and, since mobilities are highly reproducible, between different gels. The procedure is preparative in that after fluorography the gel bands can be quantitatively eluted for further study, without any apparent modification by the procedure. In this report, the procedure is illustrated by fractionation of both neutral and anionic glycopeptides produced by the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  12. Cyclophilins of a novel subfamily interact with SNW/SKIP coregulator in Dictyostelium discoideum and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Skruzný, M; Ambrozková, M; Fuková, I; Martínková, K; Blahůsková, A; Hamplová, L; Půta, F; Folk, P

    2001-10-31

    We screened the Dictyostelium discoideum two-hybrid cDNA library with the SNW/SKIP transcription coregulator SnwA and identified a novel cyclophilin CypE. Independently, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cDNA library was screened with the SnwA ortholog Snw1 and the ortholog of CypE (named Cyp2) was found. Both cyclophilins bind the respective SNW protein in their autologous systems. The interaction was localized to the N-terminal part of SnwA as well as of Snw1. CypE was confirmed in vitro to be a cyclosporin A-sensitive peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Remarkably, both SNW proteins bind the cyclophilins in a cyclosporin A independent manner, possibly serving as adaptors for these novel isomerases. These results are the first characterization of the members of a novel cyclophilin subfamily, which includes the human CGI-124/PPIL1 protein. PMID:11690648

  13. Flow-Driven Waves and Phase-Locked Self-Organization in Quasi-One-Dimensional Colonies of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, A.; Steinbock, O.; Zykov, V.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2015-01-01

    We report experiments on flow-driven waves in a microfluidic channel containing the signaling slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The observed cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) wave trains developed spontaneously in the presence of flow and propagated with the velocity proportional to the imposed flow velocity. The period of the wave trains was independent of the flow velocity. Perturbations of flow-driven waves via external periodic pulses of the signaling agent cAMP induced 1 ∶1 , 2 ∶1 , 3 ∶1 , and 1 ∶2 frequency responses, reminiscent of Arnold tongues in forced oscillatory systems. We expect our observations to be generic to active media governed by reaction-diffusion-advection dynamics, where spatially bound autocatalytic processes occur under flow conditions.

  14. Flow-driven waves and phase-locked self-organization in quasi-one-dimensional colonies of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Gholami, A; Steinbock, O; Zykov, V; Bodenschatz, E

    2015-01-01

    We report experiments on flow-driven waves in a microfluidic channel containing the signaling slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The observed cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) wave trains developed spontaneously in the presence of flow and propagated with the velocity proportional to the imposed flow velocity. The period of the wave trains was independent of the flow velocity. Perturbations of flow-driven waves via external periodic pulses of the signaling agent cAMP induced 1∶1, 2∶1, 3∶1, and 1∶2 frequency responses, reminiscent of Arnold tongues in forced oscillatory systems. We expect our observations to be generic to active media governed by reaction-diffusion-advection dynamics, where spatially bound autocatalytic processes occur under flow conditions. PMID:25615506

  15. Screening of genes involved in cell migration in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Akira; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2008-03-10

    A single cell of wild-type Dictyostelium discoideum forms a visible colony on a plastic dish in several days, but due to enhanced cell migration, amiB-null mutant cells scatter over a large area and do not form noticeable colonies. Here, with an aim to identify genes involved in cell migration, we isolated suppresser mutants of amiB-null mutants that restore the ability to form colonies. From REMI (restriction enzyme-mediated integration)-mutagenized pool of double-mutants, we identified 18 responsible genes from them. These genes can be categorized into several biological processes. One cell line, Sab16 (Suppressor of amiB) was chosen for further analysis, which had a disrupted phospholipase D pldB gene. To confirm the role of pldB gene in cell migration, we knocked out the pldB gene and over-expressed gfp-pldB in wild-type cells. GFP-PLDB localized to plasma membrane and on vesicles, and in migrating cells, at the protruding regions of pseudopodia. Migration speed of vegetative pldB-null cells was reduced to 73% of that of the wild-type. These results suggest that PLDB plays an important role in migration in Dictyostelium cells, and that our screening system is useful for the identification of genes involved in cell migration. PMID:18164290

  16. Relevance of the bioavailable fraction of DDT and its metabolites in freshwater sediment toxicity: New insight into the mode of action of these chemicals on Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sforzini, Susanna; Governa, Daniela; Boeri, Marta; Oliveri, Laura; Oldani, Alessandro; Vago, Fabio; Viarengo, Aldo; Borrelli, Raffaella

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the toxicity of lake sediments contaminated with DDT and its metabolites DDD and DDE (collectively, DDX) was evaluated with widely used toxicity tests (i.e., Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and Lumbriculus variegatus) and with the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism that is also suitable for studying pollutant-induced alterations at the molecular and cellular levels. Although the DDX concentration in the sediments was high (732.5 ppb), the results suggested a minimal environmental risk; in fact, no evidence of harmful effects was found using the different bioassays or when we considered the results of more sensitive sublethal biomarkers in D. discoideum amoebae. In line with the biological results, the chemical data showed that the concentration of DDX in the pore water (in general a highly bioavailable phase) showed a minimal value (0.0071ppb). To confirm the importance of the bioavailability of the toxic chemicals in determining their biological effects and to investigate the mechanisms of DDX toxicity, we exposed D. discoideum amoebae to 732.5ppb DDX in water solution. DDX had no effect on cell viability; however, a strong reduction in amoebae replication rate was observed, which depended mainly on a reduction in endocytosis rate and on lysosomal and mitochondrial alterations. In the presence of a moderate and transient increase in reactive oxygen species, the glutathione level in DDX-exposed amoebae drastically decreased. These results highlight that studies of the bioavailability of pollutants in environmental matrices and their biological effects are essential for site-specific ecological risk assessment. Moreover, glutathione depletion in DDX-exposed organisms is a new finding that could open the possibility of developing new pesticide mixtures that are more effective against DDT-resistant malaria vectors. PMID:27340883

  17. Sex ratio and gamete size across eastern North America in Dictyostelium discoideum, a social amoeba with three sexes.

    PubMed

    Douglas, T E; Strassmann, J E; Queller, D C

    2016-07-01

    Theory indicates that numbers of mating types should tend towards infinity or remain at two. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, however, has three mating types. It is therefore a mystery how this species has broken the threshold of two mating types, but has not increased towards a much higher number. Frequency-dependent selection on rare types in combination with isogamy, a form of reproduction involving gametes similar in size, could explain the evolution of multiple mating types in this system. Other factors, such as drift, may be preventing the evolution of more than three. We first looked for evidence of isogamy by measuring gamete size associated with each type. We found no evidence of size dissimilarities between gametes. We then looked for evidence of balancing selection, by examining mating type distributions in natural populations and comparing genetic differentiation at the mating type locus to that at more neutral loci. We found that mating type frequency varied among the three populations we examined, with only one of the three showing an even sex ratio, which does not support balancing selection. However, we found more population structure at neutral loci than the mating type locus, suggesting that the three mating types are indeed maintained at intermediate frequencies by balancing selection. Overall, the data are consistent with balancing selection acting on D. discoideum mating types, but with a sufficiently weak rare sex advantage to allow for drift, a potential explanation for why these amoebae have only three mating types. PMID:27018644

  18. Dictyostelium discoideum as a surrogate host-microbe model for antivirulence screening in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Toncio, Catalina; Álvarez, Javiera A; Campos, Francisca; Ortíz-Severín, Javiera; Varas, Macarena; Cabrera, Ricardo; Lagos, Carlos F; Chávez, Francisco P

    2016-05-01

    The interest of the pharmaceutical industry in developing new antibiotics is decreasing, as established screening systems which identify compounds that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria can no longer be used. Consequently, antimicrobial screening using classical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements is becoming obsolete. The discovery of antimicrobial agents that specifically target a bacterial pathogen without affecting the host and its beneficial bacteria is a promising strategy. However, few host-microbe models are available for in vivo screening of novel antivirulence molecules. Here we designed high-throughput developmental assays in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to measure Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and to screen for novel antivirulence molecules without side effects to the host and its beneficial bacteria Klebsiella aerogenes. Thirty compounds were evaluated that had been previously selected by virtual screening for inhibitors of P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyphosphate kinase 1 (PaPPK1) and diverse compounds with combined PPK1 inhibitory and antivirulence activities were identified. This approach demonstrates that D. discoideum is a suitable surrogate host for preliminary high-throughput screening of antivirulence agents and that PPK1 is a suitable target for developing novel antivirulence compounds that can be further validated in mammalian models. PMID:27066943

  19. Disruption of inositol biosynthesis through targeted mutagenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum: generation and characterization of inositol-auxotrophic mutants.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Andreas; Adelt, Stephan; Müller, Alexander; Vogel, Günter

    2006-08-01

    myo-Inositol and its downstream metabolites participate in diverse physiological processes. Nevertheless, considering their variety, it is likely that additional roles are yet to be uncovered. Biosynthesis of myo-inositol takes place via an evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathway and is strictly dependent on inositol-3-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4). Genetic manipulation of this enzyme will disrupt the cellular inositol supply. Two methods, based on gene deletion and antisense strategy, were used to generate mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. These mutants are inositol-auxotrophic and show phenotypic changes under inositol starvation. One remarkable attribute is their inability to live by phagocytosis of bacteria, which is the exclusive nutrient source in their natural environment. Cultivated on fluid medium, the mutants lose their viability when deprived of inositol for longer than 24 h. Here, we report a study of the alterations in the first 24 h in cellular inositol, inositol phosphate and phosphoinositide concentrations, whereby a rapidly accumulating phosphorylated compound was detected. After its identification as 2,3-BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate), evidence could be found that the internal disturbances of inositol homoeostasis trigger the accumulation. In a first attempt to characterize this as a physiologically relevant response, the efficient in vitro inhibition of a D. discoideum inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56) by 2,3-BPG is presented. PMID:16599905

  20. Disruption of inositol biosynthesis through targeted mutagenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum: generation and characterization of inositol-auxotrophic mutants

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Andreas; Adelt, Stephan; Müller, Alexander; Vogel, Günter

    2006-01-01

    myo-Inositol and its downstream metabolites participate in diverse physiological processes. Nevertheless, considering their variety, it is likely that additional roles are yet to be uncovered. Biosynthesis of myo-inositol takes place via an evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathway and is strictly dependent on inositol-3-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4). Genetic manipulation of this enzyme will disrupt the cellular inositol supply. Two methods, based on gene deletion and antisense strategy, were used to generate mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. These mutants are inositol-auxotrophic and show phenotypic changes under inositol starvation. One remarkable attribute is their inability to live by phagocytosis of bacteria, which is the exclusive nutrient source in their natural environment. Cultivated on fluid medium, the mutants lose their viability when deprived of inositol for longer than 24 h. Here, we report a study of the alterations in the first 24 h in cellular inositol, inositol phosphate and phosphoinositide concentrations, whereby a rapidly accumulating phosphorylated compound was detected. After its identification as 2,3-BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate), evidence could be found that the internal disturbances of inositol homoeostasis trigger the accumulation. In a first attempt to characterize this as a physiologically relevant response, the efficient in vitro inhibition of a D. discoideum inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56) by 2,3-BPG is presented. PMID:16599905

  1. The TOM Complex of Amoebozoans: the Cases of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Buczek, Dorota; Stobienia, Olgierd; Karachitos, Andonis; Antoniewicz, Monika; Slocinska, Małgorzata; Makałowski, Wojciech; Kmita, Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Protein import into mitochondria requires a wide variety of proteins, forming complexes in both mitochondrial membranes. The TOM complex (translocase of the outer membrane) is responsible for decoding of targeting signals, translocation of imported proteins across or into the outer membrane, and their subsequent sorting. Thus the TOM complex is regarded as the main gate into mitochondria for imported proteins. Available data indicate that mitochondria of representative organisms from across the major phylogenetic lineages of eukaryotes differ in subunit organization of the TOM complex. The subunit organization of the TOM complex in the Amoebozoa is still elusive, so we decided to investigate its organization in the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. They represent two major subclades of the Amoebozoa: the Lobosa and Conosa, respectively. Our results confirm the presence of Tom70, Tom40 and Tom7 in the A. castellanii and D. discoideum TOM complex, while the presence of Tom22 and Tom20 is less supported. Interestingly, the Tom proteins display the highest similarity to Opisthokonta cognate proteins, with the exception of Tom40. Thus representatives of two major subclades of the Amoebozoa appear to be similar in organization of the TOM complex, despite differences in their lifestyle. PMID:26074248

  2. Codon usage, genetic code and phylogeny of Dictyostelium discoideum mitochondrial DNA as deduced from a 7.3-kb region.

    PubMed

    Angata, K; Kuroe, K; Yanagisawa, K; Tanaka, Y

    1995-02-01

    We have sequenced a region (7,376-bp) of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA (54 kb) of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. From the DNA and amino-acid sequence comparisons with known sequences, genes for ATPase subunit 9 (ATP9), cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1, 3 and 6 (ND1, ND3 and ND6), small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) and seven tRNAs (Arg, Asn, Cys, Lys, f-Met, Met and Pro) have been identified. The sequenced region of the mtDNA has a high average A + T-content (70.8%). The A + T-content of protein-genes (73.6%) is considerably higher than that of RNA genes (61.3%). Even with the strong AT-bias, the genetic code employed is most probably the universal one. All seven tRNAs are able to form typical clover leaf structures. The molecular phylogenetic trees of CYTB and SSU rRNA suggest that D. discoideum is closer to green plants than to animals and fungi. PMID:7736610

  3. Amoeba-resisting bacteria found in multilamellar bodies secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum: social amoebae can also package bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2016-03-01

    Many bacteria can resist phagocytic digestion by various protozoa. Some of these bacteria (all human pathogens) are known to be packaged in multilamellar bodies produced in the phagocytic pathway of the protozoa and that are secreted into the extracellular milieu. Packaged bacteria are protected from harsh conditions, and the packaging process is suspected to promote bacterial persistence in the environment. To date, only a limited number of protozoa, belonging to free-living amoebae and ciliates, have been shown to perform bacteria packaging. It is still unknown if social amoebae can do bacteria packaging. The link between the capacity of 136 bacterial isolates to resist the grazing of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and to be packaged by this amoeba was investigated in the present study. The 45 bacterial isolates displaying a resisting phenotype were tested for their capacity to be packaged. A total of seven isolates from Cupriavidus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium and Rathayibacter genera seemed to be packaged and secreted by D. discoideum based on immunofluorescence results. Electron microscopy confirmed that the Cupriavidus and Rathayibacter isolates were formally packaged. These results show that social amoebae can package some bacteria from the environment revealing a new aspect of microbial ecology. PMID:26862140

  4. Clues to γ-secretase, huntingtin and Hirano body normal function using the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders, although related by their destruction of brain function, display remarkable cellular and/or regional pathogenic specificity likely due to a deregulated functionality of the mutant protein. However, neurodegenerative disease genes, for example huntingtin (HTT), the ataxins, the presenilins (PSEN1/PSEN2) are not simply localized to neurons but are ubiquitously expressed throughout peripheral tissues; it is therefore paramount to properly understand the earliest precipitating events leading to neuronal pathogenesis to develop effective long-term therapies. This means, in no unequivocal terms, it is crucial to understand the gene's normal function. Unfortunately, many genes are often essential for embryogenesis which precludes their study in whole organisms. This is true for HTT, the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins, responsible for early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand neurological disease in humans, many lower and higher eukaryotic models have been established. So the question arises: how reasonable is the use of organisms to study neurological disorders when the model of choice does not contain neurons? Here we will review the surprising, and novel emerging use of the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, a species of soil-living amoeba, as a valuable biomedical tool to study the normal function of neurodegenerative genes. Historically, the evidence on the usefulness of simple organisms to understand the etiology of cellular pathology cannot be denied. But using an organism without a central nervous system to understand diseases of the brain? We will first introduce the life cycle of Dictyostelium, the presence of many disease genes in the genome and how it has provided unique opportunities to identify mechanisms of disease involving actin pathologies, mitochondrial disease, human lysosomal and trafficking disorders and host-pathogen interactions. Secondly, I will highlight recent studies on

  5. Clues to γ-secretase, huntingtin and Hirano body normal function using the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders, although related by their destruction of brain function, display remarkable cellular and/or regional pathogenic specificity likely due to a deregulated functionality of the mutant protein. However, neurodegenerative disease genes, for example huntingtin (HTT), the ataxins, the presenilins (PSEN1/PSEN2) are not simply localized to neurons but are ubiquitously expressed throughout peripheral tissues; it is therefore paramount to properly understand the earliest precipitating events leading to neuronal pathogenesis to develop effective long-term therapies. This means, in no unequivocal terms, it is crucial to understand the gene's normal function. Unfortunately, many genes are often essential for embryogenesis which precludes their study in whole organisms. This is true for HTT, the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins, responsible for early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand neurological disease in humans, many lower and higher eukaryotic models have been established. So the question arises: how reasonable is the use of organisms to study neurological disorders when the model of choice does not contain neurons? Here we will review the surprising, and novel emerging use of the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, a species of soil-living amoeba, as a valuable biomedical tool to study the normal function of neurodegenerative genes. Historically, the evidence on the usefulness of simple organisms to understand the etiology of cellular pathology cannot be denied. But using an organism without a central nervous system to understand diseases of the brain? We will first introduce the life cycle of Dictyostelium, the presence of many disease genes in the genome and how it has provided unique opportunities to identify mechanisms of disease involving actin pathologies, mitochondrial disease, human lysosomal and trafficking disorders and host-pathogen interactions. Secondly, I will highlight recent studies on

  6. Naringenin is a novel inhibitor of Dictyostelium cell proliferation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Misty, Russ; Martinez, Raquel; Ali, Hind; Steimle, Paul A

    2006-06-23

    Naringenin is a flavanone compound that alters critical cellular processes such as cell multiplication, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial activity. In this study, we used the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, as a model system for examining the cellular processes and signaling pathways affected by naringenin. We found that naringenin inhibited Dictyostelium cell division in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) approximately 20 microM). Assays of Dictyostelium chemotaxis and multicellular development revealed that naringenin possesses a previously unrecognized ability to suppress amoeboid cell motility. We also found that naringenin, which is known to inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, had no apparent effect on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate synthesis in live Dictyostelium cells; suggesting that this compound suppresses cell growth and migration via alternative signaling pathways. In another context, the discoveries described here highlight the value of using the Dictyostelium model system for identifying and characterizing the mechanisms by which naringenin, and related compounds, exert their effects on eukaryotic cells. PMID:16682000

  7. Naringenin is a novel inhibitor of Dictyostelium cell proliferation and cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Misty; Martinez, Raquel; Ali, Hind; Steimle, Paul A. . E-mail: p_steiml@uncg.edu

    2006-06-23

    Naringenin is a flavanone compound that alters critical cellular processes such as cell multiplication, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial activity. In this study, we used the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, as a model system for examining the cellular processes and signaling pathways affected by naringenin. We found that naringenin inhibited Dictyostelium cell division in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 5} {approx} 20 {mu}M). Assays of Dictyostelium chemotaxis and multicellular development revealed that naringenin possesses a previously unrecognized ability to suppress amoeboid cell motility. We also found that naringenin, which is known to inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, had no apparent effect on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate synthesis in live Dictyostelium cells; suggesting that this compound suppresses cell growth and migration via alternative signaling pathways. In another context, the discoveries described here highlight the value of using the Dictyostelium model system for identifying and characterizing the mechanisms by which naringenin, and related compounds, exert their effects on eukaryotic cells.

  8. DdAlix, an Alix/AIP1 homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, is required for multicellular development under low Ca2+ conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Susumu; El-Halawany, Medhat S; Aruga, Fumika; Shibata, Hideki; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Maki, Masatoshi

    2004-08-01

    Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) interacting protein X (Alix), also called AIP1, is a widely conserved protein in eukaryotes. Alix and its homologs are involved in various phenomena such as apoptosis, regulation of cell adhesion, protein sorting, adaptation to stress conditions, and budding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To investigate the role of Alix in development, we identified an Alix homolog in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and disrupted the gene by homologous recombination. The growth of DdAlix deletion mutant (alx-) cells was significantly impaired in the presence of 5 mM Li+. On an agar plate, alx- cells underwent normal development and formed fruiting bodies indistinguishable from those formed by wild-type cells. However, alx- cells could not form fruiting bodies in the presence of 5 mM Li+. Similar results were obtained when cells were developed in the presence of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester (TMB-8), which is an antagonist of intracellular Ca2+ store. Furthermore, when the extracellular free Ca2+ was reduced to 10 nM, the ability of alx- cells, but not that of wild-type cells, to form fruiting bodies was impaired. The results indicate that DdAlix is essential for development under low Ca2+ conditions and suggest that DdAlix is involved in Ca2+ signaling during development. PMID:15276209

  9. Mutations affecting sensitivity of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum to DNA-damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Bronner, C E; Welker, D L; Deering, R A

    1992-09-01

    We describe 22 new mutants of D. discoideum that are sensitive to DNA damage. These mutants were isolated on the basis of sensitivity to either temperature, gamma-rays, or 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4NQO). The doses of gamma-rays, ultraviolet light (UV), and 4NQO required to reduce the survival of colony-forming ability of these mutants to 10% (D10) range from 2% to 100% of the D10s for the nonmutant, parent strains. For most of the mutants, those which are very sensitive to one agent are very sensitive to all agents tested and those which are moderately sensitive to one agent, are moderately sensitive to all agents tested. One mutant is sensitive only to 4NQO. Linkage relationships have been examined for 13 of these mutants. This linkage information was used to design complementation tests to determine allelism with previously characterized complementation groups affecting sensitivity to radiation. 4 of the new mutants fall within previously identified complementation groups and 3 new complementation groups have been identified (radJ, radK and radL). Other new loci probably also exist among these new mutants. This brings the number of characterized mutants of D. discoideum which are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents to 33 and the number of assigned complementation groups to 11. PMID:1380652

  10. cDNA cloning and disruption of the major vault protein alpha gene (mvpA) in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Vasu, S K; Kedersha, N L; Rome, L H

    1993-07-25

    Vaults are large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Dictyostelium vaults contain two major proteins, MVP alpha (94.2 kDa) and MVP beta (approximately 92 kDa). Using an anti-rat vault antibody, we screened a Dictyostelium cDNA expression library and isolated a 2.8-kilobase pair clone that contained a single full-length reading frame. The identity of the clone was established by the presence of a predicted 20-amino acid sequence identical to that found in a peptide sequenced from purified MVP alpha. We have disrupted the single copy gene using homologous recombination and have demonstrated a loss of MVP alpha. Although the cells still produce MVP beta, they do not contain characteristic vault particles, suggesting that MVP alpha is required for normal vault structure. These cells should be a valuable tool for elucidating the function of vaults. PMID:8340365

  11. Interaptin, an Actin-binding Protein of the α-Actinin Superfamily in Dictyostelium discoideum, Is Developmentally and cAMP-regulated and Associates with Intracellular Membrane Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Francisco; Kuspa, Adam; Brokamp, Regine; Matzner, Monika; Noegel, Angelika A.

    1998-01-01

    In a search for novel members of the α-actinin superfamily, a Dictyostelium discoideum genomic library in yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC) was screened under low stringency conditions using the acting-binding domain of the gelation factor as probe. A new locus was identified and 8.6 kb of genomic DNA were sequenced that encompassed the whole abpD gene. The DNA sequence predicts a protein, interaptin, with a calculated molecular mass of 204,300 D that is constituted by an actin-binding domain, a central coiled-coil rod domain and a membrane-associated domain. In Northern blot analyses a cAMP-stimulated transcript of 5.8 kb is expressed at the stage when cell differentiation occurs. Monoclonal antibodies raised against bacterially expressed interaptin polypeptides recognized a 200-kD developmentally and cAMP-regulated protein and a 160-kD constitutively expressed protein in Western blots. In multicellular structures, interaptin appears to be enriched in anterior-like cells which sort to the upper and lower cups during culmination. The protein is located at the nuclear envelope and ER. In mutants deficient in interaptin development is delayed, but the morphology of the mature fruiting bodies appears normal. When starved in suspension abpD− cells form EDTA-stable aggregates, which, in contrast to wild type, dissociate. Based on its domains and location, interaptin constitutes a potential link between intracellular membrane compartments and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:9700162

  12. The Effects of Extracellular Calcium on Motility, Pseudopod and Uropod Formation, Chemotaxis and the Cortical Localization of Myosin II in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lusche, Daniel F.; Wessels, Deborah; Soll, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular Ca++, a ubiquitous cation in the soluble environment of cells both free living and within the human body, regulates most aspects of amoeboid cell motility, including shape, uropod formation, pseudopod formation, velocity and turning in Dictyostelium discoideum. Hence it affects the efficiency of both basic motile behavior and chemotaxis. Extracellular Ca++ is optimal at 10 mM. A gradient of the chemoattractant cAMP generated in the absence of added Ca++ only affects turning, but in combination with extracellular Ca++, enhances the effects of extracellular Ca++. Potassium, at 40 mM, can substitute for Ca++. Mg++, Mn++, Zn++ and Na+ cannot. Extracellular Ca++, or K+, also induce the cortical localization of myosin II in a polar fashion. The effects of Ca++, K+ or a cAMP gradient do not appear to be similarly mediated by an increase in the general pool of free cytosolic Ca++. These results suggest a model, in which each agent functioning through different signaling systems, converge to affect the cortical localization of myosin II, which in turn effects the behavioral changes leading to efficient cell motility and chemotaxis. PMID:19363786

  13. Excision of pyrimidine dimers from nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid in ultraviolet-irradiated Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; Deering, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    A sensitive endonuclease assay was used to study the fate of pyrimidine dimers introduced by ultraviolet irradiation into the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid of the cellular slime mold Dictyostellium discoideum. Analysis of the frequency of T4 endonuclease V-induced single-strand breaks by alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation showed that strain NC4 (rad/sup +/) removed >98% of the dimers induced by irradiation at 40 J/m/sup 2/ (254 nm) within 215 min after irradiation. HPS104 (radC44), a mutant sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation, removed 91% under these conditions, although at a significantly slower rate than NC4: only 8% were removed during the 10- to 15- min period immediately after irradiation, whereas NC4 excised 64% during this interval. HPS104 thus appears to be deficient in the activity(ies) responsible for rapidly incising ultraviolet-irradiated nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid at the sites of pyrimidine dimers.

  14. Expression and organization of BP74, a cyclic AMP-regulated gene expressed during Dictyostelium discoideum development.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, S B; Pollenz, R S; Drummond, I; Chisholm, R L

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized a cDNA and the corresponding gene for a cyclic AMP-inducible gene expressed during Dictyostelium development. This gene, BP74, was found to be first expressed about the time of aggregate formation, approximately 6 h after starvation. Accumulation of BP74 mRNA did not occur in Dictyostelium cells that had been starved in fast-shaken suspension cultures but was induced in similar cultures to which cyclic AMP pulses had been added. The BP74 cDNA and gene were characterized by DNA sequence analysis and transcriptional mapping. When the BP74 promoter region was fused with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene and reintroduced into Dictyostelium cells, the transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene displayed the same developmentally regulated pattern of expression as did the endogenous BP74 gene, suggesting that all of the cis-acting elements required for regulated expression were carried by a 2-kilobase cloned genomic fragment. On the basis of sequence analysis, the gene appeared to encode a protein containing a 20-residue hydrophobic sequence at the amino-terminal end and 26 copies of a 20-amino-acid repeat. Images PMID:2555685

  15. Protein Interactions Involved in tRNA Gene-Specific Integration of Dictyostelium discoideum Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon TRE5-A▿

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Thanh; Siol, Oliver; Dingermann, Theodor; Winckler, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements that reside in gene-dense genomes face the problem of avoiding devastating insertional mutagenesis of genes in their host cell genomes. To meet this challenge, some Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons have evolved targeted integration at safe sites in the immediate vicinity of tRNA genes. Integration of yeast Ty3 is mediated by interactions of retrotransposon protein with the tRNA gene-specific transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB). In the genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, the non-LTR retrotransposon TRE5-A integrates ∼48 bp upstream of tRNA genes, yet little is known about how the retrotransposon identifies integration sites. Here, we show direct protein interactions of the TRE5-A ORF1 protein with subunits of TFIIIB, suggesting that ORF1p is a component of the TRE5-A preintegration complex that determines integration sites. Our results demonstrate that evolution has put forth similar solutions to prevent damage of diverse, compact genomes by different classes of mobile elements. PMID:17923679

  16. Mitochondria are the target organelle of differentiation-inducing factor-3, an anti-tumor agent isolated from Dictyostelium discoideum [corrected].

    PubMed

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Matsuo, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Homma, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3), found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3) are potent anti-tumor agents. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the actions of DIF-3 remain to be elucidated. In this study, we synthesized a green fluorescent derivative of DIF-3, BODIPY-DIF-3, and a control fluorescent compound, Bu-BODIPY (butyl-BODIPY), and investigated how DIF-like molecules behave in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by using both fluorescence and electron microscopy. BODIPY-DIF-3 at 5-20 µ M suppressed cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas Bu-BODIPY had minimal effect on cell growth. When cells were incubated with BODIPY-DIF-3 at 20 µM, it penetrated cell membranes within 0.5 h and localized mainly in mitochondria, while Bu-BODIPY did not stain the cells. Exposure of cells for 1-3 days to DIF-3, Bu-DIF-3, BODIPY-DIF-3, or CCCP (a mitochondrial uncoupler) induced substantial mitochondrial swelling, suppressing cell growth. When added to isolated mitochondria, DIF-3, Bu-DIF-3, and BOIDPY-DIF-3, like CCCP, dose-dependently promoted the rate of oxygen consumption, but Bu-BODIPY did not. Our results suggest that these bioactive DIF-like molecules suppress cell growth, at least in part, by disturbing mitochondrial activity. This is the first report showing the cellular localization and behavior of DIF-like molecules in mammalian tumor cells. PMID:23977224

  17. The Effects of Temperature Variation on the Sensitivity to Pesticides: a Study on the Slime Mould Dictyostelium discoideum (Protozoa).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Slime moulds live in agricultural ecosystems, where they play an important role in the soil fertilization and in the battle against crop pathogens. In an agricultural soil, the amoebae are exposed to different stress factors such as pesticides and weather conditions. The use of pesticides increased up from 0.49 kg per hectare in 1961 to 2 kg in 2004, and the global greenhouse gas emission has grown 70% between 1970 and 2004 leading to a global fluctuation of average surface temperature. Therefore, the European Directive 2009/128/EC has led to a new approach to agriculture, with the transition from an old concept based on high use of pesticides and fossil fuels to an agriculture aware of biodiversity and health issues. We studied the effects of temperature variations and pesticides on Dictyostelium discoideum. We measured the fission rate, the ability to differentiate and the markers of stress such as the activity and presence of pseudocholinesterase and the presence of heat shock protein 70. Our results highlight how the sensitivity to zinc, aluminium, silver, copper, cadmium, mercury, diazinon and dicofol changes for a 2 °C variation from nothing/low to critical. Our work suggests considering, in future regulations, about the use of pesticides as their toxic effect on non-target organisms is strongly influenced by climate temperatures. In addition, there is a need for a new consideration of the protozoa, which takes into account recent researches about the presence in this microorganism of classical neurotransmitters that, similar to those in animals, make protozoa an innocent target of neurotoxic pesticides in the battle against the pest crops. PMID:25515424

  18. Properties of a non-bioactive fluorescent derivative of differentiation-inducing factor-3, an anti-tumor agent found in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Matsuo, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Homma, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3), found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives, such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3), are potent anti-tumor agents. To investigate the activity of DIF-like molecules in tumor cells, we recently synthesized a green fluorescent DIF-3 derivative, BODIPY-DIF-3G, and analyzed its bioactivity and cellular localization. In this study, we synthesized a red (orange) fluorescent DIF-3 derivative, BODIPY-DIF-3R, and compared the cellular localization and bioactivities of the two BODIPY-DIF-3s in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Both fluorescent compounds penetrated the extracellular membrane within 0.5 h and localized mainly to the mitochondria. In formalin-fixed cells, the two BODIPY-DIF-3s also localized to the mitochondria, indicating that the BODIPY-DIF-3s were incorporated into mitochondria independently of the mitochondrial membrane potential. After treatment for 3 days, BODIPY-DIF-3G, but not BODIPY-DIF-3R, induced mitochondrial swelling and suppressed cell proliferation. Interestingly, the swollen mitochondria were stainable with BODIPY-DIF-3G but not with BODIPY-DIF-3R. When added to isolated mitochondria in vitro, BODIPY-DIF-3G increased dose-dependently the rate of O2 consumption, but BODIPY-DIF-3R did not. These results suggest that the bioactive BODIPY-DIF-3G suppresses cell proliferation, at least in part, by altering mitochondrial activity, whereas the non-bioactive BODIPY-DIF-3R localizes to the mitochondria but does not affect mitochondrial activity or cell proliferation. PMID:24682009

  19. A ribosomal protein gene cluster is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of Dictyostelium discoideum: UGA termination codons and similarity of gene order to Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, M; Pi, M; Kurihara, M; Morio, T; Tanaka, Y

    1998-04-01

    We sequenced a region of about 14.5 kb downstream from the ribosomal protein L11 gene (rpl11) in the mitochondrial DNA (54+/-2 kb) of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Sequence analysis revealed that eleven ribosomal protein genes and six open reading frames (ORFs) formed a cluster arranged in the order: rpl11-orf189-rps12-rps7-rpl2-rps19-+ ++orf425-orf1740-rpl16-rpl14-orf188- rps14-rps8-rpl6-rps13-orf127-orf796. This order was very similar to that of homologous genes in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial DNA. The N-terminal region of ORF425 and the C-terminal region of ORF1740 had partial similarities to the S3 ribosomal protein of other organisms. The termination codons of rpl16 and orf188 were UGA, which has not hitherto been found in genes encoded in D. discoideum mitochondrial DNA. PMID:9560439

  20. Alterations of nuclear DNA synthesis after irradiation of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum: studies performed in a mutant strain displaying enhanced thymidine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The auxotrophic Dictyostelium discoideum strain HPS 401 was studied. Thymidine at 8 ..mu..g/ml or thymidylate at 50 ..mu..g/ml supported growth to maximal cell densities. Thin layer chromatography of cell extracts showed rapid intracellular accumulation of thymidine in HPS 401 vs slightly detectable accumulation in wild-type cells. Measurements showed that methionine and thymidylate were taken into all strains at a low rate, but HPS 401 had enhanced uptake of thymidine and uridine compared to wild-type. The HPS 401 phenotype is due to the efficient utilization of thymidine as a result of increased nucleoside uptake. Rapid nuclear purification removed mitochondrial DNA without decreasing the single-strand molecular weight of the nuclear DNA. The nuclear DNA peaks on alkaline sucrose gradients were identified using filter hybridization to cloned probes. As measured by pulse-chase labelling, production of full-sized main band DNA required 45-50 minutes. Pulse labelling of the cells immediately after ultraviolet irradiation caused the single-strand molecular weight of the DNA synthesized to decrease from 8 x 10/sup 6/ daltons at O J/m/sup 2/ to 3.9 x 10/sup 6/ daltons at 50 J/m/sup 2/ to 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ daltons at 200 J/m/sup 2/. The time required for maturation into full-sized DNA increased from 1 hour at O J/m/sup 2/ to 4 hours at 20 J/m/sup 2/ and to 21 hours at 200 J/m/sup 2/. Measured amounts of DNA synthesis at times after ultraviolet irradiation showed a period of reduced incorporation, followed by the resumption of control levels. The lag period ended at the same time as the production of full-sized DNA resumed.

  1. F-actin binds to the cytoplasmic surface of ponticulin, a 17-kD integral glycoprotein from Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    F-actin affinity chromatography and immunological techniques are used to identify actin-binding proteins in purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes. A 17-kD integral glycoprotein (gp17) consistently elutes from F-actin columns as the major actin-binding protein under a variety of experimental conditions. The actin-binding activity of gp17 is identical to that of intact plasma membranes: it resists extraction with 0.1 N NaOH, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT); it is sensitive to ionic conditions; it is stable over a wide range of pH; and it is eliminated by proteolysis, denaturation with heat, or treatment with DTT and N- ethylmaleimide. gp17 may be responsible for much of the actin-binding activity of plasma membranes since monovalent antibody fragments (Fab) directed primarily against gp17 inhibit actin-membrane binding by 96% in sedimentation assays. In contrast, Fab directed against cell surface determinants inhibit binding by only 0-10%. The actin-binding site of gp17 appears to be located on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane since Fab against this protein continue to inhibit 96% of actin- membrane binding even after extensive adsorption against cell surfaces. gp17 is abundant in the plasma membrane, constituting 0.4-1.0% of the total membrane protein. A transmembrane orientation of gp17 is suggested since, in addition to the cytoplasmic localization of the actin-binding site, extracellular determinants of gp17 are identified. gp17 is surface-labeled by sulfo-N-hydroxy-succinimido-biotin, a reagent that cannot penetrate the cell membrane. Also, gp17 is glycosylated since it is specifically bound by the lectin, concanavalin A. We propose that gp17 is a major actin-binding protein that is important for connecting the plasma membrane to the underlying microfilament network. Therefore, we have named this protein "ponticulin" from the Latin word, ponticulus, which means small bridge. PMID:3312238

  2. Evidence for a recycling role for Rab7 in regulating a late step in endocytosis and in retention of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Buczynski, G; Bush, J; Zhang, L; Rodriguez-Paris, J; Cardelli, J

    1997-01-01

    The mammalian small molecular weight GTPase Rab7 (Ypt7 in yeast) has been implicated in regulating membrane traffic at postinternalization steps along the endosomal pathway. A cDNA encoding a protein 85% identical at the amino acid level to mammalian Rab7 has been cloned from Dictyostelium discoideum. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Rab7 was enriched in lysosomes, postlysosomes, and maturing phagosomes. Cell lines were generated that overexposed Rab7 wild-type (WT), Rab7 Q67L (constitutively active form), and Rab7 T22N (dominant negative form) proteins. The Rab7 T22N cell line internalized fluid phase markers and latex beads (phagocytosis) at one-third the rate of control cells, whereas Rab7 WT and Rab7 Q67L cell lines were normal in uptake rates but exocytosed fluid phase faster than control cells. In contrast, fluid phase markers resided in acidic compartments for longer periods of time and were more slowly exocytosed from Rab7 T22N cells as compared with control cells. Light microscopy indicated that Rab7-expressing cell lines contained morphologically altered endosomal compartments. Compared with control cells, Rab7 WT- and Rab7 Q67L-expressing cells contained a reduced number of vesicles, the size of postlysosomes (> 2.5 microns) and an increased number of smaller vesicles, many of which were nonacidic; in control cells, > 90% of the smaller vesicles were acidic. In contrast, Rab7 T22N cells contained an increased proportion of large acidic vesicles relative to nonacidic vesicles. Radiolabel pulse-chase experiments indicated that all of the cell lines processed and targeted lysosomal alpha-mannosidase normally, indicating the lack of a significant role for Rab7 in the targeting pathway; however, retention of mature lysosomal hydrolases was affected in Rab7 WT and Rab7 T22N cell lines. Contrary to the results observed for the fluid phase efflux experiments, Rab7 T22N cells oversecreted alpha-mannosidase, whereas Rab7

  3. EDTA treatment alters protein glycosylation in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.M.; Brownstein, S.A. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors have found that treatment of cells with EDTA resulted in the accumulation of lower molecular weight forms of two cell-type-specific glycoproteins. These new glycoproteins lacked a developmentally regulated glycoantigen defined by monoclonal antibody 54.2. Since EDTA dissociated the cells, the possible involvement of cell separation was tested by immobilizing cells in soft agarose. Glycoantigen expression on these proteins was found to be dependent on cAMP and high oxygen tension but not on cell contact, and was reversibly sensitive to EDTA regardless of the state of cell association. The EDTA effect was mimicked by other soluble, but not particulate, membrane impermeable chelators, could be completed by Zn{sup 2+} better than Mg{sup 2+}, and appeared to involve an intracellular mechanism. Studies with ({sup 14}C)EDTA showed that EDTA equilibrated with a cellular compartment in a temperature-dependent, Zn{sup 2+}-insensitive fashion with half-time kinetics of loading and unloading of 30-40 min. The data suggest that this step in glycosylation, which was found to be delayed 1 or more hours subsequent to protein synthesis, involves an intracellular, transition metal-ion-dependent process which can be modulated by chelators entering the cell through the endocytic pathway.

  4. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Turing-Type Pattern Formation in a Confined Dictyostelium Cell Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Satoshi; Maeda, Yasuo; Sawada, Yasuji

    2000-09-01

    We have discovered a new type of patterning which occurs in a two-dimensionally confined cell mass of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Besides the longitudinal structure reported earlier, we observed a spontaneous symmetry breaking spot pattern whose wavelength shows similar strain dependency to that of the longitudinal pattern. We propose that these structures are due to a reaction-diffusion Turing instability similar to the one which has been exemplified by CIMA (chlorite-iodide-malonic acid) reaction. The present finding may exhibit the first biochemical Turing structure in a developmental system with a controllable boundary condition.

  5. Comparative study of the sensitivity of spores and amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum to ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Y.; Wada, M.

    1980-09-01

    We report the sensitivity change of plaque formation to ultraviolet light (uv) irradiation in several stages of the cellular slime mold from spore to stationary phase, under the special condition which we have obtained - a plating efficiency of 100%. For NC-4 (haploid) and H-1 (diploid), uv sensitivity of cells just after germination was almost equal to that of spores; then the sensitivity decreased with development, reached a minimum just before the first cell division, and remained at that level during logarithmic growth. As to the difference between NC-4 and H-1, NC-4 was more resistant than H-1 at low doses, and H-1 was more resistant than NC-4 at high doses for both spores and amoebae. We also report a pipetting effect which assured reproducible data for amoebae.

  6. Diverse Growth Kinetics in Suspension Culture of a Model Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum, Confirmation of Lagless Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Zhou, Xaio-Qiao S.; Deshmukh, Amrish; Bogart, Elijah; Lau, Sharon; Daie, Kayvon; Bae, Albert

    2010-03-01

    In recent work we explored the notion that the transition between slow and fast growth, the lag-log transition, with increasing density seen in shaken cell culture represents a collective effect. (Phys. Rev. E 77, 041905 (2008)). We reported preliminary observations in which the lag phase was apparently missing. Here, we present significantly more measurements than in our original work as well as increased sensitivity at low densities. We confirm that instances of nearly exponential (``log'') growth do in fact appear, but more frequently, we find evidence of lagging. The degree of lagging fluctuates significantly from run to run, in contrast to our earlier observations and theory, but in all cases exponential growth is established with increasing density once the range of 10^4 to 10^5 cells/ml is reached. We present evidence against two natural explanations for these fluctuations: 1) a mixture of strains which have different growth phenotypes or 2) a single strain variation due to an epigenetic switch which can be set to the low growth state by subjecting cells to high density environments. The appearance of such growth variations has considerable practical significance and suggests that there is an additional dynamical variable besides density in play.

  7. Bleb-driven chemotaxis of Dictyostelium cells.

    PubMed

    Zatulovskiy, Evgeny; Tyson, Richard; Bretschneider, Till; Kay, Robert R

    2014-03-17

    Blebs and F-actin-driven pseudopods are alternative ways of extending the leading edge of migrating cells. We show that Dictyostelium cells switch from using predominantly pseudopods to blebs when migrating under agarose overlays of increasing stiffness. Blebs expand faster than pseudopods leaving behind F-actin scars, but are less persistent. Blebbing cells are strongly chemotactic to cyclic-AMP, producing nearly all of their blebs up-gradient. When cells re-orientate to a needle releasing cyclic-AMP, they stereotypically produce first microspikes, then blebs and pseudopods only later. Genetically, blebbing requires myosin-II and increases when actin polymerization or cortical function is impaired. Cyclic-AMP induces transient blebbing independently of much of the known chemotactic signal transduction machinery, but involving PI3-kinase and downstream PH domain proteins, CRAC and PhdA. Impairment of this PI3-kinase pathway results in slow movement under agarose and cells that produce few blebs, though actin polymerization appears unaffected. We propose that mechanical resistance induces bleb-driven movement in Dictyostelium, which is chemotactic and controlled through PI3-kinase. PMID:24616222

  8. Bleb-driven chemotaxis of Dictyostelium cells

    PubMed Central

    Zatulovskiy, Evgeny; Tyson, Richard; Bretschneider, Till

    2014-01-01

    Blebs and F-actin–driven pseudopods are alternative ways of extending the leading edge of migrating cells. We show that Dictyostelium cells switch from using predominantly pseudopods to blebs when migrating under agarose overlays of increasing stiffness. Blebs expand faster than pseudopods leaving behind F-actin scars, but are less persistent. Blebbing cells are strongly chemotactic to cyclic-AMP, producing nearly all of their blebs up-gradient. When cells re-orientate to a needle releasing cyclic-AMP, they stereotypically produce first microspikes, then blebs and pseudopods only later. Genetically, blebbing requires myosin-II and increases when actin polymerization or cortical function is impaired. Cyclic-AMP induces transient blebbing independently of much of the known chemotactic signal transduction machinery, but involving PI3-kinase and downstream PH domain proteins, CRAC and PhdA. Impairment of this PI3-kinase pathway results in slow movement under agarose and cells that produce few blebs, though actin polymerization appears unaffected. We propose that mechanical resistance induces bleb-driven movement in Dictyostelium, which is chemotactic and controlled through PI3-kinase. PMID:24616222

  9. Cell-to-cell coordination for the spontaneous cAMP oscillation in Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Seido; Sakurai, Shunsuke

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new cellular dynamics scheme for the spontaneous cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium discoideum. Our scheme seamlessly integrates both receptor dynamics and G-protein dynamics into our previously developed cellular dynamics scheme. Extensive computer simulation studies based on our new cellular dynamics scheme were conducted in mutant cells to evaluate the molecular network. The validity of our proposed molecular network as well as the controversial PKA-dependent negative feedback mechanism was supported by our simulation studies. Spontaneous cAMP oscillations were not observed in a single mutant cell. However, multicellular states of various mutant cells consistently initiated spontaneous cAMP oscillations. Therefore, cell-to-cell coordination via the cAMP receptor is essential for the robust initiation of spontaneous cAMP oscillations.

  10. A phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase gene family in Dictyostelium discoideum: biological roles of putative mammalian p110 and yeast Vps34p PI 3-kinase homologs during growth and development.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, K; Takegawa, K; Emr, S D; Firtel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinases convert PI into PI(3)phosphate, PI(4)phosphate, PI(4,5) bisphosphate, and PI(3,4,5)trisphosphate. These phosphoinositides have been shown to function in vesicle-mediated protein sorting, and they serve as second-messenger signaling molecules for regulating cell growth. To further elucidate the mechanism of regulation and function of phosphoinositides, we cloned genes encoding five putative PI kinases from Dictyostelium discoideum. Database analysis indicates that D. discoideum PIK1 (DdPIK1), -2, and -3 are most closely related to the mammalian p110 PI 3-kinase, DdPIK5 is closest to the yeast Vps34p PI 3-kinase, and DdPIK4 is most homologous to PI 4-kinases. Together with other known PI kinases, a superfamily of PI kinase genes has been defined, with all of the encoded proteins sharing a common highly conserved catalytic core domain. DdPIK1, -2, and -3 may have redundant functions because disruption of any single gene had no effect on D. discoideum growth or development. However, strains in which both of the two most highly related genes, DdPIK1 and DdPIK2, were disrupted showed both growth and developmental defects, while double knockouts of DdPIK1 and DdPIK3 and DdPIK2 and DdPIK3 appear to be lethal. The delta Ddpik1 delta Ddpik2 null cells were smaller than wild-type cells and grew slowly both in association with bacteria and in axenic medium when attached to petri plates but were unable to grow in suspension in axenic medium. When delta Ddpik1 delta Ddpik2 null cells were plated for multicellular development, they formed aggregates having multiple tips and produced abnormal fruiting bodies. Antisense expression of DdPIK5 (a putative homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS34) led to a defect in the growth of D. discoideum cells on bacterial lawns and abnormal development. DdPIK5 complemented the temperature-sensitive growth defect of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe delta Svps34 mutant strain, suggesting DdPIK5

  11. Variation in the excitability of developed D. discoideum cells as a function of agar concentration in the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Noriko; Bae, Albert; Amselem, Gabriel; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2010-03-01

    In the absence of nutrients, Dictyostelium discoideum cells enter a developmental cycle--they signal each other, aggregate, and ultimately form fruiting bodies. During the signaling stage, the cells relay waves of cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). We observed a transition from spiral to circular patterns in the signaling wave, depending on the agar concentration of the substrate. In this talk we will present the changes in the times for the onset of signaling and synchronization versus agar concentration, as measured by spectral entropy. We also will discuss the origin of these effects.

  12. A Model for Direction Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: Ras Activity and Symmetry Breaking Driven by a Gβγ-Mediated, Gα2-Ric8 -- Dependent Signal Transduction Network.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yougan; Othmer, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Chemotaxis is a dynamic cellular process, comprised of direction sensing, polarization and locomotion, that leads to the directed movement of eukaryotic cells along extracellular gradients. As a primary step in the response of an individual cell to a spatial stimulus, direction sensing has attracted numerous theoretical treatments aimed at explaining experimental observations in a variety of cell types. Here we propose a new model of direction sensing based on experiments using Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty). The model is built around a reaction-diffusion-translocation system that involves three main component processes: a signal detection step based on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for cyclic AMP (cAMP), a transduction step based on a heterotrimetic G protein Gα2βγ, and an activation step of a monomeric G-protein Ras. The model can predict the experimentally-observed response of cells treated with latrunculin A, which removes feedback from downstream processes, under a variety of stimulus protocols. We show that [Formula: see text] cycling modulated by Ric8, a nonreceptor guanine exchange factor for [Formula: see text] in Dicty, drives multiple phases of Ras activation and leads to direction sensing and signal amplification in cAMP gradients. The model predicts that both [Formula: see text] and Gβγ are essential for direction sensing, in that membrane-localized [Formula: see text], the activated GTP-bearing form of [Formula: see text], leads to asymmetrical recruitment of RasGEF and Ric8, while globally-diffusing Gβγ mediates their activation. We show that the predicted response at the level of Ras activation encodes sufficient 'memory' to eliminate the 'back-of-the wave' problem, and the effects of diffusion and cell shape on direction sensing are also investigated. In contrast with existing LEGI models of chemotaxis, the results do not require a disparity between the diffusion coefficients of the Ras activator GEF and the Ras inhibitor GAP. Since

  13. A Model for Direction Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: Ras Activity and Symmetry Breaking Driven by a Gβγ-Mediated, Gα2-Ric8 -- Dependent Signal Transduction Network

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yougan; Othmer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxis is a dynamic cellular process, comprised of direction sensing, polarization and locomotion, that leads to the directed movement of eukaryotic cells along extracellular gradients. As a primary step in the response of an individual cell to a spatial stimulus, direction sensing has attracted numerous theoretical treatments aimed at explaining experimental observations in a variety of cell types. Here we propose a new model of direction sensing based on experiments using Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty). The model is built around a reaction-diffusion-translocation system that involves three main component processes: a signal detection step based on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for cyclic AMP (cAMP), a transduction step based on a heterotrimetic G protein Gα2βγ, and an activation step of a monomeric G-protein Ras. The model can predict the experimentally-observed response of cells treated with latrunculin A, which removes feedback from downstream processes, under a variety of stimulus protocols. We show that Gα2βγ cycling modulated by Ric8, a nonreceptor guanine exchange factor for Gα2 in Dicty, drives multiple phases of Ras activation and leads to direction sensing and signal amplification in cAMP gradients. The model predicts that both Gα2 and Gβγ are essential for direction sensing, in that membrane-localized Gα2*, the activated GTP-bearing form of Gα2, leads to asymmetrical recruitment of RasGEF and Ric8, while globally-diffusing Gβγ mediates their activation. We show that the predicted response at the level of Ras activation encodes sufficient ‘memory’ to eliminate the ‘back-of-the wave’ problem, and the effects of diffusion and cell shape on direction sensing are also investigated. In contrast with existing LEGI models of chemotaxis, the results do not require a disparity between the diffusion coefficients of the Ras activator GEF and the Ras inhibitor GAP. Since the signal pathways we study are highly conserved between Dicty

  14. F-actin binds to the cytoplasmic surface of ponticulin, a 17-kD integral glycoprotein from Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Wuestehube, L J; Luna, E J

    1987-10-01

    F-actin affinity chromatography and immunological techniques are used to identify actin-binding proteins in purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes. A 17-kD integral glycoprotein (gp17) consistently elutes from F-actin columns as the major actin-binding protein under a variety of experimental conditions. The actin-binding activity of gp17 is identical to that of intact plasma membranes: it resists extraction with 0.1 N NaOH, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT); it is sensitive to ionic conditions; it is stable over a wide range of pH; and it is eliminated by proteolysis, denaturation with heat, or treatment with DTT and N-ethylmaleimide. gp17 may be responsible for much of the actin-binding activity of plasma membranes since monovalent antibody fragments (Fab) directed primarily against gp17 inhibit actin-membrane binding by 96% in sedimentation assays. In contrast, Fab directed against cell surface determinants inhibit binding by only 0-10%. The actin-binding site of gp17 appears to be located on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane since Fab against this protein continue to inhibit 96% of actin-membrane binding even after extensive adsorption against cell surfaces. gp17 is abundant in the plasma membrane, constituting 0.4-1.0% of the total membrane protein. A transmembrane orientation of gp17 is suggested since, in addition to the cytoplasmic localization of the actin-binding site, extracellular determinants of gp17 are identified. gp17 is surface-labeled by sulfo-N-hydroxy-succinimido-biotin, a reagent that cannot penetrate the cell membrane. Also, gp17 is glycosylated since it is specifically bound by the lectin, concanavalin A. We propose that gp17 is a major actin-binding protein that is important for connecting the plasma membrane to the underlying microfilament network. Therefore, we have named this protein "ponticulin" from the Latin word, ponticulus, which means small bridge. PMID:3312238

  15. Use of the myosin motor domain as large-affinity tag for the expression and purification of proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kollmar, Martin

    2006-08-15

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is increasingly be used for the overexpression of proteins. Dictyostelium is amenable to classical and molecular genetic approaches and can easily be grown in large quantities. It contains a variety of chaperones and folding enzymes, and is able to perform all kinds of post-translational protein modifications. Here, new expression vectors are presented that have been designed for the production of proteins in large quantities for biochemical and structural studies. The expression cassettes of the most successful vectors are based on a tandem affinity purification tag consisting of an octahistidine tag followed by the myosin motor domain tag. The myosin motor domain not only strongly enhances the production of fused proteins but is also used for a fast affinity purification step through its ATP-dependent binding to actin. The applicability of the new system has been demonstrated for the expression and purification of subunits of the dynein-dynactin motor protein complex from different species. PMID:16516959

  16. Analysis of a novel cyclic Amp inducible prespore gene in Dictyostelium discoideum: evidence for different patterns of cAMP regulation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Sloger, M S; Oyama, M; Blumberg, D D

    1994-09-01

    The D7 cDNA clone hybridizes to a 2.8 kb mRNA which first appears at the mound stage of development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This gene which is cyclic AMP (cAMP) inducible and is expressed specifically in the prespore cells contains an open reading frame interrupted by only one intron. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates a novel prespore protein which differs from all of the previously described prespore proteins in that it contains no internal repeats and does not share any homology with any of the other prespore genes. The amino acid sequence predicts a protein of 850 amino acids with a molecular weight of 95,343 daltons and an isoelectric point of 4.25. The protein is very rich in glutamine (13.8%), asparagine (10.6%) and glutamic acid (10.4%) with one potential glycosylation site and 28 possible sites for phosphorylation. The amino terminus is hydrophobic with characteristics of a signal sequence while the entire carboxyl half of the protein is notable for its hydrophilicity. Comparison of cAMP regulation of the D7 gene with the regulation of two other cAMP regulated prespore genes, the PL3(SP87) gene and the Psa(D19), reveals some striking differences. Disaggregation in the presence of cAMP results in transient degradation of mRNA for all three genes. The transcription rate for the D7 and PsA(D19) genes remains relatively unaffected by disaggregation but there is a rapid although transient decline in the transcription rate of the PL3(SP87) gene. Although the accumulation of all three mRNAs is first detectable at mound stage, transcription of the D7 and PsA(D19) genes is detected earlier in development, at rippling aggregate stage several hours prior to the earliest time when transcription of the PL3(SP87) gene is detected. Analysis of the promoter region of the D7 gene reveals three CA like boxes flanked by direct repeats as well as four G rich regions that may serve as regulatory elements. PMID:7988791

  17. Predicting the Distribution of Spiral Waves from Cell Properties in a Developmental-Path Model of Dictyostelium Pattern Formation

    PubMed Central

    Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern formation. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers). This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this concept leads to an inhomogeneous and systematic spatial distribution of spiral waves, which can be predicted from the distribution of cells on the developmental path. We propose specific experiments for checking whether such systematics are also found in data and thus, indirectly, provide evidence of a developmental path. PMID:19593362

  18. Balanced cortical stiffness is important for efficient migration of Dictyostelium cells in confined environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Heike; Samereier, Matthias; Trommler, Gudrun; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette

    2015-11-27

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells resemble in many aspects human leukocytes and serve as a model to study actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration of highly motile cells. Dictyostelium cells deficient in the actin-binding protein filamin (ddFLN) showed a surprisingly subtle change in phenotype with no or only minor effects in single cell motility. These findings were in contrast to the strong actin-crosslinking activities measured for filamin in vitro. In the present study, we set out to revisit the role of ddFLN in cell migration. For this purpose, we examined migration of wild-type, ddFLN-null and ddFLN-overexpressing cells under different conditions. In addition to cyclic-AMP chemotaxis assays using micropipettes, we explored cell migration under more confined conditions: an under-agarose 2D assay and a 3D assay employing a collagen matrix that was adapted from assays for leukocytes. Using 3D migration conditions, cells deficient in ddFLN displayed only a minor impairment of motility, similar to the results obtained for migration in 2D. However, cells overexpressing ddFLN showed a remarkable decrease in the speed of migration in particular in 3D environments. We suggest that these results are in line with an increased stiffening of the cortex due to the crosslinking activity of overexpressed ddFLN. Our conclusion is that the absolute level of ddFLN is critical for efficient migration. Furthermore, our results show that under conditions of increased mechanical stress, Dictyostelium cells, like leukocytes, switch to a bleb-based mode of movement. PMID:26482849

  19. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of the LAM-RRM1 N-terminal module of La protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chasapis, Christos T; Argyriou, Aikaterini I; Apostolidi, Maria; Konstantinidou, Parthena; Bentrop, Detlef; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    The N-terminal half of La protein consists of two concatenated motifs: La motif (LAM) and the N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM1) both of which are responsible for poly(U) RNA binding. Here, we present the backbone and side-chain assignments of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the 191-residue LAM-RRM1 region of the La protein from the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and its secondary structure prediction. PMID:25687647

  20. Control of 6-(D-threo-1',2'-dihydroxypropyl) pterin (dictyopterin) synthesis during aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum. Involvement of the G-protein-linked signalling pathway in the regulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity.

    PubMed Central

    Gütlich, M; Witter, K; Bourdais, J; Veron, M; Rödl, W; Ziegler, I

    1996-01-01

    6-(D-threo-1',2'-Dihydroxypropylpterin (dictyopterin) has been identified in extracts of growing Dictyostelium dicoideum cells [Klein, Thiery and Tatischeff (1990) Eur. J. Biochem. 187, 665-669]. We demonstrate that it originates from GTP by de novo biosynthesis and that the first committed step is catalysed by GTP cyclohydrolase I, yielding dihydroneopterin triphosphate [neopterin is 6-(D-erythro-1',2',3'-trihydroxypropyl) pterin]. The GTP cyclohydrolase I activity is found in the cytosolic fraction and in a membrane-associated form. The level of a 0.9 kb mRNA coding for GTP cyclohydrolase I decreases to about 10% of its initial value within 2 h after Dictyostelium cells start development induced by starvation. In the cytosolic fraction, the specific activities of GTP cyclohydrolase I, as well as the concentrations of (6R/S)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrodictyopterin (H4dictyopterin), follow this decline of the mRNA level. In the particulate fraction, however, the specific activities of GTP cyclohydrolase I and, in consequence, H4dictyopterin synthesis, transiently increase and reach a maximum after 4-5 h of development. The time-course of H4dictyopterin concentrations in the starvation medium closely correlates with its production in the membrane fraction. The activity of membrane-associated GTP cyclohydrolase I can be increased by pre-incubation of the cell lysate with guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and Mg2+. This GTP analogue does not serve as a substrate and has no direct effect on the enzyme activity, indicating that a G-protein-linked signalling pathway is involved in the regulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity and thus in H4dictyopterin production during early development of D. discoideum. PMID:8660315

  1. Toxicity assessment of diesel- and metal-contaminated soils through elutriate and solid phase assays with the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Amaia; Dondero, Francesco; Viarengo, Aldo; Marigómez, Ionan

    2016-06-01

    A suite of organisms from different taxonomical and ecological positions is needed to assess environmentally relevant soil toxicity. A new bioassay based on Dictyostelium is presented that is aimed at integrating slime molds into such a testing framework. Toxicity tests on elutriates and the solid phase developmental cycle assay were successfully applied to a soil spiked with a mixture of Zn, Cd, and diesel fuel freshly prepared (recently contaminated) and after 2 yr of aging. The elutriates of both soils provoked toxic effects, but toxicity was markedly lower in the aged soil. In the D. discoideum developmental cycle assay, both soils affected amoeba viability and aggregation, with fewer multicellular units, smaller fruiting bodies and, overall, inhibition of fruiting body formation. This assay is quick and requires small amounts of test soil, which might facilitate its incorporation into a multispecies multiple-endpoint toxicity bioassay battery suitable for environmental risk assessment in soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1413-1421. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26450765

  2. Mass spectrometric analysis of neutral and anionic N-glycans from a Dictyostelium discoideum model for human congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG IL.

    PubMed

    Hykollari, Alba; Balog, Crina I A; Rendić, Dubravko; Braulke, Thomas; Wilson, Iain B H; Paschinger, Katharina

    2013-03-01

    The HL241 mutant strain of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is a potential model for human congenital disorder of glycosylation type IL (ALG9-CDG) and has been previously predicted to possess a lower degree of modification of its N-glycans with anionic moieties than the parental wild-type. In this study, we first showed that this strain has a premature stop codon in its alg9 mannosyltransferase gene compatible with the occurrence of truncated N-glycans. These were subject to an optimized analytical workflow, considering that the mass spectrometry of acidic glycans often presents challenges due to neutral loss and suppression effects. Therefore, the protein-bound N-glycans were first fractionated, after serial enzymatic release, by solid phase extraction. Then primarily single glycan species were isolated by mixed hydrophilic-interaction/anion-exchange or reversed-phase HPLC and analyzed using chemical and enzymatic treatments and MS/MS. We show that protein-linked N-glycans of the mutant are of reduced size as compared to those of wild-type AX3, but still contain core α1,3-fucose, intersecting N-acetylglucosamine, bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, methylphosphate, phosphate, and sulfate residues. We observe that a single N-glycan can carry up to four of these six possible modifications. Due to the improved analytical procedures, we reveal fuller details regarding the N-glycomic potential of this fascinating model organism. PMID:23320427

  3. Quantitation of Membrane Sites in Aggregating Dictyostelium Cells by Use of Tritiated Univalent Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Beug, H.; Katz, F. E.; Stein, A.; Gerisch, G.

    1973-01-01

    Cell-to-cell adhesion during aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum cells is completely blocked by univalent antibody (Fab) directed against two classes of target sites: surface structures characteristic for aggregation-competent cells (“contact sites A”) and others present also on growth-phase cells (“contact sites B”). 3 × 105 Fab molecules bound per cell are sufficient to block contact sites A completely, although the Fab fragments cover not more than 2% of the total cell surface. Up to 8-fold this value can be bound per cell when Fab fragments of another specificity are used, without affecting activity of contact sites A. Blockage of cell-to-cell adhesion therefore depends on the binding of Fab fragments to specific target sites, rather than on the total number of Fab molecules bound per cell. This conclusion is also valid for cell adhesion attributed to contact sites B. Contact sites therefore represent a special class of cell-surface sites which, in cell homogenates as well as in vivo, can be traced by Fab, and which are not identical with the bulk of cell-surface antigens present on aggregating cells. Images PMID:4522296

  4. Structure of the Small Dictyostelium discoideum Myosin Light Chain MlcB Provides Insights into MyoB IQ Motif Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Liburd, Janine; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W.; Munro, Kim; Miller, Emily; Denis, Chris M.; Spencer, Holly L.; Côté, Graham P.; Smith, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoB is a class I myosin involved in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, cortical tension generation, membrane recycling, and phagosome maturation. The MyoB-specific, single-lobe EF-hand light chain MlcB binds the sole IQ motif of MyoB with submicromolar affinity in the absence and presence of Ca2+. However, the structural features of this novel myosin light chain and its interaction with its cognate IQ motif remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the NMR-derived solution structure of apoMlcB, which displays a globular four-helix bundle. Helix 1 adopts a unique orientation when compared with the apo states of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, S100B, and calbindin D9k. NMR-based chemical shift perturbation mapping identified a hydrophobic MyoB IQ binding surface that involves amino acid residues in helices I and IV and the functional N-terminal Ca2+ binding loop, a site that appears to be maintained when MlcB adopts the holo state. Complementary mutagenesis and binding studies indicated that residues Ile-701, Phe-705, and Trp-708 of the MyoB IQ motif are critical for recognition of MlcB, which together allowed the generation of a structural model of the apoMlcB-MyoB IQ complex. We conclude that the mode of IQ motif recognition by the novel single-lobe MlcB differs considerably from that of stereotypical bilobal light chains such as calmodulin. PMID:24790102

  5. Genetic control of morphogenesis in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Loomis, William F

    2015-06-15

    Cells grow, move, expand, shrink and die in the process of generating the characteristic shapes of organisms. Although the structures generated during development of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum look nothing like the structures seen in metazoan embryogenesis, some of the morphogenetic processes used in their making are surprisingly similar. Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis for directed cell migration, cell type specific sorting, differential adhesion, secretion of matrix components, pattern formation, regulation and terminal differentiation are reviewed. Genes involved in Dictyostelium aggregation, slug formation, and culmination of fruiting bodies are discussed. PMID:25872182

  6. Genetic control of morphogenesis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Cells grow, move, expand, shrink and die in the process of generating the characteristic shapes of organisms. Although the structures generated during development of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum look nothing like the structures seen in metazoan embryogenesis, some of the morphogenetic processes used in their making are surprisingly similar. Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis for directed cell migration, cell type specific sorting, differential adhesion, secretion of matrix components, pattern formation, regulation and terminal differentiation are reviewed. Genes involved in Dictyostelium aggregation, slug formation, and culmination of fruiting bodies are discussed. PMID:25872182

  7. Null mutations of the Dictyostelium cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene block chemotactic cell movement in developing aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sucgang, R; Weijer, C J; Siegert, F; Franke, J; Kessin, R H

    1997-12-01

    Extracellular cAMP is a critical messenger in the multicellular development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The levels of cAMP are controlled by a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) that is secreted by the cells. The PDE gene (pdsA) is controlled by three promoters that permit expression during vegetative growth, during aggregation, and in prestalk cells of the older structures. Targeted disruption of the gene aborts development, and complementation with a modified pdsA restores development. Two distinct promoters must be used for full complementation, and an inhibitory domain of the PDE must be removed. We took advantage of newly isolated PDE-null cells and the natural chimerism of the organism to ask whether the absence of PDE affected individual cell behavior. PDE-null cells aggregated with isogenic wild-type cells in chimeric mixtures, but could not move in a coordinated manner in mounds. The wild-type cells move inward toward the center of the mound, leaving many of the PDE-null cells at the periphery of the aggregate. During the later stages of development, PDE-null cells in the chimera segregate to regions which correspond to the prestalk region and the rear of the slug. Participation in the prespore/spore population returns with the restoration of a modified pdsA to the null cells. PMID:9405107

  8. Role of SpdA in Cell Spreading and Phagocytosis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Marco; Brochetta, Cristiana; Marchetti, Anna; Bodinier, Romain; Brückert, Franz; Cosson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a widely used model to study molecular mechanisms controlling cell adhesion, cell spreading on a surface, and phagocytosis. In this study we isolated and characterize a new mutant created by insertion of a mutagenic vector in the heretofore uncharacterized spdA gene. SpdA-ins mutant cells produce an altered, slightly shortened version of the SpdA protein. They spread more efficiently than WT cells when allowed to adhere to a glass substrate, and phagocytose particles more efficiently. On the contrary, a functional spdA knockout mutant where a large segment of the gene was deleted phagocytosed less efficiently and spread less efficiently on a substrate. These phenotypes were highly dependent on the cellular density, and were most visible at high cell densities, where secreted quorum-sensing factors inhibiting cell motility, spreading and phagocytosis are most active. These results identify the involvement of SpdA in the control of cell spreading and phagocytosis. The underlying molecular mechanisms, as well as the exact link between SpdA and cell spreading, remain to be established. PMID:27512991

  9. Differential effects of stimulus termination on excitation and desensitization of folic acid receptors and guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    de Wit, R J; Bulgakov, R; Bominaar, T A; Rinke de Wit, T F

    1987-08-19

    The response of guanylate cyclase to addition of extracellular stimuli is well documented. Here we report for the first time the response of guanylate cyclase to removal of stimuli. Three methods were employed to terminate rapidly a stimulus of folic acid. (1) Addition of a highly active folate deaminase preparation, or (2) 12-fold dilution of the stimulated cell suspension, or (3) addition of an excess concentration of a non-agonistic derivative of folic acid, i.e., 2-deaminofolic acid, which chases the folate agonist from its cell-surface receptors. Accumulation of cGMP terminated instantaneously upon addition of deaminase, but degradation of the synthesized cGMP was not observed until 10-12 s after stimulation. Also in a cGMP phosphodiesterase-lacking 'streamer' mutant an instantaneous termination of further cGMP accumulation was observed upon stimulus removal. This suggests that the termination of cGMP accumulation is due to inactivation of guanylate cyclase instead of a steady state of cGMP synthesis and degradation. Further accumulation of cGMP was approx. 75% reduced upon dilution of a cell suspension after stimulation with both agonists. Stimulation by 300 nM folic acid or by 30 nM N10-methylfolic acid (a more potent agonist) yielded identical results. However, upon addition of deaminofolic acid the accumulation of cGMP continued normally if the cells had been stimulated with N10-methylfolic acid, but only slightly in the case of a folic acid stimulus. The effect of stimulus duration on desensitization was monitored; it was observed that 50% desensitization was induced by stimulation for 1 s, while 4 s was sufficient for maximal desensitization. Short stimuli were observed to elicit high levels of desensitization without much excitation of guanylate cyclase. A desensitization-like process was observed at the level of the folate-binding chemotactic receptors as well. Relationships between the cGMP response data and folic acid receptor kinetics are discussed

  10. Three-dimensional Patterns and Redistribution of Myosin II and Actin in Mitotic Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neujahr, Ralph; Heizer, Christina; Albrecht, Richard; Ecke, Maria; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Weber, Igor; Gerisch, Günther

    1997-01-01

    Myosin II is not essential for cytokinesis in cells of Dictyostelium discoideum that are anchored on a substrate (Neujahr, R., C. Heizer, and G. Gerisch. 1997. J. Cell Sci. 110:123–137), in contrast to its importance for cell division in suspension (DeLozanne, A., and J.A. Spudich. 1987. Science. 236:1086–1091; Knecht, D.A., and W.F. Loomis. 1987. Science. 236: 1081–1085.). These differences have prompted us to investigate the three-dimensional distribution of myosin II in cells dividing under one of three conditions: (a) in shaken suspension, (b) in a fluid layer on a solid substrate surface, and (c) under mechanical stress applied by compressing the cells. Under the first and second conditions outlined above, myosin II does not form patterns that suggest a contractile ring is established in the furrow. Most of the myosin II is concentrated in the regions that flank the furrow on both sides towards the poles of the dividing cell. It is only when cells are compressed that myosin II extensively accumulates in the cleavage furrow, as has been previously described (Fukui, Y., T.J. Lynch, H. Brzeska, and E.D. Korn. 1989. Nature. 341:328–331), i.e., this massive accumulation is a response to the mechanical stress. Evidence is provided that the stress-associated translocation of myosin II to the cell cortex is a result of the dephosphorylation of its heavy chains. F-actin is localized in the dividing cells in a distinctly different pattern from that of myosin II. The F-actin is shown to accumulate primarily in protrusions at the two poles that ultimately form the leading edges of the daughter cells. This distribution changes dynamically as visualized in living cells with a green fluorescent protein–actin fusion. PMID:9412473

  11. Involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in paraptotic cell death of D. discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rajawat, Jyotika; Mir, Hina; Alex, Tina; Bakshi, Sonal; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2014-01-01

    Paraptosis is mediated by several proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase being one of them. D. discoideum lacks caspases thus providing a better system to dissect out the role of PARP in paraptosis. The cell death phenotype in unicellular eukaryote, D. discoideum is similar to the programmed cell death phenotype of multicellular animals. However, the events downstream to the death signal of PCD in D. discoideum are yet to be understood. Our results emphasize that oxidative stress in D. discoideum lacking caspases leads to PARP activation, mitochondrial membrane potential changes, followed by the release of apoptosis inducing factor from mitochondria. AIF causes large scale DNA fragmentation, a hallmark feature of paraptosis. The role of PARP in paraptosis is reiterated via PARP inhibition by benzamide, PARG inhibition by gallotannin and PARP down-regulation, which delays paraptosis. PARP, PARG and AIF interplay is quintessential in paraptosis of D. discoideum. This is the first report to establish the involvement of PARP in the absence of caspase activity in D. discoideum which could be of evolutionary significance and gives a lead to understand the caspase independent paraptotic mechanism in higher organisms. PMID:24129923

  12. Characterization of the Dictyostelium homolog of chromatin binding protein DET1 suggests a conserved pathway regulating cell type specification and developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Manu J; Kasten, Sonja; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    DET1 (De-etiolated 1) is a chromatin binding protein involved in developmental regulation in both plants and animals. DET1 is largely restricted to multicellular eukaryotes, and here we report the characterization of a DET1 homolog from the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. As in other species, Dictyostelium DET1 is nuclear localized. In contrast to other species, where it is an essential protein, loss of DET1 is nonlethal in Dictyostelium, although viability is significantly reduced. The phenotype of the det1(-) mutant is highly pleiotropic and results in a large degree of heterogeneity in developmental parameters. Loss of DET1 results in delayed and abnormal development with enlarged aggregation territories. Mutant slugs displayed cell type patterning with a bias toward the prestalk pathway. A number of DET1-interacting proteins are conserved in Dictyostelium, and the apparently conserved role of DET1 in regulatory pathways involving the bZIP transcription factors DimB, c-Jun, and HY5 suggests a highly conserved mechanism regulating development in multicellular eukaryotes. While the mechanism by which DET1 functions is unclear, it appears that it has a key role in regulation of developmental plasticity and integration of information on environmental conditions into the developmental program of an organism. PMID:21193547

  13. The Dictyostelium discoideum RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RrpC silences the centromeric retrotransposon DIRS-1 post-transcriptionally and is required for the spreading of RNA silencing signals

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Stephan; Meier, Doreen; Seehafer, Carsten; Malicki, Marek; Hofmann, Patrick; Schmith, Anika; Winckler, Thomas; Földesi, Balint; Boesler, Benjamin; Nellen, Wolfgang; Reimegård, Johan; Käller, Max; Hällman, Jimmie; Emanuelsson, Olof; Avesson, Lotta; Söderbom, Fredrik; Hammann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium intermediate repeat sequence 1 (DIRS-1) is the founding member of a poorly characterized class of retrotransposable elements that contain inverse long terminal repeats and tyrosine recombinase instead of DDE-type integrase enzymes. In Dictyostelium discoideum, DIRS-1 forms clusters that adopt the function of centromeres, rendering tight retrotransposition control critical to maintaining chromosome integrity. We report that in deletion strains of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RrpC, full-length and shorter DIRS-1 messenger RNAs are strongly enriched. Shorter versions of a hitherto unknown long non-coding RNA in DIRS-1 antisense orientation are also enriched in rrpC– strains. Concurrent with the accumulation of long transcripts, the vast majority of small (21 mer) DIRS-1 RNAs vanish in rrpC– strains. RNASeq reveals an asymmetric distribution of the DIRS-1 small RNAs, both along DIRS-1 and with respect to sense and antisense orientation. We show that RrpC is required for post-transcriptional DIRS-1 silencing and also for spreading of RNA silencing signals. Finally, DIRS-1 mis-regulation in the absence of RrpC leads to retrotransposon mobilization. In summary, our data reveal RrpC as a key player in the silencing of centromeric retrotransposon DIRS-1. RrpC acts at the post-transcriptional level and is involved in spreading of RNA silencing signals, both in the 5′ and 3′ directions. PMID:24369430

  14. Ligand-induced changes in the location of actin, myosin, 95K (alpha- actinin), and 120K protein in amebae of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    In this study we investigated concanavalin A (Con A) induced changes in the locations of actin, myosin, 120K, and 95K (alpha-actinin) to determine the extent to which actin and myosin are reorganized during capping and the roles that 120K and 95K might play in this reorganization. We observed the location of each protein by indirect immunofluorescence using affinity purified antibodies. Four morphological states were distinguished in vegetative Dictyostelium amebae: ameboid cells before Con A binding, patched cells, capped cells, and ameboid cells with caps. The location of each protein was distinct in ameboid cells both before and after capping Actin and 120K were found in the cell cortex usually associated with surface projections, and myosin and 95K were diffusely distributed. Myosin was excluded from surface projections in ameboid cells. During patching, all four proteins were localized below Con A patches. During capping, actin, myosin, and 95K protein moved with the Con A patches into the cap whereas 120K protein was excluded from the cap. During the late stages of cap formation actin and myosin were progressively lost from the cap, and 120K became concentrated in new actin-filled projections that formed away from the cap. However, 95K remained tightly associated with the cap. Poisoning cells with sodium azide inhibited capping but not patching of ligand. In azide-poisoned cells, myosin and 95K did not co-patch with Con A, whereas copatching of 120K and actin with Con A occurred as usual. Our results support the hypothesis that capping is an actomyosin-mediated motile event that involves a sliding interaction between actin filaments, which are anchored through the membrane to ligand patches, and myosin in the cortex. They are also consistent with a role for 120K in the formation of surface projections by promoting growth and/or cross-linking of actin filaments within projections, and with a role for 95K in regulating actomyosin-mediated contractility, earlier

  15. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid–stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Komachi, Mayumi; Homma, Yoshimi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-07

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), −2, and −3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5–20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC{sub 50} values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC{sub 50} values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. - Highlights: • LPA induces cell migration (invasion) in murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells. • DIFs are novel lead anti-tumor agents found in Dictyostelium discoideum. • We examined the effects of DIF derivatives on LPA-induced LM8 cell migration in vitro. • Some of the DIF derivatives inhibited LPA-induced LM8 cell migration.

  16. Self-organization of chemoattractant waves in Dictyostelium depends on F-actin and cell-substrate adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fukujin, Fumihito; Nakajima, Akihiko; Shimada, Nao; Sawai, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, travelling waves of extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) self-organize in cell populations and direct aggregation of individual cells to form multicellular fruiting bodies. In contrast to the large body of studies that addressed how movement of cells is determined by spatial and temporal cues encoded in the dynamic cAMP gradients, how cell mechanics affect the formation of a self-generated chemoattractant field has received less attention. Here, we show, by live cell imaging analysis, that the periodicity of the synchronized cAMP waves increases in cells treated with the actin inhibitor latrunculin. Detail analysis of the extracellular cAMP-induced transients of cytosolic cAMP (cAMP relay response) in well-isolated cells demonstrated that their amplitude and duration were markedly reduced in latrunculin-treated cells. Similarly, in cells strongly adhered to a poly-l-lysine-coated surface, the response was suppressed, and the periodicity of the population-level oscillations was markedly lengthened. Our results suggest that cortical F-actin is dispensable for the basic low amplitude relay response but essential for its full amplification and that this enhanced response is necessary to establish high-frequency signalling centres. The observed F-actin dependence may prevent aggregation centres from establishing in microenvironments that are incompatible with cell migration. PMID:27358278

  17. Extracellular chemical signal controlling phototactic behavior by D. discoideum slugs

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.R.; Smith, E.; Williams, K.L.

    1981-03-01

    Developing cells of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum release a low molecular weight metabolite (Slug Turning Factor, STF) which, at high uniform concentrations, interferes with phototaxis and thermotaxis by D. discoideum slugs. D. discoideum slugs migrating in darkness are repelled by (exhibit negative chemotaxis to) crude STF exudates. Dose-response curves relating the accuracies of phototaxis and negative chemotaxis to STF concentration indicate that, in both phototaxis and chemotaxis, slugs measure the ratios of STF concentrations on their opposite sides. Net STF release is enhanced by light. Researchers propose that light, focused onto the slug's distal side by its convex surface, generates a lateral STF gradient in response to which the slug turns toward the light source.

  18. The real factor for polypeptide elongation in Dictyostelium cells is EF-2B, not EF-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Tomoko; Maeda, Yasuo; Amagai, Aiko . E-mail: aiamagai@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Polypeptide elongation factor 2 (EF-2) plays an essential role in protein synthesis and is believed to be indispensable for cell proliferation. Recently, it has been demonstrated that there are two kinds of EF-2 (EF-2A and EF-2B with 76.6% of sequence identity at the amino acid level) in Dictyostelium discoideum. Although the knockout of EF-2A slightly impaired cytokinesis, EF-2A null cells exhibited almost normal protein synthesis and cell growth, suggesting that there is another molecule capable of compensating for EF-2 function. Since EF-2B is the most likely candidate, we examined its function using ef-2b knockdown cells prepared by the RNAi method. Our results strongly suggest that EF-2B is required for protein synthesis and cell proliferation, functioning as the real EF-2. Interestingly, the expressions of ef-2a and ef-2b mRNAs during development are reversely regulated, and the ef-2b expression is greatly augmented in ef-2a null cells.

  19. Crawling into a new era-the Dictyostelium genome project.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Ludwig; Noegel, Angelika A

    2003-05-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-established model organism for the study of basic aspects of differentiation, signal transduction, phagocytosis, cytokinesis and cell motility. Its genome is being sequenced by an international consortium using a whole chromosome shotgun approach. The pacemaker of the D.discoideum genome project has been chromosome 2, the largest chromosome, which at 8 Mb represents approximately 25% of the genome and whose sequence and analysis have been published recently. Chromosomes 1 and 6 are close to being finished. To accelerate completion of the genome sequence, the next step in the project will be a whole-genome assembly followed by the analysis of the complete gene content. The completed genome sequence and its analysis provide the basis for genome-wide functional studies. It will position Dictyostelium at the same level as other model organisms and further enhance its experimental attractiveness. PMID:12727861

  20. c-di-GMP induction of Dictyostelium cell death requires the polyketide DIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; Giusti, Corinne; Golstein, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cell death in the model organism Dictyostelium, as studied in monolayers in vitro, can be induced by the polyketide DIF-1 or by the cyclical dinucleotide c-di-GMP. c-di-GMP, a universal bacterial second messenger, can trigger innate immunity in bacterially infected animal cells and is involved in developmental cell death in Dictyostelium. We show here that c-di-GMP was not sufficient to induce cell death in Dictyostelium cell monolayers. Unexpectedly, it also required the DIF-1 polyketide. The latter could be exogenous, as revealed by a telling synergy between c-di-GMP and DIF-1. The required DIF-1 polyketide could also be endogenous, as shown by the inability of c-di-GMP to induce cell death in Dictyostelium HMX44A cells and DH1 cells upon pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DIF-1 biosynthesis. In these cases, c-di-GMP–induced cell death was rescued by complementation with exogenous DIF-1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that c-di-GMP could trigger cell death in Dictyostelium only in the presence of the DIF-1 polyketide or its metabolites. This identified another element of control to this cell death and perhaps also to c-di-GMP effects in other situations and organisms. PMID:25518941

  1. Cell-cell signaling and adhesion in phagocytosis and early development of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Bracco, E; Pergolizzi, B; Peracino, B; Ponte, E; Balbo, A; Mai, A; Ceccarelli, A; Bozzaro, S

    2000-01-01

    Cell-cell signaling and adhesion regulate transition from the unicellular to the multicellular stage of development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. Essential gene networks involved in these processes have been identified and their interplay dissected. Heterotrimeric G protein-linked signal transduction plays a key role in regulating expression of genes mediating chemotaxis or cell adhesion, as well as coordinating actin-based cell motility during phagocytosis and chemotaxis. Two classes of cell adhesion molecules, one cadherin-like and the second belonging to the IgG superfamily, contribute to the strength of adhesion in Dictyostelium aggregates. The developmental role of genes involved in motility and adhesion, and their degree of redundancy, have been re-assessed by using novel developmental assay conditions which are closer to development in nature. PMID:11061438

  2. Dictyostelium Cultivation, Transfection, Microscopy and Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Kay, Robert R; Traynor, David

    2015-01-01

    The real time visualisation of fluorescently tagged proteins in live cells using ever more sophisticated microscopes has greatly increased our understanding of the dynamics of key proteins during fundamental physiological processes such as cell locomotion, chemotaxis, cell division and membrane trafficking. In addition the fractionation of cells and isolation of organelles or known compartments can often verify any subcellular localisation and the use of tagged proteins as bait for the immunoprecipitation of material from cell fractions can identify specific binding partners and multiprotein complexes thereby helping assign a function to the tagged protein. We have successfully applied these techniques to the Dictyostelium discoideum protein TSPOON that is part of an ancient heterohexamer membrane trafficking complex (Hirst et al., 2013). TSPOON is the product of the tstD gene in Dictyostelium and is not required for growth or the developmental cycle in this organism. Dictyostelium amoebae will exist in a vegetative phase where growth is sustained by the phagocytosis of bacteria. When this food source is spent they enter a developmental phase where the amoebae aggregate, via chemotaxis to extracellular waves of cAMP, into multicellular structures that subsequently form a fruiting body containing viable spores (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). In the laboratory this cycle takes less than 24 h to complete and as a further aid to manipulation the requirement for a bacterial food source has been circumvented by the derivatisation of the wild type and isolation of axenic strains that can also grow in a nutrient rich broth. Axenic strains like Ax2 are the mainstay of laboratory research using Dictyostelium (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). A description of Dictyostelium cell cultivation, the generation of cell lines that overexpress TSPOON-GFP and TSPOON null cells, and subsequent analysis (Muller-Taubenberger and Ishikawa-Ankerhold, 2013) is detailed below. PMID

  3. Mechano-chemical signaling maintains the rapid movement of Dictyostelium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, M.L.; Knecht, D.A.; Lee, J.

    2008-05-01

    The survival of Dictyostelium cells depends on their ability to efficiently chemotax, either towards food or to form multicellular aggregates. Although the involvement of Ca{sup 2+} signaling during chemotaxis is well known, it is not clear how this regulates cell movement. Previously, fish epithelial keratocytes have been shown to display transient increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) that are mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels (SACs), which play a role in retraction of the cell body [J. Lee, A. Ishihara, G. Oxford, B. Johnson, and K. Jacobson, Regulation of cell movement is mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels. Nature, 1999. 400(6742): p. 382-6.]. To investigate the involvement of SACs in Dictyostelium movement we performed high resolution calcium imaging in wild-type (NC4A2) Dictyostelium cells to detect changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. We observed small, brief, Ca{sup 2+} transients in randomly moving wild-type cells that were dependent on both intracellular and extracellular sources of calcium. Treatment of cells with the SAC blocker gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) inhibited transients and decreased cell speed, consistent with the involvement of SACs in regulating Dictyostelium motility. Additional support for SAC activity was given by the increase in frequency of Ca{sup 2+} transients when Dictyostelium cells were moving on a more adhesive substratum or when they were mechanically stretched. We conclude that mechano-chemical signaling via SACs plays a major role in maintaining the rapid movement of Dictyostelium cells.

  4. A Model Based on Receptor Desensitization for Cyclic AMP Signaling in Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martiel, Jean-Louis; Goldbeter, Albert

    1987-01-01

    We analyze a model based on receptor modification for the cAMP signaling system that controls aggregation of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum after starvation. The model takes into account both the desensitization of the cAMP receptor by reversible phosphorylation and the activation of adenylate cyclase that follows binding of extracellular cAMP to the unmodified receptor. The dynamics of the signaling system is studied in terms of three variables, namely, intracellular and extracellular cAMP, and the fraction of receptor in active state. Using parameter values collected from experimental studies on cAMP signaling and receptor phosphorylation, we show that the model accounts qualitatively and, in a large measure, quantitatively for the various modes of dynamic behavior observed in the experiments: (a) autonomous oscillations of cAMP, (b) relay of suprathreshold cAMP pulses, i.e., excitability, characterized by both an absolute and a relative refractory period, and (c) adaptation to constant cAMP stimuli. A two-variable version of the model is used to demonstrate the link between excitability and oscillations by phase plane analysis. The response of the model to repetitive stimulation allows comprehension, in terms of receptor desensitization, of the role of periodic signaling in Dictyostelium and, more generally, the function of pulsatile patterns of hormone secretion. PMID:19431710

  5. TipC and the chorea-acanthocytosis protein VPS13A regulate autophagy in Dictyostelium and human HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Braceras, Sandra; Calvo, Rosa; Escalante, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Deficient autophagy causes a distinct phenotype in Dictyostelium discoideum, characterized by the formation of multitips at the mound stage. This led us to analyze autophagy in a number of multitipped mutants described previously (tipA−, tipB−, tipC−, and tipD−). We found a clear autophagic dysfunction in tipC− and tipD− while the others showed no defects. tipD codes for a homolog of Atg16, which confirms the role of this protein in Dictyostelium autophagy and validates our approach. The tipC-encoded protein is highly similar to human VPS13A (also known as chorein), whose mutations cause the chorea-acanthocytosis syndrome. No member of the VPS13 protein family has been previously related to autophagy despite the presence of a region of similarity to Atg2 at the C terminus. This region also contains the conserved domain of unknown function DUF1162. Of interest, the expression of the TipC C-terminal coding sequence containing these 2 motifs largely complemented the mutant phenotype. Dictyostelium cells lacking TipC displayed a reduced number of autophagosomes visualized with the markers GFP-Atg18 and GFP-Atg8 and an impaired autophagic degradation as determined by a proteolytic cleavage assay. Downregulation of human VPS13A in HeLa cells by RNA interference confirmed the participation of the human protein in autophagy. VPS13A-depleted cells showed accumulation of autophagic markers and impaired autophagic flux. PMID:25996471

  6. Guenther Gerisch and Dictyostelium, the microbial model for ameboid motility and multicellular morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bozzaro, Salvatore; Fisher, Paul R; Loomis, William; Satir, Peter; Segall, Jeffrey E

    2004-10-01

    Beginning in 1960 and continuing to this day, Guenther Gerisch's work on the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum has helped to make it the model organism of choice for studies of cellular activities that depend upon the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Gerisch has brought insight and quantitative rigor to cell biology by developing novel assays and by applying advanced genetic, biochemical and microscopic techniques to topics as varied as cell-cell adhesion, chemotaxis, motility, endocytosis and cytokinesis. PMID:15450981

  7. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells.

    PubMed

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Komachi, Mayumi; Homma, Yoshimi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), -2, and -3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5-20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC50 values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC50 values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. PMID:26056940

  8. Self-organized Motion During Dictyostelium amoebae aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert

    2004-03-01

    After starvation, amoeba of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum aggregate to form rudimentary multicellular organisms. The coordination of the individual motions of hundreds of thousands of individual cells is an important ingredient in the success of this process. This coordination is accomplished by chemical signaling during the early stages and by direct cell-cell interactions once the cells reach the nascent mound. This talk will review the basic nonequilibrium physics underlying the spatial patterns formed by these cooperative motions, including high-density incoming streams and spontaneously rotating mounds.

  9. Modeling oscillations and spiral waves in Dictyostelium populations.

    PubMed

    Noorbakhsh, Javad; Schwab, David J; Sgro, Allyson E; Gregor, Thomas; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-06-01

    Unicellular organisms exhibit elaborate collective behaviors in response to environmental cues. These behaviors are controlled by complex biochemical networks within individual cells and coordinated through cell-to-cell communication. Describing these behaviors requires new mathematical models that can bridge scales-from biochemical networks within individual cells to spatially structured cellular populations. Here we present a family of "multiscale" models for the emergence of spiral waves in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our models exploit new experimental advances that allow for the direct measurement and manipulation of the small signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) used by Dictyostelium cells to coordinate behavior in cellular populations. Inspired by recent experiments, we model the Dictyostelium signaling network as an excitable system coupled to various preprocessing modules. We use this family of models to study spatially unstructured populations of "fixed" cells by constructing phase diagrams that relate the properties of population-level oscillations to parameters in the underlying biochemical network. We then briefly discuss an extension of our model that includes spatial structure and show how this naturally gives rise to spiral waves. Our models exhibit a wide range of novel phenomena. including a density-dependent frequency change, bistability, and dynamic death due to slow cAMP dynamics. Our modeling approach provides a powerful tool for bridging scales in modeling of Dictyostelium populations. PMID:26172740

  10. Modeling oscillations and spiral waves in Dictyostelium populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorbakhsh, Javad; Schwab, David J.; Sgro, Allyson E.; Gregor, Thomas; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-06-01

    Unicellular organisms exhibit elaborate collective behaviors in response to environmental cues. These behaviors are controlled by complex biochemical networks within individual cells and coordinated through cell-to-cell communication. Describing these behaviors requires new mathematical models that can bridge scales—from biochemical networks within individual cells to spatially structured cellular populations. Here we present a family of "multiscale" models for the emergence of spiral waves in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our models exploit new experimental advances that allow for the direct measurement and manipulation of the small signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) used by Dictyostelium cells to coordinate behavior in cellular populations. Inspired by recent experiments, we model the Dictyostelium signaling network as an excitable system coupled to various preprocessing modules. We use this family of models to study spatially unstructured populations of "fixed" cells by constructing phase diagrams that relate the properties of population-level oscillations to parameters in the underlying biochemical network. We then briefly discuss an extension of our model that includes spatial structure and show how this naturally gives rise to spiral waves. Our models exhibit a wide range of novel phenomena. including a density-dependent frequency change, bistability, and dynamic death due to slow cAMP dynamics. Our modeling approach provides a powerful tool for bridging scales in modeling of Dictyostelium populations.