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Sample records for dictyostelium discoideum cells

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum: Molecular approaches to cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central point of this book is to present Dictyostelium as a valuable eukaryotic organism for those interested in molecular studies that require a combined biochemical, structural, and genetic approach. The book is not meant to be a comprehensive compilation of all methods involving Dictyostelium, but instead is a selective set of chapters that demonstrates the utility of the organism for molecular approaches to interesting cell biological problems.

  2. Dissection of Francisella-Host Cell Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Elisabeth O.; Brenz, Yannick; Herrmann, Lydia; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Zingmark, Carl; Sjöstedt, Anders; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella bacteria cause severe disease in both vertebrates and invertebrates and include one of the most infectious human pathogens. Mammalian cell lines have mainly been used to study the mechanisms by which Francisella manipulates its host to replicate within a large variety of hosts and cell types, including macrophages. Here, we describe the establishment of a genetically and biochemically tractable infection model: the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum combined with the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Phagocytosed F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the endosomal pathway and escapes further phagosomal maturation by translocating into the host cell cytosol. F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis lacking IglC, a known virulence determinant required for Francisella intracellular replication, follows the normal phagosomal maturation and does not grow in Dictyostelium. The attenuation of the F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC mutant was confirmed in a zebrafish embryo model, where growth of F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC was restricted. In Dictyostelium, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the autophagic machinery. The intracellular bacteria colocalize with autophagic markers, and when autophagy is impaired (Dictyostelium Δatg1), F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis accumulates within Dictyostelium cells. Altogether, the Dictyostelium-F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infection model recapitulates the course of infection described in other host systems. The genetic and biochemical tractability of the system allows new approaches to elucidate the dynamic interactions between pathogenic Francisella and its host organism. PMID:26712555

  3. Dissection of Francisella-Host Cell Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Elisabeth O; Brenz, Yannick; Herrmann, Lydia; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Zingmark, Carl; Sjöstedt, Anders; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Hagedorn, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Francisella bacteria cause severe disease in both vertebrates and invertebrates and include one of the most infectious human pathogens. Mammalian cell lines have mainly been used to study the mechanisms by which Francisella manipulates its host to replicate within a large variety of hosts and cell types, including macrophages. Here, we describe the establishment of a genetically and biochemically tractable infection model: the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum combined with the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Phagocytosed F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the endosomal pathway and escapes further phagosomal maturation by translocating into the host cell cytosol. F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis lacking IglC, a known virulence determinant required for Francisella intracellular replication, follows the normal phagosomal maturation and does not grow in Dictyostelium. The attenuation of the F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC mutant was confirmed in a zebrafish embryo model, where growth of F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC was restricted. In Dictyostelium, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the autophagic machinery. The intracellular bacteria colocalize with autophagic markers, and when autophagy is impaired (Dictyostelium Δatg1), F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis accumulates within Dictyostelium cells. Altogether, the Dictyostelium-F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infection model recapitulates the course of infection described in other host systems. The genetic and biochemical tractability of the system allows new approaches to elucidate the dynamic interactions between pathogenic Francisella and its host organism. PMID:26712555

  4. Theoretical model for morphogenesis and cell sorting in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, T.; Inouye, K.

    1999-02-01

    The morphogenetic movement and cell sorting in cell aggregates from the mound stage to the migrating slug stage of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum were studied using a mathematical model. The model postulates that the motive force generated by the cells is in equilibrium with the internal pressure and mechanical resistance. The moving boundary problem derived from the force balance equation and the continuity equation has stationary solutions in which the aggregate takes the shape of a spheroid (or an ellipse in two-dimensional space) with the pacemaker at one of its foci, moving at a constant speed. Numerical calculations in two-dimensional space showed that an irregularly shaped aggregate changes its shape to become an ellipse as it moves. Cell aggregates consisting of two cell types differing in motive force exhibit cell sorting and become elongated, suggesting the importance of prestalk/prespore differentiation in the morphogenesis of Dictyostelium.

  5. Choice of partners: sexual cell interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, H

    1996-08-01

    Recognition of mating partners is of central importance in the sexual processes. In consideration that the most important function of sexuality is to shuffle genetic materials to generate wider variation of characters, mating among different genetic backgrounds is preferable. Wild isolates of cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum are predominantly heterothallic, but homothallic ones also exist. In addition, there are bi-sexual strains which are compatible with either mating type of heterothallic strains but are self-incompatible. How cells of these organisms choose proper mating partners may include the essential mechanisms for sexual cell recognition in general. This minireview addresses studies on sexual cell interactions of D. discoideum with special attention to cell recognition and evolution of the mating system. PMID:8906358

  6. A revision of the Dictyostelium discoideum cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Weijer, C J; Duschl, G; David, C N

    1984-08-01

    We have investigated the Dictyostelium discoideum cell cycle using fluorometric determinations of cellular and nuclear DNA contents in exponentially growing cultures and in synchronized cultures. Almost all cells are in G2 during both growth and development. There is no G1 period, S phase is less than 0.5 h, and G2 has an average length of 6.5 h in axenically grown cells. Mitochondrial DNA, which constitutes about half of the total DNA, is replicated throughout the cell cycle. There is no difference in the nuclear DNA contents of axenically grown and bacterially grown cells. Thus the long cell cycle in axenically grown cells is due to a lengthening of the G2 phase. PMID:6389576

  7. Insights into the Cell Shape Dynamics of Migrating Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Meghan; Homan, Tess; McCann, Colin; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    Dynamic cell shape is a highly visible manifestation of the interaction between the internal biochemical state of a cell and its external environment. We analyzed the dynamic cell shape of migrating cells using the model system Dictyostelium discoideum. Applying a snake algorithm to experimental movies, we extracted cell boundaries in each frame and followed local boundary motion over long time intervals. Using a local motion measure that corresponds to protrusive/retractive activity, we found that protrusions are intermittent and zig-zag, whereas retractions are more sustained and straight. Correlations of this local motion measure reveal that protrusions appear more localized than retractions. Using a local shape measure, curvature, we also found that small peaks in boundary curvature tend to originate at the front of cells and propagate backwards. We will review the possible cytoskeletal origin of these mechanical waves.

  8. Detection and characterisation of NAD(P)H-diaphorase activity in Dictyostelium discoideum cells (Protozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Amaroli, A.; Chessa, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum (D. discoideum), compounds generating nitric oxide (NO) inhibit its aggregation and differentiation without altering cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production. They do it by preventing initiation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pulses. Furthermore, these compounds stimulate adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of a 41 kDa cytosolic protein and regulate the glyceraldehyde-3-phospate dehydrogenase activity. Yet, although D. discoideum cells produce NO at a relatively constant rate at the onset of their developmental cycle, there is still no evidence of the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. In this work, we detect the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity in D. discoideum and we characterise it by specific inhibitors and physical-chemical conditions that allegedly distinguish between NOS-related and -unrelated NADPH-d activity. PMID:23361243

  9. Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation. One of the most important insights gained from these studies is that the synthesis of cellulose by living organisms involves much more than simply the polymerization of glucose into a (1{r_arrow}4)-{beta}-linked polymer. The number of glucoses in a polymer (the degree of polymerization), the crystalline form assumed by the glucan chains when they crystallize to form a microfibril, and the dimensions and orientation of the microfibrils are all subject to cellular control. Instead of cellulose biosynthesis, a more appropriate term might be cellulose biogenesis, to emphasize the involvement of cellular structures and mechanisms in controlling polymerization and directing crystallization and deposition. Dictyostelium discoideum is uniquely suitable for the study of cellulose biogenesis because of its amenability to experimental study and manipulation and the extent of our knowledge of its basic cellular mechanisms (as will be evident from the rest of this volume). In this chapter, I will summarize what is known about cellulose biogenesis in D. discoideum, emphasizing its potential to illuminate our understanding both of D. discoideum development and plant cellulose biogenesis.

  10. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo. PMID:26013485

  11. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-hui

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo. PMID:26013485

  12. Motile activities of Dictyostelium discoideum differ from those in Protista or vertebrate animal cells.

    PubMed

    Waligórska, Agnieszka; Wianecka-Skoczeń, Magdalena; Korohoda, Włodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    Cell movement in the amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum has been examined in media differing in monovalent cation concentration (i.e. Na+ and K+). Under isotonic or even slightly hypertonic conditions, the cells move equally well in solutions in which either potassium or sodium ions dominate. However, in strongly hypertonic solutions the amoebae showed motility in a 2% potassium chloride solution, but remained motionless in a hypertonic 2% sodium chloride solution. This inhibition of D. discoideum amoebae movement in a hypertonic sodium chloride solution was fully reversible. Such behaviour corresponds to that of plant, fungi, and some invertebrate animal cells rather than protozoan or vertebrate cells. These observations suggest that studies using D. discoideum as a model for cell motility in vertebrate animal tissue cells should be considered with caution, and would seem to confirm the classification of cellular slime moulds as related rather to Fungi than to Protista. This also shows that the cell membrane models should consider the asymmetry in sodium/potassium ion concentrations found in vertebrate animal cells as one of various possibilities. PMID:18274250

  13. Motility mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    We describe six motility mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum in this report. They were identified among a group of temperature-sensitive growth (Tsg) mutants that had been previously isolated using an enrichment for phagocytosis-defective cells. The Tsg mutants were screened for their ability to produce tracks on gold-coated cover slips, and several strains were found that were temperature-sensitive for migration in this assay. Analysis of spontaneous Tsg+ revertants of 10 migration-defective strains identified six strains that co-reverted the Tsg and track formation phenotypes. Characterization of these six strains indicated that they were defective at restrictive temperature in track formation, phagocytosis of bacteria, and pseudopodial and filopodial activity, while retaining normal rates of oxygen consumption and viability. Because they had lost this group of motile capabilities, these strains were designated motility mutants. The Tsg+ revertants of these mutants, which coordinately recovered all of the motile activities, were found at frequencies consistent with single genetic events. Analysis of the motility mutants and their revertants suggests a relationship between the motility mutations in some of these strains and genes affecting axenic growth. PMID:7118999

  14. Biological variability in the structures of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates in Dictyostelium discoideum and mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, C; Safrany, S T; Bembenek, M E; Reddy, K M; Reddy, K; Falck, J; Bröcker, M; Shears, S B; Mayr, G W

    1997-01-01

    Previous structural analyses of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates in biological systems have relied largely on NMR analysis. For example, in Dictyostelium discoideum, diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate was determined by NMR to be 4- and/or 6-PPInsP5, and the bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate was found to be 4, 5-bisPPInsP4 and/or 5,6-bisPPInsP4 [Laussmann, Eujen, Weisshuhn, Thiel and Vogel (1996) Biochem. J. 315, 715-720]. We now describe three recent technical developments to aid the analysis of these compounds, not just in Dictyostelium, but also in a wider range of biological systems: (i) improved resolution and sensitivity of detection of PPInsP5 isomers by microbore metal-dye-detection HPLC; (ii) the use of the enantiomerically specific properties of a rat hepatic diphosphatase; (iii) chemical synthesis of enantiomerically pure reference standards of all six possible PPInsP5 isomers. Thus we now demonstrate that the major PPInsP5 isomer in Dictyostelium is 6-PPInsP5. Similar findings obtained using the same synthetic standards have been published [Laussmann, Reddy, Reddy, Falck and Vogel (1997) Biochem. J. 322, 31-33]. In addition, we show that 10-25% of the Dictyostelium PPInsP5 pool is comprised of 5-PPInsP5. The biological significance of this new observation was reinforced by our demonstration that 5-PPInsP5 is the predominant PPInsP5 isomer in four different mammalian cell lines (FTC human thyroid cancer cells, Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, Jurkat T-cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells). The fact that the cellular spectrum of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates varies across phylogenetic boundaries underscores the value of our technological developments for future determinations of the structures of this class of compounds in other systems. PMID:9359429

  15. Mitochondrial Stress Tests Using Seahorse Respirometry on Intact Dictyostelium discoideum Cells.

    PubMed

    Lay, Sui; Sanislav, Oana; Annesley, Sarah J; Fisher, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria not only play a critical and central role in providing metabolic energy to the cell but are also integral to the other cellular processes such as modulation of various signaling pathways. These pathways affect many aspects of cell physiology, including cell movement, growth, division, differentiation, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction which affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and causes oxidative phosphorylation defects can thus lead to altered cellular physiology and manifest in disease. The assessment of the mitochondrial bioenergetics can thus provide valuable insights into the physiological state, and the alterations to the state of the cells. Here, we describe a method to successfully use the Seahorse XF(e)24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer to assess the mitochondrial respirometry of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:27271893

  16. A glycosylation mutation affects cell fate in chimeras of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Houle, J; Balthazar, J; West, C M

    1989-01-01

    Prestalk and prespore cells form a simple pattern in the pseudoplasmodium of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Prestalk cells are distinguished from prespore cells by a low level of expression of a glycoantigen on their surfaces and by reduced intercellular cohesion. We examined the possible significance of these differences, using the modB mutation, which eliminates this glycoantigen genetically, leading to reduced intercellular cohesion, modB mutant cells were allowed to develop together with normal cells to form chimeric slugs. Mutant cells labeled by feeding with fluorescent bacteria were highly enriched in the prestalk cell zone at the anterior end of the slug. In contrast, normal cells, if in a minority, were concentrated in the rear part of the prespore cell zone. Immunoblot analysis and cell-by-cell double-label immunofluorescence of these mixtures showed that mutant cells underproduced several prespore cell markers. Mutant cells tended not to form spores in chimeras unless they exceeded a threshold proportion of ca. 30%. However, mutant cells showed no tendency to produce excess prestalk cells when allowed to develop alone. These findings are most simply explained by postulating that reduced glycoantigen expression and intercellular adhesion encourage a more anterior cell localization, which in turn causes differentiation into a prestalk cell. Since normal prestalk cells also show reduced glycoantigen expression and intercellular adhesion, this suggests that a similar mechanism may contribute to pattern formation during normal development. Images PMID:2726746

  17. Ribosomal protein gene expression is cell type specific during development in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Parrish, S N; Blumberg, D D

    1999-10-01

    Starvation for amino acids initiates the developmental cycle in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. Upon starvation one of the earliest developmental events is the selective loss of the ribosomal protein mRNAs from polysomes. This loss depends upon sequences in the 5' non-translated leader of the ribosomal protein (r-protein) mRNAs. Here evidence is presented which indicates that those cells which will become prestalk cells express the ribosomal protein genes during development under starvation conditions. Cells which enter the prespore pathway shut off r-protein synthesis. The promoter and 5' non-translated leader sequences from two ribosomal protein genes, the rp-L11 and the rp-S9 genes, are fused to the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase reporter gene. While beta-galactosidase enzyme activity is detected in situ in most growing cells, by 15 h of development beta-galactosidase enzyme activity is largely lost from the prespore cells although strong beta-galactosidase enzyme activity is present in the prestalk cells. These observations suggest the possibility that the ribosomal protein mRNAs are excluded from polysomes in a cell-type-specific manner. PMID:10550541

  18. A new member of the GP138 multigene family implicated in cell interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Yamaguchi, N; Tanaka, Y; Urushihara, H

    1999-06-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum reproduces sexually under submerged and dark conditions. Its mating system is polymorphic and particularly interesting with respect to mechanisms of cell recognition. The cell-surface glycoprotein gp138 has been implicated in sexual cell interactions, as it was identified as a target molecule for the antibodies that block sexual cell fusion in D. discoideum. Two mutually homologous genes, GP138A and GP138B, have been cloned, but gene disruption experiments to clarify their functional relationships suggested that there is at least one more gene for gp138. Further protein analysis including peptide mapping also revealed that gp138 exists as three isoforms, DdFRP1, DdFRP2, and DdFRP3. GP138A encodes DdFRP2 and GP138B, DdFRP3, and the presence of a third gp138 gene encoding DdFRP1 was suggested. Here, we isolated and characterized a third GP138 gene, GP138C. Although the deduced amino acid sequences of GP138C matched completely with those of peptide fragments of DdFRP1 in the N-terminal half, the rest did not give complete matches. Overexpression of GP138C caused an increase in the intensity of DdFRP1, but disruption of this gene did not diminish DdFRP1. Our results indicate that GP138C encodes a protein very similar to but distinct from DdFRP1. The GP138 multigene family is thus composed of more members than previously expected, and their functional relationships are of special interest. PMID:10462174

  19. The human homologue of Dictyostelium discoideum phg1A is expressed by human metastatic melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lozupone, Francesco; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Brambilla, Daria; Borghi, Martina; Meschini, Stefania; Barca, Stefano; Marino, Maria Lucia; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; de Milito, Angelo; Fais, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Tumour cannibalism is a characteristic of malignancy and metastatic behaviour. This atypical phagocytic activity is a crucial survival option for tumours in conditions of low nutrient supply, and has some similarities to the phagocytic activity of unicellular microorganisms. In fact, Dictyostelium discoideum has been used widely as a model to study phagocytosis. Recently, phg1A has been described as a protein that is primarily involved in the phagocytic process of this microorganism. The closest human homologue to phg1A is transmembrane 9 superfamily protein member 4 (TM9SF4). Here, we report that TM9SF4 is highly expressed in human malignant melanoma cells deriving from metastatic lesions, whereas it is undetectable in healthy human tissues and cells. TM9SF4 is predominantly expressed in acidic vesicles of melanoma cells, in which it co-localizes with the early endosome antigens Rab5 and early endosome antigen 1. TM9SF4 silencing induced marked inhibition of cannibal activity, which is consistent with a derangement of intracellular pH gradients, with alkalinization of acidic vesicles and acidification of the cell cytosol. We propose TM9SF4 as a new marker of malignancy, representing a potential new target for anti-tumour strategies with a specific role in tumour cannibalism and in the establishment of a metastatic phenotype. PMID:19893578

  20. Scaling law for Dictyostelium Discoideum mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeltz, Camilla; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about how multicellular organisms regulate the size of their tissues during development. The eukaryote Dictyostelium Discoideum, may be studied as a model system. When starved, these amoebae aggregate and form cell mounds. These mounds develop into moving slugs and fruiting bodies consisting of a spore mass held atop a rigid stem of stalk cells. We report experiments on the development of mounds of Dicty-cells when confined to different heights. At the smallest height the amoebae are confined to a monolayer of cells in a 2d-plane. We found that the confinement inhibited the development of moving slugs and fruiting bodies. The cells aggregated and formed mounds whose size was found to be proportional to the height of the mounds. The precise mechanism is yet unknown. We will present the data and discuss possible mechanisms. This work is supported by the NSF through the Biocomplexity Program.

  1. Curcumin inhibits development and cell adhesion in Dictyostelium discoideum: Implications for YakA signaling and GST enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Garige, Mamatha; Walters, Eric

    2015-11-13

    The molecular basis for nutraceutical properties of the polyphenol curcumin (Curcuma longa, Turmeric) is complex, affecting multiple factors that regulate cell signaling and homeostasis. Here, we report the effect of curcumin on cellular and developmental mechanisms in the eukaryotic model, Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium proliferation was inhibited in the presence of curcumin, which also suppressed the prestarvation marker, discoidin I, members of the yakA-mediated developmental signaling pathway, and expression of the extracellular matrix/cell adhesion proteins (DdCAD and csA). This resulted in delayed chemotaxis, adhesion, and development of the organism. In contrast to the inhibitory effects on developmental genes, curcumin induced gstA gene expression, overall GST activity, and generated production of reactive oxygen species. These studies expand our knowledge of developmental and biochemical signaling influenced by curcumin, and lends greater consideration of GST enzyme function in eukaryotic cell signaling, development, and differentiation. PMID:26449461

  2. Expression of growth factors in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Asgari, S; Arun, S; Slade, M B; Marshall, J; Williams, K L; Wheldrake, J F

    2001-07-01

    Growth factors and their binding proteins are important proteins regulating mammalian cell proliferation and differentiation so there is considerable interest in producing them as recombinant proteins, especially in hosts that do not already produce a complex mixture of growth factors. Many growth factors require post-translational modifications making them unsuitable for production in Escherichia coli or other prokaryotes. Since several expression vector systems have been recently developed for foreign protein production in the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, we attempted to use two of these systems to express human insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (hIGFBP6) and bovine beta-cellulin (bBTC) as secreted proteins. Although both proteins were successfully produced in stably transformed amoebae, no secretion was detected in spite of several attempts to facilitate this occurring. PMID:11361083

  3. Dictyostelium discoideum to human cells: pharmacogenetic studies demonstrate a role for sphingolipids in chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen; Min, Junxia; Alexander, Hannah

    2006-03-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for the treatment of cancer and a subject of extensive research. Numerous mechanisms of drug resistance have been proposed, and they differ for different drugs. Nevertheless, it is clear that our understanding of this important problem is still incomplete, and that new targets for modulating therapy still await discovery. The attractive biology and the availability of powerful molecular techniques have made the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a powerful non-mammalian model for drug target discovery, and the problem of drug resistance. To understand the molecular basis of chemoresistance to the widely used drug cisplatin, both genetic and pharmacological approaches have been applied to this versatile experimental system. These studies have resulted in the identification of novel molecular pathways which can be used to increase the efficacy of cisplatin, and brought attention to the role of sphingolipids in mediating the cellular response to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the following review, we will describe the history and utility of D. discoideum in pharmacogenetics, and discuss recent studies which focus attention on the role of sphingolipids in chemotherapy and chemoresistance. PMID:16403600

  4. Actin-binding protein G (AbpG) participates in modulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Wang, Liang-Chen; Pang, Te-Ling; Chen, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is involved in various physiological and pathogenic events, and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum displays chemotactic locomotion in stages of its life cycle. By characterizing a Dictyostelium mutant defective in chemotactic responses, we identified a novel actin-binding protein serving to modulate cell migration and named it actin-binding protein G (AbpG); this 971–amino acid (aa) protein contains an N-terminal type 2 calponin homology (CH2) domain followed by two large coiled-coil regions. In chemoattractant gradients, abpG− cells display normal directional persistence but migrate significantly more slowly than wild-type cells; expressing Flag-AbpG in mutant cells eliminates the motility defect. AbpG is enriched in cortical/lamellipodial regions and colocalizes well with F-actin; aa 401–600 and aa 501–550 fragments of AbpG show the same distribution as full-length AbpG. The aa 501–550 region of AbpG, which is essential for AbpG to localize to lamellipodia and to rescue the phenotype of abpG− cells, is sufficient for binding to F-actin and represents a novel actin-binding protein domain. Compared with wild-type cells, abpG− cells have significantly higher F-actin levels. Collectively our results suggest that AbpG may participate in modulating actin dynamics to optimize cell locomotion. PMID:25609090

  5. Actin-binding protein G (AbpG) participates in modulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Wang, Liang-Chen; Pang, Te-Ling; Chen, Mei-Yu

    2015-03-15

    Cell migration is involved in various physiological and pathogenic events, and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum displays chemotactic locomotion in stages of its life cycle. By characterizing a Dictyostelium mutant defective in chemotactic responses, we identified a novel actin-binding protein serving to modulate cell migration and named it actin-binding protein G (AbpG); this 971-amino acid (aa) protein contains an N-terminal type 2 calponin homology (CH2) domain followed by two large coiled-coil regions. In chemoattractant gradients, abpG(-) cells display normal directional persistence but migrate significantly more slowly than wild-type cells; expressing Flag-AbpG in mutant cells eliminates the motility defect. AbpG is enriched in cortical/lamellipodial regions and colocalizes well with F-actin; aa 401-600 and aa 501-550 fragments of AbpG show the same distribution as full-length AbpG. The aa 501-550 region of AbpG, which is essential for AbpG to localize to lamellipodia and to rescue the phenotype of abpG(-) cells, is sufficient for binding to F-actin and represents a novel actin-binding protein domain. Compared with wild-type cells, abpG(-) cells have significantly higher F-actin levels. Collectively our results suggest that AbpG may participate in modulating actin dynamics to optimize cell locomotion. PMID:25609090

  6. Flow-driven instabilities during pattern formation of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, A.; Steinbock, O.; Zykov, V.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2015-06-01

    The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is a well known model system for the study of biological pattern formation. In the natural environment, aggregating populations of starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells may experience fluid flows that can profoundly change the underlying wave generation process. Here we study the effect of advection on the pattern formation in a colony of homogeneously distributed Dictyostelium discoideum cells described by the standard Martiel-Goldbeter model. The external flow advects the signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) downstream, while the chemotactic cells attached to the solid substrate are not transported with the flow. The evolution of small perturbations in cAMP concentrations is studied analytically in the linear regime and by corresponding numerical simulations. We show that flow can significantly influence the dynamics of the system and lead to a flow-driven instability that initiate downstream traveling cAMP waves. We also show that boundary conditions have a significant effect on the observed patterns and can lead to a new kind of instability.

  7. Establishment of a transient expression system for Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, P K; Ahern, K G; Firtel, R A

    1988-01-01

    We have established a rapid and sensitive transient expression system for Dictyostelium discoideum. We constructed a gene fusion containing the promoter from the Dictyostelium Actin 15 gene fused to the firefly luciferase gene. The enzymatic activity of this gene fusion, expressed at very high levels in stable transformants, was measured to determine optimum conditions for transient expression using electroporation to introduce the DNA into cells. With these conditions, we show that a luciferase gene fusion driven by a prestalk, cell-type specific promoter from the pst-cathepsin gene expresses luciferase at the appropriate developmental stage. In addition, we present results suggesting that the system will be useful for expressing genes in non-axenic cell lines. Finally, we observe that electroporation is more efficient for obtaining stable transformations than the standard calcium phosphate procedure using extrachromosomally replicating shuttle vectors but less efficient for vectors that integrate into the Dictyostelium chromosomes. PMID:3362676

  8. Sentinel cells, symbiotic bacteria and toxin resistance in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Brock, Debra A; Callison, W Éamon; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2016-04-27

    The social amoebaDictyostelium discoideumis unusual among eukaryotes in having both unicellular and multicellular stages. In the multicellular stage, some cells, called sentinels, ingest toxins, waste and bacteria. The sentinel cells ultimately fall away from the back of the migrating slug, thus removing these substances from the slug. However, someD. discoideumclones (called farmers) carry commensal bacteria through the multicellular stage, while others (called non-farmers) do not. Farmers profit from their beneficial bacteria. To prevent the loss of these bacteria, we hypothesize that sentinel cell numbers may be reduced in farmers, and thus farmers may have a diminished capacity to respond to pathogenic bacteria or toxins. In support, we found that farmers have fewer sentinel cells compared with non-farmers. However, farmers produced no fewer viable spores when challenged with a toxin. These results are consistent with the beneficial bacteriaBurkholderiaproviding protection against toxins. The farmers did not vary in spore production with and without a toxin challenge the way the non-farmers did, which suggests the costs ofBurkholderiamay be fixed while sentinel cells may be inducible. Therefore, the costs for non-farmers are only paid in the presence of the toxin. When the farmers were cured of their symbiotic bacteria with antibiotics, they behaved just like non-farmers in response to a toxin challenge. Thus, the advantages farmers gain from carrying bacteria include not just food and protection against competitors, but also protection against toxins. PMID:27097923

  9. Differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum vegetative cells into spores during earth orbit in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Masukawa, M.; Sekikawa, K.; Amano, T.; Nakano, T.; Nagaoka, S.; Ohnishi, T.

    2001-01-01

    We reported previously that emerged amoebae of Dictyosterium ( D.) discoideum grew, aggregated and differentiated to fruiting bodies with normal morphology in space. Here, we investigated the effects of space radiation and/or microgravity on the number, viability, kinetics of germination, growth rate and mutation frequency of spores formed in space in a radiation-sensitive strain, γs13, and the parental strain, NC4. In γs13, there were hardly spores in the fruiting bodies formed in space. In NC4, we found a decrease in the number of spores, a delay in germination of the spores and delayed start of cell growth of the spores formed in space when compared to the ground control. However, the mutation frequency of the NC4 spores formed in space was similar to that of the ground control. We conclude that the depression of spore formation might be induced by microgravity and/or space radiation through the depression of some stage(s) of DNA repair during cell differentiation in the slime mold.

  10. The intracellular location of lysosomal enzymes in developing Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhard, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The author has found that developing Dictyostelium cells contain two distinct acid hydrolase-containing organelles. Vesicles from cells at different stages of development were separated using Percoll density gradients. The lower density vesicles (LDVs or lysosomes) were present in nourished and starved cells. The higher density vesicles (HDVs) arose during starvation-induced differentiation. HDVs lacked two prestalk cell-specific lysosomal enzymes which were contained in LDVs. Prespore cell-specific spore coat proteins were detected in HDVs by ELISA. ({sup 35}S)sulfate labeling revealed that HDVs contained newly made glycoproteins as well as glycoproteins found in preexisting LDVs. Pulse-chase experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine revealed that {alpha}-mannosidase from pre-existing LDVs an newly made {alpha}-mannosidase had entered HDVs. These data suggest that prespore LDVs mature to become HDVs. He has obtained evidence that HDVs are identical to prespore vesicles. Prespore vesicles are specialized secretory organelles which arise during prespore cell differentiation and which secrete their contents during terminal differentiation. As prespore vesicles secreted their contents, there was a co-incidental increase in extracellular acid hydrolase activity and a decrease in HDV-associated enzyme activity. Electron micrographs revealed that prespore cells contained two acid phosphatase-staining organelles, one of which appeared to be identical to lysosomes from nourished cells and a second which had features similar to prespore vesicles. Ricin-gold affinity electron microscopy was used to label the mucopolysaccharide component of prespore vesicles and the spore coat. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed co-localization of {alpha}-mannosidase with ricin-gold in prespore vesicles and the spore coat.

  11. Mutants of thermotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.J.; Fontana, D.R.; Poff, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum, strain HL50 were mutagenized with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cloned, allowed to form pseudoplasmodia and screened for aberrant positive and negative thermotaxis. Three types of mutants were found. Mutant HO428 exhibits only positive thermotaxis over the entire temperature range (no negative thermotaxis). HO596 and HO813 exhibit weakened positive thermotaxis and normal negative thermotaxis. The weakened positive thermotactic response results in a shift toward warmer temperatures in the transition temperature from negative to positive thermotaxis. Mutant HO209 exhibits weakened positive and negative thermotactic responses and has a transition temperature similar to the 'wild type' (HL50).The two types of mutants represented by HO428, HO596 and HO813 support the model that positive and negative thermotaxis have separate pathways for temperature sensing. The type of mutants which contains HO209 suggests that those two pathways converge at some point before the response.

  12. Signaling pathways mediating chemotaxis in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Willard, Stacey S; Devreotes, Peter N

    2006-09-01

    Chemotaxis, or cell migration guided by chemical cues, is critical for a multitude of biological processes in a diverse array of organisms. Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae rely on chemotaxis to find food and to survive starvation conditions, and we have taken advantage of this system to study the molecular regulation of this vital cell behavior. Previous work has identified phosphoinositide signaling as one mechanism which may contribute to directional sensing and actin polymerization during chemotaxis; a mechanism which is conserved in mammalian neutrophils. In this review, we will discuss recent data on genes and pathways governing directional sensing and actin polymerization, with a particular emphasis on contributions from our laboratory. PMID:16962888

  13. Production and secretion of recombinant proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, W; Williams, K L; Slade, M B

    1994-06-01

    We have expressed useful amounts of three recombinant proteins in a new eukaryotic host/vector system. The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum efficiently secreted two recombinant products, a soluble form of the normally cell surface associated D. discoideum glycoprotein (PsA) and the heterologous protein glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum, while the enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli was cell associated. Up to 20mg/l of recombinant PsA and 1mg/l of GST were obtained after purification from a standard, peptone based growth medium. The secretion signal peptide was correctly cleaved from the recombinant GST- and PsA-proteins and the expression of recombinant PsA was shown to be stable for at least one hundred generations in the absence of selection. PMID:7764951

  14. Characterization of the Roco protein family in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Wouter N; van Haastert, Peter J M

    2010-05-01

    The Roco family consists of multidomain Ras-GTPases that include LRRK2, a protein mutated in familial Parkinson's disease. The genome of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum encodes 11 Roco proteins. To study the functions of these proteins, we systematically knocked out the roco genes. Previously described functions for GbpC, Pats1, and QkgA (Roco1 to Roco3) were confirmed, while novel developmental defects were identified in roco4- and roco11-null cells. Cells lacking Roco11 form larger fruiting bodies than wild-type cells, while roco4-null cells show strong developmental defects during the transition from mound to fruiting body; prestalk cells produce reduced levels of cellulose, leading to unstable stalks that are unable to properly lift the spore head. Detailed phylogenetic analysis of four slime mold species reveals that QkgA and Roco11 evolved relatively late by duplication of an ancestor roco4 gene (later than approximately 300 million years ago), contrary to the situation with other roco genes, which were already present before the split of the common ancestor of D. discoideum and Polysphondylium pallidum (before approximately 600 million years ago). Together, our data show that the Dictyostelium Roco proteins serve a surprisingly diverse set of functions and highlight Roco4 as a key protein for proper stalk cell formation. PMID:20348387

  15. Chemotaxis to Excitable Waves in Dictyostelium Discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Arpan; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemically directed motility by eukaryotic cells such as Dictyostelium. In particular, the LEGI model has proven capable of providing a framework for quantitatively explaining many experiments that present Dictyostelium cells with tailored chemical stimuli and monitor their subsequent polarization. Here, we couple the LEGI approach to an excitable medium model of the cAMP wave-field that is self-generated by the cells and investigate the extent to which this class of models enables accurate chemotaxis to the cAMP waveforms expected in vivo. Our results indicate that the ultra-sensitive version of the model does an excellent job in providing natural wave rectification, thereby providing a compelling solution to the ``back-of-the-wave paradox'' during cellular aggregation. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant P01 GM078586.

  16. Excitable signal relay in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestler, Troy; Schwab, David; Mehta, Pankaj; Gregor, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The social amoeba D. discoideum transitions when starved from a collection of individual cells into a multicellular spore-complex. During this process, amoebae display several interesting phenomena including intercellular signaling, pattern formation, and cell differentiation. At the heart of these phenomena is the exchange of the signaling molecule cyclic-AMP, which has previously been extensively studied using a variety of indirect methods. Here we employ a sensor that uses a compound fluorescent protein whose emission spectrum changes in the presence of bound cyclic AMP to directly monitor, in real time and in vivo, intracellular cAMP concentrations. We use cells expressing this sensor in microchemostats to study intracellular cAMP concentrations at the single-cell level in response to precise, dynamically-controlled external cAMP stimulation. Specifically, we show that these cells display excitability much like that found in neurons and agree experimentally quite well with a modified FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamical systems model. This single-cell model sets groundwork for a comprehensive multicellular model that promises to explain emergent behavior in D. discoideum.

  17. Sketch the migration of Dictyostelium discoideum using phase field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunsong; Camley, Brian; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    Cell migration plays an important role in a lot of biological processes, like chemotaxis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. The fact it is highly integrated has brought great challenges, physical and mathematical, to the modeling efforts. Recently, a phase field model, which couples cellular reaction dynamics, intra-cellular hydrodynamics, cell-substrate adhesions and deformable cell boundaries, has successfully captured some characteristics of moving cells, including morphological change, cytosolic actin flow pattern, periodic migration and so on. Here we apply the phase field model to sketch the migration of Dictyostelium discoideum, which shows a completely different moving pattern from the cells (like fish keratocyte) in our previous attempts. And we will also compare our results with some experimental observations, not only on the cell morphology, but also on the traction force patterns on the substrate.

  18. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anupama; Shaulsky, Gad

    2010-02-01

    The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC), a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway. PMID:20195510

  19. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Dictyostelium discoideum Aggregation Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Debord, J. Daniel; Smith, Donald F.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Heeren, Ronald M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Gomer, Richard H.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A.

    2014-06-09

    High resolution imaging mass spectrometry could become a valuable tool for cell and developmental biology, but both, high spatial and mass spectral resolution are needed to enable this. In this report, we employed Bi3 bombardment time-of-flight (Bi3 ToF-SIMS) and C60 bombardment Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60 FTICR-SIMS) to image Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation streams. Nearly 300 lipid species were identified from the aggregation streams. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging (FTICR-SIMS) enabled the generation of multiple molecular ion maps at the nominal mass level and provided good coverage for fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and sterol lipids. The comparison of Bi3 ToF-SIMS and C60 FTICR-SIMS suggested that while the first provides fast, high spatial resolution molecular ion images, the chemical complexity of biological samples warrants the use of high resolution analyzers for accurate ion identification.

  20. Lack of 5-methylcytosine in Dictyostelium discoideum DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S S; Ratner, D I

    1991-01-01

    We find no evidence for the presence of 5-methylcytosine in the DNA of Dictyostelium discoideum. Methylation was absent from CCGG sites in repetitive DNA and in DNA from the actin multigene family. Nor was 5-methylcytosine detected in total DNA when base composition was determined by means of h.p.l.c. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1713034

  1. Pattern formation in Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates in confined microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallou, Adrien; Hersen, Pascal; di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Kabla, Alexandre

    Dictyostelium Discoideum (Dd) is often viewed as a model system to study the complex collective cell behaviours which shape an embryo. Under starvation, Dd cells form multicellular aggregates which soon elongate, starting to display an anterior-posterior axis by differentiating into two distinct cell populations; prestalk (front) and prespore (rear) cells zones. Different models, either based on positional information or on differentiation followed up by cell sorting, have been proposed to explain the origin and the regulation of this spatial pattern.To decipher between the proposed hypotheses, we have developed am experimental platform where aggregates, made of genetically engineered Dd cells to express fluorescent reporters of cell differentiation in either prestalk or prespore cells, are allowed to develop in 20 to 400 μm wide hydrogel channels. Such a setup allows us to both mimic Dd confined natural soil environment and to follow the patterning dynamics using time-lapse microscopy. Tracking cell lineage commitments and positions in space and time, we demonstrate that Dd cells differentiate first into prestalk and prespore cells prior to sorting into an organized spatial pattern on the basis of collective motions based on differential motility and adhesion mechanisms. A. Hallou would like to thank the University of Cambridge for the Award of an ``Oliver Gatty Studentship in Biophysical and Colloid Science''.

  2. Functional characterization of intracellular Dictyostelium discoideum P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Melanie J; Durai, Latha; Ennion, Steven J

    2009-12-11

    Indicative of cell surface P2X ion channel activation, extracellular ATP evokes a rapid and transient calcium influx in the model eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum. Five P2X-like proteins (dP2XA-E) are present in this organism. However, their roles in purinergic signaling are unclear, because dP2XA proved to have an intracellular localization on the contractile vacuole where it is thought to be required for osmoregulation. To determine functional properties of the remaining four dP2X-like proteins and to assess their cellular roles, we recorded membrane currents from expressed cloned receptors and generated a quintuple knock-out Dictyostelium strain devoid of dP2X receptors. ATP evoked inward currents at dP2XB and dP2XE receptors but not at dP2XC or dP2XD. beta,gamma-Imido-ATP was more potent than ATP at dP2XB but a weak partial agonist at dP2XE. Currents in dP2XB and dP2XE were strongly inhibited by Na(+) but insensitive to copper and the P2 receptor antagonists pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin. Unusual for P2X channels, dP2XA and dP2XB were also Cl(-)-permeable. The extracellular purinergic response to ATP persisted in p2xA/B/C/D/E quintuple knock-out Dictyostelium demonstrating that dP2X channels are not responsible. dP2XB, -C, -D, and -E were found to be intracellularly localized to the contractile vacuole with the ligand binding domain facing the lumen. However, quintuple p2xA/B/C/D/E null cells were still capable of regulating cell volume in water demonstrating that, contrary to previous findings, dP2X receptors are not required for osmoregulation. Responses to the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium, however, were reduced in p2xA/B/C/D/E null cells suggesting that dP2X receptors play a role in intracellular calcium signaling. PMID:19833731

  3. Scanning X-Ray Nanodiffraction on Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Marius; Bernhardt, Marten; Blum, Christoph; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Salditt, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We have performed scanning x-ray nanobeam diffraction experiments on single cells of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells have been investigated in 1), freeze-dried, 2), frozen-hydrated (vitrified), and 3), initially alive states. The spatially resolved small-angle x-ray scattering signal shows characteristic streaklike patterns in reciprocal space, which we attribute to fiber bundles of the actomyosin network. From the intensity distributions, an anisotropy parameter can be derived that indicates pronounced local variations within the cell. In addition to nanobeam small-angle x-ray scattering, we have evaluated the x-ray differential phase contrast in view of the projected electron density. Different experimental aspects of the x-ray experiment, sample preparation, and data analysis are discussed. Finally, the x-ray results are correlated with optical microscopy (differential phase contrast and confocal microscopy of mutant strains with fluorescently labeled actin and myosin II), which have been carried out in live and fixed states, including optical microscopy under cryogenic conditions. PMID:25468345

  4. The cell adhesion molecule DdCAD-1 regulates morphogenesis through differential spatiotemporal expression in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Zhu, Yingyue; Manoharan, Kumararaaj; Yang, Chunxia; Siu, Chi-Hung

    2011-06-01

    During development of Dictyostelium, multiple cell types are formed and undergo a coordinated series of morphogenetic movements guided by their adhesive properties and other cellular factors. DdCAD-1 is a unique homophilic cell adhesion molecule encoded by the cadA gene. It is synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported to the plasma membrane by contractile vacuoles. In chimeras developed on soil plates, DdCAD-1-expressing cells showed greater propensity to develop into spores than did cadA-null cells. When development was performed on non-nutrient agar, wild-type cells sorted from the cadA-null cells and moved to the anterior zone. They differentiated mostly into stalk cells and eventually died, whereas the cadA-null cells survived as spores. To assess the role of DdCAD-1 in this novel behavior of wild-type and mutant cells, cadA-null cells were rescued by the ectopic expression of DdCAD-1-GFP. Morphological studies have revealed major spatiotemporal changes in the subcellular distribution of DdCAD-1 during development. Whereas DdCAD-1 became internalized in most cells in the post-aggregation stages, it was prominent in the contact regions of anterior cells. Cell sorting was also restored in cadA(-) slugs by exogenous recombinant DdCAD-1. Remarkably, DdCAD-1 remained on the surface of anterior cells, whereas it was internalized in the posterior cells. Additionally, DdCAD-1-expressing cells migrated slower than cadA(-) cells and sorted to the anterior region of chimeric slugs. These results show that DdCAD-1 influences the sorting behavior of cells in slugs by its differential distribution on the prestalk and prespore cells. PMID:21561987

  5. Glycoproteins That Exhibit Extensive Size Polymorphisms in Dictyostelium Discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E.; Gooley, A. A.; Hudson, G. C.; Williams, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Electrophoretic variants which arise from amino acid substitutions, leading to charge differences between proteins are ubiquitous and have been used extensively for genetic analysis. Less well documented are polymorphisms in the size of proteins. Here we report that a group of glycoproteins, which share a common carbohydrate epitope, vary in size in different isolates of the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum. One of these proteins, PsA, a developmentally regulated prespore-specific surface glycoprotein, has previously been shown to exist in three size forms due to allelic variation at the pspA locus on linkage group I. In this report, a second glycoprotein, PsB, which is also prespore specific but found inside prespore cells, is studied. PsB maps to linkage group II and exhibits at least four different sizes in the isolates examined. We propose that the size polymorphisms are the product of allelic variation at the pspB locus, due to differences in the number of repeat units. PMID:2731733

  6. Mitochondrial large-conductance potassium channel from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Michal; Kicinska, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we describe the existence of a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channel in the mitochondria of Dictyostelium discoideum. A single-channel current was recorded in a reconstituted system, using planar lipid bilayers. The large-conductance potassium channel activity of 258±12 pS was recorded in a 50/150 mM KCl gradient solution. The probability of channel opening (the channel activity) was increased by calcium ions and NS1619 (potassium channel opener) and reduced by iberiotoxin (BKCa channel inhibitor). The substances known to modulate BKCa channel activity influenced the bioenergetics of D. discoideum mitochondria. In isolated mitochondria, NS1619 and NS11021 stimulated non-phosphorylating respiration and depolarized membrane potential, indicating the channel activation. These effects were blocked by iberiotoxin and paxilline. Moreover, the activation of the channel resulted in attenuation of superoxide formation, but its inhibition had the opposite effect. Immunological analysis with antibodies raised against mammalian BKCa channel subunits detected a pore-forming α subunit and auxiliary β subunits of the channel in D. discoideum mitochondria. In conclusion, we show for the first time that mitochondria of D. discoideum, a unicellular ameboid protozoon that facultatively forms multicellular structures, contain a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel with electrophysiological, biochemical and molecular properties similar to those of the channels previously described in mammalian and plant mitochondria. PMID:25596489

  7. Analysis of Rheb in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum: cellular localization, spatial expression and overexpression.

    PubMed

    Swer, Pynskhem Bok; Bhadoriya, Pooja; Saran, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum encodes a single Rheb protein showing sequence similarity to human homologues of Rheb. The DdRheb protein shares 52 percent identity and 100 percent similarity with the human Rheb1 protein. Fluorescence of Rheb yellow fluorescent protein fusion was detected in the D. discoideum cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that rheb is expressed at all stages of development and in prestalk cells in the multicellular structures developed. When the expression of rheb as a fusion with lacZ was driven under its own promoter, the beta-galactosidase activity was seen in the prestalk cells. D. discoideum overexpressing Rheb shows an increase in the size of the cell. Treatment of the overexpressing Rheb cells with rapamycin confirms its involvement in the TOR signalling pathway. PMID:24499792

  8. Anchoring of an immunogenic Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein on the surface of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Reymond, C D; Beghdadi-Rais, C; Roggero, M; Duarte, E A; Desponds, C; Bernard, M; Groux, D; Matile, H; Bron, C; Corradin, G

    1995-05-26

    The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, was expressed in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Fusion of the parasite protein to a leader peptide derived from Dictyostelium contact site A was essential for expression. The natural parasite surface antigen, however, was not detected at the slime mold cell surface as expected but retained intracellularly. Removal of the last 23 amino acids resulted in secretion of CSP, suggesting that the C-terminal segment of the CSP, rather than an ectoplasmic domain, was responsible for retention. Cell surface expression was obtained when the CSP C-terminal segment was replaced by the D. discoideum contact site A glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor signal sequence. Mice were immunized with Dictyostelium cells harboring CSP at their surface. The raised antibodies recognized two different regions of the CSP. Anti-sporozoite titers of these sera were equivalent to anti-peptide titers detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thus, cell surface targeting of antigens can be obtained in Dictyostelium, generating sporozoite-like cells having potentials for vaccination, diagnostic tests, or basic studies involving parasite cell surface proteins. PMID:7759554

  9. Protein and phospholipid methylation during chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum and its relationship to calcium movements.

    PubMed Central

    Mato, J M; Marín-Cao, D

    1979-01-01

    Suspensions of cyclic AMP sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cyclic AMP pulse with increased methylation of a protein of molecular weight about 120,000 and increased phospholipid demethylation. Protein methylation reached its peak 15-30 sec after cyclic AMP addition. Phospholipid demethylation reached its maximum within 2 min and basal levels were recovered in 3 min. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine is probably the methyl donor. In vitro addition of 0.25 mM and 25 microM S-adenosyl-L-methionine to sonicated D. discoideum cells inhibited ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake by 70% and 25%, respectively. Based on these lines of evidence we propose that protein and phospholipid methylation are involved in D. discoideum chemotaxis probably by regulation of intracellular Ca2+ movements. PMID:230497

  10. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  11. Classification and expression analyses of homeobox genes from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Himanshu; Saran, Shweta

    2015-06-01

    Homeobox genes are compared between genomes in an attempt to understand the evolution of animal development. The ability of the protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, to shift between uni- and multicellularity makes this group ideal for studying the genetic changes that may have occurred during this transition. We present here the first genome-wide classification and comparative genomic analysis of the 14 homeobox genes present in D. discoideum. Based on the structural alignment of the homeodomains, they can be broadly divided into TALE and non-TALE classes. When individual homeobox genes were compared with members of known class or family, we could further classify them into 3 groups, namely, TALE, OTHER and NOVEL classes, but no HOX family was found. The 5 members of TALE class could be further divided into PBX, PKNOX, IRX and CUP families; 4 homeobox genes classified as NOVEL did not show any similarity to any known homeobox genes; while the remaining 5 were classified as OTHERS as they did show certain degree of similarity to few known homeobox genes. No unique RNA expression pattern during development of D. discoideum emerged for members of an individual group. Putative promoter analysis revealed binding sites for few homeobox transcription factors among many probable factors. PMID:25963254

  12. Migration in the social stage of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae impacts competition

    PubMed Central

    Buttery, Neil; Adu-Oppong, Boahemaa; Powers, Michael; Thompson, Christopher R.L.; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction conditions can change the balance of cooperation and conflict in multicellular groups. After aggregating together, cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum may migrate as a group (known as a slug) to a new location. We consider this migration stage as an arena for social competition and conflict because the cells in the slug may not be from a genetically homogeneous population. In this study, we examined the interplay of two seemingly diametric actions, the solitary action of kin recognition and the collective action of slug migration in D. discoideum, to more fully understand the effects of social competition on fitness over the entire lifecycle. We compare slugs composed of either genetically homogenous or heterogeneous cells that have migrated or remained stationary in the social stage of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. After migration of chimeric slugs, we found that facultative cheating is reduced, where facultative cheating is defined as greater contribution to spore relative to stalk than found for that clone in the clonal state. In addition our results support previous findings that competitive interactions in chimeras diminish slug migration distance. Furthermore, fruiting bodies have shorter stalks after migration, even accounting for cell numbers at that time. Taken together, these results show that migration can alleviate the conflict of interests in heterogeneous slugs. It aligns their interest in finding a more advantageous place for dispersal, where shorter stalks suffice, which leads to a decrease in cheating behavior. PMID:26528414

  13. Functional characterization of a novel aquaporin from Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae implies a unique gating mechanism.

    PubMed

    von Bülow, Julia; Müller-Lucks, Annika; Kai, Lei; Bernhard, Frank; Beitz, Eric

    2012-03-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a widely used model organism for studying basic functions of protozoan and metazoan cells, such as osmoregulation and cell motility. There is evidence from other species that cellular water channels, aquaporins (AQP), are central to both processes. Yet, data on D. discoideum AQPs is almost absent. Despite cloning of two putative D. discoideum AQPs, WacA, and AqpA, water permeability has not been shown. Further, WacA and AqpA are expressed at the late multicellular stage and in spores but not in amoebae. We cloned a novel AQP, AqpB, from amoeboidal D. discoideum cells. Wild-type AqpB was impermeable to water, glycerol, and urea when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Neither stepwise truncation of the N terminus nor selected point mutations activated the water channel. However, mutational truncation by 12 amino acids of an extraordinary long intracellular loop induced water permeability of AqpB, hinting at a novel gating mechanism. This AqpB mutant was inhibited by mercuric chloride, confirming the presence of a cysteine residue in the selectivity filter as predicted by our structure model. We detected AqpB by Western blot analysis in a glycosylated and a non-glycosylated form throughout all developmental stages. When expressed in D. discoideum amoebae, AqpB-GFP fusion constructs localized to vacuolar structures, to the plasma membrane, and to lamellipodia-like membrane protrusions. We conclude that the localization pattern in conjunction with channel gating may be indicative of AqpB functions in osmoregulation as well as cell motility of D. discoideum. PMID:22262860

  14. Expression of the human muscarinic receptor gene m2 in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Voith, G.; Dingermann, T.

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed a functional human muscarinic M2 receptor, under the control of the homologous discoidin I{gamma} promoter, in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The use of a contact site A leader peptide ensured insertion of the newly synthesized receptor protein into the plasma membrane. Due to the characteristics of the discoidin I{gamma} promoter, the M2 receptor is expressed during late growth and early development. The heterologously expressed M2 receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic receptors. Membranes as well as whole cells can be used in ligand binding assays. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Expression of the human muscarinic receptor gene m2 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Dingermann, T

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed a functional human muscarinic M2 receptor, under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter, in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The use of a contact site A leader peptide ensured insertion of the newly synthesized receptor protein into the plasma membrane. Due to the characteristics of the discoidin I gamma promoter, the M2 receptor is expressed during late growth and early development. The heterologously expressed M2 receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic receptors. Membranes as well as whole cells can be used in ligand binding assays. PMID:9636297

  16. Functional expression of rat GLUT 1 glucose transporter in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, N R; Knecht, D A; Lodish, H F

    1996-01-01

    To facilitate expression of the rat GLUT 1 glucose transporter cDNA in Dictyostelium discoideum, we mutated the 5' end of the coding sequence such that the codons for the first ten amino acids conformed to preferred Dictyostelium codon usage. As determined by Western-blot analysis, a population of Dictyostelium transformed with the mutated cDNA expressed nonglycosylated GLUT 1 protein. Cell lines expressing GLUT 1 transport radiolabelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose at a rate 6-10 times that of cell lines transformed with vector alone. The initial rate of inward transport of 2-deoxy-D-glucose was stimulated several-fold by the presence of unlabelled glucose in the Dictyostelium cytoplasm, exemplifying the trans-activation of GLUT 1 transport characteristic of GLUT 1 present in erythrocyte membranes. The K(m) and Ki values for 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-glucose, D-mannose and D-galactose were 3.7 mM, 2.6 mM, 11 mM and 30 mM respectively, similar to the values for GLUT 1 expressed in mammalian cells. L-Glucose and L-galactose, which are not transported by GLUT 1, do not inhibit uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in Dictyostelium expressing GLUT 1. Thus, even though GLUT 1 expressed in Dictyostelium is not N-glycosylated, it transports hexoses normally; this is the first example of functional expression of a mammalian transport protein in this lower eukaryote. PMID:8645185

  17. Deficiency of huntingtin has pleiotropic effects in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A; Lumsden, Amanda L; Thompson, Morgan N; Wasco, Wilma; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F

    2011-04-01

    Huntingtin is a large HEAT repeat protein first identified in humans, where a polyglutamine tract expansion near the amino terminus causes a gain-of-function mechanism that leads to selective neuronal loss in Huntington's disease (HD). Genetic evidence in humans and knock-in mouse models suggests that this gain-of-function involves an increase or deregulation of some aspect of huntingtin's normal function(s), which remains poorly understood. As huntingtin shows evolutionary conservation, a powerful approach to discovering its normal biochemical role(s) is to study the effects caused by its deficiency in a model organism with a short life-cycle that comprises both cellular and multicellular developmental stages. To facilitate studies aimed at detailed knowledge of huntingtin's normal function(s), we generated a null mutant of hd, the HD ortholog in Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium cells lacking endogenous huntingtin were viable but during development did not exhibit the typical polarized morphology of Dictyostelium cells, streamed poorly to form aggregates by accretion rather than chemotaxis, showed disorganized F-actin staining, exhibited extreme sensitivity to hypoosmotic stress, and failed to form EDTA-resistant cell-cell contacts. Surprisingly, chemotactic streaming could be rescued in the presence of the bivalent cations Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) but not pulses of cAMP. Although hd(-) cells completed development, it was delayed and proceeded asynchronously, producing small fruiting bodies with round, defective spores that germinated spontaneously within a glassy sorus. When developed as chimeras with wild-type cells, hd(-) cells failed to populate the pre-spore region of the slug. In Dictyostelium, huntingtin deficiency is compatible with survival of the organism but renders cells sensitive to low osmolarity, which produces pleiotropic cell autonomous defects that affect cAMP signaling and as a consequence development. Thus, Dictyostelium provides a novel haploid

  18. Deficiency of Huntingtin Has Pleiotropic Effects in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Myre, Michael A.; Lumsden, Amanda L.; Thompson, Morgan N.; Wasco, Wilma; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Huntingtin is a large HEAT repeat protein first identified in humans, where a polyglutamine tract expansion near the amino terminus causes a gain-of-function mechanism that leads to selective neuronal loss in Huntington's disease (HD). Genetic evidence in humans and knock-in mouse models suggests that this gain-of-function involves an increase or deregulation of some aspect of huntingtin's normal function(s), which remains poorly understood. As huntingtin shows evolutionary conservation, a powerful approach to discovering its normal biochemical role(s) is to study the effects caused by its deficiency in a model organism with a short life-cycle that comprises both cellular and multicellular developmental stages. To facilitate studies aimed at detailed knowledge of huntingtin's normal function(s), we generated a null mutant of hd, the HD ortholog in Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium cells lacking endogenous huntingtin were viable but during development did not exhibit the typical polarized morphology of Dictyostelium cells, streamed poorly to form aggregates by accretion rather than chemotaxis, showed disorganized F-actin staining, exhibited extreme sensitivity to hypoosmotic stress, and failed to form EDTA-resistant cell–cell contacts. Surprisingly, chemotactic streaming could be rescued in the presence of the bivalent cations Ca2+ or Mg2+ but not pulses of cAMP. Although hd− cells completed development, it was delayed and proceeded asynchronously, producing small fruiting bodies with round, defective spores that germinated spontaneously within a glassy sorus. When developed as chimeras with wild-type cells, hd− cells failed to populate the pre-spore region of the slug. In Dictyostelium, huntingtin deficiency is compatible with survival of the organism but renders cells sensitive to low osmolarity, which produces pleiotropic cell autonomous defects that affect cAMP signaling and as a consequence development. Thus, Dictyostelium provides a novel haploid

  19. Expression of the rat muscarinic receptor gene m3 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Kramm, H; Zündorf, I; Winkler, T; Dingermann, T

    1998-10-01

    We functionally expressed the rat muscarinic m3 receptor (rm3) in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter. Cells transfected with the authentic rm3 receptor gene expressed about 100 functional receptor molecules per cell, corresponding to a Bmax for [3H]-NMS of 36 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein in isolated membranes. Genetic fusion of the Dictyostelium contact site A (csA) leader peptide to the amino terminus of rm3 increased the receptor expression by about 17-fold. Remarkable, in [3H]-NMS ligand binding experiments performed with whole cells no characteristic saturable binding was observed and there was no significant difference in [3H]-NMS binding to whole cells of rm3 and csA/rm3 transformants. The recombinant rm3 receptor showed an about 10-fold higher affinity to the M3-selective antagonist p-F-HHSiD compared to the M2-selective antagonist AQ-RA 741, suggesting that membranes derived from transgenic D. discoideum cells may be useful for the search of new subtype-specific muscarinic receptor ligands. PMID:9812338

  20. Cellulases released during the germination of Dictyostelium discoideum spores.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T H; de Renobales, M; Pon, N

    1979-01-01

    Dormant spores of Dictyostelium discoideum contained cellulase at a specific activity of 130 to 140 U/mg of protein; when heat activated, the spores germinated, progressively releasing the cellulase activity into the extracellular medium. The cellulase release was a selective process and resulted in recovery of the cellulase activity at a specific activity of 2,000 U/mg of protein; beta-glucosidase in the spores remained completely associated with the emerging amoebae. Release of the cellulase required heat activation of the spores and occurred during the swelling stage of germination; inhibition of the emergence stage with cycloheximide had no effect on the release of the cellulase. The cellulase activity released consisted of two enzymes whose molecular weights were 136,000 and 69,000. Studies of their pH optima, heat lability, and of their sensitivity to inhibition revealed no distinctive differences between these two proteins. Analysis on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex columns showed that the higher-molecular-weight protein could be converted into the lower-molecular-weight component in vitro. PMID:33962

  1. Expression of CSA-hm2 fusion in Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the Dictyostelium ras promoter reveals functional muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Dingermann, T

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed the human m2 muscarinic receptor gene in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Expression under the control of the constitutive actin 6 promoter without a D. discoideum leader peptide results in cells which seem to respond to muscarinic agonists initially, but which quickly revert to non responding cells only after a few generations. However, when expressing the hm2 gene as a fusion gene together with the CSA leader peptide under the control of the regulated D. discoideum ras promoter cells are obtained which express functional muscarinic M2 receptors in a stable manner. As expected from the typical regulation of the ras promoter, M2 receptors are expressed only during development. In ligand binding assays these heterologously expressed receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic M2 receptors. PMID:8570674

  2. A novel human receptor involved in bitter tastant detection identified using Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Robery, Steven; Tyson, Richard; Dinh, Christopher; Kuspa, Adam; Noegel, Angelika A.; Bretschneider, Till; Andrews, Paul L. R.; Williams, Robin S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Detection of substances tasting bitter to humans occurs in diverse organisms including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. To establish a molecular mechanism for bitter tastant detection in Dictyostelium, we screened a mutant library for resistance to a commonly used bitter standard, phenylthiourea. This approach identified a G-protein-coupled receptor mutant, grlJ−, which showed a significantly increased tolerance to phenylthiourea in growth, survival and movement. This mutant was not resistant to a structurally dissimilar potent bitter tastant, denatonium benzoate, suggesting it is not a target for at least one other bitter tastant. Analysis of the cell-signalling pathway involved in the detection of phenylthiourea showed dependence upon heterotrimeric G protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, suggesting that this signalling pathway is responsible for the cellular effects of phenylthiourea. This is further supported by a phenylthiourea-dependent block in the transient cAMP-induced production of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) in wild-type but not grlJ− cells. Finally, we have identified an uncharacterized human protein γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor subunit 1 isoform with weak homology to GrlJ that restored grlJ− sensitivity to phenylthiourea in cell movement and PIP3 regulation. Our results thus identify a novel pathway for the detection of the standard bitter tastant phenylthiourea in Dictyostelium and implicate a poorly characterized human protein in phenylthiourea-dependent cell responses. PMID:24006265

  3. A novel human receptor involved in bitter tastant detection identified using Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Robery, Steven; Tyson, Richard; Dinh, Christopher; Kuspa, Adam; Noegel, Angelika A; Bretschneider, Till; Andrews, Paul L R; Williams, Robin S B

    2013-12-01

    Detection of substances tasting bitter to humans occurs in diverse organisms including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. To establish a molecular mechanism for bitter tastant detection in Dictyostelium, we screened a mutant library for resistance to a commonly used bitter standard, phenylthiourea. This approach identified a G-protein-coupled receptor mutant, grlJ(-), which showed a significantly increased tolerance to phenylthiourea in growth, survival and movement. This mutant was not resistant to a structurally dissimilar potent bitter tastant, denatonium benzoate, suggesting it is not a target for at least one other bitter tastant. Analysis of the cell-signalling pathway involved in the detection of phenylthiourea showed dependence upon heterotrimeric G protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, suggesting that this signalling pathway is responsible for the cellular effects of phenylthiourea. This is further supported by a phenylthiourea-dependent block in the transient cAMP-induced production of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) in wild-type but not grlJ(-) cells. Finally, we have identified an uncharacterized human protein γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor subunit 1 isoform with weak homology to GrlJ that restored grlJ(-) sensitivity to phenylthiourea in cell movement and PIP3 regulation. Our results thus identify a novel pathway for the detection of the standard bitter tastant phenylthiourea in Dictyostelium and implicate a poorly characterized human protein in phenylthiourea-dependent cell responses. PMID:24006265

  4. Global transcriptional responses to cisplatin in Dictyostelium discoideum identify potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, Nancy; Alexander, Hannah; Min, Junxia; Kuspa, Adam; Alexander, Stephen; Shaulsky, Gad

    2007-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a useful model for studying mechanisms of cisplatin drug sensitivity. Our previous findings, that mutations in sphingolipid metabolism genes confer cisplatin resistance in D. discoideum and in human cells, raised interest in the resistance mechanisms and their implications for cisplatin chemotherapy. Here we used expression microarrays to monitor physiological changes and to identify pathways that are affected by cisplatin treatment of D. discoideum. We found >400 genes whose regulation was altered by cisplatin treatment of wild-type cells, including groups of genes that participate in cell proliferation and in nucleotide and protein metabolism, showing that the cisplatin response is orderly and multifaceted. Transcriptional profiling of two isogenic cisplatin-resistant mutants, impaired in different sphingolipid metabolism steps, showed that the effect of cisplatin treatment was greater than the effect of the mutations, indicating that cisplatin resistance in the mutants is due to specific abilities to overcome the drug effects rather than to general drug insensitivity. Nevertheless, the mutants exhibited significantly different responses to cisplatin compared with the parent, and >200 genes accounted for that difference. Mutations in five cisplatin response genes (sgkB, csbA, acbA, smlA, and atg8) resulted in altered drug sensitivity, implicating novel pathways in cisplatin response. Our data illustrate how modeling complex cellular responses to drugs in genetically stable and tractable systems can uncover new targets with the potential for improving chemotherapy. PMID:17878305

  5. NaCS-PDMDAAC immobilized cultivation of recombinant Dictyostelium discoideum for soluble human Fas ligand production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Zeng, Xianhai; Danquah, Michael K; Lu, Yinghua

    2015-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a promising eukaryotic host for the expression of heterologous proteins requiring post-translational modifications. However, the dilute nature of D. discoideum cell culture limits applications for high value proteins production. D. discoideum cells, entrapped in sodium cellulose sulfate/poly-dimethyl-diallyl-ammonium chloride (NaCS-PDMDAAC) capsules were used for biosynthesis of the heterologous protein, soluble human Fas ligand (hFasL). Semi-continuous cultivations with capsules recycling were carried out in shake flasks. Also, a scaled-up cultivation of immobilized D. discoideum for hFasL production in a customized vitreous airlift bioreactor was conducted. The results show that NaCS-PDMDAAC capsules have desirable biophysical properties including biocompatibility with the D. discoideum cells and good mechanical stability throughout the duration of cultivation. A maximum cell density of 2.02 × 10(7) cells mL(-1) (equivalent to a maximum cell density of 2.22 × 10(8) cells mL(-1) in capsules) and a hFasL concentration of 130.40 μg L(-1) (equivalent to a hFasL concentration of 1434.40 μg L(-1) in capsules) were obtained in shake flask cultivation with capsules recycling. Also, a maximum cell density of 1.72 × 10(7) cells mL(-1) (equivalent to a maximum cell density of 1.89 × 10(8) cells mL(-1) in capsules) and a hFasL concentration of 106.10 μg L(-1) (equivalent to a hFasL concentration of 1167.10 μg L(-1) in capsules) were obtained after ∼170 h cultivation in the airlift bioreactor (with a working volume of 200 mL in a 315 mL bioreactor). As the article presents a premier work in the application of NaCS-PDMDAAC immobilized D. discoideum cells for the production of hFasL, more work is required to further optimize the system to generate higher cell densities and hFasL titers for large-scale applications. PMID:25504805

  6. The orientation of nucleus, nucleus-associated body and protruding nucleolus in aggregating Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sameshima, M

    1985-02-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum growing or developing on cellulose dialysis membranes were fixed with acrolein vapour for electron microscopy. In interphase amoebae, nucleoli began to protrude from the nuclei. The percentage of cells with protruding nucleoli increased during aggregation by a value approximately twice as high in aggregation streams as in centers. Cells in pseudoplasmodia showed only a low percentage and protrusions disappeared at early culmination stage. The protrusions did not reappear when cells from dissociated pseudoplasmodia migrated toward cAMP. Thus the formation of the protrusions did not depend solely on chemotaxis; rather, it was specific to the aggregation stage. In aggregation streams, the nucleus was anterior in the cell, with the protrusion at its anterior periphery. In contrast, the nucleus associated body (NAB) was evident at the cell's mid-point. This orientation of nucleus and NAB in the aggregating slime mould amoeba is contrary to that seen in human neutrophils or cultured mouse 3T3 cells. PMID:2981691

  7. Self-organized, near-critical behavior during aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Palo, Giovanna; Yi, Darvin; Gregor, Thomas; Endres, Robert

    During starvation, the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates artfully via pattern formation into a multicellular slug and finally spores. The aggregation process is mediated by the secretion and sensing of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, leading to the synchronized movement of cells. The whole process is a remarkable example of collective behavior, spontaneously emerging from single-cell chemotaxis. Despite this phenomenon being broadly studied, a precise characterization of the transition from single cells to multicellularity has been elusive. Here, using fluorescence imaging data of thousands of cells, we investigate the role of cell shape in aggregation, demonstrating remarkable transitions in cell behavior. To better understand their functional role, we analyze cell-cell correlations and provide evidence for self-organization at the onset of aggregation (as opposed to leader cells), with features of criticality in this finite system. To capture the mechanism of self-organization, we extend a detailed single-cell model of D.discoideum chemotaxis by adding cell-cell communication. We then use these results to extract a minimal set of rules leading to aggregation in the population model. If universal, similar rules may explain other types of collective cell behavior.

  8. Effects of a 50 Hz magnetic field on Dictyostelium discoideum (Protista).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Trielli, Francesca; Bianco, Bruno; Giordano, Stefano; Moggia, Elsa; Corrado, Maria Umberta Delmonte

    2006-10-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that a few biological systems are affected by weak, extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), lower than 10 mT. However, to date there is scanty evidence of this effect on Protists in the literature. Due to their peculiarity as single-cell eukaryotic organisms, Protists respond directly to environmental stimuli, thus appearing as very suitable experimental systems. Recently, we showed the presence of propionylcholinesterase (PrChE) activity in single-cell amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum. This enzyme activity was assumed to be involved in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions, as its inhibition affects cell aggregation and differentiation. In this work, we have exposed single-cell amoebae of D. discoideum to an ELF-EMF of about 200 microT, 50 Hz, for 3 h or 24 h at 21 degrees C. A delay in the early phase of the differentiation was observed in 3 h exposed cells, and a significant decrease in the fission rate appeared in 24 h exposed cells. The PrChE activity was significantly lower in 3 h exposed cells than in the controls, whereas 24 h exposed cells exhibited an increase in this enzyme activity. However, such effects appeared to be transient, as the fission rate and PrChE activity values returned to the respective control values after a 24 h stay under standard conditions. PMID:16715524

  9. The Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum Is Highly Resistant to Polyglutamine Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Santarriaga, Stephanie; Petersen, Amber; Ndukwe, Kelechi; Brandt, Anthony; Gerges, Nashaat; Bruns Scaglione, Jamie; Scaglione, Kenneth Matthew

    2015-10-16

    The expression, misfolding, and aggregation of long repetitive amino acid tracts are a major contributing factor in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including C9ORF72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia, fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome, myotonic dystrophy type 1, spinocerebellar ataxia type 8, and the nine polyglutamine diseases. Protein aggregation is a hallmark of each of these diseases. In model organisms, including yeast, worms, flies, mice, rats, and human cells, expression of proteins with the long repetitive amino acid tracts associated with these diseases recapitulates the protein aggregation that occurs in human disease. Here we show that the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum has evolved to normally encode long polyglutamine tracts and express these proteins in a soluble form. We also show that Dictyostelium has the capacity to suppress aggregation of a polyglutamine-expanded Huntingtin construct that aggregates in other model organisms tested. Together, these data identify Dictyostelium as a novel model organism with the capacity to suppress aggregation of proteins with long polyglutamine tracts. PMID:26330554

  10. The possible role of ammonia in phototaxis of migrating slugs of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, J. T.; Chiang, A.; Lee, J.; Suthers, H. B.

    1988-01-01

    Previously we showed that the rising cell masses of cellular slime molds orient away from high concentrations of ammonia gas, presumably by speeding up the cells on one side. Here we show that in the same way NH3 could also be involved in the highly sensitive phototaxis found in the migrating slugs of Dictyostelium discoideum. We have evidence that light increases their speed of migration and their production of NH3. Since unilateral light is concentrated on the distal side of a cell mass by the “lens effect,” this leads to the obvious hypothesis that the light stimulates the local production of NH3, which, in turn, stimulates the cells in the illuminated region to move faster. PMID:16593935

  11. Tetrahydropteridines possess antioxidant roles to guard against glucose-induced oxidative stress in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Ok; Kim, Hye-Lim; Lee, Soo-Woong; Park, Young Shik

    2013-01-01

    Glucose effects on the vegetative growth of Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 were studied by examining oxidative stress and tetrahydropteridine synthesis in cells cultured with different concentrations (0.5X, 7.7 g L-1; 1X, 15.4 g L-1; 2X, 30.8 g L-1) of glucose. The growth rate was optimal in 1X cells (cells grown in 1X glucose) but was impaired drastically in 2X cells, below the level of 0.5X cells. There were glucose-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial dysfunction in parallel with the mRNA copy numbers of the enzymes catalyzing tetrahydropteridine synthesis and regeneration. On the other hand, both the specific activities of the enzymes and tetrahydropteridine levels in 2X cells were lower than those in 1X cells, but were higher than those in 0.5X cells. Given the antioxidant function of tetrahydropteridines and both the beneficial and harmful effects of ROS, the results suggest glucose-induced oxidative stress in Dictyostelium, a process that might originate from aerobic glycolysis, as well as a protective role of tetrahydropteridines against this stress. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(2): 86-91] PMID:23433110

  12. Quantitative analysis of periodic chemotaxis in aggregation patterns of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbock, Oliver; Hashimoto, Hajime; Müller, Stefan C.

    1991-04-01

    Wave patterns in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum are investigated quantitatively by determining the chemotactic motion of the amoebae cells towards their aggregation center. The velocity of moving cells is analyzed by a pixel-based correlation program applied to digital microscopic video images of approximately 0.4 × 0.3 mm 2 area. The average velocity component in the direction of the center is clearly periodic with periods of 6-9 min, a maximum velocity of 20 to 30 μm/min and a minimum velocity close to zero. Details concerning the asymmetric shape of the velocity function are observed. The new technique allows the detection of oscillating behaviour in chemotactic motion, even after the macroscopic patterns observed by dark-field techniques have disappeared.

  13. Myb-binding site regulates the expression of glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Tabata, K; Matsuda, Y; Viller, E; Masamune, Y; Katayama, T; Yasukawa, H

    2001-10-01

    A homolog of the glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum has been analyzed. The gene disruption mutant was arrested at the mound stage, demonstrating that the gene is important for development. The gene was expressed in vegetatively growing cells, silenced on starvation and expressed again in prestalk cells during the multicellular stages. The upstream region of the gene (1376 bp relative to ATG) was cloned and sequenced to study the transcription control mechanisms. Analysis of deletion mutants and a site-directed mutant indicated that the Myb-binding sequence (5'-AACTG-3') localized in the upstream region is important for gene expression. The results of gel-shift assays showed the presence of an Myb-related protein binding to the sequence at the growing phase and another protein binding to the sequence at developmental stages. PMID:11576175

  14. Analysis of the disruption mutant of the oscillin homolog gene of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Y; Masamune, Y; Kodaira, K; Yasukawa, H

    1999-09-01

    A homolog of oscillin, the Ca2+ oscillation-inducing factor of the hamster, was identified from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and designated Dd-oscillin. In the developmental stages of D. discoideum, the gene is expressed at the prestalk region which contains a higher concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ than the prespore region. The Dd-oscillin null strain aggregated but did not develop further when the cells were plated on non-nutrient agar at a density of 1.5x10(6) cells/cm2, showing that the Dd-oscillin gene is important for development. Since the null cells carrying the hamster oscillin gene formed fruiting body, the hamster oscillin was the homolog of Dd-oscillin as far as function is concerned. In addition, the null cells formed fruiting body in the presence of 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (BHQ: a specific inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum). These results suggest that Dd-oscillin will increase cytosolic Ca2+ in the cells and promote further development. PMID:10513612

  15. Flow-driven two-dimensional waves in colonies of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, A.; Zykov, V.; Steinbock, O.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2015-09-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) is a valuable model organism to study self-organization and pattern formation in biology. Recently we reported flow-driven waves in experiments with uniformly distributed populations of signaling amobae, D.d., and carried out a theoretical study in a one-dimensional model. In this work, we perform two-dimensional numerical simulations using the well-known Martiel-Golbeter model to study the effect of the flow profile and intrinsic noise on the flow-driven waves. We show that, in the presence of flow, a persistence noise due to spontaneous cell firing events can lead to sustained structures that fill the whole length of the system. We also show that external periodic stimuli of cyclic adenosine monophosphate can induce 1:1 and 2:1 entrainments which are in agreement with our experimental observations.

  16. Nucleocytoplasmic protein translocation during mitosis in the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Budniak, Aldona

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis is a fundamental and essential life process. It underlies the duplication and survival of all cells and, as a result, all eukaryotic organisms. Since uncontrolled mitosis is a dreaded component of many cancers, a full understanding of the process is critical. Evolution has led to the existence of three types of mitosis: closed, open, and semi-open. The significance of these different mitotic species, how they can lead to a full understanding of the critical events that underlie the asexual duplication of all cells, and how they may generate new insights into controlling unregulated cell division remains to be determined. The eukaryotic microbe Dictyostelium discoideum has proved to be a valuable biomedical model organism. While it appears to utilize closed mitosis, a review of the literature suggests that it possesses a form of mitosis that lies in the middle between truly open and fully closed mitosis-it utilizes a form of semi-open mitosis. Here, the nucleocytoplasmic translocation patterns of the proteins that have been studied during mitosis in the social amoebozoan D. discoideum are detailed followed by a discussion of how some of them provide support for the hypothesis of semi-open mitosis. PMID:24618050

  17. Regulation by guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate of phospholipid methylation during chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, S; García Gil, M; Mato, J M

    1980-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, the chemoattractant cyclic AMP activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, giving a brief up to 10-fold increase in the intracellular cyclic GMP content. The addition of physiological cyclic GMP concentrations to a homogenate of D. discoideum cells markedly increased the incorporation of the 3H-labeled methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine into mono- and dimethylated phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Lipid methylation was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, which inhibits transmethylation. When whole cells prelabeled with L-[methyl-3H]methionine were exposed to cyclic AMP, a rapid transient increase in the amount of [methyl-3H]phosphatidylcholine was observed. The time course of [methyl-3H]phosphatidylcholine formation agrees with its being mediated by the intracellular increase in cyclic GMP originating during chemotactic stimulation. Addition of the 8-Br derivative of cyclic GMP to whole cells also increased the levels of labeled phosphatidylcholine. It is therefore likely that cyclic GMP contributes to chemotaxis by regulating membrane function via phospholipid methylation. PMID:6261233

  18. Dictyostelium discoideum, a lower eukaryote model for the study of DNA repair: Implications for the role of DNA-damaging chemicals in the evolution of repair proficient cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deering, R. A.

    1994-10-01

    The evolution of the ability of living cells to cope with stress is crucial for the maintenance of their genetic integrity. Yet low levels of mutation must remain to allow adaptation to environmental changes. The cellular slime mold D. discoideum is a good system for studying molecular aspects of the repair of lethal and mutagenic damage to DNA by radiation and chemicals. The wild-type strains of this soil microorganism are extremely resistant to DNA damaging agents. In nature the amoeboid cells in their replicative stage feed on soil bacteria and are exposed to numerous DNA-damaging chemicals produced by various soil microorganisms. It is probable that the evolution of repair systems in this organism and perhaps in others is a consequence of the necessity to cope with chemical damage which also confers resistance to radiation.

  19. Dictyostelium discoideum, a lower eukaryote model for the study of DNA repair: implications for the role of DNA-damaging chemicals in the evolution of repair proficient cells.

    PubMed

    Deering, R A

    1994-10-01

    The evolution of the ability of living cells to cope with stress is crucial for the maintenance of their genetic integrity. Yet low levels of mutation must remain to allow adaptation to environmental changes. The cellular slime mold D. discoideum is a good system for studying molecular aspects of the repair of lethal and mutagenic damage to DNA by radiation and chemicals. The wild-type strains of this soil microorganism are extremely resistant to DNA damaging agents. In nature the amoeboid cells in their replicative stage feed on soil bacteria and are exposed to numerous DNA-damaging chemicals produced by various soil microorganisms. It is probable that the evolution of repair systems in this organism and perhaps in others is a consequence of the necessity to cope with chemical damage which also confers resistance to radiation. PMID:11539974

  20. Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 as an Assay System for Screening of Pharmacological Chaperones for Phenylketonuria Mutations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Min; Yang, Yun Gyeong; Kim, Hye-Lim; Park, Young Shik

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed an assay system for missense mutations in human phenylalanine hydroxylases (hPAHs). To demonstrate the reliability of the system, eight mutant proteins (F39L, K42I, L48S, I65T, R252Q, L255V, S349L, and R408W) were expressed in a mutant strain (pah(-)) of Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 disrupted in the indigenous gene encoding PAH. The transformed pah- cells grown in FM minimal medium were measured for growth rate and PAH activity to reveal a positive correlation between them. The protein level of hPAH was also determined by western blotting to show the impact of each mutation on protein stability and catalytic activity. The result was highly compatible with the previous ones obtained from other expression systems, suggesting that Dictyostelium is a dependable alternative to other expression systems. Furthermore, we found that both the protein level and activity of S349L and R408W, which were impaired severely in protein stability, were rescued in HL5 nutrient medium. Although the responsible component(s) remains unidentified, this unexpected finding showed an important advantage of our expression system for studying unstable proteins. As an economic and stable cell-based expression system, our development will contribute to mass-screening of pharmacological chaperones for missense PAH mutations as well as to the in-depth characterization of individual mutations. PMID:25563416

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum--a promising expression system for the production of eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Alok; Saini, Kulvinder Singh

    2008-12-01

    In general, four different expression systems, namely, bacterial, yeast, baculovirus, and mammalian, are widely used for the overproduction of biochemical enzymes and therapeutic proteins. Clearly, bacterial expression systems offer ease of maneuverability with respect to large-scale production of recombinant proteins, while, a baculovirus expression system ensures proper protein modifications, processing, and refolding of complex proteins. Despite these advantages, mammalian cells remain the preferred host for many eukaryotic proteins of pharmaceutical importance, particularly, those requiring post-translational modifications. Recently, the single-celled slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), has emerged as a promising eukaryotic host for the expression of a variety of heterologous recombinant eukaryotic proteins. This organism possesses the complex cellular machinery required for orchestrating post-translational modifications similar to the one observed in higher eukaryotes. This review summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of Dictyostelium as an alternate system compared to other well-established expression systems. The key lessons learned from the expression of human recombinant proteins in this system are reviewed. Also, the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges associated with industrial-scale production of proteins in Dd expression system are discussed. PMID:18714070

  2. The Dictyostelium discoideum RACK1 orthologue has roles in growth and development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) is a conserved protein belonging to the WD40 repeat family of proteins. It folds into a beta propeller with seven blades which allow interactions with many proteins. Thus it can serve as a scaffolding protein and have roles in several cellular processes. Results We identified the product of the Dictyostelium discoideum gpbB gene as the Dictyostelium RACK1 homolog. The protein is mainly cytosolic but can also associate with cellular membranes. DdRACK1 binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs) in protein-lipid overlay and liposome-binding assays. The basis of this activity resides in a basic region located in the extended loop between blades 6 and 7 as revealed by mutational analysis. Similar to RACK1 proteins from other organisms DdRACK1 interacts with G protein subunits alpha, beta and gamma as shown by yeast two-hybrid, pulldown, and immunoprecipitation assays. Unlike the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans RACK1 proteins it does not appear to take over Gβ function in D. discoideum as developmental and other defects were not rescued in Gβ null mutants overexpressing GFP-DdRACK1. Overexpression of GFP-tagged DdRACK1 and a mutant version (DdRACK1mut) which carried a charge-reversal mutation in the basic region in wild type cells led to changes during growth and development. Conclusion DdRACK1 interacts with heterotrimeric G proteins and can through these interactions impact on processes specifically regulated by these proteins. PMID:24930026

  3. A RabGAP Regulates Life-Cycle Duration via Trimeric G-protein Cascades in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Miyanaga, Yukihiro; Urushihara, Hideko; Ueda, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Background The life-cycle of cellular slime molds comprises chronobiologically regulated processes. During the growth phase, the amoeboid cells proliferate at a definite rate. Upon starvation, they synthesize cAMP as both first and second messengers in signalling pathways and form aggregates, migrating slugs, and fruiting bodies, consisting of spores and stalk cells, within 24 h. In Dictyostelium discoideum, because most growth-specific events cease during development, proliferative and heterochronic mutations are not considered to be interrelated and no genetic factor governing the entire life-cycle duration has ever been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings Using yeast 2-hybrid library screening, we isolated a Dictyostelium discoideum RabGAP, Dd Rbg-3, as a candidate molecule by which the Dictyostelium Gα2 subunit directs its effects. Rab GTPase-activating protein, RabGAP, acts as a negative regulator of Rab small GTPases, which orchestrate the intracellular membrane trafficking involved in cell proliferation. Deletion mutants of Dd rbg-3 exhibited an increased growth rate and a shortened developmental period, while an overexpression mutant demonstrated the opposite effects. We also show that Dd Rbg-3 interacts with 2 Gα subunits in an activity-dependent manner in vitro. Furthermore, both human and Caenorhabditis elegans rbg-3 homologs complemented the Dd rbg-3–deletion phenotype in D. discoideum, indicating that similar pathways may be generally conserved in multicellular organisms. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Dd Rbg-3 acts as a key element regulating the duration of D. discoideum life-span potentially via trimeric G-protein cascades. PMID:24349132

  4. Investigating the Function of Coronin A in the Early Starvation Response of Dictyostelium discoideum by Aggregation Assays.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Stefan K; Brogna, Francesco; Vinet, Adrien; Pieters, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba are found in soil, feeding on bacteria. When food sources become scarce, they secrete factors to initiate a multicellular development program, during which single cells chemotax towards aggregation centers(1-4). This process is dependent on the release of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)(5). cAMP is produced in waves through the concerted action of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases, and binds to G protein-coupled cAMP receptors(6,7). A widely used assay to analyze the mechanisms involved in the developmental cycle of the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum is based on the observation of cell aggregation in submerged conditions(8,9). This protocol describes the analysis of the role of coronin A in the developmental cycle by starvation in tissue-culture plates submerged in balanced salt solution (BSS)(10). Coronin A is a member of the widely conserved protein family of coronins that have been implicated in a wide variety of activities(11,12). Dictyostelium cells lacking coronin A are unable to form multicellular aggregates, and this defect can be rescued by supplying pulses of cAMP, suggesting that coronin A acts upstream of the cAMP cascade(10). The techniques described in these studies provide robust tools to investigate functions of proteins during the initial stages of the developmental cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum upstream of the cAMP cascade. Therefore, utilizing this aggregation assay may allow the further study of coronin A function and advance our understanding of coronin biology. PMID:27403805

  5. Effects of time-variant extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on cholinesterase activity in Dictyostelium discoideum (Protista).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Trielli, Francesca; Bianco, Bruno; Giordano, Stefano; Moggia, Elsa; Corrado, Maria U Delmonte

    2005-12-15

    Recently, we detected propionylcholinesterase (PrChE) activity in single-cell amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum using cytochemical, electrophoretic, and spectrophotometric methods. The involvement of this enzyme activity in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions was suggested. In this work, we found that exposure of single-cell amoebae to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of 300 microT, 50 Hz, from 1 h up to 48 h at 21 +/- 1 degrees C affected PrChE activity. PMID:16425446

  6. The centrosomal component CEP161 of Dictyostelium discoideum interacts with the Hippo signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Salil K.; Blau-Wasser, Rosemarie; Rohlfs, Meino; Gallinger, Christoph; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A

    2015-01-01

    CEP161 is a novel component of the Dictyostelium discoideum centrosome which was identified as binding partner of the pericentriolar component CP250. Here we show that the amino acids 1-763 of the 1381 amino acids CEP161 are sufficient for CP250 binding, centrosomal targeting and centrosome association. Analysis of AX2 cells over-expressing truncated and full length CEP161 proteins revealed defects in growth and development. By immunoprecipitation experiments we identified the Hippo related kinase SvkA (Hrk-svk) as binding partner for CEP161. Both proteins colocalize at the centrosome. In in vitro kinase assays the N-terminal domain of CEP161 (residues 1-763) inhibited the kinase activity of Hrk-svk. A comparison of D. discoideum Hippo kinase mutants with mutants overexpressing CEP161 polypeptides revealed similar defects. We propose that the centrosomal component CEP161 is a novel player in the Hippo signaling pathway and affects various cellular properties through this interaction. PMID:25607232

  7. Morphology and Dynamics of the Endocytic Pathway in Dictyostelium discoideumV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Eva M.; Almers, Wolfhard; Soldati, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a genetically and biochemically tractable social amoeba belonging to the crown group of eukaryotes. It performs some of the tasks characteristic of a leukocyte such as chemotactic motility, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis that are not performed by other model organisms or are difficult to study. D. discoideum is becoming a popular system to study molecular mechanisms of endocytosis, but the morphological characterization of the organelles along this pathway and the comparison with equivalent and/or different organelles in animal cells and yeasts were lagging. Herein, we used a combination of evanescent wave microscopy and electron microscopy of rapidly frozen samples to visualize primary endocytic vesicles, vesicular-tubular structures of the early and late endo-lysosomal system, such as multivesicular bodies, and the specialized secretory lysosomes. In addition, we present biochemical and morphological evidence for the existence of a micropinocytic pathway, which contributes to the uptake of membrane along side macropinocytosis, which is the major fluid phase uptake process. This complex endosomal compartment underwent continuous cycles of tubulation/vesiculation as well as homo- and heterotypic fusions, in a way reminiscent of mechanisms and structures documented in leukocytes. Finally, egestion of fluid phase from the secretory lysosomes was directly observed. PMID:11950947

  8. Primary structure and regulation of vegetative specific genes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, C K; Manning, S S; Ken, R

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the expression and structure of several genes belonging to two classes of vegetative specific genes of the simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum. In amebae grown on bacteria, deactivation of all vegetative specific genes occurred at the onset of development and very little mRNA exists by 8 to 10 hours. In contrast, when cells were grown in axenic broth, the mRNA levels remained constant until a dramatic drop occurred around 10 to 12 hours. Thus, regulation of both classes of genes during the first several hours of development is dependent upon the prior growth conditions. Analysis of genomic clones has resulted in the identification of two V genes, V1 and V18, as ribosomal protein genes. Several other V genes were not found to be ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that in Dictyostelium non-ribosomal protein genes may be coordinately regulated with the ribosomal protein genes. Finally, using deletion analysis we show that the promoters of two of the V genes are composed of a constitutive positive element(s) located upstream of sequences involved in the regulated expression of these genes and within the first 545 upstream bp for V18 and 850 bp for V14. The regions involved in regulated expression were localized between -7 and -222 for V18 and -70 and -368 for V14. The sequences conferring protein synthesis sensitivity were shown to reside between -502 and -61 of the H4 promoter. Images PMID:2602140

  9. Phosphorylation of proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum during development

    SciTech Connect

    Coffman, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoproteins in D. discoideum were studied with respect to their formation, metabolic stability, cellular and subcellular distribution. Special emphasis was on the role of cAMP on the pattern of phosphorylation. Amoebae were metabolically labeled with /sup 32/P/sub i/; subsequently proteins of the total lysate, nuclei and membranes were resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subjected to autoradiography. Numerous changes in the profile of phosphoproteins were observed during development. Functions were assigned to four membranal phosphoproteins; only one protein, the heavy chain of myosin, was susceptible to phosphorylation in vitro when purified membranes and /sup 32/P-ATP were used. A comparison between the time of protein synthesis and phosphorylation, as examined in vivo using /sup 35/S-methionine and /sup 32/P/sub i/ labeling of amoebae and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, indicated that phosphorylation is concurrent with synthesis. It appears then that there are two classes of membranal phosphoproteins in D. discoideum which differ with respect to the stability of the phosphate moiety. It is evident that the turnover of the phosphate moiety in myosin heavy chain plays a crucial role in the function of myosin; a role for the metabolically inert phosphate of other membranal proteins remains to be established. The G protein which couples occupancy of hormone receptor to stimulation of adenylate cyclase in higher multicellular eukaryotes was detected in D. discoideum. The G protein is present in approximately equal amounts in vegetative and in developing amoebae.

  10. Flow-driven waves and sink-driven oscillations during aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Azam; Zykov, Vladimir; Steinbock, Oliver; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d) is a well-known model system for the study of biological pattern formation. Under starvation, D.d. cells aggregate chemotactically towards cAMP signals emitted periodically from an aggregation center. In the natural environment, D.d cells may experience fluid flows that can profoundly change the underlying wave generation process. We investigate spatial-temporal dynamics of a uniformly distributed population of D.d. cells in a flow-through narrow microfluidic channel with a cell-free inlet area. We show that flow can significantly influence the dynamics of the system and lead to a flow- driven instability that initiate downstream traveling cAMP waves. We also show that cell-free boundary regions have a significant effect on the observed patterns and can lead to a new kind of instability. Since there are no cells in the inlet to produce cAMP, the points in the vicinity of the inlet lose cAMP due to advection or diffusion and gain only a little from the upstream of the channel (inlet). In other words, there is a large negative flux of cAMP in the neighborhood close to the inlet, which can be considered as a sink. This negative flux close to the inlet drives a new kind of instability called sink-driven oscillations. Financial support of the MaxSynBio Consortium is acknowledged.

  11. Use of highly sensitive sublethal stress responses in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum for an assessment of freshwater quality.

    PubMed

    Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Torrielli, Sara; Dondero, Francesco; Fenoglio, Stefano; Negri, Alessandro; Boatti, Lara; Viarengo, Aldo

    2008-06-01

    In this work, the sensitivity of a battery of tests on the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has been assessed within a freshwater toxicity study. The results obtained from the evaluation of survival and replication rate of D. discoideum were compared to those derived with a series of widely used tests for freshwater toxicity assessment, i. e. bioassays using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The effects on sublethal endpoints, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) and endocytotic rate, were analysed in conjunction with high-level endpoints to verify the potential to make a typical bioassay more sensitive. The field ecotoxicological investigation employing D. discoideum is part of a monitoring study assessing environmental quality of the Bormida River (Italy), subjected until recently to a chronic industrial pollution. The survey was carried out at several stations (upstream and downstream of a chemical factory outlet) in two different periods. In 2002, the results of chemical analyses performed on river water indicated no contamination. The ecotoxicological data obtained in this period showed that no evidence of biological effects was observed using V. fischeri and D. magna bioassays. In spite of the previous classical acute toxicity tests, significant differences in cell viability of D. discoideum were found. By analysing the effects measured on LMS and endocytotic rate, more relevant changes were observed for these sublethal stress biomarkers compared to survival. The chronic toxicity data showed significant changes in cell growth both of P. subcapitata and D. discoideum. Nevertheless, more sensitive and rapid responses were obtained when assessing the effects of exposure on D. discoideum. The chemical and ecotoxicological data obtained in 2006 indicated a full recovery of the quality of the river water (neither contamination nor toxicity found). Altogether, the results reported in this study underline that the use of a

  12. A deep coverage Dictyostelium discoideum genomic DNA library replicates stably in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rosengarten, Rafael D; Beltran, Pamela R; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-10-01

    The natural history of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has inspired scientific inquiry for seventy-five years. A genetically tractable haploid eukaryote, D. discoideum appeals as a laboratory model as well. However, certain rote molecular genetic tasks, such as PCR and cloning, are difficult due to the AT-richness and low complexity of its genome. Here we report on the construction of a ~20 fold coverage D. discoideum genomic library in Escherichia coli, cloning 4-10 kilobase partial restriction fragments into a linear vector. End-sequencing indicates that most clones map to the six chromosomes in an unbiased distribution. Over 70% of these clones contain at least one complete open reading frame. We demonstrate that individual clones and library composition are stable over multiple replication cycles. Our library will enable numerous molecular biological applications and the completion of additional species' genome sequences, and suggests a path towards the long-elusive goal of genetic complementation. PMID:26028264

  13. Parasexual Genetic Analysis of the Cellular Slime Mold DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM A3

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Frank G.; Alexander, Ellen T.

    1975-01-01

    Haploid strain A3 of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is valuable for biochemical studies because it is capable of axenic growth. Mutants of A3 temperature-sensitive for growth and resistant to the drugs cycloheximide, acriflavin, or methanol were isolated.—Heterozygous diploid recombinants, formed at low frequency by cell and nuclear fusion, were isolated by selecting temperature-resistant progeny of mixed cultures of two nonallelic temperature-sensitive haploids (Loomis 1969). Each drug-resistant mutation was found to be recessive. Two independently isolated methanol-resistant mutants were in one complementation group.—Diploids of A3 heterozygous for drug resistance formed drug-resistant segregants with a frequency of approximately 10-4. Segregants selected for resistance to a single drug were either haploid or diploid; the fraction which was haploid varied from 0.11 to 0.86, depending on the selected marker. Segregants selected for resistance to two or three drugs were almost all haploid.—Using this parasexual cycle of diploid formation and haploidization, linkage of these temperature-sensitive and drug-resistance mutations to each other and to mutations studied by Katz and Sussman (1972) and by Williams, Kessin and Newell (1974b) was analyzed. The methanol-resistant mutants were found to be partially resistant to acriflavin, and unlinked to the mutant selected for acriflavin resistance, which was methanol-sensitive. Of the expected seven linkage groups in D. discoideum, five, and a possible sixth, have been marked.—Linkage analysis of a mutant abnormal in morphogenesis showed that its phenotype results from two unlinked chromosomal mutations. PMID:1238305

  14. Proteomic profiling of the extracellular matrix (slime sheath) of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J; O'Day, Danton H

    2015-10-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum has historically served as a model system for cell and developmental biology, but recently it has gained increasing attention as a model for the study of human diseases. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of this eukaryotic microbe serves multiple essential functions during development. It not only provides structural integrity to the moving multicellular pseudoplasmodium, or slug, it also provides components that regulate cell motility and differentiation. An LC/MS/MS analysis of slug ECM revealed the presence of a large number of proteins in two wild-type strains, NC4 and WS380B. GO annotation identified a large number of proteins involved in some form of binding (e.g. protein, polysaccharide, cellulose, carbohydrate, ATP, cAMP, ion, lipid, vitamin), as well as proteins that modulate metabolic processes, cell movement, and multicellular development. In addition, this proteomic analysis identified numerous expected (e.g. EcmA, EcmD, discoidin I, discoidin II), as well as unexpected (e.g. ribosomal and nuclear proteins) components. These topics are discussed in terms of the structure and function of the ECM during the development of this model amoebozoan and their relevance to ongoing biomedical research. PMID:26152465

  15. A large-scale screen reveals genes that mediate electrotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Runchi; Zhao, Siwei; Jiang, Xupin; Sun, Yaohui; Zhao, Sanjun; Gao, Jing; Borleis, Jane; Willard, Stacey; Tang, Ming; Cai, Huaqing; Kamimura, Yoichiro; Huang, Yuesheng; Jiang, Jianxin; Huang, Zunxi; Mogilner, Alex; Pan, Tingrui; Devreotes, Peter N; Zhao, Min

    2015-05-26

    Directional cell migration in an electric field, a phenomenon called galvanotaxis or electrotaxis, occurs in many types of cells, and may play an important role in wound healing and development. Small extracellular electric fields can guide the migration of amoeboid cells, and we established a large-scale screening approach to search for mutants with electrotaxis phenotypes from a collection of 563 Dictyostelium discoideum strains with morphological defects. We identified 28 strains that were defective in electrotaxis and 10 strains with a slightly higher directional response. Using plasmid rescue followed by gene disruption, we identified some of the mutated genes, including some previously implicated in chemotaxis. Among these, we studied PiaA, which encodes a critical component of TORC2, a kinase protein complex that transduces changes in motility by activating the kinase PKB (also known as Akt). Furthermore, we found that electrotaxis was decreased in mutants lacking gefA, rasC, rip3, lst8, or pkbR1, genes that encode other components of the TORC2-PKB pathway. Thus, we have developed a high-throughput screening technique that will be a useful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of electrotaxis. PMID:26012633

  16. A large scale screen reveals genes that mediate electrotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum**

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Runchi; Zhao, Siwei; Jiang, Xupin; Sun, Yaohui; Zhao, Sanjun; Gao, Jing; Borleis, Jane; Willard, Stacey; Tang, Ming; Cai, Huaqing; Kamimura, Yoichiro; Huang, Yuesheng; Jiang, Jianxin; Huang, Zunxi; Mogilner, Alex; Pan, Tingrui; Devreotes, Peter N; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Directional cell migration in an electric field, a phenomenon called galvanotaxis or electrotaxis, occurs in many types of cells, and may play an important role in wound healing and development. Small extracellular electric fields can guide the migration of amoeboid cells, and here, we established a large-scale screening approach to search for mutants with electrotaxis phenotypes from a collection of 563 Dictyostelium discoideum strains with morphological defects. We identified 28 strains that were defective in electrotaxis and 10 strains with a slightly higher directional response. Using plasmid rescue followed by gene disruption, we identified some of the mutated genes, including some previously implicated in chemotaxis. Amongst these we studied PiaA, which encodes a critical component of TORC2, a kinase protein complex that transduces changes in motility by activating the kinase PKB (also known as Akt). Furthermore, we found that electrotaxis was decreased in mutants lacking gefA, rasC, rip3, lst8 or pkbR1, genes that encode other components of the TORC2-PKB pathway. Thus, we have developed a high-throughput screening technique that will be a useful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of electrotaxis. PMID:26012633

  17. Dictyostelium discoideum RabS and Rab2 colocalize with the Golgi and contractile vacuole system and regulate osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Maringer, Katherine; Yarbrough, Azure; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Saheb, Entsar; Jawed, Sanaa; Bush, John

    2016-06-01

    Small-molecular-weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and is required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex; however, Rab2 has yet to be characterized in Dictyostelium discoideum. DdRabS is a Dictyostelium Rab that is 80 percent homologous to DdRab1 which is required for protein transport between the ER and Golgi. Expression of GFP-tagged DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins showed localization to Golgi membranes and to the contractile vacuole system (CV) in Dictyostelium. Microscopic imaging indicates that the DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins localize at, and are essential for, the proper structure of Golgi membranes and the CV system. Dominant negative (DN) forms show fractionation of Golgi membranes, supporting their role in the structure and function of it. DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins, and their dominant negative and constitutively active (CA) forms, affect osmoregulation of the cells, possibly by the influx and discharge of fluids, which suggests a role in the function of the CV system. This is the first evidence of GTPases being localized to both Golgi membranes and the CV system in Dictyostelium. PMID:27240981

  18. Developmental accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate affects germination and energetic metabolism in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas Miles; Chubb, Jonathan Robert; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-01-26

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is composed of linear chains of phosphate groups linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. However, this simple, ubiquitous molecule remains poorly understood. The use of nonstandardized analytical methods has contributed to this lack of clarity. By using improved polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis we were able to visualize polyP extracted from Dictyostelium discoideum. We established that polyP is undetectable in cells lacking the polyphosphate kinase (DdPpk1). Generation of this ppk1 null strain revealed that polyP is important for the general fitness of the amoebae with the mutant strain displaying a substantial growth defect. We discovered an unprecedented accumulation of polyP during the developmental program, with polyP increasing more than 100-fold. The failure of ppk1 spores to accumulate polyP results in a germination defect. These phenotypes are underpinned by the ability of polyP to regulate basic energetic metabolism, demonstrated by a 2.5-fold decrease in the level of ATP in vegetative ppk1. Finally, the lack of polyP during the development of ppk1 mutant cells is partially offset by an increase of both ATP and inositol pyrophosphates, evidence for a model in which there is a functional interplay between inositol pyrophosphates, ATP, and polyP. PMID:26755590

  19. Developmental accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate affects germination and energetic metabolism in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Livermore, Thomas Miles; Chubb, Jonathan Robert; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is composed of linear chains of phosphate groups linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. However, this simple, ubiquitous molecule remains poorly understood. The use of nonstandardized analytical methods has contributed to this lack of clarity. By using improved polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis we were able to visualize polyP extracted from Dictyostelium discoideum. We established that polyP is undetectable in cells lacking the polyphosphate kinase (DdPpk1). Generation of this ppk1 null strain revealed that polyP is important for the general fitness of the amoebae with the mutant strain displaying a substantial growth defect. We discovered an unprecedented accumulation of polyP during the developmental program, with polyP increasing more than 100-fold. The failure of ppk1 spores to accumulate polyP results in a germination defect. These phenotypes are underpinned by the ability of polyP to regulate basic energetic metabolism, demonstrated by a 2.5-fold decrease in the level of ATP in vegetative ppk1. Finally, the lack of polyP during the development of ppk1 mutant cells is partially offset by an increase of both ATP and inositol pyrophosphates, evidence for a model in which there is a functional interplay between inositol pyrophosphates, ATP, and polyP. PMID:26755590

  20. Biological Activity of the Alternative Promoters of the Dictyostelium discoideum Adenylyl Cyclase A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Centeno, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation. PMID:26840347

  1. Biological Activity of the Alternative Promoters of the Dictyostelium discoideum Adenylyl Cyclase A Gene.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Centeno, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation. PMID:26840347

  2. Cytochemical study of the nucleolus of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Benichou, J.C.; Quiviger, B.; Ryter, A.

    1983-07-01

    The nucleus of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is characterized by the presence of several large dense masses which are all in tight contact with the nuclear membrane. These dense masses, considered as nucleoli, present a rather homogeneous texture, in which dense chromatin, fibrillar, and granular material are not easily detected. The autoradiographic study of (/sup 3/H)uridine pulse-labeled cells showed that the majority of the silver grains were located inside these masses. The use of EDTA regressive-staining, acetylation and enzymatic digestion indicated that they are mostly composed of RNP and are totally devoid of dense chromatin as the rest of the nucleus is. After treatment with actinomycin D, fibrillar and granular material segregated but no chromatin could be found. All these observations confirmed that the dense masses correspond to nucleoli despite their peculiar ultrastructure. It can also be concluded that this type of nucleoli cannot be considered as a taxonomic character of the slime molds because it does not exist in all slime molds and was observed in some dinoflagellates, and ascomycetes.

  3. Relevant Genes Linked to Virulence Are Required for Salmonella Typhimurium to Survive Intracellularly in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Sebastián; Varas, Macarena; Valenzuela, Camila; Velozo, Paula; Chahin, Nicolás; Aguilera, Paulina; Sabag, Andrea; Labra, Bayron; Álvarez, Sergio A.; Chávez, Francisco P.; Santiviago, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be a useful model for studying relevant aspects of the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, D. discoideum was used as a model to study the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive in amoebae and to evaluate the contribution of selected genes in this process. To do this, we performed infection assays using axenic cultures of D. discoideum co-cultured with wild-type S. Typhimurium and/or defined mutant strains. Our results confirmed that wild-type S. Typhimurium is able to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum. In contrast, mutants ΔaroA and ΔwaaL are defective in intracellular survival in this amoeba. Next, we included in our study a group of mutants in genes directly linked to Salmonella virulence. Of note, mutants ΔinvA, ΔssaD, ΔclpV, and ΔphoPQ also showed an impaired ability to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum. This indicates that S. Typhimurium requires a functional biosynthetic pathway of aromatic compounds, a lipopolysaccharide containing a complete O-antigen, the type III secretion systems (T3SS) encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in SPI-6 and PhoP/PhoQ two-component system to survive in D. discoideum. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the requirement of O-antigen and T6SS in the survival of Salmonella within amoebae. In addition, mutants ΔinvA and ΔssaD were internalized in higher numbers than the wild-type strain during competitive infections, suggesting that S. Typhimurium requires the T3SS encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2 to evade phagocytosis by D. discoideum. Altogether, these results indicate that S. Typhimurium exploits a common set of genes and molecular mechanisms to survive within amoeba and animal host cells. The use of D. discoideum as a model for host–pathogen interactions will allow us to discover the gene repertoire used by Salmonella to survive inside the amoeba and to study the cellular processes that are affected

  4. Relevant Genes Linked to Virulence Are Required for Salmonella Typhimurium to Survive Intracellularly in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Sebastián; Varas, Macarena; Valenzuela, Camila; Velozo, Paula; Chahin, Nicolás; Aguilera, Paulina; Sabag, Andrea; Labra, Bayron; Álvarez, Sergio A; Chávez, Francisco P; Santiviago, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be a useful model for studying relevant aspects of the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, D. discoideum was used as a model to study the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive in amoebae and to evaluate the contribution of selected genes in this process. To do this, we performed infection assays using axenic cultures of D. discoideum co-cultured with wild-type S. Typhimurium and/or defined mutant strains. Our results confirmed that wild-type S. Typhimurium is able to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum. In contrast, mutants ΔaroA and ΔwaaL are defective in intracellular survival in this amoeba. Next, we included in our study a group of mutants in genes directly linked to Salmonella virulence. Of note, mutants ΔinvA, ΔssaD, ΔclpV, and ΔphoPQ also showed an impaired ability to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum. This indicates that S. Typhimurium requires a functional biosynthetic pathway of aromatic compounds, a lipopolysaccharide containing a complete O-antigen, the type III secretion systems (T3SS) encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in SPI-6 and PhoP/PhoQ two-component system to survive in D. discoideum. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the requirement of O-antigen and T6SS in the survival of Salmonella within amoebae. In addition, mutants ΔinvA and ΔssaD were internalized in higher numbers than the wild-type strain during competitive infections, suggesting that S. Typhimurium requires the T3SS encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2 to evade phagocytosis by D. discoideum. Altogether, these results indicate that S. Typhimurium exploits a common set of genes and molecular mechanisms to survive within amoeba and animal host cells. The use of D. discoideum as a model for host-pathogen interactions will allow us to discover the gene repertoire used by Salmonella to survive inside the amoeba and to study the cellular processes that are affected

  5. Multiple cysteine proteinase forms during the life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum revealed by electrophoretic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    North, M J; Scott, K I; Lockwood, B C

    1988-01-01

    Proteinases of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum have been analysed using electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels containing gelatin (gelatin/PAGE). Multiple proteinase forms were apparent in vegetative myxamoebae, but the presence of individual enzyme forms depended on the manner in which the cells were grown. Axenic cells had a characteristic A-pattern of proteinases consisting of six bands, the most active enzymes having apparent Mr values of 51,000 and 45,000 (these have been named ddCP51 and ddCP45, respectively). Some of the proteinases were also present in the medium, the major extracellular form was ddCP42, a 42,000-Mr enzyme. Cells grown in association with bacteria had a distinct B-pattern with three main enzymes that had apparent Mr values of 48,000, 43,000 and 38,000. All of the A- and B-pattern proteinases were most active at acid pH in the presence of dithiothreitol and were inhibited by various agents such as trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane (E64), leupeptin and chymostatin, which inactivate cysteine proteinases. One of the enzymes, ddCP30, was identified as cysteine proteinase B which had been purified and characterized previously [North, M.J. & Whyte, A. (1984) J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 123-134]. During starvation of axenic cells in shaken suspensions some of the vegetative proteinases disappeared, ddCP42 was released from the cells and one new enzyme with an apparent Mr of 48,000 appeared. Addition of cyclic AMP had little effect on these changes. When the axenically grown myxamoebae underwent development on filters, similar changes in band pattern were observed and the aggregation stage was characterized by the presence of three cysteine proteinase bands (apparent Mr values of 48,000, 45,000 and 43,000). Proteinases, especially ddCP42, were released from the cells and could be collected from the buffer-saturated pads which supported the filters. The results demonstrate that cysteine proteinases are present

  6. Identification of a high-affinity Ca sup 2+ pump associated with endocytotic vesicles in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, J.L.; Coukell, M.B. )

    1989-11-01

    In the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, changes in free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} are thought to regulate certain processes during cell aggregation and differentiation. To understand the mechanisms controlling free Ca{sup 2+} levels in this organism, the authors previously isolated and characterized an ATP/Mg{sup 2+}-dependent, high-affinity Ca{sup 2+} pump which appeared to be a component of inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. In this report, they demonstrate that a high-affinity Ca{sup 2+} pump, with properties virtually identical to the isolated pump, can be detected in filipin- or digitonin-permeabilized cells of Dictyostelium. Moreover, Ca{sup 2+}-pumping vesicles, which migrate on Percoll/KCl gradients like the vesicles identified earlier, can be isolated from the permeabilized cells. Results of additional experiments suggest that this intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transporter is associated with a high-capacity non-IP{sub 3}-releasable Ca{sup 2+} store which is generated by endocytosis. A possible role for this store in maintaining Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in Dictyostelium is discussed.

  7. Examination of the endosomal and lysosomal pathways in Dictyostelium discoideum myosin I mutants.

    PubMed

    Temesvari, L A; Bush, J M; Peterson, M D; Novak, K D; Titus, M A; Cardelli, J A

    1996-03-01

    The role of myosin Is in endosomal trafficking and the lysosomal system was investigated in a Dictyostelium discoideum myosin I double mutant myoB-/C-, that has been previously shown to exhibit defects in fluid-phase endocytosis during growth in suspension culture (Novak et al., 1995). Various properties of the endosomal pathway in the myoB-/C- double mutant as well as in the myoB- and myoC- single mutants, including intravesicular pH, and intracellular retention time and exocytosis of a fluid phase marker, were found to be indistinguishable from wild-type parental cells. The intimate connection between the contractile vacuole complex and the endocytic pathway in Dictyostelium, and the localization of a myosin I to the contractile vacuole in Acanthamoeba, led us to also examine the structure and function of this organelle in the three myosin I mutants. No alteration in contractile vacuole structure or function was observed in the myoB-, myoC- or myoB-/C- cell lines. The transport, processing, and localization of a lysosomal enzyme, alpha-mannosidase, were also unaltered in all three mutants. However, the myoB- and myoB-/C- cell lines, but not the myoC- cell line, were found to oversecrete the lysosomal enzymes alpha-mannosidase and acid phosphatase, during growth and starvation. None of the mutants oversecreted proteins following the constitutive secretory pathway. Two additional myosin I mutants, myoA- and myoA-/B-, were also found to oversecrete the lysosomally localized enzymes alpha-mannosidase and acid phosphatase. Taken together, these results suggest that these myosins do not play a role in the intracellular movement of vesicles, but that they may participate in controlling events that occur at the actin-rich cortical region of the cell. While no direct evidence has been found for the association of myosin Is with lysosomes, we predict that the integrity of the lysosomal system is tied to the fidelity of the actin cortex, and changes in cortical organization

  8. Identification of Delta5-fatty acid desaturase from the cellular slime mold dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Ochiai, H

    1999-10-01

    cDNA fragments putatively encoding amino acid sequences characteristic of the fatty acid desaturase were obtained using expressed sequence tag (EST) information of the Dictyostelium cDNA project. Using this sequence, we have determined the cDNA sequence and genomic sequence of a desaturase. The cloned cDNA is 1489 nucleotides long and the deduced amino acid sequence comprised 464 amino acid residues containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. The whole sequence was 38.6% identical to the initially identified Delta5-desaturase of Mortierella alpina. We have confirmed its function as Delta5-desaturase by over expression mutation in D. discoideum and also the gain of function mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of the lipids from transformed D. discoideum and yeast demonstrated the accumulation of Delta5-desaturated products. This is the first report concering fatty acid desaturase in cellular slime molds. PMID:10504413

  9. Functional complementation of yeast phosphofructokinase mutants by the non-allosteric enzyme from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Heinisch, J J; Aragón, J J

    1995-10-23

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) from yeast has been replaced by the non-allosteric isozyme from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This has been achieved by overexpression of the latter in a PFK-deficient strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the PFK2 promoter. Transformants complemented the glucose-negative growth phenotype exhibiting generation times on glucose-containing media similar to those of an untransformed strain being wild-type for yeast PFK genes. The PFK produced reacted with an antibody against D. discoideum PFK. It exhibited the same subunit size, quaternary structure and kinetic parameters than those of the wild-type enzyme, and was also devoid of specific regulatory properties. PMID:7589492

  10. Regulation of Spatiotemporal Patterns by Biological Variability: General Principles and Applications to Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Grace, Miriam; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns often emerge from local interactions in a self-organizing fashion. In biology, the resulting patterns are also subject to the influence of the systematic differences between the system's constituents (biological variability). This regulation of spatiotemporal patterns by biological variability is the topic of our review. We discuss several examples of correlations between cell properties and the self-organized spatiotemporal patterns, together with their relevance for biology. Our guiding, illustrative example will be spiral waves of cAMP in a colony of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Analogous processes take place in diverse situations (such as cardiac tissue, where spiral waves occur in potentially fatal ventricular fibrillation) so a deeper understanding of this additional layer of self-organized pattern formation would be beneficial to a wide range of applications. One of the most striking differences between pattern-forming systems in physics or chemistry and those in biology is the potential importance of variability. In the former, system components are essentially identical with random fluctuations determining the details of the self-organization process and the resulting patterns. In biology, due to variability, the properties of potentially very few cells can have a driving influence on the resulting asymptotic collective state of the colony. Variability is one means of implementing a few-element control on the collective mode. Regulatory architectures, parameters of signaling cascades, and properties of structure formation processes can be "reverse-engineered" from observed spatiotemporal patterns, as different types of regulation and forms of interactions between the constituents can lead to markedly different correlations. The power of this biology-inspired view of pattern formation lies in building a bridge between two scales: the patterns as a collective state of a very large number of cells on the one hand, and the internal

  11. Regulation of Spatiotemporal Patterns by Biological Variability: General Principles and Applications to Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Miriam; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns often emerge from local interactions in a self-organizing fashion. In biology, the resulting patterns are also subject to the influence of the systematic differences between the system’s constituents (biological variability). This regulation of spatiotemporal patterns by biological variability is the topic of our review. We discuss several examples of correlations between cell properties and the self-organized spatiotemporal patterns, together with their relevance for biology. Our guiding, illustrative example will be spiral waves of cAMP in a colony of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Analogous processes take place in diverse situations (such as cardiac tissue, where spiral waves occur in potentially fatal ventricular fibrillation) so a deeper understanding of this additional layer of self-organized pattern formation would be beneficial to a wide range of applications. One of the most striking differences between pattern-forming systems in physics or chemistry and those in biology is the potential importance of variability. In the former, system components are essentially identical with random fluctuations determining the details of the self-organization process and the resulting patterns. In biology, due to variability, the properties of potentially very few cells can have a driving influence on the resulting asymptotic collective state of the colony. Variability is one means of implementing a few-element control on the collective mode. Regulatory architectures, parameters of signaling cascades, and properties of structure formation processes can be "reverse-engineered" from observed spatiotemporal patterns, as different types of regulation and forms of interactions between the constituents can lead to markedly different correlations. The power of this biology-inspired view of pattern formation lies in building a bridge between two scales: the patterns as a collective state of a very large number of cells on the one hand, and the internal

  12. Inorganic polyphosphate in Dictyostelium discoideum: Influence on development, sporulation, and predation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyu; Gómez-García, María R.; Brown, Michael R. W.; Kornberg, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum, a social slime mold that forms fruiting bodies with spores, depends on inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) for its cycles of development and for nutritional predation on bacteria. The synthesis of poly P, a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by high energy, ATP-like bonds, is catalyzed in most bacteria by poly P kinase (PPK1). The eukaryote D. discoideum possesses a homolog of PPK1. We report here that mutants of D. discoideum PPK1 (DdPPK1) have reduced levels of poly P and are deficient in development. Fruiting bodies are smaller and produce fewer spores, which appear to germinate like the wild type (WT). The DdPPK1 mutant formed smaller plaques on bacterial lawns compared with those of the WT. Predation by D. discoideum, assessed by uptake and digestion of Klebsiella aerogenes, showed that fewer bacteria were taken up by the DdPPK1 mutant compared with the WT and were killed less rapidly, indicating a role of poly P and/or DdPPK1 in phagocytosis. On Pseudomonas aeruginosa lawns, cleared plaques were observed with the bacterial PPK1 mutant but not with the WT P. aeruginosa. Thus, poly P is important in predation both for the predator and prey. PMID:15701689

  13. The Dictyostelium discoideum cellulose synthase: Structure/function analysis and identification of interacting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Blanton

    2004-02-19

    OAK-B135 The major accomplishments of this project were: (1) the initial characterization of dcsA, the gene for the putative catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum; (2) the detection of a developmentally regulated event (unidentified, but perhaps a protein modification or association with a protein partner) that is required for cellulose synthase activity (i.e., the dcsA product is necessary, but not sufficient for cellulose synthesis); (3) the continued exploration of the developmental context of cellulose synthesis and DcsA; (4) the isolation of a GFP-DcsA-expressing strain (work in progress); and (5) the identification of Dictyostelium homologues for plant genes whose products play roles in cellulose biosynthesis. Although our progress was slow and many of our results negative, we did develop a number of promising avenues of investigation that can serve as the foundation for future projects.

  14. Characterization of a 1,4-. beta. -D-glucan synthase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1992-01-15

    Various aspects of research concerning Dictyostelium discoideum are presented. The initial focus of this project was upon: the characterization of potential probes for the cellulose synthase (antibody and nucleic acid), the determination of the cultural induction conditions of cellulose synthesis, the solubilization of the enzyme activity, the development of a non-inhibitory disruption buffer, the generation and isolation of mutant strains deficient in cellulose synthesis, and the development of the capability to determine the degree of polymerization of the in vitro product. I have briefly summarized our most significant findings with only selected data sets being shown in this report in the interest of brevity.

  15. cAMP diffusion in Dictyostelium discoideum: A Green's function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calovi, Daniel S.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.

    2010-07-01

    A Green’s function method is developed to approach the spatiotemporal equations describing the cAMP production in Dictyostelium discoideum, markedly reducing numerical calculations times: cAMP concentrations and gradients are calculated just at the amoeba locations. A single set of parameters is capable of reproducing the different observed behaviors, from cAMP synchronization, spiral waves and reaction-diffusion patterns to streaming and mound formation. After aggregation, the emergence of a circular motion of amoebas, breaking the radial cAMP field symmetry, is observed.

  16. Guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum with the topology of mammalian adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, J; Snippe, H; Kleineidam, R G; Van Haastert, P J

    2001-01-01

    The core of adenylate and guanylate cyclases is formed by an intramolecular or intermolecular dimer of two cyclase domains arranged in an antiparallel fashion. Metazoan membrane-bound adenylate cyclases are composed of 12 transmembrane spanning regions, and two cyclase domains which function as a heterodimer and are activated by G-proteins. In contrast, membrane-bound guanylate cyclases have only one transmembrane spanning region and one cyclase domain, and are activated by extracellular ligands to form a homodimer. In the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, membrane-bound guanylate cyclase activity is induced after cAMP stimulation; a G-protein-coupled cAMP receptor and G-proteins are essential for this activation. We have cloned a Dictyostelium gene, DdGCA, encoding a protein with 12 transmembrane spanning regions and two cyclase domains. Sequence alignment demonstrates that the two cyclase domains are transposed, relative to these domains in adenylate cyclases. DdGCA expressed in Dictyostelium exhibits high guanylate cyclase activity and no detectable adenylate cyclase activity. Deletion of the gene indicates that DdGCA is not essential for chemotaxis or osmo-regulation. The knock-out strain still exhibits substantial guanylate cyclase activity, demonstrating that Dictyostelium contains at least one other guanylate cyclase. PMID:11237875

  17. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek D N; Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric; Stavrinides, John

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID:27303689

  18. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Derek D. N.; Nickzad, Arvin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID

  19. Loss of Cln3 Function in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum Causes Pleiotropic Effects That Are Rescued by Human CLN3

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of inherited, severe neurodegenerative disorders also known as Batten disease. Juvenile NCL (JNCL) is caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which encodes a transmembrane protein that regulates endocytic pathway trafficking, though its primary function is not yet known. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is increasingly utilized for neurological disease research and is particularly suited for investigation of protein function in trafficking. Therefore, here we establish new overexpression and knockout Dictyostelium cell lines for JNCL research. Dictyostelium Cln3 fused to GFP localized to the contractile vacuole system and to compartments of the endocytic pathway. cln3− cells displayed increased rates of proliferation and an associated reduction in the extracellular levels and cleavage of the autocrine proliferation repressor, AprA. Mid- and late development of cln3− cells was precocious and cln3− slugs displayed increased migration. Expression of either Dictyostelium Cln3 or human CLN3 in cln3− cells suppressed the precocious development and aberrant slug migration, which were also suppressed by calcium chelation. Taken together, our results show that Cln3 is a pleiotropic protein that negatively regulates proliferation and development in Dictyostelium. This new model system, which allows for the study of Cln3 function in both single cells and a multicellular organism, together with the observation that expression of human CLN3 restores abnormalities in Dictyostelium cln3− cells, strongly supports the use of this new model for JNCL research. PMID:25330233

  20. Loss of Cln3 function in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum causes pleiotropic effects that are rescued by human CLN3.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J; Myre, Michael A; Cotman, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of inherited, severe neurodegenerative disorders also known as Batten disease. Juvenile NCL (JNCL) is caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which encodes a transmembrane protein that regulates endocytic pathway trafficking, though its primary function is not yet known. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is increasingly utilized for neurological disease research and is particularly suited for investigation of protein function in trafficking. Therefore, here we establish new overexpression and knockout Dictyostelium cell lines for JNCL research. Dictyostelium Cln3 fused to GFP localized to the contractile vacuole system and to compartments of the endocytic pathway. cln3- cells displayed increased rates of proliferation and an associated reduction in the extracellular levels and cleavage of the autocrine proliferation repressor, AprA. Mid- and late development of cln3- cells was precocious and cln3- slugs displayed increased migration. Expression of either Dictyostelium Cln3 or human CLN3 in cln3- cells suppressed the precocious development and aberrant slug migration, which were also suppressed by calcium chelation. Taken together, our results show that Cln3 is a pleiotropic protein that negatively regulates proliferation and development in Dictyostelium. This new model system, which allows for the study of Cln3 function in both single cells and a multicellular organism, together with the observation that expression of human CLN3 restores abnormalities in Dictyostelium cln3- cells, strongly supports the use of this new model for JNCL research. PMID:25330233

  1. Phospholipase C in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cyclic AMP surface receptor and G-protein-regulated activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bominaar, A A; Kesbeke, F; Van Haastert, P J

    1994-01-01

    The cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum shows several responses after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP, including a transient rise in cyclic AMP (cAMP), cGMP and Ins(1,4,5)P3. In this paper the regulation of phospholipase C in vitro is described. Under our experimental conditions commercial PtdIns(4,5)P2 cannot be used to analyse phospholipase C activity in Dictyostelium lysates, because it is hydrolysed mainly to glycerophosphoinositol instead of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Enzyme activity was determined with endogenous unlabelled PtdInsP2 as a substrate. The product was measured by isotope-dilution assay and identified as authentic Ins(1,4,5)P3. Since phospholipase C is strictly Ca(2+)-dependent, with an optimal concentration range of 1-100 microM, cell lysates were prepared in EGTA and the enzyme reaction was started by adding 10 microM free Ca2+. Phospholipase C activity increased 2-fold during Dictyostelium development up to 8 h of starvation, after which the activity declined to less than 10% of the vegetative level. Enzyme activity in vitro increased up to 2-fold after stimulation of cells with the agonist cAMP in vivo. Addition of 10 microM guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate during lysis activated the enzyme to the same extent, and this effect was antagonized by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. These results strongly suggest that surface cAMP receptors and G-proteins regulate phospholipase C during Dictyostelium development. PMID:8280097

  2. The Ste20-like kinase SvkA of Dictyostelium discoideum is essential for late stages of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs, Meino; Arasada, Rajesh; Batsios, Petros; Janzen, Julia; Schleicher, Michael

    2007-12-15

    The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum encodes approximately 285 kinases, which represents approximately 2.6% of the total genome and suggests a signaling complexity similar to that of yeasts and humans. The behavior of D. discoideum as an amoeba and during development relies heavily on fast rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we describe the knockout phenotype of the svkA gene encoding severin kinase, a homolog of the human MST3, MST4 and YSK1 kinases. SvkA-knockout cells show drastic defects in cytokinesis, development and directed slug movement. The defect in cytokinesis is most prominent, leading to multinucleated cells sometimes with >30 nuclei. The defect arises from the frequent inability of svkA-knockout cells to maintain symmetry during formation of the cleavage furrow and to sever the last cytosolic connection. We demonstrate that GFP-SvkA is enriched at the centrosome and localizes to the midzone during the final stage of cell division. This distribution is mediated by the C-terminal half of the kinase, whereas a rescue of the phenotypic changes requires the active N-terminal kinase domain as well. The data suggest that SvkA is part of a regulatory pathway from the centrosome to the midzone, thus regulating the completion of cell division. PMID:18042625

  3. PTEN Redundancy: Overexpressing lpten, a Homolog of Dictyostelium discoideum ptenA, the Ortholog of Human PTEN, Rescues All Behavioral Defects of the Mutant ptenA−

    PubMed Central

    Lusche, Daniel F.; Wessels, Deborah; Richardson, Nicole A.; Russell, Kanoe B.; Hanson, Brett M.; Soll, Benjamin A.; Lin, Benjamin H.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN are associated with a significant proportion of human cancers. Because the human genome also contains several homologs of PTEN, we considered the hypothesis that if a homolog, functionally redundant with PTEN, can be overexpressed, it may rescue the defects of a PTEN mutant. We have performed an initial test of this hypothesis in the model system Dictyostelium discoideum, which contains an ortholog of human PTEN, ptenA. Deletion of ptenA results in defects in motility, chemotaxis, aggregation and multicellular morphogenesis. D. discoideum also contains lpten, a newly discovered homolog of ptenA. Overexpressing lpten completely rescues all developmental and behavioral defects of the D. discoideum mutant ptenA−. This hypothesis must now be tested in human cells. PMID:25247494

  4. A Cysteine-Rich Extracellular Protein Containing a PA14 Domain Mediates Quorum Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Kolbinger, Alexandra; Gao, Tong; Brock, Debbie; Ammann, Robin; Kisters, Axel; Kellermann, Joseph; Hatton, Diane; Gomer, Richard H.; Wetterauer, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    Much remains to be understood about quorum-sensing factors that allow cells to sense their local density. Dictyostelium discoideum is a simple eukaryote that grows as single-celled amoebae and switches to multicellular development when food becomes limited. As the growing cells reach a high density, they begin expressing discoidin genes. The cells secrete an unknown factor, and at high cell densities the concomitant high levels of the factor induce discoidin expression. We report here the enrichment of discoidin-inducing complex (DIC), an ∼400-kDa protein complex that induces discoidin expression during growth and development. Two proteins in the DIC preparation, DicA1 and DicB, were identified by sequencing proteolytic digests. DicA1 and DicB were expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for their ability to induce discoidin during growth and development. Recombinant DicB was unable to induce discoidin expression, while recombinant DicA1 was able to induce discoidin expression. This suggests that DicA1 is an active component of DIC and indicates that posttranslational modification is dispensable for activity. DicA1 mRNA is expressed in vegetative and developing cells. The mature secreted form of DicA1 has a molecular mass of 80 kDa and has a 24-amino-acid cysteine-rich repeat that is similar to repeats in Dictyostelium proteins, such as the extracellular matrix protein ecmB/PstA, the prespore cell-inducing factor PSI, and the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor PDI. Together, the data suggest that DicA1 is a component of a secreted quorum-sensing signal regulating discoidin gene expression during Dictyostelium growth and development. PMID:15947191

  5. Mitochondrial tRNA 5'-editing in Dictyostelium discoideum and Polysphondylium pallidum.

    PubMed

    Abad, Maria G; Long, Yicheng; Kinchen, R Dimitri; Schindel, Elinor T; Gray, Michael W; Jackman, Jane E

    2014-05-30

    Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) 5'-editing was first described more than 20 years ago; however, the first candidates for 5'-editing enzymes were only recently identified in a eukaryotic microbe (protist), the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. In this organism, eight of 18 mt-tRNAs are predicted to be edited based on the presence of genomically encoded mismatched nucleotides in their aminoacyl-acceptor stem sequences. Here, we demonstrate that mt-tRNA 5'-editing occurs at all predicted sites in D. discoideum as evidenced by changes in the sequences of isolated mt-tRNAs compared with the expected sequences encoded by the mitochondrial genome. We also identify two previously unpredicted editing events in which G-U base pairs are edited in the absence of any other genomically encoded mismatches. A comparison of 5'-editing in D. discoideum with 5'-editing in another slime mold, Polysphondylium pallidum, suggests organism-specific idiosyncrasies in the treatment of U-G/G-U pairs. In vitro activities of putative D. discoideum editing enzymes are consistent with the observed editing reactions and suggest an overall lack of tRNA substrate specificity exhibited by the repair component of the editing enzyme. Although the presence of terminal mismatches in mt-tRNA sequences is highly predictive of the occurrence of mt-tRNA 5'-editing, the variability in treatment of U-G/G-U base pairs observed here indicates that direct experimental evidence of 5'-editing must be obtained to understand the complete spectrum of mt-tRNA editing events in any species. PMID:24737330

  6. Iron metabolism and resistance to infection by invasive bacteria in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Bozzaro, Salvatore; Buracco, Simona; Peracino, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Dictyostelium cells are forest soil amoebae, which feed on bacteria and proliferate as solitary cells until bacteria are consumed. Starvation triggers a change in life style, forcing cells to gather into aggregates to form multicellular organisms capable of cell differentiation and morphogenesis. As a soil amoeba and a phagocyte that grazes on bacteria as the obligate source of food, Dictyostelium could be a natural host of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, many pathogens that occasionally infect humans are hosted for most of their time in protozoa or free-living amoebae, where evolution of their virulence traits occurs. Due to these features and its amenability to genetic manipulation, Dictyostelium has become a valuable model organism for studying strategies of both the host to resist infection and the pathogen to escape the defense mechanisms. Similarly to higher eukaryotes, iron homeostasis is crucial for Dictyostelium resistance to invasive bacteria. Iron is essential for Dictyostelium, as both iron deficiency or overload inhibit cell growth. The Dictyostelium genome shares with mammals many genes regulating iron homeostasis. Iron transporters of the Nramp (Slc11A) family are represented with two genes, encoding Nramp1 and Nramp2. Like the mammalian ortholog, Nramp1 is recruited to phagosomes and macropinosomes, whereas Nramp2 is a membrane protein of the contractile vacuole network, which regulates osmolarity. Nramp1 and Nramp2 localization in distinct compartments suggests that both proteins synergistically regulate iron homeostasis. Rather than by absorption via membrane transporters, iron is likely gained by degradation of ingested bacteria and efflux via Nramp1 from phagosomes to the cytosol. Nramp gene disruption increases Dictyostelium sensitivity to infection, enhancing intracellular growth of Legionella or Mycobacteria. Generation of mutants in other “iron genes” will help identify genes essential for iron homeostasis and resistance to pathogens. PMID

  7. Specific regulation of transcription of the discoidin gene family in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, S; Shinnick, T M

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum strains that carry the dis mutations fail to express the family of developmentally regulated discoidin lectin genes during morphogenesis. We show here that this absence of discoidin lectin expression is due to the failure to transcribe the discoidin genes. Furthermore, the dis mutations appear to affect only discoidin expression and not the expression of other proteins during development, as assessed by a two-dimensional gel analysis of pulse-labeled proteins and by the accumulation of developmentally regulated enzymes. The dis mutations appear to define trans-acting regulatory loci, the products of which act at the transcriptional level to control specifically the developmental expression of the discoidin gene family. Images PMID:4000124

  8. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2006-09-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two approximately 3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  9. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid–type III polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ~3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed ‘steely’, as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  10. Dictyostelium discoideum myoJ: a member of a broadly defined myosin V class or a class XI unconventional myosin?

    PubMed

    Peterson, M D; Urioste, A S; Titus, M A

    1996-08-01

    The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum contains at least 12 unconventional myosin genes. Here we report the characterization of one of these, myoJ, a gene initially identified through a physical mapping screen. The myoJ gene encodes a high molecular weight myosin, and analysis of the available deduced amino acid sequence reveals that it possesses six IQ motifs and sequences typical of alpha helical coiled coils in the tail region. Therefore, myoJ is predicted to exist as a dimer with up to 12 associated light chains (six per heavy chain). The 7.8 kb myoJ mRNA is expressed all throughout the life cycle of D. discoideum. The myoJ gene has been disrupted and a phenotypic analysis of the mutant cells initiated. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of the head region reveals that myoJ is most similar to two plant myosin genes, Arabidopsis MYA1 and MYA2, that have been alternatively suggested to be either members of the myosin V class or founding members of the myosin XI class. PMID:8884597

  11. Chromosome Fragments in DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM Obtained from Parasexual Crosses between Strains of Different Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keith L.; Robson, Gillian E.; Welker, Dennis L.

    1980-01-01

    The first aneuploid strains of Dictyostelium discoideum have been unambiguously characterized, using cytological and genetic analysis. Three independently isolated, but genetically similar, fragment chromosomes have been observed in segregants from diploids formed between haploid strains derived from the NC4 and V12 isolates of D. discoideum. Once generated, the fragment chromosomes, all of which have V12-derived centromeres, can be maintained in a NC4 genetic background. Genetic evidence is consistent with the view that all three fragment chromosomes studied encompass the region from the centromere to the whiA locus of linkage group II and terminate in the interval between whiA and acrA. From cytological studies, one of the fragment chromosomes consists of approximately half of linkage group II.—We observed no deleterious effect on viability or asexual fruiting-body formation in either haploid or diploid strains carrying an additional incomplete chromosome and hence are disomic or trisomic, respectively, for part of linkage group II. The incomplete chromosome is lost at a frequency of 2 to 3% from disomic and trisomic strains, but surprisingly this loss is not increased in the presence of the haploidizing agent, benlate. A new locus (clyA), whose phenotype is altered colony morphology, is assigned to the region of linkage group II encompassed by the fragment chromosome. PMID:17249037

  12. The Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR Ortholog Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Protein with Roles during Development

    PubMed Central

    Deckstein, Jaqueline; van Appeldorn, Jennifer; Tsangarides, Marios; Yiannakou, Kyriacos; Müller, Rolf; Stumpf, Maria; Sukumaran, Salil K.; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR (Golgi pH regulator)/Gpr89 is a developmentally regulated transmembrane protein present on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Transcript levels are low during growth and vary during development, reaching high levels during the aggregation and late developmental stages. The Arabidopsis ortholog was described as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for abscisic acid present at the plasma membrane, whereas the mammalian ortholog is a Golgi apparatus-associated anion channel functioning as a Golgi apparatus pH regulator. To probe its role in D. discoideum, we generated a strain lacking GPHR. The mutant had different growth characteristics than the AX2 parent strain, exhibited changes during late development, and formed abnormally shaped small slugs and fruiting bodies. An analysis of development-specific markers revealed that their expression was disturbed. The distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were unaltered at the immunofluorescence level. Likewise, their functions did not appear to be impaired, since membrane proteins were properly processed and glycosylated. Also, changes in the external pH were sensed by the ER, as indicated by a pH-sensitive ER probe, as in the wild type. PMID:25380752

  13. Dictyostelium discoideum CenB Is a Bona Fide Centrin Essential for Nuclear Architecture and Centrosome Stability ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mana-Capelli, Sebastian; Gräf, Ralph; Larochelle, Denis A.

    2009-01-01

    Centrins are a family of proteins within the calcium-binding EF-hand superfamily. In addition to their archetypical role at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC), centrins have acquired multiple functionalities throughout the course of evolution. For example, centrins have been linked to different nuclear activities, including mRNA export and DNA repair. Dictyostelium discoideum centrin B is a divergent member of the centrin family. At the amino acid level, DdCenB shows 51% identity with its closest relative and only paralog, DdCenA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DdCenB and DdCenA form a well-supported monophyletic and divergent group within the centrin family of proteins. Interestingly, fluorescently tagged versions of DdCenB were not found at the centrosome (in whole cells or in isolated centrosomes). Instead, DdCenB localized to the nuclei of interphase cells. This localization disappeared as the cells entered mitosis, although Dictyostelium cells undergo a closed mitosis in which the nuclear envelope (NE) does not break down. DdCenB knockout cells exhibited aberrant nuclear architecture, characterized by enlarged and deformed nuclei and loss of proper centrosome-nucleus anchoring (observed as NE protrusions). At the centrosome, loss of DdCenB resulted in defects in the organization and morphology of the MTOC and supernumerary centrosomes and centrosome-related bodies. The multiple defects that the loss of DdCenB generated at the centrosome can be explained by its atypical division cycle, transitioning into the NE as it divides at mitosis. On the basis of these findings, we propose that DdCenB is required at interphase to maintain proper nuclear architecture, and before delocalizing from the nucleus, DdCenB is part of the centrosome duplication machinery. PMID:19465563

  14. A matricellular protein and EGF-like repeat signalling in the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-12-01

    Matricellular proteins interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulate cellular processes by binding to cell surface receptors and initiating intracellular signal transduction. Their association with the ECM and the ability of some members of this protein family to regulate cell motility have opened up new avenues of research to investigate their functions in normal and diseased cells. In this review, we summarize the research on CyrA, an ECM calmodulin-binding protein in Dictyostelium. CyrA is proteolytically cleaved into smaller EGF-like (EGFL) repeat containing cleavage products during development. The first EGFL repeat of CyrA binds to the cell surface and activates a novel signalling pathway that modulates cell motility in this model organism. The similarity of CyrA to the most well-characterized matricellular proteins in mammals allows it to be designated as the first matricellular protein identified in Dictyostelium. PMID:22782112

  15. The Discoidin I Gene Family of Dictyostelium Discoideum Is Linked to Genes Regulating Its Expression

    PubMed Central

    Welker, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The discoidin I protein has been studied extensively as a marker of early development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. However, like most other developmentally regulated proteins in this system, no reliable information was available on the linkage of the discoidin genes to other known genes. Analysis of the linkage of the discoidin I genes by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that all three discoidin I genes as well as a pseudogene are located on linkage group II. This evidence is consistent with the discoidin I genes forming a gene cluster that may be under the control of a single regulatory element. The discoidin I genes are linked to three genetic loci (disA, motA, daxA) that affect the expression of the discoidin I protein. Linkage of the gene family members to regulatory loci may be important in the coordinate maintenance of the gene family and regulatory loci. A duplication affecting the entire discoidin gene family is also linked to group II; this appears to be a small tandem duplication. This duplication was mapped using a DNA polymorphism generated by insertion of the Tdd-3 mobile genetic element into a Tdd-2 element flanking the γ gene. A probe for Tdd-2 identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism in strain AX3K that was consistent with generation by a previously proposed Tdd-3 insertion event. A putative duplication or rearrangement of a second Tdd-2 element on linkage group IV of strain AX3K was also identified. This is the first linkage information available for mobile genetic elements in D. discoideum. PMID:3402731

  16. A weak pulsed magnetic field affects adenine nucleotide oscillations, and related parameters in aggregating Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae.

    PubMed

    Davies, E; Olliff, C; Wright, I; Woodward, A; Kell, D

    1999-02-01

    A model eukaryotic cell system was used to explore the effect of a weak pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on time-varying physiological parameters. Dictyostelium discoideum cells (V12 strain) were exposed to a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of flux density 0.4 mT, generated via air-cored coils in trains of 2 ms pulses gated at 20 ms. This signal is similar to those used to treat non-uniting fractures. Samples were taken over periods of 20 min from harvested suspensions of amoebae during early aggregation phase, extracted and derivatised for HPLC fluorescent assay of adenine nucleotides. Analysis of variance showed a significant athermal damping effect (P < 0.002, n = 22) of the PMF on natural adenine nucleotide oscillations and some consistent changes in phase relationships. The technique of nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) revealed a distinctive effect of PMF, caffeine and EGTA in modulating the cellular harmonic response to an applied weak signal. Light scattering studies also showed altered frequency response of cells to PMF, EGTA and caffeine. PMF caused a significant reduction of caffeine induced cell contraction (P < 0.0006, n = 19 by paired t-test) as shown by Malvern particle size analyser, suggesting that intracellular calcium may be involved in mediating the effect of the PMF. PMID:10228582

  17. Different CHD chromatin remodelers are required for expression of distinct gene sets and specific stages during development of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Platt, James L.; Rogers, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Kelley C.; Harwood, Adrian J.; Kimmel, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Control of chromatin structure is crucial for multicellular development and regulation of cell differentiation. The CHD (chromodomain-helicase-DNA binding) protein family is one of the major ATP-dependent, chromatin remodeling factors that regulate nucleosome positioning and access of transcription factors and RNA polymerase to the eukaryotic genome. There are three mammalian CHD subfamilies and their impaired functions are associated with several human diseases. Here, we identify three CHD orthologs (ChdA, ChdB and ChdC) in Dictyostelium discoideum. These CHDs are expressed throughout development, but with unique patterns. Null mutants lacking each CHD have distinct phenotypes that reflect their expression patterns and suggest functional specificity. Accordingly, using genome-wide (RNA-seq) transcriptome profiling for each null strain, we show that the different CHDs regulate distinct gene sets during both growth and development. ChdC is an apparent ortholog of the mammalian Class III CHD group that is associated with the human CHARGE syndrome, and GO analyses of aberrant gene expression in chdC nulls suggest defects in both cell-autonomous and non-autonomous signaling, which have been confirmed through analyses of chdC nulls developed in pure populations or with low levels of wild-type cells. This study provides novel insight into the broad function of CHDs in the regulation development and disease, through chromatin-mediated changes in directed gene expression. PMID:24301467

  18. Microtubules Are Essential for Mitochondrial Dynamics–Fission, Fusion, and Motility–in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Laken C.; Berbusse, Gregory W.; Naylor, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is dependent upon mitochondrial structure which is in turn dependent upon mitochondrial dynamics, including fission, fusion, and motility. Here we examined the relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and the cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum. Using time-lapse analysis, we quantified mitochondrial fission, fusion, and motility in the presence of cytoskeleton disrupting pharmaceuticals and the absence of the potential mitochondria-cytoskeleton linker protein, CluA. Our results indicate that microtubules are essential for mitochondrial movement, as well as fission and fusion; actin plays a less significant role, perhaps selecting the mitochondria for transport. We also suggest that CluA is not a linker protein but plays an unidentified role in mitochondrial fission and fusion. The significance of our work is to gain further insight into the role the cytoskeleton plays in mitochondrial dynamics and function. By better understanding these processes we can better appreciate the underlying mitochondrial contributions to many neurological disorders characterized by altered mitochondrial dynamics, structure, and/or function. PMID:27047941

  19. Mota1552, a Mutation of Dictyostelium Discoideum Having Pleiotropic Effects on Motility and Discoidin I Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kayman, S. C.; Birchman, R.; Clarke, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Dictyostelium discoideum mutant MC2 exhibits temperature-sensitive growth, temperature-sensitive motility, and temperature induction of discoidin I synthesis. These three phenotypes of MC2 were not separated in the genetic experiments reported here. They were therefore assigned to the mutation motA1552, which was mapped to linkage group II by segregation analysis and by analysis of mitotic recombinant diploids. In one motA1552 strain, loss of motility preceded accumulation of discoidin I by 3 hr, indicating that discoidin I is not involved in generation of the motility defect. Expression of motA1552 phenotypes varied both among strains carrying the mutation, and among different clones of a particular strain. MC2 and its derivatives displayed elevated levels of recombination between whiA and acrA on linkage group II, and yielded highly unstable mutations at the acrA locus. Accumulation of large amounts of discoidin I during axenic growth of strain AX3 was found to depend on the presence of a second linkage group II mutation, daxA1551. This mutation was already present in the strain mutagenized to isolate motA1552, complicating explication of motA1552 action. PMID:3366362

  20. Identification of Proteins Associated with Multilamellar Bodies Produced by Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Denoncourt, Alix M; Paquet, Valérie E; Sedighi, Ahmadreza; Charette, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae produce and secrete multilamellar bodies (MLBs) when fed digestible bacteria. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the proteic content of MLBs. The lipid composition of MLBs is mainly amoebal in origin, suggesting that MLB formation is a protozoa-driven process that could play a significant role in amoebal physiology. We identified four major proteins on purified MLBs using mass spectrometry in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms governing MLB formation and, eventually, to elucidate the true function of MLBs. These proteins were SctA, PhoPQ, PonC and a protein containing a cytidine/deoxycytidylate deaminase (CDD) zinc-binding region. SctA is a component of pycnosomes, which are membranous materials that are continuously secreted by amoebae. The presence of SctA on MLBs was confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting using a specific anti-SctA antibody. The CDD protein may be one of the proteins recognized by the H36 antibody, which was used as a MLB marker in a previous study. The function of the CDD protein is unknown. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analyses confirmed that the H36 antibody is a better marker of MLBs than the anti-SctA antibody. This study is an additional step to elucidate the potential role of MLBs and revealed that only a small set of proteins appeared to be present on MLBs. PMID:27340834

  1. Tandem Repeats in Extrachromosomal Ribosomal DNA of Dictyostelium Discoideum, Resulting from Chromosomal Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Cole, R. A.; Williams, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA in the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum is readily separated from chromosomal DNA by orthogonal field electrophoresis (OFAGE), forming a prominent band in the 110-kb region of the gel. Here we show that mutations in at least two chromosomal genes give rise to a ladder of rDNA bands increasing in size up to about 300 kb. One of these mutations, the rrcA350 allele, which is recessive to wild type and maps to the centromere-proximal region of linkage group II, has an unstable phenotype; spontaneous revertants, which no longer exhibit the rDNA ladder, have been recovered. Another mutation rrc-351, provisionally mapped to linkage group IV, is dominant to wild type. The rDNA ladder is caused by concatamerization of a 34-kb fragment in the nontranscribed central spacer region of the 88-kb linear rDNA palindrome. Restriction enzyme analysis has revealed that each concatamer is generated by crossovers between two rDNA molecules. PMID:1582557

  2. Identification of Proteins Associated with Multilamellar Bodies Produced by Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Sedighi, Ahmadreza; Charette, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae produce and secrete multilamellar bodies (MLBs) when fed digestible bacteria. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the proteic content of MLBs. The lipid composition of MLBs is mainly amoebal in origin, suggesting that MLB formation is a protozoa-driven process that could play a significant role in amoebal physiology. We identified four major proteins on purified MLBs using mass spectrometry in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms governing MLB formation and, eventually, to elucidate the true function of MLBs. These proteins were SctA, PhoPQ, PonC and a protein containing a cytidine/deoxycytidylate deaminase (CDD) zinc-binding region. SctA is a component of pycnosomes, which are membranous materials that are continuously secreted by amoebae. The presence of SctA on MLBs was confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting using a specific anti-SctA antibody. The CDD protein may be one of the proteins recognized by the H36 antibody, which was used as a MLB marker in a previous study. The function of the CDD protein is unknown. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analyses confirmed that the H36 antibody is a better marker of MLBs than the anti-SctA antibody. This study is an additional step to elucidate the potential role of MLBs and revealed that only a small set of proteins appeared to be present on MLBs. PMID:27340834

  3. Genomic instability and mobile genetic elements in regions surrounding two discoidin I genes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, S J; Firtel, R A

    1984-01-01

    We have found that the genomic regions surrounding the linked discoidin I genes of various Dictyostelium discoideum strains have undergone rapid changes. Wild-type strain NC-4 has three complete discoidin I genes; its axenic derivative strain Ax-3L has duplicated a region starting approximately 1 kilobase upstream from the two linked genes and extending for at least 8 kilobases past the genes. A separately maintained stock, strain Ax-3K, does not have this duplication but has undergone a different rearrangement approximately 3 kilobases farther upstream. We show that there are repeat elements in these rapidly changing regions. At least two of these elements, Tdd-2 and Tdd-3, have characteristics associated with mobile genetic elements. The Tdd-3 element is found in different locations in related strains and causes a 9- to 10-base-pair duplication of the target site DNA. The Tdd-2 and Tdd-3 elements do not cross-hybridize, but they share a 22-base-pair homology near one end. At two separate sites, the Tdd-3 element has transposed into the Tdd-2 element, directly adjacent to the 22-base-pair homology. The Tdd-3 element may use this 22-base-pair region as a preferential site of insertion. Images PMID:6325889

  4. Differential developmental expression of the rep B and rep D xeroderma pigmentosum related DNA helicase genes from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S K; Yu, S L; Garcia, M X; Alexander, H; Alexander, S

    1997-01-01

    DNA helicases are essential to many cellular processes including recombination, replication and transcription, and some helicases function in multiple processes. The helicases encoded by the Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) B and D genes function in both nucleotide excision repair and transcription initiation. Mutations that affect the repair function of these proteins result in XP while mutations affecting transcription result in neurological and developmental abnormalities, although the underlying molecular and cellular basis for these phenotypes is not well understood. To better understand the developmental roles of these genes, we have now identified and characterized the rep B and rep D genes from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum . Both genes encode DNA helicases of the SF2 superfamily of helicases. The rep D gene contains no introns and the rep B gene contains only one intron, which makes their genomic structures dramatically different from the corresponding genes in mammals and fish. However the predicted Dictyostelium proteins share high homology with the human XPB and XPD proteins. The single copy of the rep B and D genes map to chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. The expression of rep B and D (and the previously isolated rep E) genes during multicellular development was examined, and it was determined that each rep gene has a unique pattern of expression, consistent with the idea that they have specific roles in development. The pattern and extent of expression of these genes was not affected by the growth history of the cells, implying that the expression of these genes is tightly regulated by the developmental program. The expression of the rep genes is a very early step in development and may well represent a key event in the initiation of development in this organism. PMID:9171087

  5. Absence of catalytic domain in a putative protein kinase C (PkcA) suppresses tip dominance in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Wasima; Ray, Sibnath; Brazill, Derrick; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-09-01

    A number of organisms possess several isoforms of protein kinase C but little is known about the significance of any specific isoform during embryogenesis and development. To address this we characterized a PKC ortholog (PkcA; DDB_G0288147) in Dictyostelium discoideum. pkcA expression switches from prestalk in mound to prespore in slug, indicating a dynamic expression pattern. Mutants lacking the catalytic domain of PkcA (pkcA(-)) did not exhibit tip dominance. A striking phenotype of pkcA- was the formation of an aggregate with a central hollow, and aggregates later fragmented to form small mounds, each becoming a fruiting body. Optical density wave patterns of cAMP in the late aggregates showed several cAMP wave generation centers. We attribute these defects in pkcA(-) to impaired cAMP signaling, altered cell motility and decreased expression of the cell adhesion molecules - CadA and CsaA. pkcA(-) slugs showed ectopic expression of ecmA in the prespore region. Further, the use of a PKC-specific inhibitor, GF109203X that inhibits the activity of catalytic domain phenocopied pkcA(-). PMID:26183108

  6. Studies of the cAMP mediated aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum: receptor mediated activation of the adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Theibert, W.E.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum, a eukaryotic amoeba of the cellular slime mold family, provides an interesting paradigm in developmental biology. During development, hundreds of thousands of cells aggregate to form a multicellular aggregate. Aggregation is mediated by chemotaxis and chemical signaling. Waves of adenosine 3'-5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) propagate through the monolayer and provide transient gradients for chemotaxis. The author has used a reversible inhibitor of the cAMP signaling response to demonstrate that adaptation to cAMP is independent of the activation of the adenylate cyclase and therefore is not caused by the rise in intracellular cAMP. Next, it is shown that adenosine inhibits the cAMP signaling response. Inhibition is rapid, reversible, and depends on the cAMP stimulus concentration. Then the specificity of the cAMP receptors which mediates signaling is determined and compared with the receptors which mediate chemotaxis, the cGMP response, and cAMP binding antagonism. The cAMP surface receptor has been identified by photoaffinity labeling intact cells with (/sup 32/P)-8-N/sub 3/-cAMP using an ammonium sulfate binding stabilization technique. The photoactivated ligand specifically labels a polypeptide, localized to the membrane fraction, which migrates as a closely spaced doublet on SDS Page.

  7. Interaction of Dictyostelium discoideum lysosomal enzymes with the mammalian phosphomannosyl receptor. The importance of oligosaccharides which contain phosphodiesters

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, H.H.

    1985-07-25

    Mammalian cell lysosomal enzymes or phosphorylated oligosaccharides derived from them are endocytosed by a phosphomannosyl receptor (PMR) found on the surface of fibroblasts. Various studies suggest that 2 residues of Man-6-P in phosphomonoester linkage but not diester linkage (PDE) are essential for a high rate of uptake. The lysosomal enzymes of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum are also recognized by the PMR on these cells; however, none of the oligosaccharides from these enzymes contain 2 phosphomonoesters. Instead, most contain multiple sulfate esters and 2 residues of Man-6-P in an unusual PDE linkage. In this study the authors have tried to account for the unexpected highly efficient uptake of the slime mold enzymes. The results show that nearly all of the alpha-mannosidase molecules contain the oligosaccharides required for uptake. Competition of SVI-beta-glucosidase uptake by various carbohydrate-containing fractions indicates that the best inhibitors are those with 2 PDE, either with or without sulfate esters. Complete denaturation of SVI-labeled wild-type beta-glucosidase in sodium dodecyl sulfate/dithiothreitol also reduces its uptake by about 10-fold. Taken together, these results suggest that the interactions of multiple, weakly binding oligosaccharides, especially those with 2 PDE, are important for the high rate of uptake of the slime mold enzymes.

  8. Cytosolic acidification as a signal mediating hyperosmotic stress responses in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Pintsch, Tanja; Satre, Michel; Klein, Gérard; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Schuster, Stephan C

    2001-01-01

    Background Dictyostelium cells exhibit an unusual response to hyperosmolarity that is distinct from the response in other organisms investigated: instead of accumulating compatible osmolytes as it has been described for a wide range of organisms, Dictyostelium cells rearrange their cytoskeleton and thereby build up a rigid network which is believed to constitute the major osmoprotective mechanism in this organism. To gain more insight into the osmoregulation of this amoeba, we investigated physiological processes affected under hyperosmotic conditions in Dictyostelium. Results We determined pH changes in response to hyperosmotic stress using FACS or 31P-NMR. Hyperosmolarity was found to acidify the cytosol from pH 7.5 to 6.8 within 5 minutes, whereas the pH of the endo-lysosomal compartment remained constant. Fluid-phase endocytosis was identified as a possible target of cytosolic acidification, as the inhibition of endocytosis observed under hypertonic conditions can be fully attributed to cytosolic acidification. In addition, a deceleration of vesicle mobility and a decrease in the NTP pool was observed. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that hyperosmotic stress triggers pleiotropic effects, which are partially mediated by a pH signal and which all contribute to the downregulation of cellular activity. The comparison of our results with the effect of hyperosmolarity and intracellular acidification on receptor-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells reveals striking similarities, suggesting the hypothesis of the same mechanism of inhibition by low internal pH. PMID:11415467

  9. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate waves in dictyostelium discoideum: a demonstration by isotope dilution-fluorography

    SciTech Connect

    Tomchik, K.J.; Devreotes, P.N.

    1981-04-24

    The distribution of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in fields of aggregating amoebae of Dictyostelium discoidenum was examined by a novel isotope dilution-fluorographic technique. Cellular cyclic AMP was visualized by its competition with exogenous /sup 3/H-labeled cyclic AMP for high-affinity binding sites on protein kinase immobilized on a Millipore filter used to blot the monolayer. The cyclic AMP was distributed in spiral or concentric circular wave patterns which centered on the foci of the aggregations. These patterns were correlated with those of cell shape change that propagate through the monolayers. These observations support the hypothesis that the aggregation process in Dictyostelium is mediated by the periodic relay of cyclic AMP signals and suggest a simple scheme for the dynamics of the aggregation process.

  10. Functional expression of Ca²⁺ dependent mammalian transmembrane gap junction protein Cx43 in slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Weiss, Ingrid M; Eckstein, Volker; Tanaka, Motomu

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we expressed murine gap junction protein Cx43 in Dictyostelium discoideum by introducing the specific vector pDXA. In the first step, the successful expression of Cx43 and Cx43-eGFP was verified by (a) Western blot (anti-Cx43, anti-GFP), (b) fluorescence microscopy (eGFP-Cx43 co-expression, Cx43 immunostaining), and (c) flow cytometry analysis (eGFP-Cx43 co-expression). Although the fluorescence signals from cells expressing Cx43-eGFP detected by fluorescence microscopy seem relatively low, analysis by flow cytometry demonstrated that more than 60% of cells expressed Cx43-eGFP. In order to evaluate the function of expressed Cx43 in D. discoideum, we examined the hemi-channel function of Cx43. In this series of experiments, the passive uptake of carboxyfluorescein was monitored using flow cytometric analysis. A significant number of the transfected cells showed a prominent dye uptake in the absence of Ca(2+). The dye uptake by transfected cells in the presence of Ca(2+) was even lower than the non-specific dye uptake by non-transformed Ax3 orf+ cells, confirming that Cx43 expressed in D. discoideum retains its Ca(2+)-dependent, specific gating function. The expression of gap junction proteins expressed in slime molds opens a possibility to the biological significance of intercellular communications in development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. PMID:22330805

  11. Differentiation-inducing factor 2 modulates chemotaxis via the histidine kinase DhkC-dependent pathway in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Kubohara, Yuzuru

    2016-03-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor 1(DIF-1) and DIF-2 are signaling molecules that control chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum. Whereas DIF-1 suppresses chemotaxis in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-2 enhances chemotaxis under the same conditions via a phosphodiesterase, response regulator A (RegA), which is a part of the DhkC-RdeA-RegA two-component signaling system. In this study, to investigate the mechanism of the chemotaxis regulation by DIF-2, we examined the effects of DIF-2 (and DIF-1) on chemotaxis in rdeA(-) and dhkC(-) mutant strains. In the parental wild-type strains, chemotactic cell movement was suppressed with DIF-1 and enhanced with DIF-2 in shallow cAMP gradients. In contrast, in both rdeA(-) and dhkC(-) strains, chemotaxis was suppressed with DIF-1 but unaffected by DIF-2. The results suggest that DIF-2 modulates chemotaxis via the DhkC-RdeA-RegA signaling system. PMID:26919666

  12. Polyphosphate kinase 1, a conserved bacterial enzyme, in a eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, with a role in cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyu; Gómez-García, María R.; Shi, Xiaobing; Rao, Narayana N.; Kornberg, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Polyphosphate kinase 1 (PPK1), the principal enzyme responsible for reversible synthesis of polyphosphate (poly P) from the terminal phosphate of ATP, is highly conserved in bacteria and archaea. Dictyostelium discoideum, a social slime mold, is one of a few eukaryotes known to possess a PPK1 homolog (DdPPK1). Compared with PPK1 of Escherichia coli, DdPPK1 contains the conserved residues for ATP binding and autophosphorylation, but has an N-terminal extension of 370 aa, lacking homology with any known protein. Polyphosphate or ATP promote oligomerization of the enzyme in vitro. The DdPPK1 products are heterogeneous in chain length and shorter than those of E. coli. The unique DdPPK1 N-terminal domain was shown to be necessary for its enzymatic activity, cellular localization, and physiological functions. Mutants of DdPPK1, as previously reported, are defective in development, sporulation, and predation, and as shown here, in late stages of cytokinesis and cell division. PMID:17940044

  13. Polyphosphate kinase 1, a conserved bacterial enzyme, in a eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, with a role in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyu; Gómez-García, María R; Shi, Xiaobing; Rao, Narayana N; Kornberg, Arthur

    2007-10-16

    Polyphosphate kinase 1 (PPK1), the principal enzyme responsible for reversible synthesis of polyphosphate (poly P) from the terminal phosphate of ATP, is highly conserved in bacteria and archaea. Dictyostelium discoideum, a social slime mold, is one of a few eukaryotes known to possess a PPK1 homolog (DdPPK1). Compared with PPK1 of Escherichia coli, DdPPK1 contains the conserved residues for ATP binding and autophosphorylation, but has an N-terminal extension of 370 aa, lacking homology with any known protein. Polyphosphate or ATP promote oligomerization of the enzyme in vitro. The DdPPK1 products are heterogeneous in chain length and shorter than those of E. coli. The unique DdPPK1 N-terminal domain was shown to be necessary for its enzymatic activity, cellular localization, and physiological functions. Mutants of DdPPK1, as previously reported, are defective in development, sporulation, and predation, and as shown here, in late stages of cytokinesis and cell division. PMID:17940044

  14. Target recognition, RNA methylation activity and transcriptional regulation of the Dictyostelium discoideum Dnmt2-homologue (DnmA)

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sara; Windhof, Indra M.; Maximov, Vladimir; Jurkowski, Tomasz; Jeltsch, Albert; Förstner, Konrad U.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Gräf, Ralph; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Although the DNA methyltransferase 2 family is highly conserved during evolution and recent reports suggested a dual specificity with stronger activity on transfer RNA (tRNA) than DNA substrates, the biological function is still obscure. We show that the Dictyostelium discoideum Dnmt2-homologue DnmA is an active tRNA methyltransferase that modifies C38 in tRNAAsp(GUC) in vitro and in vivo. By an ultraviolet-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation approach, we identified further DnmA targets. This revealed specific tRNA fragments bound by the enzyme and identified tRNAGlu(CUC/UUC) and tRNAGly(GCC) as new but weaker substrates for both human Dnmt2 and DnmA in vitro but apparently not in vivo. Dnmt2 enzymes form transient covalent complexes with their substrates. The dynamics of complex formation and complex resolution reflect methylation efficiency in vitro. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed alterations in dnmA expression during development, cell cycle and in response to temperature stress. However, dnmA expression only partially correlated with tRNA methylation in vivo. Strikingly, dnmA expression in the laboratory strain AX2 was significantly lower than in the NC4 parent strain. As expression levels and binding of DnmA to a target in vivo are apparently not necessarily accompanied by methylation, we propose an additional biological function of DnmA apart from methylation. PMID:23877245

  15. Identification of concanavalin A receptors and galactose-binding proteins in purified plasma membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    West, C M; McMahon, D

    1977-07-01

    Two techniques have been modified to provide simple means for the identification of molecules which bind concanavalin A (Con A). Crossed immunoelectrophoresis was altered by replacing antibody with Con A, and receptors were identified by the precipitin arcs which they produced. Con A, tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was also diffused into prefixed sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels, and additional receptors identified by fluorescence. More than 35 molecules in the plasma membranes of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum which bind Con A were identified with these techniques. At least 12 of these diminish and 12 increase in importance as receptors during differentiation of the cells from the vegetative to the preculmination stage of development. In the course of these experiments, it was possible to confirm the presence of the galactose-binding protein discoidin, in the plasma membrane, by electrophoresing membrane proteins into an agarose gel. This lectin regains its sugar-binding activity after denaturation and electrophoresis in SDS. PMID:559679

  16. Molecular Characterization of Exploitation of the Polyubiquitination and Farnesylation Machineries of Dictyostelium Discoideum by the AnkB F-Box Effector of Legionella Pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Al-Quadan, Tasneem; Kwaik, Yousef Abu

    2011-01-01

    The Dot/Icm-translocated Ankyrin B (AnkB) F-box effector of Legionella pneumophila is essential for intra-vacuolar proliferation and functions as a platform for the docking of polyubiquitinated proteins to the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) within macrophages and ameba. Here we show that ectopically expressed AnkB in Dictyostelium discoideum is targeted to the plasma membrane where it recruits polyubiquitinated proteins and it trans-rescues the intracellular growth defect of the ankB null mutant, which has never been demonstrated for any effector in ameba. Using co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation we show specific interaction of Skp1 of D. discoideum with the F-box domain of AnkB, which has never been demonstrated in ameba. We show that anchoring of AnkB to the cytosolic face of the LCV membrane in D. discoideum is mediated by the host farnesylation of the C-terminal eukaryotic CaaX motif of AnkB and is independent of the F-box and the two ANK domains, which has never been demonstrated in ameba. Importantly, the three host farnesylation enzymes farnesyl transferase, RCE-1, and isoprenyl cysteine carboxyl methyl transferase of D. discoideum are recruited to the LCV in a Dot/Icm-dependent manner, which has never been demonstrated in ameba. We conclude that the polyubiquitination and farnesylation enzymatic machineries of D. discoideum are recruited to the LCV in a Dot/Icm-dependent manner and the AnkB effector exploits the two evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic machineries to proliferate within ameba, similar to mammalian cells. We propose that L. pneumophila has acquired ankB through inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer from primitive eukaryotes, which facilitated proliferation of L. pneumophila within human cells and the emergence of Legionnaires’ disease. PMID:21687415

  17. Extracellular calmodulin regulates growth and cAMP-mediated chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, Danton H.; Huber, Robert J.; Suarez, Andres

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin is present throughout growth and development in Dictyostelium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin localizes within the ECM during development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin inhibits cell proliferation and increases chemotaxis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin exists in eukaryotic microbes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular calmodulin may be functionally as important as intracellular calmodulin. -- Abstract: The existence of extracellular calmodulin (CaM) has had a long and controversial history. CaM is a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein that has been found in every eukaryotic cell system. Calcium-free apo-CaM and Ca{sup 2+}/CaM exert their effects by binding to and regulating the activity of CaM-binding proteins (CaMBPs). Most of the research done to date on CaM and its CaMBPs has focused on their intracellular functions. The presence of extracellular CaM is well established in a number of plants where it functions in proliferation, cell wall regeneration, gene regulation and germination. While CaM has been detected extracellularly in several animal species, including frog, rat, rabbit and human, its extracellular localization and functions are less well established. In contrast the study of extracellular CaM in eukaryotic microbes remains to be done. Here we show that CaM is constitutively expressed and secreted throughout asexual development in Dictyostelium where the presence of extracellular CaM dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation but increases cAMP mediated chemotaxis. During development, extracellular CaM localizes within the slime sheath where it coexists with at least one CaMBP, the matricellular CaM-binding protein CyrA. Coupled with previous research, this work provides direct evidence for the existence of extracellular CaM in the Dictyostelium and provides insight into its functions in this model amoebozoan.

  18. Derivatives of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor-3 suppress the activities of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Hatabu, Toshimitsu; Hosoi, Yukari; Onizuka, Yoko; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Kubohara, Yuzuru

    2013-06-01

    Chagas disease (human American trypanosomiasis), which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is responsible for numerous deaths each year; however, established treatments for the disease are limited. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) and DIF-3 are chlorinated alkylphenones originally found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum that have been shown to possess pharmacological activities. Here, we investigated the effects of DIF-3 derivatives on the infection rate and growth of T. cruzi by using an in vitro assay system utilizing host human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Certain DIF-3 derivatives, such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3), at micro-molar levels strongly suppressed both the infection rate and growth of T. cruzi in HT1080 cells and exhibited little toxicity for HT1080 cells. For example, the IC50 of DIF-3 and Bu-DIF-3 versus the growth of T. cruzi in HT1080 cells were 3.95 and 0.72μM, respectively, and the LD50 of the two compounds versus HT1080 cells were both greater than 100μM. We also examined the effects of DIF-3 and Bu-DIF-3 on T. cruzi activity in C57BL/6 mice. Intraperitoneally administered Bu-DIF-3 (50mg/kg) significantly suppressed the number of trypomastigotes in blood with no apparent adverse effects. These results strongly suggest that DIF-3 derivatives could be new lead compounds in the development of anti-trypanosomiasis drugs. PMID:23511088

  19. Identification of N-acylethanolamines in Dictyostelium discoideum and confirmation of their hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Alexander C.; Stupak, Jacek; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-based signaling molecules best known for their role in the endocannabinoid system in mammals, but they are also known to play roles in signaling pathways in plants. The regulation of NAEs in vivo is partly accomplished by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyses NAEs to ethanolamine and their corresponding fatty acid. Inhibition of FAAH has been shown to increase the levels of NAEs in vivo and to produce desirable phenotypes. This has led to the development of pharmaceutical-based therapies for a variety of conditions targeting FAAH. Recently, our group identified a functional FAAH homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, leading to our hypothesis that D. discoideum also possesses NAEs. In this study, we provide a further characterization of FAAH and identify NAEs in D. discoideum for the first time. We also demonstrate the ability to modulate their levels in vivo through the use of a semispecific FAAH inhibitor and confirm that these NAEs are FAAH substrates through in vitro studies. We believe the demonstration of the in vivo modulation of NAE levels suggests that D. discoideum could be a good simple model organism in which to study NAE-mediated signaling. PMID:23187822

  20. Excitable waves and direction-sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: steps towards a chemotaxis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Arpan; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemically directed motility by eukaryotic cells such as Dictyostelium. In particular, the local excitation and global inhibition (LEGI) model has proven capable of providing a framework for quantitatively explaining many experiments that present Dictyostelium cells with tailored chemical stimuli and monitor their subsequent polarization. In their natural setting, cells generate their own directional signals via the detection and secretion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Here, we couple the LEGI approach to an excitable medium model of the cAMP wave-field that is propagated by the cells and investigate the possibility for this class of models to enable accurate chemotaxis to the cAMP waveforms expected in vivo. Our results indicate that the ultra-sensitive version of the model does an excellent job in providing natural wave rectification, thereby providing a compelling solution to the ‘back-of-the-wave paradox’ during cellular aggregation.

  1. Characterization of a 1,4-{beta}-D-glucan synthase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Progress report, May 1990--January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1992-01-15

    Various aspects of research concerning Dictyostelium discoideum are presented. The initial focus of this project was upon: the characterization of potential probes for the cellulose synthase (antibody and nucleic acid), the determination of the cultural induction conditions of cellulose synthesis, the solubilization of the enzyme activity, the development of a non-inhibitory disruption buffer, the generation and isolation of mutant strains deficient in cellulose synthesis, and the development of the capability to determine the degree of polymerization of the in vitro product. I have briefly summarized our most significant findings with only selected data sets being shown in this report in the interest of brevity.

  2. Allorecognition, via TgrB1 and TgrC1, mediates the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shigenori; Santhanam, Balaji; Katoh-Kurosawa, Mariko; Shaulsky, Gad; Kuspa, Adam

    2015-10-15

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum integrates into a multicellular organism when individual starving cells aggregate and form a mound. The cells then integrate into defined tissues and develop into a fruiting body that consists of a stalk and spores. Aggregation is initially orchestrated by waves of extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and previous theory suggested that cAMP and other field-wide diffusible signals mediate tissue integration and terminal differentiation as well. Cooperation between cells depends on an allorecognition system comprising the polymorphic adhesion proteins TgrB1 and TgrC1. Binding between compatible TgrB1 and TgrC1 variants ensures that non-matching cells segregate into distinct aggregates prior to terminal development. Here, we have embedded a small number of cells with incompatible allotypes within fields of developing cells with compatible allotypes. We found that compatibility of the allotype encoded by the tgrB1 and tgrC1 genes is required for tissue integration, as manifested in cell polarization, coordinated movement and differentiation into prestalk and prespore cells. Our results show that the molecules that mediate allorecognition in D. discoideum also control the integration of individual cells into a unified developing organism, and this acts as a gating step for multicellularity. PMID:26395484

  3. Virulence of the Pseudomonas fluorescens clinical strain MFN1032 towards Dictyostelium discoideum and macrophages in relation with type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I MFN1032 is a clinical isolate able to grow at 37°C. This strain displays secretion-mediated hemolytic activity involving phospholipase C and cyclolipopeptides, and a cell-associated hemolytic activity distinct from the secreted hemolytic activity. Cell-associated hemolysis is independent of biosurfactant production and remains in a gacA mutant. Disruption of the hrpU-like operon (the basal part of type III secretion system from rhizospheric strains) suppresses this activity. We hypothesized that this phenotype could reflect evolution of an ancestral mechanism involved in the survival of this species in its natural niche. In this study, we evaluated the hrpU-like operon’s contribution to other virulence mechanisms using a panel of Pseudomonas strains from various sources. Results We found that MFN1032 inhibited the growth of the amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum and that this inhibition involved the hrpU-like operon and was absent in a gacA mutant. MFN1032 was capable of causing macrophage lysis, if the hrpU-like operon was intact, and this cytotoxicity remained in a gacA mutant. Cell-associated hemolytic activity and macrophage necrosis were found in other P. fluorescens clinical isolates, but not in biocontrol P. fluorescens strains harbouring hrpU-like operon. The growth of Dictyostelium discoideum was inhibited to a different extent by P. fluorescens strains without correlation between this inhibition and hrpU-like operon sequences. Conclusions In P. fluorescens MFN1032, the basal part of type III secretion system plays a role in D. discoideum growth inhibition and macrophage necrosis. The inhibition of D. discoideum growth is dependent on the GacS/GacA system, while cell-associated hemolytic activity and macrophage lysis are not. Virulence against eukaryotic cells based on the hrpU-like operon may be more than just a stochastic evolution of a conserved system dedicated to survival in competition with natural

  4. Growth and developmental functions of a human immunodeficiency virus Tat-binding protein/26S protease subunit homolog from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J G; Firtel, R A

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a newly identified gene from Dictyostelium discoideum, DdTBP alpha, that encodes a member of the family of eukaryotic proteins. These proteins contain a conserved ATPase domain, include subunits of the 26S protease subunit, and are homologous to the mammalian human immunodeficiency virus Tat-binding protein TBP1. While information indicates that some family members are involved in the regulation of transcription in mammalian and yeast cells during growth, these proteins are also involved in other cellular functions, and nothing is known about their possible function in multicellular development. The Dictyostelium DdTBP alpha gene is developmentally regulated, with its expression at the highest levels occurring during growth and early development. The gene is present in two copies in the genome. Disruption of one copy by homologous recombination leads to aberrant morphogenesis, which lasts from the formation of the first finger until the onset of culmination. The gene appears to be essential for growth since we were unable to obtain a complete null phenotype and since expression of an inducible antisense construct in the partial null background resulted in cell death. Expression of the antisense construct during development accentuated the partial null phenotype and also resulted in very abnormal fruiting bodies. Overexpression of DdTBP alpha from its own promoter leads to very large multinucleated vegetative cells when the cells are grown in suspension culture. When the cells are plated onto petri dishes in growth medium, they rapidly split into multiple cells containing one to two nuclei, in a manner similar to that of wild-type cells. Overexpressing cells are significantly delayed in forming a multicellular aggregate, but development proceeds normally once the first finger stage is reached. The results indicate that DdTBP alpha plays an important role in regulating both growth and morphogenesis in D. discoideum. PMID:7862164

  5. Structure of the 34 kDa F-actin-bundling protein ABP34 from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ji-Sun; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2015-09-01

    The crystal structure of the 34 kDa F-actin-bundling protein ABP34 from Dictyostelium discoideum was solved by Ca(2+)/S-SAD phasing and refined at 1.89 Å resolution. ABP34 is a calcium-regulated actin-binding protein that cross-links actin filaments into bundles. Its in vitro F-actin-binding and F-actin-bundling activities were confirmed by a co-sedimentation assay and transmission electron microscopy. The co-localization of ABP34 with actin in cells was also verified. ABP34 adopts a two-domain structure with an EF-hand-containing N-domain and an actin-binding C-domain, but has no reported overall structural homologues. The EF-hand is occupied by a calcium ion with a pentagonal bipyramidal coordination as in the canonical EF-hand. The C-domain structure resembles a three-helical bundle and superposes well onto the rod-shaped helical structures of some cytoskeletal proteins. Residues 216-244 in the C-domain form part of the strongest actin-binding sites (193-254) and exhibit a conserved sequence with the actin-binding region of α-actinin and ABP120. Furthermore, the second helical region of the C-domain is kinked by a proline break, offering a convex surface towards the solvent area which is implicated in actin binding. The F-actin-binding model suggests that ABP34 binds to the side of the actin filament and residues 216-244 fit into a pocket between actin subdomains -1 and -2 through hydrophobic interactions. These studies provide insights into the calcium coordination in the EF-hand and F-actin-binding site in the C-domain of ABP34, which are associated through interdomain interactions. PMID:26327373

  6. Partial genetic suppression of a loss-of-function mutant of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-associated protease TPP1 in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jonathan E.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is the most common childhood-onset neurodegenerative disease. NCL is inevitably fatal, and there is currently no treatment available. Children with NCL show a progressive decline in movement, vision and mental abilities, and an accumulation of autofluorescent deposits in neurons and other cell types. Late-infantile NCL is caused by mutations in the lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). TPP1 cleaves tripeptides from the N-terminus of proteins in vitro, but little is known about the physiological function of TPP1. TPP1 shows wide conservation in vertebrates but it is not found in Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we characterize ddTpp1, a TPP1 ortholog present in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Lysates from cells lacking ddTpp1 show a reduced but not abolished ability to cleave a TPP1 substrate, suggesting that other Dictyostelium enzymes can perform this cleavage. ddTpp1 and human TPP1 localize to the lysosome in Dictyostelium, indicating conserved function and trafficking. Cells that lack ddTpp1 show precocious multicellular development and a reduced ability to form spores during development. When cultured in autophagy-stimulating conditions, cells lacking ddTpp1 rapidly decrease in size and are less viable than wild-type cells, suggesting that one function of ddTpp1 could be to limit autophagy. Cells that lack ddTpp1 exhibit strongly impaired development in the presence of the lysosome-perturbing drug chloroquine, and this phenotype can be suppressed through a secondary mutation in the gene that we name suppressor of tpp1− A (stpA), which encodes a protein with some similarity to mammalian oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs). Taken together, these results suggest that targeting specific proteins could be a viable way to suppress the effects of loss of TPP1 function. PMID:25540127

  7. Partial genetic suppression of a loss-of-function mutant of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-associated protease TPP1 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is the most common childhood-onset neurodegenerative disease. NCL is inevitably fatal, and there is currently no treatment available. Children with NCL show a progressive decline in movement, vision and mental abilities, and an accumulation of autofluorescent deposits in neurons and other cell types. Late-infantile NCL is caused by mutations in the lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). TPP1 cleaves tripeptides from the N-terminus of proteins in vitro, but little is known about the physiological function of TPP1. TPP1 shows wide conservation in vertebrates but it is not found in Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we characterize ddTpp1, a TPP1 ortholog present in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Lysates from cells lacking ddTpp1 show a reduced but not abolished ability to cleave a TPP1 substrate, suggesting that other Dictyostelium enzymes can perform this cleavage. ddTpp1 and human TPP1 localize to the lysosome in Dictyostelium, indicating conserved function and trafficking. Cells that lack ddTpp1 show precocious multicellular development and a reduced ability to form spores during development. When cultured in autophagy-stimulating conditions, cells lacking ddTpp1 rapidly decrease in size and are less viable than wild-type cells, suggesting that one function of ddTpp1 could be to limit autophagy. Cells that lack ddTpp1 exhibit strongly impaired development in the presence of the lysosome-perturbing drug chloroquine, and this phenotype can be suppressed through a secondary mutation in the gene that we name suppressor of tpp1(-) A (stpA), which encodes a protein with some similarity to mammalian oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs). Taken together, these results suggest that targeting specific proteins could be a viable way to suppress the effects of loss of TPP1 function. PMID:25540127

  8. Cell Sorting in the Mound Stage of Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Levine, Herbert; Glazier, James

    1998-03-01

    In the mound stage of slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, cells differentiated into two types: pre-stalk and pre-spore. Pre-stalk cells sort and form a tip at the apex of the mound of prespore cells. How this pattern forms is as yet unknown. A cellular level model allows us to simulate both differential cell adhesion and chemotaxis, two principle mechanisms for cell migration. Simulations show that with differential adhesion only, pre-stalk cells move to the surface of the mound but form no tip. With chemotaxis driven by an outgoing circular wave only, a tip forms but contains both pre-stalk and pre-spore cells. Only for a narrow range of relative strengths between differential adhesion and chemotaxis, can both mechanisms work in concert to form a tip which contains only pre-stalk cells. The simulations provide a method to determine the processes necessary for patterning and suggest a series of further experiments.

  9. Dictyostelium discoideum has a highly Q/N-rich proteome and shows an unusual resilience to protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Malinovska, Liliana; Palm, Sandra; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many protein-misfolding diseases are caused by proteins carrying prion-like domains. These proteins show sequence similarity to yeast prion proteins, which can interconvert between an intrinsically disordered and an aggregated prion state. The natural presence of prions in yeast has provided important insight into disease mechanisms and cellular proteostasis. However, little is known about prions in other organisms, and it is not yet clear whether the findings in yeast can be generalized. Using bioinformatics tools, we show that Dictyostelium discoideum has the highest content of prion-like proteins of all organisms investigated to date, suggesting that its proteome has a high overall aggregation propensity. To study mechanisms regulating these proteins, we analyze the behavior of several well-characterized prion-like proteins, such as an expanded version of human huntingtin exon 1 (Q103) and the prion domain of the yeast prion protein Sup35 (NM), in D. discoideum. We find that these proteins remain soluble and are innocuous to D. discoideum, in contrast to other organisms, where they form cytotoxic cytosolic aggregates. However, when exposed to conditions that compromise molecular chaperones, these proteins aggregate and become cytotoxic. We show that the disaggregase Hsp101, a molecular chaperone of the Hsp100 family, dissolves heat-induced aggregates and promotes thermotolerance. Furthermore, prion-like proteins accumulate in the nucleus, where they are targeted by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Our data suggest that D. discoideum has undergone specific adaptations that increase the proteostatic capacity of this organism and allow for an efficient regulation of its prion-like proteome. PMID:25941378

  10. Dictyostelium discoideum has a highly Q/N-rich proteome and shows an unusual resilience to protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Malinovska, Liliana; Palm, Sandra; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

    2015-05-19

    Many protein-misfolding diseases are caused by proteins carrying prion-like domains. These proteins show sequence similarity to yeast prion proteins, which can interconvert between an intrinsically disordered and an aggregated prion state. The natural presence of prions in yeast has provided important insight into disease mechanisms and cellular proteostasis. However, little is known about prions in other organisms, and it is not yet clear whether the findings in yeast can be generalized. Using bioinformatics tools, we show that Dictyostelium discoideum has the highest content of prion-like proteins of all organisms investigated to date, suggesting that its proteome has a high overall aggregation propensity. To study mechanisms regulating these proteins, we analyze the behavior of several well-characterized prion-like proteins, such as an expanded version of human huntingtin exon 1 (Q103) and the prion domain of the yeast prion protein Sup35 (NM), in D. discoideum. We find that these proteins remain soluble and are innocuous to D. discoideum, in contrast to other organisms, where they form cytotoxic cytosolic aggregates. However, when exposed to conditions that compromise molecular chaperones, these proteins aggregate and become cytotoxic. We show that the disaggregase Hsp101, a molecular chaperone of the Hsp100 family, dissolves heat-induced aggregates and promotes thermotolerance. Furthermore, prion-like proteins accumulate in the nucleus, where they are targeted by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our data suggest that D. discoideum has undergone specific adaptations that increase the proteostatic capacity of this organism and allow for an efficient regulation of its prion-like proteome. PMID:25941378

  11. Cyclophilins of a novel subfamily interact with SNW/SKIP coregulator in Dictyostelium discoideum and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Skruzný, M; Ambrozková, M; Fuková, I; Martínková, K; Blahůsková, A; Hamplová, L; Půta, F; Folk, P

    2001-10-31

    We screened the Dictyostelium discoideum two-hybrid cDNA library with the SNW/SKIP transcription coregulator SnwA and identified a novel cyclophilin CypE. Independently, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cDNA library was screened with the SnwA ortholog Snw1 and the ortholog of CypE (named Cyp2) was found. Both cyclophilins bind the respective SNW protein in their autologous systems. The interaction was localized to the N-terminal part of SnwA as well as of Snw1. CypE was confirmed in vitro to be a cyclosporin A-sensitive peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Remarkably, both SNW proteins bind the cyclophilins in a cyclosporin A independent manner, possibly serving as adaptors for these novel isomerases. These results are the first characterization of the members of a novel cyclophilin subfamily, which includes the human CGI-124/PPIL1 protein. PMID:11690648

  12. Fluorographic detection of tritiated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides separated on polyacrylamide gels: analysis of glycans from Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Prem Das, O.; Henderson, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Previous workers have shown that oligosaccharides and glycopeptides can be separated by electrophoresis in buffers containing borate ions. However, normal fluorography of tritium-labeled structures cannot be performed because the glycans are soluble and can diffuse during equilibration with scintillants. This problem has been circumvented by equilibration of the gel with 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) prior to electrophoresis. The presence of PPO in the gel during electrophoresis does not alter mobility of the glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. After electrophoresis, the gel is simply dried and fluorography performed. This allows sensitive and precise comparisons of labeled samples in parallel lanes of a slab gel and, since mobilities are highly reproducible, between different gels. The procedure is preparative in that after fluorography the gel bands can be quantitatively eluted for further study, without any apparent modification by the procedure. In this report, the procedure is illustrated by fractionation of both neutral and anionic glycopeptides produced by the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  13. Flow-Driven Waves and Phase-Locked Self-Organization in Quasi-One-Dimensional Colonies of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, A.; Steinbock, O.; Zykov, V.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2015-01-01

    We report experiments on flow-driven waves in a microfluidic channel containing the signaling slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The observed cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) wave trains developed spontaneously in the presence of flow and propagated with the velocity proportional to the imposed flow velocity. The period of the wave trains was independent of the flow velocity. Perturbations of flow-driven waves via external periodic pulses of the signaling agent cAMP induced 1 ∶1 , 2 ∶1 , 3 ∶1 , and 1 ∶2 frequency responses, reminiscent of Arnold tongues in forced oscillatory systems. We expect our observations to be generic to active media governed by reaction-diffusion-advection dynamics, where spatially bound autocatalytic processes occur under flow conditions.

  14. Flow-driven waves and phase-locked self-organization in quasi-one-dimensional colonies of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Gholami, A; Steinbock, O; Zykov, V; Bodenschatz, E

    2015-01-01

    We report experiments on flow-driven waves in a microfluidic channel containing the signaling slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The observed cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) wave trains developed spontaneously in the presence of flow and propagated with the velocity proportional to the imposed flow velocity. The period of the wave trains was independent of the flow velocity. Perturbations of flow-driven waves via external periodic pulses of the signaling agent cAMP induced 1∶1, 2∶1, 3∶1, and 1∶2 frequency responses, reminiscent of Arnold tongues in forced oscillatory systems. We expect our observations to be generic to active media governed by reaction-diffusion-advection dynamics, where spatially bound autocatalytic processes occur under flow conditions. PMID:25615506

  15. Screening of genes involved in cell migration in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Akira; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2008-03-10

    A single cell of wild-type Dictyostelium discoideum forms a visible colony on a plastic dish in several days, but due to enhanced cell migration, amiB-null mutant cells scatter over a large area and do not form noticeable colonies. Here, with an aim to identify genes involved in cell migration, we isolated suppresser mutants of amiB-null mutants that restore the ability to form colonies. From REMI (restriction enzyme-mediated integration)-mutagenized pool of double-mutants, we identified 18 responsible genes from them. These genes can be categorized into several biological processes. One cell line, Sab16 (Suppressor of amiB) was chosen for further analysis, which had a disrupted phospholipase D pldB gene. To confirm the role of pldB gene in cell migration, we knocked out the pldB gene and over-expressed gfp-pldB in wild-type cells. GFP-PLDB localized to plasma membrane and on vesicles, and in migrating cells, at the protruding regions of pseudopodia. Migration speed of vegetative pldB-null cells was reduced to 73% of that of the wild-type. These results suggest that PLDB plays an important role in migration in Dictyostelium cells, and that our screening system is useful for the identification of genes involved in cell migration. PMID:18164290

  16. Relevance of the bioavailable fraction of DDT and its metabolites in freshwater sediment toxicity: New insight into the mode of action of these chemicals on Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sforzini, Susanna; Governa, Daniela; Boeri, Marta; Oliveri, Laura; Oldani, Alessandro; Vago, Fabio; Viarengo, Aldo; Borrelli, Raffaella

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the toxicity of lake sediments contaminated with DDT and its metabolites DDD and DDE (collectively, DDX) was evaluated with widely used toxicity tests (i.e., Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and Lumbriculus variegatus) and with the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism that is also suitable for studying pollutant-induced alterations at the molecular and cellular levels. Although the DDX concentration in the sediments was high (732.5 ppb), the results suggested a minimal environmental risk; in fact, no evidence of harmful effects was found using the different bioassays or when we considered the results of more sensitive sublethal biomarkers in D. discoideum amoebae. In line with the biological results, the chemical data showed that the concentration of DDX in the pore water (in general a highly bioavailable phase) showed a minimal value (0.0071ppb). To confirm the importance of the bioavailability of the toxic chemicals in determining their biological effects and to investigate the mechanisms of DDX toxicity, we exposed D. discoideum amoebae to 732.5ppb DDX in water solution. DDX had no effect on cell viability; however, a strong reduction in amoebae replication rate was observed, which depended mainly on a reduction in endocytosis rate and on lysosomal and mitochondrial alterations. In the presence of a moderate and transient increase in reactive oxygen species, the glutathione level in DDX-exposed amoebae drastically decreased. These results highlight that studies of the bioavailability of pollutants in environmental matrices and their biological effects are essential for site-specific ecological risk assessment. Moreover, glutathione depletion in DDX-exposed organisms is a new finding that could open the possibility of developing new pesticide mixtures that are more effective against DDT-resistant malaria vectors. PMID:27340883

  17. Sex ratio and gamete size across eastern North America in Dictyostelium discoideum, a social amoeba with three sexes.

    PubMed

    Douglas, T E; Strassmann, J E; Queller, D C

    2016-07-01

    Theory indicates that numbers of mating types should tend towards infinity or remain at two. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, however, has three mating types. It is therefore a mystery how this species has broken the threshold of two mating types, but has not increased towards a much higher number. Frequency-dependent selection on rare types in combination with isogamy, a form of reproduction involving gametes similar in size, could explain the evolution of multiple mating types in this system. Other factors, such as drift, may be preventing the evolution of more than three. We first looked for evidence of isogamy by measuring gamete size associated with each type. We found no evidence of size dissimilarities between gametes. We then looked for evidence of balancing selection, by examining mating type distributions in natural populations and comparing genetic differentiation at the mating type locus to that at more neutral loci. We found that mating type frequency varied among the three populations we examined, with only one of the three showing an even sex ratio, which does not support balancing selection. However, we found more population structure at neutral loci than the mating type locus, suggesting that the three mating types are indeed maintained at intermediate frequencies by balancing selection. Overall, the data are consistent with balancing selection acting on D. discoideum mating types, but with a sufficiently weak rare sex advantage to allow for drift, a potential explanation for why these amoebae have only three mating types. PMID:27018644

  18. Dictyostelium discoideum as a surrogate host-microbe model for antivirulence screening in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Toncio, Catalina; Álvarez, Javiera A; Campos, Francisca; Ortíz-Severín, Javiera; Varas, Macarena; Cabrera, Ricardo; Lagos, Carlos F; Chávez, Francisco P

    2016-05-01

    The interest of the pharmaceutical industry in developing new antibiotics is decreasing, as established screening systems which identify compounds that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria can no longer be used. Consequently, antimicrobial screening using classical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements is becoming obsolete. The discovery of antimicrobial agents that specifically target a bacterial pathogen without affecting the host and its beneficial bacteria is a promising strategy. However, few host-microbe models are available for in vivo screening of novel antivirulence molecules. Here we designed high-throughput developmental assays in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to measure Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and to screen for novel antivirulence molecules without side effects to the host and its beneficial bacteria Klebsiella aerogenes. Thirty compounds were evaluated that had been previously selected by virtual screening for inhibitors of P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyphosphate kinase 1 (PaPPK1) and diverse compounds with combined PPK1 inhibitory and antivirulence activities were identified. This approach demonstrates that D. discoideum is a suitable surrogate host for preliminary high-throughput screening of antivirulence agents and that PPK1 is a suitable target for developing novel antivirulence compounds that can be further validated in mammalian models. PMID:27066943

  19. The TOM Complex of Amoebozoans: the Cases of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Buczek, Dorota; Stobienia, Olgierd; Karachitos, Andonis; Antoniewicz, Monika; Slocinska, Małgorzata; Makałowski, Wojciech; Kmita, Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Protein import into mitochondria requires a wide variety of proteins, forming complexes in both mitochondrial membranes. The TOM complex (translocase of the outer membrane) is responsible for decoding of targeting signals, translocation of imported proteins across or into the outer membrane, and their subsequent sorting. Thus the TOM complex is regarded as the main gate into mitochondria for imported proteins. Available data indicate that mitochondria of representative organisms from across the major phylogenetic lineages of eukaryotes differ in subunit organization of the TOM complex. The subunit organization of the TOM complex in the Amoebozoa is still elusive, so we decided to investigate its organization in the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. They represent two major subclades of the Amoebozoa: the Lobosa and Conosa, respectively. Our results confirm the presence of Tom70, Tom40 and Tom7 in the A. castellanii and D. discoideum TOM complex, while the presence of Tom22 and Tom20 is less supported. Interestingly, the Tom proteins display the highest similarity to Opisthokonta cognate proteins, with the exception of Tom40. Thus representatives of two major subclades of the Amoebozoa appear to be similar in organization of the TOM complex, despite differences in their lifestyle. PMID:26074248

  20. Codon usage, genetic code and phylogeny of Dictyostelium discoideum mitochondrial DNA as deduced from a 7.3-kb region.

    PubMed

    Angata, K; Kuroe, K; Yanagisawa, K; Tanaka, Y

    1995-02-01

    We have sequenced a region (7,376-bp) of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA (54 kb) of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. From the DNA and amino-acid sequence comparisons with known sequences, genes for ATPase subunit 9 (ATP9), cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1, 3 and 6 (ND1, ND3 and ND6), small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) and seven tRNAs (Arg, Asn, Cys, Lys, f-Met, Met and Pro) have been identified. The sequenced region of the mtDNA has a high average A + T-content (70.8%). The A + T-content of protein-genes (73.6%) is considerably higher than that of RNA genes (61.3%). Even with the strong AT-bias, the genetic code employed is most probably the universal one. All seven tRNAs are able to form typical clover leaf structures. The molecular phylogenetic trees of CYTB and SSU rRNA suggest that D. discoideum is closer to green plants than to animals and fungi. PMID:7736610

  1. Amoeba-resisting bacteria found in multilamellar bodies secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum: social amoebae can also package bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2016-03-01

    Many bacteria can resist phagocytic digestion by various protozoa. Some of these bacteria (all human pathogens) are known to be packaged in multilamellar bodies produced in the phagocytic pathway of the protozoa and that are secreted into the extracellular milieu. Packaged bacteria are protected from harsh conditions, and the packaging process is suspected to promote bacterial persistence in the environment. To date, only a limited number of protozoa, belonging to free-living amoebae and ciliates, have been shown to perform bacteria packaging. It is still unknown if social amoebae can do bacteria packaging. The link between the capacity of 136 bacterial isolates to resist the grazing of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and to be packaged by this amoeba was investigated in the present study. The 45 bacterial isolates displaying a resisting phenotype were tested for their capacity to be packaged. A total of seven isolates from Cupriavidus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium and Rathayibacter genera seemed to be packaged and secreted by D. discoideum based on immunofluorescence results. Electron microscopy confirmed that the Cupriavidus and Rathayibacter isolates were formally packaged. These results show that social amoebae can package some bacteria from the environment revealing a new aspect of microbial ecology. PMID:26862140

  2. Disruption of inositol biosynthesis through targeted mutagenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum: generation and characterization of inositol-auxotrophic mutants.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Andreas; Adelt, Stephan; Müller, Alexander; Vogel, Günter

    2006-08-01

    myo-Inositol and its downstream metabolites participate in diverse physiological processes. Nevertheless, considering their variety, it is likely that additional roles are yet to be uncovered. Biosynthesis of myo-inositol takes place via an evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathway and is strictly dependent on inositol-3-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4). Genetic manipulation of this enzyme will disrupt the cellular inositol supply. Two methods, based on gene deletion and antisense strategy, were used to generate mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. These mutants are inositol-auxotrophic and show phenotypic changes under inositol starvation. One remarkable attribute is their inability to live by phagocytosis of bacteria, which is the exclusive nutrient source in their natural environment. Cultivated on fluid medium, the mutants lose their viability when deprived of inositol for longer than 24 h. Here, we report a study of the alterations in the first 24 h in cellular inositol, inositol phosphate and phosphoinositide concentrations, whereby a rapidly accumulating phosphorylated compound was detected. After its identification as 2,3-BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate), evidence could be found that the internal disturbances of inositol homoeostasis trigger the accumulation. In a first attempt to characterize this as a physiologically relevant response, the efficient in vitro inhibition of a D. discoideum inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56) by 2,3-BPG is presented. PMID:16599905

  3. Disruption of inositol biosynthesis through targeted mutagenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum: generation and characterization of inositol-auxotrophic mutants

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Andreas; Adelt, Stephan; Müller, Alexander; Vogel, Günter

    2006-01-01

    myo-Inositol and its downstream metabolites participate in diverse physiological processes. Nevertheless, considering their variety, it is likely that additional roles are yet to be uncovered. Biosynthesis of myo-inositol takes place via an evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathway and is strictly dependent on inositol-3-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4). Genetic manipulation of this enzyme will disrupt the cellular inositol supply. Two methods, based on gene deletion and antisense strategy, were used to generate mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. These mutants are inositol-auxotrophic and show phenotypic changes under inositol starvation. One remarkable attribute is their inability to live by phagocytosis of bacteria, which is the exclusive nutrient source in their natural environment. Cultivated on fluid medium, the mutants lose their viability when deprived of inositol for longer than 24 h. Here, we report a study of the alterations in the first 24 h in cellular inositol, inositol phosphate and phosphoinositide concentrations, whereby a rapidly accumulating phosphorylated compound was detected. After its identification as 2,3-BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate), evidence could be found that the internal disturbances of inositol homoeostasis trigger the accumulation. In a first attempt to characterize this as a physiologically relevant response, the efficient in vitro inhibition of a D. discoideum inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56) by 2,3-BPG is presented. PMID:16599905

  4. Clues to γ-secretase, huntingtin and Hirano body normal function using the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders, although related by their destruction of brain function, display remarkable cellular and/or regional pathogenic specificity likely due to a deregulated functionality of the mutant protein. However, neurodegenerative disease genes, for example huntingtin (HTT), the ataxins, the presenilins (PSEN1/PSEN2) are not simply localized to neurons but are ubiquitously expressed throughout peripheral tissues; it is therefore paramount to properly understand the earliest precipitating events leading to neuronal pathogenesis to develop effective long-term therapies. This means, in no unequivocal terms, it is crucial to understand the gene's normal function. Unfortunately, many genes are often essential for embryogenesis which precludes their study in whole organisms. This is true for HTT, the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins, responsible for early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand neurological disease in humans, many lower and higher eukaryotic models have been established. So the question arises: how reasonable is the use of organisms to study neurological disorders when the model of choice does not contain neurons? Here we will review the surprising, and novel emerging use of the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, a species of soil-living amoeba, as a valuable biomedical tool to study the normal function of neurodegenerative genes. Historically, the evidence on the usefulness of simple organisms to understand the etiology of cellular pathology cannot be denied. But using an organism without a central nervous system to understand diseases of the brain? We will first introduce the life cycle of Dictyostelium, the presence of many disease genes in the genome and how it has provided unique opportunities to identify mechanisms of disease involving actin pathologies, mitochondrial disease, human lysosomal and trafficking disorders and host-pathogen interactions. Secondly, I will highlight recent studies on

  5. Clues to γ-secretase, huntingtin and Hirano body normal function using the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders, although related by their destruction of brain function, display remarkable cellular and/or regional pathogenic specificity likely due to a deregulated functionality of the mutant protein. However, neurodegenerative disease genes, for example huntingtin (HTT), the ataxins, the presenilins (PSEN1/PSEN2) are not simply localized to neurons but are ubiquitously expressed throughout peripheral tissues; it is therefore paramount to properly understand the earliest precipitating events leading to neuronal pathogenesis to develop effective long-term therapies. This means, in no unequivocal terms, it is crucial to understand the gene's normal function. Unfortunately, many genes are often essential for embryogenesis which precludes their study in whole organisms. This is true for HTT, the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins, responsible for early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand neurological disease in humans, many lower and higher eukaryotic models have been established. So the question arises: how reasonable is the use of organisms to study neurological disorders when the model of choice does not contain neurons? Here we will review the surprising, and novel emerging use of the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, a species of soil-living amoeba, as a valuable biomedical tool to study the normal function of neurodegenerative genes. Historically, the evidence on the usefulness of simple organisms to understand the etiology of cellular pathology cannot be denied. But using an organism without a central nervous system to understand diseases of the brain? We will first introduce the life cycle of Dictyostelium, the presence of many disease genes in the genome and how it has provided unique opportunities to identify mechanisms of disease involving actin pathologies, mitochondrial disease, human lysosomal and trafficking disorders and host-pathogen interactions. Secondly, I will highlight recent studies on

  6. Naringenin is a novel inhibitor of Dictyostelium cell proliferation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Misty, Russ; Martinez, Raquel; Ali, Hind; Steimle, Paul A

    2006-06-23

    Naringenin is a flavanone compound that alters critical cellular processes such as cell multiplication, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial activity. In this study, we used the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, as a model system for examining the cellular processes and signaling pathways affected by naringenin. We found that naringenin inhibited Dictyostelium cell division in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) approximately 20 microM). Assays of Dictyostelium chemotaxis and multicellular development revealed that naringenin possesses a previously unrecognized ability to suppress amoeboid cell motility. We also found that naringenin, which is known to inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, had no apparent effect on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate synthesis in live Dictyostelium cells; suggesting that this compound suppresses cell growth and migration via alternative signaling pathways. In another context, the discoveries described here highlight the value of using the Dictyostelium model system for identifying and characterizing the mechanisms by which naringenin, and related compounds, exert their effects on eukaryotic cells. PMID:16682000

  7. Naringenin is a novel inhibitor of Dictyostelium cell proliferation and cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Misty; Martinez, Raquel; Ali, Hind; Steimle, Paul A. . E-mail: p_steiml@uncg.edu

    2006-06-23

    Naringenin is a flavanone compound that alters critical cellular processes such as cell multiplication, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial activity. In this study, we used the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, as a model system for examining the cellular processes and signaling pathways affected by naringenin. We found that naringenin inhibited Dictyostelium cell division in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 5} {approx} 20 {mu}M). Assays of Dictyostelium chemotaxis and multicellular development revealed that naringenin possesses a previously unrecognized ability to suppress amoeboid cell motility. We also found that naringenin, which is known to inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, had no apparent effect on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate synthesis in live Dictyostelium cells; suggesting that this compound suppresses cell growth and migration via alternative signaling pathways. In another context, the discoveries described here highlight the value of using the Dictyostelium model system for identifying and characterizing the mechanisms by which naringenin, and related compounds, exert their effects on eukaryotic cells.

  8. DdAlix, an Alix/AIP1 homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, is required for multicellular development under low Ca2+ conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Susumu; El-Halawany, Medhat S; Aruga, Fumika; Shibata, Hideki; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Maki, Masatoshi

    2004-08-01

    Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) interacting protein X (Alix), also called AIP1, is a widely conserved protein in eukaryotes. Alix and its homologs are involved in various phenomena such as apoptosis, regulation of cell adhesion, protein sorting, adaptation to stress conditions, and budding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To investigate the role of Alix in development, we identified an Alix homolog in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and disrupted the gene by homologous recombination. The growth of DdAlix deletion mutant (alx-) cells was significantly impaired in the presence of 5 mM Li+. On an agar plate, alx- cells underwent normal development and formed fruiting bodies indistinguishable from those formed by wild-type cells. However, alx- cells could not form fruiting bodies in the presence of 5 mM Li+. Similar results were obtained when cells were developed in the presence of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester (TMB-8), which is an antagonist of intracellular Ca2+ store. Furthermore, when the extracellular free Ca2+ was reduced to 10 nM, the ability of alx- cells, but not that of wild-type cells, to form fruiting bodies was impaired. The results indicate that DdAlix is essential for development under low Ca2+ conditions and suggest that DdAlix is involved in Ca2+ signaling during development. PMID:15276209

  9. Mutations affecting sensitivity of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum to DNA-damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Bronner, C E; Welker, D L; Deering, R A

    1992-09-01

    We describe 22 new mutants of D. discoideum that are sensitive to DNA damage. These mutants were isolated on the basis of sensitivity to either temperature, gamma-rays, or 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4NQO). The doses of gamma-rays, ultraviolet light (UV), and 4NQO required to reduce the survival of colony-forming ability of these mutants to 10% (D10) range from 2% to 100% of the D10s for the nonmutant, parent strains. For most of the mutants, those which are very sensitive to one agent are very sensitive to all agents tested and those which are moderately sensitive to one agent, are moderately sensitive to all agents tested. One mutant is sensitive only to 4NQO. Linkage relationships have been examined for 13 of these mutants. This linkage information was used to design complementation tests to determine allelism with previously characterized complementation groups affecting sensitivity to radiation. 4 of the new mutants fall within previously identified complementation groups and 3 new complementation groups have been identified (radJ, radK and radL). Other new loci probably also exist among these new mutants. This brings the number of characterized mutants of D. discoideum which are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents to 33 and the number of assigned complementation groups to 11. PMID:1380652

  10. cDNA cloning and disruption of the major vault protein alpha gene (mvpA) in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Vasu, S K; Kedersha, N L; Rome, L H

    1993-07-25

    Vaults are large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Dictyostelium vaults contain two major proteins, MVP alpha (94.2 kDa) and MVP beta (approximately 92 kDa). Using an anti-rat vault antibody, we screened a Dictyostelium cDNA expression library and isolated a 2.8-kilobase pair clone that contained a single full-length reading frame. The identity of the clone was established by the presence of a predicted 20-amino acid sequence identical to that found in a peptide sequenced from purified MVP alpha. We have disrupted the single copy gene using homologous recombination and have demonstrated a loss of MVP alpha. Although the cells still produce MVP beta, they do not contain characteristic vault particles, suggesting that MVP alpha is required for normal vault structure. These cells should be a valuable tool for elucidating the function of vaults. PMID:8340365

  11. Interaptin, an Actin-binding Protein of the α-Actinin Superfamily in Dictyostelium discoideum, Is Developmentally and cAMP-regulated and Associates with Intracellular Membrane Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Francisco; Kuspa, Adam; Brokamp, Regine; Matzner, Monika; Noegel, Angelika A.

    1998-01-01

    In a search for novel members of the α-actinin superfamily, a Dictyostelium discoideum genomic library in yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC) was screened under low stringency conditions using the acting-binding domain of the gelation factor as probe. A new locus was identified and 8.6 kb of genomic DNA were sequenced that encompassed the whole abpD gene. The DNA sequence predicts a protein, interaptin, with a calculated molecular mass of 204,300 D that is constituted by an actin-binding domain, a central coiled-coil rod domain and a membrane-associated domain. In Northern blot analyses a cAMP-stimulated transcript of 5.8 kb is expressed at the stage when cell differentiation occurs. Monoclonal antibodies raised against bacterially expressed interaptin polypeptides recognized a 200-kD developmentally and cAMP-regulated protein and a 160-kD constitutively expressed protein in Western blots. In multicellular structures, interaptin appears to be enriched in anterior-like cells which sort to the upper and lower cups during culmination. The protein is located at the nuclear envelope and ER. In mutants deficient in interaptin development is delayed, but the morphology of the mature fruiting bodies appears normal. When starved in suspension abpD− cells form EDTA-stable aggregates, which, in contrast to wild type, dissociate. Based on its domains and location, interaptin constitutes a potential link between intracellular membrane compartments and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:9700162

  12. The Effects of Extracellular Calcium on Motility, Pseudopod and Uropod Formation, Chemotaxis and the Cortical Localization of Myosin II in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lusche, Daniel F.; Wessels, Deborah; Soll, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular Ca++, a ubiquitous cation in the soluble environment of cells both free living and within the human body, regulates most aspects of amoeboid cell motility, including shape, uropod formation, pseudopod formation, velocity and turning in Dictyostelium discoideum. Hence it affects the efficiency of both basic motile behavior and chemotaxis. Extracellular Ca++ is optimal at 10 mM. A gradient of the chemoattractant cAMP generated in the absence of added Ca++ only affects turning, but in combination with extracellular Ca++, enhances the effects of extracellular Ca++. Potassium, at 40 mM, can substitute for Ca++. Mg++, Mn++, Zn++ and Na+ cannot. Extracellular Ca++, or K+, also induce the cortical localization of myosin II in a polar fashion. The effects of Ca++, K+ or a cAMP gradient do not appear to be similarly mediated by an increase in the general pool of free cytosolic Ca++. These results suggest a model, in which each agent functioning through different signaling systems, converge to affect the cortical localization of myosin II, which in turn effects the behavioral changes leading to efficient cell motility and chemotaxis. PMID:19363786

  13. Excision of pyrimidine dimers from nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid in ultraviolet-irradiated Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; Deering, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    A sensitive endonuclease assay was used to study the fate of pyrimidine dimers introduced by ultraviolet irradiation into the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid of the cellular slime mold Dictyostellium discoideum. Analysis of the frequency of T4 endonuclease V-induced single-strand breaks by alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation showed that strain NC4 (rad/sup +/) removed >98% of the dimers induced by irradiation at 40 J/m/sup 2/ (254 nm) within 215 min after irradiation. HPS104 (radC44), a mutant sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation, removed 91% under these conditions, although at a significantly slower rate than NC4: only 8% were removed during the 10- to 15- min period immediately after irradiation, whereas NC4 excised 64% during this interval. HPS104 thus appears to be deficient in the activity(ies) responsible for rapidly incising ultraviolet-irradiated nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid at the sites of pyrimidine dimers.

  14. Expression and organization of BP74, a cyclic AMP-regulated gene expressed during Dictyostelium discoideum development.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, S B; Pollenz, R S; Drummond, I; Chisholm, R L

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized a cDNA and the corresponding gene for a cyclic AMP-inducible gene expressed during Dictyostelium development. This gene, BP74, was found to be first expressed about the time of aggregate formation, approximately 6 h after starvation. Accumulation of BP74 mRNA did not occur in Dictyostelium cells that had been starved in fast-shaken suspension cultures but was induced in similar cultures to which cyclic AMP pulses had been added. The BP74 cDNA and gene were characterized by DNA sequence analysis and transcriptional mapping. When the BP74 promoter region was fused with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene and reintroduced into Dictyostelium cells, the transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene displayed the same developmentally regulated pattern of expression as did the endogenous BP74 gene, suggesting that all of the cis-acting elements required for regulated expression were carried by a 2-kilobase cloned genomic fragment. On the basis of sequence analysis, the gene appeared to encode a protein containing a 20-residue hydrophobic sequence at the amino-terminal end and 26 copies of a 20-amino-acid repeat. Images PMID:2555685

  15. Protein Interactions Involved in tRNA Gene-Specific Integration of Dictyostelium discoideum Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon TRE5-A▿

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Thanh; Siol, Oliver; Dingermann, Theodor; Winckler, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements that reside in gene-dense genomes face the problem of avoiding devastating insertional mutagenesis of genes in their host cell genomes. To meet this challenge, some Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons have evolved targeted integration at safe sites in the immediate vicinity of tRNA genes. Integration of yeast Ty3 is mediated by interactions of retrotransposon protein with the tRNA gene-specific transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB). In the genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, the non-LTR retrotransposon TRE5-A integrates ∼48 bp upstream of tRNA genes, yet little is known about how the retrotransposon identifies integration sites. Here, we show direct protein interactions of the TRE5-A ORF1 protein with subunits of TFIIIB, suggesting that ORF1p is a component of the TRE5-A preintegration complex that determines integration sites. Our results demonstrate that evolution has put forth similar solutions to prevent damage of diverse, compact genomes by different classes of mobile elements. PMID:17923679

  16. Mitochondria are the target organelle of differentiation-inducing factor-3, an anti-tumor agent isolated from Dictyostelium discoideum [corrected].

    PubMed

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Matsuo, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Homma, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3), found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3) are potent anti-tumor agents. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the actions of DIF-3 remain to be elucidated. In this study, we synthesized a green fluorescent derivative of DIF-3, BODIPY-DIF-3, and a control fluorescent compound, Bu-BODIPY (butyl-BODIPY), and investigated how DIF-like molecules behave in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by using both fluorescence and electron microscopy. BODIPY-DIF-3 at 5-20 µ M suppressed cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas Bu-BODIPY had minimal effect on cell growth. When cells were incubated with BODIPY-DIF-3 at 20 µM, it penetrated cell membranes within 0.5 h and localized mainly in mitochondria, while Bu-BODIPY did not stain the cells. Exposure of cells for 1-3 days to DIF-3, Bu-DIF-3, BODIPY-DIF-3, or CCCP (a mitochondrial uncoupler) induced substantial mitochondrial swelling, suppressing cell growth. When added to isolated mitochondria, DIF-3, Bu-DIF-3, and BOIDPY-DIF-3, like CCCP, dose-dependently promoted the rate of oxygen consumption, but Bu-BODIPY did not. Our results suggest that these bioactive DIF-like molecules suppress cell growth, at least in part, by disturbing mitochondrial activity. This is the first report showing the cellular localization and behavior of DIF-like molecules in mammalian tumor cells. PMID:23977224

  17. The Effects of Temperature Variation on the Sensitivity to Pesticides: a Study on the Slime Mould Dictyostelium discoideum (Protozoa).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Slime moulds live in agricultural ecosystems, where they play an important role in the soil fertilization and in the battle against crop pathogens. In an agricultural soil, the amoebae are exposed to different stress factors such as pesticides and weather conditions. The use of pesticides increased up from 0.49 kg per hectare in 1961 to 2 kg in 2004, and the global greenhouse gas emission has grown 70% between 1970 and 2004 leading to a global fluctuation of average surface temperature. Therefore, the European Directive 2009/128/EC has led to a new approach to agriculture, with the transition from an old concept based on high use of pesticides and fossil fuels to an agriculture aware of biodiversity and health issues. We studied the effects of temperature variations and pesticides on Dictyostelium discoideum. We measured the fission rate, the ability to differentiate and the markers of stress such as the activity and presence of pseudocholinesterase and the presence of heat shock protein 70. Our results highlight how the sensitivity to zinc, aluminium, silver, copper, cadmium, mercury, diazinon and dicofol changes for a 2 °C variation from nothing/low to critical. Our work suggests considering, in future regulations, about the use of pesticides as their toxic effect on non-target organisms is strongly influenced by climate temperatures. In addition, there is a need for a new consideration of the protozoa, which takes into account recent researches about the presence in this microorganism of classical neurotransmitters that, similar to those in animals, make protozoa an innocent target of neurotoxic pesticides in the battle against the pest crops. PMID:25515424

  18. Properties of a non-bioactive fluorescent derivative of differentiation-inducing factor-3, an anti-tumor agent found in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Matsuo, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Homma, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3), found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives, such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3), are potent anti-tumor agents. To investigate the activity of DIF-like molecules in tumor cells, we recently synthesized a green fluorescent DIF-3 derivative, BODIPY-DIF-3G, and analyzed its bioactivity and cellular localization. In this study, we synthesized a red (orange) fluorescent DIF-3 derivative, BODIPY-DIF-3R, and compared the cellular localization and bioactivities of the two BODIPY-DIF-3s in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Both fluorescent compounds penetrated the extracellular membrane within 0.5 h and localized mainly to the mitochondria. In formalin-fixed cells, the two BODIPY-DIF-3s also localized to the mitochondria, indicating that the BODIPY-DIF-3s were incorporated into mitochondria independently of the mitochondrial membrane potential. After treatment for 3 days, BODIPY-DIF-3G, but not BODIPY-DIF-3R, induced mitochondrial swelling and suppressed cell proliferation. Interestingly, the swollen mitochondria were stainable with BODIPY-DIF-3G but not with BODIPY-DIF-3R. When added to isolated mitochondria in vitro, BODIPY-DIF-3G increased dose-dependently the rate of O2 consumption, but BODIPY-DIF-3R did not. These results suggest that the bioactive BODIPY-DIF-3G suppresses cell proliferation, at least in part, by altering mitochondrial activity, whereas the non-bioactive BODIPY-DIF-3R localizes to the mitochondria but does not affect mitochondrial activity or cell proliferation. PMID:24682009

  19. A ribosomal protein gene cluster is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of Dictyostelium discoideum: UGA termination codons and similarity of gene order to Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, M; Pi, M; Kurihara, M; Morio, T; Tanaka, Y

    1998-04-01

    We sequenced a region of about 14.5 kb downstream from the ribosomal protein L11 gene (rpl11) in the mitochondrial DNA (54+/-2 kb) of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Sequence analysis revealed that eleven ribosomal protein genes and six open reading frames (ORFs) formed a cluster arranged in the order: rpl11-orf189-rps12-rps7-rpl2-rps19-+ ++orf425-orf1740-rpl16-rpl14-orf188- rps14-rps8-rpl6-rps13-orf127-orf796. This order was very similar to that of homologous genes in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial DNA. The N-terminal region of ORF425 and the C-terminal region of ORF1740 had partial similarities to the S3 ribosomal protein of other organisms. The termination codons of rpl16 and orf188 were UGA, which has not hitherto been found in genes encoded in D. discoideum mitochondrial DNA. PMID:9560439

  20. Alterations of nuclear DNA synthesis after irradiation of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum: studies performed in a mutant strain displaying enhanced thymidine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The auxotrophic Dictyostelium discoideum strain HPS 401 was studied. Thymidine at 8 ..mu..g/ml or thymidylate at 50 ..mu..g/ml supported growth to maximal cell densities. Thin layer chromatography of cell extracts showed rapid intracellular accumulation of thymidine in HPS 401 vs slightly detectable accumulation in wild-type cells. Measurements showed that methionine and thymidylate were taken into all strains at a low rate, but HPS 401 had enhanced uptake of thymidine and uridine compared to wild-type. The HPS 401 phenotype is due to the efficient utilization of thymidine as a result of increased nucleoside uptake. Rapid nuclear purification removed mitochondrial DNA without decreasing the single-strand molecular weight of the nuclear DNA. The nuclear DNA peaks on alkaline sucrose gradients were identified using filter hybridization to cloned probes. As measured by pulse-chase labelling, production of full-sized main band DNA required 45-50 minutes. Pulse labelling of the cells immediately after ultraviolet irradiation caused the single-strand molecular weight of the DNA synthesized to decrease from 8 x 10/sup 6/ daltons at O J/m/sup 2/ to 3.9 x 10/sup 6/ daltons at 50 J/m/sup 2/ to 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ daltons at 200 J/m/sup 2/. The time required for maturation into full-sized DNA increased from 1 hour at O J/m/sup 2/ to 4 hours at 20 J/m/sup 2/ and to 21 hours at 200 J/m/sup 2/. Measured amounts of DNA synthesis at times after ultraviolet irradiation showed a period of reduced incorporation, followed by the resumption of control levels. The lag period ended at the same time as the production of full-sized DNA resumed.

  1. F-actin binds to the cytoplasmic surface of ponticulin, a 17-kD integral glycoprotein from Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    F-actin affinity chromatography and immunological techniques are used to identify actin-binding proteins in purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes. A 17-kD integral glycoprotein (gp17) consistently elutes from F-actin columns as the major actin-binding protein under a variety of experimental conditions. The actin-binding activity of gp17 is identical to that of intact plasma membranes: it resists extraction with 0.1 N NaOH, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT); it is sensitive to ionic conditions; it is stable over a wide range of pH; and it is eliminated by proteolysis, denaturation with heat, or treatment with DTT and N- ethylmaleimide. gp17 may be responsible for much of the actin-binding activity of plasma membranes since monovalent antibody fragments (Fab) directed primarily against gp17 inhibit actin-membrane binding by 96% in sedimentation assays. In contrast, Fab directed against cell surface determinants inhibit binding by only 0-10%. The actin-binding site of gp17 appears to be located on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane since Fab against this protein continue to inhibit 96% of actin- membrane binding even after extensive adsorption against cell surfaces. gp17 is abundant in the plasma membrane, constituting 0.4-1.0% of the total membrane protein. A transmembrane orientation of gp17 is suggested since, in addition to the cytoplasmic localization of the actin-binding site, extracellular determinants of gp17 are identified. gp17 is surface-labeled by sulfo-N-hydroxy-succinimido-biotin, a reagent that cannot penetrate the cell membrane. Also, gp17 is glycosylated since it is specifically bound by the lectin, concanavalin A. We propose that gp17 is a major actin-binding protein that is important for connecting the plasma membrane to the underlying microfilament network. Therefore, we have named this protein "ponticulin" from the Latin word, ponticulus, which means small bridge. PMID:3312238

  2. Evidence for a recycling role for Rab7 in regulating a late step in endocytosis and in retention of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Buczynski, G; Bush, J; Zhang, L; Rodriguez-Paris, J; Cardelli, J

    1997-01-01

    The mammalian small molecular weight GTPase Rab7 (Ypt7 in yeast) has been implicated in regulating membrane traffic at postinternalization steps along the endosomal pathway. A cDNA encoding a protein 85% identical at the amino acid level to mammalian Rab7 has been cloned from Dictyostelium discoideum. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Rab7 was enriched in lysosomes, postlysosomes, and maturing phagosomes. Cell lines were generated that overexposed Rab7 wild-type (WT), Rab7 Q67L (constitutively active form), and Rab7 T22N (dominant negative form) proteins. The Rab7 T22N cell line internalized fluid phase markers and latex beads (phagocytosis) at one-third the rate of control cells, whereas Rab7 WT and Rab7 Q67L cell lines were normal in uptake rates but exocytosed fluid phase faster than control cells. In contrast, fluid phase markers resided in acidic compartments for longer periods of time and were more slowly exocytosed from Rab7 T22N cells as compared with control cells. Light microscopy indicated that Rab7-expressing cell lines contained morphologically altered endosomal compartments. Compared with control cells, Rab7 WT- and Rab7 Q67L-expressing cells contained a reduced number of vesicles, the size of postlysosomes (> 2.5 microns) and an increased number of smaller vesicles, many of which were nonacidic; in control cells, > 90% of the smaller vesicles were acidic. In contrast, Rab7 T22N cells contained an increased proportion of large acidic vesicles relative to nonacidic vesicles. Radiolabel pulse-chase experiments indicated that all of the cell lines processed and targeted lysosomal alpha-mannosidase normally, indicating the lack of a significant role for Rab7 in the targeting pathway; however, retention of mature lysosomal hydrolases was affected in Rab7 WT and Rab7 T22N cell lines. Contrary to the results observed for the fluid phase efflux experiments, Rab7 T22N cells oversecreted alpha-mannosidase, whereas Rab7

  3. EDTA treatment alters protein glycosylation in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.M.; Brownstein, S.A. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors have found that treatment of cells with EDTA resulted in the accumulation of lower molecular weight forms of two cell-type-specific glycoproteins. These new glycoproteins lacked a developmentally regulated glycoantigen defined by monoclonal antibody 54.2. Since EDTA dissociated the cells, the possible involvement of cell separation was tested by immobilizing cells in soft agarose. Glycoantigen expression on these proteins was found to be dependent on cAMP and high oxygen tension but not on cell contact, and was reversibly sensitive to EDTA regardless of the state of cell association. The EDTA effect was mimicked by other soluble, but not particulate, membrane impermeable chelators, could be completed by Zn{sup 2+} better than Mg{sup 2+}, and appeared to involve an intracellular mechanism. Studies with ({sup 14}C)EDTA showed that EDTA equilibrated with a cellular compartment in a temperature-dependent, Zn{sup 2+}-insensitive fashion with half-time kinetics of loading and unloading of 30-40 min. The data suggest that this step in glycosylation, which was found to be delayed 1 or more hours subsequent to protein synthesis, involves an intracellular, transition metal-ion-dependent process which can be modulated by chelators entering the cell through the endocytic pathway.

  4. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Turing-Type Pattern Formation in a Confined Dictyostelium Cell Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Satoshi; Maeda, Yasuo; Sawada, Yasuji

    2000-09-01

    We have discovered a new type of patterning which occurs in a two-dimensionally confined cell mass of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Besides the longitudinal structure reported earlier, we observed a spontaneous symmetry breaking spot pattern whose wavelength shows similar strain dependency to that of the longitudinal pattern. We propose that these structures are due to a reaction-diffusion Turing instability similar to the one which has been exemplified by CIMA (chlorite-iodide-malonic acid) reaction. The present finding may exhibit the first biochemical Turing structure in a developmental system with a controllable boundary condition.

  5. Comparative study of the sensitivity of spores and amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum to ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Y.; Wada, M.

    1980-09-01

    We report the sensitivity change of plaque formation to ultraviolet light (uv) irradiation in several stages of the cellular slime mold from spore to stationary phase, under the special condition which we have obtained - a plating efficiency of 100%. For NC-4 (haploid) and H-1 (diploid), uv sensitivity of cells just after germination was almost equal to that of spores; then the sensitivity decreased with development, reached a minimum just before the first cell division, and remained at that level during logarithmic growth. As to the difference between NC-4 and H-1, NC-4 was more resistant than H-1 at low doses, and H-1 was more resistant than NC-4 at high doses for both spores and amoebae. We also report a pipetting effect which assured reproducible data for amoebae.

  6. Diverse Growth Kinetics in Suspension Culture of a Model Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum, Confirmation of Lagless Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Zhou, Xaio-Qiao S.; Deshmukh, Amrish; Bogart, Elijah; Lau, Sharon; Daie, Kayvon; Bae, Albert

    2010-03-01

    In recent work we explored the notion that the transition between slow and fast growth, the lag-log transition, with increasing density seen in shaken cell culture represents a collective effect. (Phys. Rev. E 77, 041905 (2008)). We reported preliminary observations in which the lag phase was apparently missing. Here, we present significantly more measurements than in our original work as well as increased sensitivity at low densities. We confirm that instances of nearly exponential (``log'') growth do in fact appear, but more frequently, we find evidence of lagging. The degree of lagging fluctuates significantly from run to run, in contrast to our earlier observations and theory, but in all cases exponential growth is established with increasing density once the range of 10^4 to 10^5 cells/ml is reached. We present evidence against two natural explanations for these fluctuations: 1) a mixture of strains which have different growth phenotypes or 2) a single strain variation due to an epigenetic switch which can be set to the low growth state by subjecting cells to high density environments. The appearance of such growth variations has considerable practical significance and suggests that there is an additional dynamical variable besides density in play.

  7. Bleb-driven chemotaxis of Dictyostelium cells.

    PubMed

    Zatulovskiy, Evgeny; Tyson, Richard; Bretschneider, Till; Kay, Robert R

    2014-03-17

    Blebs and F-actin-driven pseudopods are alternative ways of extending the leading edge of migrating cells. We show that Dictyostelium cells switch from using predominantly pseudopods to blebs when migrating under agarose overlays of increasing stiffness. Blebs expand faster than pseudopods leaving behind F-actin scars, but are less persistent. Blebbing cells are strongly chemotactic to cyclic-AMP, producing nearly all of their blebs up-gradient. When cells re-orientate to a needle releasing cyclic-AMP, they stereotypically produce first microspikes, then blebs and pseudopods only later. Genetically, blebbing requires myosin-II and increases when actin polymerization or cortical function is impaired. Cyclic-AMP induces transient blebbing independently of much of the known chemotactic signal transduction machinery, but involving PI3-kinase and downstream PH domain proteins, CRAC and PhdA. Impairment of this PI3-kinase pathway results in slow movement under agarose and cells that produce few blebs, though actin polymerization appears unaffected. We propose that mechanical resistance induces bleb-driven movement in Dictyostelium, which is chemotactic and controlled through PI3-kinase. PMID:24616222

  8. Bleb-driven chemotaxis of Dictyostelium cells

    PubMed Central

    Zatulovskiy, Evgeny; Tyson, Richard; Bretschneider, Till

    2014-01-01

    Blebs and F-actin–driven pseudopods are alternative ways of extending the leading edge of migrating cells. We show that Dictyostelium cells switch from using predominantly pseudopods to blebs when migrating under agarose overlays of increasing stiffness. Blebs expand faster than pseudopods leaving behind F-actin scars, but are less persistent. Blebbing cells are strongly chemotactic to cyclic-AMP, producing nearly all of their blebs up-gradient. When cells re-orientate to a needle releasing cyclic-AMP, they stereotypically produce first microspikes, then blebs and pseudopods only later. Genetically, blebbing requires myosin-II and increases when actin polymerization or cortical function is impaired. Cyclic-AMP induces transient blebbing independently of much of the known chemotactic signal transduction machinery, but involving PI3-kinase and downstream PH domain proteins, CRAC and PhdA. Impairment of this PI3-kinase pathway results in slow movement under agarose and cells that produce few blebs, though actin polymerization appears unaffected. We propose that mechanical resistance induces bleb-driven movement in Dictyostelium, which is chemotactic and controlled through PI3-kinase. PMID:24616222

  9. Cell-to-cell coordination for the spontaneous cAMP oscillation in Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Seido; Sakurai, Shunsuke

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new cellular dynamics scheme for the spontaneous cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium discoideum. Our scheme seamlessly integrates both receptor dynamics and G-protein dynamics into our previously developed cellular dynamics scheme. Extensive computer simulation studies based on our new cellular dynamics scheme were conducted in mutant cells to evaluate the molecular network. The validity of our proposed molecular network as well as the controversial PKA-dependent negative feedback mechanism was supported by our simulation studies. Spontaneous cAMP oscillations were not observed in a single mutant cell. However, multicellular states of various mutant cells consistently initiated spontaneous cAMP oscillations. Therefore, cell-to-cell coordination via the cAMP receptor is essential for the robust initiation of spontaneous cAMP oscillations.

  10. A phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase gene family in Dictyostelium discoideum: biological roles of putative mammalian p110 and yeast Vps34p PI 3-kinase homologs during growth and development.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, K; Takegawa, K; Emr, S D; Firtel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinases convert PI into PI(3)phosphate, PI(4)phosphate, PI(4,5) bisphosphate, and PI(3,4,5)trisphosphate. These phosphoinositides have been shown to function in vesicle-mediated protein sorting, and they serve as second-messenger signaling molecules for regulating cell growth. To further elucidate the mechanism of regulation and function of phosphoinositides, we cloned genes encoding five putative PI kinases from Dictyostelium discoideum. Database analysis indicates that D. discoideum PIK1 (DdPIK1), -2, and -3 are most closely related to the mammalian p110 PI 3-kinase, DdPIK5 is closest to the yeast Vps34p PI 3-kinase, and DdPIK4 is most homologous to PI 4-kinases. Together with other known PI kinases, a superfamily of PI kinase genes has been defined, with all of the encoded proteins sharing a common highly conserved catalytic core domain. DdPIK1, -2, and -3 may have redundant functions because disruption of any single gene had no effect on D. discoideum growth or development. However, strains in which both of the two most highly related genes, DdPIK1 and DdPIK2, were disrupted showed both growth and developmental defects, while double knockouts of DdPIK1 and DdPIK3 and DdPIK2 and DdPIK3 appear to be lethal. The delta Ddpik1 delta Ddpik2 null cells were smaller than wild-type cells and grew slowly both in association with bacteria and in axenic medium when attached to petri plates but were unable to grow in suspension in axenic medium. When delta Ddpik1 delta Ddpik2 null cells were plated for multicellular development, they formed aggregates having multiple tips and produced abnormal fruiting bodies. Antisense expression of DdPIK5 (a putative homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS34) led to a defect in the growth of D. discoideum cells on bacterial lawns and abnormal development. DdPIK5 complemented the temperature-sensitive growth defect of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe delta Svps34 mutant strain, suggesting DdPIK5

  11. Variation in the excitability of developed D. discoideum cells as a function of agar concentration in the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Noriko; Bae, Albert; Amselem, Gabriel; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2010-03-01

    In the absence of nutrients, Dictyostelium discoideum cells enter a developmental cycle--they signal each other, aggregate, and ultimately form fruiting bodies. During the signaling stage, the cells relay waves of cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). We observed a transition from spiral to circular patterns in the signaling wave, depending on the agar concentration of the substrate. In this talk we will present the changes in the times for the onset of signaling and synchronization versus agar concentration, as measured by spectral entropy. We also will discuss the origin of these effects.

  12. A Model for Direction Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: Ras Activity and Symmetry Breaking Driven by a Gβγ-Mediated, Gα2-Ric8 -- Dependent Signal Transduction Network

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yougan; Othmer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxis is a dynamic cellular process, comprised of direction sensing, polarization and locomotion, that leads to the directed movement of eukaryotic cells along extracellular gradients. As a primary step in the response of an individual cell to a spatial stimulus, direction sensing has attracted numerous theoretical treatments aimed at explaining experimental observations in a variety of cell types. Here we propose a new model of direction sensing based on experiments using Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty). The model is built around a reaction-diffusion-translocation system that involves three main component processes: a signal detection step based on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for cyclic AMP (cAMP), a transduction step based on a heterotrimetic G protein Gα2βγ, and an activation step of a monomeric G-protein Ras. The model can predict the experimentally-observed response of cells treated with latrunculin A, which removes feedback from downstream processes, under a variety of stimulus protocols. We show that Gα2βγ cycling modulated by Ric8, a nonreceptor guanine exchange factor for Gα2 in Dicty, drives multiple phases of Ras activation and leads to direction sensing and signal amplification in cAMP gradients. The model predicts that both Gα2 and Gβγ are essential for direction sensing, in that membrane-localized Gα2*, the activated GTP-bearing form of Gα2, leads to asymmetrical recruitment of RasGEF and Ric8, while globally-diffusing Gβγ mediates their activation. We show that the predicted response at the level of Ras activation encodes sufficient ‘memory’ to eliminate the ‘back-of-the wave’ problem, and the effects of diffusion and cell shape on direction sensing are also investigated. In contrast with existing LEGI models of chemotaxis, the results do not require a disparity between the diffusion coefficients of the Ras activator GEF and the Ras inhibitor GAP. Since the signal pathways we study are highly conserved between Dicty

  13. A Model for Direction Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: Ras Activity and Symmetry Breaking Driven by a Gβγ-Mediated, Gα2-Ric8 -- Dependent Signal Transduction Network.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yougan; Othmer, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Chemotaxis is a dynamic cellular process, comprised of direction sensing, polarization and locomotion, that leads to the directed movement of eukaryotic cells along extracellular gradients. As a primary step in the response of an individual cell to a spatial stimulus, direction sensing has attracted numerous theoretical treatments aimed at explaining experimental observations in a variety of cell types. Here we propose a new model of direction sensing based on experiments using Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty). The model is built around a reaction-diffusion-translocation system that involves three main component processes: a signal detection step based on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for cyclic AMP (cAMP), a transduction step based on a heterotrimetic G protein Gα2βγ, and an activation step of a monomeric G-protein Ras. The model can predict the experimentally-observed response of cells treated with latrunculin A, which removes feedback from downstream processes, under a variety of stimulus protocols. We show that [Formula: see text] cycling modulated by Ric8, a nonreceptor guanine exchange factor for [Formula: see text] in Dicty, drives multiple phases of Ras activation and leads to direction sensing and signal amplification in cAMP gradients. The model predicts that both [Formula: see text] and Gβγ are essential for direction sensing, in that membrane-localized [Formula: see text], the activated GTP-bearing form of [Formula: see text], leads to asymmetrical recruitment of RasGEF and Ric8, while globally-diffusing Gβγ mediates their activation. We show that the predicted response at the level of Ras activation encodes sufficient 'memory' to eliminate the 'back-of-the wave' problem, and the effects of diffusion and cell shape on direction sensing are also investigated. In contrast with existing LEGI models of chemotaxis, the results do not require a disparity between the diffusion coefficients of the Ras activator GEF and the Ras inhibitor GAP. Since

  14. F-actin binds to the cytoplasmic surface of ponticulin, a 17-kD integral glycoprotein from Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Wuestehube, L J; Luna, E J

    1987-10-01

    F-actin affinity chromatography and immunological techniques are used to identify actin-binding proteins in purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes. A 17-kD integral glycoprotein (gp17) consistently elutes from F-actin columns as the major actin-binding protein under a variety of experimental conditions. The actin-binding activity of gp17 is identical to that of intact plasma membranes: it resists extraction with 0.1 N NaOH, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT); it is sensitive to ionic conditions; it is stable over a wide range of pH; and it is eliminated by proteolysis, denaturation with heat, or treatment with DTT and N-ethylmaleimide. gp17 may be responsible for much of the actin-binding activity of plasma membranes since monovalent antibody fragments (Fab) directed primarily against gp17 inhibit actin-membrane binding by 96% in sedimentation assays. In contrast, Fab directed against cell surface determinants inhibit binding by only 0-10%. The actin-binding site of gp17 appears to be located on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane since Fab against this protein continue to inhibit 96% of actin-membrane binding even after extensive adsorption against cell surfaces. gp17 is abundant in the plasma membrane, constituting 0.4-1.0% of the total membrane protein. A transmembrane orientation of gp17 is suggested since, in addition to the cytoplasmic localization of the actin-binding site, extracellular determinants of gp17 are identified. gp17 is surface-labeled by sulfo-N-hydroxy-succinimido-biotin, a reagent that cannot penetrate the cell membrane. Also, gp17 is glycosylated since it is specifically bound by the lectin, concanavalin A. We propose that gp17 is a major actin-binding protein that is important for connecting the plasma membrane to the underlying microfilament network. Therefore, we have named this protein "ponticulin" from the Latin word, ponticulus, which means small bridge. PMID:3312238

  15. Use of the myosin motor domain as large-affinity tag for the expression and purification of proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kollmar, Martin

    2006-08-15

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is increasingly be used for the overexpression of proteins. Dictyostelium is amenable to classical and molecular genetic approaches and can easily be grown in large quantities. It contains a variety of chaperones and folding enzymes, and is able to perform all kinds of post-translational protein modifications. Here, new expression vectors are presented that have been designed for the production of proteins in large quantities for biochemical and structural studies. The expression cassettes of the most successful vectors are based on a tandem affinity purification tag consisting of an octahistidine tag followed by the myosin motor domain tag. The myosin motor domain not only strongly enhances the production of fused proteins but is also used for a fast affinity purification step through its ATP-dependent binding to actin. The applicability of the new system has been demonstrated for the expression and purification of subunits of the dynein-dynactin motor protein complex from different species. PMID:16516959

  16. Analysis of a novel cyclic Amp inducible prespore gene in Dictyostelium discoideum: evidence for different patterns of cAMP regulation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Sloger, M S; Oyama, M; Blumberg, D D

    1994-09-01

    The D7 cDNA clone hybridizes to a 2.8 kb mRNA which first appears at the mound stage of development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This gene which is cyclic AMP (cAMP) inducible and is expressed specifically in the prespore cells contains an open reading frame interrupted by only one intron. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates a novel prespore protein which differs from all of the previously described prespore proteins in that it contains no internal repeats and does not share any homology with any of the other prespore genes. The amino acid sequence predicts a protein of 850 amino acids with a molecular weight of 95,343 daltons and an isoelectric point of 4.25. The protein is very rich in glutamine (13.8%), asparagine (10.6%) and glutamic acid (10.4%) with one potential glycosylation site and 28 possible sites for phosphorylation. The amino terminus is hydrophobic with characteristics of a signal sequence while the entire carboxyl half of the protein is notable for its hydrophilicity. Comparison of cAMP regulation of the D7 gene with the regulation of two other cAMP regulated prespore genes, the PL3(SP87) gene and the Psa(D19), reveals some striking differences. Disaggregation in the presence of cAMP results in transient degradation of mRNA for all three genes. The transcription rate for the D7 and PsA(D19) genes remains relatively unaffected by disaggregation but there is a rapid although transient decline in the transcription rate of the PL3(SP87) gene. Although the accumulation of all three mRNAs is first detectable at mound stage, transcription of the D7 and PsA(D19) genes is detected earlier in development, at rippling aggregate stage several hours prior to the earliest time when transcription of the PL3(SP87) gene is detected. Analysis of the promoter region of the D7 gene reveals three CA like boxes flanked by direct repeats as well as four G rich regions that may serve as regulatory elements. PMID:7988791

  17. Predicting the Distribution of Spiral Waves from Cell Properties in a Developmental-Path Model of Dictyostelium Pattern Formation

    PubMed Central

    Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern formation. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers). This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this concept leads to an inhomogeneous and systematic spatial distribution of spiral waves, which can be predicted from the distribution of cells on the developmental path. We propose specific experiments for checking whether such systematics are also found in data and thus, indirectly, provide evidence of a developmental path. PMID:19593362

  18. Balanced cortical stiffness is important for efficient migration of Dictyostelium cells in confined environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Heike; Samereier, Matthias; Trommler, Gudrun; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette

    2015-11-27

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells resemble in many aspects human leukocytes and serve as a model to study actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration of highly motile cells. Dictyostelium cells deficient in the actin-binding protein filamin (ddFLN) showed a surprisingly subtle change in phenotype with no or only minor effects in single cell motility. These findings were in contrast to the strong actin-crosslinking activities measured for filamin in vitro. In the present study, we set out to revisit the role of ddFLN in cell migration. For this purpose, we examined migration of wild-type, ddFLN-null and ddFLN-overexpressing cells under different conditions. In addition to cyclic-AMP chemotaxis assays using micropipettes, we explored cell migration under more confined conditions: an under-agarose 2D assay and a 3D assay employing a collagen matrix that was adapted from assays for leukocytes. Using 3D migration conditions, cells deficient in ddFLN displayed only a minor impairment of motility, similar to the results obtained for migration in 2D. However, cells overexpressing ddFLN showed a remarkable decrease in the speed of migration in particular in 3D environments. We suggest that these results are in line with an increased stiffening of the cortex due to the crosslinking activity of overexpressed ddFLN. Our conclusion is that the absolute level of ddFLN is critical for efficient migration. Furthermore, our results show that under conditions of increased mechanical stress, Dictyostelium cells, like leukocytes, switch to a bleb-based mode of movement. PMID:26482849

  19. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of the LAM-RRM1 N-terminal module of La protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chasapis, Christos T; Argyriou, Aikaterini I; Apostolidi, Maria; Konstantinidou, Parthena; Bentrop, Detlef; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    The N-terminal half of La protein consists of two concatenated motifs: La motif (LAM) and the N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM1) both of which are responsible for poly(U) RNA binding. Here, we present the backbone and side-chain assignments of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the 191-residue LAM-RRM1 region of the La protein from the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and its secondary structure prediction. PMID:25687647

  20. Control of 6-(D-threo-1',2'-dihydroxypropyl) pterin (dictyopterin) synthesis during aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum. Involvement of the G-protein-linked signalling pathway in the regulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity.

    PubMed Central

    Gütlich, M; Witter, K; Bourdais, J; Veron, M; Rödl, W; Ziegler, I

    1996-01-01

    6-(D-threo-1',2'-Dihydroxypropylpterin (dictyopterin) has been identified in extracts of growing Dictyostelium dicoideum cells [Klein, Thiery and Tatischeff (1990) Eur. J. Biochem. 187, 665-669]. We demonstrate that it originates from GTP by de novo biosynthesis and that the first committed step is catalysed by GTP cyclohydrolase I, yielding dihydroneopterin triphosphate [neopterin is 6-(D-erythro-1',2',3'-trihydroxypropyl) pterin]. The GTP cyclohydrolase I activity is found in the cytosolic fraction and in a membrane-associated form. The level of a 0.9 kb mRNA coding for GTP cyclohydrolase I decreases to about 10% of its initial value within 2 h after Dictyostelium cells start development induced by starvation. In the cytosolic fraction, the specific activities of GTP cyclohydrolase I, as well as the concentrations of (6R/S)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrodictyopterin (H4dictyopterin), follow this decline of the mRNA level. In the particulate fraction, however, the specific activities of GTP cyclohydrolase I and, in consequence, H4dictyopterin synthesis, transiently increase and reach a maximum after 4-5 h of development. The time-course of H4dictyopterin concentrations in the starvation medium closely correlates with its production in the membrane fraction. The activity of membrane-associated GTP cyclohydrolase I can be increased by pre-incubation of the cell lysate with guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and Mg2+. This GTP analogue does not serve as a substrate and has no direct effect on the enzyme activity, indicating that a G-protein-linked signalling pathway is involved in the regulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity and thus in H4dictyopterin production during early development of D. discoideum. PMID:8660315

  1. Toxicity assessment of diesel- and metal-contaminated soils through elutriate and solid phase assays with the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Amaia; Dondero, Francesco; Viarengo, Aldo; Marigómez, Ionan

    2016-06-01

    A suite of organisms from different taxonomical and ecological positions is needed to assess environmentally relevant soil toxicity. A new bioassay based on Dictyostelium is presented that is aimed at integrating slime molds into such a testing framework. Toxicity tests on elutriates and the solid phase developmental cycle assay were successfully applied to a soil spiked with a mixture of Zn, Cd, and diesel fuel freshly prepared (recently contaminated) and after 2 yr of aging. The elutriates of both soils provoked toxic effects, but toxicity was markedly lower in the aged soil. In the D. discoideum developmental cycle assay, both soils affected amoeba viability and aggregation, with fewer multicellular units, smaller fruiting bodies and, overall, inhibition of fruiting body formation. This assay is quick and requires small amounts of test soil, which might facilitate its incorporation into a multispecies multiple-endpoint toxicity bioassay battery suitable for environmental risk assessment in soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1413-1421. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26450765

  2. Mass spectrometric analysis of neutral and anionic N-glycans from a Dictyostelium discoideum model for human congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG IL.

    PubMed

    Hykollari, Alba; Balog, Crina I A; Rendić, Dubravko; Braulke, Thomas; Wilson, Iain B H; Paschinger, Katharina

    2013-03-01

    The HL241 mutant strain of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is a potential model for human congenital disorder of glycosylation type IL (ALG9-CDG) and has been previously predicted to possess a lower degree of modification of its N-glycans with anionic moieties than the parental wild-type. In this study, we first showed that this strain has a premature stop codon in its alg9 mannosyltransferase gene compatible with the occurrence of truncated N-glycans. These were subject to an optimized analytical workflow, considering that the mass spectrometry of acidic glycans often presents challenges due to neutral loss and suppression effects. Therefore, the protein-bound N-glycans were first fractionated, after serial enzymatic release, by solid phase extraction. Then primarily single glycan species were isolated by mixed hydrophilic-interaction/anion-exchange or reversed-phase HPLC and analyzed using chemical and enzymatic treatments and MS/MS. We show that protein-linked N-glycans of the mutant are of reduced size as compared to those of wild-type AX3, but still contain core α1,3-fucose, intersecting N-acetylglucosamine, bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, methylphosphate, phosphate, and sulfate residues. We observe that a single N-glycan can carry up to four of these six possible modifications. Due to the improved analytical procedures, we reveal fuller details regarding the N-glycomic potential of this fascinating model organism. PMID:23320427

  3. Quantitation of Membrane Sites in Aggregating Dictyostelium Cells by Use of Tritiated Univalent Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Beug, H.; Katz, F. E.; Stein, A.; Gerisch, G.

    1973-01-01

    Cell-to-cell adhesion during aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum cells is completely blocked by univalent antibody (Fab) directed against two classes of target sites: surface structures characteristic for aggregation-competent cells (“contact sites A”) and others present also on growth-phase cells (“contact sites B”). 3 × 105 Fab molecules bound per cell are sufficient to block contact sites A completely, although the Fab fragments cover not more than 2% of the total cell surface. Up to 8-fold this value can be bound per cell when Fab fragments of another specificity are used, without affecting activity of contact sites A. Blockage of cell-to-cell adhesion therefore depends on the binding of Fab fragments to specific target sites, rather than on the total number of Fab molecules bound per cell. This conclusion is also valid for cell adhesion attributed to contact sites B. Contact sites therefore represent a special class of cell-surface sites which, in cell homogenates as well as in vivo, can be traced by Fab, and which are not identical with the bulk of cell-surface antigens present on aggregating cells. Images PMID:4522296

  4. Structure of the Small Dictyostelium discoideum Myosin Light Chain MlcB Provides Insights into MyoB IQ Motif Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Liburd, Janine; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W.; Munro, Kim; Miller, Emily; Denis, Chris M.; Spencer, Holly L.; Côté, Graham P.; Smith, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoB is a class I myosin involved in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, cortical tension generation, membrane recycling, and phagosome maturation. The MyoB-specific, single-lobe EF-hand light chain MlcB binds the sole IQ motif of MyoB with submicromolar affinity in the absence and presence of Ca2+. However, the structural features of this novel myosin light chain and its interaction with its cognate IQ motif remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the NMR-derived solution structure of apoMlcB, which displays a globular four-helix bundle. Helix 1 adopts a unique orientation when compared with the apo states of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, S100B, and calbindin D9k. NMR-based chemical shift perturbation mapping identified a hydrophobic MyoB IQ binding surface that involves amino acid residues in helices I and IV and the functional N-terminal Ca2+ binding loop, a site that appears to be maintained when MlcB adopts the holo state. Complementary mutagenesis and binding studies indicated that residues Ile-701, Phe-705, and Trp-708 of the MyoB IQ motif are critical for recognition of MlcB, which together allowed the generation of a structural model of the apoMlcB-MyoB IQ complex. We conclude that the mode of IQ motif recognition by the novel single-lobe MlcB differs considerably from that of stereotypical bilobal light chains such as calmodulin. PMID:24790102

  5. Genetic control of morphogenesis in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Loomis, William F

    2015-06-15

    Cells grow, move, expand, shrink and die in the process of generating the characteristic shapes of organisms. Although the structures generated during development of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum look nothing like the structures seen in metazoan embryogenesis, some of the morphogenetic processes used in their making are surprisingly similar. Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis for directed cell migration, cell type specific sorting, differential adhesion, secretion of matrix components, pattern formation, regulation and terminal differentiation are reviewed. Genes involved in Dictyostelium aggregation, slug formation, and culmination of fruiting bodies are discussed. PMID:25872182

  6. Genetic control of morphogenesis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Cells grow, move, expand, shrink and die in the process of generating the characteristic shapes of organisms. Although the structures generated during development of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum look nothing like the structures seen in metazoan embryogenesis, some of the morphogenetic processes used in their making are surprisingly similar. Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis for directed cell migration, cell type specific sorting, differential adhesion, secretion of matrix components, pattern formation, regulation and terminal differentiation are reviewed. Genes involved in Dictyostelium aggregation, slug formation, and culmination of fruiting bodies are discussed. PMID:25872182

  7. Null mutations of the Dictyostelium cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene block chemotactic cell movement in developing aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sucgang, R; Weijer, C J; Siegert, F; Franke, J; Kessin, R H

    1997-12-01

    Extracellular cAMP is a critical messenger in the multicellular development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The levels of cAMP are controlled by a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) that is secreted by the cells. The PDE gene (pdsA) is controlled by three promoters that permit expression during vegetative growth, during aggregation, and in prestalk cells of the older structures. Targeted disruption of the gene aborts development, and complementation with a modified pdsA restores development. Two distinct promoters must be used for full complementation, and an inhibitory domain of the PDE must be removed. We took advantage of newly isolated PDE-null cells and the natural chimerism of the organism to ask whether the absence of PDE affected individual cell behavior. PDE-null cells aggregated with isogenic wild-type cells in chimeric mixtures, but could not move in a coordinated manner in mounds. The wild-type cells move inward toward the center of the mound, leaving many of the PDE-null cells at the periphery of the aggregate. During the later stages of development, PDE-null cells in the chimera segregate to regions which correspond to the prestalk region and the rear of the slug. Participation in the prespore/spore population returns with the restoration of a modified pdsA to the null cells. PMID:9405107

  8. Role of SpdA in Cell Spreading and Phagocytosis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Marco; Brochetta, Cristiana; Marchetti, Anna; Bodinier, Romain; Brückert, Franz; Cosson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a widely used model to study molecular mechanisms controlling cell adhesion, cell spreading on a surface, and phagocytosis. In this study we isolated and characterize a new mutant created by insertion of a mutagenic vector in the heretofore uncharacterized spdA gene. SpdA-ins mutant cells produce an altered, slightly shortened version of the SpdA protein. They spread more efficiently than WT cells when allowed to adhere to a glass substrate, and phagocytose particles more efficiently. On the contrary, a functional spdA knockout mutant where a large segment of the gene was deleted phagocytosed less efficiently and spread less efficiently on a substrate. These phenotypes were highly dependent on the cellular density, and were most visible at high cell densities, where secreted quorum-sensing factors inhibiting cell motility, spreading and phagocytosis are most active. These results identify the involvement of SpdA in the control of cell spreading and phagocytosis. The underlying molecular mechanisms, as well as the exact link between SpdA and cell spreading, remain to be established. PMID:27512991

  9. Differential effects of stimulus termination on excitation and desensitization of folic acid receptors and guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    de Wit, R J; Bulgakov, R; Bominaar, T A; Rinke de Wit, T F

    1987-08-19

    The response of guanylate cyclase to addition of extracellular stimuli is well documented. Here we report for the first time the response of guanylate cyclase to removal of stimuli. Three methods were employed to terminate rapidly a stimulus of folic acid. (1) Addition of a highly active folate deaminase preparation, or (2) 12-fold dilution of the stimulated cell suspension, or (3) addition of an excess concentration of a non-agonistic derivative of folic acid, i.e., 2-deaminofolic acid, which chases the folate agonist from its cell-surface receptors. Accumulation of cGMP terminated instantaneously upon addition of deaminase, but degradation of the synthesized cGMP was not observed until 10-12 s after stimulation. Also in a cGMP phosphodiesterase-lacking 'streamer' mutant an instantaneous termination of further cGMP accumulation was observed upon stimulus removal. This suggests that the termination of cGMP accumulation is due to inactivation of guanylate cyclase instead of a steady state of cGMP synthesis and degradation. Further accumulation of cGMP was approx. 75% reduced upon dilution of a cell suspension after stimulation with both agonists. Stimulation by 300 nM folic acid or by 30 nM N10-methylfolic acid (a more potent agonist) yielded identical results. However, upon addition of deaminofolic acid the accumulation of cGMP continued normally if the cells had been stimulated with N10-methylfolic acid, but only slightly in the case of a folic acid stimulus. The effect of stimulus duration on desensitization was monitored; it was observed that 50% desensitization was induced by stimulation for 1 s, while 4 s was sufficient for maximal desensitization. Short stimuli were observed to elicit high levels of desensitization without much excitation of guanylate cyclase. A desensitization-like process was observed at the level of the folate-binding chemotactic receptors as well. Relationships between the cGMP response data and folic acid receptor kinetics are discussed

  10. Three-dimensional Patterns and Redistribution of Myosin II and Actin in Mitotic Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neujahr, Ralph; Heizer, Christina; Albrecht, Richard; Ecke, Maria; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Weber, Igor; Gerisch, Günther

    1997-01-01

    Myosin II is not essential for cytokinesis in cells of Dictyostelium discoideum that are anchored on a substrate (Neujahr, R., C. Heizer, and G. Gerisch. 1997. J. Cell Sci. 110:123–137), in contrast to its importance for cell division in suspension (DeLozanne, A., and J.A. Spudich. 1987. Science. 236:1086–1091; Knecht, D.A., and W.F. Loomis. 1987. Science. 236: 1081–1085.). These differences have prompted us to investigate the three-dimensional distribution of myosin II in cells dividing under one of three conditions: (a) in shaken suspension, (b) in a fluid layer on a solid substrate surface, and (c) under mechanical stress applied by compressing the cells. Under the first and second conditions outlined above, myosin II does not form patterns that suggest a contractile ring is established in the furrow. Most of the myosin II is concentrated in the regions that flank the furrow on both sides towards the poles of the dividing cell. It is only when cells are compressed that myosin II extensively accumulates in the cleavage furrow, as has been previously described (Fukui, Y., T.J. Lynch, H. Brzeska, and E.D. Korn. 1989. Nature. 341:328–331), i.e., this massive accumulation is a response to the mechanical stress. Evidence is provided that the stress-associated translocation of myosin II to the cell cortex is a result of the dephosphorylation of its heavy chains. F-actin is localized in the dividing cells in a distinctly different pattern from that of myosin II. The F-actin is shown to accumulate primarily in protrusions at the two poles that ultimately form the leading edges of the daughter cells. This distribution changes dynamically as visualized in living cells with a green fluorescent protein–actin fusion. PMID:9412473

  11. Involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in paraptotic cell death of D. discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rajawat, Jyotika; Mir, Hina; Alex, Tina; Bakshi, Sonal; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2014-01-01

    Paraptosis is mediated by several proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase being one of them. D. discoideum lacks caspases thus providing a better system to dissect out the role of PARP in paraptosis. The cell death phenotype in unicellular eukaryote, D. discoideum is similar to the programmed cell death phenotype of multicellular animals. However, the events downstream to the death signal of PCD in D. discoideum are yet to be understood. Our results emphasize that oxidative stress in D. discoideum lacking caspases leads to PARP activation, mitochondrial membrane potential changes, followed by the release of apoptosis inducing factor from mitochondria. AIF causes large scale DNA fragmentation, a hallmark feature of paraptosis. The role of PARP in paraptosis is reiterated via PARP inhibition by benzamide, PARG inhibition by gallotannin and PARP down-regulation, which delays paraptosis. PARP, PARG and AIF interplay is quintessential in paraptosis of D. discoideum. This is the first report to establish the involvement of PARP in the absence of caspase activity in D. discoideum which could be of evolutionary significance and gives a lead to understand the caspase independent paraptotic mechanism in higher organisms. PMID:24129923

  12. Characterization of the Dictyostelium homolog of chromatin binding protein DET1 suggests a conserved pathway regulating cell type specification and developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Manu J; Kasten, Sonja; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    DET1 (De-etiolated 1) is a chromatin binding protein involved in developmental regulation in both plants and animals. DET1 is largely restricted to multicellular eukaryotes, and here we report the characterization of a DET1 homolog from the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. As in other species, Dictyostelium DET1 is nuclear localized. In contrast to other species, where it is an essential protein, loss of DET1 is nonlethal in Dictyostelium, although viability is significantly reduced. The phenotype of the det1(-) mutant is highly pleiotropic and results in a large degree of heterogeneity in developmental parameters. Loss of DET1 results in delayed and abnormal development with enlarged aggregation territories. Mutant slugs displayed cell type patterning with a bias toward the prestalk pathway. A number of DET1-interacting proteins are conserved in Dictyostelium, and the apparently conserved role of DET1 in regulatory pathways involving the bZIP transcription factors DimB, c-Jun, and HY5 suggests a highly conserved mechanism regulating development in multicellular eukaryotes. While the mechanism by which DET1 functions is unclear, it appears that it has a key role in regulation of developmental plasticity and integration of information on environmental conditions into the developmental program of an organism. PMID:21193547

  13. The Dictyostelium discoideum RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RrpC silences the centromeric retrotransposon DIRS-1 post-transcriptionally and is required for the spreading of RNA silencing signals

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Stephan; Meier, Doreen; Seehafer, Carsten; Malicki, Marek; Hofmann, Patrick; Schmith, Anika; Winckler, Thomas; Földesi, Balint; Boesler, Benjamin; Nellen, Wolfgang; Reimegård, Johan; Käller, Max; Hällman, Jimmie; Emanuelsson, Olof; Avesson, Lotta; Söderbom, Fredrik; Hammann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium intermediate repeat sequence 1 (DIRS-1) is the founding member of a poorly characterized class of retrotransposable elements that contain inverse long terminal repeats and tyrosine recombinase instead of DDE-type integrase enzymes. In Dictyostelium discoideum, DIRS-1 forms clusters that adopt the function of centromeres, rendering tight retrotransposition control critical to maintaining chromosome integrity. We report that in deletion strains of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RrpC, full-length and shorter DIRS-1 messenger RNAs are strongly enriched. Shorter versions of a hitherto unknown long non-coding RNA in DIRS-1 antisense orientation are also enriched in rrpC– strains. Concurrent with the accumulation of long transcripts, the vast majority of small (21 mer) DIRS-1 RNAs vanish in rrpC– strains. RNASeq reveals an asymmetric distribution of the DIRS-1 small RNAs, both along DIRS-1 and with respect to sense and antisense orientation. We show that RrpC is required for post-transcriptional DIRS-1 silencing and also for spreading of RNA silencing signals. Finally, DIRS-1 mis-regulation in the absence of RrpC leads to retrotransposon mobilization. In summary, our data reveal RrpC as a key player in the silencing of centromeric retrotransposon DIRS-1. RrpC acts at the post-transcriptional level and is involved in spreading of RNA silencing signals, both in the 5′ and 3′ directions. PMID:24369430

  14. Ligand-induced changes in the location of actin, myosin, 95K (alpha- actinin), and 120K protein in amebae of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    In this study we investigated concanavalin A (Con A) induced changes in the locations of actin, myosin, 120K, and 95K (alpha-actinin) to determine the extent to which actin and myosin are reorganized during capping and the roles that 120K and 95K might play in this reorganization. We observed the location of each protein by indirect immunofluorescence using affinity purified antibodies. Four morphological states were distinguished in vegetative Dictyostelium amebae: ameboid cells before Con A binding, patched cells, capped cells, and ameboid cells with caps. The location of each protein was distinct in ameboid cells both before and after capping Actin and 120K were found in the cell cortex usually associated with surface projections, and myosin and 95K were diffusely distributed. Myosin was excluded from surface projections in ameboid cells. During patching, all four proteins were localized below Con A patches. During capping, actin, myosin, and 95K protein moved with the Con A patches into the cap whereas 120K protein was excluded from the cap. During the late stages of cap formation actin and myosin were progressively lost from the cap, and 120K became concentrated in new actin-filled projections that formed away from the cap. However, 95K remained tightly associated with the cap. Poisoning cells with sodium azide inhibited capping but not patching of ligand. In azide-poisoned cells, myosin and 95K did not co-patch with Con A, whereas copatching of 120K and actin with Con A occurred as usual. Our results support the hypothesis that capping is an actomyosin-mediated motile event that involves a sliding interaction between actin filaments, which are anchored through the membrane to ligand patches, and myosin in the cortex. They are also consistent with a role for 120K in the formation of surface projections by promoting growth and/or cross-linking of actin filaments within projections, and with a role for 95K in regulating actomyosin-mediated contractility, earlier

  15. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid–stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Komachi, Mayumi; Homma, Yoshimi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-07

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), −2, and −3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5–20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC{sub 50} values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC{sub 50} values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. - Highlights: • LPA induces cell migration (invasion) in murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells. • DIFs are novel lead anti-tumor agents found in Dictyostelium discoideum. • We examined the effects of DIF derivatives on LPA-induced LM8 cell migration in vitro. • Some of the DIF derivatives inhibited LPA-induced LM8 cell migration.

  16. Self-organization of chemoattractant waves in Dictyostelium depends on F-actin and cell-substrate adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fukujin, Fumihito; Nakajima, Akihiko; Shimada, Nao; Sawai, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, travelling waves of extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) self-organize in cell populations and direct aggregation of individual cells to form multicellular fruiting bodies. In contrast to the large body of studies that addressed how movement of cells is determined by spatial and temporal cues encoded in the dynamic cAMP gradients, how cell mechanics affect the formation of a self-generated chemoattractant field has received less attention. Here, we show, by live cell imaging analysis, that the periodicity of the synchronized cAMP waves increases in cells treated with the actin inhibitor latrunculin. Detail analysis of the extracellular cAMP-induced transients of cytosolic cAMP (cAMP relay response) in well-isolated cells demonstrated that their amplitude and duration were markedly reduced in latrunculin-treated cells. Similarly, in cells strongly adhered to a poly-l-lysine-coated surface, the response was suppressed, and the periodicity of the population-level oscillations was markedly lengthened. Our results suggest that cortical F-actin is dispensable for the basic low amplitude relay response but essential for its full amplification and that this enhanced response is necessary to establish high-frequency signalling centres. The observed F-actin dependence may prevent aggregation centres from establishing in microenvironments that are incompatible with cell migration. PMID:27358278

  17. Extracellular chemical signal controlling phototactic behavior by D. discoideum slugs

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.R.; Smith, E.; Williams, K.L.

    1981-03-01

    Developing cells of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum release a low molecular weight metabolite (Slug Turning Factor, STF) which, at high uniform concentrations, interferes with phototaxis and thermotaxis by D. discoideum slugs. D. discoideum slugs migrating in darkness are repelled by (exhibit negative chemotaxis to) crude STF exudates. Dose-response curves relating the accuracies of phototaxis and negative chemotaxis to STF concentration indicate that, in both phototaxis and chemotaxis, slugs measure the ratios of STF concentrations on their opposite sides. Net STF release is enhanced by light. Researchers propose that light, focused onto the slug's distal side by its convex surface, generates a lateral STF gradient in response to which the slug turns toward the light source.

  18. The real factor for polypeptide elongation in Dictyostelium cells is EF-2B, not EF-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Tomoko; Maeda, Yasuo; Amagai, Aiko . E-mail: aiamagai@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Polypeptide elongation factor 2 (EF-2) plays an essential role in protein synthesis and is believed to be indispensable for cell proliferation. Recently, it has been demonstrated that there are two kinds of EF-2 (EF-2A and EF-2B with 76.6% of sequence identity at the amino acid level) in Dictyostelium discoideum. Although the knockout of EF-2A slightly impaired cytokinesis, EF-2A null cells exhibited almost normal protein synthesis and cell growth, suggesting that there is another molecule capable of compensating for EF-2 function. Since EF-2B is the most likely candidate, we examined its function using ef-2b knockdown cells prepared by the RNAi method. Our results strongly suggest that EF-2B is required for protein synthesis and cell proliferation, functioning as the real EF-2. Interestingly, the expressions of ef-2a and ef-2b mRNAs during development are reversely regulated, and the ef-2b expression is greatly augmented in ef-2a null cells.

  19. Crawling into a new era-the Dictyostelium genome project.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Ludwig; Noegel, Angelika A

    2003-05-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-established model organism for the study of basic aspects of differentiation, signal transduction, phagocytosis, cytokinesis and cell motility. Its genome is being sequenced by an international consortium using a whole chromosome shotgun approach. The pacemaker of the D.discoideum genome project has been chromosome 2, the largest chromosome, which at 8 Mb represents approximately 25% of the genome and whose sequence and analysis have been published recently. Chromosomes 1 and 6 are close to being finished. To accelerate completion of the genome sequence, the next step in the project will be a whole-genome assembly followed by the analysis of the complete gene content. The completed genome sequence and its analysis provide the basis for genome-wide functional studies. It will position Dictyostelium at the same level as other model organisms and further enhance its experimental attractiveness. PMID:12727861

  20. c-di-GMP induction of Dictyostelium cell death requires the polyketide DIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; Giusti, Corinne; Golstein, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cell death in the model organism Dictyostelium, as studied in monolayers in vitro, can be induced by the polyketide DIF-1 or by the cyclical dinucleotide c-di-GMP. c-di-GMP, a universal bacterial second messenger, can trigger innate immunity in bacterially infected animal cells and is involved in developmental cell death in Dictyostelium. We show here that c-di-GMP was not sufficient to induce cell death in Dictyostelium cell monolayers. Unexpectedly, it also required the DIF-1 polyketide. The latter could be exogenous, as revealed by a telling synergy between c-di-GMP and DIF-1. The required DIF-1 polyketide could also be endogenous, as shown by the inability of c-di-GMP to induce cell death in Dictyostelium HMX44A cells and DH1 cells upon pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DIF-1 biosynthesis. In these cases, c-di-GMP–induced cell death was rescued by complementation with exogenous DIF-1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that c-di-GMP could trigger cell death in Dictyostelium only in the presence of the DIF-1 polyketide or its metabolites. This identified another element of control to this cell death and perhaps also to c-di-GMP effects in other situations and organisms. PMID:25518941

  1. Cell-cell signaling and adhesion in phagocytosis and early development of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Bracco, E; Pergolizzi, B; Peracino, B; Ponte, E; Balbo, A; Mai, A; Ceccarelli, A; Bozzaro, S

    2000-01-01

    Cell-cell signaling and adhesion regulate transition from the unicellular to the multicellular stage of development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. Essential gene networks involved in these processes have been identified and their interplay dissected. Heterotrimeric G protein-linked signal transduction plays a key role in regulating expression of genes mediating chemotaxis or cell adhesion, as well as coordinating actin-based cell motility during phagocytosis and chemotaxis. Two classes of cell adhesion molecules, one cadherin-like and the second belonging to the IgG superfamily, contribute to the strength of adhesion in Dictyostelium aggregates. The developmental role of genes involved in motility and adhesion, and their degree of redundancy, have been re-assessed by using novel developmental assay conditions which are closer to development in nature. PMID:11061438

  2. Dictyostelium Cultivation, Transfection, Microscopy and Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Kay, Robert R; Traynor, David

    2015-01-01

    The real time visualisation of fluorescently tagged proteins in live cells using ever more sophisticated microscopes has greatly increased our understanding of the dynamics of key proteins during fundamental physiological processes such as cell locomotion, chemotaxis, cell division and membrane trafficking. In addition the fractionation of cells and isolation of organelles or known compartments can often verify any subcellular localisation and the use of tagged proteins as bait for the immunoprecipitation of material from cell fractions can identify specific binding partners and multiprotein complexes thereby helping assign a function to the tagged protein. We have successfully applied these techniques to the Dictyostelium discoideum protein TSPOON that is part of an ancient heterohexamer membrane trafficking complex (Hirst et al., 2013). TSPOON is the product of the tstD gene in Dictyostelium and is not required for growth or the developmental cycle in this organism. Dictyostelium amoebae will exist in a vegetative phase where growth is sustained by the phagocytosis of bacteria. When this food source is spent they enter a developmental phase where the amoebae aggregate, via chemotaxis to extracellular waves of cAMP, into multicellular structures that subsequently form a fruiting body containing viable spores (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). In the laboratory this cycle takes less than 24 h to complete and as a further aid to manipulation the requirement for a bacterial food source has been circumvented by the derivatisation of the wild type and isolation of axenic strains that can also grow in a nutrient rich broth. Axenic strains like Ax2 are the mainstay of laboratory research using Dictyostelium (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). A description of Dictyostelium cell cultivation, the generation of cell lines that overexpress TSPOON-GFP and TSPOON null cells, and subsequent analysis (Muller-Taubenberger and Ishikawa-Ankerhold, 2013) is detailed below. PMID

  3. Mechano-chemical signaling maintains the rapid movement of Dictyostelium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, M.L.; Knecht, D.A.; Lee, J.

    2008-05-01

    The survival of Dictyostelium cells depends on their ability to efficiently chemotax, either towards food or to form multicellular aggregates. Although the involvement of Ca{sup 2+} signaling during chemotaxis is well known, it is not clear how this regulates cell movement. Previously, fish epithelial keratocytes have been shown to display transient increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) that are mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels (SACs), which play a role in retraction of the cell body [J. Lee, A. Ishihara, G. Oxford, B. Johnson, and K. Jacobson, Regulation of cell movement is mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels. Nature, 1999. 400(6742): p. 382-6.]. To investigate the involvement of SACs in Dictyostelium movement we performed high resolution calcium imaging in wild-type (NC4A2) Dictyostelium cells to detect changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. We observed small, brief, Ca{sup 2+} transients in randomly moving wild-type cells that were dependent on both intracellular and extracellular sources of calcium. Treatment of cells with the SAC blocker gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) inhibited transients and decreased cell speed, consistent with the involvement of SACs in regulating Dictyostelium motility. Additional support for SAC activity was given by the increase in frequency of Ca{sup 2+} transients when Dictyostelium cells were moving on a more adhesive substratum or when they were mechanically stretched. We conclude that mechano-chemical signaling via SACs plays a major role in maintaining the rapid movement of Dictyostelium cells.

  4. A Model Based on Receptor Desensitization for Cyclic AMP Signaling in Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martiel, Jean-Louis; Goldbeter, Albert

    1987-01-01

    We analyze a model based on receptor modification for the cAMP signaling system that controls aggregation of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum after starvation. The model takes into account both the desensitization of the cAMP receptor by reversible phosphorylation and the activation of adenylate cyclase that follows binding of extracellular cAMP to the unmodified receptor. The dynamics of the signaling system is studied in terms of three variables, namely, intracellular and extracellular cAMP, and the fraction of receptor in active state. Using parameter values collected from experimental studies on cAMP signaling and receptor phosphorylation, we show that the model accounts qualitatively and, in a large measure, quantitatively for the various modes of dynamic behavior observed in the experiments: (a) autonomous oscillations of cAMP, (b) relay of suprathreshold cAMP pulses, i.e., excitability, characterized by both an absolute and a relative refractory period, and (c) adaptation to constant cAMP stimuli. A two-variable version of the model is used to demonstrate the link between excitability and oscillations by phase plane analysis. The response of the model to repetitive stimulation allows comprehension, in terms of receptor desensitization, of the role of periodic signaling in Dictyostelium and, more generally, the function of pulsatile patterns of hormone secretion. PMID:19431710

  5. TipC and the chorea-acanthocytosis protein VPS13A regulate autophagy in Dictyostelium and human HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Braceras, Sandra; Calvo, Rosa; Escalante, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Deficient autophagy causes a distinct phenotype in Dictyostelium discoideum, characterized by the formation of multitips at the mound stage. This led us to analyze autophagy in a number of multitipped mutants described previously (tipA−, tipB−, tipC−, and tipD−). We found a clear autophagic dysfunction in tipC− and tipD− while the others showed no defects. tipD codes for a homolog of Atg16, which confirms the role of this protein in Dictyostelium autophagy and validates our approach. The tipC-encoded protein is highly similar to human VPS13A (also known as chorein), whose mutations cause the chorea-acanthocytosis syndrome. No member of the VPS13 protein family has been previously related to autophagy despite the presence of a region of similarity to Atg2 at the C terminus. This region also contains the conserved domain of unknown function DUF1162. Of interest, the expression of the TipC C-terminal coding sequence containing these 2 motifs largely complemented the mutant phenotype. Dictyostelium cells lacking TipC displayed a reduced number of autophagosomes visualized with the markers GFP-Atg18 and GFP-Atg8 and an impaired autophagic degradation as determined by a proteolytic cleavage assay. Downregulation of human VPS13A in HeLa cells by RNA interference confirmed the participation of the human protein in autophagy. VPS13A-depleted cells showed accumulation of autophagic markers and impaired autophagic flux. PMID:25996471

  6. Guenther Gerisch and Dictyostelium, the microbial model for ameboid motility and multicellular morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bozzaro, Salvatore; Fisher, Paul R; Loomis, William; Satir, Peter; Segall, Jeffrey E

    2004-10-01

    Beginning in 1960 and continuing to this day, Guenther Gerisch's work on the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum has helped to make it the model organism of choice for studies of cellular activities that depend upon the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Gerisch has brought insight and quantitative rigor to cell biology by developing novel assays and by applying advanced genetic, biochemical and microscopic techniques to topics as varied as cell-cell adhesion, chemotaxis, motility, endocytosis and cytokinesis. PMID:15450981

  7. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells.

    PubMed

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Komachi, Mayumi; Homma, Yoshimi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), -2, and -3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5-20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC50 values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC50 values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. PMID:26056940

  8. Self-organized Motion During Dictyostelium amoebae aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert

    2004-03-01

    After starvation, amoeba of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum aggregate to form rudimentary multicellular organisms. The coordination of the individual motions of hundreds of thousands of individual cells is an important ingredient in the success of this process. This coordination is accomplished by chemical signaling during the early stages and by direct cell-cell interactions once the cells reach the nascent mound. This talk will review the basic nonequilibrium physics underlying the spatial patterns formed by these cooperative motions, including high-density incoming streams and spontaneously rotating mounds.

  9. Modeling oscillations and spiral waves in Dictyostelium populations.

    PubMed

    Noorbakhsh, Javad; Schwab, David J; Sgro, Allyson E; Gregor, Thomas; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-06-01

    Unicellular organisms exhibit elaborate collective behaviors in response to environmental cues. These behaviors are controlled by complex biochemical networks within individual cells and coordinated through cell-to-cell communication. Describing these behaviors requires new mathematical models that can bridge scales-from biochemical networks within individual cells to spatially structured cellular populations. Here we present a family of "multiscale" models for the emergence of spiral waves in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our models exploit new experimental advances that allow for the direct measurement and manipulation of the small signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) used by Dictyostelium cells to coordinate behavior in cellular populations. Inspired by recent experiments, we model the Dictyostelium signaling network as an excitable system coupled to various preprocessing modules. We use this family of models to study spatially unstructured populations of "fixed" cells by constructing phase diagrams that relate the properties of population-level oscillations to parameters in the underlying biochemical network. We then briefly discuss an extension of our model that includes spatial structure and show how this naturally gives rise to spiral waves. Our models exhibit a wide range of novel phenomena. including a density-dependent frequency change, bistability, and dynamic death due to slow cAMP dynamics. Our modeling approach provides a powerful tool for bridging scales in modeling of Dictyostelium populations. PMID:26172740

  10. Modeling oscillations and spiral waves in Dictyostelium populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorbakhsh, Javad; Schwab, David J.; Sgro, Allyson E.; Gregor, Thomas; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-06-01

    Unicellular organisms exhibit elaborate collective behaviors in response to environmental cues. These behaviors are controlled by complex biochemical networks within individual cells and coordinated through cell-to-cell communication. Describing these behaviors requires new mathematical models that can bridge scales—from biochemical networks within individual cells to spatially structured cellular populations. Here we present a family of "multiscale" models for the emergence of spiral waves in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our models exploit new experimental advances that allow for the direct measurement and manipulation of the small signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) used by Dictyostelium cells to coordinate behavior in cellular populations. Inspired by recent experiments, we model the Dictyostelium signaling network as an excitable system coupled to various preprocessing modules. We use this family of models to study spatially unstructured populations of "fixed" cells by constructing phase diagrams that relate the properties of population-level oscillations to parameters in the underlying biochemical network. We then briefly discuss an extension of our model that includes spatial structure and show how this naturally gives rise to spiral waves. Our models exhibit a wide range of novel phenomena. including a density-dependent frequency change, bistability, and dynamic death due to slow cAMP dynamics. Our modeling approach provides a powerful tool for bridging scales in modeling of Dictyostelium populations.

  11. Control of cell differentiation by mitochondria, typically evidenced in dictyostelium development.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasuo; Chida, Junji

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are self-reproducing organelles with their own DNA and they play a central role in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis by respiration. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria also have critical and multiple functions in the initiation of cell differentiation, cell-type determination, cell movement, and pattern formation. This has been most strikingly realized in development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. For example, the expression of the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S4 (mt-rps4) gene is required for the initial differentiation. The Dictyostelium homologue (Dd-TRAP1) of TRAP-1 (tumor necrosis receptor-associated protein 1), a mitochondrial molecular chaperone belonging to the Hsp90 family, allows the prompt transition of cells from growth to differentiation through a novel prestarvation factor (PSF-3) in growth medium. Moreover, a cell-type-specific organelle named a prespore-specific vacuole (PSV) is constructed by mitochondrial transformation with the help of the Golgi complex. Mitochondria are also closely involved in a variety of cellular activities including CN-resistant respiration and apoptosis. These mitochondrial functions are reviewed in this article, with special emphasis on the regulation of Dictyostelium development. PMID:24970198

  12. Lipid droplet dynamics at early stages of Mycobacterium marinum infection in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Barisch, Caroline; Paschke, Peggy; Hagedorn, Monica; Maniak, Markus; Soldati, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Lipid droplets exist in virtually every cell type, ranging not only from mammals to plants, but also to eukaryotic and prokaryotic unicellular organisms such as Dictyostelium and bacteria. They serve among other roles as energy reservoir that cells consume in times of starvation. Mycobacteria and some other intracellular pathogens hijack these organelles as a nutrient source and to build up their own lipid inclusions. The mechanisms by which host lipid droplets are captured by the pathogenic bacteria are extremely poorly understood. Using the powerful Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model, we observed that, immediately after their uptake, lipid droplets translocate to the vicinity of the vacuole containing live but not dead mycobacteria. Induction of lipid droplets in Dictyostelium prior to infection resulted in a vast accumulation of neutral lipids and sterols inside the bacterium-containing compartment. Subsequently, under these conditions, mycobacteria accumulated much larger lipid inclusions. Strikingly, the Dictyostelium homologue of perilipin and the murine perilipin 2 surrounded bacteria that had escaped to the cytosol of Dictyostelium or microglial BV-2 cells respectively. Moreover, bacterial growth was inhibited in Dictyostelium plnA knockout cells. In summary, our results provide evidence that mycobacteria actively manipulate the lipid metabolism of the host from very early infection stages. PMID:25772333

  13. Intracellular killing of bacteria: is Dictyostelium a model macrophage or an alien?

    PubMed Central

    Cosson, Pierre; Lima, Wanessa C

    2014-01-01

    Predation of bacteria by phagocytic cells was first developed during evolution by environmental amoebae. Many of the core mechanisms used by amoebae to sense, ingest and kill bacteria have also been conserved in specialized phagocytic cells in mammalian organisms. Here we focus on recent results revealing how Dictyostelium discoideum senses and kills non-pathogenic bacteria. In this model, genetic analysis of intracellular killing of bacteria has revealed a surprisingly complex array of specialized mechanisms. These results raise new questions on these processes, and challenge current models based largely on studies in mammalian phagocytes. In addition, recent studies suggest one additional level on complexity by revealing how Dictyostelium recognizes specifically various bacterial species and strains, and adapts its metabolism to process them. It remains to be seen to what extent mechanisms uncovered in Dictyostelium are also used in mammalian phagocytic cells. PMID:24628900

  14. Mound-Interface Kinetics in Dictyostelium Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutu, Hiroki

    2002-09-01

    The mound development of the cellular slime mold amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum is studied with an interface kinetic model for the height of cell layers. As a competitive role for the chemotaxis, we compare two types of curvature relaxations; the surface relaxation induced by cell-substrate affinity (model A), and that comes from a cell-cell adhesive effect (model B). It is found that both models are characterized by the growth law for the maximum mound height. Based on a self-similarity scaling hypothesis for the spatial structure of streaming pattern, we suggest a scaling law for the growth of mound-height hmax ˜ t1-1/α+β/α with α = 2 (4) for the model A (B) and a number 0 ≤ β < 1.

  15. Myosin-II-Mediated Directional Migration of Dictyostelium Cells in Response to Cyclic Stretching of Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Okimura, Chika; Sato, Katsuya; Nakashima, Yuta; Tsujioka, Masatsune; Minami, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Living cells are constantly subjected to various mechanical stimulations, such as shear flow, osmotic pressure, and hardness of substratum. They must sense the mechanical aspects of their environment and respond appropriately for proper cell function. Cells adhering to substrata must receive and respond to mechanical stimuli from the substrata to decide their shape and/or migrating direction. In response to cyclic stretching of the elastic substratum, intracellular stress fibers in fibroblasts and endothelial, osteosarcoma, and smooth muscle cells are rearranged perpendicular to the stretching direction, and the shape of those cells becomes extended in this new direction. In the case of migrating Dictyostelium cells, cyclic stretching regulates the direction of migration, and not the shape, of the cell. The cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to that of the stretching. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce the directional migration remain unknown. Here, using a microstretching device, we recorded green fluorescent protein (GFP)-myosin-II dynamics in Dictyostelium cells on an elastic substratum under cyclic stretching. Repeated stretching induced myosin II localization equally on both stretching sides in the cells. Although myosin-II-null cells migrated randomly, myosin-II-null cells expressing a variant of myosin II that cannot hydrolyze ATP migrated perpendicular to the stretching. These results indicate that Dictyostelium cells accumulate myosin II at the portion of the cell where a large strain is received and migrate in a direction other than that of the portion where myosin II accumulated. This polarity generation for migration does not require the contraction of actomyosin. PMID:23442953

  16. Adenylyl cyclase localization to the uropod of aggregating Dictyostelium cells requires RacC.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Jung, D; Cao, Z; Chung, C Y

    2015-09-25

    The localization of adenylyl cyclase A (ACA) to uropod of cells is required for the stream formation during Dictyostelium development. RacC is a Dictyostelium orthologue of Cdc42. We identified a streaming defect of racC(-) cells as they are clearly less polarized and form smaller and fragmented streams. ACA-YFP is mainly associated with intracellular vesicular structures, but not with the plasma membrane in racC(-) cells. racC(-) cells have a slightly higher number of vesicles than Ax3 cells, suggesting that the defect of ACA trafficking is not simply due to the lack of vesicle formation. While the ACA-YFP vesicles traveled with an average velocity of 9.1 μm/min in Ax3 cells, a slow and diffusional movement without direction with an average velocity of 4 μm/min was maintained in racC(-) cells. Images acquired by using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis revealed that a significantly decreased number of ACA-YFP vesicles appeared near the cell membrane, indicating a defect in ACA-YFP vesicle trafficking. These results suggest an important role of RacC in the rapid and directional movements of ACA vesicles on microtubules to the plasma membrane, especially to the back of polarized cell. PMID:26315268

  17. THE ABC TRANSPORTER, AbcB3, MEDIATES cAMP EXPORT IN D. DISCOIDEUM DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Edward Roshan; Nam, Edward A.; Kuspa, Adam; Shaulsky, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular cAMP functions as a primary ligand for cell surface cAMP receptors throughout Dictyostelium discoideum development, controlling chemotaxis and morphogenesis. The developmental consequences of cAMP signaling and the metabolism of cAMP have been studied in great detail, but it has been unclear how cells export cAMP across the plasma membrane. Here we show pharmacologically and genetically that ABC transporters mediate cAMP export. Using an evolutionary-developmental biology approach, we identified several candidate abc genes and characterized one of them, abcB3, in more detail. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that AbcB3 is a component of the cAMP export mechanism in D. discoideum development. PMID:25448698

  18. Dictyostelium Lipid Droplets Host Novel Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoli; Barisch, Caroline; Paschke, Peggy; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Bertinetti, Oliver; Pawolleck, Nadine; Otto, Heike; Rühling, Harald; Feussner, Ivo; Herberg, Friedrich W.

    2013-01-01

    Across all kingdoms of life, cells store energy in a specialized organelle, the lipid droplet. In general, it consists of a hydrophobic core of triglycerides and steryl esters surrounded by only one leaflet derived from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to which a specific set of proteins is bound. We have chosen the unicellular organism Dictyostelium discoideum to establish kinetics of lipid droplet formation and degradation and to further identify the lipid constituents and proteins of lipid droplets. Here, we show that the lipid composition is similar to what is found in mammalian lipid droplets. In addition, phospholipids preferentially consist of mainly saturated fatty acids, whereas neutral lipids are enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. Among the novel protein components are LdpA, a protein specific to Dictyostelium, and Net4, which has strong homologies to mammalian DUF829/Tmem53/NET4 that was previously only known as a constituent of the mammalian nuclear envelope. The proteins analyzed so far appear to move from the endoplasmic reticulum to the lipid droplets, supporting the concept that lipid droplets are formed on this membrane. PMID:24036346

  19. Dictyostelium lipid droplets host novel proteins.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoli; Barisch, Caroline; Paschke, Peggy; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Bertinetti, Oliver; Pawolleck, Nadine; Otto, Heike; Rühling, Harald; Feussner, Ivo; Herberg, Friedrich W; Maniak, Markus

    2013-11-01

    Across all kingdoms of life, cells store energy in a specialized organelle, the lipid droplet. In general, it consists of a hydrophobic core of triglycerides and steryl esters surrounded by only one leaflet derived from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to which a specific set of proteins is bound. We have chosen the unicellular organism Dictyostelium discoideum to establish kinetics of lipid droplet formation and degradation and to further identify the lipid constituents and proteins of lipid droplets. Here, we show that the lipid composition is similar to what is found in mammalian lipid droplets. In addition, phospholipids preferentially consist of mainly saturated fatty acids, whereas neutral lipids are enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. Among the novel protein components are LdpA, a protein specific to Dictyostelium, and Net4, which has strong homologies to mammalian DUF829/Tmem53/NET4 that was previously only known as a constituent of the mammalian nuclear envelope. The proteins analyzed so far appear to move from the endoplasmic reticulum to the lipid droplets, supporting the concept that lipid droplets are formed on this membrane. PMID:24036346

  20. Bitter tastant responses in the amoeba Dictyostelium correlate with rat and human taste assays.

    PubMed

    Cocorocchio, Marco; Ives, Robert; Clapham, David; Andrews, Paul L R; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-01-01

    Treatment compliance is reduced when pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste and this is particularly marked for paediatric medications. Identification of bitter taste liability during drug discovery utilises the rat in vivo brief access taste aversion (BATA) test which apart from animal use is time consuming with limited throughput. We investigated the suitability of using a simple, non-animal model, the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to investigate taste-related responses and particularly identification of compounds with a bitter taste liability. The effect of taste-related compounds on Dictyostelium behaviour following acute exposure (15 minutes) was monitored. Dictyostelium did not respond to salty, sour, umami or sweet tasting compounds, however, cells rapidly responded to bitter tastants. Using time-lapse photography and computer-generated quantification to monitor changes in cell membrane movement, we developed an assay to assess the response of Dictyostelium to a wide range of structurally diverse known bitter compounds and blinded compounds. Dictyostelium showed varying responses to the bitter tastants, with IC50 values providing a rank order of potency. Comparison of Dictyostelium IC50 values to those observed in response to a similar range of compounds in the rat in vivo brief access taste aversion test showed a significant (p = 0.0172) positive correlation between the two models, and additionally a similar response to that provided by a human sensory panel assessment test. These experiments demonstrate that Dictyostelium may provide a suitable model for early prediction of bitterness for novel tastants and drugs. Interestingly, a response to bitter tastants appears conserved from single-celled amoebae to humans. PMID:26708104

  1. Pycnosomes: Condensed Endosomal Structures Secreted by Dictyostelium Amoebae

    PubMed Central

    Sabra, Ayman; Leiba, Jade; Mas, Lauriane; Louwagie, Mathilde; Couté, Yohann; Journet, Agnès; Cosson, Pierre; Aubry, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum has been used largely as a model organism to study the organization and function of the endocytic pathway. Here we describe dense structures present in D. discoideum endocytic compartments, which we named pycnosomes. Pycnosomes are constitutively secreted in the extracellular medium, from which they can be recovered by differential centrifugation. We identified the most abundant protein present in secreted pycnosomes, that we designated SctA. SctA defines a new family of proteins with four members in D. discoideum, and homologous proteins in other protists and eumetazoa. We developed a monoclonal antibody specific for SctA and used it to further characterize secreted and intracellular pycnosomes. Within cells, immunofluorescence as well as electron microscopy identified pycnosomes as SctA-enriched dense structures in the lumen of endocytic compartments. Pycnosomes are occasionally seen in continuity with intra-endosomal membranes, particularly in U18666A-treated cells where intraluminal budding is highly enhanced. While the exact nature, origin and cellular function of pycnosomes remain to be established, this study provides a first description of these structures as well as a characterization of reagents that can be used for further studies. PMID:27187592

  2. Dictyostelium nucleomorphin is a member of the BRCT-domain family of cell cycle checkpoint proteins.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2004-11-18

    A search of the Dictyostelium genome project database (http://dictybase.org/db/cgi-bin/blast.pl) with nucleomorphin, a protein that regulates the nuclear number, predicted it to be encoded by a larger gene containing a putative breast cancer carboxy-terminus domain (BRCT). Using RT-PCR, Northern and Western blotting we have identified a differentially expressed, 2318 bp cDNA encoding a protein isoform of Dictyostelium NumA with an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa that we have called NumB. It contains a single amino-terminal BRCT-domain spanning residues 125-201. Starvation of shaking cultures reduces NumA expression by approximately 88+/-5.6%, whereas NumB expression increases approximately 35+/-3.5% from vegetative levels. NumC, a third isoform that is also expressed during development but not growth, remains to be characterized. These findings suggest NumB may be a member of the BRCT-domain containing cell cycle checkpoint proteins. PMID:15535983

  3. Cellular pattern formation during Dictyostelium aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfer, Thomas; Sherratt, Jonathan A.; Maini, Philip K.

    The development of multicellularity in the life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum provides a paradigm model system for biological pattern formation. Previously, mathematical models have shown how a collective pattern of cell communication by waves of the messenger molecule cyclic adenosine 3‧5‧-monophosphate (cAMP) arises from excitable local cAMP kinetics and cAMP diffusion. Here we derive a model of the actual cell aggregation process by considering the chemotactic cell response to cAMP and its interplay with the cAMP dynamics. Cell density, which previously has been treated as a spatially homogeneous parameter, is a crucial variable of the aggregation model. We find that the coupled dynamics of cell chemotaxis and cAMP reaction-diffusion lead to the break-up of the initially uniform cell layer and to the formation of the striking cell stream morphology which characterizes the aggregation process in situ. By a combination of stability analysis and two-dimensional simulations of the model equations, we show cell streaming to be the consequence of the growth of a small-amplitude pattern in cell density forced by the large-amplitude cAMP waves, thus representing a novel scenario of spatial patterning in a cell chemotaxis system. The instability mechanism is further analysed by means of an analytic caricature of the model, and the condition for chemotaxis-driven instability is found to be very similar to the one obtained for the standard (non-oscillatory) Keller-Segel system. The growing cell stream pattern feeds back into the cAMP dynamics, which can explain in some detail experimental observations on the time evolution of the cAMP wave pattern, and suggests the characterization of the Dictyostelium aggregation field as a self-organized excitable medium.

  4. Origin and function of the stalk-cell vacuole in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Uchikawa, Toru; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Inouye, Kei

    2011-04-01

    Large vacuoles are characteristic of plant and fungal cells, and their origin has long attracted interest. The cellular slime mould provides a unique opportunity to study the de novo formation of vacuoles because, in its life cycle, a subset of the highly motile animal-like cells (prestalk cells) rapidly develops a single large vacuole and cellulosic cell wall to become plant-like cells (stalk cells). Here we describe the origin and process of vacuole formation using live-imaging of Dictyostelium cells expressing GFP-tagged ammonium transporter A (AmtA-GFP), which was found to reside on the membrane of stalk-cell vacuoles. We show that stalk-cell vacuoles originate from acidic vesicles and autophagosomes, which fuse to form autolysosomes. Their repeated fusion and expansion accompanied by concomitant cell wall formation enable the stalk cells to rapidly develop turgor pressure necessary to make the rigid stalk to hold the spores aloft. Contractile vacuoles, which are rich in H(+)-ATPase as in plant vacuoles, remained separate from these vacuoles. We further argue that AmtA may play an important role in the control of stalk-cell differentiation by modulating the pH of autolysosomes. PMID:21256841

  5. A new traveling wave phenomenon of Dictyostelium in the presence of cAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ševčíková, Hana; Čejková, Jitka; Krausová, Lenka; Přibyl, Michal; Štěpánek, František; Marek, Miloš

    2010-06-01

    The emergence of wave patterns in chemical and biological systems is of interest for the understanding of development, differentiation, signaling, and other phenomena. In this work we report a new type of wave pattern - called the “global wave” - which was observed in populations of Dictyostelium discoideum cells exposed to an excess of cyclic adenosine- 3‧, 5‧- monophosphate (cAMP) added to the supporting agar. It has been found that the addition of different amounts of cAMP to the agar leads to important deviations from the standard course of aggregation: (i) the formation and propagation of a global wave that has not been observed before; (ii) the delayed onset or absence of cAMP waves patterning; (iii) an atypical mechanism of cells clustering; and (iv) a faster or incomplete developmental cycle. We suggest that the global wave is a chemotactic response of the Dictyostelium cells to a wave of the cAMP concentration.

  6. Nucleomorphin. A novel, acidic, nuclear calmodulin-binding protein from dictyostelium that regulates nuclear number.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2002-05-31

    Probing of Dictyostelium discoideum cell extracts after SDS-PAGE using (35)S-recombinant calmodulin (CaM) as a probe has revealed approximately three-dozen Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin binding proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning, expression, and subcellular localization of a gene encoding a novel calmodulin-binding protein (CaMBP); we have called nucleomorphin, from D. discoideum. A lambdaZAP cDNA expression library of cells from multicellular development was screened using a recombinant calmodulin probe ((35)S-VU1-CaM). The open reading frame of 1119 nucleotides encodes a polypeptide of 340 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 38.7 kDa and is constitutively expressed throughout the Dictyostelium life cycle. Nucleomorphin contains a highly acidic glutamic/aspartic acid inverted repeat (DEED) with significant similarity to the conserved nucleoplasmin domain and a putative transmembrane domain in the carboxyl-terminal region. Southern blotting reveals that nucleomorphin exists as a single copy gene. Using gel overlay assays and CaM-agarose we show that bacterially expressed nucleomorphin binds to bovine CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Amino-terminal fusion to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) showed that GFP-NumA localized to the nucleus as distinct arc-like patterns similar to heterochromatin regions. GFP-NumA lacking the acidic DEED repeat still showed arc-like accumulations at the nuclear periphery, but the number of nuclei in these cells was increased markedly compared with control cells. Cells expressing GFP-NumA lacking the transmembrane domain localized to the nuclear periphery but did not affect nuclear number or gross morphology. Nucleomorphin is the first nuclear CaMBP to be identified in Dictyostelium. Furthermore, these data present the first identification of a member of the nucleoplasmin family as a calmodulin-binding protein and suggest nucleomorphin has a role in nuclear structure in Dictyostelium. PMID:11919178

  7. Role of PKD2 in rheotaxis in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Lima, Wanessa C; Vinet, Adrien; Pieters, Jean; Cosson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The sensing of mechanical forces modulates several cellular responses as adhesion, migration and differentiation. Transient elevations of calcium concentration play a key role in the activation of cells following mechanical stress, but it is still unclear how eukaryotic cells convert a mechanical signal into an ion flux. In this study, we used the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum to assess systematically the role of individual calcium channels in mechanosensing. Our results indicate that PKD2 is the major player in the cell response to rheotaxis (i.e., shear-flow induced mechanical motility), while other putative calcium channels play at most minor roles. Mutant pkd2 KO cells lose the ability to orient relative to a shear flow, whereas their ability to move towards a chemoattractant is unaffected. PKD2 is also important for calcium-induced lysosome exocytosis: WT cells show a transient, 2-fold increase in lysosome secretion upon sudden exposure to high levels of extracellular calcium, but pkd2 KO cells do not. In Dictyostelium, PKD2 is specifically localized at the plasma membrane, where it may generate calcium influxes in response to mechanical stress or extracellular calcium changes. PMID:24520414

  8. Dissecting the function of Atg1 complex in Dictyostelium autophagy reveals a connection with the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Ana; Tábara, Luis C; Martinez-Costa, Oscar; Santos-Rodrigo, Natalia; Vincent, Olivier; Escalante, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    The network of protein-protein interactions of the Dictyostelium discoideum autophagy pathway was investigated by yeast two-hybrid screening of the conserved autophagic proteins Atg1 and Atg8. These analyses confirmed expected interactions described in other organisms and also identified novel interactors that highlight the complexity of autophagy regulation. The Atg1 kinase complex, an essential regulator of autophagy, was investigated in detail here. The composition of the Atg1 complex in D. discoideum is more similar to mammalian cells than to Saccharomyces cerevisiae as, besides Atg13, it contains Atg101, a protein not conserved in this yeast. We found that Atg101 interacts with Atg13 and genetic disruption of these proteins in Dictyostelium leads to an early block in autophagy, although the severity of the developmental phenotype and the degree of autophagic block is higher in Atg13-deficient cells. We have also identified a protein containing zinc-finger B-box and FNIP motifs that interacts with Atg101. Disruption of this protein increases autophagic flux, suggesting that it functions as a negative regulator of Atg101. We also describe the interaction of Atg1 kinase with the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase (TKT). We found changes in the activity of endogenous TKT activity in strains lacking or overexpressing Atg1, suggesting the presence of an unsuspected regulatory pathway between autophagy and the pentose phosphate pathway in Dictyostelium that seems to be conserved in mammalian cells. PMID:26246495

  9. Dissecting the function of Atg1 complex in Dictyostelium autophagy reveals a connection with the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Ana; Tábara, Luis C.; Martinez-Costa, Oscar; Santos-Rodrigo, Natalia; Vincent, Olivier; Escalante, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The network of protein–protein interactions of the Dictyostelium discoideum autophagy pathway was investigated by yeast two-hybrid screening of the conserved autophagic proteins Atg1 and Atg8. These analyses confirmed expected interactions described in other organisms and also identified novel interactors that highlight the complexity of autophagy regulation. The Atg1 kinase complex, an essential regulator of autophagy, was investigated in detail here. The composition of the Atg1 complex in D. discoideum is more similar to mammalian cells than to Saccharomyces cerevisiae as, besides Atg13, it contains Atg101, a protein not conserved in this yeast. We found that Atg101 interacts with Atg13 and genetic disruption of these proteins in Dictyostelium leads to an early block in autophagy, although the severity of the developmental phenotype and the degree of autophagic block is higher in Atg13-deficient cells. We have also identified a protein containing zinc-finger B-box and FNIP motifs that interacts with Atg101. Disruption of this protein increases autophagic flux, suggesting that it functions as a negative regulator of Atg101. We also describe the interaction of Atg1 kinase with the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase (TKT). We found changes in the activity of endogenous TKT activity in strains lacking or overexpressing Atg1, suggesting the presence of an unsuspected regulatory pathway between autophagy and the pentose phosphate pathway in Dictyostelium that seems to be conserved in mammalian cells. PMID:26246495

  10. Dictyostelium Dock180-related RacGEFs regulate the actin cytoskeleton during cell motility.

    PubMed

    Para, Alessia; Krischke, Miriam; Merlot, Sylvain; Shen, Zhouxin; Oberholzer, Michael; Lee, Susan; Briggs, Steven; Firtel, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Cell motility of amoeboid cells is mediated by localized F-actin polymerization that drives the extension of membrane protrusions to promote forward movements. We show that deletion of either of two members of the Dictyostelium Dock180 family of RacGEFs, DockA and DockD, causes decreased speed of chemotaxing cells. The phenotype is enhanced in the double mutant and expression of DockA or DockD complements the reduced speed of randomly moving DockD null cells' phenotype, suggesting that DockA and DockD are likely to act redundantly and to have similar functions in regulating cell movement. In this regard, we find that overexpressing DockD causes increased cell speed by enhancing F-actin polymerization at the sites of pseudopod extension. DockD localizes to the cell cortex upon chemoattractant stimulation and at the leading edge of migrating cells and this localization is dependent on PI3K activity, suggesting that DockD might be part of the pathway that links PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) production to F-actin polymerization. Using a proteomic approach, we found that DdELMO1 is associated with DockD and that Rac1A and RacC are possible in vivo DockD substrates. In conclusion, our work provides a further understanding of how cell motility is controlled and provides evidence that the molecular mechanism underlying Dock180-related protein function is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:19037099

  11. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  12. Rap1-dependent pathways coordinate cytokinesis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Plak, Katarzyna; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Kortholt, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the final step of mitosis when a mother cell is separated into two daughter cells. Major cytoskeletal changes are essential for cytokinesis; it is, however, not well understood how the microtubules and actomyosin cytoskeleton are exactly regulated in time and space. In this paper, we show that during the early stages of cytokinesis, in rounded-up Dictyostelium discoideum cells, the small G-protein Rap1 is activated uniformly at the cell cortex. When cells begin to elongate, active Rap1 becomes restricted from the furrow region, where the myosin contractile ring is subsequently formed. In the final stages of cytokinesis, active Rap1 is only present at the cell poles. Mutant cells with decreased Rap1 activation at the poles showed strongly decreased growth rates. Hyperactivation of Rap1 results in severe growth delays and defective spindle formation in adherent cells and cell death in suspension. Furthermore, Rap mutants show aberrant regulation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, resulting in extended furrow ingression times and asymmetrical cell division. We propose that Rap1 drives cytokinesis progression by coordinating the three major cytoskeletal components: microtubules, actin, and myosin II. Importantly, mutated forms of Rap also affect cytokinesis in other organisms, suggesting a conserved role for Rap in cell division. PMID:25298405

  13. Morphological changes and depressed phagocytic efficiency in Dictyostelium amoebae treated with toxic concentrations of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.J.; Bernstein, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    The morphology and phagocytic efficiency of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae exposed to cadmium was investigated at two Cd concentrations: a low toxic concentration - 7 x 10/sup -5/ m, and a high toxic concentration - 2 x 10/sup -4/ m. Both concentrations inhibited growth completely; however, only in the culture containing a high toxic concentration of cadmium were severe ultrastructural anomalies observed, notably, nucleolar changes and autophagic vacuolar formation. Using biological indices it was concluded that the high concentration of cadmium was lethal and that morphological changes associated with this dose of cadmium may be secondary to cell death. In contrast, amoebae treated with a low toxic but nonlethal concentration of Cd showed an altered size distribution of cytoplasmic vacuoles and a decreased phagocytic efficiency. Cultures whose growth was completely inhibited with cobalt were also examined, as were untreated control cultures. By 24 hr Cd-treated amoebae showed a 20% decrease in the cytoplasmic mean-vacuolar diameter and a 69% decrease in phagocytic efficiency whereas Co and untreated controls showed no significant decrease in the cytoplasmic mean-vacuolar diameter. Phagocytic efficiency was only slightly diminished by Co. Changes in vacuolar profiles had been shown earlier to be related to membrane utilization in Dictyostelium amoebae. Cd at low toxic concentrations affects membrane function in Dictyostelium amoebae.

  14. Learning Physics of Living Systems from Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Unlike a new generation of scientists that are being trained directly to work on the physics of living systems, most of us more senior members of the community had to find our way from other research areas. We all have our own stories as to how we made this transition. Here, I describe how a chance encounter with the eukaryotic microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum led to a decades-long research project and taught me valuable lessons about how physics and biology can be mutually supportive disciplines. PMID:25294248

  15. Learning physics of living systems from Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Unlike a new generation of scientists that are being trained directly to work on the physics of living systems, most of us more senior members of the community had to find our way from other research areas. We all have our own stories as to how we made this transition. Here, I describe how a chance encounter with the eukaryotic microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum led to a decades-long research project and taught me valuable lessons about how physics and biology can be mutually supportive disciplines.

  16. SH2 signaling in a lower eukaryote: a STAT protein that regulates stalk cell differentiation in dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Kawata, T; Shevchenko, A; Fukuzawa, M; Jermyn, K A; Totty, N F; Zhukovskaya, N V; Sterling, A E; Mann, M; Williams, J G

    1997-06-13

    The TTGA-binding factor is a transcriptional regulator activated by DIF, the chlorinated hexaphenone that induces prestalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. The same activity also functions as a repressor, controlling stalk cell differentiation. We show that the TTGA-binding factor is a STAT protein. Like the metazoan STATs, it functions via the reciprocal interaction of a phosphotyrosine residue on one molecule with an SH2 domain on a dimerizing partner. Furthermore, it will bind specifically to a mammalian interferon-stimulated response element. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the entire genomic sequence is known, SH2 domains have not been identified. It would seem, therefore, that SH2 signaling pathways arose very early in the evolution of multicellular organisms, perhaps to facilitate intercellular comunication. PMID:9200609

  17. Dictyostelium calcium-binding protein 4a interacts with nucleomorphin, a BRCT-domain protein that regulates nuclear number.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2004-09-17

    Nucleomorphin from Dictyostelium discoideum is a nuclear calmodulin-binding protein that is a member of the BRCT-domain containing cell cycle checkpoint proteins. Two differentially expressed isoforms, NumA and NumB, share an extensive acidic domain (DEED) that when deleted produces highly multinucleated cells. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a Dictyostelium cDNA library using NumA as bait. Here we show that nucleomorphin interacts with calcium-binding protein 4a (CBP4a) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Further deletion analysis suggests this interaction requires residues found within the DEED domain. NumA and CBP4a mRNAs are expressed at the same stages of development. CBP4a belongs to a large family of Dictyostelium CBPs, for which no cellular or developmental functions had previously been determined. Since the interaction of CBP4a with nucleomorphin requires the DEED domain, this suggests that CBP4a may respond to Ca(2+)-signalling through modulating factors that might function in concert to regulate nuclear number. PMID:15325281

  18. Preparation of an antibody that recognizes and neutralizes Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factor-1.

    PubMed

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Koji; Matsuo, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2010-05-28

    In the development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, the differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1; 1-(3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)hexan-1-one) plays an important role in the regulation of cell differentiation and chemotaxis; however, the cellular signaling systems involving DIF-1 remain to be elucidated. To obtain a probe for DIF-1, we synthesized a DIF derivative (DIF-1-NH(2); 6-amino-1-(3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)hexan-1-one), and prepared an anti-DIF-1 antibody using a DIF-1-NH(2)-conjugated macromolecule as the immunogen. A 100-fold dilution of the antibody bound to DIF-1-NH(2)-conjugated resin, and this binding was inhibited by co-addition of 20 microM DIF-1 or DIF-1-NH(2). In a monolayer culture of HM44 cells, a DIF-deficient D. discoideum strain, 0.5 nM exogenous DIF-1 induced stalk cell formation in approximately 60% of the cells; this induction was dose-dependently inhibited by the antibody (diluted 12.5- or 25-fold). Furthermore, this inhibition by the antibody was recovered by co-addition of 2.5 or10 nM DIF-1. The results indicate that the anti-DIF-1 antibody recognizes DIF-1 and neutralizes its function. PMID:20416278

  19. A Serum Response Factor homolog is required for spore differentiation in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Escalante, R; Sastre, L

    1998-10-01

    A homolog of the Serum Response Factor (SRF) has been isolated from Dictyostelium discoideum and its function studied by analyzing the consequences of its gene disruption. The MADS-box region of Dictyostelium SRF (DdSRF) is highly conserved with those of the human, Drosophila and yeast homologs. srfA is a developmentally regulated gene expressed in prespore and spore cells. This gene plays an essential role in sporulation as its disruption leads to abnormal spore morphology and loss of viability. The mutant spores were round and cellulose deposition seemed to be partially affected. Initial prestalk and prespore cell differentiation did not seem to be compromised in the mutant since the expression of several cell-type-specific markers were found to be unaffected. However, the mRNA level of the spore marker spiA was greatly reduced. Activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by 8-Br-cAMP was not able to fully bypass the morphological defects of srfA- mutant spores, although this treatment induced spiA mRNA expression. Our results suggest that DdSRF is required for full maturation of spores and participates in the regulation of the expression of the spore-coat marker spiA and probably other maturation genes necessary for proper spore cell differentiation. PMID:9729488

  20. An extracellular matrix, calmodulin-binding protein from Dictyostelium with EGF-like repeats that enhance cell motility.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Andres; Huber, Robert J; Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2011-07-01

    CyrA is a novel cysteine-rich protein with four EGFL repeats that was isolated using the calmodulin (CaM) binding overlay technique (CaMBOT), suggesting it is a CaM-binding protein (CaMBP). The full-length 63kDa cyrA is cleaved into two major C-terminal fragments, cyrA-C45 and cyrA-C40. A putative CaM-binding domain was detected and both CaM-agarose binding and CaM immunoprecipitation verified that cyrA-C45 and cyrA-C40 each bind to CaM in both a Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent manner. cyrA-C45 was present continuously throughout growth and development but was secreted at high levels during the multicellular slug stage of Dictyostelium development. At this time, cyrA localizes to the extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM purification verified the presence of cyrA-C45. An 18 amino acid peptide (DdEGFL1) from the first EGFL repeat sequence of cyrA (EGFL1) that is present in both cyrA-C45 and -C40 enhances both random cell motility and cAMP-mediated chemotaxis. Here we reveal that the dose-dependent enhancement of motility by DdEGFL1 is related to the time of cell starvation. Addition of DdEGFL1 also inhibits cyrA proteolysis. The status of cyrA as an extracellular CaMBP was further clarified by the demonstration that CaM is secreted during development. Antagonism of CaM with W7 resulted in enhanced cyrA proteolysis suggesting a functional role for extracellular CaM in protecting CaMBPs from proteolysis. cyrA is the first extracellular CaMBP identified in Dictyostelium and since it is an ECM protein with EGF-like repeats that enhance cell motility and it likely also represents the first matricellular protein identified in a lower eukaryote. PMID:21402150

  1. lagC-null and gbf-null cells define key steps in the morphogenesis of Dictyostelium mounds.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, S; Brown, J M; Firtel, R A; McNally, J G

    1998-08-01

    The transition to multicellularity is a key feature of the Dictyostelium life cycle, and two genes, gbf and lagC, are known to play pivotal roles in regulating this developmental switch. lagC-null and gbf-null cells fail to induce cell-type-specific genes ordinarily expressed during multicellular development. The null mutants also share a similar morphological phenotype: mutant cells repeatedly aggregate to form a loose mound, disperse, and reform a mound, rather than proceeding to form a tip. To characterize defects in morphogenesis in these mutants, we examined cell motion in the mutant mounds. In analogy with the failed transition in gene expression, we found that lagC-null and gbf-null mounds failed to make a morphogenetic transition from random to rotational motion normally observed in the parent strain. One reason for this was the inability of the mutant mounds to establish a single, dominant signaling-wave center. This defect of lagC-null or gbf-null cells could be overcome by the addition of adenosine, which alters cAMP signaling, but then even in the presence of apparently normal signaling waves, cell motility was still aberrant. This motility defect, as well as the signaling-wave defect, could be overcome in lagC-null cells by overexpression of GBF, suggesting that lagC is dispensable if GBF protein levels are high enough. This set of morphogenetic defects that we have observed helps define key steps in mound morphogenesis. These include the establishment of a dominant signaling-wave center and the capacity of cells to move directionally within the cell mass in response to guidance cues. PMID:9698452

  2. A functional connection of Dictyostelium paracaspase with the contractile vacuole and a possible partner of the vacuolar proton ATPase.

    PubMed

    Saheb, Entsar; Biton, Ithay; Maringer, Katherine; Bush, John

    2013-09-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum possesses only one caspase family member, paracaspase (pcp). Two separate mutant cell lines were first analysed: one cell line was an over-expressed GFP-tagged Pcp (GFP-Pcp), while the other cell line was a pcp-null (pcp-). Microscopic analysis of cells expressing GFP-Pcp revealed that Pcp was associated with the contractile vacuole membrane consisting of bladder-like vacuoles. This association was disrupted when cells were exposed to osmotic stress conditions. Compared with wild-type cells, the GFP-Pcp-over-expressing cells were susceptible to osmotic stress and were seen to be very rounded in hypo-osmotic conditions and contained more abnormally swollen contractile vacuole. Cells with pcp- were also rounded but had few, if any, contractile vacuoles. These observations suggest that Pcp is essential for Dictyostelium osmotic regulation via its functioning in the contractile vacuole system. Subjecting these cells to selected contractile vacuole inhibitor provided additional support for these findings. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid system identified vacuolar proton ATPase (VatM) as the protein interacting with Pcp. Taken together, this work gives evidence for an eukaryotic paracaspase to be associated with both localization in and regulation of the contractile vacuolar system, an organelle critical for maintaining the normal morphology of the cell. PMID:23938384

  3. Purification of the surface cAMP receptor in Dictyostelium

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, P.; Knox, B.; Borleis, J.; Devreotes, P.

    1987-01-05

    We have previously identified and demonstrated reversible ligand-induced modification of the major cell surface cAMP receptor in Dictyostelium discoideum. The receptor, or a subunit of it, has been purified to homogeneity by hydroxylapatite chromatography followed by two-dimensional preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purification was monitored by following /sup 32/Pi incorporated by photoaffinity labeling with 8-azido-(/sup 32/P)cAMP or by in vivo labeling with /sup 32/Pi. Two interconvertible forms of the receptor, designated R (Mr 40,000) and D (Mr 43,000), co-purified. Two-dimensional peptide maps of independently purified and /sup 125/I-iodinated R and D forms of the receptor were nearly identical but did have several distinct peptides. The estimated 6000-fold purification required is consistent with the number of cell surface binding sites assuming there are not multiple binding sites/polypeptide. In the accompanying article we report the generation of a monospecific polyclonal antiserum which has helped to further elucidate the physical properties and developmental regulation of the cAMP receptor.

  4. Differentiation-Inducing Factor-1 and -2 Function also as Modulators for Dictyostelium Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Kubohara, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    Background In the early stages of development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis toward cAMP plays a pivotal role in organizing discrete cells into a multicellular structure. In this process, a series of signaling molecules, such as G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for cAMP, phosphatidylinositol metabolites, and cyclic nucleotides, function as the signal transducers for controlling dynamics of cytoskeleton. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2) were originally identified as the factors (chlorinated alkylphenones) that induce Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, but it remained unknown whether the DIFs had any other physiologic functions. Methodology/Principal Findings To further elucidate the functions of DIFs, in the present study we investigated their effects on chemotaxis under various conditions. Quite interestingly, in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-1 suppressed chemotaxis whereas DIF-2 promoted it greatly. Analyses with various mutants revealed that DIF-1 may inhibit chemotaxis, at least in part, via GbpB (a phosphodiesterase) and a decrease in the intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP]i). DIF-2, by contrast, may enhance chemotaxis, at least in part, via RegA (another phosphodiesterase) and an increase in [cGMP]i. Using null mutants for DimA and DimB, the transcription factors that are required for DIF-dependent prestalk differentiation, we also showed that the mechanisms for the modulation of chemotaxis by DIFs differ from those for the induction of cell differentiation by DIFs, at least in part. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that DIF-1 and DIF-2 function as negative and positive modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report in any organism of physiologic modulators (small molecules) for chemotaxis having differentiation-inducing activity. PMID:19684855

  5. AP180-mediated trafficking of Vamp7B limits homotypic fusion of Dictyostelium contractile vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yujia; Stavrou, Irene; Bersuker, Kirill; Brady, Rebecca J; De Lozanne, Arturo; O'Halloran, Theresa J

    2009-10-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles play an established role in endocytosis from the plasma membrane, but they are also found on internal organelles. We examined the composition of clathrin-coated vesicles on an internal organelle responsible for osmoregulation, the Dictyostelium discoideum contractile vacuole. Clathrin puncta on contractile vacuoles contained multiple accessory proteins typical of plasma membrane-coated pits, including AP2, AP180, and epsin, but not Hip1r. To examine how these clathrin accessory proteins influenced the contractile vacuole, we generated cell lines that carried single and double gene knockouts in the same genetic background. Single or double mutants that lacked AP180 or AP2 exhibited abnormally large contractile vacuoles. The enlarged contractile vacuoles in AP180-null mutants formed because of excessive homotypic fusion among contractile vacuoles. The SNARE protein Vamp7B was mislocalized and enriched on the contractile vacuoles of AP180-null mutants. In vitro assays revealed that AP180 interacted with the cytoplasmic domain of Vamp7B. We propose that AP180 directs Vamp7B into clathrin-coated vesicles on contractile vacuoles, creating an efficient mechanism for regulating the internal distribution of fusion-competent SNARE proteins and limiting homotypic fusions among contractile vacuoles. Dictyostelium contractile vacuoles offer a valuable system to study clathrin-coated vesicles on internal organelles within eukaryotic cells. PMID:19692567

  6. Molecular biological approaches to study myosin functions in cytokinesis of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, T Q; Yumura, S

    2000-04-15

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is amenable to biochemical, cell biological, and molecular genetic analyses, and offers a unique opportunity for multifaceted approaches to dissect the mechanism of cytokinesis. One of the important questions that are currently under investigation using Dictyostelium is to understand how cleavage furrows or contractile rings are assembled in the equatorial region. Contractile rings consist of a number of components including parallel filaments of actin and myosin II. Phenotypic analyses and in vivo localization studies of cells expressing mutant myosin IIs have demonstrated that myosin II's transport to and localization at the equatorial region does not require regulation by phosphorylation of myosin II, specific amino acid sequences of myosin II, or the motor activity of myosin II. Rather, the transport appears to depend on a myosin II-independent flow of cortical cytoskeleton. What drives the flow of cortical cytoskeleton is still elusive. However, a growing number of mutants that affect assembly of contractile rings have been accumulated. Analyses of these mutations, identification of more cytokinesis-specific genes, and information deriving from other experimental systems, should allow us to understand the mechanism of contractile ring formation and other aspects of cytokinesis. PMID:10816252

  7. The GATA transcription factor GtaC regulates early developmental gene expression dynamics in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Balaji; Cai, Huaqing; Devreotes, Peter N; Shaulsky, Gad; Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    In many systems, including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, development is often marked by dynamic morphological and transcriptional changes orchestrated by key transcription factors. However, efforts to examine sequential genome-wide changes of gene regulation in developmental processes have been fairly limited. Here we report the developmental regulatory dynamics of GtaC, a GATA-type zinc-finger transcription factor, through the analyses of serial ChIP- and RNA-sequencing data. GtaC is essential for developmental progression, decoding extracellular cAMP pulses during early development and may play a role in mediating cell-type differentiation at later stages. We find that GtaC exhibits temporally distinctive DNA-binding patterns concordant with each developmental stage. We identify direct GtaC targets and observe cotemporaneous GtaC-binding and developmental expression regulation. Our results suggest that GtaC regulates multiple physiological processes as Dictyostelium transitions from a group of unicellular amoebae to an integrated multicellular organism. PMID:26144553

  8. The GATA transcription factor GtaC regulates early developmental gene expression dynamics in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Balaji; Cai, Huaqing; Devreotes, Peter N.; Shaulsky, Gad; Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    In many systems, including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, development is often marked by dynamic morphological and transcriptional changes orchestrated by key transcription factors. However, efforts to examine sequential genome-wide changes of gene regulation in developmental processes have been fairly limited. Here we report the developmental regulatory dynamics of GtaC, a GATA-type zinc-finger transcription factor, through the analyses of serial ChIP- and RNA-sequencing data. GtaC is essential for developmental progression, decoding extracellular cAMP pulses during early development and may play a role in mediating cell-type differentiation at later stages. We find that GtaC exhibits temporally distinctive DNA-binding patterns concordant with each developmental stage. We identify direct GtaC targets and observe cotemporaneous GtaC-binding and developmental expression regulation. Our results suggest that GtaC regulates multiple physiological processes as Dictyostelium transitions from a group of unicellular amoebae to an integrated multicellular organism. PMID:26144553

  9. Searching strategies in Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Cox, Edward

    2007-03-01

    Levy walks are known to be the best strategy for optimizing non-destructive search times, while an intermittent two-state searching process optimizes the destructive case. Here we ask about hunting strategy in Dictyostelium amoebae when they cannot know where their food is. We show that correlated random walks with two typical correlation time scales bias their search, improving the search outcome. Further analysis indicates that cell trajectories consist of runs and turns. Strikingly, amoebae remember the last turn, and have a strong turning preference away from the last turn. Autocorrelation analysis of turn sequences indicates that this tendency does not persist beyond the nth+1 turn. Computer simulations reveal that this bias contributes to the longer of the two correlation times. The search rules are essentially the same when cells are continuously stimulated by cAMP, with different persistence times and lengths. Interestingly, new pseudopods form in an orientation opposite to the following turn. One of the correlation timescales is approximately 30 seconds in all cases, thus indicating a short-lived cellular process, while the other is 9 to 15 minutes suggesting a process sensitive to external signals, perhaps pseudopod extensions during turning.

  10. Enhanced thymidine uptake causes the lowered thymidine requirement of D. discoideum auxotroph HPS 401

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, D.L.; Deering, R.A. )

    1988-11-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum strain HPS 401 contains a spontaneous mutation that lowers the amount of thymidine required for cell growth relative to that of the auxotrophic parental strain HPS 400. Assays for enzymes related to thymidine metabolism reveal that none of the strains tested (HPS 401, HPS 400, and prototrophic HPS 83 cells) contain detectable thymidine phosphorylase activity and that the specific activity of thymidine kinase is the same in these three strains. Thin-layer chromatography of extracts from cells grown on radiolabeled thymidine shows that there is no detectable conversion of thymidine to thymine in any of these strains. These analyses show that HPS 401 has rapid intracellular accumulation of thymidine, while only slight uptake is observed with HPS 400 or wild-type strains. HPS 401 also shows greater uptake of uridine in comparison to HPS 400 and wild-type cells. Thymidylate uptake was the same for all three strains. Thus, the mutation giving rise to the HPS 401 phenotype selectively increases the uptake of thymidine into the cell, where it can be efficiently utilized for DNA synthesis by the salvage pathways of nucleotide metabolism.

  11. A flavin-dependent halogenase catalyzes the chlorination step in the biosynthesis of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Christopher S.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Kay, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor 1 (DIF-1) is a polyketide-derived morphogen which drives stalk cell formation in the developmental cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum. Previous experiments demonstrated that the biosynthetic pathway proceeds via dichlorination of the precursor molecule THPH, but the enzyme responsible for this transformation has eluded characterization. Our recent studies on prokaryotic flavin-dependent halogenases and insights from the sequenced Dd genome led us to a candidate gene for this transformation. In this work, we present in vivo and in vitro evidence that chlA from Dd encodes a flavin-dependent halogenase capable of catalyzing both chlorinations in the biosynthesis of DIF-1. The results provide in vitro characterization of a eukaryotic oxygen-dependent halogenase and demonstrate a broad reach in biology for this molecular tailoring strategy, notably its involvement in the differentiation program of a social amoeba. PMID:20231486

  12. Skipper, an LTR retrotransposon of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Leng, P; Klatte, D H; Schumann, G; Boeke, J D; Steck, T L

    1998-01-01

    The complete sequence of a retrotransposon from Dictyostelium discoideum , named skipper , was obtained from cDNA and genomic clones. The sequence of a nearly full-length skipper cDNA was similar to that of three other partially sequenced cDNAs. The corresponding retrotransposon is represented in approximately 15-20 copies and is abundantly transcribed. Skipper contains three open reading frames (ORFs) with an unusual sequence organization, aspects of which resemble certain mammalian retroviruses. ORFs 1 and 3 correspond to gag and pol genes; the second ORF, pro, corresponding to protease, was separated from gag by a single stop codon followed shortly thereafter by a potential pseudoknot. ORF3 (pol) was separated from pro by a +1 frameshift. ORFs 2 and 3 overlapped by 32 bp. The computed amino acid sequences of the skipper ORFs contain regions resembling retrotransposon polyprotein domains, including a nucleic acid binding protein, aspartyl protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase. Skipper is the first example of a retrotransposon with a separate pro gene. Skipper is also novel in that it appears to use stop codon suppression rather than frameshifting to modulate pro expression. Finally, skipper and its components may provide useful tools for the genetic characterization of Dictyostelium. PMID:9518497

  13. The cooperative amoeba: Dictyostelium as a model for social evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Si I; Purugganan, Michael D

    2011-02-01

    Social interactions, including cooperation and altruism, are characteristic of numerous species, but many aspects of the evolution, ecology and genetics of social behavior remain unclear. The microbial soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a model system for the study of social evolution and provides insights into the nature of social cooperation and its genetic basis. This species exhibits altruism during both asexual and sexual cycles of its life history, and recent studies have uncovered several possible genetic mechanisms associated with kin discrimination and cheating behavior during asexual fruiting-body formation. By contrast, the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie sexual macrocyst formation remain largely enigmatic. D. discoideum, given its utility in molecular genetic studies, should continue to help us address these and other relevant questions in sociobiology, and thereby contribute to a coherent theoretical framework for the nature of social cooperation. PMID:21167620

  14. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Maringer, Katherine; Saheb, Entsar; Bush, John

    2014-01-01

    Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA), and dominant negative (DN) forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses. PMID:25157910

  15. Matricellular signal transduction involving calmodulin in the social amoebozoan dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Huber, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes a developmental sequence wherein an extracellular matrix (ECM) sheath surrounds a group of differentiating cells. This sheath is comprised of proteins and carbohydrates, like the ECM of mammalian tissues. One of the characterized ECM proteins is the cysteine-rich, EGF-like (EGFL) repeat-containing, calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein (CaMBP) CyrA. The first EGFL repeat of CyrA increases the rate of random cell motility and cyclic AMP-mediated chemotaxis. Processing of full-length CyrA (~63 kDa) releases two major EGFL repeat-containing fragments (~45 kDa and ~40 kDa) in an event that is developmentally regulated. Evidence for an EGFL repeat receptor also exists and downstream intracellular signaling pathways involving CaM, Ras, protein kinase A and vinculin B phosphorylation have been characterized. In total, these results identify CyrA as a true matricellular protein comparable in function to tenascin C and other matricellular proteins from mammalian cells. Insight into the regulation and processing of CyrA has also been revealed. CyrA is the first identified extracellular CaMBP in this eukaryotic microbe. In keeping with this, extracellular CaM (extCaM) has been shown to be present in the ECM sheath where it binds to CyrA and inhibits its cleavage to release the 45 kDa and 40 kDa EGFL repeat-containing fragments. The presence of extCaM and its role in regulating a matricellular protein during morphogenesis extends our understanding of CaM-mediated signal transduction in eukaryotes. PMID:24705101

  16. The STE group kinase SepA controls cleavage furrow formation in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Müller-Taubenberger, Annette; Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Hellen C; Kastner, Peter M; Burghardt, Emmanuel; Gerisch, Günther

    2009-11-01

    During a REMI screen for proteins regulating cytokinesis in Dictyostelium discoideum we isolated a mutant forming multinucleate cells. The gene affected in this mutant encoded a kinase, SepA, which is an ortholog of Cdc7, a serine-threonine kinase essential for septum formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Localization of SepA-GFP in live cells and its presence in isolated centrosomes indicated that SepA, like its upstream regulator Spg1, is associated with centrosomes. Knockout mutants of SepA showed a severe cytokinesis defect and a delay in development. In multinucleate SepA-null cells nuclear division proceeded normally and synchronously. However, often cleavage furrows were either missing or atypical: they were extremely asymmetric and constriction was impaired. Cortexillin-I, a marker localizing strictly to the furrow in wild-type cells, demonstrated that large, crescent-shaped furrows expanded and persisted long after the spindle regressed and nuclei returned to the interphase state. Outside the furrow the filamentous actin system of the cell cortex showed strong ruffling activity. These data suggest that SepA is involved in the spatial and temporal control system organizing cortical activities in mitotic and postmitotic cells. PMID:19479821

  17. Nse1 and Nse4, subunits of the Smc5-Smc6 complex, are involved in Dictyostelium development upon starvation.

    PubMed

    Taniura, Hideo; Tanabe, Naoya; Bando, Yumi; Arai, Natsumi

    2015-08-01

    The Smc5-Smc6 complex contains a heterodimeric core of two SMC proteins and non-Smc elements (Nse1-6), and plays an important role in DNA repair. We investigated the functional roles of Nse4 and Nse1 in Dictyostelium discoideum. Nse4 and Nse3 expressed as Flag-tagged fusion proteins were highly enriched in nuclei, while Nse1 was localized in whole cells. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, only the interaction between Nse3 and Nse1 was detected among the combinations. However, all of the interactions among these three proteins were recognized by co-immunoprecipitation assay using cell lysates prepared from the cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)- or Flag-tagged fusion proteins. GFP-tagged Nse1, which localized in whole cells, was translocated to nuclei when co-expressed with Flag-tagged Nse3 or Nse4. RNAi-mediated Nse1 and Nse4 knockdown cells (Nse1 KD and Nse4 KD cells) were generated and found to be more sensitive to UV-induced cell death than control cells. Upon starvation, Nse1 and Nse4 KD cells had increases in the number of smaller fruiting bodies that formed on non-nutrient agar plates or aggregates that formed under submerged culture. We found a reduction in the mRNA level of pdsA, in vegetative and 8 h-starved Nse4 KD cells, and pdsA knockdown cells displayed effects similar to Nse4 KD cells. Our results suggest that Nse4 and Nse1 are involved in not only the cellular DNA damage response but also cellular development in D. discoideum. PMID:26036668

  18. A cell's sense of direction.

    PubMed

    Parent, C A; Devreotes, P N

    1999-04-30

    In eukaryotic cells directional sensing is mediated by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-linked signaling pathways. In Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae and mammalian leukocytes, the receptors and G-protein subunits are uniformly distributed around the cell perimeter. Chemoattractants induce the transient appearance of binding sites for several pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins on the inner face of the membrane. In gradients of attractant these sites are persistently present on the side of the cell facing the higher concentration, even in the absence of a functional actin cytoskeleton or cell movement. Thus, the cell senses direction by spatially regulating the activity of the signal transduction pathway. PMID:10221901

  19. Dictyostelium ribosomal protein genes and the elongation factor 1B gene show coordinate developmental regulation which is under post-transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Blumberg, D D

    1999-06-01

    Starvation for amino acids initiates the developmental program in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum [19, 20]. One of the earliest developmental events is the decline in ribosomal protein synthesis [2, 17, 29, 30]. The ribosomal protein mRNAs are excluded from polysomes with 20 min to 1 h following the removal of nutrients, and their mRNA levels decline sharply at about 9 h into the 24-h developmental cycle [28, 31, 35, 36]. It has been generally assumed that the decline in r-protein mRNA levels during late development reflected a decline in the transcription rate [12, 32, 43]. Here we demonstrate that this is not the case. The transcription rates of three ribosomal protein genes, rpL11, rpL23 and rpS9 as well as an elongation factor 1B gene have been determined during growth and development in Dictyostelium. Throughout growth and development the transcription rate of the ribosomal protein genes remains relatively constant at 0.2%-0.5% of the rate of rRNA transcription while the elongation factor 1B gene is transcribed at 0.4%-0.6% of the rRNA rate. This low but constant transcription rate is in contrast to a spore coat protein gene Psp D, which is transcribed at 6% of the rRNA rate in late developing cells. The elongation factor 1B gene appears to be co-regulated with the ribosomal protein genes both in terms of its transcription rate and mRNA accumulation. Dictyostelium has been a popular model for understanding signal transduction and the growth to differentiation transition, thus it is of significance that the regulation of ribosome biosynthesis in Dictyostelium resembles that of higher eukaryotes in being regulated largely at the post-transcriptional level in response to starvation as opposed to yeasts where the regulation is largely transcriptional [27]. PMID:10374261

  20. Adhesion of D. discoideum on Hydrophobic Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Ploscariu, Nicoleta

    2015-03-01

    Adhesion by amoeboid cells, such as D. discoideum, is poorly understood but critical for other behaviors such as phagocytosis and migration. Furthermore, both leucocytes and breast cancer cells employ the amoeboid mode of movement at various points in their life-cycles. Hence, improved knowledge of amoeboid adhesion may lead to be new strategies for controlling other important cellular processes. This study regards adhesion by D. discoideum on silanized glass substrates. Reflection interference contrast microscopy is used in conjunction with other methods to determine the contact angle, cell-medium interfacial energy, and adhesion energy of these cells. The contact angle of individual cells settling under gravity onto a substrate is observed to increase as the size of the contact patch increases. This behavior occurs on slower time-scales than expected for the settling of inert vesicles. The implications of this observation on the nature of the underlying forces will be discussed. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-646966.

  1. One stop shop for everything Dictyostelium: dictyBase and the Dicty Stock Center in 2012.

    PubMed

    Fey, Petra; Dodson, Robert J; Basu, Siddhartha; Chisholm, Rex L

    2013-01-01

    dictyBase (http://dictybase.org), the model organism database for Dictyostelium discoideum, includes the complete genome sequence and expression data for this organism. Relevant literature is integrated into the database, and gene models and functional annotation are manually curated from experimental results and comparative multigenome analyses. dictyBase has recently expanded to include the genome sequences of three additional Dictyostelids and has added new software tools to facilitate multigenome comparisons. The Dicty Stock Center, a strain and plasmid repository for Dictyostelium research, has relocated to Northwestern University in 2009. This allowed us integrating all Dictyostelium resources to better serve the research community. In this chapter, we will describe how to navigate the Web site and highlight some of our newer improvements. PMID:23494302

  2. Kinetics of cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Chamaraux, F; Fache, S; Bruckert, F; Fourcade, B

    2005-04-22

    Cell spreading is a fundamental event where the contact area with a solid substrate increases because of actin polymerization. We propose in this Letter a physical model to study the growth of the contact area with time. This analysis is compared with experimental data using the ameoba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our model couples the stress, which builds up at the margin of the contact area when the cell spreads, to the biochemical processes of actin polymerization. This leads to a scaling analysis of experimental data with a characteristic time whose order of magnitude compares well with our experimental results. PMID:15904192

  3. Kinetics of Cell Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamaraux, F.; Fache, S.; Bruckert, F.; Fourcade, B.

    2005-04-01

    Cell spreading is a fundamental event where the contact area with a solid substrate increases because of actin polymerization. We propose in this Letter a physical model to study the growth of the contact area with time. This analysis is compared with experimental data using the ameoba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our model couples the stress, which builds up at the margin of the contact area when the cell spreads, to the biochemical processes of actin polymerization. This leads to a scaling analysis of experimental data with a characteristic time whose order of magnitude compares well with our experimental results.

  4. Self-organization of chemoattractant waves in Dictyostelium depends on F-actin and cell–substrate adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Fukujin, Fumihito; Nakajima, Akihiko; Shimada, Nao; Sawai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, travelling waves of extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) self-organize in cell populations and direct aggregation of individual cells to form multicellular fruiting bodies. In contrast to the large body of studies that addressed how movement of cells is determined by spatial and temporal cues encoded in the dynamic cAMP gradients, how cell mechanics affect the formation of a self-generated chemoattractant field has received less attention. Here, we show, by live cell imaging analysis, that the periodicity of the synchronized cAMP waves increases in cells treated with the actin inhibitor latrunculin. Detail analysis of the extracellular cAMP-induced transients of cytosolic cAMP (cAMP relay response) in well-isolated cells demonstrated that their amplitude and duration were markedly reduced in latrunculin-treated cells. Similarly, in cells strongly adhered to a poly-l-lysine-coated surface, the response was suppressed, and the periodicity of the population-level oscillations was markedly lengthened. Our results suggest that cortical F-actin is dispensable for the basic low amplitude relay response but essential for its full amplification and that this enhanced response is necessary to establish high-frequency signalling centres. The observed F-actin dependence may prevent aggregation centres from establishing in microenvironments that are incompatible with cell migration. PMID:27358278

  5. When Cells Collide: A Model for Cell-Assisted Cell Growth based on Direct Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Ip, Wui; Bae, Albert; Franck, Nathan; Bogart, Elijah; Thi Le, Thanhbinh

    2008-03-01

    Although intercellular communication is frequently viewed as involving the transport of small molecules through an intracellular fluid medium, biologists have proposed chemical signaling with chemical specificity due to chemical recognition through direct contacts. Considering the collective computation behind the decision of a cell to divide when it senses the presence of a sufficient number of like neighbors, we offer a model for the transition from slow to exponential growth in shaken suspension cell culture of the model eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum. Besides exploring an elegantly simple example of multicellular life, this discussion might well prove useful in considering the limits of cell culture on small spatial scales as required for contemporary massively parallel biotechnology.

  6. Actin Foci Adhesion of D. discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Paneru, Govind

    2014-03-01

    Amoeboid migration is a fast (10 μm min-1) integrin-independent mode of migration that is important with D. discoideum, leukocytes, and breast cancer cells. It is poorly understood, but depends on the establishment of adhesive contacts to the substrate where the cell transmits traction forces. In pre-aggregative D. discoideum, a model system for learning about amoeboid migration, these adhesive contacts are discrete complexes that are known as actin-foci. They have an area of ~ 0.5 μm2 and a lifetime of ~ 20 s. This talk will present measurements of the adhesive character of actin foci that have been obtained using a submicron force transducer that was designed for this purpose. Results on the rupture stresses and lifetimes of individual acting foci under nano-newton level forces will be described in the context of a general theory for cellular adhesion. This theory depends on, essentially, three cellular properties: the membrane-medium surface tension, the number density of adhesion receptors in the membrane, and the receptor-substrate potential energy surface. Therefore, the use of the transducer to determine the surface tension will be presented, as well.

  7. Organization of microtubule assemblies in Dictyostelium syncytia depends on the microtubule crosslinker, Ase1.

    PubMed

    Tikhonenko, Irina; Irizarry, Karen; Khodjakov, Alexey; Koonce, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    It has long been known that the interphase microtubule (MT) array is a key cellular scaffold that provides structural support and directs organelle trafficking in eukaryotic cells. Although in animal cells, a combination of centrosome nucleating properties and polymer dynamics at the distal microtubule ends is generally sufficient to establish a radial, polar array of MTs, little is known about how effector proteins (motors and crosslinkers) are coordinated to produce the diversity of interphase MT array morphologies found in nature. This diversity is particularly important in multinucleated environments where multiple MT arrays must coexist and function. We initiate here a study to address the higher ordered coordination of multiple, independent MT arrays in a common cytoplasm. Deletion of a MT crosslinker of the MAP65/Ase1/PRC1 family disrupts the spatial integrity of multiple arrays in Dictyostelium discoideum, reducing the distance between centrosomes and increasing the intermingling of MTs with opposite polarity. This result, coupled with previous dynein disruptions suggest a robust mechanism by which interphase MT arrays can utilize motors and crosslinkers to sense their position and minimize overlap in a common cytoplasm. PMID:26298292

  8. Protein misfolding in Dictyostelium: Using a freak of nature to gain insight into a universal problem

    PubMed Central

    Malinovska, Liliana; Alberti, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prion-like proteins can undergo conformational rearrangements from an intrinsically disordered to a highly ordered amyloid state. This ability to change conformation is encoded in distinctive domains, termed prion domains (PrDs). Previous work suggests that PrDs change conformation to affect protein function and create phenotypic diversity. More recent work shows that PrDs can also undergo many weak interactions when disordered, allowing them to organize the intracellular space into dynamic compartments. However, mutations within PrDs and altered aggregation properties have also been linked to age-related diseases in humans. Thus, the physiological role of prion-like proteins, the mechanisms regulating their conformational promiscuity and the links to disease are still unclear. Here, we summarize recent work with prion-like proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum. This work was motivated by the finding that D. discoideum has the highest content of prion-like proteins of all organisms investigated to date. Surprisingly, we find that endogenous and exogenous prion-like proteins remain soluble in D. discoideum and do not misfold and aggregate. We provide evidence that this is due to specific adaptations in the protein quality control machinery, which may allow D. discoideum to tolerate its highly aggregation-prone proteome. We predict that D. discoideum will be an important model to study the function of prion-like proteins and their mechanistic links to disease. PMID:26529309

  9. Dictyostelium possesses highly diverged presenilin/γ-secretase that regulates growth and cell-fate specification and can accurately process human APP: a system for functional studies of the presenilin/γ-secretase complex

    PubMed Central

    McMains, Vanessa C.; Myre, Michael; Kreppel, Lisa; Kimmel, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Presenilin (PS) is the catalytic moiety of the γ-secretase complex. PS and other γ-secretase components are well conserved among metazoa, but their presence and function in more-distant species are not resolved. Because inappropriate γ-secretase processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in humans is associated with familial Alzheimer’s disease, understanding essential elements within each γ-secretase component is crucial to functional studies. Diverged proteins have been identified in primitive plants but experiments have failed to demonstrate γ-secretase activity. We have identified highly diverged orthologs for each γ-secretase component in the ancient eukaryote Dictyostelium, which lacks equivalents of APP, Notch and other characterized PS/γ-secretase substrates. We show that wild-type (WT) Dictyostelium is capable of amyloidogenic processing of ectopically expressed human APP to generate amyloid-β peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42; strains deficient in γ-secretase cannot produce Aβ peptides but accumulate processed intermediates of APP that co-migrate with the C-terminal fragments α- and β-CTF of APP that are found in mammalian cells. We further demonstrate that Dictyostelium requires PS for phagocytosis and cell-fate specification in a cell-autonomous manner, and show that regulation of phagocytosis requires an active γ-secretase, a pathway suggested, but not proven, to occur in mammalian and Drosophila cells. Our results indicate that PS signaling is an ancient process that arose prior to metazoan radiation, perhaps independently of Notch. Dictyostelium might serve to identify novel PS/γ-secretase signaling targets and provide a unique system for high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries to select new therapeutic targets for diseases associated with this pathway. PMID:20699477

  10. Dictyostelium possesses highly diverged presenilin/gamma-secretase that regulates growth and cell-fate specification and can accurately process human APP: a system for functional studies of the presenilin/gamma-secretase complex.

    PubMed

    McMains, Vanessa C; Myre, Michael; Kreppel, Lisa; Kimmel, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    Presenilin (PS) is the catalytic moiety of the gamma-secretase complex. PS and other gamma-secretase components are well conserved among metazoa, but their presence and function in more-distant species are not resolved. Because inappropriate gamma-secretase processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in humans is associated with familial Alzheimer's disease, understanding essential elements within each gamma-secretase component is crucial to functional studies. Diverged proteins have been identified in primitive plants but experiments have failed to demonstrate gamma-secretase activity. We have identified highly diverged orthologs for each gamma-secretase component in the ancient eukaryote Dictyostelium, which lacks equivalents of APP, Notch and other characterized PS/gamma-secretase substrates. We show that wild-type (WT) Dictyostelium is capable of amyloidogenic processing of ectopically expressed human APP to generate amyloid-beta peptides Abeta(40) and Abeta(42); strains deficient in gamma-secretase cannot produce Abeta peptides but accumulate processed intermediates of APP that co-migrate with the C-terminal fragments alpha- and beta-CTF of APP that are found in mammalian cells. We further demonstrate that Dictyostelium requires PS for phagocytosis and cell-fate specification in a cell-autonomous manner, and show that regulation of phagocytosis requires an active gamma-secretase, a pathway suggested, but not proven, to occur in mammalian and Drosophila cells. Our results indicate that PS signaling is an ancient process that arose prior to metazoan radiation, perhaps independently of Notch. Dictyostelium might serve to identify novel PS/gamma-secretase signaling targets and provide a unique system for high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries to select new therapeutic targets for diseases associated with this pathway. PMID:20699477

  11. Myosins and cell dynamics in cellular slime molds.

    PubMed

    Yumura, Shigehiko; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2003-01-01

    Myosin is a mechanochemical transducer and serves as a motor for various motile activities such as cell migration, cytokinesis, maintenance of cell shape, phagocytosis, and morphogenesis. Nonmuscle myosin in vivo does not either stay static at specific subcellular regions or construct highly organized structures, such as sarcomere in skeletal muscle cells. The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is an ideal "model organism" for the investigation of cell movement and cytokinesis. The advantages of this organism prompted researchers to carry out pioneering cell biological, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies on myosin II, which resulted in elucidation of many fundamental features of function and regulation of this most abundant molecular motor. Furthermore, recent molecular biological research has revealed that many unconventional myosins play various functions in vivo. In this article, how myosins are organized and regulated in a dynamic manner in Dictyostelium cells is reviewed and discussed. PMID:12722951

  12. The Dictyostelium MAPK ERK1 is phosphorylated in a secondary response to early developmental signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schwebs, David J.; Hadwiger, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that the two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Dictyostelium discoideum, ERK1 and ERK2, can be directly activated in response to external cAMP even though these MAPKs play different roles in the developmental life cycle. To better characterize MAPK regulation, the levels of phosphorylated MAPKs were analyzed in response to external signals. Only ERK2 was rapidly phosphorylated in response to the chemoattractants, cAMP and folate. In contrast, the phosphorylation of ERK1 occurred as a secondary or indirect response to these stimuli and this phosphorylation was enhanced by cell-cell interactions, suggesting that other external signals can activate ERK1. The phosphorylation of ERK1 or ERK2 did not require the function of the other MAPK in these responses. Folate stimulation of a chimeric population of erk1− and gα4− cells revealed that the phosphorylation of ERK1 could be mediated through an intercellular signal other than folate. Loss of ERK1 function suppressed the developmental delay and the deficiency in anterior cell localization associated with gα5− mutants suggesting that ERK1 function can be down regulated through Gα5 subunit-mediated signaling. However, no major changes in the phosphorylation of ERK1 were observed in gα5− cells suggesting that the Gα5 subunit signaling pathway does not regulate the phosphorylation of ERK1. These findings suggest that the activation of ERK1 occurs as a secondary response to chemoattractants and that other cell-cell signaling mechanisms contribute to this activation. Gα5 subunit signaling can down regulate ERK1 function to promote prestalk cell development but not through major changes to the level of phosphorylated ERK1. PMID:25451080

  13. The C Isoform of Dictyostelium Tetraspanins Localizes to the Contractile Vacuole and Contributes to Resistance against Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Albers, Tineke; Maniak, Markus; Beitz, Eric; von Bülow, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Tetraspanins (Tsps) are membrane proteins that are widely expressed in eukaryotic organisms. Only recently, Tsps have started to acquire relevance as potential new drug targets as they contribute, via protein-protein interactions, to numerous pathophysiological processes including infectious diseases and cancer. However, due to a high number of isoforms and functional redundancy, knowledge on specific functions of most Tsps is still scarce. We set out to characterize five previously annotated Tsps, TspA-E, from Dictyostelium discoideum, a model for studying proteins that have human orthologues. Using reverse transcriptase PCRs, we found mRNAs for TspA-E in the multicellular slug stage, whereas vegetative cells expressed only TspA, TspC and, to a lesser extent, TspD. We raised antibodies against TspA, TspC and TspD and detected endogenous TspA, as well as heterologously expressed TspA and TspC by Western blot. N-deglycosylation assays and mutational analyses showed glycosylation of TspA and TspC in vivo. GFP-tagged Tsps co-localized with the proton pump on the contractile vacuole network. Deletion strains of TspC and TspD exibited unaltered growth, adhesion, random motility and development. Yet, tspC- cells showed a defect in coping with hypo-osmotic stress, due to accumulation of contractile vacuoles, but heterologous expression of TspC rescued their phenotype. In conclusion, our data fill a gap in Dictyostelium research and open up the possibility that Tsps in contractile vacuoles of e.g. Trypanosoma may one day constitute a valuable drug target for treating sleeping sickness, one of the most threatening tropical diseases. PMID:27597994

  14. Burkholderia bacteria infectiously induce the proto-farming symbiosis of Dictyostelium amoebae and food bacteria.

    PubMed

    DiSalvo, Susanne; Haselkorn, Tamara S; Bashir, Usman; Jimenez, Daniela; Brock, Debra A; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2015-09-01

    Symbiotic associations can allow an organism to acquire novel traits by accessing the genetic repertoire of its partner. In the Dictyostelium discoideum farming symbiosis, certain amoebas (termed "farmers") stably associate with bacterial partners. Farmers can suffer a reproductive cost but also gain beneficial capabilities, such as carriage of bacterial food (proto-farming) and defense against competitors. Farming status previously has been attributed to amoeba genotype, but the role of bacterial partners in its induction has not been examined. Here, we explore the role of bacterial associates in the initiation, maintenance, and phenotypic effects of the farming symbiosis. We demonstrate that two clades of farmer-associated Burkholderia isolates colonize D. discoideum nonfarmers and infectiously endow them with farmer-like characteristics, indicating that Burkholderia symbionts are a major driver of the farming phenomenon. Under food-rich conditions, Burkholderia-colonized amoebas produce fewer spores than uncolonized counterparts, with the severity of this reduction being dependent on the Burkholderia colonizer. However, the induction of food carriage by Burkholderia colonization may be considered a conditionally adaptive trait because it can confer an advantage to the amoeba host when grown in food-limiting conditions. We observed Burkholderia inside and outside colonized D. discoideum spores after fruiting body formation; this observation, together with the ability of Burkholderia to colonize new amoebas, suggests a mixed mode of symbiont transmission. These results change our understanding of the D. discoideum farming symbiosis by establishing that the bacterial partner, Burkholderia, is an important causative agent of the farming phenomenon. PMID:26305954

  15. Chemotaxis of a model organism: progress with Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Nichols, John Me; Veltman, Douwe; Kay, Robert R

    2015-10-01

    Model organisms have been key to understanding many core biological processes. Dictyostelium amoebae have the attributes required to perform this role for chemotaxis, and by providing an evolutionary distant reference point to mammalian cells, they allow the central features of chemotaxis to be discerned. Here we highlight progress with Dictyostelium in understanding: pseudopod and bleb driven movement; the role of the actin cytoskeleton; chemotactic signal processing, including how cells adapt to background stimulation, and the controversial role of PIP3. Macropinocytosis and the axenic mutations are raised as potential confounding factors, while the identification of new players through proteomics holds great promise. PMID:26183444

  16. Positive genetic feedback governs cAMP spiral wave formation in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, H; Aranson, I; Tsimring, L; Truong, T V

    1996-01-01

    The aggregation stage of the life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum is governed by the chemotactic response of individual amoebae to excitable waves of cAMP. We modeled this process through a recently introduced hybrid automata-continuum scheme and used computer simulation to unravel the role of specific components of this complex developmental process. Our results indicated an essential role for positive feedback between the cAMP signaling and the expression of the genes encoding the signal transduction and response machinery. PMID:8692824

  17. Pattern formation in Dictyostelium via the dynamics of cooperative biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    1993-12-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum exhibits a variety of spatial patterns as it aggregates to form a multicellular slug. These patterns arise via the interaction of the aggregating amoebae, either via contact or as mediated by chemical signals involving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP). We model this system as a set of reaction-diffusion equations coupled to dynamical biological entities (bions), each of which is endowed with signal receptors and response rules. Simulations of our model reveal a close correspondence with the observed structures. Also, the general framework we propose should be suitable for modeling other biological pattern-forming processes.

  18. Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells.

    PubMed

    Potma, E; de Boeij, W P; van Haastert, P J; Wiersma, D A

    2001-02-13

    Intracellular water concentrations in single living cells were visualized by nonlinear coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In combination with isotopic exchange measurements, CARS microscopy allowed the real-time observation of transient intracellular hydrodynamics at a high spatial resolution. Studies of the hydrodynamics in the microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum indicated the presence of a microscopic region near the plasma membrane where the mobility of water molecules is severely restricted. Modeling the transient hydrodynamics eventuated in the determination of cell-specific cytosolic diffusion and plasma membrane permeability constants. Our experiments demonstrate that CARS microscopy offers an invaluable tool for probing single-cell water dynamics. PMID:11171993

  19. Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells

    PubMed Central

    Potma, Eric O.; de Boeij, Wim P.; van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular water concentrations in single living cells were visualized by nonlinear coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In combination with isotopic exchange measurements, CARS microscopy allowed the real-time observation of transient intracellular hydrodynamics at a high spatial resolution. Studies of the hydrodynamics in the microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum indicated the presence of a microscopic region near the plasma membrane where the mobility of water molecules is severely restricted. Modeling the transient hydrodynamics eventuated in the determination of cell-specific cytosolic diffusion and plasma membrane permeability constants. Our experiments demonstrate that CARS microscopy offers an invaluable tool for probing single-cell water dynamics. PMID:11171993

  20. Dictyostelium acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase is a dual-localizing enzyme that localizes to peroxisomes, mitochondria and the cytosol.

    PubMed

    Isezaki, Nana; Sekiba, Atsushi; Itagaki, Shoko; Nagayama, Koki; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Ohmachi, Tetsuo

    2015-07-01

    Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase is an enzyme that catalyses both the CoA-dependent thiolytic cleavage of acetoacetyl-CoA and the reverse condensation reaction. In Dictyostelium discoideum, acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (DdAcat) is encoded by a single acat gene. The aim of this study was to assess the localization of DdAcat and to determine the mechanism of its cellular localization. Subcellular localization of DdAcat was investigated using a fusion protein with GFP, and it was found to be localized to peroxisomes. The findings showed that the targeting signal of DdAcat to peroxisomes is a unique nonapeptide sequence (15RMYTTAKNL23) similar to the conserved peroxisomal targeting signal-2 (PTS-2). Cell fractionation experiments revealed that DdAcat also exists in the cytosol. Distribution to the cytosol was caused by translational initiation from the second Met codon at position 16. The first 18 N-terminal residues also exhibited function as a mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS). These results indicate that DdAcat is a dual-localizing enzyme that localizes to peroxisomes, mitochondria and the cytosol using both PTS-2 and MTS signals, which overlap each other near the N-terminus, and the alternative utilization of start codons. PMID:25911059

  1. Biochemical and structural characterizations of two Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolases from the amoebozoa kingdom reveal a high level of conservation between distant phylogenetic trees of life

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; et al

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes often employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7Amore » and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Finally, taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  2. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Two Dictyostelium Cellobiohydrolases from the Amoebozoa Kingdom Reveal a High Level of Conservation Between Distant Phylogenetic Trees of Life

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; et al

    2016-06-01

    Glycoside Hydrolase Family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are commonly employed enzymes in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions remain regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes. Here, we present crystal structures and biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum and Dictyostelium purpureum (DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A, respectively). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures, resolved to 2.1 Amore » (DdiCel7A), and 2.7 A (DpuCel7A), are homologous to other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH from Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A) occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product binding sites. To compare the activity of these enzymes with TreCel7A, the Family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker was added to the C-terminus of the Dictyostelium enzymes, DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyze Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose is significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 uM, respectively. Taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable conservation in the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  3. Subunits I and II of Dictyostelium cytochrome c oxidase are specified by a single open reading frame transcribed into a large polycistronic RNA.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, R; Anjard, C; Bisson, R

    1997-05-16

    A single open reading frame (ORF) encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1/2) was identified in the mitochondrial genome of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The cox1 coding region shares intron positions with its counterparts in fungi and algae. Northern blot analysis, using exon and intron-specific probes, suggests that the cox1/2 gene is transcribed as part of a large, efficiently processed, polycistronic RNA. PMID:9186775

  4. Light-Directed Migration of D. discoideum Slugs in Microfabricated Confinements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Ennis, Herbert L.; Nguyen, Thai Huu; Zhuang, Xuye; Luo, Ji; Yao, Jun; Kessin, Richard H.; Stojanovic, Milan; Lin, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the light-driven migration of the multi-cellular microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum as a potential bio-actuation mechanism in microsystems. As a platform for slug migration we use microscale confinements, which consist of intersecting microchannels fabricated from solidified agar-water solution. The agar surface provides necessary moisture to the slugs during the experiment while remaining sufficiently stiff to allow effective slug migration. The movements of the slugs in the microchannels are driven and guided by phototaxis via controlling light transmitted through optical fibers. The microchannels impose geometrical confinements on the migrating slugs, improving the spatial precision of the migration. We demonstrate that slugs that form in a microchamber can be driven to migrate through the microchannels, as well as steered to a particular direction at microchannel intersections. Our experimental results indicate that slug movements can be more effectively controlled in microchannels, and potentially useful for bio-actuation applications. PMID:24723742

  5. The Evolution of Aggregative Multicellularity and Cell-Cell Communication in the Dictyostelia.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingyou; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Schilde, Christina; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2015-11-20

    Aggregative multicellularity, resulting in formation of a spore-bearing fruiting body, evolved at least six times independently amongst both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Amongst eukaryotes, this form of multicellularity is mainly studied in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. In this review, we summarise trends in the evolution of cell-type specialisation and behavioural complexity in the four major groups of Dictyostelia. We describe the cell-cell communication systems that control the developmental programme of D. discoideum, highlighting the central role of cAMP in the regulation of cell movement and cell differentiation. Comparative genomic studies showed that the proteins involved in cAMP signalling are deeply conserved across Dictyostelia and their unicellular amoebozoan ancestors. Comparative functional analysis revealed that cAMP signalling in D. discoideum originated from a second messenger role in amoebozoan encystation. We highlight some molecular changes in cAMP signalling genes that were responsible for the novel roles of cAMP in multicellular development. PMID:26284972

  6. Burkholderia bacteria infectiously induce the proto-farming symbiosis of Dictyostelium amoebae and food bacteria

    PubMed Central

    DiSalvo, Susanne; Haselkorn, Tamara S.; Bashir, Usman; Jimenez, Daniela; Brock, Debra A.; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic associations can allow an organism to acquire novel traits by accessing the genetic repertoire of its partner. In the Dictyostelium discoideum farming symbiosis, certain amoebas (termed “farmers”) stably associate with bacterial partners. Farmers can suffer a reproductive cost but also gain beneficial capabilities, such as carriage of bacterial food (proto-farming) and defense against competitors. Farming status previously has been attributed to amoeba genotype, but the role of bacterial partners in its induction has not been examined. Here, we explore the role of bacterial associates in the initiation, maintenance, and phenotypic effects of the farming symbiosis. We demonstrate that two clades of farmer-associated Burkholderia isolates colonize D. discoideum nonfarmers and infectiously endow them with farmer-like characteristics, indicating that Burkholderia symbionts are a major driver of the farming phenomenon. Under food-rich conditions, Burkholderia-colonized amoebas produce fewer spores than uncolonized counterparts, with the severity of this reduction being dependent on the Burkholderia colonizer. However, the induction of food carriage by Burkholderia colonization may be considered a conditionally adaptive trait because it can confer an advantage to the amoeba host when grown in food-limiting conditions. We observed Burkholderia inside and outside colonized D. discoideum spores after fruiting body formation; this observation, together with the ability of Burkholderia to colonize new amoebas, suggests a mixed mode of symbiont transmission. These results change our understanding of the D. discoideum farming symbiosis by establishing that the bacterial partner, Burkholderia, is an important causative agent of the farming phenomenon. PMID:26305954

  7. Contact-mediated cell-assisted cell proliferation in a model eukaryotic single-cell organism: An explanation for the lag phase in shaken cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Ip, Wui; Bae, Albert; Franck, Nathan; Bogart, Elijah; Le, Thanhbinh Thi

    2008-04-01

    In cell culture, when cells are inoculated into fresh media, there can be a period of slow (or lag phase) growth followed by a transition to exponential growth. This period of slow growth is usually attributed to the cells’ adaptation to a new environment. However, we argue that, based on observations of shaken suspension culture of Dictyostelium discoideum, a model single-cell eukaryote, this transition is due to a density effect. Attempts to demonstrate the existence of implicit cell signaling via long-range diffusible messengers (i.e., soluble growth factors) through cell-medium separation and microfluidic flow perturbation experiments produced negative results. This, in turn, led to the development of a signaling model based on direct cell-to-cell contacts. Employing a scaling argument for the collision rate due to fluid shear, we reasonably estimate the crossover density for the transition into the exponential phase and fit the observed growth kinetics.

  8. ¹H, ¹⁵N, ¹³C assignment and secondary structure determination of two domains of La protein from D. discoideum.

    PubMed

    Apostolidi, Maria; Vourtsis, Dionysios J; Chasapis, Christos T; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2014-04-01

    Biosynthesis of RNA polymerase III transcripts requires binding of the La protein at their 3' end. La is an abundant nuclear RNA-binding protein which protects the nascent transcripts from 3' exonuclease degradation. Here, we report the high yield expression and preliminary structural analysis through NMR spectroscopy of two recombinant RNA binding domains (La motif and NRRM) from the La protein of Dictyostelium discoideum. Both recombinant protein constructs were well-folded and allowed for an almost complete sequence-specific assignment of the (15)N and (13)C labeled domains and their secondary structure prediction using PECAN online tool. PMID:23239108

  9. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui

    2016-05-01

    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.

  10. MAPKs in development: insights from Dictyostelium signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hadwiger, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Hoai-Nghia

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important roles in the development of eukaryotic organisms through the regulation of signal transduction pathways stimulated by external signals. MAPK signaling pathways have been associated with the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and chemotaxis, indicating MAPKs contribute to a diverse set of developmental processes. In most eukaryotes, the diversity of external signals is likely to far exceed the diversity of MAPKs, suggesting that multiple signaling pathways might share MAPKs. Do different signaling pathways converge before MAPK function or can MAPKs maintain signaling specificity through interactions with specific proteins? The genetic and biochemical analysis of MAPK pathways in simple eukaryotes such as Dictyostelium offers opportunities to investigate functional specificity of MAPKs in G protein-mediated signal transduction pathways. This review considers the regulation and specificity of MAPK function in pathways that control Dictyostelium growth and development. PMID:21666837

  11. A 138-kDa glycoprotein from Dictyostelium membranes with folate deaminase and folate binding activity.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R A; Jacobs-Krahnen, D; Mutzel, R; Malchow, D; Wurster, B

    1992-03-15

    A 138-kDa glycoprotein comprising folate deaminase activity was purified to apparent homogeneity from membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum. Deaminase activity could be effectively inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate. This treatment protected folate from deamination and thus allowed investigation of folate binding to deaminase fractions. Two types of folate binding sites, differing in affinity and specificity, were detected on the folate deaminase glycoprotein. One type displays high affinity and binds folate stronger than N10-methylfolate. This binding site appears to be identical with the catalytic site of folate deaminase. The other type of binding site shows lower affinity but prefers N10-methylfolate relative to folate. A similar preference for N10-methylfolate was observed in chemotaxis tests pointing to the possibility that the second type of binding site is involved in chemotactic perception of folate compounds. Folate perception and deamination could thus be performed by activities residing on the same polypeptide. PMID:1544893

  12. An epithelial tissue in Dictyostelium challenges the traditional origin of metazoan multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Daniel J; Nelson, W James; Weis, William I

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesize that aspects of animal multicellularity originated before the divergence of metazoans from fungi and social amoebae. Polarized epithelial tissues are a defining feature of metazoans and contribute to the diversity of animal body plans. The recent finding of a polarized epithelium in the non-metazoan social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum demonstrates that epithelial tissue is not a unique feature of metazoans, and challenges the traditional paradigm that multicellularity evolved independently in social amoebae and metazoans. An alternative view, presented here, is that the common ancestor of social amoebae, fungi, and animals spent a portion of its life cycle in a multicellular state and possessed molecular machinery necessary for forming an epithelial tissue. Some descendants of this ancestor retained multicellularity, while others reverted to unicellularity. This hypothesis makes testable predictions regarding tissue organization in close relatives of metazoans and provides a novel conceptual framework for studies of early animal evolution. PMID:22930590

  13. Dynamic contact guidance of migrating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losert, Wolfgang; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Fourkas, John

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the effects of nanotopographical surfaces on the cell migration and cell shape dynamics of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Amoeboid motion exhibits significant contact guidance along surfaces with nanoscale ridges or grooves. We show quantitatively that nanoridges spaced 1.5 μm apart exhibit the greatest contact guidance efficiency. Using principal component analysis, we characterize the dynamics of the cell shape modulated by the coupling between the cell membrane and ridges. We show that motion parallel to the ridges is enhanced, while the turning, at the largest spatial scales, is suppressed. Since protrusion dynamics are principally governed by actin dynamics, we imaged the actin polymerization of cells on ridges. We found that actin polymerization occurs preferentially along nanoridges in a ``monorail'' like fashion. The ridges then provide us with a tool to study actin dynamics in an effectively reduced dimensional system.

  14. Viscoelastic Mapping of Living Cell Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Doris; Sackmann, Erich; Koehler, Jana; Gerisch, Guenther

    2004-03-01

    We performed spatially resolved mapping of the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm of living cell interiors. A magnetic tweezer was applied as a local probe for the investigation of active and passive transport inside the slime mold cells Dictyostelium discoideum. Fluorescence labeled components, i.e. the microtubulins, the endoplasmatic reticulum or the core, allow for the determination of the interaction of the magnetic probes with the cytoplasm. By comparing the trajectories of the magnetic beads in the presence of an external magnetic force and in the absence of an external force, we can measure the viscosity at any given position within the cell. These experiments show that the cytoplasm consists of soft pathways (yield stress less or equal 10 Pa) and hard pathways (yield stress less or equal 500 Pa). Selective actin, myosin II or microtubulin network removal in the living cells allows for the determination of the influence of these cell parts on the viscoelastic properties.

  15. Kin Discrimination in Dictyostelium Social Amoebae.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Joan E

    2016-05-01

    Evolved cooperation is stable only when the benefactor is compensated, either directly or through its relatives. Social amoebae cooperate by forming a mobile multicellular body in which, about 20% of participants ultimately die to form a stalk. This benefits the remaining individuals that become hardy spores at the top of the stalk, together making up the fruiting body. In studied species with stalked migration, P. violaceum, D. purpureum, and D. giganteum, sorting based on clone identity occurs in laboratory mixes, maintaining high relatedness within the fruiting bodies. D. discoideum has unstalked migration, where cell fate is not fixed until the slug forms a fruiting body. Laboratory mixes show some degree of both spatial and genotype-based sorting, yet most laboratory fruiting bodies remain chimeric. However, wild fruiting bodies are made up mostly of clonemates. A genetic mechanism for sorting is likely to be cell adhesion genes tgrB1 and tgrC1, which bind to each other. They are highly variable, as expected for a kin discrimination gene. It is a puzzle that these genes do not cause stronger discrimination between mixed wild clones, but laboratory conditions or strong sorting early in the social stage diminished by later slug fusion could be explanations. PMID:26909677

  16. The IQGAP-related protein DGAP1 interacts with Rac and is involved in the modulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton and control of cell motility.

    PubMed

    Faix, J; Clougherty, C; Konzok, A; Mintert, U; Murphy, J; Albrecht, R; Mühlbauer, B; Kuhlmann, J

    1998-10-01

    DGAP1 of Dictyostelium discoideum is a cell cortex associated 95 kDa protein that shows homology to both RasGTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs) and RasGAP-related proteins. When tested for RasGAP activity, recombinant DGAP1 protein did not promote the GTPase activity of human H-Ras or of Dictyostelium RasG in vitro. Instead, DGAP1 bound to Dictyostelium Rac1A and human Rac1, but not to human Cdc42. DGAP1 preferentially interacted with the activated GTP-bound forms of Rac1 and Rac1A, but did not affect the GTPase activities. Since Rho-type GTPases are implicated in the formation of specific F-actin structures and in the control of cell morphology, the microfilament system of mutants that either lack or overexpress DGAP1 has been analysed. DGAP1-null mutants showed elevated levels of F-actin that was organised in large leading edges, membrane ruffles or numerous large filopods. Expression of actin fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to monitor the actin dynamics in these cells, and revealed that the F-actin cytoskeleton of DGAP1-null cells was rapidly re-arranged to form ruffles and filopods. Conversely, in DGAP1-overexpressing cells, the formation of cellular projections containing F-actin was largely suppressed. Measurement of cell migration demonstrated that DGAP1 expression is inversely correlated with the speed of cell motility. PMID:9739079

  17. Argonaute Proteins Affect siRNA Levels and Accumulation of a Novel Extrachromosomal DNA from the Dictyostelium Retrotransposon DIRS-1*

    PubMed Central

    Boesler, Benjamin; Meier, Doreen; Förstner, Konrad U.; Friedrich, Michael; Hammann, Christian; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The retrotransposon DIRS-1 is the most abundant retroelement in Dictyostelium discoideum and constitutes the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the six chromosomes in D. discoideum. The vast majority of cellular siRNAs is derived from DIRS-1, suggesting that the element is controlled by RNAi-related mechanisms. We investigated the role of two of the five Argonaute proteins of D. discoideum, AgnA and AgnB, in DIRS-1 silencing. Deletion of agnA resulted in the accumulation of DIRS-1 transcripts, the expression of DIRS-1-encoded proteins, and the loss of most DIRS-1-derived secondary siRNAs. Simultaneously, extrachromosomal single-stranded DIRS-1 DNA accumulated in the cytoplasm of agnA− strains. These DNA molecules appear to be products of reverse transcription and thus could represent intermediate structures before transposition. We further show that transitivity of endogenous siRNAs is impaired in agnA− strains. The deletion of agnB alone had no strong effect on DIRS-1 transposon regulation. However, in agnA−/agnB− double mutant strains strongly reduced accumulation of extrachromosomal DNA compared with the single agnA− strains was observed. PMID:25352599

  18. Large scale spontaneous synchronization of cell cycles in amoebae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segota, Igor; Boulet, Laurent; Franck, Carl

    2014-03-01

    Unicellular eukaryotic amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum are generally believed to grow in their vegetative state as single cells until starvation, when their collective aspect emerges and they differentiate to form a multicellular slime mold. While major efforts continue to be aimed at their starvation-induced social aspect, our understanding of population dynamics and cell cycle in the vegetative growth phase has remained incomplete. We show that substrate-growtn cell populations spontaneously synchronize their cell cycles within several hours. These collective population-wide cell cycle oscillations span millimeter length scales and can be completely suppressed by washing away putative cell-secreted signals, implying signaling by means of a diffusible growth factor or mitogen. These observations give strong evidence for collective proliferation behavior in the vegetative state and provide opportunities for synchronization theories beyond classic Kuramoto models.

  19. Expression and one-step purification of Plasmodium proteins in dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    van Bemmelen, M X; Beghdadi-Rais, C; Desponds, C; Vargas, E; Herrera, S; Reymond, C D; Fasel, N

    2000-12-01

    Nearly full-length Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from Plasmodium falciparum, the C-terminal fragments from both P. falciparm and P. yoelii CSP and a fragment comprising 351 amino acids of P.vivax MSPI were expressed in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Discoidin-tag expression vectors allowed both high yields of these proteins and their purification by a nearly single-step procedure. We exploited the galactose binding activity of Discoidin Ia to separate the fusion proteins by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-4B columns. Inclusion of a thrombin recognition site allowed cleavage of the Discoidin-tag from the fusion protein. Partial secretion of the protein was obtained via an ER independent pathway, whereas routing the recombinant proteins to the ER resulted in glycosylation and retention. Yields of proteins ranged from 0.08 to 3 mg l(-1) depending on the protein sequence and the purification conditions. The recognition of purified MSPI by sera from P. vivax malaria patients was used to confirm the native conformation of the protein expressed in Dictyostelium. The simple purification procedure described here, based on Sepharose-4B, should facilitate the expression and the large-scale purification of various Plasmodium polypeptides. PMID:11163444

  20. Neurofibromin controls macropinocytosis and phagocytosis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Gareth; Traynor, David; Sander, Sophia P; Veltman, Douwe M; Pachebat, Justin A; Kay, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Cells use phagocytosis and macropinocytosis to internalise bulk material, which in phagotrophic organisms supplies the nutrients necessary for growth. Wildtype Dictyostelium amoebae feed on bacteria, but for decades laboratory work has relied on axenic mutants that can also grow on liquid media. We used forward genetics to identify the causative gene underlying this phenotype. This gene encodes the RasGAP Neurofibromin (NF1). Loss of NF1 enables axenic growth by increasing fluid uptake. Mutants form outsized macropinosomes which are promoted by greater Ras and PI3K activity at sites of endocytosis. Relatedly, NF1 mutants can ingest larger-than-normal particles using phagocytosis. An NF1 reporter is recruited to nascent macropinosomes, suggesting that NF1 limits their size by locally inhibiting Ras signalling. Our results link NF1 with macropinocytosis and phagocytosis for the first time, and we propose that NF1 evolved in early phagotrophs to spatially modulate Ras activity, thereby constraining and shaping their feeding structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04940.001 PMID:25815683

  1. Requirements for the adenylyl cyclases in the development of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Anjard, C; Söderbom, F; Loomis, W F

    2001-09-01

    It has been suggested that all intracellular signaling by cAMP during development of Dictyostelium is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, since cells carrying null mutations in the acaA gene that encodes adenylyl cyclase can develop so as to form fruiting bodies under some conditions if PKA is made constitutive by overexpressing the catalytic subunit. However, a second adenylyl cyclase encoded by acrA has recently been found that functions in a cell autonomous fashion during late development. We have found that expression of a modified acaA gene rescues acrA- mutant cells indicating that the only role played by ACR is to produce cAMP. To determine whether cells lacking both adenylyl cyclase genes can develop when PKA is constitutive we disrupted acrA in a acaA- PKA-C(over) strain. When developed at high cell densities, acrA- acaA- PKA-C(over) cells form mounds, express cell type-specific genes at reduced levels and secrete cellulose coats but do not form fruiting bodies or significant numbers of viable spores. Thus, it appears that synthesis of cAMP is required for spore differentiation in Dictyostelium even if PKA activity is high. PMID:11566867

  2. Cell Size Clues for the Allee Effect in Vegetative Amoeba Suspension Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Rappazzo, Brendan; Wang, Xiaoning; Segota, Igor

    That cells proliferate at higher rates with increasing density helps us appreciate and understand the development of multicellular behavior through the study of dilute cell systems. However, arduous cell counting with a microscope reveals that in the model eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum this transition is difficult to ascertain and thereby further explore despite our earlier progress (Phys. Rev. E 77, 041905, (2008)). Here we report preliminary evidence that the slow proliferation phase is well characterized by reduced cell size compared to the wide distribution of cell sizes in the familiar exponential proliferation phase of moderate densities. This observation is enabled by a new system for characterizing cells in stirred suspension cultures. Our technique relies on quickly acquiring magnitude distributions of detected flashes of laser light scattered in situ by cell targets.

  3. Dictyostelium: The Mathematician’s Organism

    PubMed Central

    Durston, A.J

    2013-01-01

    This article was to have been written by Kees Weijer, an outstanding pioneer in Dictyostelium research. It was (and is) to celebrate J.T. Bonner’s and Weijer’s contributions to the field and those of the other great pioneers. Unfortunately, Weijer was unable to write his article, due to ill health and since I have some knowledge of this field, I took it over. The article summarises some main results and ideas in Dictyostelium research and their relevance for development of more advanced organisms. PMID:24396268

  4. Collective cell migration requires vesicular trafficking for chemoattractant delivery at the trailing edge

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, Paul W.; Barr, Valarie A.; Rericha, Erin C.; Zhang, Guofeng; Parent, Carole A.

    2008-01-01

    Chemoattractant signaling induces the polarization and directed movement of cells secondary to the activation of multiple effector pathways. In addition, chemotactic signals can be amplified and relayed to proximal cells via the synthesis and secretion of additional chemoattractant. The mechanisms underlying such remarkable features remain ill defined. We show that the asymmetrical distribution of adenylyl cyclase (ACA) at the back of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, an essential determinant of their ability to migrate in a head-to-tail fashion, requires vesicular trafficking. This trafficking results in a local accumulation of ACA-containing intracellular vesicles and involves intact actin, microtubule networks, and de novo protein synthesis. We also show that migrating cells leave behind ACA-containing vesicles, likely secreted as multivesicular bodies and presumably involved in the formation of head-to-tail arrays of migrating cells. We propose that similar compartmentalization and shedding mechanisms exist in mammalian cells during embryogenesis, wound healing, neuron growth, and metastasis. PMID:19047467

  5. Spontaneous emergence of large-scale cell cycle synchronization in amoeba colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segota, Igor; Boulet, Laurent; Franck, David; Franck, Carl

    2014-06-01

    Unicellular eukaryotic amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum are generally believed to grow in their vegetative state as single cells until starvation, when their collective aspect emerges and they differentiate to form a multicellular slime mold. While major efforts continue to be aimed at their starvation-induced social aspect, our understanding of population dynamics and cell cycle in the vegetative growth phase has remained incomplete. Here we show that cell populations grown on a substrate spontaneously synchronize their cell cycles within several hours. These collective population-wide cell cycle oscillations span millimeter length scales and can be completely suppressed by washing away putative cell-secreted signals, implying signaling by means of a diffusible growth factor or mitogen. These observations give strong evidence for collective proliferation behavior in the vegetative state.

  6. Spontaneous emergence of large-scale cell cycle synchronization in amoeba colonies.

    PubMed

    Segota, Igor; Boulet, Laurent; Franck, David; Franck, Carl

    2014-06-01

    Unicellular eukaryotic amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum are generally believed to grow in their vegetative state as single cells until starvation, when their collective aspect emerges and they differentiate to form a multicellular slime mold. While major efforts continue to be aimed at their starvation-induced social aspect, our understanding of population dynamics and cell cycle in the vegetative growth phase has remained incomplete. Here we show that cell populations grown on a substrate spontaneously synchronize their cell cycles within several hours. These collective population-wide cell cycle oscillations span millimeter length scales and can be completely suppressed by washing away putative cell-secreted signals, implying signaling by means of a diffusible growth factor or mitogen. These observations give strong evidence for collective proliferation behavior in the vegetative state. PMID:24732749

  7. Heteromeric p97/p97R155C complexes induce dominant negative changes in wild-type and autophagy 9-deficient Dictyostelium strains.

    PubMed

    Arhzaouy, Khalid; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Tung, Sze Man; Tangavelou, Karthikeyan; Stumpf, Maria; Faix, Jan; Schröder, Rolf; Clemen, Christoph S; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the human VCP (p97) gene cause autosomal-dominant IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy with early onset Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia), ALS14 (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with or without frontotemporal dementia) and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia). Most prevalent is the R155C point mutation. We studied the function of p97 in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and have generated strains that ectopically express wild-type (p97) or mutant p97 (p97(R155C)) fused to RFP in AX2 wild-type and autophagy 9 knock-out (ATG9(KO)) cells. Native gel electrophoresis showed that both p97 and p97(R155C) assemble into hexamers. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that endogenous p97 and p97(R155C)-RFP form heteromers. The mutant strains displayed changes in cell growth, phototaxis, development, proteasomal activity, ubiquitinylated proteins, and ATG8(LC3) indicating mis-regulation of multiple essential cellular processes. Additionally, immunofluorescence analysis revealed an increase of protein aggregates in ATG9(KO)/p97(R155C)-RFP and ATG9(KO) cells. They were positive for ubiquitin in both strains, however, solely immunoreactive for p97 in the ATG9(KO) mutant. A major finding is that the expression of p97(R155C)-RFP in the ATG9(KO) strain partially or fully rescued the pleiotropic phenotype. We also observed dose-dependent effects of p97 on several cellular processes. Based on findings in the single versus the double mutants we propose a novel mode of p97 interaction with the core autophagy protein ATG9 which is based on mutual inhibition. PMID:23056506

  8. Zizimin and Dock guanine nucleotide exchange factors in cell function and disease.

    PubMed

    Pakes, Nicholl K; Veltman, Douwe M; Williams, Robin S B

    2013-01-01

    Zizimin proteins belong to the Dock (Dedicator of Cytokinesis) superfamily of Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) proteins. This family of proteins plays a role in the regulation of Rho family small GTPases. Together the Rho family of small GTPases and the Dock/Zizimin proteins play a vital role in a number of cell processes including cell migration, apoptosis, cell division and cell adhesion. Our recent studies of Zizimin proteins, using a simple biomedical model, the eukaryotic social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, have helped to elucidate the cellular role of these proteins. In this article, we discuss the domain structure of Zizimin proteins from an evolutionary viewpoint. We also compare what is currently known about the mammalian Zizimin proteins to that of related Dock proteins. Understanding the cellular functions of these proteins will provide a better insight into their role in cell signaling, and may help in treating disease pathology associated with mutations in Dock/Zizimin proteins. PMID:23247359

  9. Dictyostelium uses ether-linked inositol phospholipids for intracellular signalling

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jonathan; Kay, Robert R; Kielkowska, Anna; Niewczas, Izabella; Fets, Louise; Oxley, David; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T

    2014-01-01

    Inositol phospholipids are critical regulators of membrane biology throughout eukaryotes. The general principle by which they perform these roles is conserved across species and involves binding of differentially phosphorylated inositol head groups to specific protein domains. This interaction serves to both recruit and regulate the activity of several different classes of protein which act on membrane surfaces. In mammalian cells, these phosphorylated inositol head groups are predominantly borne by a C38:4 diacylglycerol backbone. We show here that the inositol phospholipids of Dictyostelium are different, being highly enriched in an unusual C34:1e lipid backbone, 1-hexadecyl-2-(11Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-myo-inositol), in which the sn-1 position contains an ether-linked C16:0 chain; they are thus plasmanylinositols. These plasmanylinositols respond acutely to stimulation of cells with chemoattractants, and their levels are regulated by PIPKs, PI3Ks and PTEN. In mammals and now in Dictyostelium, the hydrocarbon chains of inositol phospholipids are a highly selected subset of those available to other phospholipids, suggesting that different molecular selectors are at play in these organisms but serve a common, evolutionarily conserved purpose. PMID:25180230

  10. Employing Dictyostelium as an Advantageous 3Rs Model for Pharmacogenetic Research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Grant P; Cocorocchio, Marco; Munoz, Laura; Tyson, Richard A; Bretschneider, Till; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the use of animals in research has triggered a growing need for non-animal research models in a range of fields. The development of 3Rs (replacement, refinement, and reduction) approaches in research, to reduce the reliance on the use of animal tissue and whole-animal experiments, has recently included the use of Dictyostelium. In addition to not feeling pain and thus being relatively free of ethical constraints, Dictyostelium provides a range of distinct methodological advantages for researchers that has led to a number of breakthroughs. These methodologies include using cell behavior (cell movement and shape) as a rapid indicator of sensitivity to poorly characterized medicines, natural products, and other chemicals to help understand the molecular mechanism of action of compounds. Here, we outline a general approach to employing Dictyostelium as a 3Rs research model, using cell behavior as a readout to better understand how compounds, such as the active ingredient in chilli peppers, capsaicin, function at a cellular level. This chapter helps scientists unfamiliar with Dictyostelium to rapidly employ it as an advantageous model system for research, to reduce the use of animals in research, and to make paradigm shift advances in our understanding of biological chemistry. PMID:27271898

  11. 14-3-3, an integrator of cell mechanics and cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Douglas N

    2010-11-01

    One of the goals of understanding cytokinesis is to uncover the molecular regulation of the cellular mechanical properties that drive cell shape change. Such regulatory pathways are likely to be used at multiple stages of a cell's life, but are highly featured during cell division. Recently, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 (encoded by a single gene in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum) serves to integrate key cytoskeletal components-microtubules, Rac and myosin II-to control cell mechanics and cytokinesis. As 14-3-3 proteins are frequently altered in a variety of human tumors, we extend these observations to suggest possible additional roles for how 14-3-3 proteins may contribute to tumorigenesis. PMID:21686271

  12. In vitro imaging of embryonic stem cells using multiphoton luminescence of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nagesha, D; Laevsky, GS; Lampton, P; Banyal, R; Warner, C; DiMarzio, C; Sridhar, S

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in nonlinear optical techniques and materials such as quantum wells, nanowires and noble-metal nanoparticles have led to advances in cellular imaging wherein various nanoparticles have been shown to improve both in vitro and in vivo visualization. In this paper, we demonstrate in vitro imaging using multi-photon photoluminescence of gold nanoparticles from two different cell types – Dictyostelium discoideum and mouse embryonic stem cells. By observing nanoparticles we show that embryonic stem cells maintained their ability to proliferate for several passages while grown in the presence of gold nanoparticles. The advantages of multi-photon luminescence using gold nanoparticles have important implications for use in stem cell proliferation experiments and in vitro experiments to monitor differentiation. PMID:18203448

  13. Transcriptional profiling of Dictyostelium with RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Edward Roshan; Rot, Gregor; Toplak, Marko; Santhanam, Balaji; Curk, Tomaz; Shaulsky, Gad; Zupan, Blaz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transcriptional profiling methods have been utilized in the analysis of various biological processes in Dictyostelium. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have increased the resolution and the dynamic range of transcriptional profiling. Here we describe the utility of RNA-sequencing with the Illumina technology for production of transcriptional profiles. We also describe methods for data mapping and storage as well as common and specialized tools for data analysis, both online and offline. PMID:23494306

  14. X-ray propagation microscopy of biological cells using waveguides as a quasipoint source

    SciTech Connect

    Giewekemeyer, K.; Krueger, S. P.; Kalbfleisch, S.; Bartels, M.; Salditt, T.; Beta, C.

    2011-02-15

    We have used x-ray waveguides as highly confining optical elements for nanoscale imaging of unstained biological cells using the simple geometry of in-line holography. The well-known twin-image problem is effectively circumvented by a simple and fast iterative reconstruction. The algorithm which combines elements of the classical Gerchberg-Saxton scheme and the hybrid-input-output algorithm is optimized for phase-contrast samples, well-justified for imaging of cells at multi-keV photon energies. The experimental scheme allows for a quantitative phase reconstruction from a single holographic image without detailed knowledge of the complex illumination function incident on the sample, as demonstrated for freeze-dried cells of the eukaryotic amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. The accessible resolution range is explored by simulations, indicating that resolutions on the order of 20 nm are within reach applying illumination times on the order of minutes at present synchrotron sources.

  15. Characterization of a 1,4-{beta}-D-glucan synthase from Dictyostelium. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    The study of cellulose biosynthesis has a long history of frustrations, false leads, and setbacks. The authors have been able to proceed further than others who have studied eukaryotic cellulose synthesis because of the high level of enzyme activity in crude membrane preparations from developing Dictyostelium cells. This has made possible experiments to study factors that influence the activity, to determine cellular localization, and to study the development regulation of the enzyme activity. In higher plants, the challenge is still to obtain highly active membrane preparations. However, they have not been able to move beyond the level of crude membranes. The high starting activity of Dictyostelium membranes gave hope that cellulose synthase activity could be purified, allowing the identification of the polypeptides involved in cellulose synthesis. The first step in the purification of a membrane-associated activity is the solubilization of the activity; this they have not yet been able to do. They have applied some of their methods developed in the study of the Dictyostelium glucan synthase to preparation of plant membranes to see if they can obtain any in vitro activity. For instance, the disruption medium, disruption methods, and assay conditions used in Dictyostelium were used to prepare plant membranes, but without obtaining significant levels of enzyme activity.

  16. Methanol and acriflavine resistance in Dictyostelium are caused by loss of catalase.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ma Xenia U; Roberts, Catherine; Alexander, Hannah; Stewart, A Michael; Harwood, Adrian; Alexander, Stephen; Insall, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Various chemicals with harmful effects are not themselves toxic, but are metabolized in vivo to produce toxic products. One example is methanol in Dictyostelium, which is lethal to cells containing the acrA gene, but relatively harmless to acrA mutants. This makes methanol resistance one of the tightest genetic selections in DICTYOSTELIUM: Loss of acrA also confers cross-resistance to unrelated compounds such as acriflavine and thiabendazole. We have used insertional mutagenesis to demonstrate that the acrA locus encodes the peroxisomal catalase A enzyme. Disruption of the catA gene results in parallel resistance to acriflavine. Molecular and biochemical studies of several previously characterized methanol-resistant strains reveal that each lacks catalase activity. One allele, acrA2, contains a 13 bp deletion which introduces a frameshift in the middle of the gene. The involvement of catalase in methanol resistance in Dictyostelium compares with its role in methanol metabolism in yeast and rodents. However, this is the first study to show that catalase is required for the toxicity of acriflavine. Our results imply that acriflavine and thiabendazole are precursors which must be oxidized to generate biologically active species. The catA/acrA gene is also a potentially invaluable negative selectable marker for Dictyostelium molecular genetics. PMID:11782526

  17. Evidence for nucleolar subcompartments in Dictyostelium

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Andrew; O’Day, Danton H.

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Two nucleolar subcompartments (NoSC1, NoSC2) were found in Dictyostelium. • Specific nucleolar proteins localize to different nucleolar subcompartments. • Specific proteins exit NoSC1 and NoSC2 differently upon Actinomycin D treatment. • KRKR appears to function as an NoSC2 nucleolar subcompartment localization signal. - Abstract: The nucleolus is a multifunctional nuclear compartment usually consisting of two to three subcompartments which represent stages of ribosomal biogenesis. It is linked to several human diseases including viral infections, cancer, and neurodegeneration. Dictyostelium is a model eukaryote for the study of fundamental biological processes as well as several human diseases however comparatively little is known about its nucleolus. Unlike most nucleoli it does not possess visible subcompartments at the ultrastructural level. Several recently identified nucleolar proteins in Dictyostelium leave the nucleolus after treatment with the rDNA transcription inhibitor actinomycin-D (AM-D). Different proteins exit in different ways, suggesting that previously unidentified nucleolar subcompartments may exist. The identification of nucleolar subcompartments would help to better understand the nucleolus in this model eukaryote. Here, we show that Dictyostelium nucleolar proteins nucleomorphin isoform NumA1 and Bud31 localize throughout the entire nucleolus while calcium-binding protein 4a localizes to only a portion, representing nucleolar subcompartment 1 (NoSC1). SWI/SNF complex member Snf12 localizes to a smaller area within NoSC1 representing a second nucleolar subcompartment, NoSC2. The nuclear/nucleolar localization signal KRKR from Snf12 localized GFP to NoSC2, and thus also appears to function as a nucleolar subcompartment localization signal. FhkA localizes to the nucleolar periphery displaying a similar pattern to that of Hsp32. Similarities between the redistribution patterns of Dictyostelium nucleolar proteins during

  18. Dictyostelium Nramp1, which is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian DMT1 transporter, mediates phagosomal iron efflux.

    PubMed

    Buracco, Simona; Peracino, Barbara; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Signoretto, Elena; Vollero, Alessandra; Imperiali, Francesca; Castagna, Michela; Bossi, Elena; Bozzaro, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    The Nramp (Slc11) protein family is widespread in bacteria and eukaryotes, and mediates transport of divalent metals across cellular membranes. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has two Nramp proteins. Nramp1, like its mammalian ortholog (SLC11A1), is recruited to phagosomal and macropinosomal membranes, and confers resistance to pathogenic bacteria. Nramp2 is located exclusively in the contractile vacuole membrane and controls, synergistically with Nramp1, iron homeostasis. It has long been debated whether mammalian Nramp1 mediates iron import or export from phagosomes. By selectively loading the iron-chelating fluorochrome calcein in macropinosomes, we show that Dictyostelium Nramp1 mediates iron efflux from macropinosomes in vivo. To gain insight in ion selectivity and the transport mechanism, the proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using a novel assay with calcein, and electrophysiological and radiochemical assays, we show that Nramp1, similar to rat DMT1 (also known as SLC11A2), transports Fe(2+) and manganese, not Fe(3+) or copper. Metal ion transport is electrogenic and proton dependent. By contrast, Nramp2 transports only Fe(2+) in a non-electrogenic and proton-independent way. These differences reflect evolutionary divergence of the prototypical Nramp2 protein sequence compared to the archetypical Nramp1 and DMT1 proteins. PMID:26208637

  19. Dictyostelium Nramp1, which is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian DMT1 transporter, mediates phagosomal iron efflux

    PubMed Central

    Buracco, Simona; Peracino, Barbara; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Signoretto, Elena; Vollero, Alessandra; Imperiali, Francesca; Castagna, Michela; Bossi, Elena; Bozzaro, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Nramp (Slc11) protein family is widespread in bacteria and eukaryotes, and mediates transport of divalent metals across cellular membranes. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has two Nramp proteins. Nramp1, like its mammalian ortholog (SLC11A1), is recruited to phagosomal and macropinosomal membranes, and confers resistance to pathogenic bacteria. Nramp2 is located exclusively in the contractile vacuole membrane and controls, synergistically with Nramp1, iron homeostasis. It has long been debated whether mammalian Nramp1 mediates iron import or export from phagosomes. By selectively loading the iron-chelating fluorochrome calcein in macropinosomes, we show that Dictyostelium Nramp1 mediates iron efflux from macropinosomes in vivo. To gain insight in ion selectivity and the transport mechanism, the proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using a novel assay with calcein, and electrophysiological and radiochemical assays, we show that Nramp1, similar to rat DMT1 (also known as SLC11A2), transports Fe2+ and manganese, not Fe3+ or copper. Metal ion transport is electrogenic and proton dependent. By contrast, Nramp2 transports only Fe2+ in a non-electrogenic and proton-independent way. These differences reflect evolutionary divergence of the prototypical Nramp2 protein sequence compared to the archetypical Nramp1 and DMT1 proteins. PMID:26208637

  20. Isolation and characterization of Dictyostelium thymidine kinase 1 as a calmodulin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Chatterjee-Chakraborty, Munmun; Wagler, Stephanie; Myre, Michael A

    2005-06-17

    Probing of a cDNA expression library from multicellular development of Dictyostelium discoideum using a recombinant radiolabelled calmodulin probe (35S-VU1-CaM) led to the isolation of a cDNA encoding a putative CaM-binding protein (CaMBP). The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 951 bp encoding a 227aa polypeptide (25.5 kDa). Sequence comparisons led to highly significant matches with cytosolic thymidine kinases (TK1; EC 2.7.1.21) from a diverse number of species including humans (7e-56; 59% Identities; 75% Positives) indicating that the encoded protein is D. discoideum TK1 (DdTK1; ThyB). DdTK1 has not been previously characterized in this organism. In keeping with its sequence similarity with DdTK1, antibodies against humanTK1 recognize DdTK1, which is expressed during growth but decreases in amount after starvation. A CaM-binding domain (CaMBD; 20GKTTELIRRIKRFNFANKKC30) was identified and wild type DdTK1 plus two constructs (DdTK deltaC36, DdTK deltaC75) possessing the domain were shown to bind CaM in vitro but only in the presence of calcium while a construct (DdTK deltaN72) lacking the region failed to bind to CaM. Thus, DdTK1 is a Ca2+-dependent CaMBP. Sequence alignments against TK1 from vertebrates to viruses show that CaM-binding region is highly conserved. The identified CaMBD overlaps the ATP-binding (P-loop) domain suggesting CaM might affect the activity of this kinase. Recombinant DdTK is enzymatically active and showed stimulation by CaM (113+/-0.5%) an in vitro enhancement that was prevented by co-addition of the CaM antagonists W7 (91.2+/-0.8%) and W13 (96.6+/-0.6%). The discovery that TK1 from D. discoideum, and possibly other species including humans and a large number of human viruses, is a Ca2+-dependent CaMBP opens up new avenues for research on this medically relevant protein. PMID:15883042

  1. Femtosecond laser machined microfluidic devices for imaging of cells during chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, L.; Terekhov, A.; Rajput, D.; Hofmeister, W.; Jowhar, D.; Wright, G.; Janetopoulos, C.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic devices designed for chemotaxis assays were fabricated on fused silica substrates using femtosecond laser micromachining. These devices have built-in chemical concentration gradient forming structures and are ideally suited for establishing passive diffusion gradients over extended periods of time. Multiple gradient forming structures, with identical or distinct gradient forming characteristics, can be integrated into a single device, and migrating cells can be directly observed using an inverted microscope. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and operation of these devices are discussed. Devices with minimal structure sizes ranging from 3 to 7 lm are presented. The use of these devices to investigate the migration of Dictyostelium discoideum cells toward the chemoattractant folic acid is presented as an example of the devices' utility. PMID:24532962

  2. Experimental Insights into Collective Effects in Eukaryotic Cell Proliferation in Dilute Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Segota, Igor; Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Zhou, Xiao-Qiao S.; Rachakonda, Archana; Yavitt, Benjamin; Lussenhop, Catherine J.; Lee, Sungsu; Tharratt, Kevin; Deshmukh, Amrish; Sebesta, Elisabeth; Zhang, Myron; Lau, Sharon; Bennedsen, Sarah; Franck, David; Fernando, Viyath; Oh, Junseok

    2013-03-01

    Physicists can look to dilute suspensions of apparently solitary cells in suspension for elegant realizations of multicellular behavior. In contrast to our earlier work (Phys. Rev. E v. 77, 041905 (2008)) with the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum we are discovering that the vital intercellular communications responsible for the well-known but poorly understood slow to fast transition in a growing culture as a function of time might be due to the passage of chemical messages between transient cell clusters or throughout the entire system as opposed to binary collisions. In considering the observed variation in proliferation rates we have been surprised to discover that for best growth cultures are much more dependent on incubator geometry than previously suspected.

  3. Predicting spiral wave patterns from cell properties in a model of biological self-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2008-09-01

    In many biological systems, biological variability (i.e., systematic differences between the system components) can be expected to outrank statistical fluctuations in the shaping of self-organized patterns. In principle, the distribution of single-element properties should thus allow predicting features of such patterns. For a mathematical model of a paradigmatic and well-studied pattern formation process, spiral waves of cAMP signaling in colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, we explore this possibility and observe a pronounced anticorrelation between spiral waves and cell properties (namely, the firing rate) and particularly a clustering of spiral wave tips in regions devoid of spontaneously firing (pacemaker) cells. Furthermore, we observe local inhomogeneities in the distribution of spiral chiralities, again induced by the pacemaker distribution. We show that these findings can be explained by a simple geometrical model of spiral wave generation.

  4. Optimization of a large-scale gene disruption protocol in Dictyostelium and analysis of conserved genes of unknown function

    PubMed Central

    Torija, Patricia; Robles, Alicia; Escalante, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Background Development of the post-genomic age in Dictyostelium will require the existence of rapid and reliable methods to disrupt genes that would allow the analysis of entire gene families and perhaps the possibility to undertake the complete knock-out analysis of all the protein-coding genes present in Dictyostelium genome. Results Here we present an optimized protocol based on the previously described construction of gene disruption vectors by in vitro transposition. Our method allows a rapid selection of the construct by a simple PCR approach and subsequent sequencing. Disruption constructs were amplified by PCR and the products were directly transformed in Dictyostelium cells. The selection of homologous recombination events was also performed by PCR. We have constructed 41 disruption vectors to target genes of unknown function, highly conserved between Dictyostelium and human, but absent from the genomes of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. 28 genes were successfully disrupted. Conclusion This is the first step towards the understanding of the function of these conserved genes and exemplifies the easiness to undertake large-scale disruption analysis in Dictyostelium. PMID:16945142

  5. The interplay of cell–cell and cell–substrate adhesion in collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenlu; Chowdhury, Sagar; Driscoll, Meghan; Parent, Carole A.; Gupta, S. K.; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Collective cell migration often involves notable cell–cell and cell–substrate adhesions and highly coordinated motion of touching cells. We focus on the interplay between cell–substrate adhesion and cell–cell adhesion. We show that the loss of cell-surface contact does not significantly alter the dynamic pattern of protrusions and retractions of fast migrating amoeboid cells (Dictyostelium discoideum), but significantly changes their ability to adhere to other cells. Analysis of the dynamics of cell shapes reveals that cells that are adherent to a surface may coordinate their motion with neighbouring cells through protrusion waves that travel across cell–cell contacts. However, while shape waves exist if cells are detached from surfaces, they do not couple cell to cell. In addition, our investigation of actin polymerization indicates that loss of cell-surface adhesion changes actin polymerization at cell–cell contacts. To further investigate cell–cell/cell–substrate interactions, we used optical micromanipulation to form cell–substrate contact at controlled locations. We find that both cell-shape dynamics and cytoskeletal activity respond rapidly to the formation of cell–substrate contact. PMID:25165597

  6. Multiscale dynamics of biological cells with chemotactic interactions: From a discrete stochastic model to a continuous description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alber, Mark; Chen, Nan; Glimm, Tilmann; Lushnikov, Pavel M.

    2006-05-01

    The cellular Potts model (CPM) has been used for simulating various biological phenomena such as differential adhesion, fruiting body formation of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, angiogenesis, cancer invasion, chondrogenesis in embryonic vertebrate limbs, and many others. We derive a continuous limit of a discrete one-dimensional CPM with the chemotactic interactions between cells in the form of a Fokker-Planck equation for the evolution of the cell probability density function. This equation is then reduced to the classical macroscopic Keller-Segel model. In particular, all coefficients of the Keller-Segel model are obtained from parameters of the CPM. Theoretical results are verified numerically by comparing Monte Carlo simulations for the CPM with numerics for the Keller-Segel model.

  7. The Dictyostelium class I myosin, MyoD, contains a novel light chain that lacks high-affinity calcium-binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    De La Roche, Marc A; Lee, Sheu-Fen; Côté, Graham P

    2003-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoD, a long-tailed class I myosin, co-purified with two copies of a 16 kDa light chain. Sequence analysis of the MyoD light chain showed it to be a unique protein, termed MlcD, that shares 44% sequence identity with Dictyostelium calmodulin and 43% sequence identity with Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin IC light chain. MlcD comprises four EF-hands; however, EF-hands 2-4 contain mutations in key Ca2+-co-ordinating residues that would be predicted to impair Ca2+ binding. Electrospray ionization MS of MlcD in the presence of Ca2+ and La3+ showed the presence of one major and one minor metal-binding site. MlcD contains a single tryptophan residue (Trp39), the fluorescence intensity of which was quenched upon addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+, yielding apparent dissociation constants ( K'(d)) of 52 microM for Ca2+ and 450 microM for Mg2+. The low affinity of MlcD for Ca2+ indicates that it cannot function as a sensor of physiological Ca2+. Ca2+ did not affect the binding of MlcD to MyoD or to either of the two MyoD IQ (Ile-Gln) motifs. FLAG-MlcD expressed in Dictyostelium formed a complex with MyoD, but not with the two other long-tailed Dictyostelium myosin I isoenzymes, MyoB and MyoC. Through its specific association with the Ca2+-insensitive MlcD, MyoD may exhibit distinct regulatory properties that distinguish it from myosin I isoenzymes with calmodulin light chains. PMID:12826013

  8. An Information-Theoretic Characterization of the Optimal Gradient Sensing Response of Cells

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Burton W; Iglesias, Pablo A

    2007-01-01

    Many cellular systems rely on the ability to interpret spatial heterogeneities in chemoattractant concentration to direct cell migration. The accuracy of this process is limited by stochastic fluctuations in the concentration of the external signal and in the internal signaling components. Here we use information theory to determine the optimal scheme to detect the location of an external chemoattractant source in the presence of noise. We compute the minimum amount of mutual information needed between the chemoattractant gradient and the internal signal to achieve a prespecified chemotactic accuracy. We show that more accurate chemotaxis requires greater mutual information. We also demonstrate that a priori information can improve chemotaxis efficiency. We compare the optimal signaling schemes with existing experimental measurements and models of eukaryotic gradient sensing. Remarkably, there is good quantitative agreement between the optimal response when no a priori assumption is made about the location of the existing source, and the observed experimental response of unpolarized Dictyostelium discoideum cells. In contrast, the measured response of polarized D. discoideum cells matches closely the optimal scheme, assuming prior knowledge of the external gradient—for example, through prolonged chemotaxis in a given direction. Our results demonstrate that different observed classes of responses in cells (polarized and unpolarized) are optimal under varying information assumptions. PMID:17676949

  9. [High molecular weight protein detected in higher plant cells by antibodies against dynein is associated with vesicular organelles including Golgi apparatus].

    PubMed

    Shanina, N A; Lazareva, E M; Chentsov, Iu S; Smirnova, E A

    2008-01-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein is a multisubunit complex driving organelles along microtubules to their minus-end. We used antibodies against two functional domains (motor and microtubule-binding) of one of principal components of the complex--dynein heavy chain of slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum--to test root meristem cells of wheat Triticum aestivum. The antibodies reacted with a high molecular weight protein (> 500 kDa) in the total cell extract and the band recognized by the antibodies in plant extracts had a lower electrophoretic mobility than the high molecular weight band of mammalian dynein. Antibodies coupled to protein A-Sepharose precipitated the high molecular weight protein from the purified cell extracts. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the antigen recognized by antibodies against dynein heavy chains is associated with the vesicles whose localization depends on the cell cycle stage. The antigen-positive vesicles were localized to the perinuclear region in interphase and early prophase, to the spindle periphery and to spindle pole region during mitosis, and to the interzonal region in the period of fragmoplast and cell plate formation. Some antigen-positive vesicles also reacted with antibodies against Golgi protein markers. The obtained data indicate that higher plant cells contain a high molecular weight protein interacting with antibodies against the motor and microtubules-binding domains of Dictyostelium dynein heavy chain. The revealed antigen was associated with the vesicular structures in the cytoplasm including the Golgi apparatus. PMID:18409378

  10. Phase geometries of two-dimensional excitable waves govern self-organized morphodynamics of amoeboid cells.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Ishihara, Shuji; Oonuki, Takehiko; Honda-Kitahara, Mai; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Sawai, Satoshi

    2013-03-26

    In both randomly moving Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and F-actin are known to propagate as waves at the membrane and act to push out the protruding edge. To date, however, the relationship between the wave geometry and the patterns of amoeboid shape change remains elusive. Here, by using phase map analysis, we show that morphology dynamics of randomly moving Dictyostelium discoideum cells can be characterized by the number, topology, and position of spatial phase singularities, i.e., points that represent organizing centers of rotating waves. A single isolated singularity near the cellular edge induced a rotational protrusion, whereas a pair of singularities supported a symmetric extension. These singularities appeared by strong phase resetting due to de novo nucleation at the back of preexisting waves. Analysis of a theoretical model indicated excitability of the system that is governed by positive feedback from phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate to PI3-kinase activation, and we showed experimentally that this requires F-actin. Furthermore, by incorporating membrane deformation into the model, we demonstrated that geometries of competing waves explain most of the observed semiperiodic changes in amoeboid morphology. PMID:23479620

  11. Fitness tradeoffs between spores and nonaggregating cells can explain the coexistence of diverse genotypes in cellular slime molds

    PubMed Central

    Tarnita, Corina E.; Washburne, Alex; Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Sgro, Allyson E.; Levin, Simon A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular slime molds, including the well-studied Dictyostelium discoideum, are amoebae whose life cycle includes both a single-cellular and a multicellular stage. To achieve the multicellular stage, individual amoebae aggregate upon starvation to form a fruiting body made of dead stalk cells and reproductive spores, a process that has been described in terms of cooperation and altruism. When amoebae aggregate they do not perfectly discriminate against nonkin, leading to chimeric fruiting bodies. Within chimeras, complex interactions among genotypes have been documented, which should theoretically reduce genetic diversity. This is however inconsistent with the great diversity of genotypes found in nature. Recent work has shown that a little-studied component of D. discoideum fitness—the loner cells that do not participate in the aggregation—can be selected for depending on environmental conditions and that, together with the spores, they could represent a bet-hedging strategy. We suggest that in all cellular slime molds the existence of loners could resolve the apparent diversity paradox in two ways. First, if loners are accounted for, then apparent genotypic skew in the spores of chimeras could simply be the result of different investments into spores versus loners. Second, in an ecosystem with multiple local environments differing in their food recovery characteristics and connected globally via weak-to-moderate dispersal, coexistence of multiple genotypes can occur. Finally, we argue that the loners make it impossible to define altruistic behavior, winners or losers, without a clear description of the ecology. PMID:25605926

  12. Fitness tradeoffs between spores and nonaggregating cells can explain the coexistence of diverse genotypes in cellular slime molds.

    PubMed

    Tarnita, Corina E; Washburne, Alex; Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Sgro, Allyson E; Levin, Simon A

    2015-03-01

    Cellular slime molds, including the well-studied Dictyostelium discoideum, are amoebae whose life cycle includes both a single-cellular and a multicellular stage. To achieve the multicellular stage, individual amoebae aggregate upon starvation to form a fruiting body made of dead stalk cells and reproductive spores, a process that has been described in terms of cooperation and altruism. When amoebae aggregate they do not perfectly discriminate against nonkin, leading to chimeric fruiting bodies. Within chimeras, complex interactions among genotypes have been documented, which should theoretically reduce genetic diversity. This is however inconsistent with the great diversity of genotypes found in nature. Recent work has shown that a little-studied component of D. discoideum fitness--the loner cells that do not participate in the aggregation--can be selected for depending on environmental conditions and that, together with the spores, they could represent a bet-hedging strategy. We suggest that in all cellular slime molds the existence of loners could resolve the apparent diversity paradox in two ways. First, if loners are accounted for, then apparent genotypic skew in the spores of chimeras could simply be the result of different investments into spores versus loners. Second, in an ecosystem with multiple local environments differing in their food recovery characteristics and connected globally via weak-to-moderate dispersal, coexistence of multiple genotypes can occur. Finally, we argue that the loners make it impossible to define altruistic behavior, winners or losers, without a clear description of the ecology. PMID:25605926

  13. Isolation, characterization, and bioinformatic analysis of calmodulin-binding protein cmbB reveals a novel tandem IP22 repeat common to many Dictyostelium and Mimivirus proteins.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Suhre, Karsten; Myre, Michael A; Chatterjee-Chakraborty, Munmun; Chavez, Sara E

    2006-08-01

    A novel calmodulin-binding protein cmbB from Dictyostelium discoideum is encoded in a single gene. Northern analysis reveals two cmbB transcripts first detectable at 4 h during multicellular development. Western blotting detects an approximately 46.6 kDa protein. Sequence analysis and calmodulin-agarose binding studies identified a "classic" calcium-dependent calmodulin-binding domain (179IPKSLRSLFLGKGYNQPLEF198) but structural analyses suggest binding may not involve classic alpha-helical calmodulin-binding. The cmbB protein is comprised of tandem repeats of a newly identified IP22 motif ([I,L]Pxxhxxhxhxxxhxxxhxxxx; where h = any hydrophobic amino acid) that is highly conserved and a more precise representation of the FNIP repeat. At least eight Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus proteins and over 100 Dictyostelium proteins contain tandem arrays of the IP22 motif and its variants. cmbB also shares structural homology to YopM, from the plague bacterium Yersenia pestis. PMID:16777069

  14. A Simple Retroelement Based Knock-Down System in Dictyostelium: Further Insights into RNA Interference Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Isabelle; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of DIRS-1 Mediated Knock-Downs We have previously shown that the most abundant Dictyostelium discoideum retroelement DIRS-1 is suppressed by RNAi mechanisms. Here we provide evidence that both inverted terminal repeats have strong promoter activity and that bidirectional expression apparently generates a substrate for Dicer. A cassette containing the inverted terminal repeats and a fragment of a gene of interest was sufficient to activate the RNAi response, resulting in the generation of ~21 nt siRNAs, a reduction of mRNA and protein expression of the respective endogene. Surprisingly, no transitivity was observed on the endogene. This was in contrast to previous observations, where endogenous siRNAs caused spreading on an artificial transgene. Knock-down was successful on seven target genes that we examined. In three cases a phenotypic analysis proved the efficiency of the approach. One of the target genes was apparently essential because no knock-out could be obtained; the RNAi mediated knock-down, however, resulted in a very slow growing culture indicating a still viable reduction of gene expression. Advantages of the DIRS-1–RNAi System The knock-down system required a short DNA fragment (~400 bp) of the target gene as an initial trigger. Further siRNAs were generated by RdRPs since we have shown some siRNAs with a 5’-triphosphate group. Extrachromosomal vectors facilitate the procedure and allowed for molecular and phenotypic analysis within one week. The system provides an efficient and rapid method to reduce protein levels including those of essential genes. PMID:26110905

  15. Regulation of the Dictyostelium glycogen phosphorylase 2 gene by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Sucic, J F; Selmin, O; Rutherford, C L

    1993-01-01

    A crucial developmental event in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, is glycogen degradation. The enzyme that catalyzes this degradation, glycogen phosphorylase 2 (gp-2), is developmentally regulated and cAMP appears to be involved in this regulation. We have examined several aspects of the cAMP regulation of gp-2. We show that addition of exogenous cAMP to aggregation competent amoebae induced the appearance of gp-2 mRNA. The induction of gp-2 mRNA occurred within 1 and 1.5 h after the initial exposure to cAMP. Exposure to exogenous cAMP concentrations as low as 1.0 microM could induce gp-2 mRNA. We also examined the molecular mechanism through which cAMP induction of gp-2 occurs. Induction of gp-2 appears to result from a mechanism that does not require intracellular cAMP signaling, and may occur directly through a cAMP binding protein without the requirement of any intracellular signalling. We also examined the promoter region of the gp-2 gene for cis-acting elements that are involved in the cAMP regulation of gp-2. A series of deletions of the promoter were fused to a luciferase reporter gene and then analyzed for cAMP responsiveness. The results indicated that a region from -258 nucleotides to the transcriptional start site is sufficient for essentially full activity and appears to carry all necessary cis-acting sites for cAMP induction. Further deletion of 58 nucleotides from the 5' end, results in fivefold less activity in the presence of cAMP. Deletion of the next 104 nucleotides eliminates the cAMP response entirely. PMID:8222346

  16. Migration of amoeba cells in an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous and endogenous electric fields play a role in cell physiology as a guiding mechanism for the orientation and migration of cells. Electrotaxis of living cells has been observed for several cell types, e.g. neurons, fibroblasts, leukocytes, neural crest cells, cancer cells. Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), an intensively investigated chemotactic model organism, also exhibits a strong electrotactic behavior moving toward the cathode under the influence of electric fields. Here we report experiments on the effects of DC electric fields on the directional migration of Dd cells. We apply the electric field to cells seeded into microfluidic devices equipped with agar bridges to avoid any harmful effects of the electric field on the cells (ions formation, pH changes, etc.) and a constant flow to prevent the build-up of chemical gradient that elicits chemotaxis. Our results show that the cells linearly increase their speed over time when a constant electric field is applied for a prolonged duration (2 hours). This novel phenomenon cannot be attributed to mechanotaxis as the drag force of the electroosmotic flow is too small to produce shear forces that can reorient cells. It is independent of the cellular developmental stage and to our knowledge, it was not observed in chemotaxis. This work is supported by MaxSynBio project of the Max Planck Society.

  17. Analysis of the Microprocessor in Dictyostelium: The Role of RbdB, a dsRNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Buttlar, Jann; Friedrich, Michael; Zenk, Fides; Boesler, Benjamin; Hammann, Christian; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We identified the dsRNA binding protein RbdB as an essential component in miRNA processing in Dictyostelium discoideum. RbdB is a nuclear protein that accumulates, together with Dicer B, in nucleolar foci reminiscent of plant dicing bodies. Disruption of rbdB results in loss of miRNAs and accumulation of primary miRNAs. The phenotype can be rescued by ectopic expression of RbdB thus allowing for a detailed analysis of domain function. The lack of cytoplasmic dsRBD proteins involved in miRNA processing, suggests that both processing steps take place in the nucleus thus resembling the plant pathway. However, we also find features e.g. in the domain structure of Dicer which suggest similarities to animals. Reduction of miRNAs in the rbdB- strain and their increase in the Argonaute A knock out allowed the definition of new miRNAs one of which appears to belong to a new non-canonical class. PMID:27272207

  18. Non-Brownian dynamics and strategy of amoeboid cell locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Shin I.; Ueda, Masahiro; Sasai, Masaki

    2012-04-01

    Amoeboid cells such as Dictyostelium discoideum and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells show the non-Brownian dynamics of migration characterized by the superdiffusive increase of mean-squared displacement. In order to elucidate the physical mechanism of this non-Brownian dynamics, a computational model is developed which highlights a group of inhibitory molecules for actin polymerization. Based on this model, we propose a hypothesis that inhibitory molecules are sent backward in the moving cell to accumulate at the rear of cell. The accumulated inhibitory molecules at the rear further promote cell locomotion to form a slow positive feedback loop of the whole-cell scale. The persistent straightforward migration is stabilized with this feedback mechanism, but the fluctuation in the distribution of inhibitory molecules and the cell shape deformation concurrently interrupt the persistent motion to turn the cell into a new direction. A sequence of switching behaviors between persistent motions and random turns gives rise to the superdiffusive migration in the absence of the external guidance signal. In the complex environment with obstacles, this combined process of persistent motions and random turns drives the simulated amoebae to solve the maze problem in a highly efficient way, which suggests the biological advantage for cells to bear the non-Brownian dynamics.

  19. A single β adaptin contributes to AP1 and AP2 complexes and clathrin function in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Sosa, R Thomas; Weber, Michelle M; Wen, Yujia; O'Halloran, Theresa J

    2012-02-01

    The assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles is important for numerous cellular processes, including nutrient uptake and membrane organization. Important contributors to clathrin assembly are four tetrameric assembly proteins, also called adaptor proteins (APs), each of which contains a β subunit. We identified a single β subunit, named β1/2, that contributes to both the AP1 and AP2 complexes of Dictyostelium. Disruption of the gene encoding β1/2 resulted in severe defects in growth, cytokinesis and development. Additionally, cells lacking β1/2 displayed profound osmoregulatory defects including the absence of contractile vacuoles and mislocalization of contractile vacuole markers. The phenotypes of β1/2 null cells were most similar to previously described phenotypes of clathrin and AP1 mutants, supporting a particularly important contribution of AP1 to clathrin pathways in Dictyostelium cells. The absence of β1/2 in cells led to significant reductions in the protein amounts of the medium-sized subunits of the AP1 and AP2 complexes, establishing a role for the β subunit in the stability of the medium subunits. Dictyostelium β1/2 could resemble a common ancestor of the more specialized β1 and β2 subunits of the vertebrate AP complexes. Our results support the essential contribution of a single β subunit to the stability and function of AP1 and AP2 in a simple eukaryote. PMID:22050483

  20. A microfluidic cell-trapping device for single-cell tracking of host-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Delincé, Matthieu J; Bureau, Jean-Baptiste; López-Jiménez, Ana Teresa; Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry; McKinney, John D

    2016-08-16

    The impact of cellular individuality on host-microbe interactions is increasingly appreciated but studying the temporal dynamics of single-cell behavior in this context remains technically challenging. Here we present a microfluidic platform, InfectChip, to trap motile infected cells for high-resolution time-lapse microscopy. This approach allows the direct visualization of all stages of infection, from bacterial uptake to death of the bacterium or host cell, over extended periods of time. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by co-culturing an established host-cell model, Dictyostelium discoideum, with the extracellular pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae or the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium marinum. We show that the outcome of such infections is surprisingly heterogeneous, ranging from abortive infection to death of the bacterium or host cell. InfectChip thus provides a simple method to dissect the time-course of host-microbe interactions at the single-cell level, yielding new insights that could not be gleaned from conventional population-based measurements. PMID:27425421

  1. TgrC1 Has Distinct Functions in Dictyostelium Development and Allorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-01-01

    The cell adhesion glycoproteins, TgrB1 and TgrC1, are essential for Dictyostelium development and allorecognition, but it has been impossible to determine whether their pleiotropic roles are due to one common function or to distinct functions in separate pathways. Mutations in the respective genes, tgrB1 and tgrC1, abrogate both development and allorecognition and the defects cannot be suppressed by activation of the cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase PKA, a central regulator of Dictyostelium development. Here we report that mutations in genes outside the known PKA pathway partially suppress the tgrC1-null developmental defect. We separated the pleiotropic roles of tgrC1 by testing the effects of a suppression mutation, stcinsA under different conditions. stcAins modified only the developmental defect of tgrC1– but not the allorecognition defect, suggesting that the two functions are separable. The suppressor mutant phenotype also revealed that tgrC1 regulates stalk differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner and spore differentiation in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Moreover, stcAins did not modify the developmental defect of tgrB1–, but the less robust phenotype of tgrB1– obscures the possible role of stcA relative to tgrB1. PMID:25894230

  2. Src1 is a Protein of the Inner Nuclear Membrane Interacting with the Dictyostelium Lamin NE81

    PubMed Central

    Batsios, Petros; Ren, Xiang; Baumann, Otto; Larochelle, Denis A.; Gräf, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) consists of the outer and inner nuclear membrane (INM), whereby the latter is bound to the nuclear lamina. Src1 is a Dictyostelium homologue of the helix-extension-helix family of proteins, which also includes the human lamin-binding protein MAN1. Both endogenous Src1 and GFP-Src1 are localized to the NE during the entire cell cycle. Immuno-electron microscopy and light microscopy after differential detergent treatment indicated that Src1 resides in the INM. FRAP experiments with GFP-Src1 cells suggested that at least a fraction of the protein could be stably engaged in forming the nuclear lamina together with the Dictyostelium lamin NE81. Both a BioID proximity assay and mis-localization of soluble, truncated mRFP-Src1 at cytosolic clusters consisting of an intentionally mis-localized mutant of GFP-NE81 confirmed an interaction of Src1 and NE81. Expression GFP-Src11–646, a fragment C-terminally truncated after the first transmembrane domain, disrupted interaction of nuclear membranes with the nuclear lamina, as cells formed protrusions of the NE that were dependent on cytoskeletal pulling forces. Protrusions were dependent on intact microtubules but not actin filaments. Our results indicate that Src1 is required for integrity of the NE and highlight Dictyostelium as a promising model for the evolution of nuclear architecture. PMID:26999214

  3. Of Amoebae and Men: Extracellular DNA Traps as an Ancient Cell-Intrinsic Defense Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Soldati, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the formation of DNA-based extracellular traps (ETs) by neutrophils as an innate immune defense mechanism (1), hundreds of articles describe the involvement of ETs in physiological and pathological human and animal conditions [reviewed in Ref. (2), and the previous Frontiers Research Topic on NETosis: http://www.frontiersin.org/books/NETosis_At_the_Intersection_of_Cell_Biology_Microbiology_and_Immunology/195]. Interestingly, a few reports reveal that ETs can be formed by immune cells of more ancient organisms, as far back as the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates (3). Recently, we reported that the Sentinel cells of the multicellular slug of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum also produce ETs to trap and kill slug-invading bacteria [see Box 1; and Figure 1 Ref. (4)]. This is a strong evidence that DNA-based cell-intrinsic defense mechanisms emerged much earlier than thought, about 1.3 billion years ago. Amazingly, using extrusion of DNA as a weapon to capture and kill uningestable microbes has its rationale. During the emergence of multicellularity, a primitive innate immune system developed in the form of a dedicated set of specialized phagocytic cells. This professionalization of immunity allowed the evolution of sophisticated defense mechanisms including the sacrifice of a small set of cells by a mechanism related to NETosis. This altruistic behavior likely emerged in steps, starting from the release of “dispensable” mitochondrial DNA by D. discoideum Sentinel cells. Grounded in this realization, one can anticipate that in the near future, many more examples of the invention and fine-tuning of ETs by early metazoan ancestors will be identified. Consequently, it can be expected that this more complete picture of the evolution of ETs will impact our views of the involvement and pathologies linked to ETs in human and animals. PMID:27458458

  4. Of Amoebae and Men: Extracellular DNA Traps as an Ancient Cell-Intrinsic Defense Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Soldati, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the formation of DNA-based extracellular traps (ETs) by neutrophils as an innate immune defense mechanism (1), hundreds of articles describe the involvement of ETs in physiological and pathological human and animal conditions [reviewed in Ref. (2), and the previous Frontiers Research Topic on NETosis: http://www.frontiersin.org/books/NETosis_At_the_Intersection_of_Cell_Biology_Microbiology_and_Immunology/195]. Interestingly, a few reports reveal that ETs can be formed by immune cells of more ancient organisms, as far back as the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates (3). Recently, we reported that the Sentinel cells of the multicellular slug of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum also produce ETs to trap and kill slug-invading bacteria [see Box 1; and Figure 1 Ref. (4)]. This is a strong evidence that DNA-based cell-intrinsic defense mechanisms emerged much earlier than thought, about 1.3 billion years ago. Amazingly, using extrusion of DNA as a weapon to capture and kill uningestable microbes has its rationale. During the emergence of multicellularity, a primitive innate immune system developed in the form of a dedicated set of specialized phagocytic cells. This professionalization of immunity allowed the evolution of sophisticated defense mechanisms including the sacrifice of a small set of cells by a mechanism related to NETosis. This altruistic behavior likely emerged in steps, starting from the release of "dispensable" mitochondrial DNA by D. discoideum Sentinel cells. Grounded in this realization, one can anticipate that in the near future, many more examples of the invention and fine-tuning of ETs by early metazoan ancestors will be identified. Consequently, it can be expected that this more complete picture of the evolution of ETs will impact our views of the involvement and pathologies linked to ETs in human and animals. PMID:27458458

  5. Ndm, a coiled-coil domain protein that suppresses macropinocytosis and has effects on cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Jessica S; Fastman, Nathan M; Noratel, Elizabeth F; Blumberg, Daphne D

    2012-09-01

    The ampA gene has a role in cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells overexpressing AmpA show an increase in cell migration, forming large plaques on bacterial lawns. A second-site suppressor of this ampA-overexpressing phenotype identified a previously uncharacterized gene, ndm, which is described here. The Ndm protein is predicted to contain a coiled-coil BAR-like domain-a domain involved in endocytosis and membrane bending. ndm-knockout and Ndm-monomeric red fluorescent protein-expressing cell lines were used to establish a role for ndm in suppressing endocytosis. An increase in the rate of endocytosis and in the number of endosomes was detected in ndm(-) cells. During migration ndm(-) cells formed numerous endocytic cups instead of the broad lamellipodia structure characteristic of moving cells. A second lamellipodia-based function-cell spreading-was also defective in the ndm(-) cells. The increase in endocytosis and the defect in lamellipodia formation were associated with reduced chemotaxis in ndm(-) cells. Immunofluorescence results and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays revealed an association of Ndm with coronin and F-actin. The results establish ndm as a gene important in regulating the balance between formation of endocytic cups and lamellipodia structures. PMID:22809629

  6. Stability and Perturbation Analysis on a Model of Cell Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Colin; Skupsky, Ron; Losert, Wolfgang; Nossal, Ralph

    2006-03-01

    Many eukaryotic cells respond with directional movement to spatial and/or temporal gradients of small molecules that bind to cell surface receptors. The computational model of a chemotaxing cell developed in [1], which models cells such as neutrophils or Dictyostelium discoideum, is investigated with regard to stability and response to perturbations. A formal stability analysis finds that, when placed in an initial linear gradient, the model is most sensitive to perturbations at a 60-90 degree offset from the direction of the initial gradient. The model also responds most quickly and strongly to external point sources placed in that direction. These responses hold for all four of the model variants developed in [1]. This suggests that the observed `zigzag' behavior of real cell movement in a gradient may be influenced by the nature of the biochemical reactions that control a cell's chemotactic response. This research was funded in by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). [1] Skupsky, R., W. Losert, and R.J. Nossal. 2005. ``Distinguishing modes of eukaryotic gradient sensing''. Biophys. J. 89:2806--2823

  7. Dictyostelium Myosin Bipolar Thick Filament Formation: Importance of Charge and Specific Domains of the Myosin Rod

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Myosin-II thick filament formation in Dictyostelium is an excellent system for investigating the phenomenon of self-assembly, as the myosin molecule itself contains all the information required to form a structure of defined size. Phosphorylation of only three threonine residues can dramatically change the assembly state of myosin-II. We show here that the C-terminal 68 kDa of the myosin-II tail (termed AD-Cterm) assembles in a regulated manner similar to full-length myosin-II and forms bipolar thick filament (BTF) structures when a green fluorescent protein (GFP) “head” is added to the N terminus. The localization of this GFP-AD-Cterm to the cleavage furrow of dividing Dictyostelium cells depends on assembly state, similar to full-length myosin-II. This tail fragment therefore represents a good model system for the regulated formation and localization of BTFs. By reducing regulated BTF assembly to a more manageable model system, we were able to explore determinants of myosin-II self-assembly. Our data support a model in which a globular head limits the size of a BTF, and the large-scale charge character of the AD-Cterm region is important for BTF formation. Truncation analysis of AD-Cterm tail fragments shows that assembly is delicately balanced, resulting in assembled myosin-II molecules that are poised to disassemble due to the phosphorylation of only three threonines. PMID:15492777

  8. Dictyostelium myosin bipolar thick filament formation: importance of charge and specific domains of the myosin rod.

    PubMed

    Hostetter, Daniel; Rice, Sarah; Dean, Sara; Altman, David; McMahon, Peggy M; Sutton, Shirley; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Spudich, James A

    2004-11-01

    Myosin-II thick filament formation in Dictyostelium is an excellent system for investigating the phenomenon of self-assembly, as the myosin molecule itself contains all the information required to form a structure of defined size. Phosphorylation of only three threonine residues can dramatically change the assembly state of myosin-II. We show here that the C-terminal 68 kDa of the myosin-II tail (termed AD-Cterm) assembles in a regulated manner similar to full-length myosin-II and forms bipolar thick filament (BTF) structures when a green fluorescent protein (GFP) "head" is added to the N terminus. The localization of this GFP-AD-Cterm to the cleavage furrow of dividing Dictyostelium cells depends on assembly state, similar to full-length myosin-II. This tail fragment therefore represents a good model system for the regulated formation and localization of BTFs. By reducing regulated BTF assembly to a more manageable model system, we were able to explore determinants of myosin-II self-assembly. Our data support a model in which a globular head limits the size of a BTF, and the large-scale charge character of the AD-Cterm region is important for BTF formation. Truncation analysis of AD-Cterm tail fragments shows that assembly is delicately balanced, resulting in assembled myosin-II molecules that are poised to disassemble due to the phosphorylation of only three threonines. PMID:15492777

  9. Overexpression of cytoplasmic dynein's globular head causes a collapse of the interphase microtubule network in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Koonce, M P; Samsó, M

    1996-06-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus-end directed microtubule-based motor. Using a molecular genetic approach, we have begun to dissect structure-function relationships of dynein in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. Expression of a carboxy-terminal 380-kDa fragment of the heavy chain produces a protein that approximates the size and shape of the globular, mechanochemical head of dynein. This polypeptide cosediments with microtubules in an ATP-sensitive fashion and undergoes a UV-vanadate cleavage reaction. The deleted amino-terminal region appears to participate in dimerization of the native protein and in binding the intermediate and light chains. Overexpression of the 380-kDa carboxy-terminal construct in Dictyostelium produces a distinct phenotype in which the interphase radial microtubule array appears collapsed. In many cells, the microtubules form loose bundles that are whorled around the nucleus. Similar expression of a central 107-kDa fragment of the heavy chain does not produce this result. The data presented here suggest that dynein may participate in maintaining the spatial pattern of the interphase microtubule network. PMID:8816999

  10. Intracellular photoactivation of caged cGMP induces myosin II and actin responses in motile cells.

    PubMed

    Pfannes, Eva K B; Anielski, Alexander; Gerhardt, Matthias; Beta, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger in eukaryotic cells. It is assumed to regulate the association of myosin II with the cytoskeleton of motile cells. When cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum are exposed to chemoattractants or to increased osmotic stress, intracellular cGMP levels rise, preceding the accumulation of myosin II in the cell cortex. To directly investigate the impact of intracellular cGMP on cytoskeletal dynamics in a living cell, we released cGMP inside the cell by laser-induced photo-cleavage of a caged precursor. With this approach, we could directly show in a live cell experiment that an increase in intracellular cGMP indeed induces myosin II to accumulate in the cortex. Unexpectedly, we observed for the first time that also the amount of filamentous actin in the cell cortex increases upon a rise in the cGMP concentration, independently of cAMP receptor activation and signaling. We discuss our results in the light of recent work on the cGMP signaling pathway and suggest possible links between cGMP signaling and the actin system. PMID:24136144

  11. Breakdown of self/nonself recognition in cannibalistic strains of the predatory slime mold, Dictyostelium caveatum

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Dictyostelium caveatum amebas feed upon both bacteria and the amebas of other cellular slime molds. The capacity to feed extensively upon other cellular slime molds is unique to D. caveatum amebas. They are able to phagocytose amebas larger than themselves by nibbling pieces of the cells until they are small enough to ingest. Here we report the isolation from previously cloned stock cultures of stable, cannibalistic strains of D. caveatum in which self/nonself recognition has broken down. Because of the extensive cannibalism, amebas of these strains do not complete multicellular development, and instead wander about for long periods while feeding upon each other. Although the cannibalistic behavior resembles that exhibited by the presumably diploid giant cells in the sexual cycle of other cellular slime molds, these strains are haploid and do not form macrocysts. PMID:3001102

  12. Cell speed, persistence and information transmission during signal relay and collective migration.

    PubMed

    McCann, Colin P; Kriebel, Paul W; Parent, Carole A; Losert, Wolfgang

    2010-05-15

    Collective migration is a key feature of the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum, where the binding of chemoattractants leads to the production and secretion of additional chemoattractant and the relay of the signal to neighboring cells. This then guides cells to migrate collectively in a head-to-tail fashion. We used mutants that were defective in signal relay to elucidate which quantitative metrics of cell migration are most strongly affected by signal relay and collective motion. We show that neither signal relay nor collective motion markedly impact the speed of cell migration. Cells maintained a preferred overall direction of motion for several minutes with similar persistence, regardless of whether or not they were attracted to moving neighbors, moving collectively in contact with their neighbors, or simply following a fixed exogenous signal. We quantitatively establish that signal relay not only increases the number of cells that respond to a chemotactic signal, but most remarkably, also transmits information about the location of the source accurately over large distances, independently of the strength of the exogenous signal. We envision that signal relay has a similar key role in the migration of a variety of chemotaxing mammalian cells that can relay chemoattractant signals. PMID:20427323

  13. Asymmetric nanotopography biases cytoskeletal dynamics and promotes unidirectional cell guidance

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Driscoll, Meghan K.; Guven, Can; Das, Satarupa; Parent, Carole A.; Fourkas, John T.; Losert, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Many biological and physiological processes depend upon directed migration of cells, which is typically mediated by chemical or physical gradients or by signal relay. Here we show that cells can be guided in a single preferred direction based solely on local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales. These asymmetries can be repeated, and thereby provide directional guidance, over arbitrarily large areas. The direction and strength of the guidance is sensitive to the details of the nano/microtopography, suggesting that this phenomenon plays a context-dependent role in vivo. We demonstrate that appropriate asymmetric nano/microtopography can unidirectionally bias internal actin polymerization waves and that cells move with the same preferred direction as these waves. This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of the amoeboid Dictyostelium discoideum and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types and the asymmetric shape of many natural scaffolds suggest that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology. PMID:26417076

  14. Asymmetric nanotopography biases cytoskeletal dynamics and promotes unidirectional cell guidance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Driscoll, Meghan K; Guven, Can; Das, Satarupa; Parent, Carole A; Fourkas, John T; Losert, Wolfgang

    2015-10-13

    Many biological and physiological processes depend upon directed migration of cells, which is typically mediated by chemical or physical gradients or by signal relay. Here we show that cells can be guided in a single preferred direction based solely on local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales. These asymmetries can be repeated, and thereby provide directional guidance, over arbitrarily large areas. The direction and strength of the guidance is sensitive to the details of the nano/microtopography, suggesting that this phenomenon plays a context-dependent role in vivo. We demonstrate that appropriate asymmetric nano/microtopography can unidirectionally bias internal actin polymerization waves and that cells move with the same preferred direction as these waves. This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of the amoeboid Dictyostelium discoideum and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types and the asymmetric shape of many natural scaffolds suggest that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology. PMID:26417076

  15. Autophagic cell death: Loch Ness monster or endangered species?

    PubMed

    Shen, Han-Ming; Codogno, Patrice

    2011-05-01

    The concept of autophagic cell death was first established based on observations of increased autophagic markers in dying cells. The major limitation of such a morphology-based definition of autophagic cell death is that it fails to establish the functional role of autophagy in the cell death process, and thus contributes to the confusion in the literature regarding the role of autophagy in cell death and cell survival. Here we propose to define autophagic cell death as a modality of non-apoptotic or necrotic programmed cell death in which autophagy serves as a cell death mechanism, upon meeting the following set of criteria: (i) cell death occurs without the involvement of apoptosis; (ii) there is an increase of autophagic flux, and not just an increase of the autophagic markers, in the dying cells; and (iii) suppression of autophagy via both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic approaches is able to rescue or prevent cell death. In light of this new definition, we will discuss some of the common problems and difficulties in the study of autophagic cell death and also revisit some well-reported cases of autophagic cell death, aiming to achieve a better understanding of whether autophagy is a real killer, an accomplice or just an innocent bystander in the course of cell death. At present, the physiological relevance of autophagic cell death is mainly observed in lower eukaryotes and invertebrates such as Dictyostelium discoideum and Drosophila melanogaster. We believe that such a clear definition of autophagic cell death will help us study and understand the physiological or pathological relevance of autophagic cell death in mammals. PMID:21150268

  16. Both contractile axial and lateral traction force dynamics drive amoeboid cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Bastounis, Effie; Meili, Ruedi; Álvarez-González, Begoña; Francois, Joshua; del Álamo, Juan C.; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Chemotaxing Dictyostelium discoideum cells adapt their morphology and migration speed in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Using Fourier traction force microscopy, we measured the spatiotemporal evolution of shape and traction stresses and constructed traction tension kymographs to analyze cell motility as a function of the dynamics of the cell’s mechanically active traction adhesions. We show that wild-type cells migrate in a step-wise fashion, mainly forming stationary traction adhesions along their anterior–posterior axes and exerting strong contractile axial forces. We demonstrate that lateral forces are also important for motility, especially for migration on highly adhesive substrates. Analysis of two mutant strains lacking distinct actin cross-linkers (mhcA− and abp120− cells) on normal and highly adhesive substrates supports a key role for lateral contractions in amoeboid cell motility, whereas the differences in their traction adhesion dynamics suggest that these two strains use distinct mechanisms to achieve migration. Finally, we provide evidence that the above patterns of migration may be conserved in mammalian amoeboid cells. PMID:24637328

  17. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 suppresses gene expression of cyclin D1 in tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasmin, Tania; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi . E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Jun; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Masato; Watanabe, Yutaka; Morimoto, Sachio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-12-16

    To determine the mechanism by which differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), a morphogen of Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits tumor cell proliferation, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on the gene expression of cyclin D1. DIF-1 strongly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and correspondingly decreased the amount of {beta}-catenin in HeLa cells and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DIF-1 activated glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and inhibition of GSK-3{beta} attenuated the DIF-1-induced {beta}-catenin degradation, indicating the involvement of GSK-3{beta} in this effect. Moreover, DIF-1 reduced the activities of T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) reporter plasmid and a reporter gene driven by the human cyclin D1 promoter. Eliminating the TCF/LEF consensus site from the cyclin D1 promoter diminished the effect of DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 inhibits Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, resulting in the suppression of cyclin D1 promoter activity.

  18. Drainin required for membrane fusion of the contractile vacuole in Dictyostelium is the prototype of a protein family also represented in man.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, M; Matzner, M; Gerisch, G

    1999-01-01

    The contractile vacuole expels water by forming a channel with the plasma membrane and thus enables cells to survive in a hypo-osmotic environment. Here we characterize drainin, a Dictyostelium protein involved in this process, as the first member of a protein family represented in fission yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans and man. Gene replacement in Dictyostelium shows that drainin acts at a checkpoint of channel formation between the contractile vacuole and the plasma membrane. A green fluorescent protein fusion of drainin localizes specifically to the contractile vacuole and rescues its periodic discharge in drainin-null cells. Drainin is a peripheral membrane protein, requiring a short hydrophobic stretch in its C-terminal region for localization and function. We suggest that drainin acts in a signaling cascade that couples a volume-sensing device in the vacuolar membrane to the membrane fusion machinery. PMID:10369671

  19. Asymmetric Nano/Microtopography Biases Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Promotes Unidirectional Cell Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Driscoll, Meghan; Guven, Can; Das, Satarupa; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    Many biological and physiological processes depend upon directed migration of cells, which is typically mediated by chemical or physical gradients or by signal relay. Here we show that cells can be guided in a single preferred direction based solely on local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales. These asymmetries can be repeated, and thereby provide directional guidance, over arbitrarily large areas. The direction and strength of the guidance is sensitive to the details of the nano/microtopography, suggesting that this phenomenon plays a context-dependent role in vivo. We demonstrate that asymmetric nano/microtopography guides the direction of internal actin polymerization waves (esotaxis), and that cells move in the same direction as these waves (microthigmotaxis). This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of the amoeboid Dictyostelium discoideum and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types and the asymmetric shape of many natural scaffolds suggests that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology.

  20. Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: news from the third dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, A.; Gorelashvili, M.; Schüller, V.; Wehnekamp, F.; Arcizet, D.; Katayama, Y.; Lamb, D. C.; Heinrich, D.

    2013-07-01

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) is of growing importance in the biophysical community. It is used to investigate processes such as drug and gene delivery, viral uptake, intracellular trafficking or membrane-bound protein mobility. Traditionally, SPT is performed in two dimensions (2D) because of its technical simplicity. However, life occurs in three dimensions (3D) and many methods have been recently developed to track particles in 3D. Now, is the third dimension worth the effort? Here we investigate the differences between the 2D and 3D analyses of intracellular transport with the 3D development of a time-resolved mean square displacement (MSD) analysis introduced previously. The 3D trajectories, and the 2D projections, of fluorescent nanoparticles were obtained with an orbital tracking microscope in two different cell types: in Dictyostelium discoideum ameba and in adherent, more flattened HuH-7 human cells. As expected from the different 3D organization of both cells’ cytoskeletons, a third of the active transport was lost upon projection in the ameba whereas the identification of the active phases was barely affected in the HuH-7 cells. In both cell types, we found intracellular diffusion to be anisotropic and the diffusion coefficient values derived from the 2D analysis were therefore biased.

  1. DIF-1 induces the basal disc of the Dictyostelium fruiting body

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tamao; Kato, Atsushi; Kay, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    The polyketide DIF-1 induces Dictyostelium amoebae to form stalk cells in culture. To better define its role in normal development, we examined the phenotype of a mutant blocking the first step of DIF-1 synthesis, which lacks both DIF-1 and its biosynthetic intermediate, dM-DIF-1 (des-methyl-DIF-1). Slugs of this polyketide synthase mutant (stlB−) are long and thin and rapidly break up, leaving an immotile prespore mass. They have ∼ 30% fewer prestalk cells than their wild-type parent and lack a subset of anterior-like cells, which later form the outer basal disc. This structure is missing from the fruiting body, which perhaps in consequence initiates culmination along the substratum. The lower cup is rudimentary at best and the spore mass, lacking support, slips down the stalk. The dmtA− methyltransferase mutant, blocked in the last step of DIF-1 synthesis, resembles the stlB− mutant but has delayed tip formation and fewer prestalk-O cells. This difference may be due to accumulation of dM-DIF-1 in the dmtA− mutant, since dM-DIF-1 inhibits prestalk-O differentiation. Thus, DIF-1 is required for slug migration and specifies the anterior-like cells forming the basal disc and much of the lower cup; significantly the DIF-1 biosynthetic pathway may supply a second signal - dM-DIF-1. PMID:18402932

  2. An evolutionary recent neuroepithelial cell adhesion function of huntingtin implicates ADAM10-Ncadherin.

    PubMed

    Lo Sardo, Valentina; Zuccato, Chiara; Gaudenzi, Germano; Vitali, Barbara; Ramos, Catarina; Tartari, Marzia; Myre, Michael A; Walker, James A; Pistocchi, Anna; Conti, Luciano; Valenza, Marta; Drung, Binia; Schmidt, Boris; Gusella, James; Zeitlin, Scott; Cotelli, Franco; Cattaneo, Elena

    2012-05-01

    The Huntington's disease gene product, huntingtin, is indispensable for neural tube formation, but its role is obscure. We studied neurulation in htt-null embryonic stem cells and htt-morpholino zebrafish embryos and found a previously unknown, evolutionarily recent function for this ancient protein. We found that htt was essential for homotypic interactions between neuroepithelial cells; it permitted neurulation and rosette formation by regulating metalloprotease ADAM10 activity and Ncadherin cleavage. This function was embedded in the N terminus of htt and was phenocopied by treatment of htt knockdown zebrafish with an ADAM10 inhibitor. Notably, in htt-null cells, reversion of the rosetteless phenotype occurred only with expression of evolutionarily recent htt heterologues from deuterostome organisms. Conversely, all of the heterologues that we tested, including htt from Drosophila melanogaster and Dictyostelium discoideum, exhibited anti-apoptotic activity. Thus, anti-apoptosis may have been one of htt’s ancestral function(s), but, in deuterostomes, htt evolved to acquire a unique regulatory activity for controlling neural adhesion via ADAM10-Ncadherin, with implications for brain evolution and development. PMID:22466506

  3. Self-organized spatiotemporal patterns of PIP3 and PTEN during spontaneous cell polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoch, Fabian; Tarantola, Marco; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2014-03-01

    During spontaneous cell polarization of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, PIP3 (phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphoshpate) and PTEN (phosphatase tensin homolog) have been identified as key signaling molecules, which govern the process of polarization in a self-organized manner. Gerisch et al. have shown that randomly triggered excitable PIP3 waves regulate the anti-correlated PTEN concentration. Here we show that this requires a switch-like dynamics of the overall membrane bound PTEN concentration in combination with two species of PTEN differing in their dephosphorylation rates. A quantitative modeling with a coupled reaction-diffusion system shows excellent agreement with experimental results and predicts a ratio σ of dephosphorylation rates acting on PIP3 of σ ~ 80 - 100. Our quantitative analysis suggests that surface-attached cell membrane spanning PIP3 waves are necessary for resetting the global actin network. This is evidenced by the experimentally observed delay between polarization-cycles also quantitatively captured by our analysis. Max Planck Society and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics.

  4. PRKX, a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohong; Li, Hsi-Ping; Amsler, Kurt; Hyink, Deborah; Wilson, Patricia D.; Burrow, Christopher R.

    2002-01-01

    The human protein kinase X gene (PRKX) is a member of an ancient family of cAMP-dependent serine/threonine kinases here shown to be phylogenetically distinct from the classical PKA, PKB/Akt, PKC, SGK, and PKG gene families. Renal expression of the PRKX gene is developmentally regulated and restricted to the ureteric bud epithelium of the fetal metanephric kidney. Aberrant adult kidney expression of PRKX was found in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PRKX kinase expression markedly activated migration of cultured renal epithelial cells in the presence of cAMP; this effect was blocked by cell treatment with the PKA inhibitor H89 and was not observed in PKA-transfected cells. In addition, expression of PRKX kinase activated branching morphogenesis of Madin–Darby canine kidney cells in collagen gels even in the absence of cAMP and/or hepatocyte growth factor, an effect not seen with either PKA expression or expression of a mutant, kinase-inactivated PRKX. These results suggest that the PRKX kinase may regulate epithelial morphogenesis during mammalian kidney development. Because another member of the PRKX gene family (the Dictyostelium discoideum gene KAPC-DICDI) also plays a role in cellular migration, these studies suggest that regulation of morphogenesis may be a distinctive property of these genes that has been conserved in evolution that is not shared with PKA family genes. PMID:12082174

  5. The Dictyostelium type V myosin MyoJ is responsible for the cortical association and motility of contractile vacuole membranes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Goeh; Titus, Margaret A; Hammer, John A

    2009-08-24

    The contractile vacuole (CV) complex in Dictyostelium is a tubulovesicular osmoregulatory organelle that exhibits extensive motility along the actin-rich cortex, providing a useful model for investigating myosin-dependent membrane transport. Here, we show that the type V myosin myoJ localizes to CV membranes and is required for efficient osmoregulation, the normal accumulation of CV membranes in the cortex, and the conversion of collapsed bladder membranes into outwardly radiating cortical CV tubules. Complementation of myoJ-null cells with a version of myoJ containing a shorter lever arm causes these radiating tubules to move at a slower speed, confirming myoJ's role in translocating CV membranes along the cortex. MyoJ-null cells also exhibit a dramatic concentration of CV membranes around the microtubule-organizing center. Consistently, we demonstrate that CV membranes also move bi-directionally on microtubules between the cortex and the centrosome. Therefore, myoJ cooperates with plus and minus end-directed microtubule motors to drive the normal distribution and dynamics of the CV complex in Dictyostelium. PMID:19687255

  6. A Ras GAP is essential for cytokinesis and spatial patterning in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Escalante, R; Firtel, R A

    1997-03-01

    Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified developmentally regulated Dictyostelium genes whose encoded proteins interact with Ras-GTP but not Ras-GDP. By sequence homology and biochemical function, one of these genes encodes a Ras GAP (DdRasGAP1). Cells carrying a DdRasGAP1 gene disruption (ddrasgap1 null cells) have multiple, very distinct growth and developmental defects as elucidated by examining the phenotypes of ddrasgap1 null strains. First, vegetative ddrasgap1 null cells are very large and highly multinucleate cells when grown in suspension, indicating a severe defect in cytokinesis. When suspension-grown cells are plated in growth medium on plastic where they attach and can move, the cells rapidly become mono- and dinucleate by traction-mediated cell fission and continue to grow vegetatively with a number of nuclei (1-2) per cell, similar to wild-type cells. The multinucleate phenotype, combined with results indicating that constitutive expression of activated Ras does not yield highly multinucleate cells and data on Ras null mutants, suggest that Ras may need to cycle between GTP- and GDP-bound states for proper cytokinesis. After starvation, the large null cells undergo rapid fission when they start to move at the onset of aggregation, producing mononucleate cells that form a normal aggregate. Second, ddrasgap1 null cells also have multiple developmental phenotypes that indicate an essential role of DdRasGAP1 in controlling cell patterning. Multicellular development is normal through the mid-slug stage, after which morphological differentiation is very abnormal and no culminant is formed: no stalk cells and very few spores are detected. lacZ reporter studies show that by the mid-finger stage, much of the normal cell-type patterning is lost, indicating that proper DdRasGAP1 function and possibly normal Ras activity are necessary to maintain spatial organization and for induction of prestalk to stalk and prespore to spore cell differentiation

  7. A Gα-Stimulated RapGEF Is a Receptor-Proximal Regulator of Dictyostelium Chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youtao; Lacal, Jesus; Veltman, Douwe M; Fusetti, Fabrizia; van Haastert, Peter J M; Firtel, Richard A; Kortholt, Arjan

    2016-06-01

    Chemotaxis, or directional movement toward extracellular chemical gradients, is an important property of cells that is mediated through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although many chemotaxis pathways downstream of Gβγ have been identified, few Gα effectors are known. Gα effectors are of particular importance because they allow the cell to distinguish signals downstream of distinct chemoattractant GPCRs. Here we identify GflB, a Gα2 binding partner that directly couples the Dictyostelium cyclic AMP GPCR to Rap1. GflB localizes to the leading edge and functions as a Gα-stimulated, Rap1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor required to balance Ras and Rap signaling. The kinetics of GflB translocation are fine-tuned by GSK-3 phosphorylation. Cells lacking GflB display impaired Rap1/Ras signaling and actin and myosin dynamics, resulting in defective chemotaxis. Our observations demonstrate that GflB is an essential upstream regulator of chemoattractant-mediated cell polarity and cytoskeletal reorganization functioning to directly link Gα activation to monomeric G-protein signaling. PMID:27237792

  8. Phg2, a Kinase Involved in Adhesion and Focal Site Modeling in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Gebbie, Leigh; Benghezal, Mohammed; Cornillon, Sophie; Froquet, Romain; Cherix, Nathalie; Malbouyres, Marilyne; Lefkir, Yaya; Grangeasse, Christophe; Fache, Sébastien; Dalous, Jérémie; Brückert, Franz; Letourneur, François; Cosson, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The amoeba Dictyostelium is a simple genetic system for analyzing substrate adhesion, motility and phagocytosis. A new adhesion-defective mutant named phg2 was isolated in this system, and PHG2 encodes a novel serine/threonine kinase with a ras-binding domain. We compared the phenotype of phg2 null cells to other previously isolated adhesion mutants to evaluate the specific role of each gene product. Phg1, Phg2, myosin VII, and talin all play similar roles in cellular adhesion. Like myosin VII and talin, Phg2 also is involved in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, phg2 mutant cells have defects in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton at the cell-substrate interface, and in cell motility. Because these last two defects are not seen in phg1, myoVII, or talin mutants, this suggests a specific role for Phg2 in the control of local actin polymerization/depolymerization. This study establishes a functional hierarchy in the roles of Phg1, Phg2, myosinVII, and talin in cellular adhesion, actin cytoskeleton organization, and motility. PMID:15194808

  9. Total internal reflection holographic microscopy (TIRHM) for quantitative phase characterization of cell-substrate adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, William Mason, III

    Total Internal Reflection Holographic Microscopy (TIRHM) combines near-field microscopy with digital holography to produce a new form of near-field phase microscopy. Using a prism in TIR as a near-field imager, the presence of microscopic organisms, cell-substrate interfaces, and adhesions, causes relative refractive index (RRI) and frustrated TIR (f-TIR) to modulate the object beam's evanescent wave phase front. Quantitative phase images of test specimens such as Amoeba proteus, Dictyostelium Discoideum and cells such as SKOV-3 ovarian cancer and 3T3 fibroblasts are produced without the need to introduce stains or fluorophores. The angular spectrum method of digital holography to compensate for tilt anamorphism due to the inclined TIR plane is also discussed. The results of this work conclusively demonstrate, for the first time, the integration of near-field microscopy with digital holography. The cellular images presented show a correlation between the physical extent of the Amoeba proteus plasma membrane and the adhesions that are quantitatively profiled by phase cross-sectioning of the holographic images obtained by digital holography. With its ability to quantitatively characterise cellular adhesion and motility, it is anticipated that TIRHM can be a tool for characterizing and combating cancer metastasis, as well as improving our understanding of morphogenesis and embryogenesis itself.

  10. Folate responsiveness during growth and development of Dictyostelium: separate but related pathways control chemotaxis and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Blusch, J H; Nellen, W

    1994-01-01

    Folate-controlled gene expression and chemotaxis have been examined in Dictyostelium wild-type and mutant strains. We show that regulation of the discoidin genes is sensitive to folate in growing cells as well as in suspension development. The signal is transferred via the N10-methylfolate-sensitive folate receptor sites, which also appear to confer the chemotactic response. The strain HG5145 has previously been isolated as a mutant that does not display chemotactic movement towards folate. Nevertheless, these cells are fully functional in folate-mediated downregulation of discoidin I expression. The strain ga 93 has been isolated as an overproducer mutant of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Simultaneously, these cells fail to downregulate discoidin I in response to folate but are fully functional in folate chemotaxis. Therefore we conclude that the pathways for chemotaxis and for gene regulation diverge downstream of a common receptor type. PMID:8170395

  11. De novo actin polymerization is required for model Hirano body formation in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yun; Shahid-Salles, Sonbol; Sherling, Dan; Fechheimer, Nathan; Iyer, Nathan; Wells, Lance; Fechheimer, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hirano bodies are eosinophilic, actin-rich inclusions found in autopsied brains in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism of Hirano body formation is unknown. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify proteins from partially purified model Hirano bodies from Dictyostelium. This analysis identified proteins primarily belonging to ribosomes, proteasomes, mitochondria and cytoskeleton. Profilin, Arp/2/3 and WASH identified by mass spectrometry were found to colocalise with model Hirano bodies. Due to their roles in actin regulation, we selected these proteins for further investigation. Inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex by CK666 prevented formation of model Hirano bodies. Since Arp2/3 activation occurs via the WASH or WAVE complex, we next investigated how these proteins affect Hirano body formation. Whereas model Hirano bodies could form in WASH-deficient cells, they failed to form in cells lacking HSPC300, a member of the WAVE complex. We identified other proteins required for Hirano body formation that include profilin and VASP, an actin nucleation factor. In the case of VASP, both its G- and F-actin binding domains were required for model Hirano body formation. Collectively, our results indicate that de novo actin polymerization is required to form model Hirano bodies. PMID:27215322

  12. De novo actin polymerization is required for model Hirano body formation in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun; Shahid-Salles, Sonbol; Sherling, Dan; Fechheimer, Nathan; Iyer, Nathan; Wells, Lance; Fechheimer, Marcus; Furukawa, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Hirano bodies are eosinophilic, actin-rich inclusions found in autopsied brains in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism of Hirano body formation is unknown. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify proteins from partially purified model Hirano bodies from Dictyostelium This analysis identified proteins primarily belonging to ribosomes, proteasomes, mitochondria and cytoskeleton. Profilin, Arp/2/3 and WASH identified by mass spectrometry were found to colocalise with model Hirano bodies. Due to their roles in actin regulation, we selected these proteins for further investigation. Inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex by CK666 prevented formation of model Hirano bodies. Since Arp2/3 activation occurs via the WASH or WAVE complex, we next investigated how these proteins affect Hirano body formation. Whereas model Hirano bodies could form in WASH-deficient cells, they failed to form in cells lacking HSPC300, a member of the WAVE complex. We identified other proteins required for Hirano body formation that include profilin and VASP, an actin nucleation factor. In the case of VASP, both its G- and F-actin binding domains were required for model Hirano body formation. Collectively, our results indicate that de novo actin polymerization is required to form model Hirano bodies. PMID:27215322

  13. Modeling self-organized spatio-temporal patterns of PIP3 and PTEN during spontaneous cell polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoch, Fabian; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2014-08-01

    During spontaneous cell polarization of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphoshpate (PIP3) and PTEN (phosphatase tensin homolog) have been identified as key signaling molecules which govern the process of polarization in a self-organized manner. Recent experiments have quantified the spatio-temporal dynamics of these signaling components. Surprisingly, it was found that membrane-bound PTEN can be either in a high or low state, that PIP3 waves were initiated in areas lacking PTEN through an excitable mechanism, and that PIP3 was degraded even though the PTEN concentration remained low. Here we develop a reaction-diffusion model that aims to explain these experimental findings. Our model contains bistable dynamics for PTEN, excitable dynamics for PIP3, and postulates the existence of two species of PTEN with different dephosphorylation rates. We show that our model is able to produce results that are in good qualitative agreement with the experiments, suggesting that our reaction-diffusion model underlies the self-organized spatio-temporal patterns observed in experiments.

  14. Dictyostelium development shows a novel pattern of evolutionary conservation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangjun; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2013-04-01

    von Baer's law states that early stages of animal development are the most conserved. More recent evidence supports a modified "hourglass" pattern in which an early but somewhat later stage is most conserved. Both patterns have been explained by the relative complexity of either temporal or spatial interactions; the greatest conservation and lowest evolvability occur at the time of the most complex interactions, because these cause larger effects that are harder for selection to alter. This general kind of explanation might apply universally across independent multicellular systems, as supported by the recent finding of the hourglass pattern in plants. We use RNA-seq expression data from the development of the slime mold Dictyostelium to demonstrate that it does not follow either of the two canonical patterns but instead tends to show the strongest conservation and weakest evolvability late in development. We propose that this is consistent with a version of the spatial constraints model, modified for organisms that never achieve a high degree of developmental modularity. PMID:23329689

  15. Differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) induces gene and protein expression of the Dictyostelium nuclear calmodulin-binding protein nucleomorphin.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Poloz, Yekaterina; Myre, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    The nucleomorphin gene numA1 from Dictyostelium codes for a multi-domain, calmodulin binding protein that regulates nuclear number. To gain insight into the regulation of numA, we assessed the effects of the stalk cell differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), an extracellular signalling molecule, on the expression of numA1 RNA and protein. For comparison, the extracellular signalling molecules cAMP (mediates chemotaxis, prestalk and prespore differentiation) and ammonia (NH(3)/NH(4)(+); antagonizes DIF) were also studied. Starvation, which is a signal for multicellular development, results in a greater than 80% decrease in numA1 mRNA expression within 4 h. Treatment with ammonium chloride led to a greater than 90% inhibition of numA1 RNA expression within 2 h. In contrast, the addition of DIF-1 completely blocked the decrease in numA1 gene expression caused by starvation. Treatment of vegetative cells with cAMP led to decreases in numA1 RNA expression that were equivalent to those seen with starvation. Western blotting after various morphogen treatments showed that the maintenance of vegetative levels of numA1 RNA by DIF-1 in starved cells was reflected in significantly increased numA1 protein levels. Treatment with cAMP and/or ammonia led to decreased protein expression and each of these morphogens suppressed the stimulatory effects of DIF-1. Protein expression levels of CBP4a, a calcium-dependent binding partner of numA1, were regulated in the same manner as numA1 suggesting this potential co-regulation may be related to their functional relationship. NumA1 is the first calmodulin binding protein shown to be regulated by developmental morphogens in Dictyostelium being upregulated by DIF-1 and down-regulated by cAMP and ammonia. PMID:19000924

  16. A Long-Range Foresight for the Medical Application of Apoptosis Specifically Induced by Dd-MRP4, Dictyostelium Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S4, to Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is regarded as ultimate differentiation of the cell. We have recently demonstrated that a targeted delivery of Dd-MRP4 (Dictyostelium mitochondrial ribosomal protein S4) suppresses specifically the proliferation of the human cancer cells, by inducing their apoptotic cell death (Chida et al., 2014, doi:10.1186/1475-2867-14-56). This amazing fact was discovered, simply based on the finding that Dd-MRP4 expression is absolutely required for transition of Dictyostelium cells from growth to differentiation (Chida et al., 2008, doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-25; Maeda et al., 2013, doi:10.3390/biom3040943). Dd-MRP4 protein has quite unique structural characters, in that it is highly basic (pI: about 11.5) and interestingly has several nuclear-localization signals within the molecule. In this review, we introduce briefly the efficacy of several apoptosis-inducing substances reported thus far for cancer therapy, and speculate the possible mechanisms, by which apoptosis is specifically induced by Dd-MRP4, on the basis of its structural uniqueness. We also discuss several issues to be solved for the medical application of ectopically expressed Dd-MRP4 in human cancer cells. PMID:25675329

  17. Autonomous and nonautonomous regulation of axis formation by antagonistic signaling via 7-span cAMP receptors and GSK3 in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, G T; Kimmel, A R

    1997-08-15

    Early during Dictyostelium development a fundamental cell-fate decision establishes the anteroposterior (prestalk/prespore) axis. Signaling via the 7-transmembrane cAMP receptor CAR4 is essential for creating and maintaining a normal pattern; car4-null alleles have decreased levels of prestalk-specific mRNAs but enhanced expression of prespore genes. car4- cells produce all of the signals required for prestalk differentiation but lack an extracellular factor necessary for prespore differentiation of wild-type cells. This secreted factor decreases the sensitivity of prespore cells to inhibition by the prestalk morphogen DIF-1. At the cell autonomous level, CAR4 is linked to intracellular circuits that activate prestalk but inhibit prespore differentiation. The autonomous action of CAR4 is antagonistic to the positive intracellular signals mediated by another cAMP receptor, CAR1 and/or CAR3. Additional data indicate that these CAR-mediated pathways converge at the serine/threonine protein kinase GSK3, suggesting that the anterior (prestalk)/posterior (prespore) axis of Dictyostelium is regulated by an ancient mechanism that is shared by the Wnt/Fz circuits for dorsoventral patterning during early Xenopus development and establishing Drosophila segment polarity. PMID:9284050

  18. TM9/Phg1 and SadA proteins control surface expression and stability of SibA adhesion molecules in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Froquet, Romain; le Coadic, Marion; Perrin, Jackie; Cherix, Nathalie; Cornillon, Sophie; Cosson, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    TM9 proteins form a family of conserved proteins with nine transmembrane domains essential for cellular adhesion in many biological systems, but their exact role in this process remains unknown. In this study, we found that genetic inactivation of the TM9 protein Phg1A dramatically decreases the surface levels of the SibA adhesion molecule in Dictyostelium amoebae. This is due to a decrease in sibA mRNA levels, in SibA protein stability, and in SibA targeting to the cell surface. A similar phenotype was observed in cells devoid of SadA, a protein that does not belong to the TM9 family but also exhibits nine transmembrane domains and is essential for cellular adhesion. A contact site A (csA)-SibA chimeric protein comprising only the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of SibA and the extracellular domain of the Dictyostelium surface protein csA also showed reduced stability and relocalization to endocytic compartments in phg1A knockout cells. These results indicate that TM9 proteins participate in cell adhesion by controlling the levels of adhesion proteins present at the cell surface. PMID:22219373

  19. Differentiation inducing factor 3 mediates its anti-leukemic effect through ROS-dependent DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission and induction of caspase-independent cell death.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alix; Ginet, Clemence; Furstoss, Nathan; Belaid, Amine; Hamouda, Mohamed Amine; El Manaa, Wedjene; Cluzeau, Thomas; Marchetti, Sandrine; Ricci, Jean Ehrland; Jacquel, Arnaud; Luciano, Frederic; Driowya, Mohsine; Benhida, Rachid; Auberger, Patrick; Robert, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor (DIF) defines a group of chlorinated hexaphenones that orchestrate stalk-cell differentiation in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (DD). DIF-1 and 3 have also been reported to have tumor inhibiting properties; however, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of these compounds remain poorly defined. Herein, we show that DIF-3 rapidly triggers Ca2+ release and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in the absence of cytochrome c and Smac release and without caspase activation. Consistently with these findings, we also detected no evidence of apoptosis in cells treated with DIF-3 but instead found that this compound induced autophagy. In addition, DIF-3 promoted mitochondrial fission in K562 and HeLa cells, as assessed by electron and confocal microscopy analysis. Importantly, DIF-3 mediated the phosphorylation and redistribution of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) from the cytoplasmic to the microsomal fraction of K562 cells. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing of DRP1 not only inhibited mitochondrial fission but also protected K562 cells from DIF-3-mediated cell death. Furthermore, DIF-3 potently inhibited the growth of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant K562 cells. It also inhibited tumor formation in athymic mice engrafted with an imatinib-resistant CML cell line. Finally, DIF-3 exhibited a clear selectivity toward CD34+ leukemic cells from CML patients, compared with CD34- cells. In conclusion, we show that the potent anti-leukemic effect of DIF-3 is mediated through the induction of mitochondrial fission and caspase-independent cell death. Our findings may have important therapeutic implications, especially in the treatment of tumors that exhibit defects in apoptosis regulation. PMID:27027430

  20. Cucurbitacin I Inhibits Cell Motility by Indirectly Interfering with Actin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Knecht, David A.; LaFleur, Rebecca A.; Kahsai, Alem W.; Argueta, Christian E.; Beshir, Anwar B.; Fenteany, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Background Cucurbitacins are plant natural products that inhibit activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway by an unknown mechanism. They are also known to cause changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that cucurbitacin I potently inhibits the migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell sheets during wound closure, as well as the random motility of B16-F1 mouse melanoma cells, but has no effect on movement of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae. Upon treatment of MDCK or B16-F1 cells with cucurbitacin I, there is a very rapid cessation of motility and gradual accumulation of filamentous actin aggregates. The cellular effect of the compound is similar to that observed when cells are treated with the actin filament-stabilizing agent jasplakinolide. However, we found that, unlike jasplakinolide or phallacidin, cucurbitacin I does not directly stabilize actin filaments. In in vitro actin depolymerization experiments, cucurbitacin I had no effect on the rate of actin filament disassembly at the nanomolar concentrations that inhibit cell migration. At elevated concentrations, the depolymerization rate was also unaffected, although there was a delay in the initiation of depolymerization. Therefore, cucurbitacin I targets some factor involved in cellular actin dynamics other than actin itself. Two candidate proteins that play roles in actin depolymerization are the actin-severing proteins cofilin and gelsolin. Cucurbitacin I possesses electrophilic reactivity that may lead to chemical modification of its target protein, as suggested by structure-activity relationship data. However, mass spectrometry revealed no evidence for modification of purified cofilin or gelsolin by cucurbitacin I. Conclusions/Significance Cucurbitacin I results in accumulation of actin filaments in cells by a unique indirect mechanism. Furthermore, the proximal target of

  1. Re-expression of ABP-120 rescues cytoskeletal, motility, and phagocytosis defects of ABP-120- Dictyostelium mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D; Wessels, D; Soll, D R; Hartwig, J; Condeelis, J

    1996-01-01

    The actin binding protein ABP-120 has been proposed to cross-link actin filaments in nascent pseudopods, in a step required for normal pseudopod extension in motile Dictyostelium amoebae. To test this hypothesis, cell lines that lack ABP-120 were created independently either by chemical mutagenesis or homologous recombination. Different phenotypes were reported in these two studies. The chemical mutant shows only a subtle defect in actin cross-linking, while the homologous recombinant mutants show profound defects in actin cross-linking, cytoskeletal structure, pseudopod number and size, cell motility and chemotaxis and, as shown here, phagocytosis. To resolve the controversy as to what the ABP-120- phenotype is, ABP-120 was re-expressed in an ABP-120- cell line created by homologous recombination. Two independently "rescued" cell lines that express wild-type levels of ABP-120 were analyzed. In both rescued cell lines, actin incorporation into the cytoskeleton, pseudopod formation, cell morphology, instantaneous velocity, phagocytosis, and chemotaxis were restored to wild-type levels. There is no alteration in the expression levels of several related actin binding proteins in either the original ABP-120- cell line or in the rescued cell lines, leading to the conclusion that neither the aberrant phenotype observed in ABP-120- cells nor the normal phenotype reasserted in rescued cells can be attributed to alterations in the levels of other abundant and related actin binding proteins. Re-expression of ABP-120 in ABP-120- cells reestablishes normal structural and behavioral parameters, demonstrating that the severity and properties of the structural and behavioral defects of ABP-120- cell lines produced by homologous recombination are the direct result of the absence of ABP-120. Images PMID:8744952

  2. Retrieval of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase from Phagosomes Revealed by Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Margaret; Maddera, Lucinda; Engel, Ulrike; Gerisch, Günther

    2010-01-01

    Background The vacuolar H+-ATPase, or V-ATPase, is a highly-conserved multi-subunit enzyme that transports protons across membranes at the expense of ATP. The resulting proton gradient serves many essential functions, among them energizing transport of small molecules such as neurotransmitters, and acidifying organelles such as endosomes. The enzyme is not present in the plasma membrane from which a phagosome is formed, but is rapidly delivered by fusion with endosomes that already bear the V-ATPase in their membranes. Similarly, the enzyme is thought to be retrieved from phagosome membranes prior to exocytosis of indigestible material, although that process has not been directly visualized. Methodology To monitor trafficking of the V-ATPase in the phagocytic pathway of Dictyostelium discoideum, we fed the cells yeast, large particles that maintain their shape during trafficking. To track pH changes, we conjugated the yeast with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Cells were labeled with VatM-GFP, a fluorescently-tagged transmembrane subunit of the V-ATPase, in parallel with stage-specific endosomal markers or in combination with mRFP-tagged cytoskeletal proteins. Principal Findings We find that the V-ATPase is commonly retrieved from the phagosome membrane by vesiculation shortly before exocytosis. However, if the cells are kept in confined spaces, a bulky phagosome may be exocytosed prematurely. In this event, a large V-ATPase-rich vacuole coated with actin typically separates from the acidic phagosome shortly before exocytosis. This vacuole is propelled by an actin tail and soon acquires the properties of an early endosome, revealing an unexpected mechanism for rapid recycling of the V-ATPase. Any V-ATPase that reaches the plasma membrane is also promptly retrieved. Conclusions/Signficance Thus, live cell microscopy has revealed both a usual route and alternative means of recycling the V-ATPase in the endocytic pathway. PMID:20052281

  3. Differential distribution of cAMP receptors cAR2 and cAR3 during Dictyostelium development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Saxe, C L

    1996-01-10

    Signal transduction via a family of cAMP receptor subtypes (cARs) is critical for proper development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. Genes encoding four related subtypes have been cloned and their expression, based on RNA accumulation, has been previously reported. Here we report the differential spatial and temporal distribution of cAR2 and cAR3 proteins, based on indirect double immunofluorescence. Cells were transformed with a carB::lacZ construct, and an antibody against beta-galactosidase was used to visualize cAR2 expression. Simultaneously, a cAR3-specific antibody was used to identify cAR3-expressing cells. Results indicate that by the time of tip formation (12-14 hr) both receptors are expressed and distribute in a virtually nonoverlapping pattern, with cAR2 being expressed on anterior, prestalk cells and cAR3 present in the rest of the organism. Differential distribution of these two receptor subtypes may result in distinct cAMP signaling mechanisms in the two major regions of the organism. PMID:8575636

  4. IfkA, a presumptive eIF2α kinase of Dictyostelium, is required for proper timing of aggregation and regulation of mound size

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Rui; Xiong, Yanhua; Singleton, Charles K

    2003-01-01

    Background The transition from growth to development in Dictyostelium is initiated by amino acid starvation of growing amobae. In other eukaryotes, a key sensor of amino acid starvation and mediator of the resulting physiological responses is the GCN2 protein, an eIF2α kinase. GCN2 downregulates the initiation of translation of bulk mRNA and enhances translation of specific mRNAs by phosphorylating the translation initiation factor eIF2α. Two eIF2α kinases were identified in Dictyostelium and studied herein. Results Neither of the eIF2α kinases appeared to be involved in sensing amino acid starvation to initiate development. However, one of the kinases, IfkA, was shown to phosphorylate eIF2α from 1 to 7 hours after the onset of development, resulting in a shift from polysomes to free ribosomes for bulk mRNA. In the absence of the eIF2α phosphorylation, ifkA null cells aggregated earlier than normal and formed mounds and ultimately fruiting bodies that were larger than normal. The early aggregation phenotype in ifkA null cells reflected an apparent, earlier than normal establishment of the cAMP pulsing system. The large mound phenotype resulted from a reduced extracellular level of Countin, a component of the counting factor that regulates mound size. In wild type cells, phosphorylation of eIF2α by IfkA resulted in a specific stabilization and enhanced translational efficiency of countin mRNA even though reduced translation resulted for bulk mRNA. Conclusions IfkA is an eIF2α kinase of Dictyostelium that normally phosphorylates eIF2α from 1 to 7 hours after the onset of development, or during the preaggregation phase. This results in an overall reduction in the initiation of protein synthesis during this time frame and a concomitant reduction in the number of ribosomes associated with most mRNAs. For some mRNAs, however, initiation of protein synthesis is enhanced or stabilized under the conditions of increased eIF2α phosphorylation. This includes countin

  5. The Dictyostelium prestalk inducer differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) triggers unexpectedly complex global phosphorylation changes

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Chris; Urbaniak, Michael D.; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Williams, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) is a polyketide that induces Dictyostelium amoebae to differentiate as prestalk cells. We performed a global quantitative screen for phosphorylation changes that occur within the first minutes after addition of DIF-1, using a triple-label SILAC approach. This revealed a new world of DIF-1–controlled signaling, with changes in components of the MAPK and protein kinase B signaling pathways, components of the actinomyosin cytoskeletal signaling networks, and a broad range of small GTPases and their regulators. The results also provide evidence that the Ca2+/calmodulin–dependent phosphatase calcineurin plays a role in DIF-1 signaling to the DimB prestalk transcription factor. At the global level, DIF-1 causes a major shift in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation equilibrium toward net dephosphorylation. Of interest, many of the sites that are dephosphorylated in response to DIF-1 are phosphorylated in response to extracellular cAMP signaling. This accords with studies that suggest an antagonism between the two inducers and also with the rapid dephosphorylation of the cAMP receptor that we observe in response to DIF-1 and with the known inhibitory effect of DIF-1 on chemotaxis to cAMP. All MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001555. PMID:25518940

  6. Rab8a regulates the exocyst-mediated kiss-and-run discharge of the Dictyostelium contractile vacuole.

    PubMed

    Essid, Miriam; Gopaldass, Navin; Yoshida, Kunito; Merrifield, Christien; Soldati, Thierry

    2012-04-01

    Water expulsion by the contractile vacuole (CV) in Dictyostelium is carried out by a giant kiss-and-run focal exocytic event during which the two membranes are only transiently connected but do not completely merge. We present a molecular dissection of the GTPase Rab8a and the exocyst complex in tethering of the contractile vacuole to the plasma membrane, fusion, and final detachment. Right before discharge, the contractile vacuole bladder sequentially recruits Drainin, a Rab11a effector, Rab8a, the exocyst complex, and LvsA, a protein of the Chédiak-Higashi family. Rab8a recruitment precedes the nucleotide-dependent arrival of the exocyst to the bladder by a few seconds. A dominant-negative mutant of Rab8a strongly binds to the exocyst and prevents recruitment to the bladder, suggesting that a Rab8a guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity is associated with the complex. Absence of Drainin leads to overtethering and blocks fusion, whereas expression of constitutively active Rab8a allows fusion but blocks vacuole detachment from the plasma membrane, inducing complete fragmentation of tethered vacuoles. An indistinguishable phenotype is generated in cells lacking LvsA, implicating this protein in postfusion detethering. Of interest, overexpression of a constitutively active Rab8a mutant reverses the lvsA-null CV phenotype. PMID:22323285

  7. A non-Golgi alpha 1,2-fucosyltransferase that modifies Skp1 in the cytoplasm of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    van Der Wel, H; Morris, H R; Panico, M; Paxton, T; North, S J; Dell, A; Thomson, J M; West, C M

    2001-09-01

    Skp1 is a subunit of the SCF-E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell cycle and other regulatory factors for degradation. In Dictyostelium, Skp1 is modified by a pentasaccharide containing the type 1 blood group H trisaccharide at its core. To address how the third sugar, fucose alpha1,2-linked to galactose, is attached, a proteomics strategy was applied to determine the primary structure of FT85, previously shown to copurify with the GDP-Fuc:Skp1 alpha 1,2-fucosyltransferase. Tryptic-generated peptides of FT85 were sequenced de novo using Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Degenerate primers were used to amplify FT85 genomic DNA, which was further extended by a novel linker polymerase chain reaction method to yield an intronless open reading frame of 768 amino acids. Disruption of the FT85 gene by homologous recombination resulted in viable cells, which had altered light scattering properties as revealed by flow cytometry. FT85 was necessary and sufficient for Skp1 fucosylation, based on biochemical analysis of FT85 mutant cells and Escherichia coli that express FT85 recombinantly. FT85 lacks sequence motifs that characterize all other known alpha 1,2-fucosyltransferases and lacks the signal-anchor sequence that targets them to the secretory pathway. The C-terminal region of FT85 harbors motifs found in inverting Family 2 glycosyltransferase domains, and its expression in FT85 mutant cells restores fucosyltransferase activity toward a simple disaccharide substrate. Whereas most prokaryote and eukaryote Family 2 glycosyltransferases are membrane-bound and oriented toward the cytoplasm where they glycosylate lipid-linked or polysaccharide precursors prior to membrane translocation, the soluble, eukaryotic Skp1-fucosyltransferase modifies a protein that resides in the cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:11423539

  8. Chemotaxis: Under Agarose Assay.

    PubMed

    Brazill, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum represents a superb model for examining chemotaxis. Under vegetative conditions, the amoebae are chemotactically responsive to pterins, such as folate. Under starved conditions, they lose their sensitivity to pterins, and become chemotactically responsive to cAMP. As an NIH model system, Dictyostelium offers a variety of advantages in studying chemotaxis, including its conservation of mammalian signaling pathways, its ease of growth, and its genetic tractability. In this chapter, we describe the use of the under agarose chemotaxis assay to identify proteins involved in controlling motility and directional sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum. Given the similarities between Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, this allows us to dissect the conserved pathways involved in eukaryotic chemotaxis. PMID:26498795

  9. NADPH Oxidases NOX-1 and NOX-2 Require the Regulatory Subunit NOR-1 To Control Cell Differentiation and Growth in Neurospora crassa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Domínguez, Nallely; Álvarez-Delfín, Karen; Hansberg, Wilhelm; Aguirre, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play essential roles in cell differentiation. Enzymes belonging to the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family produce superoxide in a regulated manner. We have identified three distinct NOX subfamilies in the fungal kingdom and have shown that NoxA is required for sexual cell differentiation in Aspergillus nidulans. Here we show that Neurospora crassa NOX-1 elimination results in complete female sterility, decreased asexual development, and reduction of hyphal growth. The lack of NOX-2 did not affect any of these processes but led instead to the production of sexual spores that failed to germinate, even in the presence of exogenous oxidants. The elimination of NOR-1, an ortholog of the mammalian Nox2 regulatory subunit gp67phox, also caused female sterility, the production of unviable sexual spores, and a decrease in asexual development and hyphal growth. These results indicate that NOR-1 is required for NOX-1 and NOX-2 functions at different developmental stages and establish a link between NOX-generated ROS and the regulation of growth. Indeed, NOX-1 was required for the increased asexual sporulation previously observed in mutants without catalase CAT-3. We also analyzed the function of the penta-EF calcium-binding domain protein PEF-1 in N. crassa. Deletion of pef-1 resulted in increased conidiation but, in contrast to what occurs in Dictyostelium discoideum, the mutation of this peflin did not suppress the phenotypes caused by the lack of NOX-1. Our results support the role of ROS as critical cell differentiation signals and highlight a novel role for ROS in regulation of fungal growth. PMID:18567788

  10. Datasets from a vapor diffusion mineral precipitation protocol for Dictyostelium stalks.

    PubMed

    Eder, Magdalena; Muth, Christina; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2016-06-01

    Datasets from a slow carbonate vapor diffusion and mineral precipitation protocol for Dictyostelium ECM and cellulose stalks show examples for composite materials obtained by an in vitro approach, which differs substantially from the in vivo approach reported in The Journal of Structural Biology, doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2016.03.015 [1]. Methods for obtaining the datasets include bright field transmitted light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, LC-PolScope birefringence microscopy, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM/ESEM), and Raman imaging spectroscopy. PMID:27158657

  11. Datasets from a vapor diffusion mineral precipitation protocol for Dictyostelium stalks

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Magdalena; Muth, Christina; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2016-01-01

    Datasets from a slow carbonate vapor diffusion and mineral precipitation protocol for Dictyostelium ECM and cellulose stalks show examples for composite materials obtained by an in vitro approach, which differs substantially from the in vivo approach reported in The Journal of Structural Biology, doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2016.03.015 [1]. Methods for obtaining the datasets include bright field transmitted light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, LC-PolScope birefringence microscopy, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM/ESEM), and Raman imaging spectroscopy. PMID:27158657

  12. Regulation of contractile vacuole formation and activity in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Du, Fei; Edwards, Kimberly; Shen, Zhouxin; Sun, Binggang; De Lozanne, Arturo; Briggs, Steven; Firtel, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    The contractile vacuole (CV) system is the osmoregulatory organelle required for survival for many free-living cells under hypotonic conditions. We identified a new CV regulator, Disgorgin, a TBC-domain-containing protein, which translocates to the CV membrane at the late stage of CV charging and regulates CV-plasma membrane fusion and discharging. disgorgin(-) cells produce large CVs due to impaired CV-plasma membrane fusion. Disgorgin is a specific GAP for Rab8A-GTP, which also localizes to the CV and whose hydrolysis is required for discharging. We demonstrate that Drainin, a previously identified TBC-domain-containing protein, lies upstream from Disgorgin in this pathway. Unlike Disgorgin, Drainin lacks GAP activity but functions as a Rab11A effector. The BEACH family proteins LvsA and LvsD were identified in a suppressor/enhancer screen of the disgorgin(-) large CV phenotype and demonstrated to have distinct functions in regulating CV formation. Our studies help define the pathways controlling CV function. PMID:18636095

  13. A Dictyostelium myosin I plays a crucial role in regulating the frequency of pseudopods formed on the substratum.

    PubMed

    Wessels, D; Titus, M; Soll, D R

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the motile behavior of a strain of Dictyostelium lacking a myosin I, myoA, revealed that this mutant strain formed pseudopods and turned twice as frequently as wild type cells [Titus et al., 1993: Mol. Biol. Cell 4:233-246]. The basis for this aberrant behavior has been explored using three-dimensional reconstructions of translocating cells. Wild type cells form approximately 40% of pseudopods on the substratum and 60% off the substratum. The majority of pseudopods formed on the substratum initiate sharp turns while the majority of pseudopods formed off the substratum are retracted. Although myoA- cells form pseudopods at roughly twice the frequency of wild type cells, the increase in frequency is specific for only those pseudopods formed on the substratum. This increase is the basis for the aberrant increase in turning in myoA- cells. The selective increase in the frequency of pseudopods formed on the substratum correlates with a number of additional abnormalities in myoA- pseuodpod formation. First, myoA- cells can simultaneously extend more than one pseudopod, whereas wild type cells extend only one pseudopod at a time. Second, although wild type and myoA- pseudopods achieve the same final volumes, myoA- pseudopods grow at half the rate of wild type pseudopods and, therefore, take longer to achieve final volume. Third, while a wild type pseudopod grows in a continuous fashion, a myoA- pseudopod grows in a discontinuous fashion. Together, these results demonstrate that myoA plays a fundamental role in controlling the frequency of only those pseudopods formed on the substratum, and that maintenance of the normal frequency of pseudopod formation appears to be necessary for the normal velocity of cellular translocation, the normal frequency of turning, the normal rate of average pseudopod growth, and the high efficiency of chemotaxis. These results in turn indicate that pseudopod formation is precisely coordinated in space and time, and actin

  14. The Skp1 Protein from Toxoplasma Is Modified by a Cytoplasmic Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Associated with Oxygen Sensing in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuechi; Brown, Kevin M.; Wang, Zhuo A.; van der Wel, Hanke; Teygong, Crystal; Zhang, Dongmei; Blader, Ira J.; West, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In diverse types of organisms, cellular hypoxic responses are mediated by prolyl 4-hydroxylases that use O2 and α-ketoglutarate as substrates to hydroxylate conserved proline residues in target proteins. Whereas in metazoans these enzymes control the stability of the HIFα family of transcription factor subunits, the Dictyostelium enzyme (DdPhyA) contributes to O2 regulation of development by a divergent mechanism involving hydroxylation and subsequent glycosylation of DdSkp1, an adaptor subunit in E3SCF ubiquitin ligases. Sequences related to DdPhyA, DdSkp1, and the glycosyltransferases that cap Skp1 hydroxyproline occur also in the genomes of Toxoplasma and other protists, suggesting that this O2 sensing mechanism may be widespread. Here we show by disruption of the TgphyA locus that this enzyme is required for Skp1 glycosylation in Toxoplasma and that disrupted parasites grow slowly at physiological O2 levels. Conservation of cellular function was tested by expression of TgPhyA in DdphyA-null cells. Simple gene replacement did not rescue Skp1 glycosylation, whereas overexpression not only corrected Skp1 modification but also restored the O2 requirement to a level comparable to that of overexpressed DdPhyA. Bacterially expressed TgPhyA protein can prolyl hydroxylate both Toxoplasma and Dictyostelium Skp1s. Kinetic analyses showed that TgPhyA has similar properties to DdPhyA, including a superimposable dependence on the concentration of its co-substrate α-ketoglutarate. Remarkably, however, TgPhyA had a significantly higher apparent affinity for O2. The findings suggest that Skp1 hydroxylation by PhyA is a conserved process among protists and that this biochemical pathway may indirectly sense O2 by detecting the levels of O2-regulated metabolites such as α-ketoglutarate. PMID:22648409

  15. PHYLOGENY, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION AND KIN RECOGNITION IN THE SOCIAL AMOEBA DICTYOSTELIUM PURPUREUM

    PubMed Central

    Mehdiabadi, Natasha J.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the population structure of social microorganisms, yet such studies are particularly interesting for the ways that genetic variation impacts their social evolution. Dictyostelium, a eukaryotic microbe widely used as a developmental model, has a social fruiting stage in which some formerly independent individuals die to help others. To assess genetic variation within the social amoeba Dictyostelium purpureum, we sequenced ~4000 base pairs of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from 37 isolates collected in Texas, Virginia, and Japan. Our analysis showed extensive genetic variation between populations and clear evidence of phylogenetic structure. We identified three major phylogenetic groups that were more different than other accepted species pairs. Tests using pairs of clones showed that both sexual macrocyst and asexual fruiting body formation were influenced by genetic divergence. Macrocysts were less likely to form between pairs of clones from different groups than from the same group. There was also a correlation between the genetic divergence of a pair of clones and their degree of mixing within fruiting bodies. These observations suggest that cryptic species might occur within D. purpureum and, more importantly, reveal how genetic variation impacts social interactions. PMID:19215294

  16. Can spontaneous cell movements be modelled as Lévy walks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous cell movement is a random motion that takes place in the absence of external guiding stimuli. The spontaneous movements of HaCaT and NHDF cells (cells of the epidermis) are well represented as continuous Markovian processes driven by multiplicative noise [D. Selmeczi, S. Mosler, P.H. Hagedorn, N.B. Larsen, H. Flyvbjerg, Biophysical Journal 89 (2005) 912]. Model components are, however, ad hoc as they are inspired by fits to experimental data. As a consequence, model agreement with experimental data does not add much to our understanding of spontaneous movements of these cells beyond demonstrating that they can be modelled phenomenologically. Here it is noted that a slight re-parameterization and re-interpretation of the driving noise leads to the model of Lubashevsky et al. (2009) [I. Lubashevsky, R. Friedrich, A. Heuer, Physical Review E 79 (2009) 011110] that realises Lévy walks as Markovian stochastic processes. This brings forth new biological insight as Lévy walks are advantageous when searching in the absence of external stimuli and without knowledge of the target distribution, as may be the case with cells of the epidermis that form new tissue by locating and then attaching on to one another. The Hänggi-Klimontovich interpretation of the driving noise in the model of Lubashevsky et al. (2009) and Cauchy distributions of predicted velocities do, however, appear problematic, even unphysical. Here it is shown that these are perceived rather than actual difficulties. Intermittent stop-start motions of the kind displayed by some cells and protozoan are found to underlie the formulation of the model of Lubashevsky et al. (2009) and the velocities of starved Dictyostelium discoideum (a unicellular organism) are found to be Cauchy distributed to a good approximation. It is therefore suggested that the model of Lubashevsky et al. (2009) can describe the spontaneous movements of some cells, and that some cells have spontaneous movement patterns that can

  17. Effectiveness of a dynein team in a tug of war helped by reduced load sensitivity of detachment: evidence from the study of bidirectional endosome transport in D. discoideum.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Deepak; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj

    2012-08-01

    Bidirectional cargo transport by molecular motors in cells is a complex phenomenon in which the cargo (usually a vesicle) alternately moves in retrograde and anterograde directions. In this case, teams of oppositely pulling motors (e.g., kinesin and dynein) bind to the cargo, simultaneously, and 'coordinate' their activity such that the motion consists of spells of positively and negatively directed segments, separated by pauses of varying duration. A set of recent experiments have analyzed the bidirectional motion of endosomes in the amoeba D. discoideum in detail. It was found that in between directional switches, a team of five to six dyneins stall a cargo against a stronger kinesin in a tug of war, which lasts for almost a second. As the mean detachment time of a kinesin under its stall load was also observed to be ∼1 s, we infer that the collective detachment time of the dynein assembly must also be similar. Here, we analyze this inference from a modeling perspective, using experimentally measured single-molecule parameters as inputs. We find that the commonly assumed exponential load-dependent detachment rate is inconsistent with observations, as it predicts that a five-dynein assembly will detach under its combined stall load in less than a hundredth of a second. A modified model where the load-dependent unbinding rate is assumed to saturate at stall-force level for super-stall loads gives results which are in agreement with experimental data. Our analysis suggests that the load-dependent detachment of a dynein in a team is qualitatively different at sub-stall and super-stall loads, a conclusion which is likely to have implications in other situations involving collective effects of many motors. PMID:22733140

  18. Rad53 homologue forkhead-associated kinase A (FhkA) and Ca2+-binding protein 4a (CBP4a) are nucleolar proteins that differentially redistribute during mitosis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During mitosis most nucleolar proteins redistribute to other locales providing an opportunity to study the relationship between nucleolar protein localization and function. Dictyostelium is a model organism for the study of several fundamental biological processes and human diseases but only two nucleolar proteins have been studied during mitosis: NumA1 and Snf12. Both of them are linked to the cell cycle. To acquire a better understanding of nucleolar protein localization and dynamics in Dictyostelium we studied the nucleolar localization of two additional proteins during mitosis: Snf12-linked forkhead-associated kinase A (FhkA), which is involved in the cell cycle, and Ca2+-binding protein 4a (CBP4a), which is a binding partner of NumA1. Methods Polyclonal antibodies were produced in-house. Cells were fixed and probed with either anti-FhkA or anti-CBP4a in order to determine cellular localization during interphase and throughout the stages of mitosis. Colocalization with DAPI nuclear stain allowed us to determine the location of the nucleus and nucleolus while colocalization with anti-α-tubulin allowed us to determine the cell cycle stage. Results Here we verify two novel nucleolar proteins, Rad53 homologue FhkA which localized around the edge of the nucleolus and CBP4a which was detected throughout the entire nucleolus. Treatment with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (5 mM) showed that the nucleolar localization of CBP4a is Ca2+-dependent. In response to actinomycin D (0.05 mg/mL) CBP4a disappeared from the nucleolus while FhkA protruded from the nucleus, eventually pinching off as cytoplasmic circles. FhkA and CBP4a redistributed differently during mitosis. FhkA redistributed throughout the entire cell and at the nuclear envelope region from prometaphase through telophase. In contrast, during prometaphase CBP4a relocated to many large, discrete “CBP4a islands” throughout the nucleoplasm. Two larger “CBP4a islands” were also detected specifically

  19. Biological soliton in multicellular movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement.

  20. An N-terminal nuclear localization sequence but not the calmodulin-binding domain mediates nuclear localization of nucleomorphin, a protein that regulates nuclear number in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2005-06-24

    Nucleomorphin is a novel nuclear calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein (CaMBP) containing an extensive DEED (glu/asp repeat) domain that regulates nuclear number. GFP-constructs of the 38 kDa NumA1 isoform localize as intranuclear patches adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. The translocation of CaMBPs into nuclei has previously been shown by others to be mediated by both classic nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) and CaM-binding domains (CaMBDs). Here we show that NumA1 possesses a CaMBD (171EDVSRFIKGKLLQKQQKIYKDLERF195) containing both calcium-dependent-binding motifs and an IQ-like motif for calcium-independent binding. GFP-constructs containing only NumA1 residues 1-129, lacking the DEED and CaMBDs, still localized as patches at the internal periphery of nuclei thus ruling out a direct role for the CaMBD in nuclear import. These constructs contained the amino acid residues 48KKSYQDPEIIAHSRPRK64 that include both a putative bipartite and classical NLS. GFP-bipartite NLS constructs localized uniformly within nuclei but not as patches. As with previous work, removal of the DEED domain resulted in highly multinucleate cells. However as shown here, multinuclearity only occurred when the NLS was present allowing the protein to enter nuclei. Site-directed mutation analysis in which the NLS was changed to 48EF49 abolished the stability of the GFP fusion at the protein but not RNA level preventing subcellular analyses. Cells transfected with the 48EF49 construct exhibited slowed growth when compared to parental AX3 cells and other GFP-NumA1 deletion mutants. In addition to identifying an NLS that is sufficient for nuclear translocation of nucleomorphin and ruling out CaM-binding in this event, this work shows that the nuclear localization of NumA1 is crucial to its ability to regulate nuclear number in Dictyostelium. PMID:15896312

  1. Regulation of ecmF gene expression and genetic hierarchy among STATa, CudA, and MybC on several prestalk A-specific gene expressions in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Saga, Yukika; Inamura, Tomoka; Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2016-05-01

    STATa, a Dictyostelium homologue of metazoan signal transducer and activator of transcription, is important for the organizer function in the tip region of the migrating Dictyostelium slug. We previously showed that ecmF gene expression depends on STATa in prestalk A (pstA) cells, where STATa is activated. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the ecmF/lacZ fusion gene in wild-type and STATa null strains identified an imperfect inverted repeat sequence, ACAAATANTATTTGT, as a STATa-responsive element. An upstream sequence element was required for efficient expression in the rear region of pstA zone; an element downstream of the inverted repeat was necessary for sufficient prestalk expression during culmination. Band shift analyses using purified STATa protein detected no sequence-specific binding to those ecmF elements. The only verified upregulated target gene of STATa is cudA gene; CudA directly activates expL7 gene expression in prestalk cells. However, ecmF gene expression was almost unaffected in a cudA null mutant. Several previously reported putative STATa target genes were also expressed in cudA null mutant but were downregulated in STATa null mutant. Moreover, mybC, which encodes another transcription factor, belonged to this category, and ecmF expression was downregulated in a mybC null mutant. These findings demonstrate the existence of a genetic hierarchy for pstA-specific genes, which can be classified into two distinct STATa downstream pathways, CudA dependent and independent. The ecmF expression is indirectly upregulated by STATa in a CudA-independent activation manner but dependent on MybC, whose expression is positively regulated by STATa. PMID:27125566

  2. Polyamines regulate cell growth and cellular methylglyoxal in high-glucose medium independently of intracellular glutathione.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Lee, Mun-Hyoung; Park, Seong-Jun; Shin, Sang-Min; Liu, Rui; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-03-01

    Polyamines can presumably inhibit protein glycation, when associated with the methylglyoxal inevitably produced during glycolysis. Herein, we hypothesized a nonenzymatic interaction between putrescine and methylglyoxal in putrescine-deficient or -overexpressing Dictyostelium cells in high-glucose medium, which can control methylglyoxal production. Putrescine was essentially required for growth rescue accompanying methylglyoxal detoxification when cells underwent growth defect and cell cycle G1-arrest when supplemented with high glucose. Furthermore, methylglyoxal regulation by putrescine seemed to be a parallel pathway independent of the changes in cellular glutathione content in high-glucose medium. Consequently, we suggest that Dictyostelium cells need polyamines for normal growth and cellular methylglyoxal regulation. PMID:26898161

  3. The Association of Myosin IB with Actin Waves in Dictyostelium Requires Both the Plasma Membrane-Binding Site and Actin-Binding Region in the Myosin Tail

    PubMed Central

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A.; Korn, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave. PMID:24747353

  4. BzpF is a CREB-like transcription factor that regulates spore maturation and stability in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eryong; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Hughes, Timothy R; Curk, Tomaz; Zupan, Blaz; Shaulsky, Gad; Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko

    2011-10-01

    The cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a highly conserved transcription factor that integrates signaling through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) in many eukaryotes. PKA plays a critical role in Dictyostelium development but no CREB homologue has been identified in this system. Here we show that Dictyostelium utilizes a CREB-like protein, BzpF, to integrate PKA signaling during late development. bzpF(-) mutants produce compromised spores, which are extremely unstable and germination defective. Previously, we have found that BzpF binds the canonical CRE motif in vitro. In this paper, we determined the DNA binding specificity of BzpF using protein binding microarray (PBM) and showed that the motif with the highest specificity is a CRE-like sequence. BzpF is necessary to activate the transcription of at least 15 PKA-regulated, late-developmental target genes whose promoters contain BzpF binding motifs. BzpF is sufficient to activate two of these genes. The comparison of RNA sequencing data between wild type and bzpF(-) mutant revealed that the mutant fails to express 205 genes, many of which encode cellulose-binding and sugar-binding proteins. We propose that BzpF is a CREB-like transcription factor that regulates spore maturation and stability in a PKA-related manner. PMID:21810415

  5. Membrane-bound Dictyostelium myosin heavy chain kinase: a developmentally regulated substrate-specific member of the protein kinase C family.

    PubMed Central

    Ravid, S; Spudich, J A

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA clone corresponding to the Dictyostelium myosin heavy chain kinase (MHCK) gene was isolated using antibodies specific to the purified enzyme. Sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed that the Dictyostelium MHCK possesses all of the domains characteristic of members of the protein kinase C family. The amino-terminal region of the MHCK contains the cysteine-rich motif with an internal duplication that is present in all known protein kinase C species. This domain precedes sequences that are highly homologous to protein kinase catalytic domains. The carboxyl-terminal region contains a cluster of 23 serine and threonine residues that may represent the autophosphorylation domain of the Dictyostelium MHCK. These results, along with previous studies that indicate that this enzyme has very restrictive substrate specificity, incorporates approximately 20 mol of phosphate per mol of kinase through an autophosphorylation reaction, and is expressed only during development, suggest that the Dictyostelium MHCK is a distinct member of the protein kinase C family and imply that this kinase family, which may include members with very specific cellular functions, may be even more heterogeneous than previously thought. Images PMID:1321427

  6. Universal signals control slime mold stalk formation.

    PubMed

    van Es, S; Nieuwenhuijsen, B W; Lenouvel, F; van Deursen, E M; Schaap, P

    1994-08-16

    The primitive slime mold Dictyostelium minutum does not display oscillations during aggregation, cannot form migrating slugs, and does not form a prestalk/prespore pattern, all of which are characteristic for development of its advanced relative Dictyostelium discoideum. We used D. minutum to investigate whether slime molds share common mechanisms controlling development. In D. discoideum, the morphogen differentiation inducing factor (DIF) can induce stalk-cell differentiation in vitro. However, stalk formation in vivo is supposedly triggered by local depletion of DIF antagonists such as ammonia or cAMP. A homologue of the D. discoideum stalk gene ecmB was cloned in D. minutum that encodes a 3.4-kb mRNA, and its deduced amino acid sequence shows repeats of 24 amino acids that are characteristic for the D. discoideum ecmB gene. Remarkably, DIF effectively induces expression of the D. minutum ecmB gene and ammonia inhibits its expression. D. discoideum cells were transformed with a construct of the D. minutum ecmB promoter fused to the lacZ reporter gene and showed expression in the stalk, but not in the upper and lower cup of the fruiting body, which also express the D. discoideum ecmB gene. In D. discoideum, the D. minutum ecmB and the ecmB promoter are similarly activated by DIF and repressed by both cAMP and ammonia, suggesting that additional signaling is required for ecmB expression in upper and lower cup cells. Our data indicate that the extracellular signals controlling stalk formation and their intracellular signaling cascades including gene regulatory proteins remained highly conserved during slime mold evolution. PMID:8058783

  7. Computational analysis of amoeboid swimming at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qixuan; Othmer, Hans G

    2016-06-01

    Recent experimental work has shown that eukaryotic cells can swim in a fluid as well as crawl on a substrate. We investigate the swimming behavior of Dictyostelium discoideum  amoebae who swim by initiating traveling protrusions at the front that propagate rearward. In our model we prescribe the velocity at the surface of the swimming cell, and use techniques of complex analysis to develop 2D models that enable us to study the fluid-cell interaction. Shapes that approximate the protrusions used by Dictyostelium discoideum  can be generated via the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation, and the boundary-value problem that results for swimmers in the Stokes flow regime is then reduced to an integral equation on the boundary of the unit disk. We analyze the swimming characteristics of several varieties of swimming Dictyostelium discoideum  amoebae, and discuss how the slenderness of the cell body and the shapes of the protrusion effect the swimming of these cells. The results may provide guidance in designing low Reynolds number swimming models. PMID:26362281

  8. A molecular genetic approach to understanding eukaryotic cellulose synthesis. Final technical report, March 15, 1995--March 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    In an attempt to understand eukaryotic cellulose synthesis, this research investigates the cellulose biosynthetic pathway of Dictyostelium discoideum. Attention is focused on the following: use of a newly developed method of tagged insertional mutagenesis to generate mutants in cellulose biosynthesis; and exploiting the monolayer culture system to identify differences in mRNA populations between DIF-induced (and cellulose-synthesizing) versus non-induced cells.

  9. Cell shape regulation through mechanosensory feedback control

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Krithika; Luo, Tianzhi; Robinson, Douglas N.; Iglesias, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells undergo controlled changes in morphology in response to intracellular and extracellular signals. These changes require a means for sensing and interpreting the signalling cues, for generating the forces that act on the cell's physical material, and a control system to regulate this process. Experiments on Dictyostelium amoebae have shown that force-generating proteins can localize in response to external mechanical perturbations. This mechanosensing, and the ensuing mechanical feedback, plays an important role in minimizing the effect of mechanical disturbances in the course of changes in cell shape, especially during cell division, and likely in other contexts, such as during three-dimensional migration. Owing to the complexity of the feedback system, which couples mechanical and biochemical signals involved in shape regulation, theoretical approaches can guide further investigation by providing insights that are difficult to decipher experimentally. Here, we present a computational model that explains the different mechanosensory and mechanoresponsive behaviours observed in Dictyostelium cells. The model features a multiscale description of myosin II bipolar thick filament assembly that includes cooperative and force-dependent myosin–actin binding, and identifies the feedback mechanisms hidden in the observed mechanoresponsive behaviours of Dictyostelium cells during micropipette aspiration experiments. These feedbacks provide a mechanistic explanation of cellular retraction and hence cell shape regulation. PMID:26224568

  10. Cell shape regulation through mechanosensory feedback control.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Krithika; Luo, Tianzhi; Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A

    2015-08-01

    Cells undergo controlled changes in morphology in response to intracellular and extracellular signals. These changes require a means for sensing and interpreting the signalling cues, for generating the forces that act on the cell's physical material, and a control system to regulate this process. Experiments on Dictyostelium amoebae have shown that force-generating proteins can localize in response to external mechanical perturbations. This mechanosensing, and the ensuing mechanical feedback, plays an important role in minimizing the effect of mechanical disturbances in the course of changes in cell shape, especially during cell division, and likely in other contexts, such as during three-dimensional migration. Owing to the complexity of the feedback system, which couples mechanical and biochemical signals involved in shape regulation, theoretical approaches can guide further investigation by providing insights that are difficult to decipher experimentally. Here, we present a computational model that explains the different mechanosensory and mechanoresponsive behaviours observed in Dictyostelium cells. The model features a multiscale description of myosin II bipolar thick filament assembly that includes cooperative and force-dependent myosin-actin binding, and identifies the feedback mechanisms hidden in the observed mechanoresponsive behaviours of Dictyostelium cells during micropipette aspiration experiments. These feedbacks provide a mechanistic explanation of cellular retraction and hence cell shape regulation. PMID:26224568

  11. How cellular slime molds evade nematodes.

    PubMed Central

    Kessin, R H; Gundersen, G G; Zaydfudim, V; Grimson, M

    1996-01-01

    We have found a predator-prey association between the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and the free soil living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans feeds on the amoebae and multiplies indefinitely when amoebae are the sole food source. In an environment created from soil, D. discoideum grows and develops, but not in the presence of C. elegans. During development, C. elegans feeds on amoebae until they aggregate and synthesize an extracellular matrix called the slime sheath. After the sheath forms, the aggregate and slug are protected. Adult nematodes ingest Dictyostelium spores, which pass through the gut of the worm without loss of structure and remain viable. Nematodes kill the amoebae but disperse the spores. The sheath that is constructed when the social amoebae aggregate and the spore coats of the individual cells may protect against this predator. Individual amoebae may also protect themselves by secreting compounds that repel nematodes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8643493

  12. A link of Ca2+ to cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium: the calmodulin antagonist W-7 potentiates cAMP relay and transiently inhibits the acidic Ca2+-store

    PubMed Central

    Malchow, Dieter; Lusche, Daniel F; Schlatterer, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Background During early differentiation of Dictyostelium the attractant cAMP is released periodically to induce aggregation of the cells. Here we pursue the question whether pulsatile cAMP signaling is coupled to a basic Ca2+-oscillation. Results We found that the calmodulin antagonist W-7 transiently enhanced cAMP spikes. We show that W-7 acts on an acidic Ca2+-store: it abolished ATP-dependent vesicular acidification, inhibited V-type H+ATPase activity more potently than the weaker antagonist W-5 and caused vesicular Ca2+-leakage. Concanamycin A, an inhibitor of the V-type H+-pump, blocked the Ca2+-leakage elicited by W-7 as well as cAMP-oscillations in the presence of W-7. Concanamycin A caused an increase of the cytosolic Ca2+-concentration whereas W-7 did not. In case of the latter, Ca2+ was secreted by the cells. In accord with our hypothesis that the link from Ca2+ to cAMP synthesis is mediated by a Ca2+-dependent phospholipase C we found that W-7 was not active in the phospholipase C knockout mutant. Conclusion We conclude that the potentiation of cAMP relay by W-7 is due to a transient inhibition of the acidic Ca2+-store. The inhibition of the proton pump by W-7 causes a leakage of Ca2+ that indirectly stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity via phospholipase C. PMID:15147588

  13. The Dictyostelium LIM Domain-containing Protein LIM2 Is Essential for Proper Chemotaxis and Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Sharon; Chung, Chang Y.; Sukumaran, Sujatha; Osborne, Nicholas; Lee, Susan; Ellsworth, Charlene; McNally, James G.; Firtel, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified limB, a gene encoding a novel LIM domain-containing protein, LIM2, in a screen for genes required for morphogenesis. limB null cells aggregate, although poorly, but they are unable to undergo morphogenesis, and the aggregates arrest at the mound stage. limB null cells exhibit an aberrant actin cytoskeleton and have numerous F-actin–enriched microspikes. The cells exhibit poor adhesion to a substratum and do not form tight cell–cell agglomerates in suspension. Furthermore, limB null cells are unable to properly polarize in chemoattractant gradients and move very poorly. Expression of limB from a prestalk-specific but not a prespore-specific promoter complements the morphogenetic defects of the limB null strain, suggesting that the limB null cell developmental defect results from an inability to properly sort prestalk cells. LIM2 protein is enriched in the cortex of wild-type cells, although it does not colocalize with the actin cytoskeleton. Our analysis indicates that LIM2 is a new regulatory protein that functions to control rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and is required for cell motility and chemotaxis. Our findings may be generally applicable to understanding pathways that control cell movement and morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Structure function studies on the LIM domains are presented. PMID:10749929

  14. Pharmacogenetics of resistance to cisplatin and other anti-cancer drugs and the role of sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen; Swatson, William S.; Alexander, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be a useful lead genetic system for identifying novel genes and pathways responsible for the regulation of sensitivity to the widely used anti-cancer drug cisplatin. Resistance to cisplatin is a major factor limiting the efficacy of the drug in treating many types of cancer. Studies using unbiased insertional mutagenesis in D. discoideum have identified the pathway of sphingolipid metabolism as a key regulator in controlling sensitivity to cisplatin. Using the genetic tools including directed homologous recombination and ectopic gene expression available with D. discoideum has shown how pharmacological modulation of this pathway can increase sensitivity to cisplatin, and these results have been extensively translated to, and validated in, human cells. Strategies, experimental conditions and methods are presented to enable further study of resistance to cisplatin as well as other important drugs. PMID:23494308

  15. Ordered Patterns of Cell Shape and Orientational Correlation during Spontaneous Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Iwaya, Suguru; Sano, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Background In the absence of stimuli, most motile eukaryotic cells move by spontaneously coordinating cell deformation with cell movement in the absence of stimuli. Yet little is known about how cells change their own shape and how cells coordinate the deformation and movement. Here, we investigated the mechanism of spontaneous cell migration by using computational analyses. Methodology We observed spontaneously migrating Dictyostelium cells in both a vegetative state (round cell shape and slow motion) and starved one (elongated cell shape and fast motion). We then extracted regular patterns of morphological dynamics and the pattern-dependent systematic coordination with filamentous actin (F-actin) and cell movement by statistical dynamic analyses. Conclusions/Significance We found that Dictyostelium cells in both vegetative and starved states commonly organize their own shape into three ordered patterns, elongation, rotation, and oscillation, in the absence of external stimuli. Further, cells inactivated for PI3-kinase (PI3K) and/or PTEN did not show ordered patterns due to the lack of spatial control in pseudopodial formation in both the vegetative and starved states. We also found that spontaneous polarization was achieved in starved cells by asymmetric localization of PTEN and F-actin. This breaking of the symmetry of protein localization maintained the leading edge and considerably enhanced the persistence of directed migration, and overall random exploration was ensured by switching among the different ordered patterns. Our findings suggest that Dictyostelium cells spontaneously create the ordered patterns of cell shape mediated by PI3K/PTEN/F-actin and control the direction of cell movement by coordination with these patterns even in the absence of external stimuli. PMID:19011688

  16. Identification and Characterization of Two Unusual cGMP-stimulated Phoshodiesterases in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Bosgraaf, Leonard; Russcher, Henk; Snippe, Helena; Bader, Sonya; Wind, Joyce; Van Haastert, Peter J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we recognized two genes, gbpA and gbpB, encoding putative cGMP-binding proteins with a Zn2+-hydrolase domain and two cyclic nucleotide binding domains. The Zn2+-hydrolase domains belong to the superfamily of β-lactamases, also harboring a small family of class II phosphodiesterases from bacteria and lower eukaryotes. Gene inactivation and overexpression studies demonstrate that gbpA encodes the cGMP-stimulated cGMP-phosphodiesterase that was characterized biochemically previously and was shown to be involved in chemotaxis. cAMP neither activates nor is a substrate of GbpA. The gbpB gene is expressed mainly in the multicellular stage and seems to encode a dual specificity phosphodiesterase with preference for cAMP. The enzyme hydrolyses cAMP ∼9-fold faster than cGMP and is activated by cAMP and cGMP with a KA value of ∼0.7 and 2.3 μM, respectively. Cells with a deletion of the gbpB gene have increased basal and receptor stimulated cAMP levels and are sporogeneous. We propose that GbpA and GbpB hydrolyze the substrate in the Zn2+-hydrolase domain, whereas the cyclic nucleotide binding domains mediate activation. The human cGMP-stimulated cAMP/cGMP phosphodiesterase has similar biochemical properties, but a completely different topology: hydrolysis takes place by a class I catalytic domain and GAF domains mediate cGMP activation. PMID:12429832

  17. Vacuole Membrane Protein 1 Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Required for Organelle Biogenesis, Protein Secretion, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Garrido, Javier; Carilla-Latorre, Sergio; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Egea, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Vacuole membrane protein 1 (Vmp1) is membrane protein of unknown molecular function that has been associated with pancreatitis and cancer. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a vmp1-related gene that we identified previously in a functional genomic study. Loss-of-function of this gene leads to a severe phenotype that compromises Dictyostelium growth and development. The expression of mammalian Vmp1 in a vmp1− Dictyostelium mutant complemented the phenotype, suggesting a functional conservation of the protein among evolutionarily distant species and highlights Dictyostelium as a valid experimental system to address the function of this gene. Dictyostelium Vmp1 is an endoplasmic reticulum protein necessary for the integrity of this organelle. Cells deficient in Vmp1 display pleiotropic defects in the secretory pathway and organelle biogenesis. The contractile vacuole, which is necessary to survive under hypoosmotic conditions, is not functional in the mutant. The structure of the Golgi apparatus, the function of the endocytic pathway and conventional protein secretion are also affected in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy of vmp1− cells showed the accumulation of autophagic features that suggests a role of Vmp1 in macroautophagy. In addition to these defects observed at the vegetative stage, the onset of multicellular development and early developmental gene expression are also compromised. PMID:18550798

  18. Imaging of cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Dormann, Dirk; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2006-01-01

    Cell migration is an essential process during many phases of development and adult life. Cells can either migrate as individuals or move in the context of tissues. Movement is controlled by internal and external signals, which activate complex signal transduction cascades resulting in highly dynamic and localised remodelling of the cytoskeleton, cell–cell and cell–substrate interactions. To understand these processes, it will be necessary to identify the critical structural cytoskeletal components, their spatio-temporal dynamics as well as those of the signalling pathways that control them. Imaging plays an increasingly important and powerful role in the analysis of these spatio-temporal dynamics. We will highlight a variety of imaging techniques and their use in the investigation of various aspects of cell motility, and illustrate their role in the characterisation of chemotaxis in Dictyostelium and cell movement during gastrulation in chick embryos in more detail. PMID:16900100

  19. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2010-30 September 2010.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Allainguillaume, Joel; Bajay, M M; Barthwal, Santan; Bertolino, P; Chauhan, Priti; Consuegra, Sofia; Croxford, Adam; Dalton, Desiré L; den Belder, E; Díaz-Ferguson, E; Douglas, M R; Drees, Michael; Elderson, J; Esselink, G D; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Ginwal, H S; Goodisman, Michael A D; Guo, Baoling; Hamilton, M B; Hayes, Paul K; Hong, Yan; Kajita, Tadashi; Kalinowski, Steven T; Keller, Laurent; Koop, Ben F; Kotzé, Antoinette; Lalremruata, Albert; Leese, Florian; Li, Chunhong; Liew, W Y; Martinelli, S; Matthews, Emily A; Medlin, Linda K; Messmer, Amber M; Meyer, Elisabeth I; Monteiro, M; Moyer, G R; Nelson, R John; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Omoto, C; Ono, Junya; Pavinato, V A C; Pearcy, Morgan; Pinheiro, J B; Power, L D; Rawat, Anita; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Sanderson, Dan; Sannier, J; Sathe, Santosh; Sheridan, C K; Smulders, M J M; Sukganah, A; Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Vanhaecke, Delphine; Vu, Ninh V; Wickneswari, R; Williams, A S; Wimp, G M; Witte, Volker; Zucchi, M I

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. PMID:21429127

  20. Biochemical Oscillations and Cellular Rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbeter, Albert; Berridge, Foreword by M. J.

    1997-04-01

    1. Introduction; Part I. Glycolytic Oscillations: 2. Oscillatory enzymes: simple periodic behaviour in an allosteric model for glycolytic oscillations; Part II. From Simple to Complex Oscillatory Behaviour; 3. Birhythmicity: coexistence between two stable rhythms; 4. From simple periodic behaviour to complex oscillations, including bursting and chaos; Part III. Oscillations Of Cyclic Amo In Dictyostelium Cells: 5. Models for the periodic synthesis and relay of camp signals in Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae; 6. Complex oscillations and chaos in the camp signalling system of Dictyostelium; 7. The onset of camp oscillations in Dictyostelium as a model for the ontogenesis of biological rhythms; Part IV. Pulsatile Signalling In Intercellular Communication: 8. Function of the rhythm of intercellular communication in Dictyostelium. Link with pulsatile hormone secretion; Part V. Calcium Oscillations: 9. Oscillations and waves of intracellular calcium; Part VI. The Mitotic Oscillator: 10. Modelling the mitotic oscillator driving the cell division cycle; Part VII. Circadian Rhythms: 11. Towards a model for circadian oscillations in the Drosophila period protein (PER); 12. Conclusions and perspectives; References.

  1. Novel regulation of Skp1 by the Dictyostelium AgtA α-galactosyltransferase involves the Skp1-binding activity of its WD40 repeat domain.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Christopher M; Sheikh, M Osman; Zhang, Dongmei; West, Christopher M

    2014-03-28

    The role of Skp1 as an adaptor protein that links Cullin-1 to F-box proteins in E3 Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligases is well characterized. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium and probably many other unicellular eukaryotes, Skp1 is modified by a pentasaccharide attached to a hydroxyproline near its C terminus. This modification is important for oxygen-sensing during Dictyostelium development and is mediated by a HIF-α type prolyl 4-hydroxylase and five sequentially acting cytoplasmic glycosyltransferase activities. Gene disruption studies show that AgtA, the enzyme responsible for addition of the final two galactose residues, in α-linkages to the Skp1 core trisaccharide, is unexpectedly critical for oxygen-dependent terminal development. AgtA possesses a WD40 repeat domain C-terminal to its single catalytic domain and, by use of domain deletions, binding studies, and enzyme assays, we find that the WD40 repeats confer a salt-sensitive second-site binding interaction with Skp1 that mediates novel catalytic activation in addition to simple substrate recognition. In addition, AgtA binds similarly well to precursor isoforms of Skp1 by a salt-sensitive mechanism that competes with binding to an F-box protein and recognition by early modification enzymes, and the effect of binding is diminished when AgtA modifies Skp1. Genetic studies show that loss of AgtA is more severe when an earlier glycosylation step is blocked, and overexpressed AgtA is deleterious if catalytically inactivated. Together, the findings suggest that AgtA mediates non-enzymatic control of unmodified and substrate precursor forms of Skp1 by a binding mechanism that is normally relieved by switch-like activation of its glycosylation function. PMID:24550398

  2. Novel chlorinated dibenzofurans isolated from the cellular slime mold, Polysphondylium filamentosum, and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Kubohara, Yuzuru; Nguyen, Van Hai; Katou, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2013-08-01

    Cellular slime molds are expected to have the huge potential for producing secondary metabolites including polyketides, and we have studied the diversity of secondary metabolites of cellular slime molds for their potential utilization as new biological resources for natural product chemistry. From the methanol extract of fruiting bodies of Polysphondylium filamentosum, we obtained new chlorinated benzofurans Pf-1 (4) and Pf-2 (5) which display multiple biological activities; these include stalk cell differentiation-inducing activity in the well-studied cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, and inhibitory activities on cell proliferation in mammalian cells and gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:23746784

  3. Simple model of cell crawling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Tarama, M.; Sano, M.

    2016-04-01

    Based on symmetry consideration of migration and shape deformations, we formulate phenomenologically the dynamics of cell crawling in two dimensions. Forces are introduced to change the cell shape. The shape deformations induce migration of the cell on a substrate. For time-independent forces we show that not only a stationary motion but also a limit cycle oscillation of the migration velocity and the shape occurs as a result of nonlinear coupling between different deformation modes. Time-dependent forces are generated in a stochastic manner by utilizing the so-called coherence resonance of an excitable system. The present coarse-grained model has a flexibility that it can be applied, e.g., both to keratocyte cells and to Dictyostelium cells, which exhibit quite different dynamics from each other. The key factors for the motile behavior inherent in each cell type are identified in our model.

  4. JAKs and STATs in invertebrate model organisms.

    PubMed

    Dearolf, C R

    1999-09-01

    Invertebrate organisms provide systems to elucidate the developmental roles of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways, thereby complementing research conducted with mammalian cells and animals. Components of the JAK/STAT protein pathway have been identified and characterized in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This review summarizes the molecular and genetic data obtained from these model organisms. In particular, a Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway regulates normal segmentation, cell proliferation, and differentiation, and hyperactivation of the pathway leads to tumor formation and leukemia-like defects. A Dictyostelium STAT regulates the development of stalk cells during the multicellular part of the life cycle. Future research utilizing these organisms should continue to provide insights into the roles and regulation of these proteins and their signaling pathways. PMID:10526575

  5. Development of novel DIF-1 derivatives that selectively suppress innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Hai; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Kubohara, Yuzuru; Takahashi, Katsunori; Katou, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-01

    The multiple pharmacological activities of differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum led us to examine the use of DIF-1 as a 'drug template' to develop promising seed compounds for drug discovery. DIF-1 and its derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their regulatory activities in innate immune responses. We found two new derivatives (4d and 5e) with highly selective inhibitory activities against production of the antimicrobial peptide attacin in Drosophila S2 cells and against production of interleukin-2 in Jurkat cells. PMID:26122773

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of altruism and cheating among social amoebas

    PubMed Central

    Brännström, Å; Dieckmann, U

    2005-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic amoeba, which, when starvation is imminent, aggregates to form fruiting bodies consisting of a stalk of reproductively dead cells that supports spores. Because different clones may be involved in such aggregations, cheater strategies may emerge that allocate a smaller fraction of cells to stalk formation, thus gaining a reproductive advantage. In this paper, we model the evolutionary dynamics of allocation strategies in Dictyostelium under the realistic assumption that the number of clones involved in aggregations follows a random distribution. By determining the full course of evolutionary dynamics, we show that evolutionary branching in allocation strategies may occur, resulting in dimorphic populations that produce stalkless and stalked fruiting bodies. We also demonstrate that such dimorphisms are more likely to emerge when the variation in the number of clones involved in aggregations is large. PMID:16108148

  7. A High-Throughput, Multi-Cell Phenotype Assay for the Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Chemotaxis/Migration

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xin-Hua; Meena, Netra Pal; Southall, Noel; Liu, Lunhua; Swaroop, Manju; Zhang, Arina Li; Xiang, Jan Jian; Parent, Carole A.; Zheng, Wei; Kimmel, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxis and cell migration are fundamental, universal eukaryotic processes essential for biological functions such as embryogenesis, immunity, cell renewal, and wound healing, as well as for pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer metastasis and chronic inflammation. To identify novel chemotaxis inhibitors as probes for mechanistic studies and leads for development of new therapeutics, we developed a unique, unbiased phenotypic chemotaxis-dependent Dictyostelium aggregation assay for high-throughput screening using rapid, laser-scanning cytometry. Under defined conditions, individual Dictyostelium secrete chemoattractants, migrate, and aggregate. Chemotaxis is quantified by laser-scanning cytometry with a GFP marker expressed only in cells after chemotaxis/multi-cell aggregation. We applied the assay to screen 1,280 known compounds in a 1536-well plate format and identified two chemotaxis inhibitors. The chemotaxis inhibitory activities of both compounds were confirmed in both Dictyostelium and in human neutrophils in a directed EZ-TAXIscan chemotaxis assay. The compounds were also shown to inhibit migration of two human cancer cell lines in monolayer scratch assays. This test screen demonstrated that the miniaturized assay is extremely suited for high-throughput screening of very large libraries of small molecules to identify novel classes of chemotaxis/migratory inhibitors for drug development and research tools for targeting chemotactic pathways universal to humans and other systems. PMID:26956526

  8. A High-Throughput, Multi-Cell Phenotype Assay for the Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Chemotaxis/Migration.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xin-Hua; Meena, Netra Pal; Southall, Noel; Liu, Lunhua; Swaroop, Manju; Zhang, Arina Li; Xiang, Jan Jian; Parent, Carole A; Zheng, Wei; Kimmel, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxis and cell migration are fundamental, universal eukaryotic processes essential for biological functions such as embryogenesis, immunity, cell renewal, and wound healing, as well as for pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer metastasis and chronic inflammation. To identify novel chemotaxis inhibitors as probes for mechanistic studies and leads for development of new therapeutics, we developed a unique, unbiased phenotypic chemotaxis-dependent Dictyostelium aggregation assay for high-throughput screening using rapid, laser-scanning cytometry. Under defined conditions, individual Dictyostelium secrete chemoattractants, migrate, and aggregate. Chemotaxis is quantified by laser-scanning cytometry with a GFP marker expressed only in cells after chemotaxis/multi-cell aggregation. We applied the assay to screen 1,280 known compounds in a 1536-well plate format and identified two chemotaxis inhibitors. The chemotaxis inhibitory activities of both compounds were confirmed in both Dictyostelium and in human neutrophils in a directed EZ-TAXIscan chemotaxis assay. The compounds were also shown to inhibit migration of two human cancer cell lines in monolayer scratch assays. This test screen demonstrated that the miniaturized assay is extremely suited for high-throughput screening of very large libraries of small molecules to identify novel classes of chemotaxis/migratory inhibitors for drug development and research tools for targeting chemotactic pathways universal to humans and other systems. PMID:26956526

  9. An Acanthamoeba castellanii metacaspase associates with the contractile vacuole and functions in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Saheb, Entsar; Trzyna, Wendy; Bush, John

    2013-03-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living protozoan. Some strains are opportunistic pathogens. A type-I metacaspase was identified in A. castellanii (Acmcp) and was shown to be expressed through the encystation process. The model organism, Dictyostelium discoideum, has been used here as a model for studying these caspase-like proteins. Separate cell lines expressing a GFP-tagged version of the full length Acmcp protein, as well as a deletion proline region mutant of Acmcp protein (GFP-Acmcp-dpr), have been introduced into D. discoideum. Both mutants affect the cellular metabolism, characterized by an increase in the growth rate. Microscopic imaging revealed an association between Acmcp and the contractile vacuole system in D. discoideum. The treatment of cells with selected inhibitors in different environments added additional support to these findings. This evidence shows that Acmcp plays an important role in contractile vacuole regulation and mediated membrane trafficking in D. discoideum. Additionally, the severe defect in contractile vacuole function in GFP-Acmcp-dpr mutant cells suggests that the proline-rich region in Acmcp has an essential role in binding this protein with other partners to maintain this process. Furthermore, Yeast two-hybrid system identified there are weak interactions of the Dictyostelium contractile vacuolar proteins, including Calmodulin, RabD, Rab11 and vacuolar proton ATPase, with Acmcp protein. Taken together, our findings suggest that A. castellanii metacaspase associate with the contractile vacuole and have an essential role in cell osmoregulation, which contributes to its attractiveness as a possible target for treatment therapies against A. castellanii infection. PMID:23274641

  10. Formation of a cylindrical bridge in cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citron, Daniel; Schmidt, Laura E.; Reichl, Elizabeth; Ren, Yixin; Robinson, Douglas; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2007-11-01

    In nature, the shape transition associated with the division of a mother cell into two daughter cells proceeds via a variety of routes. In the cylinder-thinning route, which has been observed in Dictyostelium and most animal cells, the mother cell first forms a broad bridge-like region, also known as a furrow, between two daughter cells. The furrow then rapidly evolves into a cylindrical bridge, which thins and eventually severs the mother cell into two. The fundamental mechanism underlying this division route is not understood. Recent experiments on Dictyostelium found that, while the cylinder-thinning route persists even when key actin cross-linking proteins are missing, it is disrupted by the removal of force-generating myosin-II proteins. Other measurements revealed that mutant cells lacking myosin-II have a much more uniform tension over the cell surface than wild-type cells. This suggests that tension variation may be important. Here we use a fluid model, previously shown to reproduce the thinning dynamics [Zhang & Robinson, PNAS 102, 7186 (2005)], to test this idea. Consistent with the experiments, the model shows that the cylinder formation process occurs regardless of the exact viscoelastic properties of the cell. In contrast to the experiments, a tension variation in the model hinders, rather then expedites, the cylinder formation.

  11. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid and other medium-chain fatty acids acutely reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pishan; Orabi, Benoit; Deranieh, Rania M.; Dham, Manik; Hoeller, Oliver; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Greenberg, Miriam L.; Walker, Matthew C.; Williams, Robin S. B.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Valproic acid (VPA) is the most widely prescribed epilepsy treatment worldwide, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous work identified a previously unknown effect of VPA in reducing phosphoinositide production in the simple model Dictyostelium followed by the transfer of data to a mammalian synaptic release model. In our current study, we show that the reduction in phosphoinositide [PtdInsP (also known as PIP) and PtdInsP2 (also known as PIP2)] production caused by VPA is acute and dose dependent, and that this effect occurs independently of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, inositol recycling and inositol synthesis. In characterising the structural requirements for this effect, we also identify a family of medium-chain fatty acids that show increased efficacy compared with VPA. Within the group of active compounds is a little-studied group previously associated with seizure control, and analysis of two of these compounds (nonanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid) shows around a threefold enhanced potency compared with VPA for protection in an in vitro acute rat seizure model. Together, our data show that VPA and a newly identified group of medium-chain fatty acids reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol regulation, and suggest the reinvestigation of these compounds as treatments for epilepsy. PMID:21876211

  12. Structure of the Dictyostelium Myosin-II Heavy Chain Kinase A (MHCK-A) α-kinase domain apoenzyme reveals a novel autoinhibited conformation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qilu; Yang, Yidai; van Staalduinen, Laura; Crawley, Scott William; Liu, Linda; Brennan, Stephanie; Côté, Graham P; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    The α-kinases are a family of a typical protein kinases present in organisms ranging from protozoa to mammals. Here we report an autoinhibited conformation for the α-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase A (MHCK-A) in which nucleotide binding to the catalytic cleft, located at the interface between an N-terminal and C-terminal lobe, is sterically blocked by the side chain of a conserved arginine residue (Arg592). Previous α-kinase structures have shown that an invariant catalytic aspartic acid residue (Asp766) is phosphorylated. Unexpectedly, in the autoinhibited conformation the phosphoryl group is transferred to the adjacent Asp663, creating an interaction network that stabilizes the autoinhibited state. The results suggest that Asp766 phosphorylation may play both catalytic and regulatory roles. The autoinhibited structure also provides the first view of a phosphothreonine residue docked into the phospho-specific allosteric binding site (Pi-pocket) in the C-lobe of the α-kinase domain. PMID:27211275

  13. Structure of the Dictyostelium Myosin-II Heavy Chain Kinase A (MHCK-A) α-kinase domain apoenzyme reveals a novel autoinhibited conformation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qilu; Yang, Yidai; van Staalduinen, Laura; Crawley, Scott William; Liu, Linda; Brennan, Stephanie; Côté, Graham P.; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    The α-kinases are a family of a typical protein kinases present in organisms ranging from protozoa to mammals. Here we report an autoinhibited conformation for the α-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase A (MHCK-A) in which nucleotide binding to the catalytic cleft, located at the interface between an N-terminal and C-terminal lobe, is sterically blocked by the side chain of a conserved arginine residue (Arg592). Previous α-kinase structures have shown that an invariant catalytic aspartic acid residue (Asp766) is phosphorylated. Unexpectedly, in the autoinhibited conformation the phosphoryl group is transferred to the adjacent Asp663, creating an interaction network that stabilizes the autoinhibited state. The results suggest that Asp766 phosphorylation may play both catalytic and regulatory roles. The autoinhibited structure also provides the first view of a phosphothreonine residue docked into the phospho-specific allosteric binding site (Pi-pocket) in the C-lobe of the α-kinase domain. PMID:27211275

  14. Formation of an actin-like filament concurrent with the enzymatic synthesis of inorganic polyphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-García, María R.; Kornberg, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P), a chain of hundreds of phosphate residues linked by ATP-like bonds, is found in every cell in nature and is commonly produced from ATP by poly P kinases (e.g., PPK1). Dictyostelium discoideum, the social slime mold, possesses a PPK activity (DdPPK1) with sequence similarity to bacterial PPKs. We find here a previously unrecognized PPK (DdPPK2) in D. discoideum with the sequences and properties of actin-related proteins (Arps) that are similar to muscle actins in size, properties, and globular-filamentous structural transitions. Significantly, the unique actin inhibitors, phalloidin and DNase I, also inhibit synthesis of poly P by DdPPK2. Thus, this particular Arp complex is an enzyme that can polymerize into an actin-like filament concurrent with its synthesis of a poly P chain in a fully reversible reaction. PMID:15496465

  15. Characterization of the Catalytic and Nucleotide Binding Properties of the α-Kinase Domain of Dictyostelium Myosin-II Heavy Chain Kinase A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidai; Ye, Qilu; Jia, Zongchao; Côté, Graham P

    2015-09-25

    The α-kinases are a widely expressed family of serine/threonine protein kinases that exhibit no sequence identity with conventional eukaryotic protein kinases. In this report, we provide new information on the catalytic properties of the α-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase-A (termed A-CAT). Crystallization of A-CAT in the presence of MgATP yielded structures with AMP or adenosine in the catalytic cleft together with a phosphorylated Asp-766 residue. The results show that the β- and α-phosphoryl groups are transferred either directly or indirectly to the catalytically essential Asp-766. Biochemical assays confirmed that A-CAT hydrolyzed ATP, ADP, and AMP with kcat values of 1.9, 0.6, and 0.32 min(-1), respectively, and showed that A-CAT can use ADP to phosphorylate peptides and proteins. Binding assays using fluorescent 2'/3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) analogs of ATP and ADP yielded Kd values for ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine of 20 ± 3, 60 ± 20, 160 ± 60, and 45 ± 15 μM, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that Glu-713, Leu-716, and Lys-645, all of which interact with the adenine base, were critical for nucleotide binding. Mutation of the highly conserved Gln-758, which chelates a nucleotide-associated Mg(2+) ion, eliminated catalytic activity, whereas loss of the highly conserved Lys-722 and Arg-592 decreased kcat values for kinase and ATPase activities by 3-6-fold. Mutation of Asp-663 impaired kinase activity to a much greater extent than ATPase, indicating a specific role in peptide substrate binding, whereas mutation of Gln-768 doubled ATPase activity, suggesting that it may act to exclude water from the active site. PMID:26260792

  16. Evidence for Extracellular ATP as a Stress Signal in a Single-Celled Organism.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Venketesh; Fountain, Samuel J

    2015-08-01

    ATP is omnipresent in biology and acts as an extracellular signaling molecule in mammals. Information regarding the signaling function of extracellular ATP in single-celled eukaryotes is lacking. Here, we explore the role of extracellular ATP in cell volume recovery during osmotic swelling in the amoeba Dictyostelium. Release of micromolar ATP could be detected during cell swelling and regulatory cell volume decrease (RVD) phases during hypotonic challenge. Scavenging ATP with apyrase caused profound cell swelling and loss of RVD. Apyrase-induced swelling could be rescued by 100 μM βγ-imidoATP. N-Ethylmalemide (NEM), an inhibitor of vesicular exocytosis, caused heightened cell swelling, loss of RVD, and inhibition of ATP release. Amoebas with impaired contractile vacuole (CV) fusion (drainin knockout [KO] cells) displayed increased swelling but intact ATP release. One hundred micromolar Gd(3+) caused cell swelling while blocking any recovery by βγ-imidoATP. ATP release was 4-fold higher in the presence of Gd(3+). Cell swelling was associated with an increase in intracellular nitric oxide (NO), with NO-scavenging agents