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Sample records for diehlektricheskaya podlozhka pod

  1. The Mod Pod.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Explains how Project Oriented Development Stations (PODS) provide a flexible facilities solution that can fit within any elementary school, and that combines custom furnishing with technology, curriculum, and hands-on learning. An explanation of the POD approach and an example of its development, usefulness, and funding is provided. (GR)

  2. Copernicus POD Service Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Jaime; Escobar, Diego; Ayuga, Francisco; Peter, Heike; Femenias, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus PDGS Ground Segment of the Sentinel missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service (CPOD) being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS (Payload Data Ground Segment). This paper describes the CPOD Service and presents the current status operating Sentinel-1A and its readiness to support the Sentinel-2A and in particular Sentinel-3A incoming Commissioning Phases, with an especial emphasis on describing the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities to be performed during the Comm. Phase. Then, it is shown how the quality of the orbital products is guaranteed through external validation activities and the role of the Copernicus POD QWG (Quality Working Group).

  3. SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Dennis C.

    2001-12-01

    The SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) Program is a United States Navy tactical reconnaissance program that culminates in the supply of visible and infrared imagery products to the fleet. The intent of the program is to provide the warfighter the most robust tactical reconnaissance capability possible in a timely manner. The SHARP concept is a multi-function reconnaissance pod, adaptable to several airborne platforms for tactical manned airborne reconnaissance. The genesis platform is the Navy F/A-18. With regard to multi-platform application, a smart pod approach has been pursued with most of the required functionality being incorporated into the pod. SHARP will replace the Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS) flying on the Navy F-14. This paper outlines the SHARP Program requirements and acquisition approach, along with the SHARP system capabilities and operation.

  4. Supporting the Copernicus POD Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Heike; Springer, Tim; Otten, Michiel; Fernandez, Jaime; Escobar, Diego; Femenias, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus PDGS (Payload Data Ground Segment) of the Sentinel missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. As part of the consortium PosiTim is responsible for implementing and testing software and model updates thoroughly before integrating them in the operational chain of the Copernicus POD Service. The NAPEOS (Navigation Package for Earth Observation Satellites) software is used for the generation of the orbit products within the Copernicus POD Service. The test procedures and results obtained for a recent software and model update to IERS 2010 Conventions are presented. It has been tested as well that the arc length of 72 hours for the non-time critical (NTC) orbit solutions might be shorten to 48 hours without losing accuracy. Orbit comparisons to external solutions help to validate the different orbit solutions. GPS antenna phase centre variations (PCVs) are one of the largest systematic error sources in POD. Since the satellite body may cause signal multipath a ground calibration of the GPS antenna without taking into account the satellite body might not be sufficient to quantify the PCVs. The PCVs are therefore obtained by an in-flight calibration. A first map for the PCVs determined from a limited amount of data at the beginning of the mission has shown significant multipath signals in parts of the antenna for code and carrier phase measurements. Since the satellite has moving parts it has been checked carefully if these multipath regions are moving as well or if they are antenna-fixed. Normally the correction maps are only applied for the carrier phase measurements. Since significant multipath has been spotted for the code measurements as well investigations are performed to study the impact of

  5. Mesquite pods into nutritious foods

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mesquite trees produce bean pods that a new process can turn into nutrient-rich foods. A simple, automated procedure converts the dried mesquite pods into a high-protein, sweet-tasting flour and a gum that can be used as a natural thickening additive in foods. Standard food-processing equipment can be used. For flour, whole pods are ground with a disk mill, which produces a mixture of seeds and flour. The mixture is then sifted to separate the two components. Its the seeds that contain the gum - a thin, white film that lines the inside of the hard, brown seed coat. To extract gum, seeds are split and soaked in an alkali solution. The solution, after being neutralized, is sprayed through a fine-mist nozzle into a heated chamber, where it dries as a fine powder of edible gum. This spray-drying is the same process that converts fresh milk into powdered. Analyses showed that the natural gum in mesquite pods is better than the guar gum US food processors now import to use as a natural thickener in ice cream; salad dressings, puddings, and other foods.

  6. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Ewert, Uwe; Müller, Christina; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-01

    The radiographic testing (RT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method capable of finding volumetric and open planar defects depending on their orientation. The radiographic contrast is higher for larger penetrated length of the defect in a component. Even though, the detectability of defects does not only depend on the contrast, but also on the noise, the defect area and the geometry of the defect. The currently applied Probability of Detection (POD) approach uses a detection threshold that is only based on a constant noise level or on a constant contrast threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the lateral area and shape of the indication. This work shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data of different defect types, such as ASTM E 476 EPS plates, flat bottom holes and notches. Additional experiments with different operators confirm that the depth of a defect, the lateral area and shape of its indication contribute with different weight to the detectability of the defect if evaluated by human operators on monitors.

  7. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzler, Daniel E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Ewert, Uwe E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Müller, Christina E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-31

    The radiographic testing (RT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method capable of finding volumetric and open planar defects depending on their orientation. The radiographic contrast is higher for larger penetrated length of the defect in a component. Even though, the detectability of defects does not only depend on the contrast, but also on the noise, the defect area and the geometry of the defect. The currently applied Probability of Detection (POD) approach uses a detection threshold that is only based on a constant noise level or on a constant contrast threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the lateral area and shape of the indication. This work shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data of different defect types, such as ASTM E 476 EPS plates, flat bottom holes and notches. Additional experiments with different operators confirm that the depth of a defect, the lateral area and shape of its indication contribute with different weight to the detectability of the defect if evaluated by human operators on monitors.

  8. Listening Habits of iPod Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make…

  9. In iPod We Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Beloved by students worldwide, iPod is becoming a presence in the classroom as teachers discover its many educational uses. At heart, the iPod's appeal is about its easily accessible audio and visual content in an attractive and conveniently sized package. Mechanically, the product is mostly a hard disk drive (although some models use only flash…

  10. iPods: Informative or Invasive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Donald P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how iPods are being used in a variety of teacher-centered and student-centered ways. Since today's students are characterized as social, highly competent multitaskers, who expect immediate results and feedback and seek stimulation and interaction, iPod and podcasting are seen as tools for teaching such…

  11. Learning English with iPods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Across the world, technology is part of the social and academic lives of students. In particular, iPods are one of the most popular forms of technology. Wikipedia, an excellent online source for information, notes that Apple has sold more than 119 million of these portable media players as of October 2007. With iPods, students can listen to, or…

  12. Solving Cocoa Pod Sigmoid Growth Model with Newton Raphson Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Albert Ling Sheng; Maisin, Navies

    Cocoa pod growth modelling are useful in crop management, pest and disease management and yield forecasting. Recently, the Beta Growth Function has been used to determine the pod growth model due to its unique for the plant organ growth which is zero growth rate at both the start and end of a precisely defined growth period. Specific pod size (7cm to 10cm in length) is useful in cocoa pod borer (CPB) management for pod sleeving or pesticide spraying. The Beta Growth Function is well-fitted to the pods growth data of four different cocoa clones under non-linear function with time (t) as its independent variable which measured pod length and diameter weekly started at 8 weeks after fertilization occur until pods ripen. However, the same pod length among the clones did not indicate the same pod age since the morphological characteristics for cocoa pods vary among the clones. Depending on pod size for all the clones as guideline in CPB management did not give information on pod age, therefore it is important to study the pod age at specific pod sizes on different clones. Hence, Newton Raphson method is used to solve the non-linear equation of the Beta Growth Function of four different group of cocoa pod at specific pod size.

  13. Boeing-747 aircraft with external cargo pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quartero, C. B.; Washburn, G. F.; Price, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to investigate the feasibility of mounting a detachable pod to the underside of the fuselage of a Boeing Model 747 aircraft to carry outsized cargo in case of military emergency. The analysis showed that the 747 configured with the pod and carrying only a bridge launcher as payload attained a range of 8.70 Mm (4 700 n. mi.) at Mach .68. This range was based on a maximum take-off gross weight of 3.447 MN (775 000 1bf) which included 212 kN (47 700 lbf) pod weight and 543 kN (122 000 lbf) payload (bridge launcher).

  14. Numerical Investigation on Ship Podded Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacuraru, Florin; Lungu, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    The paper proposes a numerical investigation based on RANS computation for solving the viscous flow around a ship podded propulsion unit. A set of computations has been performed to better understand the influences exerted by different configurations on the wake structure in the propeller disk in the pushing type case. The RANS computation method is employed to evaluate the flow field structure around the podded propulsion units and the forces acting on it. Hydrodynamic design podded system has not, so far, been fully established in the propeller-pod-strut system. It is necessary to use a reliable procedure in the design of such propulsion systems to increase the propulsion efficiency. In an attempt to meet these needs, the present paper introduces a numerical procedure to analyze the hydrodynamic performance of the propeller and steering system using a combined lifting line and RANS methods.

  15. Disaster-hardened imaging POD for PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice; Frost, Meryll

    2005-04-01

    After the events of 9/11, many people questioned their ability to keep critical services operational in the face of massive infrastructure failure. Hospitals increased their backup and recovery power, made plans for emergency water and food, and operated on a heightened alert awareness with more frequent disaster drills. In a film-based radiology department, if a portable X-ray unit, a CT unit, an Ultrasound unit, and an film processor could be operated on emergency power, a limited, but effective number of studies could be performed. However, in a digital department, there is a reliance on the network infrastructure to deliver images to viewing locations. The system developed for our institution uses several imaging PODS, a name we chose because it implied to us a safe, contained environment. Each POD is a stand-alone emergency powered network capable of generating images and displaying them in the POD or printing them to a DICOM printer. The technology we used to create a POD consists of a computer with dual network interface cards joining our private, local POD network, to the hospital network. In the case of an infrastructure failure, each POD can and does work independently to produce CTs, CRs, and Ultrasounds. The system has been tested during disaster drills and works correctly, producing images using equipment technologists are comfortable using with very few emergency switch-over tasks. Purpose: To provide imaging capabilities in the event of a natural or man-made disaster with infrastructure failure. Method: After the events of 9/11, many people questioned their ability to keep critical services operational in the face of massive infrastructure failure. Hospitals increased their backup and recovery power, made plans for emergency water and food, and operated on a heightened alert awareness with more frequent disaster drills. In a film-based radiology department, if a portable X-ray unit, a CT unit, an Ultrasound unit, and an film processor could be

  16. Gold resource modeling using pod indicator kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Rauf, Abdul; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes an implementation of the pod indicator kriging method used to gold resource modeling. Method such as ordinary kriging estimate the mean grade of a block that is fairly large. The usual outcome is that large blocks rarely turn out to be all ore or all waste, thus making reserve estimates an incorrect estimate of what will be mined. Pod indicator kriging offers a solution to this problem by estimating the distribution of grade values within a large block, rather than just estimating the mean grade of the block. Knowing the distribution of grade value within the block, it is then easy to calculate the proportion of the block that is above cutoff grade and the grade of the ore above cutoff grade. This research shows that the pod indicator kriging model is quite applicable and reliable in gold resourcemodeling.

  17. Probability of Detection (POD) Demonstration Transferability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Special Level POD demonstration tests are typically performed on flat plates of a single material containing fatigue cracks with aspect rations between 0.3 and 0.5. Subsequent fracture mechanics analyses consider aspect ratios that range from 0.1 to 0.5. There is debate within the NDE community about the detectability of shallow cracks associated with NASA Special Level penetrant inspections that are routinely performed by propellant tank manufactures. The objective of the task is to investigate effect of crack aspect ratio on POD crack sizes for the penetrant inspection technique.

  18. The Attack of the Pod People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In an article in the "Northern Star," a university student newspaper, reporter Lauren Stott began a lyrical note: "It's every student's dream: Wake up for school, stumble over to the computer, and download the day's class lectures ... then crawl back into bed--iPod in one hand, notebook in the other." The object of the student journalist's…

  19. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF MESQUITE (PROSOPIS) PODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesquite is the common name in North America for leguminous desert plants of the genus Prosopis that has about 44 species native to North America, South America, Africa and South Asia. Mesquite pods were a major food source of indigenous people in the semi deserts of North and South America before ...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-26 - Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon... Territories § 318.13-26 Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii. (a) Breadfruit and jackfruit. (1) To be eligible for interstate movement,...

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-26 - Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon... Territories § 318.13-26 Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii. (a) Breadfruit and jackfruit. (1) To be eligible for interstate movement,...

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-26 - Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon... Territories § 318.13-26 Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii. (a) Breadfruit and jackfruit. (1) To be eligible for interstate movement,...

  3. 7 CFR 318.13-26 - Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, melon, and moringa pods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon... and the Territories § 318.13-26 Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, melon, and moringa pods from Hawaii. (a) Breadfruit and jackfruit. (1) To be eligible for...

  4. Simulation supported POD: Methodology and HFET validation case

    SciTech Connect

    Jenson, F.; Iakovleva, E.; Dominguez, N.

    2011-06-23

    Structure reliability guaranty requires prior evaluation of non destructive testing methods. The concept of Probability of Detection (POD) is generally used to quantitatively assess performances and reliability of testing operations. Such probabilistic approaches take into account the uncertainties that appear during inspections and that are responsible for the output variability. POD curve determination is based on costly and time consuming experimental campaigns. Increasing demand of NDT configurations requiring POD evaluation makes cost reduction of POD campaigns a major issue. A new trend is to apply simulation in the context of probabilistic approaches in order to replace some of the experimental data required to determine the POD with simulation results. This paper presents results of simulation based POD curves of a high frequency eddy current inspection procedure obtained with the new POD module of CIVA. The methodology used for describing uncertainties on the input simulation parameters is described and comparisons with experimental results are presented and discussed.

  5. POD analysis of turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, Alexander J.; Hellström, Leo; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2015-11-01

    Proper Orthogonal Decomposition was introduced into the analysis of turbulent flow by Lumley (1967, 1981). Turbulent flows pose particular challenges for POD analysis because the energy is distributed over a wide range of scales. It has recently been found, however, that POD can be a powerful experimental tool for identifying the largest scales, especially the Large Scale Motions (LSMs) and Very Large Scale Motions (VLSMs) in turbulent pipe flow. It has also been useful, for example, to identify the large-scale motions that dominate the unsteady behavior of the flow downstream of a right-angled bend. Here, we summarize some of these experimental results, and discuss their implications for the understanding of turbulence structure. Supported under ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0174 and ERC Grant No. 277472.

  6. LASRE Pod Matting to SR-71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a rear/side view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod on NASA SR-71, tail number 844. This photo was taken during the fit-check of the pod on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center.

  7. Analysis and design of pod silencers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munjal, M. L.

    2003-05-01

    Parallel baffle mufflers or split silencers are used extensively in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems for increased attenuation of noise within a short or given length. Acoustic analysis of rectangular parallel baffle mufflers runs on the same lines as that of a rectangular duct lined on two sides. This simplification would not hold for circular configurations. Often, a cylindrical pod is inserted into a circular lined duct to increase its attenuation (or transmission loss), thereby making the flow passage annular and providing an additional absorptive layer on the inner side of this annular passage. This configuration, called a pod silencer, is analyzed here for the four-pole parameters as well as transmission loss, making use of the bulk reaction model. The effect of thin protective film or a highly perforated metallic plate is duly incorporated by means of a grazing-flow impedance. Use of appropriate boundary conditions leads to a set of linear homogeneous equations which in turn lead to a transcendental frequency equation in the unknown complex axial wave number. This is solved by means of the Newton-Raphson method, and the axial wave number is then used in the expressions for transmission loss as well as the transfer matrix parameters. Finally, results of a parametric study are reported to help the designer in optimization of a pod silencer configuration within a given overall size for minimal cost.

  8. LASRE pod being mated to SR-71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The addition of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod to NASA's SR-71, tail number 844, added seven tons to the aircraft. This Feb. 15, 1996 photo of the pod's fit-check at the Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California, shows the LASRE package being hoisted above the aircraft, which has it's right engine pod and the attached wing up. The SR-71's engines, tails, and various other parts are removed for refurbishment. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod

  9. Detailed analysis of POD method applied on turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnerova, Radka; Kukacka, Libor; Uruba, Vaclav; Jurcakova, Klara; Janour, Zbynek

    2012-04-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of a very turbulent flow inside a street canyon is performed. The energy contribution of each mode is obtained. Also, physical meaning of the POD result is clarified. Particular modes of POD are assigned to the particular flow events like a sweep event, a vortex behind a roof or a vortex at the bottom of a street. Test of POD sensitivity to the acquisition time of data records is done. Test with decreasing sample frequency is also executed. Further, interpolation of POD expansion coefficient is performed in order to test possible increase in sample frequency and get new information about the flow from the POD analysis. We tested a linear and a spline type of the interpolation and the linear one carried out a slightly better result.

  10. Texting Dependence, iPod Dependence, and Delay Discounting.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, F Richard; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    We gave 127 undergraduates questionnaires about their iPod and texting dependence and 2 hypothetical delay discounting scenarios related to free downloaded songs and free texting for life. Using regression analyses we found that when iPod dependence was the dependent variable, Text2-excessive use, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms, iPod2-excessive use, and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. When texting dependence was the dependent variable, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. These are the first data to show that delay discounting relates to certain aspects of social media, namely iPod and texting dependence. These data also show that across these 2 dependencies, both psychological and behavioral symptoms and relationship disruptions are affected. PMID:27424418

  11. LASRE pod being mated to SR-71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Feb. 15, 1996 photo shows the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod on the back of a NASA SR-71. Pictured is the half-span lifting body model and linear aerospike rocket engine (white portion), which are sitting on the deflection plate that separates the experiment from the canoe (long black shape). The canoe held propellant tanks and instrumentation equipment, and serves as the mount for the experiment. The entire pod weighed just under seven tons. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe

  12. Raytheon advanced forward looking infrared (ATFLIR) pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeno, Gerald

    2006-05-01

    Raytheon's AN/ASQ-228 Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infrared (ATFLIR) Pod features state-of-the-art mid-wave infrared targeting and navigation FLIRs, an electro-optical sensor, a laser rangefinder and target designator, and a laser spot tracker. ATFLIR is fully integrated and flight tested on all F/A-18 Hornet/Super Hornet models, approved for full-rate production and is forward deployed, supporting US. fleet operations worldwide. This paper will present ATFLIR status and a summary of future plans.

  13. Soybean Pod Set Enhancement with Synthetic Cytokinin Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Daniel J.; Carlson, Dale R.; Cotterman, C. Daniel; Sikorski, James A.; Ditson, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    The previously reported activity of benzyladenine and selected other cytokinin analogs to increase pod set in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) was further investigated to define the structure-activity relationship and evaluate the effects of the cytokinins on yield parameters. Enhancement of pod set was found to be greatest with N-6 saturated alkyl substituted analogs, and was only weakly associated with activity in a callus growth bioassay. The response of yield parameters to increasing pod load was evaluated by applying various cytokinin analogs having a range of pod set enhancement activity. The increased pod load at the treated nodes was not compensated by a reduction in pod number on the remainder of the plant. However, there was a compensatory decrease in seed size. Overall, a significant trend to greater total seed weight per plant was associated with the increased pod number. Initial evaluations indicated that foliar applications of select cytokinins could temporarily increase pod number. However, the increases in pod number obtained with foliar treatments were too small to be of practical utility and were not maintained to maturity. PMID:16665423

  14. NASA DOE POD NDE Capabilities Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    This data book contains the Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) analyses of the nondestructive inspection data presented in the NTIAC, Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book, 3rd ed., NTIAC DB-97-02. DOEPOD is designed as a decision support system to validate inspection system, personnel, and protocol demonstrating 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes, a90/95. The test methodology used in DOEPOD is based on the field of statistical sequential analysis founded by Abraham Wald. Sequential analysis is a method of statistical inference whose characteristic feature is that the number of observations required by the procedure is not determined in advance of the experiment. The decision to terminate the experiment depends, at each stage, on the results of the observations previously made. A merit of the sequential method, as applied to testing statistical hypotheses, is that test procedures can be constructed which require, on average, a substantially smaller number of observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations.

  15. LASRE pod being mated to SR-71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a head-on view of the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) SR-71 with the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod held over it's attachment points on the aircraft for a fit-check. The fit-check occurred Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, Cailfornia. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at

  16. Closeup of rear of LASRE pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This rear view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod shows the business end of the linear aerospike rocket engine prior to the experiment's fit-check on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. One of the differences between linear aerospike and traditional rocket engines is that the linear aerospike utilizes the airflow around the engine to form the outer 'nozzle.' There is no bell-shaped nozzle as is commonly seen on most rocket engines. The engine is made of a high strength copper alloy called NARloy-Z. The white curved ramps next to the copper area pictured act as the inner half of the engine's 'nozzle.' There are four thrusters (copper area) on each side of the engine for a total of eight which combine the fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source for the engine. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The

  17. A PROCEDURE FOR REPRODUCING PEANUT POD BREAKDOWN BY SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut plants 'Okrun', a Sclerotium rolfsii-susceptible cultivar were each grown for 125 days in pots (18 cm dia) containing a non-pasteurized mixture of sand, soil and shredded peat moss (2:1:1; v/v/v) in the greenhouse under favorable conditions for pod production. Individual, firm pods were lift...

  18. Influence of fins on tractor-type podded propulsor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xue-Shen; Huang, Sheng

    2009-09-01

    A mathematical model of podded propulsors was established in order to investigate the influence of fins. The hydrodynamic performance of podded propulsors with and without fins was calculated, with interactions between propellers and pods and fins derived by iterative calculation. The differential equation based on velocity potential was adopted and hyperboloidal panels were used to avoid gaps between surface panels. The Newton-Raphson iterative procedure was used on the trailing edge to meet the pressure Kutta condition. The velocity distribution was calculated with the Yanagizawa method to eliminate the singularity caused by use of the numerical differential. Comparisons of the performance of podded propulsors with different fins showed that the thrust of propeller in a podded propulsor with fins is greater. The resistance of the pod is also reduced because of the thrust of the fin. The hydrodynamic performance of a podded propulsor with two fins is found to be best, the performance of a podded propulsor with one fin is not as good as two fins, and the performance of the common type is the worst.

  19. Techniques for the evaluation of outgassing from polymeric wafer pods

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.C.; Liang, A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Bender, S.F.; Lujan, R.D.; Blewer, R.S.; Bowers, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in using wafer-level isolation environments or pods (microenvironments) to provide a more controllable, cleaner wafer environment during wafer processing. It has been shown that pods can be effective in reducing the amount of particulate contamination on wafers during manufacturing. However, there have also been studies that indicate that pods and wafer boxes can be the source of condensible, molecular organic contamination. This paper summarizes the work that has been performed during the past year at Sandia National Laboratories` Contamination Free Manufacturing Research Center (CFMRC) on (1) devising standard, low-temperature, high sensitivity techniques to detect outgassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polymers used to construct wafer pods and (2) development of a technique that can be used to continuously measure the condensible contamination within pods so that the pod environment can be monitored during manufacturing. Although these techniques have been developed specifically for assessing contamination threats from wafer pods, they can be used to evaluate other potential contamination sources. The high sensitivity outgassing techniques can be used to evaluate outgassing of volatiles from other clean-room materials and the real-time outgassing sensor can be used to monitor contamination condensation in non-pod environments such as ballroom-type cleanrooms and minienvironments.

  20. Induction of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) oncogenic domains (PODs) by papillomavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahara, Tomomi; Lambert, Paul F.

    2007-09-30

    Promyelocytic leukemia oncogenic domains (PODs), also called nuclear domain 10 (ND10), are subnuclear structures that have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes as well as the life cycle of DNA viruses including papillomaviruses. In order to investigate the interplay between papillomaviruses and PODs, we analyzed the status of PODs in organotypic raft cultures of human keratinocytes harboring HPV genome that support the differentiation-dependent HPV life cycle. The number of PODs per nucleus was increased in the presence of HPV genomes selectively within the poorly differentiated layers but was absent in the terminally differentiated layers of the stratified epithelium. This increase in PODs was correlated with an increase in abundance of post-translationally modified PML protein. Neither the E2-dependent transcription nor viral DNA replication was reliant upon the presence of PML. Implications of these findings in terms of HPV's interaction with its host are discussed.

  1. LASRE pod being mated to SR-71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment is mounted on a NASA SR-71 aircraft Aug. 26, at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in preparation for the experiment's first flight, which took place on 31 October 1997. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the

  2. LASRE pod being mated to SR-71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These workers are performing a fit-check of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) on the back of a NASA Dryden Flight Research Center SR-71. The fit-check occurred Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of

  3. The iPod Revolution: An Exploratory Case Study of the Implementation of an iPod Touch Pilot Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Staci A.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study was designed to investigate the implementation of an iPod touch pilot program in sixth grade science classrooms at an intermediate school in Southeast Texas. More specifically, this study explored the benefits and challenges associated with the utilization of iPod touch devices for students, teachers, and their campus…

  4. Mapping QTL for resistance to frosty pod and black pod diseases, and for horticultural traits in Theobroma cacao L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An F1 heterozygous mapping population of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) was created and evaluated for resistance to frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri [Cif. and Par.]), black pod (Phytophtora palmivora [Butl.] Butl.) and for five horticultural traits at CATIE in Turrialba, Costa Rica. The population cons...

  5. Investigating the intrinsic cleanliness of automated handling designed for EUV mask pod-in-pod systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brux, O.; van der Walle, P.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Dress, P.

    2011-11-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for technology nodes 16nm (hp) and below. However, several unique EUV mask challenges must be resolved for a successful launch of the technology into the market. Uncontrolled introduction of particles and/or contamination into the EUV scanner significantly increases the risk for device yield loss and potentially scanner down-time. With the absence of a pellicle to protect the surface of the EUV mask, a zero particle adder regime between final clean and the point-of-exposure is critical for the active areas of the mask. A Dual Pod concept for handling EUV masks had been proposed by the industry as means to minimize the risk of mask contamination during transport and storage. SuSS-HamaTech introduces MaskTrackPro InSync as a fully automated solution for the handling of EUV masks in and out of this Dual Pod System and therefore constitutes an interface between various tools inside the Fab. The intrinsic cleanliness of each individual handling and storage step of the inner shell (EIP) of this Dual Pod and the EUV mask inside the InSync Tool has been investigated to confirm the capability for minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. An Entegris Dual Pod EUV-1000A-A110 has been used for the qualification. The particle detection for the qualification procedure was executed with the TNO's RapidNano Particle Scanner, qualified for particle sizes down to 50nm (PSL equivalent). It has been shown that the target specification of < 2 particles @ 60nm per 25 cycles has been achieved. In case where added particles were measured, the EIP has been identified as a potential root cause for Ni particle generation. Any direct Ni-Al contact has to be avoided to mitigate the risk of material abrasion.

  6. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  7. Field-design optimization with triangular heliostat pods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Bravo, Carmen-Ana; Bode, Sebastian-James; Heiming, Gregor; Richter, Pascal; Carrizosa, Emilio; Fernández-Cara, Enrique; Frank, Martin; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the optimization of a heliostat field with triangular heliostat pods is addressed. The use of structures which allow the combination of several heliostats into a common pod system aims to reduce the high costs associated with the heliostat field and therefore reduces the Levelized Cost of Electricity value. A pattern-based algorithm and two pattern-free algorithms are adapted to handle the field layout problem with triangular heliostat pods. Under the Helio100 project in South Africa, a new small-scale Solar Power Tower plant has been recently constructed. The Helio100 plant has 20 triangular pods (each with 6 heliostats) whose positions follow a linear pattern. The obtained field layouts after optimization are compared against the reference field Helio100.

  8. The role of POD modes in turbulent jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonius, Tim; Freund, Jonathan

    2001-11-01

    We examine the acoustic radiation and structure of the POD modes of a turbulent, Re=3600, M=0.9 jet. The POD modes were computed using the method of snapshots with 2333 samples from a three-dimensional DNS database. The jet mean flow, turbulence statistics, and acoustic radiation were previously validated against experiments. We compute vector-valued POD modes for using several different physically meaningful norms and analyze the extent to which the most energetic modes (for the given norm) contribute to the overall acoustic radiation. This enables a detailed characterization of the contribution of large-scale turbulent structures to the radiated acoustic field. We also quantify the interaction of different modes by correlations of their variation in time as well as correlations with acoustic signals in the far field. We also examine the connection between the POD modes and the linear instability eigenfunctions of a slowly spreading jet.

  9. A monkey metabolism pod for space-flight weightlessness studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The system described will permit quantitative physiological studies in adult monkeys, weighing from 8 to 14 kg, during future space flights. The system comprises a fiberglass pod containing a comfortable restraint couch for the animal. The pod is divided into upper and lower halves. When the monkey occupies the couch, a rubber belly-band forms a gas seal between the upper and lower portions of the animal. The upper-pod ventilating air stream is monitored for the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water to permit continuous metabolic gas-exchange measurements for computation of metabolic energy expediture. The lower pod is lined with ashless filter paper for excreta collection.

  10. Probability of Detection (POD) Demonstration Transferability: Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Special Level POD demonstration tests are typically performed on flat plates of a single material containing fatigue cracks with aspect rations between 0.3 and 0.5. In many cases, the inspectors that pass the demonstration tests use (transfer) the NDE technique to inspect different materials and part geometries and for varying types of flaws. The objective of the task is to investigate several of the factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. An existing set of 30 6061-T6 aluminum crack panels will be used to create parts with a square tube and pocket type geometries. These same aluminum crack panels were used in a study of the effect of penetrant sensitivity level on POD. Hence, we should be able to directly compare the POD for flat panels versus larger parts with more complex geometries.

  11. Contribution of the pod wall to seed grain filling in alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Longyu; Wang, Mingya; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Three genotypes of alfalfa viz. Medicago sativa (Zhongmu No. 1, Zhongmu No. 2) and M. varia (Caoyuan No. 3) grown in the filed were investigated for the contribution of pod wall and leaves by shading all pods and leaves on July 15, 20 and 25, respectively. Date was recorded for total pod weight (TPW), pod wall weight (PWW), seed weight per pod (SWP), seed number per pod (SNP) and single seed weight (SSW) of one-coil and two-coil spiral pods. TPW, SNP, PWW and SWP were reduced by shading all leaves or pods, whereas SSW was not significantly affected. The relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was 25.6–48.1% in three genotypes on July 15. The pod wall in one-coil spiral pods generated a greater relative contribution to the TPW and SWP than in two-coil spiral pods. In the last stage (July 25), the relative photosynthetic contribution of leaves to SWP sharply decreased, whereas the relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was stable in the late stage (July 20 and 25). In conclusion, the pod wall of alfalfa could carry out photosynthesis and the pod wall played an important role in pod filling at the late growth stage. PMID:27210048

  12. Contribution of the pod wall to seed grain filling in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Longyu; Wang, Mingya; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Three genotypes of alfalfa viz. Medicago sativa (Zhongmu No. 1, Zhongmu No. 2) and M. varia (Caoyuan No. 3) grown in the filed were investigated for the contribution of pod wall and leaves by shading all pods and leaves on July 15, 20 and 25, respectively. Date was recorded for total pod weight (TPW), pod wall weight (PWW), seed weight per pod (SWP), seed number per pod (SNP) and single seed weight (SSW) of one-coil and two-coil spiral pods. TPW, SNP, PWW and SWP were reduced by shading all leaves or pods, whereas SSW was not significantly affected. The relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was 25.6-48.1% in three genotypes on July 15. The pod wall in one-coil spiral pods generated a greater relative contribution to the TPW and SWP than in two-coil spiral pods. In the last stage (July 25), the relative photosynthetic contribution of leaves to SWP sharply decreased, whereas the relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was stable in the late stage (July 20 and 25). In conclusion, the pod wall of alfalfa could carry out photosynthesis and the pod wall played an important role in pod filling at the late growth stage. PMID:27210048

  13. POD evaluation using simulation: Progress, practice and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Nicolas; Reverdy, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    NDT performances evaluation in the aeronautic industry is made by estimating Probability of Detection (POD). It is a statistical estimation of the capability of a given NDT procedure to detect defects as a function of their size. The accuracy of the statistical estimation is directly linked the quality and quantity of collected data. The more data and the more realistic they are, the better the POD estimation. This practical production of data may have very high cost, sometimes obliging to decrease either the quantity or the quality (realistic) of data, or even both. In the last decade MAPOD and simulation-based POD approaches have emerged and been used for concept demonstration as a solution to decrease the cost of evaluating POD. Today tools are available to support these studies and are used in industrial laboratories. This paper reviews some examples of POD evaluation using simulation, describes the actual practice of the tools in the European aeronautical context and also draws some limits and perspectives for a future wider application of the simulation helped POD approach.

  14. Theseus Nose and Pod Cones Being Unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Crew members are seen here unloading the nose and pod cones of the Theseus prototype research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental

  15. Test and evaluate passive orbital disconnect struts (PODS 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, R. T.; Henninger, W. C.; Katz, S. A.; Spradley, I.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts (PODS) test are to evaluate modal resonance of the PODS-III supports to obtain engineering data required for use of PODS-III on flight systems; determine possible performance improvements in large LO2/LH2 space applications. (1) Modal Vibration Tests. A modal resonance survey is performed on a set of six PODS-III struts assembled in a dewar simulator. The survey conditions simulate both launch and orbital loadings of the struts. The orbital load range spans a full to an empty tank. The frequencies surveyed cover the range consistent with Shuttle qualification requirements and the principal resonant modes of the strut system. (2) Benefit study. The benefit of using PODS-III supports on OTV and Space Station LO sub 2 and LH sub 2 reference tanks was compared to nondisconnect supports. Four LO sub 2 and LH sub 2 tanks were studied under various conditions: (1) holding the launch resonance at 35 Hz and varying the orbit resonance; (2) analyzing both full and emtpy tanks at launch; (3) varying orbit boundary temperaure; (4) varying the number of struts; (5) varying orbit times; and (6) using or not using vapor cooling.

  16. An update on pellicle-compatible EUV inner pod development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaping; Rashke, Russ; Newman, Chris; Harris, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    By 2015 EUV pellicle development has made significant progress such that it is mature enough for production testing. To support the implementation of the pellicle, the current EUV Inner Pod (EIP) design is modified to accommodate the addition of a pellicle to the reticle, which primarily involves adding a pellicle pocket to the baseplate of the EIP. Working closely with an EUV lithography customer, Entegris has developed a pellicle-compatible EUV inner pod that has passed this customer's testing. This paper presents the key design features of the Entegris pellicle-compatible EUV pod and the testing results. The non-pellicle EIP baseplate is a flat plate and is designed to maintain a very small distance from the underside (also pattern side) of the reticle. In the pellicle-compatible version a pocket is added to the baseplate to accommodate the pellicle and its frame. For compatibility purpose, the weight of the pellicle-compatible baseplate is kept about the same as the non-pellicle baseplates. In addition, considering that both non-pellicle and pellicalized reticles are going to be used by end users, a feature on the backside of the baseplate that's different between the two versions is going to be used by a sensor in the lithography tool to tell whether it is a pellicle or non-pellicle pod. Test results from several critical defectivity tests are highlighted in this paper including: full system cycle test, reticle handling tests, venting tests, EIP outgassing tests, along with pod shipping test.

  17. POD analysis of PIV measurements in complex near wake flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Garni, A. M.; Bernal, L. P.

    2003-11-01

    Proper Orthogonal Decomposition analysis of PIV measurements is used to study the turbulent flow structure in the near wake of bluff bodies. Several body geometries are considered including two-dimensional cylindrical shapes, rounded-nose bluff bodies and typical road vehicle geometries. The main goal of the study is to determine the more energetic POD modes and associated unsteady flow, and the underlying near wake dynamics. We briefly review the results of POD analysis of PIV measurements in two-dimensional geometries. We show that in more complicated flow fields, different POD modes capture the turbulent energy in different regions of the wake. For example, in the flow over a pickup truck, modes 1 and 2 capture the turbulent structure in the underbody shear layer, while mode 4 captures the turbulent structure of the flow over the bed. This result has significant implications for flow control applications. The POD methodology is used to identify generic unsteady flow structures in the near wake. The dominant modes are an oscillation of the length of the recirculation region behind the body (breathing mode) and a lateral oscillation of the wake (flapping mode). In some cases a vortex shedding mode reminiscent of the Karman-Roshko structure in circular cylinders is also observed. Efforts to determine the dynamics of the experimentally measured POD modes are discussed.

  18. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    PubMed

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost

  19. Molecular genetic basis of pod corn (Tunicate maize)

    PubMed Central

    Wingen, Luzie U.; Münster, Thomas; Faigl, Wolfram; Deleu, Wim; Sommer, Hans; Saedler, Heinz; Theißen, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Pod corn is a classic morphological mutant of maize in which the mature kernels of the cob are covered by glumes, in contrast to generally grown maize varieties in which kernels are naked. Pod corn, known since pre-Columbian times, is the result of a dominant gain-of-function mutation at the Tunicate (Tu) locus. Some classic articles of 20th century maize genetics reported that the mutant Tu locus is complex, but molecular details remained elusive. Here, we show that pod corn is caused by a cis-regulatory mutation and duplication of the ZMM19 MADS-box gene. Although the WT locus contains a single-copy gene that is expressed in vegetative organs only, mutation and duplication of ZMM19 in Tu lead to ectopic expression of the gene in the inflorescences, thus conferring vegetative traits to reproductive organs. PMID:22517751

  20. Internal recycling of respiratory CO2 in pods of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): the role of pod wall, seed coat, and embryo.

    PubMed

    Furbank, Robert T; White, Rosemary; Palta, Jairo A; Turner, Neil C

    2004-08-01

    It has previously been proposed that respiratory CO2 released from the embryo in grain legume pods is refixed by a layer of cells on the inner pod wall. In chickpea this refixation process is thought to be of significance to the seed carbon budget, particularly under drought. In this study it is reported that the excised embryo, seed coat, and pod wall in chickpea are all photosynthetically competent, but the pod wall alone is capable of net O2 evolution over and above respiration. The predominant role of the pod wall in refixation is supported by measurements of fixation of isotopically labelled CO2, which show that more than 80% of CO2 is fixed by this tissue when provided to the pod interior. Chlorophyll concentrations are of the same order for embryo, seed coat, and pod wall tissues in younger pods on both an area and a fresh weight basis, but decline differentially with development from 12-30 d after podding. Imaging of chlorophyll distribution in the pod wall suggests that less than 15% of chloroplasts are located in the inner layer of cells thought to refix CO2 in legumes; this would be sufficient to refix less than 40% of respired CO2. It is concluded that while all tissues of the pod are capable of refixing respiratory carbon, the entire pod wall is responsible for the majority of this process, rather than a specialized layer of cells on the inner epidermis. The role of this fixed carbon in the pod for reallocation to the seed is discussed PMID:15234993

  1. Night reconnaissance for F-16 multirole reconnaissance pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownie, Ralph S.; Larroque, Clement

    2004-08-01

    The Belgian Air Force successfully carried out flight trials of the latest Low Light CCD focal plane technology during December of 2003. Simultaneous imaging of the ground was performed by conventional CCD, Infra Red Linescan and Low Light CCD reconnaissance sensors; provided and integrated by Thales within the Modular Reconnaissance Pod (MRP). This paper reports on the results and compares capability of the technologies.

  2. Design of Landing PODS for Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, R. V.; Ball, J. M.; Pellz, L.

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has been developing design for a set of small landing PODS that could be deployed from a spacecraft bus orbiting a NEA to address the set of SKGs for investigation prior to crewed missions to Near Earth Asteroids or the moons of Mars.

  3. Using the iPod to Teach Freedom and Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Technology is making it easier for people with disabilities to function independently in their homes, workplaces, schools, and communities. Things that were once thought impossible are now possible with the aid of new tools available to assist in the transition toward independent living. None have had as big an impact as the iPod Touch. When most…

  4. Podagogy: The iPod as a Learning Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Crispin; Pymm, John M.

    2009-01-01

    With the growing influence of social media on contemporary society, educators have to adapt to new ways of engaging students in the learning process. The use of iPod technologies, as part of this new breed of social media and associated gadgetry, offers fresh opportunities to enhance the student learning experience. As part of a research project…

  5. iPod Stands for: Absorb, Engage, and Matter!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.

    2007-01-01

    The iPod's almost overwhelming popularity probably stems from the combination of power, size, convenience, and flexibility inherent in the devices. They fit into arm bands during jogging, ride in jean pockets, and swing from belt loops. They are small enough to easily be tucked into purses and backpacks, even large pockets. Clearly, using and…

  6. Temporal characteristics of POD modes from wind farm LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    Large eddy simulations of a fully developed wind farm in the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer have been analyzed using 3D Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). In this study we consider the temporal variations of the POD modes and their relationship to unsteadiness in the wind turbine power production. We find that the streamwise-constant counter-rotating roller modes vary on time-scales much longer that the mean advection time from turbine to turbine. The structure of these roller modes and their long-time variations are consistent with meandering of high- and low-speed streaks in the turbulent flow within the wind farm. Another class of POD modes--one with significant streamwise-variation--is found to correspond to advection of velocity perturbations in the streamwise direction. Temporal variations of the shear-type modes are found to strongly correlate with power production of the wind farm as a whole. Overall, the long-time power production is well captured by reconstructions using fewer than 50 POD modes (<1% of the total), but variations faster than the inter-turbine advection time are only captured by higher-order, less energetic modes. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1243482 (the WINDINSPIRE project).

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cocoa pod husks. [Trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.K.; Oldham, J.H.; Martin, A.M

    1984-07-01

    Laboratory results are presented of the bioconversion of cellulose from cocoa pod husks, utilizing cellulase from three mutants of Trichoderma reesei. Total reducing sugars in filtered hydrolysates were estimated by the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The sugars present were identified by paper chromatography as glucose and xylose.

  8. Bean pod mottle virus movement in insect feeding resistant soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) impacts yield and seed quality. BPMV is vectored primarily by the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata) in Ohio. A 2-year experiment was carried out at two locations in Ohio to determine if resistance to insect feeding reduces disease incidence and spread in soybeans....

  9. Bean Pod Mottle Virus Spread in Insect Feeding Resistant Soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) reduces yield and seed quality in soybeans. No qualitative resistance to this virus has been found in soybean, although some tolerance is known. To test the hypothesis that virus incidence and movement would be reduced in soybeans with resistance to feeding by the viru...

  10. A DSP Based POD Implementation for High Speed Multimedia Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang Nian; Li, Hua; Zhang, Nuannuan; Xie, Jiesheng

    2002-12-01

    In the cable network services, the audio/video entertainment contents should be protected from unauthorized copying, intercepting, and tampering. Point-of-deployment (POD) security module, proposed by[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], allows viewers to receive secure cable services such as premium subscription channels, impulse pay-per-view, video-on-demand as well as other interactive services. In this paper, we present a digital signal processor (DSP) (TMS320C6211) based POD implementation for the real-time applications which include elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA), elliptic curve Diffie Hellman (ECDH) key exchange, elliptic curve key derivation function (ECKDF), cellular automata (CA) cryptography, communication processes between POD and Host, and Host authentication. In order to get different security levels and different rates of encryption/decryption, a CA based symmetric key cryptography algorithm is used whose encryption/decryption rate can be up to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. The experiment results indicate that the DSP based POD implementation provides high speed and flexibility, and satisfies the requirements of real-time video data transmission.

  11. STS-39: OMS Pod Thruster Removal/Replace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Shown is the removal and replacement of the Discovery's orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pod thruster. The OMS engine will be used to propel Discovery north, off of its previous orbital groundtrack, without changing the spacecraft's altitude. A burn with this lateral effect is known as "out-of-plane."

  12. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    PubMed

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior. PMID:23813238

  13. Physiological Mechanisms behind Differences in Pod Shattering Resistance in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Peipei; Zhou, Min; Wu, Jiangsheng; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Pod shattering resistance index (SRI) is a key factor affecting the mechanical harvesting of rapeseed. Research on the differences in pod shattering resistance levels of various rapeseed varieties can provide a theoretical basis for varietal breeding and application in mechanical harvesting. The indicators on pod shattering resistance including pod morphology and wall components were evaluated on eight hybrids and open pollinators, respectively, during 2012–2014. The results showed the following: (1) From the current study, SRI varied greatly with variety, and conventional varieties had stronger resistance than hybrid according to the physiological indexes. and (2) Under the experimental conditions, the SRI was linearly related to pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls, and the goodness-of-fit measurements for the regression model of the SRI based on pod wall weight and water content were 0.584** and 0.377*, respectively, reaching the significant level. This illustrated that pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls determined the SRI. (3) Compared with the relative contents of biochemical components in pod walls, the contents of particular biochemical components in pod walls had closer correlations with SRI. Among the biochemical components, the hemicellulose content was the decisive factor for the SRI. PMID:27299997

  14. Physiological Mechanisms behind Differences in Pod Shattering Resistance in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Varieties.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Jie; Sun, Yingying; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Peipei; Zhou, Min; Wu, Jiangsheng; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Pod shattering resistance index (SRI) is a key factor affecting the mechanical harvesting of rapeseed. Research on the differences in pod shattering resistance levels of various rapeseed varieties can provide a theoretical basis for varietal breeding and application in mechanical harvesting. The indicators on pod shattering resistance including pod morphology and wall components were evaluated on eight hybrids and open pollinators, respectively, during 2012-2014. The results showed the following: (1) From the current study, SRI varied greatly with variety, and conventional varieties had stronger resistance than hybrid according to the physiological indexes. and (2) Under the experimental conditions, the SRI was linearly related to pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls, and the goodness-of-fit measurements for the regression model of the SRI based on pod wall weight and water content were 0.584** and 0.377*, respectively, reaching the significant level. This illustrated that pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls determined the SRI. (3) Compared with the relative contents of biochemical components in pod walls, the contents of particular biochemical components in pod walls had closer correlations with SRI. Among the biochemical components, the hemicellulose content was the decisive factor for the SRI. PMID:27299997

  15. Cell Penetrating Peptide POD Mediates Delivery of Recombinant Proteins to Retina, Cornea and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leslie N.; Cashman, Siobhan M.; Read, Sarah Parker; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Recently we described a novel cell penetrating peptide, POD (peptide for ocular delivery) that could deliver small molecules including fluorescent dyes into retinal cells. The objective of the current study was to examine whether biologically relevant macromolecules such as proteins, genetically fused with POD could also be delivered into retinal tissues in vivo. We generated a POD-GFP fusion protein and examined its cell and tissue penetrating properties. We found that endogenously expressed POD-GFP fusion protein localized to the nucleus, suggesting that POD acts as a nuclear localization signal. Adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing POD-GFP fusion protein were constructed and the recombinant protein was purified from Ad-infected human embryonic retinoblasts (HER). Exogenously supplied POD-GFP fusion protein rapidly transduced A549 and HER cells and colocalized in part with markers of late endosomes, from which it could escape. Following subretinal delivery, POD-GFP localized to the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor cell bodies. When injected into the vitreous, POD-GFP localized to the ganglion cells and the inner nuclear layer of the retina as well as the lens capsule. Topical application of POD-GFP to ocular surfaces resulted in uptake by the corneal epithelium. POD-GFP also transduced non-ocular tissues, including the epidermis of the skin following topical application. PMID:19733192

  16. Sensor Configuration For A Short To Medium Range Reconnaissance Pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Ingvar H.

    1987-02-01

    The GREEN BARON pod is designed and developed specifically for penetrating reconnaissance and for reconnaissance up to medium distance. An Infra Red Line Scanner (IRLS) in combination with a panoramic camera are the main short range sensors, the IRLS as an allweather sensor and the panoramic camera to get horizon to horizon coverage and stereo interpretation. For reconnaissance up to medium distance our choice was a camera with 12 inch focal length. This focal length gives moderate focusing problems when operating over a wide distance range. Influence on performance caused by environment is easier to deal with compared to operating a camera with longer focal length. This paper concentrates on the reasons for choosing a focal length of 12 inch for the pod.

  17. Structures in Transitional Taylor-Couette Flows Identified using POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabani, Stavroula; Imomoh, Eboshogwe; Dusting, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    The flow in the gap between concentric cylinders, or Taylor-Couette flow, has been used to study transition to turbulence for decades, and is also utilised for various biotechnological and industrial processes. Transitional flow states depend highly on vessel geometry; they are also three-dimensional and often time dependent limiting the use of experimental techniques for their characterisation. In this talk the transition to turbulence in a Taylor-Couette flow is studied by means of time resolved PIV velocity fields and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). It is found that for the particular geometry studied the transition to turbulence occurs via a quasi periodic regime characterised by a fast moving azimuthal wave (FMAW). Aspects of the FMAW structure, such as a series of co-rotating vortices that increase in strength away from the endwalls, are also revealed by spatially resolved POD.

  18. Drying of vanilla pods using a greenhouse effect solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, K.; Mursalim

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the basic design of the GHE solar dryer and evaluates the performance of the dryer when used to dry vanilla pods. From laboratory test results it was indicted that the average drying time for vanilla pods was between 49 to 53.5 hrs. For the case of heating augmentation using coal briquette stoves. The total amount of coal briquettes used to produce drying air temperature between 33 C to 65 C and RH of about 34% during day time was 61 kg equivalent to 6.1 kW heating rate and the average electric energy usage of 36.5 kWh, respectively. Quality test results indicated that the dried products were of grade IA of the export quality standard with vaniline content of 2.36%.

  19. ISAL experiment documentation of vertical tail and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) experiment documentation includes vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods with surface glow against the blackness of space. This glowing scene was provided by a long duration exposure with a 35mm camera aimed toward the tail of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. OV-099 was maneuvered to a 120-nautical-mile altitude and flown with open payload bay (PLB) in the velocity vector for the conducting of a test titled, 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)'. Atomic oxygen within the low orbital environment is known to be extremely reactive when in contact with solid surfaces. In the darkened area between the camera and the glowing OMS pods and vertical stabilizer are two trays of test materials.

  20. The P-POD Project. [error detection codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmable pilot oriented display (P-POD), a multiprocessor based flight information processing and display unit, is discussed. Communication protocols between the three Z-80 processors inside P-POD are reviewed. The interface between the video processor, P2, and the main processor, P1, was tested. Hardware and software were revised. Data flow between P1 and P2 is illustrated. While running diagnostic routines to exercise the P1/P2 interface at maximum speed an intermittent failure was observed. A check of possible noise sources or race conditions in the hardware did not reveal the source of this failure. Possible software timing problems were also fully investigated. To eliminate the effects of this type of failure a performance monitor routine was used to detect these occasional failures and correct them. The data transmission cycle between P1/P2 is either allowed to continue normal operation or is re-initialized and restarted when an error is detected.

  1. Copernicus POD Service: Orbit Determination of the Sentinel Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Heike; Fernández, Jaime; Ayuga, Francisco; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus Processing Data Ground Segment (PDGS) of the Sentinel-1, -2 and -3 missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. Sentinel-1A was launched in April 2014 while Sentinel-2A was on June 2015 and both are routinely operated since then. Sentinel-3A is expected to be launched in February 2016 and Sentinel-1B is planned for spring 2016. Thus the CPOD Service will be operating three to four satellites simultaneously in spring 2016. The satellites of the Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 missions are all equipped with dual frequency high precision GPS receivers delivering the main observables for POD. Sentinel-3 satellites will additionally be equipped with a laser retro reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging and a receiver for DORIS tracking. All three types of observables (GPS, SLR and DORIS) will be used routinely for POD. The POD core of the CPOD Service is NAPEOS (Navigation Package for Earth Orbiting Satellites) the leading ESA/ESOC software for precise orbit determination. The careful selection of models and inputs is important to achieve the different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness for the Sentinel -1, -2 & -3 missions. The three missions require orbital products with various latencies from 30 minutes up to 20-30 days. The accuracy requirements are also different and partly very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Although the characteristics and the requirements are different for the three missions the same core POD setup is used to the largest extent possible. This strategy facilitates maintenance of the complex system of the CPOD Service. Updates in the dynamical modelling of the satellite orbits, e

  2. Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) data management overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, J.D.; Blough, D.K.; Daugherty, W.R.; Hucks, J.A.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Meitzler, W.D.; Melton, R.B.; Shoemaker, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    An overview of the Data Management Plan for the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) pro-grain is provided in this document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been assigned the responsibility of data management for the program, which includes defining procedures for data management and data quality assessment. Data management is defined as the process of planning, acquiring, organizing, qualifying and disseminating data. The AMPS program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (DOE/AN) and is integrated into the overall DOE AN-10.1 technology development program. Sensors used for collecting the data were developed under the on-site inspection, effluence analysis, and standoff sensor program, the AMPS program interacts with other technology programs of DOE/NN-20. This research will be conducted by both government and private industry. AMPS is a research and development program, and it is not intended for operational deployment, although the sensors and techniques developed could be used in follow-on operational systems. For a complete description of the AMPS program, see {open_quotes}Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program Plan{close_quotes}. The primary purpose of the AMPS is to collect high-quality multisensor data to be used in data fusion research to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to derive better information than can be derived from any single sensor. To collect the data for the program, three wing-mounted pods containing instruments with sensors for collecting data will be flight certified on a U.S. Navy RP-3A aircraft. Secondary objectives of the AMPS program are sensor development and technology demonstration. Pod system integrators and instrument developers will be interested in the performance of their deployed sensors and their supporting data acquisition equipment.

  3. Chemical composition of the pods of Albizia polyphylla.

    PubMed

    Rajemiarimoelisoa, Clara Fredeline; Boyère, Cédric; Pellissier, Léonie; Peuchmaur, Marine; Randrianarivo, Hanitra Ranjana; Rakoto, Danielle Aurore Doll; Jeannoda, Victor Louis; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report for the first time the presence of alkaloids belonging to β-carboline type in the pods of the endemic Albizia polyphylla from Madagascar. Three major alkaloids were isolated and structurally identified as: 1-methyl-β-carboline, (+)-(R)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline and (-)-(S)-1,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline. PMID:26571367

  4. Jason-1 and Jason-2 POD Using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melachroinos, Stavros; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Beckley, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The Jason-2 satellite, launched in June 2008, is the latest follow-on to the successful Jason-1 altimetry satellite mission launched in December 7, 2001. Both, Jason-2 and Jason-1 are equipped with a GPS dual-frequency receiver, a laser retroreflector array, and a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD). A series of dynamic and reduced-dynamic Jason-2 orbits computed at NASA GSFC, based on GPS-only data and the std0905 standards, have been completed till cy74through cycle 74 using the IGS05 framework. These orbits, now publicly available, have been shown to agree radially at 1 cm RMS with the GSFC std0905 SLR/DORIS orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by JPL, ESA and CNES. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the IGS08 and repro1 framework for the Jason-2 and Jason-1 GPS POD processing with the NASA GSFC GEODYN software. . In our updated GPS POD, ambiguity fixing and updated time variable and static gravity fields. We also evaluate the implementation of non-tidal and degree-1 loading displacement as forward modeling to the tracking stations. Reduced-dynamic versus dynamic orbit differences are used to characterize the remaining force model errors and TRF instability. In particular, we assess their consistency radially and the stability of the altimeter satellite reference frame in the North/South direction as a proxy to assess the consistency of the reference frame.

  5. System Identification and POD Method Applied to Unsteady Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Deman; Kholodar, Denis; Juang, Jer-Nan; Dowell, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    The representation of unsteady aerodynamic flow fields in terms of global aerodynamic modes has proven to be a useful method for reducing the size of the aerodynamic model over those representations that use local variables at discrete grid points in the flow field. Eigenmodes and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) modes have been used for this purpose with good effect. This suggests that system identification models may also be used to represent the aerodynamic flow field. Implicit in the use of a systems identification technique is the notion that a relative small state space model can be useful in describing a dynamical system. The POD model is first used to show that indeed a reduced order model can be obtained from a much larger numerical aerodynamical model (the vortex lattice method is used for illustrative purposes) and the results from the POD and the system identification methods are then compared. For the example considered, the two methods are shown to give comparable results in terms of accuracy and reduced model size. The advantages and limitations of each approach are briefly discussed. Both appear promising and complementary in their characteristics.

  6. POD Model Reconstruction for Gray-Box Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the mathematical basis of a method of constructing low-order mathematical models for the "gray-box" fault-detection algorithm that is a component of a diagnostic system known as beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM). POD has been successfully applied in reducing computational complexity by generating simple models that can be used for control and simulation for complex systems such as fluid flows. In the present application to BEAM, POD brings the same benefits to automated diagnosis. BEAM is a method of real-time or offline, automated diagnosis of a complex dynamic system.The gray-box approach makes it possible to utilize incomplete or approximate knowledge of the dynamics of the system that one seeks to diagnose. In the gray-box approach, a deterministic model of the system is used to filter a time series of system sensor data to remove the deterministic components of the time series from further examination. What is left after the filtering operation is a time series of residual quantities that represent the unknown (or at least unmodeled) aspects of the behavior of the system. Stochastic modeling techniques are then applied to the residual time series. The procedure for detecting abnormal behavior of the system then becomes one of looking for statistical differences between the residual time series and the predictions of the stochastic model.

  7. Capturing Greenland Meltwater Plume Dynamics with IcePod Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S.; Le Bel, D. A.; Zappa, C. J.; Porter, D. F.; Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.

    2014-12-01

    Meltwater that forms on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet and falls to the ice sheet bed eventually emerges at the calving front as tan, turbid plumes of water. Adjacent to the ice, these meltwater plumes foster mixing in the fjord moving warm ocean water into contact with the front of the ice sheet where it can undercut the ice front and trigger calving. The dynamics of meltwater plumes is difficult to study due to their proximity to the steep calving fronts and their intermittent nature. In July 2014 the IcePod, the ice-ocean imaging system mounted on a New York Air National Guard LC-130, surveyed the 5 glaciers just north of Jakobshavn Isbrae, each of which had an active meltwater plume. The IcePod system has core instrumentation that can resolve high-resolution surface elevations with a scanning laser and visual cameras, the temperature of the surface with an infrared camera, and the structure of snow and ice with two radar systems. For the study of plume dynamics, the key IcePod observations include: (1) the morphology of the calving front captured with the visual camera and the scanning laser and (2) thermal structure, velocity and turbulence of the plume water resolved with the infrared camera. In the future, an expanded IcePod capability will include an AXCTD launching system to recovery the hydrography of the fjord and the plumes. The IcePod survey directly crossed 3 of the 5 meltwater plumes on two subsequent days. The plumes sampled multiple times were Sermeq Avangnardleq A that drains into the Jakobshavn Isbrae Fjord, Eqip Sermia and Sermia Kangilerngata. While each of the ice feeding these three adjacent fjords has experienced the same surface melting conditions the structure of the meltwater plumes was very different in each fjords. Sermeq Avangnardleq A had a narrow angular shaped plume nestled in an embayment in the calving front, Eqip Sermia had two broad diffuse plumes and Sermia Kangilerngata had a narrow circular plume in an ice choked

  8. Anthocyanins and flavonols are responsible for purple color of Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet pods.

    PubMed

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Jingtao; Yin, Wencheng; Feng, Ye; Xie, Qiaoli; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Lablab pods, as dietary vegetable, have high nutritional values similar to most of edible legumes. Moreover, our studies confirmed that purple lablab pods contain the natural pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols. Compared to green pods, five kinds of anthocyanins (malvidin, delphinidin and petunidin derivatives) were found in purple pods by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major contents were delphinidin derivatives. Besides, nine kinds of polyphenol derivatives (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and apigenin derivatives) were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major components were quercetin and myricetin derivatives. In order to discover their molecular mechanism, expression patterns of biosynthesis and regulatory gens of anthocyanins and flavonols were investigated. Experimental results showed that LpPAL, LpF3H, LpF3'H, LpDFR, LpANS and LpPAP1 expressions were significantly induced in purple pods compared to green ones. Meanwhile, transcripts of LpFLS were more abundant in purple pods than green or yellow ones, suggestind that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated in purple pods. Under continuously dark condition, no anthocyanin accumulation was detected in purple pods and transcripts of LpCHS, LpANS, LpFLS and LpPAP1 were remarkably repressed, indicating that anthocyanins and flavonols biosynthesis in purple pods was regulated in light-dependent manner. These results indicate that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols contribute to purple pigmentations of pods. PMID:26995313

  9. Design and test of a modified passive orbital disconnect strut (PODS-IV). [support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, Iran E.; Parmley, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    The design and testing of a modification to the Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts (PODS) III system (designed to reduce support conductance and superfluid-helium-tank dewar weights), PODS IV, are discussed. The PODS IV design was found to achieve a nominal increase of 630-812 percent in side-load resistance over the PODS-III design, with a predicted 15-percent increase in thermal conductance. It is noted that the increase in side-load resistance largely removes the limitation on length of the orbit tube inherent in the PODS III design. The higher resistance of the longer orbit tube results in lower total conductance for the PODS-IV design.

  10. LASRE pod being mated to SR-71, side view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a rear/side view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod on NASA SR-71, tail number 844. This photo was taken during the fit-check of the pod on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the

  11. Sustained Delivery of Commensal Bacteria from Pod-Intravaginal Rings

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Mullen, Madeline; Yoo, Jennifer; Webster, Paul; Moss, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Topical administration of live commensal bacteria to the vaginal tract holds significant potential as a cost-effective strategy for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections and the delivery of mucosal vaccines. Probiotic-releasing intravaginal rings (IVRs) embody significant theoretical advantages over traditional daily-dosage forms, such as sustained and controlled delivery leading to improved adherence to therapy compared to that of frequent dosing. The conventional IVR designs, however, are not amenable to the delivery of live bacteria. We have developed a novel pod-IVR technology where polymer-coated tablets (“pods”) of Lactobacillus gasseri strain ATCC 33323, a commensal microorganism of human origin, are embedded in silicone IVRs. The release rate of bacterial cells is controlled by the diameter of a delivery channel that exposes a portion of the pod to external fluids. In vitro studies demonstrated that the prototype devices released between 1.1 × 107 and 14 × 107 cells per day for up to 21 days in a controlled sustained fashion with stable burst-free release kinetics. The daily release rates were correlated with the cross-sectional area of the delivery channel. Bacteria in the IVR pods remained viable throughout the in vitro studies and formed biofilms on the surfaces of the devices. This proof-of-principle study represents the first demonstration of a prolonged, sustained release of bacteria from an intravaginal device and warrants further investigation of this device as a nonchemotherapeutic agent for the restoration and maintenance of normal urogenital flora. PMID:24492360

  12. Antioxidant enzymes regulate reactive oxygen species during pod elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.- and .OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of .OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.- was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.- decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of(.)OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  13. A POD-based analysis of turbulence in the reduced nonlinear dynamics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidis, M.-A.; Farrell, B. F.; Ioannou, P. J.; Gayme, D. F.; Lozano-Durán, A.; Jiménez, J.

    2016-04-01

    The structure of turbulence in a reduced model of turbulence (RNL) is analyzed by means of a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD modes). POD analysis was carried out on two different components of the flow, the roll/streak and the perturbation structure. The POD structure in both RNL and direct numerical simulations (DNS) is similar and this correspondence suggests that the dynamics retained in RNL are the essential dynamical ingredients underlying the self-sustaining mechanism of the turbulent state.

  14. POD study of aerated cavitation in a venturi nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, P.; Danlos, A.; Khelladi, S.; Ravelet, F.; Sarraf, C.; Bakir, F.

    2015-12-01

    The fact of injecting bubbles into a cavitating flow influences typical cavitating behavior. Cavitation and aerated cavitation experiments has been carried out on a symmetrical venturi nozzle with convergent/divergent angles of 18° and 8°, respectively. A snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique is used to identify different modes in terms of discharge flow velocity, pressure and injected quantity of air. The energy spectrum per given mode is also presented. The first four modes are outlined in the present paper for an aerated and non-aerated cavitating flows.

  15. Physical Restriction of Pods Causes Seed Size Reduction of a Brassinosteroid-deficient Faba Bean (Vicia faba)

    PubMed Central

    FUKUTA, N.; FUKUZONO, K.; KAWAIDE, H.; ABE, H.; NAKAYAMA, M.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims A brassinosteroid-deficient mutant faba bean (Vicia faba ‘Rinrei’) shows dwarfism in many organs including pods and seeds. ‘Rinrei’ has normal-sized seeds together with dwarf seeds, suggesting that dwarfism in the seed may be indirectly caused by brassinosteroid deficiency. The mechanism of seed size reduction in this mutant was investigated. • Methods The associations between seed orientation in the pod, seed numbers per pod and pod lengths with seed sizes were analysed in ‘Rinrei’ and the wild-type plant. • Key Results ‘Rinrei’ seeds are tightly arranged in pods containing two or three seeds. Seed size decreased as the number of seeds per pod increased or as the length of the pod decreased. Where no physical restriction occurred between seeds in a pod, the wild-type faba bean seeds had a nearly constant size regardless of seed number per pod or pod length. ‘Rinrei’ seeds in pods containing single seeds were the same size as wild-type seeds. Brassinolide treatment increased the seed size and the length of pods containing three seeds in ‘Rinrei’. • Conclusion Seed size of ‘Rinrei’ is mainly regulated through a reduction of pod length due to brassinosteroid deficiency; physical restriction within pods causes a reduction in seed size. These results suggest a possible mechanism for increasing faba bean yields to optimal levels. PMID:16303772

  16. A wing pod-based millimeter wavelength airborne cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Ellis, S.; Tsai, P.; Loew, E.; Lee, W. C.; Emmett, J.; Dixon, M.; Burghart, C.; Rauenbuehler, S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wavelength radar. Its frequency of operation is 94 GHz (3 mm wavelength). The radar has been designed to fly on the NCAR Gulfstream V HIAPER aircraft; however, it could be deployed on other similarly equipped aircraft. The pod-based configuration occupies minimum cabin space and maximizes scan coverage. The radar system is capable of collecting observations in a staring mode between zenith and nadir or in a scanning mode. Standard pulse-pair estimates of moments and raw time series of backscattered signals are recorded. The radar system design and characteristics, as well as techniques for calibrating reflectivity and correcting Doppler velocity for aircraft attitude and motion are described. The radar can alternatively be deployed in a ground-based configuration, housed in the 20 ft shipping container it shares with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The radar was tested both on the ground and in flight. Preliminary measurements of Doppler and polarization measurements were collected and examples are presented.

  17. A wing pod-based millimeter wavelength airborne cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Ellis, S.; Tsai, P.; Loew, E.; Lee, W.-C.; Emmett, J.; Dixon, M.; Burghart, C.; Rauenbuehler, S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter (mm) wavelength radar. Its frequency of operation is 94 GHz (3 mm wavelength). The radar has been designed to fly on the NCAR Gulfstream V HIAPER aircraft; however, it could be deployed on other similarly equipped aircraft. The pod-based configuration occupies minimum cabin space and maximizes scan coverage. The radar system is capable of collecting observations in a staring mode between zenith and nadir or in a scanning mode. Standard pulse-pair estimates of moments and raw time series of backscattered signals are recorded. The radar system design and characteristics as well as techniques for calibrating reflectivity and correcting Doppler velocity for aircraft attitude and motion are described. The radar can alternatively be deployed in a ground-based configuration, housed in the 20 ft shipping container it shares with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The radar was tested both on the ground and in flight. Preliminary measurements of Doppler and polarization measurements were collected and examples are presented.

  18. Algorithm for Stabilizing a POD-Based Dynamical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    This algorithm provides a new way to improve the accuracy and asymptotic behavior of a low-dimensional system based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Given a data set representing the evolution of a system of partial differential equations (PDEs), such as the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow, one may obtain a low-dimensional model in the form of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that should model the dynamics of the flow. Temporal sampling of the direct numerical simulation of the PDEs produces a spatial time series. The POD extracts the temporal and spatial eigenfunctions of this data set. Truncated to retain only the most energetic modes followed by Galerkin projection of these modes onto the PDEs obtains a dynamical system of ordinary differential equations for the time-dependent behavior of the flow. In practice, the steps leading to this system of ODEs entail numerically computing first-order derivatives of the mean data field and the eigenfunctions, and the computation of many inner products. This is far from a perfect process, and often results in the lack of long-term stability of the system and incorrect asymptotic behavior of the model. This algorithm describes a new stabilization method that utilizes the temporal eigenfunctions to derive correction terms for the coefficients of the dynamical system to significantly reduce these errors.

  19. POD Analysis of Jet-Plume/Afterbody-Wake Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Nathan E.; Seiner, John M.; Jansen, Bernard J.; Gui, Lichuan; Sockwell, Shuan; Joachim, Matthew

    2009-11-01

    The understanding of the flow physics in the base region of a powered rocket is one of the keys to designing the next generation of reusable launchers. The base flow features affect the aerodynamics and the heat loading at the base of the vehicle. Recent efforts at the National Center for Physical Acoustics at the University of Mississippi have refurbished two models for studying jet-plume/afterbody-wake interactions in the NCPA's 1-foot Tri-Sonic Wind Tunnel Facility. Both models have a 2.5 inch outer diameter with a nominally 0.5 inch diameter centered exhaust nozzle. One of the models is capable of being powered with gaseous H2 and O2 to study the base flow in a fully combusting senario. The second model uses hi-pressure air to drive the exhaust providing an unheated representative flow field. This unheated model was used to acquire PIV data of the base flow. Subsequently, a POD analysis was performed to provide a first look at the large-scale structures present for the interaction between an axisymmetric jet and an axisymmetric afterbody wake. PIV and Schlieren data are presented for a single jet-exhaust to free-stream flow velocity along with the POD analysis of the base flow field.

  20. Mapping and use of QTLs controlling pod dehiscence in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Funatsuki, Hideyuki; Hajika, Makita; Yamada, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaya; Hagihara, Seiji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Fujita, Shohei; Ishimoto, Masao; Fujino, Kaien

    2012-01-01

    While the cultivated soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is more recalcitrant to pod dehiscence (shattering-resistant) than wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc., there is also significant genetic variation in shattering resistance among cultivated soybean cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis and develop DNA markers for pod dehiscence, several research groups have conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using segregated populations derived from crosses between G. max accessions or between a G. max and G. soja accession. In the populations of G. max, a major QTL was repeatedly identified near SSR marker Sat_366 on linkage group J (chromosome 16). Minor QTLs were also detected in several studies, although less commonality was found for the magnitudes of effect and location. In G. max × G. soja populations, only QTLs with a relatively small effect were detected. The major QTL found in G. max was further fine-mapped, leading to the development of specific markers for the shattering resistance allele at this locus. The markers were used in a breeding program, resulting in the production of near-isogenic lines with shattering resistance and genetic backgrounds of Japanese elite cultivars. The markers and lines developed will hopefully contribute to the rapid production of a variety of shattering-resistant soybean cultivars. PMID:23136494

  1. SR-71 wind tunnel scale model with LASRE pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a photo of the SR-71 scale wind tunnel model showing the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod attachment location. The model was on display for the LASRE fit-check at the Lockheed Martin Skunkworks on Feb. 15, 1996, in Palmdale, California. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The

  2. POD/DEIM nonlinear model order reduction of an ADI implicit shallow water equations model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ştefănescu, R.; Navon, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper we consider a 2-D shallow-water equations (SWE) model on a β-plane solved using an alternating direction fully implicit (ADI) finite-difference scheme on a rectangular domain. The scheme was shown to be unconditionally stable for the linearized equations. The discretization yields a number of nonlinear systems of algebraic equations. We then use a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the dimension of the SWE model. Due to the model nonlinearities, the computational complexity of the reduced model still depends on the number of variables of the full shallow - water equations model. By employing the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) we reduce the computational complexity of the reduced order model due to its depending on the nonlinear full dimension model and regain the full model reduction expected from the POD model. To emphasize the CPU gain in performance due to use of POD/DEIM, we also propose testing an explicit Euler finite difference scheme (EE) as an alternative to the ADI implicit scheme for solving the swallow water equations model. We then proceed to assess the efficiency of POD/DEIM as a function of number of spatial discretization points, time steps, and POD basis functions. As was expected, our numerical experiments showed that the CPU time performances of POD/DEIM schemes are proportional to the number of mesh points. Once the number of spatial discretization points exceeded 10000 and for 90 DEIM interpolation points, the CPU time decreased by a factor of 10 in case of POD/DEIM implicit SWE scheme and by a factor of 15 for the POD/DEIM explicit SWE scheme in comparison with the corresponding POD SWE schemes. Moreover, our numerical tests revealed that if the number of points selected by DEIM algorithm reached 50, the approximation errors due to POD/DEIM and POD reduced systems have the same orders of magnitude, thus supporting the theoretical results existing in the literature.

  3. A national study examining closed points of dispensing (PODs): existence, preparedness, exercise participation, and training provided.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Loux, Travis M; Swick, Zachary; Reddick, David; Dolgin, Harlan; Anthony, John; Prasad, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends using open points of dispensing (PODs) and alternative modalities, such as closed PODs, for mass dispensing of medical countermeasures. However, closed POD existence has not been assessed. In 2013 we sent an online questionnaire to US Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) and non-CRI public health disaster planners. Chi-square tests were used to determine differences between CRIs and non-CRIs when comparing having at least 1 closed POD, and to compare having a closed POD and perceived mass dispensing preparedness. A total of 301 disaster planners participated. Almost all (89.3%, n=218) jurisdictions have considered establishing a closed POD, and three-quarters (74.2%, n=181) currently have at least one. CRIs were more likely than non-CRIs to have a closed POD (85.0% vs 58.5%, X(2)=21.3, p<.001). Those with 1 or more closed PODs were more likely to believe their jurisdiction could distribute medical countermeasures within 48 hours compared to those without a closed POD (78.5% vs 21.5%; X(2)=10.8, p=.001). Half had a written plan and/or written standing orders (59.1% and 52.5%, respectively). Almost half (42%, n=72) have done no preevent training for POD staff in the past 2 years; almost 20% (18%, n=32) do not plan to offer any just-in-time training. Nearly 40% (n=70) have conducted no exercises in the past year. Closed PODs contribute to community preparedness; their establishment should be followed by development of written plans, worker training, and exercises. PMID:25014759

  4. Aerodynamic effects of five lift-fan pod arrangements on an unpowered V/STOL transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Hoad, D. R.; Croom, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of longitudinally oriented wing-mounted pods on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics in the cruise flight condition of a high-wing V/STOL transport model. Five pod arrangements were tested - three configurations with in-line pods at 20, 40, or 60 percent semispan and two split pod configurations with rear pods at 20 percent semispan and front pods at 40 or 60 percent semispan. In general, addition of the pods to the model decreased the stability, increased the lift-curve slope, and alleviated the abrupt stall of the basic model. The configuration with pods at 20 percent semispan had an abrupt instability at 10 deg angle of attack, All the configurations had lateral stability at sideslip angles from 5 to -5 deg. Very little difference in results existed between the configurations with pods at 40 and 60 percent semispan. Of the split pod configurations, the configuration with front pods at 40 percent semispan offered the best trimmed lift and lift-induced drag characteristics at high angles of attack. The configuration with in-line pods at 40 or 60 percent semispan provided the best cruise characteristics of all the pod configurations.

  5. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  6. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemo-luminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  7. Providing Faculty iPods to Explore Innovative Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Jace; Jensen, Scott; Kohn, Carolynn; Normand, Matthew; Schooler, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    The iPod digital music player has been available since late 2001, and even in higher education, its presence has been seen, although mostly in the hands of students and rarely for outcomes-based educational purposes. In 2004, Duke University provided free iPods to all 1,650 first year students, which subsequently enabled faculty to create learning…

  8. Fine phenotyping of pod and seed traits in Arachis germplasm accessions using digital image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable and objective phenotyping of peanut pod and seed traits is important for cultivar selection and genetic mapping of yield components. To develop useful and efficient methods to quantitatively define peanut pod and seed traits, a group of peanut germplasm with high levels of phenotypic varia...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that...

  10. Effect of climate variables on cocoa black pod incidence in Sabah using ARIMAX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling Sheng Chang, Albert; Ramba, Haya; Mohd. Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil; Kim Phin, Chong; Chong Mun, Ho

    2016-06-01

    Cocoa black pod disease is one of the major diseases affecting the cocoa production in Malaysia and also around the world. Studies have shown that the climate variables have influenced the cocoa black pod disease incidence and it is important to quantify the black pod disease variation due to the effect of climate variables. Application of time series analysis especially auto-regressive moving average (ARIMA) model has been widely used in economics study and can be used to quantify the effect of climate variables on black pod incidence to forecast the right time to control the incidence. However, ARIMA model does not capture some turning points in cocoa black pod incidence. In order to improve forecasting performance, other explanatory variables such as climate variables should be included into ARIMA model as ARIMAX model. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of climate variables on the cocoa black pod disease incidence using ARIMAX model. The findings of the study showed ARIMAX model using MA(1) and relative humidity at lag 7 days, RHt - 7 gave better R square value compared to ARIMA model using MA(1) which could be used to forecast the black pod incidence to assist the farmers determine timely application of fungicide spraying and culture practices to control the black pod incidence.

  11. Teaching Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability ATM Use via the "iPod"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Renee; Collins, Belva; Knight, Victoria; Kleinert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Money management can increase independence and access to communities for individuals with disabilities. Although research on computer-based instruction for teaching banking skills to students with intellectual disability is established, the use of portable electronic devices (e.g., iPod) has not been evaluated. iPods may be an effective, portable,…

  12. Toward The identification Of candidate genes involved in black pod disease resistance in Theobroma cacao L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. Some of the diseases, such as black pod rot (Phytophtora spp), frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri) and witches’ broom (M. perniciosa), produce significant losses in all or in some of the various pro...

  13. Exercising with an iPod, Friend, or Neither: Which Is Better for Psychological Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.; Gustafson, Carissa; Brecht, Carrie; Imberi, Jenny; Sanchez, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of music and social contact on exercise benefits. Methods: Two hundred twenty-nine (n229) students were randomly assigned to one of 6 conditions: biking alone with iPod or friend in a laboratory, walking alone with iPod or friend outdoors, or biking or walking alone in control conditions. All participants completed…

  14. History to Go: Why iTeach with iPods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vess, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    iPods are one of the hottest selling gadgets on the market. They are everywhere, and that includes college campuses. Duke University initially distributed iPods to all incoming freshmen and then moved to a classroom focus, and even smaller campuses, such as Georgia College & State University, have gotten considerable publicity for their innovative…

  15. Parameterizing Coefficients of a POD-Based Dynamical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    A method of parameterizing the coefficients of a dynamical system based of a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) representing the flow dynamics of a viscous fluid has been introduced. (A brief description of POD is presented in the immediately preceding article.) The present parameterization method is intended to enable construction of the dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers. The need for this or a similar method arises as follows: A procedure that includes direct numerical simulation followed by POD, followed by Galerkin projection to a dynamical system has been proven to enable representation of flow dynamics by a low-dimensional model at the Reynolds number of the simulation. However, a more difficult task is to obtain models that are valid over a range of Reynolds numbers. Extrapolation of low-dimensional models by use of straightforward Reynolds-number-based parameter continuation has proven to be inadequate for successful prediction of flows. A key part of the problem of constructing a dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers is the problem of understanding and providing for the variation of the coefficients of the dynamical system with the Reynolds number. Prior methods do not enable capture of temporal dynamics over ranges of Reynolds numbers in low-dimensional models, and are not even satisfactory when large numbers of modes are used. The basic idea of the present method is to solve the problem through a suitable parameterization of the coefficients of the dynamical system. The parameterization computations involve utilization of the transfer of kinetic energy between modes as a function of Reynolds number. The thus-parameterized dynamical system accurately predicts the flow dynamics and is applicable to a range of flow problems in the dynamical regime around the Hopf bifurcation. Parameter

  16. NDE reliability and probability of detection (POD) evolution and paradigm shift

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surendra

    2014-02-18

    The subject of NDE Reliability and POD has gone through multiple phases since its humble beginning in the late 1960s. This was followed by several programs including the important one nicknamed “Have Cracks – Will Travel” or in short “Have Cracks” by Lockheed Georgia Company for US Air Force during 1974–1978. This and other studies ultimately led to a series of developments in the field of reliability and POD starting from the introduction of fracture mechanics and Damaged Tolerant Design (DTD) to statistical framework by Bernes and Hovey in 1981 for POD estimation to MIL-STD HDBK 1823 (1999) and 1823A (2009). During the last decade, various groups and researchers have further studied the reliability and POD using Model Assisted POD (MAPOD), Simulation Assisted POD (SAPOD), and applying Bayesian Statistics. All and each of these developments had one objective, i.e., improving accuracy of life prediction in components that to a large extent depends on the reliability and capability of NDE methods. Therefore, it is essential to have a reliable detection and sizing of large flaws in components. Currently, POD is used for studying reliability and capability of NDE methods, though POD data offers no absolute truth regarding NDE reliability, i.e., system capability, effects of flaw morphology, and quantifying the human factors. Furthermore, reliability and POD have been reported alike in meaning but POD is not NDE reliability. POD is a subset of the reliability that consists of six phases: 1) samples selection using DOE, 2) NDE equipment setup and calibration, 3) System Measurement Evaluation (SME) including Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (Gage R and R) and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), 4) NDE system capability and electronic and physical saturation, 5) acquiring and fitting data to a model, and data analysis, and 6) POD estimation. This paper provides an overview of all major POD milestones for the last several decades and discuss rationale for using

  17. NDE reliability and probability of detection (POD) evolution and paradigm shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surendra

    2014-02-01

    The subject of NDE Reliability and POD has gone through multiple phases since its humble beginning in the late 1960s. This was followed by several programs including the important one nicknamed "Have Cracks - Will Travel" or in short "Have Cracks" by Lockheed Georgia Company for US Air Force during 1974-1978. This and other studies ultimately led to a series of developments in the field of reliability and POD starting from the introduction of fracture mechanics and Damaged Tolerant Design (DTD) to statistical framework by Bernes and Hovey in 1981 for POD estimation to MIL-STD HDBK 1823 (1999) and 1823A (2009). During the last decade, various groups and researchers have further studied the reliability and POD using Model Assisted POD (MAPOD), Simulation Assisted POD (SAPOD), and applying Bayesian Statistics. All and each of these developments had one objective, i.e., improving accuracy of life prediction in components that to a large extent depends on the reliability and capability of NDE methods. Therefore, it is essential to have a reliable detection and sizing of large flaws in components. Currently, POD is used for studying reliability and capability of NDE methods, though POD data offers no absolute truth regarding NDE reliability, i.e., system capability, effects of flaw morphology, and quantifying the human factors. Furthermore, reliability and POD have been reported alike in meaning but POD is not NDE reliability. POD is a subset of the reliability that consists of six phases: 1) samples selection using DOE, 2) NDE equipment setup and calibration, 3) System Measurement Evaluation (SME) including Gage Repeatability &Reproducibility (Gage R&R) and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), 4) NDE system capability and electronic and physical saturation, 5) acquiring and fitting data to a model, and data analysis, and 6) POD estimation. This paper provides an overview of all major POD milestones for the last several decades and discuss rationale for using Integrated

  18. EpiPOD : community vaccination and dispensing model user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M.; Samsa, M.; Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-01-09

    EpiPOD is a modeling system that enables local, regional, and county health departments to evaluate and refine their plans for mass distribution of antiviral and antibiotic medications and vaccines. An intuitive interface requires users to input as few or as many plan specifics as are available in order to simulate a mass treatment campaign. Behind the input interface, a system dynamics model simulates pharmaceutical supply logistics, hospital and first-responder personnel treatment, population arrival dynamics and treatment, and disease spread. When the simulation is complete, users have estimates of the number of illnesses in the population at large, the number of ill persons seeking treatment, and queuing and delays within the mass treatment system--all metrics by which the plan can be judged.

  19. Passive Orbital Disconnect Strut (PODS 3) structural test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    A passive orbital disconnect strut (PODS-3) was analyzed structurally and thermally. Development tests on a graphite/epoxy orbit tube and S glass epoxy launch tube provided the needed data to finalize the design. A detailed assembly procedure was prepared. One strut was fabricated. Shorting loads in both the axial and lateral direction (vs. load angle and location) were measured. The strut was taken to design limit loads at both ambient and 78 K (cold end only). One million fatigue cycles were performed at predicted STS loads (half in tension, half in compression) with the cold end at 78 K. The fatigue test was repeated at design limit loads. Six struts were then fabricated and tested as a system. Axial loads, side loads, and simulated asymmetric loads due to temperature gradients around the vacuum shell were applied. Shorting loads were measured for all tests.

  20. SR-71 being towed to hangar with LASRE pod installed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's SR-71 is being towed to its hangar with the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment installed. The experiment was mounted on the SR-71 on Aug. 26, at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in preparation for its first flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The

  1. Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Willard L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.

  2. A numerical study of scale effects on performance of a tractor type podded propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung-Kyu; Park, Hyoung-Gil; Kim, Hyoung-Tae

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the scale effect on the performance of the podded propeller of tractor type is investigated. Turbulent flow computations are carried out for Reynolds numbers increasing progressively from model scale to full scale using the CFD analysis. The result of the flow calculation for model scale Reynolds numbers agrees well with that of the experiment of a large cavitation tunnel. The existing numerical analysis indicates that the performance of the podded propeller blades is mainly influenced by the advance coefficient and relatively little by the Reynolds number. However, the drag of pod housing with propeller in operation is different from that of pod housing without propeller due to the acceleration and swirl of propeller slipstream which is altered by propeller loading as well as the pressure recovery and friction according to Reynolds number, which suggests that the pod housing drag under the condition of propeller in operation is the key factor of the scale effect on the performance between model and full scale podded propellers. The so called `drag ratio', which is the ratio of pod housing drag to total thrust of podded propeller, increases as the advance coefficient increases due to accelerated flow in the slipstream of the podded propeller. However, the increasing rate of the drag ratio reduces continuously as the Reynolds number increases from model to full scale progressively. The contribution of hydrodynamic forces, which acts on the parts composed of the pod housing with propeller operating in various loading conditions, to the thrust and the torque of the total propeller unit are presented for a range of Reynolds numbers from model to full scales.

  3. A POD reduced order model for resolving angular direction in neutron/photon transport problems

    SciTech Connect

    Buchan, A.G.; Calloo, A.A.; Goffin, M.G.; Dargaville, S.; Fang, F.; Pain, C.C.; Navon, I.M.

    2015-09-01

    This article presents the first Reduced Order Model (ROM) that efficiently resolves the angular dimension of the time independent, mono-energetic Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE). It is based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and uses the method of snapshots to form optimal basis functions for resolving the direction of particle travel in neutron/photon transport problems. A unique element of this work is that the snapshots are formed from the vector of angular coefficients relating to a high resolution expansion of the BTE's angular dimension. In addition, the individual snapshots are not recorded through time, as in standard POD, but instead they are recorded through space. In essence this work swaps the roles of the dimensions space and time in standard POD methods, with angle and space respectively. It is shown here how the POD model can be formed from the POD basis functions in a highly efficient manner. The model is then applied to two radiation problems; one involving the transport of radiation through a shield and the other through an infinite array of pins. Both problems are selected for their complex angular flux solutions in order to provide an appropriate demonstration of the model's capabilities. It is shown that the POD model can resolve these fluxes efficiently and accurately. In comparison to high resolution models this POD model can reduce the size of a problem by up to two orders of magnitude without compromising accuracy. Solving times are also reduced by similar factors.

  4. On a framework for generating PoD curves assisted by numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subair, S. Mohamed; Agrawal, Shweta; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Kumar, Anish; Rao, Purnachandra B.; Tamanna, Jayakumar

    2015-03-01

    The Probability of Detection (PoD) curve method has emerged as an important tool for the assessment of the performance of NDE techniques, a topic of particular interest to the nuclear industry where inspection qualification is very important. The conventional experimental means of generating PoD curves though, can be expensive, requiring large data sets (covering defects and test conditions), and equipment and operator time. Several methods of achieving faster estimates for PoD curves using physics-based modelling have been developed to address this problem. Numerical modelling techniques are also attractive, especially given the ever-increasing computational power available to scientists today. Here we develop procedures for obtaining PoD curves, assisted by numerical simulation and based on Bayesian statistics. Numerical simulations are performed using Finite Element analysis for factors that are assumed to be independent, random and normally distributed. PoD curves so generated are compared with experiments on austenitic stainless steel (SS) plates with artificially created notches. We examine issues affecting the PoD curve generation process including codes, standards, distribution of defect parameters and the choice of the noise threshold. We also study the assumption of normal distribution for signal response parameters and consider strategies for dealing with data that may be more complex or sparse to justify this. These topics are addressed and illustrated through the example case of generation of PoD curves for pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection of vertical surface-breaking cracks in SS plates.

  5. Transfer function approach based on simulation results for the determination of pod curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeyer, S.; Jenson, F.; Dominguez, N.; Iakovleva, E.

    2012-05-01

    POD curves estimations are based on statistical studies of empirical data which are obtained thru costly and time consuming experimental campaigns. Currently, cost reduction of POD trials is a major issue. A proposed solution is to replace some of the experimental data required to determine the POD with model based results. Following this idea, the concept of Model Assisted POD (MAPOD) has been introduced first in the US in 2004 through the constitution of the MAPOD working group. One approach to Model Assisted POD is based on a transfer function which uses empirical data and models to transfer POD measured for one specific application to another related application. The objective of this paper is to show how numerical simulations could help to determine such transfer functions. A practical implementation of the approach to a high frequency eddy current inspection for fatigue cracks is presented. Empirical data is available for the titanium alloy plates. A model based transfer function is used to assess a POD curve for the inspection of aluminum components.

  6. POD evaluation using simulation: A phased array UT case on a complex geometry part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Nicolas; Reverdy, Frederic; Jenson, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    The use of Probability of Detection (POD) for NDT performances demonstration is a key link in products lifecycle management. The POD approach is to apply the given NDT procedure on a series of known flaws to estimate the probability to detect with respect to the flaw size. A POD is relevant if and only if NDT operations are carried out within the range of variability authorized by the procedure. Such experimental campaigns require collection of large enough datasets to cover the range of variability with sufficient occurrences to build a reliable POD statistics, leading to expensive costs to get POD curves. In the last decade research activities have been led in the USA with the MAPOD group and later in Europe with the SISTAE and PICASSO projects based on the idea to use models and simulation tools to feed POD estimations. This paper proposes an example of application of POD using simulation on the inspection procedure of a complex -full 3D- geometry part using phased arrays ultrasonic testing. It illustrates the methodology and the associated tools developed in the CIVA software. The paper finally provides elements of further progress in the domain.

  7. On a framework for generating PoD curves assisted by numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Subair, S. Mohamed Agrawal, Shweta Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Kumar, Anish; Rao, Purnachandra B.; Tamanna, Jayakumar

    2015-03-31

    The Probability of Detection (PoD) curve method has emerged as an important tool for the assessment of the performance of NDE techniques, a topic of particular interest to the nuclear industry where inspection qualification is very important. The conventional experimental means of generating PoD curves though, can be expensive, requiring large data sets (covering defects and test conditions), and equipment and operator time. Several methods of achieving faster estimates for PoD curves using physics-based modelling have been developed to address this problem. Numerical modelling techniques are also attractive, especially given the ever-increasing computational power available to scientists today. Here we develop procedures for obtaining PoD curves, assisted by numerical simulation and based on Bayesian statistics. Numerical simulations are performed using Finite Element analysis for factors that are assumed to be independent, random and normally distributed. PoD curves so generated are compared with experiments on austenitic stainless steel (SS) plates with artificially created notches. We examine issues affecting the PoD curve generation process including codes, standards, distribution of defect parameters and the choice of the noise threshold. We also study the assumption of normal distribution for signal response parameters and consider strategies for dealing with data that may be more complex or sparse to justify this. These topics are addressed and illustrated through the example case of generation of PoD curves for pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection of vertical surface-breaking cracks in SS plates.

  8. Surrogate POD models for building forming limit diagrams of parameterized sheet metal forming applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdaoui, M.; Le Quilliec, Guénhaël; Breitkopf, Piotr; Villon, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to present a surrogate POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) approach for building forming limit diagrams at minimum cost for parameterized sheet metal formed work-pieces. First, a Latin Hypercube Sampling is performed on the design parameter space. Then, at each design site, displacement fields are computed using the popular open-source finite element software Code_Aster. Then, the method of snapshots is used for POD mode determination. POD coefficients are interpolated using kriging. Furthermore, an error analysis of the surrogate POD model is performed on a validation set. It is shown that on the considered use case the accuracy of the surrogate POD model is excellent for the representation of finite element displacement fields. The validated surrogate POD model is then used to build forming limit diagrams (FLD) for any design parameter to assess the quality of stamped metal sheets. Using the surrogate POD model, the Green-Lagrange strain tensor is derived, then major and minor principal deformations are determined at Gauss points for each mesh element. Furthermore, a signed distance between the forming limit curve in rupture and the obtained cloud of points in the plane (ɛ2, ɛ1) is computed to assess the quality of the formed workpiece. The minimization of this signed distance allows determining the safest design for the chosen use case.

  9. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Su-Ying; Huang, Fong-Chin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Mayershofer, Mechthild; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and a peroxidase (POD27) gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS−), independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR. FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS−/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries. PMID:25346738

  10. Implementing Patient-Oriented Discharge Summaries (PODS): A Multisite Pilot Across Early Adopter Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Goldberg, Shoshana; Okrainec, Karen; Damba, Cynthia; Huynh, Tai; Lau, Davina; Maxwell, Joanne; McGuire, Ryan; Yang, Lily; Abrams, Howard B

    2016-01-01

    Communication gaps when patients transition from hospital to either home or community can be problematic. Partnership between Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network (TC LHIN) and OpenLab addressed this through the Patient-Oriented Discharge Summaries (PODS) project. From January through March 2015, eight hospital departments across Toronto came together to implement the PODS, a tool previously developed through a co-design process involving patients, caregivers and providers. This paper presents data on how the hospitals came together and the impact of PODS on the patient and provider experience across these hospitals and discusses it implications. PMID:27133607

  11. Boeing 747 aircraft with large external pod for transporting outsize cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. E.; Quartero, C. B.; Smith, P. M.; Washburn, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect on structural arrangement, system weight, and range performance of the cargo pod payload carrying capability was determined to include either the bridge launcher or a spacelab module on a Boeing 747 aircraft. Modifications to the carrier aircraft and the installation time required to attach the external pod to the 747 were minimized. Results indicate that the increase in pod size was minimal, and that the basic 747 structure was adequate to safely absorb the load induced by ground or air operation while transporting either payload.

  12. Size variation of Acacia caven (leguminosae) pods along a climatic gradient in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, J. R.; Armesto, J. J.

    1981-06-01

    A southward tendency of increment in pod-length is shown for 11 populations of Acacia caven (Mol.) Hook et Arn. localized along a climatic gradient of increasing annual rainfall in Chile. This fact would suggest that A. caven populations occurring in the south are in better conditions for reproduction than northern populations, since pod-length is related to the amount of seeds inside the pods. The possible bearing of this southward tendency of increasing seed production upon the expansion of A. caven toward the more humid zones in southern Chile is discussed.

  13. System structural test results - Six PODS III supports. [Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, Richard T.; Kittel, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Passive orbital disconnect struts can potentially reduce the support conductance a factor of 10 over state-of-the-art tension band nondisconnect supports and cut helium dewar weights in half for the same lifetime. A series of thermal and structural tests were performed to verify that this performance improvement is real. Structural tests on a PODS-III support system (consisting of six struts) is reported here. The results show the predicted performance improvements can be achieved and the PODS-III supports are ready for flight applications. For large tankage systems requiring higher side load capability, a PODS-IV version is currently being developed.

  14. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  15. GSFC OSTM, Jason-l and TOPEX POD Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Melachroinos, S.; Chinn, D. S.; Beckley, B. D.; Lutchke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David; Beale, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The OSTM (Jason-2) has been in orbit for three years (since June 2008), and the full suite of altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-I and Jason-2 now span nearly twenty years since the launch of TOPEX in 1992. Issues that affect the stability of the orbits through time and the orbit accuracy include the reference frame, the radiation pressure models for the altimeter satellites and the fidelity of the dynamic force model, including time-variable gravity, as well as the performance of the individual tracking systems. We have conducted detailed analyses of the new ITRF2008 reference frame and find only a small effect on global mean sea level compared to ITRF2005, although we note an improvement in POD quality over the most recent time periods for Jason-2. In the past year we have developed a new time series of orbits for TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-I, and Jason-2 based on the ITRF2008 reference frame using SLR and DORIS data and for Jason-2 using GPS data. In addition, we have continued to experiment with improvements to the radiation pressure model for the altimeter satellites in particular the Jason satellites since these nonconservative force model errors now rank as the most outstanding source of error on altimeter satellite POD. In the previous (ITRF2005-based) and current (ITRF2008-based) orbits we have relied on a simplified time-variable gravity (TVG) model, derived from GRACE solutions. We have recently experimented with improvements using higher fidelity TVG models (both temporally and spatially) and report on the results. We have computed a time series of GPS-only reduced-dynamic orbits at GSFC, and used these in conjunction with the SLR-DORIS dynamic and reduced-dynamic orbits to assess reference fiame stability with respect to the different tracking systems for both ITRF2005 and ITRF2008. We show through internal (GSFConly) and external comparisons (with other analysis centers) that the radial orbit accuracy for Jason-2 remains at I cm.

  16. Reduced order POD/DEIM 4-D Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Michael; Stefanescu, Razvan

    2014-05-01

    The computational cost of realistic ensemble and hybrid variational/ensemble data assimilation is typically dominated by the cost of ensemble forecasting. The high computational cost of ensemble forecasting limits the number of ensembles, eventually creating a severe rank reduction. Consequently, the efficiency and quality of ensemble-based data assimilation are greatly reduced. With the ever-increasing spatiotemporal resolution and complexity of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the room for ensemble forecasting is getting even smaller, creating a paradox: Although the NWP generally benefits from increased resolution and complexity of the models, the quality of their data assimilation is getting worse due to additional computational restrictions. We propose POD model order reduction substantially improving computational efficiency of NWP models. We present recent advances in this domain and the state-of the art of hyper reduction addressing issues of turbulence closure and nonlinearities allowing CPU speed -ups of orders of magnitude, reduced order 4-D VAR and future prospects of implementation to operational NMP models.

  17. Trauma Pod: A Semi-Automated Robotic Surgery System

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W; Garcia, Pablo; Rosen, Jacob; Kapoor, Chetan; Elbert, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The Trauma Pod (TP) vision is to develop a rapidly deployable robotic system to perform critical acute stabilization and/or surgical procedures autonomously or in a teleoperative mode on wounded soldiers in the battlefield who might otherwise die before treatment in a combat hospital can be provided. In the first phase of a project pursuing this vision, a robotic TP system was developed and its capability demonstrated by performing select surgical procedures on a patient phantom. The system demonstrates the feasibility of performing acute stabilization procedures with the patient being the only human in the surgical cell. The teleoperated surgical robot is supported by autonomous arms that carry out scrub-nurse and circulating-nurse functions. Tool change and supply delivery are performed automatically and at least as fast as those performed manually by nurses. The TP system also includes tomographic X-ray facility for patient diagnosis and 2-D fluoroscopic data to support interventions. The vast amount of clinical protocols generated in the TP system are recorded automatically. These capabilities form the basis for a more comprehensive acute diagnostic and management platform that will provide life-saving care in environments where surgical personnel are not present.

  18. Payload Operations Director (POD) Views STS-42 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. In this photograph the Payload Operations Director (POD) views the launch.

  19. 3 in 4 Youngsters Exposed to Laundry Pod Detergent Suffer Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160006.html 3 in 4 Youngsters Exposed to Laundry Pod Detergent ... percent of the time, the findings showed. Nearly three-quarters of children exposed to detergent from laundry ...

  20. Assessing the POD of Hard-Alpha Inclusions from Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Meeker, William Q.

    2007-03-01

    The update of the Default POD curves for the detection of hard-alpha inclusions in titanium alloy billet, is summarized. Included is a discussion of the data available, the analysis techniques used, and the results obtained. The results show that the Multizone technique is clearly superior to the conventional-inspection technique and the estimated POD is significantly different from previous estimates, particularly for the conventional-inspection technique. Although the final results obtained are specific to the hard-alpha detection process, a number of the analysis issues encountered have generic interest. Included are the challenges associated with the estimation of POD from finds information (i.e. without full knowledge of misses), the assessment of POD when accept/reject decisions are based on multiple criteria, and treating situations in which a single regression line does not fit plots of log â versus log a.

  1. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  2. An iPod treatment of amblyopia: an updated binocular approach.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, B; Black, J M; Machara, G; Zhang, P; Bobier, W R; Cooperstock, J

    2012-02-01

    We describe the successful translation of computerized and space-consuming laboratory equipment for the treatment of suppression to a small handheld iPod device (Apple iPod; Apple Inc., Cupertino, California). A portable and easily obtainable Apple iPod display, using current video technology offers an ideal solution for the clinical treatment of suppression. The following is a description of the iPod device and illustrates how a video game has been adapted to provide the appropriate stimulation to implement our recent antisuppression treatment protocol. One to 2 hours per day of video game playing under controlled conditions for 1 to 3 weeks can improve acuity and restore binocular function, including stereopsis in adults, well beyond the age at which traditional patching is used. This handheld platform provides a convenient and effective platform for implementing the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia in the clinic, home, or elsewhere. PMID:23231369

  3. Model reconstruction using POD method for gray-box fault detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H. G.; Zak, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method to create low-order dynamical models for the Model Filter component of Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multi-missions (BEAM).

  4. Hypersonic shock tunnel heat transfer tests of the Space Shuttle SILTS pod configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittliff, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Heat transfer measurements have been made on a 0.0175-scale NASA Space Shuttle orbiter model having a simulated SILTS (Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensor) pod on top of the vertical tail. Heat transfer distributions were measured both on the pod and on the vertical tail. The test program covered Mach numbers of 8, 11 and 16 in air, at Reynolds numbers from 100,000 to 18 million, based on model length. The angle of attack ranged from 30 deg to 40 deg at sideslip angles from -2 to +2 deg. Data were obtained with 92 thin film assistance thermometers located on the SILTS pod and on the upper 30 percent of the vertical tail. Heat transfer rates measured on the vertical tail show good agreement with flight data obtained from missions STS-1, -2 and -3. The variation of heat transfer to the pod with Reynolds number, Mach number and angle of attack is discussed.

  5. Dynamic changes in pod and fungal physiology associated with the shift from biotrophy to necrotrophy during the infection of Theobroma cacao by Moniliophthora roreri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Where it occurs in South and Central America, M. roreri (Mr) causes a destructive pod disease (frosty pod rot) on Theobroma cacao (cacao). Hand pollinated cacao pods were inoculated with Mr spores in the field and assessed for disease symptoms over a 90 day period. On average, pods showed symptoms o...

  6. Characterization of Leaf Senescence and Pod Development in Soybean Explants 1

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Peter M.; Tucker, Anthony T.; Noodén, Larry D.

    1983-01-01

    Excised soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) cv Anoka leaf discs tend to remain green even after the corresponding intact leaves have turned yello on fruiting plants. We have found that explants which include a leaf along with a stem segment (below the node) and one or more pods (maintained on distilled H2O) show similar but accelerated leaf yellowing and abscission compared with intact plants. In podded explants excised at pre-podfill, the leaves begin to yellow after 16 days, whereas those excised at late podfill begin to yellow after only 6 days. Although stomatal resistances remain low during the first light period after excision, they subsequently increase to levels above those in leaves of intact plants. Explants taken at mid to late podfill with one or more pods per node behave like intact plants in that pod load does not affect the time lag to leaf yellowing. Explant leaf yellowing and abscission are delayed by removal of the pods or seeds or by incubation in complete mineral nutrient solution or in 4.6 micromolar zeatin. Like chorophyll breakdown, protein loss is accelerated in the explants, but minerals or especially zeatin can retard the loss. Pods on explants show rates and patterns of color change (green to yellow to brown) similar to those of pods on intact plants. These changes start earlier in explants on water than in intact plants, but they can be delayed by adding zeatin. Seed dry weight increased in explants, almost as much as in intact plants. Explants appear to be good analogs of the corresponding parts of the intact plant, and they should prove useful for analyzing pod development and mechanisms of foliar senescence. Moreover, our data suggest that the flux of minerals and cytokinin from the roots could influence foliar senescence in soybeans, but increased stomatal resistance does not seem to cause foliar senescence. PMID:16662956

  7. Equation-free/Galerkin-free POD-assisted computation of incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirisup, Sirod; Karniadakis, George Em; Xiu, Dongbin; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2005-08-01

    We present a Galerkin-free, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-assisted computational methodology for numerical simulations of the long-term dynamics of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The approach is based on the "equation-free" framework: we use short, appropriate initialized bursts of full direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations to observe, estimate, and accelerate, through "projective integration", the evolution of the flow dynamics. The main assumption is that the long-term dynamics of the flow lie on a low-dimensional, attracting, and invariant manifold, which can be parametrized, not necessarily spanned, by a few POD basis functions. We start with a discussion of the consistency and accuracy of the approach, and then illustrate it through numerical examples: two-dimensional periodic and quasi-periodic flows past a circular cylinder. We demonstrate that the approach can successfully resolve complex flow dynamics at a reduced computational cost and that it can capture the long-term asymptotic state of the flow in cases where traditional Galerkin-POD models fail. The approach trades the overhead involved in developing POD-Galerkin and POD-nonlinear Galerkin codes, for the repeated (yet short, and on demand) use of an existing full DNS simulator. Moreover, since in this approach the POD modes are used to observe rather than span the true system dynamics, the computation is much less sensitive than POD-Galerkin to values of the system parameters (e.g., the Reynolds number) and the particular simulation data ensemble used to obtain the POD basis functions.

  8. STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, OMS pod leak repair at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Rockwell manufacturing engineering specialist Claude Willis (left) and Rockwell manufacturing supervisor George Gallagher begin installation of a 'clamshell' device in the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod reaction control system (RCS) of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Gallagher performed the OMS pod nitric acid oxidizer leak repair operation using the two newly cut access ports in the Orbiter's aft bulkhead.

  9. Feedback stabilization of an oscillating vertical cylinder by POD Reduced-Order Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, Gilles; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to demonstrate the use of reduced-order models (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to stabilize the flow over a vertically oscillating circular cylinder in the laminar regime (Reynolds number equal to 60). The 2D Navier-Stokes equations are first solved with a finite element method, in which the moving cylinder is introduced via an ALE method. Since in fluid-structure interaction, the POD algorithm cannot be applied directly, we implemented the fictitious domain method of Glowinski et al. [1] where the solid domain is treated as a fluid undergoing an additional constraint. The POD-ROM is classically obtained by projecting the Navier-Stokes equations onto the first POD modes. At this level, the cylinder displacement is enforced in the POD-ROM through the introduction of Lagrange multipliers. For determining the optimal vertical velocity of the cylinder, a linear quadratic regulator framework is employed. After linearization of the POD-ROM around the steady flow state, the optimal linear feedback gain is obtained as solution of a generalized algebraic Riccati equation. Finally, when the optimal feedback control is applied, it is shown that the flow converges rapidly to the steady state. In addition, a vanishing control is obtained proving the efficiency of the control approach.

  10. Protecting the Public from H1N1 through Points of Dispensing (PODs).

    PubMed

    Rinchiuso-Hasselmann, Anne; McKay, Ryan L; Williams, Christopher A; Starr, David T; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Zucker, Jane R; Raphael, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    In fall 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) operated 58 points of dispensing (PODs) over 5 weekends to provide influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination to New Yorkers. Up to 7 sites were opened each day across the 5 boroughs, with almost 50,000 New Yorkers being vaccinated. The policies and protocols used were based on those developed for New York City's POD Plan, the cornerstone of the city's mass prophylaxis planning. Before the H1N1 experience, NYC had not opened more than 5 PODs simultaneously and had only experienced the higher patient volume seen with the H1N1 PODs on 1 prior occasion. Therefore, DOHMH identified factors that contributed to the success of POD operations, as well as areas for improvement to inform future mass prophylaxis planning and response. Though this was a relatively small-scale, preplanned operation, during which a maximum of 7 PODs were operated on a given day, the findings have implications for larger-scale mass prophylaxis planning for emergencies. PMID:21361797

  11. Model-based POD study of manual ultrasound inspection and sensitivity analysis using metamodel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribay, Guillemette; Artusi, Xavier; Jenson, Frédéric; Reece, Christopher; Lhuillier, Pierre-Emile

    2016-02-01

    The reliability of NDE can be quantified by using the Probability of Detection (POD) approach. Former studies have shown the potential of the model-assisted POD (MAPOD) approach to replace expensive experimental determination of POD curves. In this paper, we make use of CIVA software to determine POD curves for a manual ultrasonic inspection of a heavy component, for which a whole experimental POD campaign was not available. The influential parameters were determined by expert analysis. The semi-analytical models used in CIVA for wave propagation and beam-defect interaction have been validated in the range of variation of the influential parameters by comparison with finite element modelling (Athena). The POD curves are computed for « hit/miss » and « â versus a » analysis. The verification of Berens hypothesis is evaluated by statistical tools. A sensitivity study is performed to measure the relative influence of parameters on the defect response amplitude variance, using the Sobol sensitivity index. A meta-model is also built to reduce computing cost and enhance the precision of estimated index.

  12. Linkage and regional association analysis reveal two new tightly-linked major-QTLs for pod number and seed number per pod in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiaqin; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yang, Yuhua; Ye, Jiang; Huang, Shunmou; Li, Ruiyuan; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate the pseudochromosomes assembly and gene cloning in rapeseed, we developed a reference genetic population/map (named BnaZNF2) from two sequenced cultivars, Zhongshuang11 and No.73290, those exhibit significant differences in many traits, particularly yield components. The BnaZNF2 genetic map exhibited perfect collinearity with the physical map of B. napus, indicating its high quality. Comparative mapping revealed several genomic rearrangements between B. napus and B. rapa or B. oleracea. A total of eight and 16 QTLs were identified for pod number and seed number per pod, respectively, and of which three and five QTLs are identical to previously identified ones, whereas the other five and 11 are novel. Two new major QTL respectively for pod number and seed number per pod, qPN.A06-1 and qSN.A06-1 (R(2 )= 22.8% and 32.1%), were colocalised with opposite effects, and only qPN.A06-1 was confirmed and narrowed by regional association analysis to 180 kb including only 33 annotated genes. Conditional QTL analysis and subsequent NILs test indicated that tight linkage, rather than pleiotropy, was the genetic causation of their colocalisation. Our study demonstrates potential of this reference genetic population/map for precise QTL mapping and as a base for positional gene cloning in rapeseed. PMID:26434411

  13. Linkage and regional association analysis reveal two new tightly-linked major-QTLs for pod number and seed number per pod in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiaqin; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yang, Yuhua; Ye, Jiang; Huang, Shunmou; Li, Ruiyuan; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate the pseudochromosomes assembly and gene cloning in rapeseed, we developed a reference genetic population/map (named BnaZNF2) from two sequenced cultivars, Zhongshuang11 and No.73290, those exhibit significant differences in many traits, particularly yield components. The BnaZNF2 genetic map exhibited perfect collinearity with the physical map of B. napus, indicating its high quality. Comparative mapping revealed several genomic rearrangements between B. napus and B. rapa or B. oleracea. A total of eight and 16 QTLs were identified for pod number and seed number per pod, respectively, and of which three and five QTLs are identical to previously identified ones, whereas the other five and 11 are novel. Two new major QTL respectively for pod number and seed number per pod, qPN.A06-1 and qSN.A06-1 (R2 = 22.8% and 32.1%), were colocalised with opposite effects, and only qPN.A06-1 was confirmed and narrowed by regional association analysis to 180 kb including only 33 annotated genes. Conditional QTL analysis and subsequent NILs test indicated that tight linkage, rather than pleiotropy, was the genetic causation of their colocalisation. Our study demonstrates potential of this reference genetic population/map for precise QTL mapping and as a base for positional gene cloning in rapeseed. PMID:26434411

  14. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p<0.002) effect was observed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p<0.05). A linear reduction in N digestibility and N retention was observed with increasing mucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on fecal-N and N-balance which were higher in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants. PMID:25049876

  15. Cadmium re-distribution from pod and root zones and accumulation by peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Song, Ningning; Zhao, Qiaoqiao; van der Zee, S E A T M

    2016-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes may differ greatly with regard to cadmium (Cd) accumulation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To determine the key factors that may contribute to Cd re-distribution and accumulation in peanut genotypes with different Cd accumulating patterns, a split-pot soil experiment was conducted with three common Chinese peanut cultivars (Fenghua-6, Huayu-20, and Huayu-23). The growth medium was separated into pod and root zones with varied Cd concentrations in each zone to determine the re-distribution of Cd after it is taken up via different routes. The peanut cultivars were divided into two groups based on Cd translocation efficiency as follows: (1) high internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivar (Fenghua-6) and (2) low internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivars (Huayu-20 and Huayu-23). Compared with Fenghua-6, low Cd translocation cultivars Huayu-20 and Huayu-23 showed higher biomass production, especially in stems and leaves, leading to dilution of metal concentrations. Results also showed that Cd concentration in roots increased significantly with increasing Cd concentrations in soils when Cd was applied in the root zone. However, there were no significant differences in the root Cd concentrations between different pod zone Cd treatments and the control, suggesting that root uptake, rather than pod uptake, is responsible for Cd accumulation in the roots of peanuts. Significant differences of Cd distribution were observed between pod and root zone Cd exposure treatments. The three peanut cultivars revealed higher kernel over total Cd fractions for pod than for root zone Cd exposure if only extra applied Cd was considered. This suggests that uptake through peg and pod shell might, at least partially, be responsible for the variation in Cd re-distribution and accumulation among peanut cultivars. Cd uptake by plants via two routes (i.e., via roots and via pegs and pods, respectively) and internal Cd translocation

  16. The iPod Experiments: Michael Stephens Investigates Ways that Librarians Are Using This Popular Consumer Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Michael

    2005-01-01

    No other consumer electronic device has created such an impact on popular culture in recent years as the Apple iPod. Since iPod's release in November 2001, music fans have been able to carry upwards of 15,000 song files on those sleek devices with their trendy white headphones. Over ten million iPods have been sold--nearly half of them in the last…

  17. Improved resistivity imaging of groundwater solute plumes using POD-based inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oware, E. K.; Moysey, S. M.; Khan, T.

    2012-12-01

    We propose a new approach for enforcing physics-based regularization in electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) problems. The approach utilizes a basis-constrained inversion where an optimal set of basis vectors is extracted from training data by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). The key aspect of the approach is that Monte Carlo simulation of flow and transport is used to generate a training dataset, thereby intrinsically capturing the physics of the underlying flow and transport models in a non-parametric form. POD allows for these training data to be projected onto a subspace of the original domain, resulting in the extraction of a basis for the inversion that captures characteristics of the groundwater flow and transport system, while simultaneously allowing for dimensionality reduction of the original problem in the projected space We use two different synthetic transport scenarios in heterogeneous media to illustrate how the POD-based inversion compares with standard Tikhonov and coupled inversion. The first scenario had a single source zone leading to a unimodal solute plume (synthetic #1), whereas, the second scenario had two source zones that produced a bimodal plume (synthetic #2). For both coupled inversion and the POD approach, the conceptual flow and transport model used considered only a single source zone for both scenarios. Results were compared based on multiple metrics (concentration root-mean square error (RMSE), peak concentration, and total solute mass). In addition, results for POD inversion based on 3 different data densities (120, 300, and 560 data points) and varying number of selected basis images (100, 300, and 500) were compared. For synthetic #1, we found that all three methods provided qualitatively reasonable reproduction of the true plume. Quantitatively, the POD inversion performed best overall for each metric considered. Moreover, since synthetic #1 was consistent with the conceptual transport model, a small number of basis

  18. Particle-free mask handling techniques and a dual-pod carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Mitsuaki; Ota, Kazuya; Taguchi, Takao; Kamono, Takashi; Usui, Youichi; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Suga, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    In EUV lithography, particle-free handling is one of the critical issues because a pellicle is impractical due to its high absorption. To investigate this subject, we have developed a mask protection engineering tool that allows various types of tests to be carried out during the transfer of a mask or blank in air and in vacuum. We measured the number of particle adders during the transfer of a mask blank in a dual-pod carrier and in an RSP200 carrier. We found that the number of particle adders (>=46 nm PSL) to a mask blank in a dual pod is less than 0.01 over the whole process from taking the blank out of the load port in air to putting it in the electrostatic chuck chamber in vacuum. Through various experiments, the number of particle adders during any process using a dual pod was found to be very few and very stable. In contrast, for a naked mask, many particle adders were found in large variations. Below one particle were added in over 80% of experiments on a dual pod and in about 20% of experiments on a naked mask. Based on the test results, we can conclude that the use of dual pod is an excellent particle-free transfer technique.

  19. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D’Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification. PMID:27530434

  20. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area. PMID:27110820

  1. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification. PMID:27530434

  2. Modeling the X-Ray Process, and X-Ray Flaw Size Parameter for POD Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khoshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method reliability can be determined by a statistical flaw detection study called probability of detection (POD) study. In many instances the NDE flaw detectability is given as a flaw size such as crack length. The flaw is either a crack or behaving like a crack in terms of affecting the structural integrity of the material. An alternate approach is to use a more complex flaw size parameter. The X-ray flaw size parameter, given here, takes into account many setup and geometric factors. The flaw size parameter relates to X-ray image contrast and is intended to have a monotonic correlation with the POD. Some factors such as set-up parameters including X-ray energy, exposure, detector sensitivity, and material type that are not accounted for in the flaw size parameter may be accounted for in the technique calibration and controlled to meet certain quality requirements. The proposed flaw size parameter and the computer application described here give an alternate approach to conduct the POD studies. Results of the POD study can be applied to reliably detect small flaws through better assessment of effect of interaction between various geometric parameters on the flaw detectability. Moreover, a contrast simulation algorithm for a simple part-source-detector geometry using calibration data is also provided for the POD estimation.

  3. Modeling the X-ray Process, and X-ray Flaw Size Parameter for POD Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2014-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method reliability can be determined by a statistical flaw detection study called probability of detection (POD) study. In many instances, the NDE flaw detectability is given as a flaw size such as crack length. The flaw is either a crack or behaving like a crack in terms of affecting the structural integrity of the material. An alternate approach is to use a more complex flaw size parameter. The X-ray flaw size parameter, given here, takes into account many setup and geometric factors. The flaw size parameter relates to X-ray image contrast and is intended to have a monotonic correlation with the POD. Some factors such as set-up parameters, including X-ray energy, exposure, detector sensitivity, and material type that are not accounted for in the flaw size parameter may be accounted for in the technique calibration and controlled to meet certain quality requirements. The proposed flaw size parameter and the computer application described here give an alternate approach to conduct the POD studies. Results of the POD study can be applied to reliably detect small flaws through better assessment of effect of interaction between various geometric parameters on the flaw detectability. Moreover, a contrast simulation algorithm for a simple part-source-detector geometry using calibration data is also provided for the POD estimation.

  4. POD Analysis of Flow Behind a Four-wing Vortex Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinali, Mahdi; Wilkins, Stephen; Hall, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Wing-tip vortices that persist long after the passage of large aircraft are of major concern to aircraft controllers and are responsible for considerable delays between aircraft take-off times. Understanding these vortices is extremely important, with the ultimate goal to reduce or eliminate delays altogether. Simple theoretical models of vortices can be studied experimentally using a four-wing vortex generator. The cross-stream planes are measured with a two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system, and the resulting vector fields were analyzed with a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) via the method of snapshots. POD analysis will be employed both before and after removing vortex core meandering to investigate the meandering effect on POD modes for a better understanding of it.

  5. Structure analysis of turbulent liquid phase by POD and LSE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Munir, S. Muthuvalu, M. S.; Siddiqui, M. I.; Heikal, M. R. Aziz, A. Rashid A.

    2014-10-24

    In this paper, vortical structures and turbulence characteristics of liquid phase in both single liquid phase and two-phase slug flow in pipes were studied. Two dimensional velocity vector fields of liquid phase were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Two cases were considered one single phase liquid flow at 80 l/m and second slug flow by introducing gas at 60 l/m while keeping liquid flow rate same. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Linear stochastic estimation techniques were used for the extraction of coherent structures and analysis of turbulence in liquid phase for both cases. POD has successfully revealed large energy containing structures. The time dependent POD spatial mode coefficients oscillate with high frequency for high mode numbers. The energy distribution of spatial modes was also achieved. LSE has pointed out the coherent structured for both cases and the reconstructed velocity fields are in well agreement with the instantaneous velocity fields.

  6. Continuous 30-day measurements utilizing the monkey metabolism pod. [study of weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A fiberglass system was previously described, using which quantitative physiological measurements could be made to study the effects of weightlessness on 10 to 14 kg adult monkeys maintained in comfortable restraint under space flight conditions. Recent improvements in the system have made it possible to obtain continuous measurements of respiratory gas exchange, cardiovascular function, and mineral balance for periods of up to 30 days on pig-tailed monkeys. It has also been possible to operate two pods which share one set of instrumentation, thereby permitting simultaneous measurements to be made on two animals by commutating signal outputs from the pods. In principle, more than two pods could be operated in this fashion. The system is compatible with Spacelab design. Representative physiological data from ground tests of the system are presented.

  7. Replacement of Atlantis', OV-104's, right orbital maneuvering system pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, right orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod (RP01) is placed in a checkout cell at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Hypergolic Maintenance Facility (HMF). Technicians steady OMS mounted on ground handling cart as third technician, standing on ladder, secures support frame. At the HMF, a group of specially-equipped buildings in the KSC Industrial Area, the OMS pods are undergoing extensive processing, including removal of certain components that will undergo modification at vendor facilities prior to the Shuttle's return to flight. The OMS pods are bolted to the aft fuselage of the orbiter and contain the engines and thrusters used to maneuver the spaceship in orbit. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-87PC-93.

  8. GammaPod-A new device dedicated for stereotactic radiotherapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Cedric X.; Shao Xinyu; Deng Jianchun; Duan Zhengcheng; Zhang Jin; Zheng, Mike; Yu, Ying S.; Regine, William

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a new external beam radiotherapy device named GammaPod that is dedicated for stereotactic radiotherapy of breast cancer. Methods: The design goal of the GammaPod as a dedicated system for treating breast cancer is the ability to deliver ablative doses with sharp gradients under stereotactic image guidance. Stereotactic localization of the breast is achieved by a vacuum-assisted breast immobilization cup with built-in stereotactic frame. Highly focused radiation is achieved at the isocenter due to the cross-firing from 36 radiation arcs generated by rotating 36 individual Cobalt-60 beams. The dedicated treatment planning system optimizes an optimal path of the focal spot using an optimization algorithm borrowed from computational geometry such that the target can be covered by 90%-95% of the prescription dose and the doses to surrounding tissues are minimized. The treatment plan is intended to be delivered with continuous motion of the treatment couch. In this paper the authors described in detail the gamma radiation unit, stereotactic localization of the breast, and the treatment planning system of the GammaPod system. Results: A prototype GammaPod system was installed at University of Maryland Medical Center and has gone through a thorough functional, geometric, and dosimetric testing. The mechanical and functional performances of the system all meet the functional specifications. Conclusions: An image-guided breast stereotactic radiotherapy device, named GammaPod, has been developed to deliver highly focused and localized doses to a target in the breast under stereotactic image guidance. It is envisioned that the GammaPod technology has the potential to significantly shorten radiation treatments and even eliminate surgery by ablating the tumor and sterilizing the tumor bed simultaneously.

  9. Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Gray, Justin S.; Jones, Scott M.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California's high speed rail project, with the intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs. It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube under a light vacuum and suspended on air bearings. The pod travels up to transonic speeds resulting in a 35 minute travel time between the intended route from Los Angeles and San Francisco. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system includes a 1.1 meter tall passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces the aerodynamic drag as it moves through the tube. Although the original proposal looks very promising, it assumes that tube and pod dimensions are independently sizable without fully acknowledging the constraints of the compressor system on the pod geometry. This work focuses on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the two largest systems; the tube and the pod. Using open-source toolsets, a new sizing method is developed based on one-dimensional thermodynamic relationships that accounts for the strong interactions between these sub-systems. These additional considerations require a tube nearly twice the size originally considered and limit the maximum pod travel speed to about 620 miles per hour. Although the results indicate that Hyperloop will need to be larger and slightly slower than originally intended, the estimated travel time only increases by approximately five minutes, so the overall performance is not dramatically affected. In addition, the proposed on-board heat exchanger is not an ideal solution to achieve reasonable equilibrium air temperatures within the tube. Removal of this subsystem represents a potential reduction in weight, energy requirements and complexity of the pod. In light of these finding, the core concept still remains a compelling

  10. IcePod: Imaging Ice-Ocean Process from Top to Bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Zappa, C. J.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Dhakal, T.; Bertinato, C.; Dong, L.; Brown, S.; Le Bel, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolving the future of the ice in the polar regions requires understanding of the changing ice from top to bottom from the center of the ice sheets to the margin where ice interacts with the polar oceans. The IcePod is an imaging system developed to study the ice sheets and polar oceans in a comprehensive fashion from an LC-130. The system has been developed for initial deployment on the New York National Guard's ski-equipped LC-130s. The IcePod can resolve high resolution surface elevation with a scanning laser and visual cameras, the temperature of the surface with an infrared camera, the thickness and layering of the shallow snow and ice with a high frequency radar and the thickness of the ice sheet with an ice penetrating radar. The IcePod can be moved between aircraft in less than four hours and can be operated on aircraft on routine cargo missions to skiways. Here we present IcePod ice-ocean imaging from the top to the bottom of several major outlet glaciers in western Greenland. The data, acquired in July 2014, demonstrates the broad capabilities of the IcePod instrumentation suite. The IcePod resolved the structure of the ice sheet from the accumulation zone to the calving front of Eqip Glacier and 4 adjacent outlet glacier systems. High resolution mapping of the calving front and the upwelling meltwater plumes provides new insights into the structure and dynamics of the turbulent mixing at the ice-ocean interface. Mapping of the ice sheet margin provides insights into the connections between the surface meltwater and the fate of the subglacial water at the ice sheet base. The Greenland data includes airport passes in every flight for calibration of both the lidar and camera systems. An expanded IcePod instrumentation suite will include a gravity meter and a magnetometer. The gravity meter can be used to determine the bathymetry beneath ice shelves. Together the gravimeter and the magnetometer can be used to constrain the regional tectonic frameworks. In

  11. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    DiMambro, J.; Ashbaugh, D. M.; Nelson, C. L.; Spencer, F. W.

    2007-03-21

    Sandia National Laboratories Airworthiness Assurance Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) implemented two crack probability of detection (POD) experiments to compare in a quantitative manner the ability of Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) to reliably detect cracks. Blind Sonic IR and FPI inspections were performed on titanium and Inconel registered specimens having statistically relevant flaw profiles. Inspector hit/miss data was collected and POD curves for each technique were generated and compared. In addition, the crack lengths for a number of titanium and Inconel registered reference standards were measured before and after repeated Sonic IR inspections to determine if crack growth occurred.

  12. Performance estimates of a Boeing 747-100 transport mated with an outsize cargo pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    The design mission performance of a Boeing 747-100 aircraft mated with an outsize cargo pod was studied. The basic design requirement was the rapid deployment of a combat loaded mobile bridge launcher from a United States east coast staging base to Europe. Weight was minimized by stripping the aircraft of unneeded, quick removal items and by utilizing graphite-epoxy composite materials for most pod components. The mission analysis was based on wind tunnel data and full scale carrier aircraft and engine data. The results are presented in tabular and graphic form.

  13. POD/MAC-Based Modal Basis Selection for a Reduced Order Nonlinear Response Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to explore the applicability of a POD/MAC basis selection technique to a nonlinear structural response analysis. For the case studied the application of the POD/MAC technique resulted in a substantial improvement of the reduced order simulation when compared to a classic approach utilizing only low frequency modes present in the excitation bandwidth. Further studies are aimed to expand application of the presented technique to more complex structures including non-planar and two-dimensional configurations. For non-planar structures the separation of different displacement components may not be necessary or desirable.

  14. Flower numbers, pod production, pollen viability, and pistil function are reduced and flower and pod abortion increased in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangwen; Turner, Neil C.; Yan, Guijun; Li, Fengmin; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Terminal drought during the reproductive stage is a major constraint to yield of chickpea in many regions of the world. Termination of watering (WS) during podding in a small-seeded desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar, Rupali, and a large-seeded kabuli chickpea cultivar, Almaz, induced a decrease in predawn leaf water potential (LWP), in the rate of photosynthesis, and in stomatal conductance. Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds. In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively. In vitro pollen viability and germination in Rupali decreased by 50% and 89% in the WS treatment, and pollen germination decreased by 80% in vivo when pollen from a WS plant was placed on a stigma of a WW plant. While about 37% of the germinated pollen tubes from WW plants and 22% from the WS plants reached the ovary in the WW plants, less than 3% of pollen grains reached the ovary when pollen from either WS or WW plants was placed on a stigma of a WS plant. It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen. PMID:19854801

  15. Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities to Operate an iPod Touch[R] to Listen to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagohara, Debora M.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Achmadi, Donna; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an intervention procedure for teaching three students with developmental disabilities to independently operate a portable multimedia device (i.e., an iPod Touch[R]) to listen to music. The intervention procedure included the use of video modeling, which was presented on the same iPod Touch[R] that the students were taught to operate…

  16. Decontamination of mesquite pod flour, naturally contaminated with Bacillus cereus and formation of furan by ionizing irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesquite pod flour produced from nitrogen-fixing trees of Prosopis species has a unique aroma and flavor which is preferred by some consumers. Due to the presence of wildlife, grazing domestic animals and insects, the pods have a high potential of being contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria su...

  17. Rapid and Nondestructive Determination of Moisture Content in Peanut Kernels from Microwave Measurement of Dielectric Properties of Pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for moisture determination in peanut kernels from measurement of the dielectric properties of peanut pods at microwave frequencies is presented. The dielectric properties of peanut kernels and pods were measured in free space with a vector network analyzer and a pair of focused beam horn-l...

  18. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  19. Emergent, Self-Directed, and Self-Organized Learning: Literacy, Numeracy, and the iPod Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses narrative and storying to retell how two girls ages 5 and 7 continue to make use of an iPod touch to expand their literacy and numeracy. The paper explores the stopwatch and alarm features within the clock application, as well as the weather application, and the Internet browsing capability of the iPod touch. It also explores some…

  20. 14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. 25.1182 Section 25.1182 Aeronautics and..., and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. (a) Each nacelle area... fluid lines, must meet each requirement of §§ 25.1103(b), 25.1165 (d) and (e), 25.1183, 25.1185(c),...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. 25.1182 Section 25.1182 Aeronautics and..., and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. (a) Each nacelle area... fluid lines, must meet each requirement of §§ 25.1103(b), 25.1165 (d) and (e), 25.1183, 25.1185(c),...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. 25.1182 Section 25.1182 Aeronautics and..., and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. (a) Each nacelle area... fluid lines, must meet each requirement of §§ 25.1103(b), 25.1165 (d) and (e), 25.1183, 25.1185(c),...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. 25.1182 Section 25.1182 Aeronautics and..., and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. (a) Each nacelle area... fluid lines, must meet each requirement of §§ 25.1103(b), 25.1165 (d) and (e), 25.1183, 25.1185(c),...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. 25.1182 Section 25.1182 Aeronautics and..., and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. (a) Each nacelle area... fluid lines, must meet each requirement of §§ 25.1103(b), 25.1165 (d) and (e), 25.1183, 25.1185(c),...

  5. The Mid-Pericarp Cell Layer in Soybean Pod Walls Is a Multicellular Compartment Enriched in Specific Lipoxygenase Isoforms1

    PubMed Central

    Dubbs, Wesley E.; Grimes, Howard D.

    2000-01-01

    Specific lipoxygenase isoforms immunolocalize to the cytosol of a single cell layer in the soybean (Glycine max L.) pod wall. The cells of this layer, termed the mid-pericarp layer (MPL), are larger than adjacent cells and are highly branched. The entire MPL appears to form an elaborate interdigitated network within the pod wall. A particularly striking feature of the MPL is the presence of extensive regions of very thin, approximately 30 nm, cell wall, which connect the cells of the MPL. It was demonstrated that after mechanical wounding of the pod wall, 40-kD fluorescein-dextran was able to move throughout the MPL. In addition, when pod walls are cut, an exudate flows from the MPL that is highly enriched in lipoxygenase isoforms (approximately 40% of the total protein). The MPL of soybean pod walls may represent a novel multicellular compartment involved in defense of leguminous plants. PMID:10938347

  6. Pod development and depodding produce parallel effects on xylem sap cytokinin levels and monocarpic leaf senescence in soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Nooden, L.D. ); Singh, S.; Letham, D.S. )

    1989-04-01

    Depodding at full pod extension (prepodfill) prevents the rapid leaf yellowing and death of the soybean plant, whereas pod removal in late podfill does not. Xylem sap was collected from rootstocks under pressure over 50 min, and after purification, the sap CKS were measured by radioimmunoassay. The major CKs (DZR, ZR, DZ and Z) drop from 229 nM to 15 during pod extension. Removal of pods reaching full extension causes a large increase in DZR and ZR levels, less increase in Z and no increase in DZ, DZMP or the O-glucosides. Depodding at the late podfill does not increase the CKs significantly. CKs change independently in response to senescence and pod removal suggesting differences in their metabolism and perhaps their functions. A decline in CK production by the roots and in CK flux into the shoot system appears to be an important factor in monocarpic senescence of soybean.

  7. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells

    PubMed Central

    França, M. M.; Abreu, N. P.; Vrechi, T. A. M.; Lotfi, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G) and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R) cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells. PMID:26421867

  8. The Effectiveness of Using a Video iPod as a Prompting Device in Employment Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Laarhoven, Toni; Johnson, Jesse W.; Van Laarhoven-Myers, Traci; Grider, Kristin L.; Grider, Katie M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a video iPod as a prompting device for teaching three job-related tasks to a young man with developmental disabilities in a community-based employment setting. The effectiveness of the prompting device was evaluated using a multiple probe across behaviors design. Results…

  9. Toward the identification of candidate genes involved In black pod disease resistance in Theobroma cacao L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Pod (Phytophthora sp.) has a devastating effect on the worldwide cacao (Theobroma cacao) yield and incorporating resistance into production fields has been an ongoing effort of breeding programs. Previous meta-QTL analysis of genetic maps created with a variety of molecular markers identified...

  10. Toward The Identification Of Candidate Genes Involved In Black Pod Disease Resistance In Theobroma cacao L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Pod (Phytophthora sp.) has a devastating effect on the worldwide cacao (Theobroma cacao) yield and incorporating resistance into production fields has been an ongoing effort of breeding programs. Previous meta-QTL analysis of genetic maps created with a variety of molecular markers identified...

  11. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  12. A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

  13. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  14. Effects of Picture Prompts Delivered by a Video iPod on Pedestrian Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kelly R.; Test, David W.; Cooke, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Transportation access is a major contributor to independence, productivity, and societal inclusion for individuals with intellectual and development disabilities (IDD). This study examined the effects of pedestrian navigation training using picture prompts displayed through a video iPod on travel route completion with 4 adults and IDD. Results…

  15. First report of frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao in Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) is a devastating cacao disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri (Aime and Phillips-Mora, 2005). The disease is confined to 13 countries in Central and South America and constitutes a permanent threat for cacao cultivation worldwide. In July 2012, FPR was detect...

  16. Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seed are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, GA area. Twenty-two guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, US...

  17. Simulation assisted pod of a phased array ultrasonic inspection in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, N.; Feuillard, V.; Jenson, F.; Willaume, P.

    2012-05-01

    The concept of Probability of Detection (POD) is generally used to quantitatively assess performances and reliability of NDT operations for in-service operations related to damage tolerant designs. Application of the POD approach as a metric for manufacturing NDT assessment would also be relevant but the very expensive cost of such campaigns generally prevents us from doing so. However the increase in NDT simulation capability and maturity opens the field for POD demonstrations for manufacturing NDT with the help of simulation. This paper presents the example of an automated phased array ultrasonic testing procedure of Electron Beam Welding on rotative parts, as part of the PICASSO European project. POD is calculated by using the uncertainty propagation approach in CIVA. The peculiarity of uncertainties in automated NDT compared to in-service manual operations is discussed and raises questions on appropriate statistics to be used for this kind of data. Alternative estimation techniques like Box-Cox transform or quantile regression are proposed and evaluated.

  18. Third Graders' Understanding of Air Concepts Facilitated by the iPod Inquiry Teaching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ching-san

    2016-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the learning performance of the air concept unit for third graders in a primary school facilitated by the iPod inquiry teaching method. This study adopts a quasi-experimental method. Participants were third graders in a primary school in New Taipei city. The experimental group consisted of 53…

  19. Effectiveness of Video Modeling to Teach "iPod" Use to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Diana L.; Whatley, Abigail D.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Gast, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of video modeling delivered via computer on accurate and independent use of an iPod by three participants with moderate intellectual disabilities. In the context of combined multiple probes across participants and replicated across tasks, three female middle school students learned to…

  20. Dietary Carob Pods on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Fattening Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kotrotsios, Nikolaos; Christaki, Efterpi; Bonos, Eleftherios; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality. PMID:25049640

  1. Low-order representations of a wind turbine array boundary layer via double POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Nicholas; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

    2015-11-01

    Experimental data from stereo particle image velocimetry enables access to the full Reynolds stress tensor in planes parallel to the scale-model turbine rotor. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to isolate structures in the wake. Modes resulting from the decomposition indicate that structures evolve along the streamwise coordinate. Secondary application of the POD, double proper orthogonal decomposition (DPOD), is applied to modes of common rank yielding a refined set of projections. The DPOD describes sub-modal organization in terms of projections of POD modes common to the span of the wake, followed by a series of spatially explicit corrections. Sub-modal structures that persist through the wake combine linearly with amplitudes and account for the evolution of the POD modes. Eigenvalues from the DPOD indicate that the wind turbine wake can be described with a very small subset of the original mode basis. The truncated basis of sub-modes represents a total reduction to 0.015% of the original degrees of freedom in the wake. Low-order description of the stress tensor is corrected to account for energy excluded from the truncated basis. Root-mean-square error associated with low-order statistics is less than 15% for normal stresses and 3% for shear stresses.

  2. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Shah-E-Alam, Md.; Hamid, Md. Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Malek, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A study was performed using 6 × 6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca) indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants. PMID:24737982

  3. A strain of Clover yellow vein virus that causes severe pod necrosis disease in snap bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2000, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) has been associated with severe virus epidemics in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the upper Midwestern states, New York, and Ontario, Canada. The causal agent of a disease causing severe mosaic, apical necrosis stunting and extensive pod necrosis wa...

  4. Integrating the iPod Touch in K-12 Education: Visions and Vices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banister, Savilla

    2010-01-01

    Advocates of ubiquitous computing have long been documenting classroom benefits of one-to-one ratios of students to handheld or laptop computers. The recent sophisticated capabilities of the iPod Touch, iPhone, and iPad have encouraged further speculation on exactly how K-12 teaching and learning might be energized by such devices. This paper…

  5. Reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for train axle diagnostics based on model assisted POD curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. S.; Cavuto, A.; Martarelli, M.; Pandarese, G.; Revel, G. M.

    2014-05-01

    High speed train axles are integrated for a lifetime and it is time and resource consuming to conduct in service inspection with high accuracy. Laser ultrasonics is a proposed solution as a subset of non-contact measuring methods effective also for hard to reach areas and even recently proved to be effective using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) or air-coupled probes in reception. A reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for this specific application is here performed. The research is mainly based on numerical study of the effect of high energy laser pulses on the surface of a steel axle and of the behavior of the ultrasonic waves in detecting possible defects. Probability of Detection (POD) concept is used as an estimated reliability of the inspection method. In particular Model Assisted Probability of Detection (MAPOD), a modified form of POD where models are used to infer results for making a decisive statistical approach of POD curve, is here adopted. This paper implements this approach by taking the inputs from limited experiments conducted on a high speed train axle using laser ultrasonics (source pulsed Nd:Yag, reception by high-frequency LDV) to calibrate a multiphysics FE model and by using the calibrated model to generate data samples statistically representative of damaged train axles. The simulated flaws are in accordance with the real defects present on the axle. A set of flaws of different depth has been modeled in order to assess the laser ultrasonics POD for this specific application.

  6. The Mitochondrial Genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa are closely related basidiomycetes that cause two important diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): frosty pod rot and the witches' broom disease, respectively. A comparison of the complete mitochondrial genomes of these pathogens shows a high degr...

  7. Top of the Pods--In Search of a Podcasting "Podagogy" for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosell-Aguilar, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The popularization of portable media players such as the "iPod," and the delivery of audio and video content through content management software such as "iTunes" mean that there is a wealth of language learning resources freely available to users who may download them and use them anywhere at any time. These resources vary greatly in quality and…

  8. Microsatellite Diversity of Soybean Genotypes Differing in Bean Pod Mottle Virus Leaf Symptom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr, is the most important source of vegetable oil and protein meal in the world. Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a threat to soybean yield and productivity in most soybean growing states of the USA. In the absence of complete resistance to BPMV, partial resistance of so...

  9. Carob pod water extracts as feedstock for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-10-01

    Carob pods are a by-product of locust bean gum industry containing more than 50% (w/w) sucrose, glucose and fructose. In this work, carob pod water extracts were used, for the first time, for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. Kinetic studies of glucose, fructose and sucrose consumption as individual carbon sources till 30g/L showed no inhibition on cell growth, sugar consumption and SA production rates. Sugar extraction from carob pods was optimized varying solid/liquid ratio and extraction time, maximizing sugar recovery while minimizing the extraction of polyphenols. Batch fermentations containing 10-15g/L total sugars resulted in a maximum specific SA production rate of 0.61Cmol/Cmol X.h, with a yield of 0.55Cmol SA/Cmol sugar and a volumetric productivity of 1.61g SA/L.h. Results demonstrate that carob pods can be a promising low cost feedstock for bio-based SA production. PMID:25164341

  10. Root vs Pod Infection by Root-Knot Nematodes on Aflatoxin Contamination of Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens produced by some Aspergillus spp. Infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria) can lead to an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels when the plants are subjected to drought stress during pod maturation. It is not cle...

  11. Exploring Students' Intuitive Ideas of Randomness Using an iPod Shuffle Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Laura; Garfield, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages students in considering characteristics of a random sequence, in this case, a randomly generated playlist of songs using the iPod shuffle feature. Students examine simulated sequences of randomly generated songs from a small music library in order to identify characteristics that are used to develop…

  12. Library iTour: Introducing the iPod Generation to the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Virginia; Dean, Toni C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For many years, the Lupton Library offered a traditional library introduction class to first year students participating in the Freshman Seminar Program at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. In 2007, the library applied for and received a campus grant to purchase thirty iPod Touches, along with accompanying hardware and software.…

  13. Examining iPod Use by Texas Agricultural Science and Technology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish baseline data regarding the adoption of iPods and similar technologies by agricultural science and technology teachers. The population consisted of all agricultural science and technology teachers in Texas. A sample of 310 was randomly drawn from the population. Study findings reveal that while…

  14. Implementation of a One-to-One iPod Touch Program in a Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation of a whole school one-to-one iPod Touch project in a middle school in the southeastern United States. While some focused studies have been undertaken in this new field of learning, there has been little research to date that documents activity within a whole school implementation…

  15. Analysis of Pendulum Period with an iPod Touch/iPhone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggle, Justin

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of Apple's iPod touch/iPhone, acting as the pendulum bob, as a means of measuring pendulum period, making use of the device's three-axis digital accelerometer and the freely available SPARKvue app from PASCO scientific. The method can be readily incorporated into an introductory physics laboratory experiment.…

  16. POD Analysis of a ZPG Turbulent Boundary Layer with and without Surface Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Jensen; Russo, Pat; Castillo, Lucianno; Araya, Guillermo; Drew, Don

    2011-11-01

    Effects of surface roughness on coherent structures of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are investigated via the POD method. In this study we seek to gain better understanding of how the small scales of turbulence are able to influence the large scales; particularly in rough surface flows. Comparison with coherent structures in a smooth case by Baltzer et al (2010) will be shown to assess the role of surface roughness in a transitional rough regime. The POD analysis is performed using the method of snapshots on two turbulent boundary layer DNS databases created using the dynamic multi scale recycling plane method developed by Araya et al. (2011) at Reynolds numbers of 2000-2300. Snapshots are separated by a time of 150θ0 /U∞ Resulting POD modes are qualitatively compared to assess the effects of roughness on the coherent structures. Baltzer, R.J.; Adrian, J.; Wu, X., ``Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure Identification via POD,'' in Stanford Center for Turbulence Research Summer Program, 2010. G. Araya, et al., ``A dynamic multi-scale approach for turbulent inflow boundary conditions in spatially developing flows,'' Journal of Fluid Mechanics,vol. 670, pp. 581-605, 2011.

  17. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: moisture/dry matter 9.69-13.33, crude protein 10.25-26.16, crude fat 0.56-2.49, crude fiber 11.97-29.93, crude ash 5.37-11.30, utilizable carbohydrate 36.66-50.97, and gross energy 197.26-245.55 kcal/100 g. The mineral concentrations (mg/100 g) were also significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: calcium (111.11-311.95), Iron (18.30-36.68), potassium (122.59-318.20), zinc (3.83-6.31), phosphorus (25.62-59.72), and sodium (3.33-8.31) on dry weight bases. The Okra Pods of "OPA#6" accession contained significantly higher amounts of crude protein, total ash, crude fat, calcium, iron, and zinc than all other accessions evaluated in this study. The results of antinutrients analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P < 0.05) varied. The range of phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents (mg/100 g) for Okra pod accessions studied were as follows: 0.83-0.87, 4.93-9.90, and 0.04-0.53, respectively. The calculated molar ratios of phytate: calcium, phytate: iron, phytate: zinc, oxalate: calcium and [Phytate][Calcium]/[Zinc] were below the critical value and this indicate that the bioavailability of calcium, iron, and zinc in these accessions could be high. The results of the study revealed that Okra pod contain

  18. POD of ultrasonic detection of synthetic hard alpha inclusions in titanium aircraft engine forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R. B.; Meeker, W. Q.; Brasche, L. J. H.

    2011-06-23

    The probability of detection (POD) of inspection techniques is a key input to estimating the lives of structural components such as aircraft engines. This paper describes work conducted as a part of the development of POD curves for the ultrasonic detection of synthetic hard alpha (SHA) inclusions in titanium aircraft engine forgings. The sample upon which the POD curves are to be based contains four types of right circular SHAs that have been embedded in a representative titanium forging, as well as a number of flat bottomed holes (FBHs). The SHAs were of two sizes, number 3 and number 5, with each size including seeds with nominal nitrogen concentrations of both 3 and 17 wt. %. The FBHs included sizes of number 1, number 3, and number 5. This discreteness of the data poses a number of challenges to standard processes for determining POD. For example, at each concentration of nitrogen, there are only two sizes, with 10 inspection opportunities each. Fully empirical, standard methodologies such as a circumflex versus a provide less than an ideal framework for such an analysis. For example, there is no way to describe the beam limiting effect whereby the signal no longer increases the flaw grows larger than the beam, one can only determine POD at the two concentration levels present in the block, and confidence bounds tend to be broad because of the limited data available for each case. In this paper, we will describe strategies involving the use of physics-based models to overcome these difficulties by allowing the data from all reflectors to be analyzed by a single statistical model. Included will be a discussion of the development of the physics-based model, its comparison to the experimental data (obtained at multiple sites with multiple operators) and its implications regarding the statistical analysis, whose details will be given in a separate article by Li et al. in this volume.

  19. Pod of Ultrasonic Detection of Synthetic Hard Alpha Inclusions in Titanium Aircraft Engine Forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. B.; Meeker, W. Q.; Brasche, L. J. H.

    2011-06-01

    The probability of detection (POD) of inspection techniques is a key input to estimating the lives of structural components such as aircraft engines. This paper describes work conducted as a part of the development of POD curves for the ultrasonic detection of synthetic hard alpha (SHA) inclusions in titanium aircraft engine forgings. The sample upon which the POD curves are to be based contains four types of right circular SHAs that have been embedded in a representative titanium forging, as well as a number of flat bottomed holes (FBHs). The SHAs were of two sizes, ♯3 and ♯5, with each size including seeds with nominal nitrogen concentrations of both 3 and 17 wt. %. The FBHs included sizes of ♯1, ♯3, and ♯5. This discreteness of the data poses a number of challenges to standard processes for determining POD. For example, at each concentration of nitrogen, there are only two sizes, with 10 inspection opportunities each. Fully empirical, standard methodologies such as â versus a provide less than an ideal framework for such an analysis. For example, there is no way to describe the beam limiting effect whereby the signal no longer increases the flaw grows larger than the beam, one can only determine POD at the two concentration levels present in the block, and confidence bounds tend to be broad because of the limited data available for each case. In this paper, we will describe strategies involving the use of physics-based models to overcome these difficulties by allowing the data from all reflectors to be analyzed by a single statistical model. Included will be a discussion of the development of the physics-based model, its comparison to the experimental data (obtained at multiple sites with multiple operators) and its implications regarding the statistical analysis, whose details will be given in a separate article by Li et al. in this volume.

  20. The Conserved Polarity Factor PodJ1 Impacts Multiple Cell Envelope-Associated Functions in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Alexander T.; Navarrete, Charlene S.; Zare, Alaa Ziad; Huang, Zhenzhong; Mostafavi, Mina; Lewis, Jainee C.; Rezaeihaghighi, Yasha; Brezler, Benjamin J.; Ray, Shatarupa; Rizzacasa, Anne L.; Barnett, Melanie J.; Long, Sharon R.; Chen, Esther J.; Chen, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Although diminutive in size, bacteria possess highly diverse and spatially confined cellular structures. Two related alpha-proteobacteria, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Caulobacter crescentus, serve as models for investigating the genetic basis of morphologic variations. S. meliloti, a symbiont of leguminous plants, synthesizes multiple flagella and no prosthecae, whereas C. crescentus, a freshwater bacterium, has a single polar flagellum and stalk. The podJ gene, originally identified in C. crescentus for its role in polar organelle development, is split into two adjacent open reading frames, podJ1 and podJ2, in S. meliloti. Deletion of podJ1 interferes with flagellar motility, exopolysaccharide production, cell envelope integrity, cell division, and normal morphology, but not symbiosis. As in C. crescentus, the S. meliloti PodJ1 protein appears to act as a polarity beacon and localizes to the newer cell pole. Microarray analysis indicates that podJ1 affects the expression of at least 129 genes, the majority of which correspond to observed mutant phenotypes. Together, phenotypic characterization, microarray analysis, and suppressor identification suggest that PodJ1 controls a core set of conserved elements, including flagellar and pili genes, the signaling proteins PleC and DivK, and the transcriptional activator TacA, while alternate downstream targets have evolved to suit the distinct lifestyles of individual species. PMID:22553970

  1. Geology, petrography, geochemistry, and genesis of sulfide-rich pods in the Lac des Iles palladium deposits, western Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Charley J.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Corkery, John T.

    2016-04-01

    The Lac des Iles Pd deposits are known for their Pd-rich sulfide-poor mineralization. However, previously undocumented sulfide-rich pods also occur within the intrusion that hosts the deposits. Given the complex magmatic and hydrothermal history of the mineralization at Lac des Iles, the sulfide-rich pods could have crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids or precipitated from hydrothermal fluids. Sulfide-rich pods occur throughout the stratigraphy, in all rock types, and along comagmatic shear zones, and contain net-textured to massive sulfides. They can be divided into four main groups based on the variation in mineral assemblages: (1) pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± pyrite-chalcopyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (2) chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (3) pyrite ± pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-ilmenite; and (4) magnetite ± ilmenite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-chalcopyrite. Whole rock metal contents and S isotopic compositions do not change with the amount of pyrite present, except for slight enrichments in As and Bi. The presence of an essentially magmatic sulfide mineral assemblage (pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± chalcopyrite) with pentlandite exsolution flames in pyrrhotite in some pods suggests that the pods crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids. The very low Cu contents of the pods suggests that they are mainly cumulates of monosulfide solid solution (MSS). We propose a model whereby sulfide liquids were concentrated into dilation zones prior to crystallizing cumulus MSS. Intermediate solid solution crystallized from the fractionated liquids at the edges of some pods leaving residual liquids enriched in Pt, Pd, Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te. These residual liquids are no longer associated with the pods. During subsequent alteration, pyrite replaced MSS/pyrrhotite, but this did not affect the platinum-group element contents of the pods.

  2. Main Modes of Heat Transport in Rayleigh-Bénard Convection Analyzed by a POD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luelff, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection, i.e. the buoyancy-induced movement of a fluid enclosed between two horizontal plates, is the definite setup to study thermal convection. We are interested in the heat transport of the main modes that are found in the convection cell. To this end, we apply the technique of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to obtain a set of empirical basis modes from simulation data. Usually the POD method results in modes that are optimal in describing the generalized energy, i.e. kinetic energy plus temperature variance. We extend the technique so that instead it gives the optimal modes with respect to the heat transport, measured in terms of the Nusselt number. We then demonstrate at numerical simulations of different RB setups and geometries that the proposed ansatz performs consistently better than the standard approach in describing the heat transport. Furthermore, the coherent structures that are connected to the biggest heat transport are examined.

  3. Microbial populations associated with the retting of melon pods (Colocynthis citrullus L.) during seed recovery.

    PubMed

    Offonry, S U; Achi, O K

    1998-01-01

    The traditional process for the retting of melon pulp and microbiological characteristics in the recovery of melon seeds (Colocynthis citrullus L.) were investigated. Melon pods were sliced open and exposed for seven days. The pulp underwent a natural fermentation that was characterized by the growth of microorganisms to 10(8)-10(10) cfu/g. The pH fluctuated between 4.8 and 5.1 with a lactic acid content of 0.72%. Bacillus subtilis, B. polymyxa, Lactobacillus fermentum, L. brevis and Streptococcusfaecalis were the predominant microorganisms but, significant contributions were made by Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterobacter cloacae. Penicillium, Aspergillus and Rhizopus species including the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Deboromyces hansenii were isolated from the fermentation. Growth of microorganisms was completely inhibited in antibiotic-treated samples indicating that the melon pods were the main source of microorganisms for the fermentation. PMID:9839833

  4. Efficacy of Trichoderma asperellum oil formulations on the control of cocoa black pod disease (Phytophthora megakarya).

    PubMed

    Mbarga, J B; Ten Hoopen, G Martijn; Begoude, A D; Tondje, P R; Kuate, J; Ambang, Z; Amougou, A; Schiffers, B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was therefore to develop a formulation of conidia of T. asperellum with the aim of improving its efficacy. The formulations developed were oily dispersions. It was a combination of solvents consisting of groundnut oil or palm oil with structural agents and emulsifying-dispersing agents. Emulsification tests were carried out and the stability of the emulsions evaluated. The evaluation of the effect of co-formulants on the growth of conidia of T. asperellum was done by reading the optical densities of the formulated samples on multi-plates using a plate reader. The test on detached cocoa pods was done by treating the cocoa pods with selected formulations at 1.10(7) conidia/ml and inoculation of the treated cocoa pods was done 24 hours later with zoospores of P. megakarya at 1.10(5) zoospores/ml. The growth of necrosis on the fruits was measured daily. The screening of co-formulants and emulsification tests ended up with the selection of two formulations. The first composed of conidia of T. asperellum, groundnut oil, Tensiofix NTM and Tensiofix 869. The second differed from the first by utilisation of palm oil as the solvent. These formulations proved stable when diluted in water with 1% and 0.5% of sedimentation respectively after 24 hours. The viability test of the conidia indicated that the different formulations selected did not have a fungitoxic effect. The test on detached cocoa pods showed an improved efficacy of T. asperellum to control the disease. The growth rates of necrosis were 6.29 mm/day, 7.25 mm/day and 31.6 mm/day for treatment with formulation 1, pure conidia and control treated with water respectively. PMID:23878961

  5. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. PMID:24003035

  6. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of different approaches to determine whether there are related findings in humans. Methods/Design Animal studies were carried out to investigate age-related effects of psychotropic drugs and to validate new neuroimaging techniques. In addition, we set up two double-blind placebo controlled clinical trials with MPH in 50 boys (10–12 years) and 50 young men (23–40 years) suffering from ADHD (ePOD-MPH) and with FLX in 40 girls (12–14 years) and 40 young women (23–40 years) suffering from depression and anxiety disorders (ePOD-SSRI). Trial registration numbers are: Nederlands Trial Register NTR3103 and NTR2111. A cross-sectional cohort study on age-related effects of these psychotropic medications in patients who have been treated previously with MPH or FLX (ePOD-Pharmo) is also ongoing. The effects of psychotropic drugs on the developing brain are studied using neuroimaging techniques together with neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments of cognition, behavior and emotion. All assessments take place before, during (only in case of MPH) and after chronic treatment. Discussion The combined results of these approaches will provide new insight into the modulating effect of MPH and FLX on brain development. PMID:24552282

  7. Columbia: The first five flights entry heating data series. Volume 2: The OMS Pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Entry heating flight data and wind tunnel data on the OMS Pod are presented for the first five flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The heating rate data are presented in terms of normalized film heat transfer coefficients as a function of angle-of-attack, Mach number, and normal shock Reynolds number. The surface heating rates and temperatures were obtained via the JSC NONLIN/INVERSE computer program. Time history plots of the surface heating rates and temperatures are also presented.

  8. View of the starboard OMS pod of the STS-6 Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This view centers on the starboard orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod of the shuttle Challenger during its STS-6 mission. Two pieces of thermal protection system tile appear to have loosened. The view also shows one of the cargo bay television cameras, part of the extravehicular activity (EVA) slide wire system, three handrails and other features on the aft bulkhead. Part of the airborne support equipment (ASE) is in the lower right foreground.

  9. POD-Galerkin advection model for convective flow: application to a flapping rectangular supersonic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaunet, V.; Collin, E.; Delville, J.

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a model obtained by applying proper orthogonal decomposition to the advection equation. The resulting set of equations links the POD modes, their temporal and spatial derivatives and the flow convection velocity. It provides a technique to calculate the convection velocity of coherent structures. It follows, from the model, that a priori knowledge of the convection velocity suffices to construct a dynamical model of the flow. This is demonstrated using experimental data.

  10. Microsatellite primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) reveal that a single plant sires all seeds per pod1

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod. • Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched in a genomic sample and isolated using pyrosequencing. Eleven primer pairs were characterized in two populations of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso (each with 40 trees). The number of alleles per locus ranged from eight to 15, and one locus had null alleles. We genotyped seeds from 24 open-pollinated pods. The genotypic profiles of seeds per pod suggest that all seeds are outcrossed and that only one pollen donor sires all ovules in a single fruit. • Conclusions: Ten microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. All seeds per pod of P. biglobosa were full siblings. The markers will be useful for reproductive and population genetic studies. PMID:25202634

  11. Results from the EPL monkey-pod experiment conducted as part of the 1974 NASA/Ames shuttle CVT-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Pace, N.

    1974-01-01

    The participation of the Environmental Physiology Laboratory (EPL) in the general purpose laboratory concept verification test 3 is documented. The EPL Monkey-Pod Experiment was designed to incorporate a 10-12 kg, pig tailed monkey, Macaca nemestrina, into the pod and measure the physiological responses of the animal continuously. Four major elements comprise the EPL Monkey-Pod Experiment System: (1) a fiberglass pod containing the instrumented monkey plus feeder and watering devices, (2) an inner console containing the SKYLAB mass spectrometer with its associated valving and electronic controls, sensing, control and monitoring units for lower body negative pressure, feeder activity, waterer activity, temperatures, and gas metabolism calibration, (3) an umbilical complex comprising gas flow lines and electrical cabling between the inner and outer console and (4) an outer console in principle representing the experiment support to be provided from general spacecraft sources.

  12. Results from the EPL monkey-pod flight experiments conducted aboard the NASA/Ames CV-990, May 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Pace, N.

    1976-01-01

    The participation of the Environmental Physiology Laboratory (EPL) in the general purpose laboratory concept verification test 3 is documented. The EPL Monkey-Pod Experiment was designed to incorporate a 10-12 kg, pig tailed monkey, Macaca nemestrina, into the pod and measure the physiological responses of the animal continously. Four major elements comprise the EPL Monkey-Pod Experiment System: (1) a fiberglass pod containing the instrumented monkey plus feeder and watering devices, (2) an inner console containing the SKYLAB mass spectrometer with its associated valving and electronic controls, sensing, control and monitoring units for lower body negative pressure, feeder activity, waterer activity, temperatures, and gas metabolism calibration, (3) an umbilical complex comprising gas flow lines and electrical cabling between the inner and outer console and (4) an outer console in principle representing the experiment support to be provided from general space craft sources.

  13. Huizache (Acacia farnesiana) whole pods (flesh and seeds) as an alternative feed for sheep in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Winder, L R; Goñi-Cedeño, S; Olguín-Lara, P A; Díaz-Salgado, G; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the use of pods from Huizache (Acacia farnesiana), common in the arid and semiarid regions of Mexico, on the perfromance and apparent digestibility in Pelibuey Mexican hair growing ewe lambs. Twenty-four Pelibuey ewe lambs were used in the animal performance experiment, with a mean live weight of 14.91 +/- 1.48 kg, randomnly allocated to three groups which received ad libitum for 77 days (11 weeks) experimental whole rations T0 with 0%, T12 with 12% or T24 with 24% inclusión of dried and ground Huizache pods. Dry matter intakes (g/kg (0.75) daily) were 83, 95, 90 for T0, T12, and T24 respectively (P > 0.05). Mean daily live-weight gain was 90, 75, and 63 g/day for T0, T12, and T24 (P < 0.001). Nine Pelibuey ewe lambs were used to determine apparent digestibility in vivo of the experimental diets using a 3 x 3 latin square design repeated three times. There were differences in the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), nitrogen (P < 0.031), neutral detergent fibre (P < 0.002), and acid detergent fibre (P < 0.001) being lower in T24. Huizache pods may be an alternative feed when included up to 12% of dry matter in the diets for sheep growing moderately. PMID:19390982

  14. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Capacities of Polyphenolics from Pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Feng-Lin; Huang, Wei-Jan; Wu, Tzu-Hua; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Chen, Lih-Chi; Lu, Hsiao-Jen; Hou, Wen-Chi; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen polyphenolics were isolated from fresh pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima using various methods of column chromatography. The structures of these polyphenolics were elucidated as gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), 6-O-galloyl-d-glucoside (3), methyl 6-O-galloyl-β-d-glucoside (4), methyl 3,6-di-O-galloyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (5), gentisic acid 5-O-α-d-(6′-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (6), guaiacylglycerol 4-O-β-d-(6′-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (7), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenol 1-O-β-d-(6′-O-galloyl) glucopyranoside (8), (+)-gallocatechin (9), (+)-catechin (10), (+)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (11), myricetin 3-rhamnoside (12), and ampelopsin (13). All isolated compounds were tested for their antioxidant activities in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and peroxynitrite radicals scavenging assays. Among those compounds, 11, 12, and 2 exhibited the best DPPH-, hydroxyl-, and peroxynitrite radical-scavenging activities, respectively. Compound 7 is a new compound, and possesses better scavenging activities towards DPPH but has equivalent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity when compared to BHT. The paper is the first report on free radical scavenging properties of components of the fresh pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The results obtained from the current study indicate that the free radical scavenging property of fresh pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima may be one of the mechanisms by which this herbal medicine is effective in several free radical mediated diseases. PMID:22754350

  16. POD/DEIM reduced-order strategies for efficient four dimensional variational data assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Ştefănescu, R.; Sandu, A.; Navon, I.M.

    2015-08-15

    This work studies reduced order modeling (ROM) approaches to speed up the solution of variational data assimilation problems with large scale nonlinear dynamical models. It is shown that a key requirement for a successful reduced order solution is that reduced order Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions accurately represent their full order counterparts. In particular, accurate reduced order approximations are needed for the forward and adjoint dynamical models, as well as for the reduced gradient. New strategies to construct reduced order based are developed for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) ROM data assimilation using both Galerkin and Petrov–Galerkin projections. For the first time POD, tensorial POD, and discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) are employed to develop reduced data assimilation systems for a geophysical flow model, namely, the two dimensional shallow water equations. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical framework for Galerkin projection. In the case of Petrov–Galerkin projection, stabilization strategies must be considered for the reduced order models. The new reduced order shallow water data assimilation system provides analyses similar to those produced by the full resolution data assimilation system in one tenth of the computational time.

  17. POD-based analysis of combustion images in optically accessible engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bizon, K.; Continillo, G.; Mancaruso, E.; Merola, S.S.; Vaglieco, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    This paper reports on 2D images of combustion-related luminosity taken in two optically accessible automobile engines of the most recent generation. The results are discussed to elucidate physical phenomena in the combustion chambers. Then, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the acquired images. The coefficients of the orthogonal modes are then used for the analysis of cycle variability, along with data of dynamic in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. The advantage is that statistical analysis can be run on a small number of scalar coefficients rather than on the full data set of pixel luminosity values. Statistics of the POD coefficients provide information on cycle variations of the luminosity field. POD modes are then discriminated by means of normality tests, to separate the mean from the coherent and the incoherent parts of the fluctuation of the luminosity field, in a non-truncated representation of the data. The morphology of the fluctuation components can finally be reconstructed by grouping coherent and incoherent modes. The structure of the incoherent component of the fluctuation is consistent with the underlying turbulent field. (author)

  18. Thermal striping in nuclear reactors: POD analysis of LES simulations and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzari, Elia; Alvarez, Andres; Marin, Oana; Obabko, Aleksandr; Lomperski, Steve; Aithal, Shashi

    2015-11-01

    Thermal fatigue caused due to thermal striping impacts design and analyses of a wide-range of industrial apparatus. This phenomena is of particular significance in nuclear reactor applications, primarily in sodium cooled fast reactors. In order to conduct systematic analyses of the thermal striping phenomena a simplified experimental set-up was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. In this set-up two turbulent jets with a temperature difference of about 20K were mixed in a rectangular tank. The jets entered the tank via 2 hexagonal inlets. Two different inlet geometries were studied, both experimentally and via high-fidelity LES simulations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) was performed on the turbulent velocity field in the tank to identify the most dominant energetic modes. The POD analyses of the experimental data in both inlet geometrical configurations were compared with LES simulations. Detailed POD analyses are presented to highlight the impact of geometry on the velocity and thermal fields. These can be correlated with experimental and numerical data to assess the impact of thermal striping on the design of the upper plenum of sodium-cooled nuclear reactors. ALCF.

  19. Histochemical localization and characterization of AKP, ACP, NSE, and POD from cultured Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Hushan

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the distribution of four enzymes involved in the immune response of Apostichopus japonicus. We collected samples of the tentacles, papillate podium, integument, respiratory tree, and digestive tract and stained them for acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), non-specific esterase (NSE) and peroxidase (POD) activity. The distribution and content of ACP, AKP, NSE, and POD differed among the tissues. The coelomic epithelium of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer of respiratory tree were positive for ACP activity. The coelomic epithelium and cuticular layer of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive or weakly positive for AKP activity. Almost all the epithelial tissues stained positive, strongly positive, or very strongly positive for NSE activity. The cuticular layer of the tentacle and integument and the mucous layer, tunica submucosa, and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive for POD activity. We hypothesize that these enzymes play a role in the immune response in A. japonicus.

  20. Partly transparent young legume pods: Do they mimic caterpillars for defense and simultaneously enable better photosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Being partly or fully transparent as a defense from predation is mostly known in various groups of aquatic animals and various terrestrial arthropods. Plants, being photosynthetic and having cell walls made of various polymers, cannot be wholly transparent. In spite of these inherent limitations, some succulent plant species of arid zones have partially transparent “windows” in order to perform photosynthesis in their below-ground leaves, as defense from herbivores as well as for protection from harsh environmental conditions. Similarly, transparent “windows” or even wholly transparent leaves are found in certain thick or thin, above-ground organs irrespective of aridity. The young pods of various wild annual Mediterranean legume species belonging to the genera Lathyrus, Pisum and Vicia are partly transparent and may therefore look like caterpillars when viewed with back illumination. I propose that this character serves 2 functions: (1) being a type of defensive caterpillar mimicry that may reduce their consumption by various herbivores in that very sensitive stage, and (2) simultaneously allowing better photosynthesis in the rapidly growing seeds and pods. Unlike animals that are transparent for either defensive or aggressive crypsis, in the case of young legume pods it allows them to visually mimic caterpillars for defense. PMID:26633565

  1. Partly transparent young legume pods: Do they mimic caterpillars for defense and simultaneously enable better photosynthesis?

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Being partly or fully transparent as a defense from predation is mostly known in various groups of aquatic animals and various terrestrial arthropods. Plants, being photosynthetic and having cell walls made of various polymers, cannot be wholly transparent. In spite of these inherent limitations, some succulent plant species of arid zones have partially transparent "windows" in order to perform photosynthesis in their below-ground leaves, as defense from herbivores as well as for protection from harsh environmental conditions. Similarly, transparent "windows" or even wholly transparent leaves are found in certain thick or thin, above-ground organs irrespective of aridity. The young pods of various wild annual Mediterranean legume species belonging to the genera Lathyrus, Pisum and Vicia are partly transparent and may therefore look like caterpillars when viewed with back illumination. I propose that this character serves 2 functions: (1) being a type of defensive caterpillar mimicry that may reduce their consumption by various herbivores in that very sensitive stage, and (2) simultaneously allowing better photosynthesis in the rapidly growing seeds and pods. Unlike animals that are transparent for either defensive or aggressive crypsis, in the case of young legume pods it allows them to visually mimic caterpillars for defense. PMID:26633565

  2. Passive Orbital Disconnect Strut (PODS 3), structural and thermal test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    A test program is undertaken to verify that the lifetime of a shuttle launchable dewar can be increased by using passive orbital disconnect struts (PODS). A detailed design is performed on the cold end (PODS-III) portion of the strut. Structural analysis of the thin-wall fiberglass tube allows selection of the optimum winding angle and tube dimensions. Structural tests on the thin-wall fiberglass tube measure both the tension and compression modulus at ambient and LN2 temperatures, the radial deflection versus side load, and the ultimate compression strength of the tube at LN2 temperature. The thermal expansion of the fiberglass tube plus Invar is also measured down to 78 K. The axial gap at the wedge portion of the stem is set based on these data. The PODS-III test article parts are fabricated and assembled using a detailed assembly procedure. The thermal conductants in the orbital configuration was measured for body temperatures between 5 and 40 K. This temperature range covers the predicted ground hold and orbit temperatures for vapor-cooled supports. The test results are then compared with heat leak values predicted before the test began. Side load, axial compression load, and tension load tests conclude the test program.

  3. POD-Based Model Reduction toward Efficient Simulation of Flow in NuclearReactor Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadpoor, Mohammad; Banyay, Greg; Mazumdar, Sagnik; Jana, Anirban; Kimber, Mark; Brigham, John

    2013-11-01

    The long-term objective of this research is reduced-order modeling (ROM) to simulate and understand the turbulent mixing inside the lower plenum of a Very High Temperature Reactor, while the present study focuses on confined isothermal jet flow. In general, two steps are required to generate a basis for a ROM: (1) acquisition of an ensemble of possible solution fields for the system; and (2) extracting key features of the ensemble to create the basis. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is one approach for extracting features from an ensemble. For this work POD is used to capture the parametric variation of a flow with Reynolds (Re) number and time. Two approaches are considered for model reduction: (1) a regression-based approach, which does not keep the mathematical structure of the modeling, but rather uses interpolation and/or extrapolation to predict flow fields at different Re number or different times and (2) a Galerkin-projection approach in which the Navier-Stokes equations are projected onto the POD modes to obtain low-dimensional ordinary differential equations to represent the fluid flow under conditions outside of the original ensemble.

  4. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production. PMID:27394995

  5. POD/DEIM reduced-order strategies for efficient four dimensional variational data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ştefănescu, R.; Sandu, A.; Navon, I. M.

    2015-08-01

    This work studies reduced order modeling (ROM) approaches to speed up the solution of variational data assimilation problems with large scale nonlinear dynamical models. It is shown that a key requirement for a successful reduced order solution is that reduced order Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions accurately represent their full order counterparts. In particular, accurate reduced order approximations are needed for the forward and adjoint dynamical models, as well as for the reduced gradient. New strategies to construct reduced order based are developed for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) ROM data assimilation using both Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin projections. For the first time POD, tensorial POD, and discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) are employed to develop reduced data assimilation systems for a geophysical flow model, namely, the two dimensional shallow water equations. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical framework for Galerkin projection. In the case of Petrov-Galerkin projection, stabilization strategies must be considered for the reduced order models. The new reduced order shallow water data assimilation system provides analyses similar to those produced by the full resolution data assimilation system in one tenth of the computational time.

  6. Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part III: Low Dimensional Models via POD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurttas, M.; Madden, P.

    2005-11-01

    The highly complex kinematics of the pectoral fin and the resulting hydrodynamics does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving/paddling kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is needed to dissect the fin gait and gain insight into the hydrodynamic performance of the pectoral fin. The focus of the current work is on the hydrodynamics of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish in steady forward motion. The 3D, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique. We employ proper orthogonal decomposition to extract the essential features of the fin gait and then use CFD to examine the hydrodynamics of simplified gaits synthesized from the POD modes. The POD spectrum shows that the first two, three and five POD modes capture 55%, 67%, and 80% of the motion respectively. The first three modes are in particular highly distinct: Mode-1 is a ``cupping'' motion where the fin cups forward as it is abducted; Mode-2 is an ``expansion'' motion where the fin expands to present a larger area during adduction and finally Mode-3 involves a ``spanwise flick'' of the dorsal edge of the fin. Numerical simulation of flow past fin gaits synthesized from these modes lead to insights into the mechanisms of thrust production; these are discussed in detail.

  7. Possible Radio Interference Between Video Capsule Endoscopy and Second-Generation OmniPod Patch Pump.

    PubMed

    Pitocco, Dario; Rizzi, Alessandro; Tortora, Annalisa; Manto, Andrea; Zaccardi, Francesco; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Costamagna, Guido; Riccioni, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to observe the small intestinal mucosa. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with T2DM, treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion using second-generation OmniPod patch pump, undergoing VCE (Given M2A; VCE Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) for melena and anemia. During VCE, an abnormal interruption of communication between video capsule and its receiver occurred. Two hours after capsule ingestion, the patient activated the insulin pump infusion through the Personal Diabetes Manager (PDM) because she drank a sugary beverage for the first time after ingestion. Due to this, we decided to repeat VCE after the removal of the insulin pump and PDM: at this time, the capsule recorded for more than 10 h without any interruption. The video capsule and second-generation OmniPod patch pump use the same radio frequency and this may cause interference between these two devices. In patients using second-generation OmniPod patch pump undergoing VCE, we suggest to switch to intravenous insulin infusion or multiple daily injection or to use a different model of VCE, as MiRoCam (Intromedic, Seoul, Korea). PMID:27333334

  8. Principal interval decomposition framework for POD-based model reduction of convective flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San, Omer; Borggaard, Jeff

    2015-11-01

    A principal interval decomposition (PID) framework is proposed to build more reliable reduced-order models for unsteady flow problems. The PID method optimizes the lengths of the time windows over which proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is performed and can be highly effective in building reduced-order models for convective problems. The performance of these POD models with and without using the PID approach is investigated by applying these methods to the unsteady lock-exchange flow problem modeled by solving the Boussinesq equations in vorticity-streamfunction formulation. This benchmark problem exhibits a strong shear flow induced by a temperature jump and results in the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. This is considered a challenging benchmark problem for the development of reduced order models. The predictive performance of our model is then analyzed over a wide range of computational modeling and physical parameters. It is shown that the PID approach provides a significant improvement in accuracy over the standard Galerkin POD reduced-order model. Our numerical assessment of the PID shows that it may represent a reliable model reduction tool for convection-dominated, unsteady-flow problems.

  9. Multigenic Control of Pod Shattering Resistance in Chinese Rapeseed Germplasm Revealed by Genome-Wide Association and Linkage Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhou, Rijin; Mei, Desheng; Cheng, Hongtao; Yang, Juan; Raman, Harsh; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to pod shatter in an unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH) and inter-mated (IF2) crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering) and R2 (prone to pod shattering) accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02, and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09) and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06) could be repeatedly detected across environments in a diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those that appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs. PMID:27493651

  10. Multigenic Control of Pod Shattering Resistance in Chinese Rapeseed Germplasm Revealed by Genome-Wide Association and Linkage Analyses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhou, Rijin; Mei, Desheng; Cheng, Hongtao; Yang, Juan; Raman, Harsh; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to pod shatter in an unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH) and inter-mated (IF2) crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering) and R2 (prone to pod shattering) accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02, and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09) and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06) could be repeatedly detected across environments in a diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those that appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs. PMID:27493651

  11. Topical Delivery of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Emtricitabine from Pod-Intravaginal Rings Protects Macaques from Multiple SHIV Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Churchman, Scott A.; Yang, Flora; Dinh, Chuong T.; Mitchell, James M.; Zhang, Jining; Fanter, Rob; Miller, Christine S.; Butkyavichene, Irina; McNicholl, Janet M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Baum, Marc M.; Smith, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Topical preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV has been marginally successful in recent clinical trials with low adherence rates being a primary factor for failure. Controlled, sustained release of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs may help overcome these low adherence rates if the product is protective for extended periods of time. The oral combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) is currently the only FDA-approved ARV drug for HIV PrEP. A novel pod-intravaginal ring (IVR) delivering TDF and FTC at independently controlled rates was evaluated for efficacy at preventing SHIV162p3 infection in a rigorous, repeat low-dose vaginal exposure model using normally cycling female pigtailed macaques. Six macaques received pod-IVRs containing TDF (65 mg) and FTC (68 mg) every two weeks, and weekly vaginal exposures to 50 TCID50 of SHIV162p3 began one week after the first pod-IVR insertion. All pod-IVR-treated macaques were fully protected throughout the study (P = 0.0002, Log-rank test), whereas all control animals became infected with a median of 4 exposures to infection. The topical, sustained release of TDF and FTC from the pod-IVR maintained protective drug levels in macaques over four months of virus exposures. This novel and versatile delivery system has the capacity to deliver and maintain protective levels of multiple drugs and the protection observed here warrants clinical evaluation of this pod-IVR design. PMID:27275923

  12. Nutritive evaluation and effect of Moringa oleifera pod on clastogenic potential in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Promkum, Chadamas; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2010-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) has been consumed as a vegetable and utilized as a major ingredient of healthy Thai cuisine. Previous studies have shown that M. oleifera pod extracts act as bifunctional inducers along with displaying antioxidant properties and also inhibiting skin papillomagenesis in mice. This study was aimed to determine the nutritive value, and clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials of M. oleifera pod. The nutritive value was determined according to AOAC methods. The clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials were determined using the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay in the mouse. Eighty male mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% of ground freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera pod (bMO) for 2 weeks prior to administration of both direct-acting (mitomycin C, MMC) and indirect-acting (7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, DMBA), clastogens. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, dropped on acridine orange-coated slides, and then counted for reticulocytes both with and without micronuclei by fluorescence microscopy. The nutritive value of 100 g bMO consisted of: moisture content, 8.2 g; protein, 19.2 g; fat, 3.9 g; carbohydrate (dietary fiber included), 60.5 g; dietary fiber, 37.5 g; ash, 8.1 g and energy, 354 kcal. Freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera had no clastogenic activity in the mouse while it possessed anticlastogenic activity against both direct and indirect-acting clastogens. Freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera pod at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% in the diets decreased the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs) induced by both MMC and DMBA. However, the effect was statistically significant in the dose dependent manner only in the MMC-treated group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that bMO has no clastogenicity and possesses anticlastogenic potential against clastogens, and particularly a direct-acting clastogen in the mouse. PMID:21039028

  13. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rousse, D.

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp.(Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters. PMID:19537971

  14. Analysis of pendulum period with an iPod touch/iPhone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggle, Justin

    2013-05-01

    We describe the use of Apple’s iPod touch/iPhone, acting as the pendulum bob, as a means of measuring pendulum period, making use of the device’s three-axis digital accelerometer and the freely available SPARKvue app from PASCO scientific. The method can be readily incorporated into an introductory physics laboratory experiment. Moreover, the principles described may be carried out with any number of smartphone devices containing an integrated accelerometer and paired with an appropriate application for collecting and sending accelerometer data as a comma-separated value file.

  15. Consistent Practices for the Probability of Detection (POD) of Fracture Critical Metallic Components Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward (Principal Investigator); Nichols, Charles; Myers, Mika (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Floyd (Principal Investigator); Waller, Jess (Principal Investigator); Wladyka, Jordan (Principal Investigator); Aldrin, John; Burke, Eric; Cerecerez, Laura; Corbett, Judy; George, Jill; Hodges, Kenneth; Jones, Justin; Parker, Bradford; Petry, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    NASA-STD-5009 requires that successful flaw detection by NDE methods be statistically qualified for use on fracture critical metallic components, but does not standardize practices. This task works towards standardizing calculations and record retention with a web-based tool, the NNWG POD Standards Library or NPSL. Test methods will also be standardized with an appropriately flexible appendix to -5009 identifying best practices. Additionally, this appendix will describe how specimens used to qualify NDE systems will be cataloged, stored and protected from corrosion, damage, or loss.

  16. Pod Nursing on a Medical/Surgical Unit: Implementation and Outcomes Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Christopher R.; Grunawalt, Julie C.; Bhullar, Sara; Bihlmeyer, Karen; Chang, Robert; Wood, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    A medical/surgical unit at the University of Michigan Health System implemented a pod nursing model of care to improve efficiency and patient and staff satisfaction. One centralized station was replaced with 4 satellites and supplies were relocated next to patient rooms. Patients were assigned to 2 nurses who worked as partners. Three patient (satisfaction, call lights, and falls) and nurse (satisfaction and overtime) outcomes improved after implementation. Efforts should be focused on addressing patient acuity imbalances across assignments and strengthening communication among the health care team. Studies are needed to test the model in larger and more diverse settings. PMID:24662689

  17. Superposition of states by adiabatic passage in N-pod systems

    SciTech Connect

    Amniat-Talab, M.; Saadati-Niari, M.; Nader-Ali, R.; Guerin, S.

    2011-01-15

    We study the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique in an N-pod system driven by N pulsed fields when N-2 and N-1 pulses not connected to the initial state have the same shape. We show that, for properly timed pulses, robust population transfer from an initial ground state to an arbitrary coherent superposition of the ground states can be achieved in a single step. The case of N-2 pulses of the same shape involves a geometric phase of the same type as the one appearing in tripod systems.

  18. PLB, vertical tail, OMS pods above Earth with moon in distant background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Payload bay (PLB) equipment, payloads, and experiments include remote manipulator system (RMS) stowed on port side sill longeron, Development Flight Instrument (DFI) pallet with High Capacity Heat Pipe Experiment, Special Philatelic Covers in two large storage (mail) boxes, Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM) experiment trays, and Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket in foreground and Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA) behind DFI pallet. Vertical tail with orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods at base points to Earth's cloud-covered surface with gibbous moon in distance.

  19. Pod removal responsive change in phytohormones and its impact on protein degradation and amino acid transport in source leaves of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bok-Rye; Zhang, Qian; Bae, Dong-Won; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the hormonal regulation of nitrogen remobilization from source to pod filling in Brassica napus, the hormonal level, proteolytic process, and amino acid transport were assessed in mature leaves of pod-removed or control at the early pod-filling stage. Pod (sink) removal decreased salicylic acid (SA), and significantly increased jasmonic acid (JA). The SA/JA ratio decreased with pod removal, accompanied by low degradation of foliar proteins and Rubisco content. A significant decrease in protease activity was observed in pod-removed leaves, confirmed by in-gel staining of protease. Pod removal reduced the expression of four amino acid transporter genes (BnAAP1, BnAAP2, BnAAP4, and BnAAP6) in mature leaves and reduced amino acid loading into phloem. These results indicated that a decrease in SA resulting from pod removal down-regulated nitrogen remobilization accompanied by a decrease in proteolytic activity and amino acid transport in mature leaves at the pod-filling stage. PMID:27161582

  20. POD-1/TCF21 Reduces SHP Expression, Affecting LRH-1 Regulation and Cell Cycle Balance in Adrenocortical and Hepatocarcinoma Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    França, Monica Malheiros; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Lotfi, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco

    2015-01-01

    POD-1/TCF21 may play a crucial role in adrenal and gonadal homeostasis and represses Sf-1/SF-1 expression in adrenocortical tumor cells. SF-1 and LRH-1 are members of the Fzt-F1 subfamily of nuclear receptors. LRH-1 is involved in several biological processes, and both LRH-1 and its repressor SHP are involved in many types of cancer. In order to assess whether POD-1 can regulate LRH-1 via the same mechanism that regulates SF-1, we analyzed the endogenous mRNA levels of POD-1, SHP, and LRH-1 in hepatocarcinoma and adrenocortical tumor cells using qRT-PCR. Hereafter, these tumor cells were transiently transfected with pCMVMycPod-1, and the effect of POD-1 overexpression on E-box elements in the LRH-1 and SHP promoter region were analyzed by ChIP assay. Also, Cyclin E1 protein expression was analyzed to detect cell cycle progression. We found that POD-1 overexpression significantly decreased SHP/SHP mRNA and protein levels through POD-1 binding to the E-box sequence in the SHP promoter. Decreased SHP expression affected LRH-1 regulation and increased Cyclin E1. These findings show that POD-1/TCF21 regulates SF-1 and LRH-1 by distinct mechanisms, contributing to the understanding of POD-1 involvement and its mechanisms of action in adrenal and liver tumorigenesis, which could lead to the discovery of relevant biomarkers. PMID:26421305

  1. Enabling data analysis à la PROOF on the Italian ATLAS Tier-2s using PoD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nardo, Roberto; Ganis, Gerardo; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Carlino, Gianpaolo; De Salvo, Alessandro; Doria, Alessandra; Manafov, Anar; Martini, Agnese; Testa, Marianna

    2012-12-01

    We describe our experience using PROOF for data analysis on the Italian ATLAS-Tier2 in Frascati, Napoli and Roma1. To enable PROOF on the cluster we used PoD, Proof-on-Demand. PoD is a set of tools designed to interact with any Local Resource Management System (LRMS) to start the PROOF daemons. In this way any user can quickly setup its own PROOF cluster on the resources, with the LRMS taking care of scheduling, priorities and accounting. Usage of PoD has steadily increased in the last years, and the product has now reached a production level quality. PoD features an abstract interface to LRMSs and provides plugins for several LRMSs. In our tests we used both the gLite and PBS plug-ins, the latter being the native LRMS handling the resources under test. Data were accessed via XRootD with file discovery provided by the standard ATLAS tools. The Storage Element was Disk Pool Manager (DPM) which traditionally uses RFIO rfio data access protocol; we added XRootD on top of this system so PoD could access the data. We describe the configuration and setup details and the results of some benchmark tests we run on the facility.

  2. Effects of the dietary replacement of maize with sun-dried cocoa pods on the performance of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Esong, Rawlings Ndene; Etchu, Kingsley Agbor; Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2015-10-01

    Twenty seven mixed-breed growing rabbits (1.2-1.3 kg body weight) aged 10-12 weeks were used to study the effects of the dietary replacement of maize with sun-dried cocoa pod husks on the performance of growing rabbits in a 6-week trial. Three treatment diets were compounded whereby sun-dried cocoa pod husks replaced maize at 0, 50, and 100 %, respectively. The animals were divided among the three treatment diets so that each diet had 3 replicates of 3 animals each. Feed intake and weight gain were recorded; faeces were also collected for digestibility trials, and cost analysis was also carried out. Results showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in daily feed intake between the dietary treatments. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the final metabolic weights, total metabolic weight gain, daily growth rate, and feed conversion ratio between the treatments. The digestibility study showed a decrease in the digestibility of dry matter and metabolisable energy with the increase in cocoa pod husk inclusion. Cost analysis indicate that significant net gains can be made by incorporating 200 g sundried cocoa pod husks per kg of the diet of growing rabbits compared with the same proportion of maize. These results suggest that sun-dried cocoa pod husks can totally replace maize and provide a cheap source of energy in the diets of growing rabbits. PMID:26152547

  3. Near-wall reconstruction of higher order moments and length scales using the POD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glauser, Mark N.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the near-wall behavior of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) eigenfunctions derived from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of channel flow is performed. Consistent with previous studies, a low order multi-mode reconstruction of the kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress suffices. A similar reconstruction of the isotropic dissipation rate is shown to be insufficient, however. An analysis is performed of the multi-mode composition of the dissipation rate in the near-wall region, and it is shown that a significant number of higher-order modes are required to achieve the correct asymptotic consistency in the near-wall region. In an attempt to avoid this problem, a length scale definition is proposed in terms of an integration of the correlation tensor which factors in the presence of the wall. The wall is accounted for by only integrating out to 2y(+) and not over the entire domain. Viscous and inviscid estimates for the dissipation were used in the near-wall and core regions respectively, in conjunction with this length scale representation to obtain an estimate of the dissipation throughout the domain. The resulting dissipation exhibits the proper behavior near the wall and in the inertial layer. A 1 POD mode estimate of the length scale is computed and found to agree quite well with the length scale obtained when the entire correlation tensor is used.

  4. PROOF on the Cloud for ALICE using PoD and OpenNebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzano, D.; Bagnasco, S.; Brunetti, R.; Lusso, S.

    2012-06-01

    In order to optimize the use and management of computing centres, their conversion to cloud facilities is becoming increasingly popular. In a medium to large cloud facility, many different virtual clusters may concur for the same resources: unused resources can be freed either by turning off idle virtual machines, or by lowering resources assigned to a virtual machine at runtime. PROOF, a ROOT-based parallel and interactive analysis framework, is officially endorsed in the computing model of the ALICE experiment as complementary to the Grid, and it has become very popular over the last three years. The locality of PROOF-based analysis facilities forces system administrators to scavenge resources, yet the chaotic nature of user analysis tasks deems them unstable and inconstantly used, making PROOF a typical use-case for HPC cloud computing. Currently, PoD dynamically and easily provides a PROOF-enabled cluster by submitting agents to a job scheduler. Unfortunately, a Tier-2 does not comfortably share the same queue between interactive and batch jobs, due to the very large average time to completion of the latter: an elastic cloud approach would enable interactive virtual machines to temporarily subtract resources to the batch ones, without a noticeable impact on them. In this work we describe our setup of a dynamic PROOF-based cloud analysis facility based on PoD and OpenNebula, orchestrated by a simple and lightweight control daemon that makes virtualization transparent for the user.

  5. Simulation supported POD for RT test case-concept and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollwitzer, C.; Bellon, C.; Deresch, A.; Ewert, U.; Jaenisch, G.-R.; Zscherpel, U.; Mistral, Q.

    2012-05-01

    Within the framework of the European project PICASSO, the radiographic simulator aRTist (analytical Radiographic Testing inspection simulation tool) developed by BAM has been extended for reliability assessment of film and digital radiography. NDT of safety relevant components of aerospace industry requires the proof of probability of detection (POD) of the inspection. Modeling tools can reduce the expense of such extended, time consuming NDT trials, if the result of simulation fits to the experiment. Our analytic simulation tool consists of three modules for the description of the radiation source, the interaction of radiation with test pieces and flaws, and the detection process with special focus on film and digital industrial radiography. It features high processing speed with near-interactive frame rates and a high level of realism. A concept has been developed as well as a software extension for reliability investigations, completed by a user interface for planning automatic simulations with varying parameters and defects. Furthermore, an automatic image analysis procedure is included to evaluate the defect visibility. The radiographic modeling from 3D CAD of aero engine components and quality test samples are compared as a precondition for real trials. This enables the evaluation and optimization of film replacement for application of modern digital equipment for economical NDT and defined POD.

  6. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Is It Time to Rename PCOS to HA-PODS?

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Suvarna Satish

    2016-04-01

    The term polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) came into existence 80 years ago. Pathophysiology of PCOS remains ill understood despite extensive research in this field. It is now accepted that the manifestations of PCOS are not confined to the reproductive dysfunction, and there are endocrine-metabolic implications to PCOS with several consequences to female health. PCOS is a misnomer as ovaries do not contain epithelial cysts, but they are actually antral follicles. Moreover, the name PCOS neither reflects the hyperandrogenism which is essential for diagnosis nor the metabolic derangements. While various authors have expressed the need for change of the name, a suitable new option has not yet been established. This review aims to analyse the current understanding of pathophysiology of PCOS and addresses to the controversies associated with its diagnosis and nomenclature. The name "Hyperandrogenic Persistent Ovulatory Dysfunction Syndrome or HA-PODS" is proposed here to overcome diagnostic pitfalls of previous nomenclature. This new name will help formulate appropriate treatment and promote consistency in research as well. Further categorizations of HA-PODS are also discussed in the article. PMID:27046960

  7. The GLAS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Precision Orbit Determination (POD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rim, Hyung Jin; Yoon, S. P.; Schultz, Bob E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was the sole instrument for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry mission. The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to make ice sheet elevation measurements of the polar regions. Additional goals were to measure the global distribution of clouds and aerosols and to map sea ice, land topography and vegetation. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission to be used to determine the mass balance of the ice sheets, as well as for providing cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. The GLAS instrument operated from 2003 to 2009 and provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine changes in sea ice freeboard, land topography and vegetation around the globe, in addition to elevation changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. This document describes the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) algorithm for the ICESat mission. The problem of determining an accurate ephemeris for an orbiting satellite involves estimating the position and velocity of the satellite from a sequence of observations. The ICESatGLAS elevation measurements must be very accurately geolocated, combining precise orbit information with precision pointing information. The ICESat mission POD requirement states that the position of the instrument should be determined with an accuracy of 5 and 20 cm (1-s) in radial and horizontal components, respectively, to meet the science requirements for determining elevation change.

  8. Pod Corn Is Caused by Rearrangement at the Tunicate1 Locus[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jong-Jin; Jackson, David; Martienssen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Pod corn (Zea mays var tunicata) was once regarded as ancestral to cultivated maize, and was prized by pre-Columbian cultures for its magical properties. Tunicate1 (Tu1) is a dominant pod corn mutation in which kernels are completely enclosed in leaflike glumes. Here we show that Tu1 encodes a MADS box transcription factor expressed in leaves whose 5′ regulatory region is fused by a 1.8-Mb chromosomal inversion to the 3′ region of a gene expressed in the inflorescence. Both genes are further duplicated, accounting for classical derivative alleles isolated by recombination, and Tu1 transgenes interact with these derivative alleles in a dose-dependent manner. In young ear primordia, TU1 proteins are nuclearly localized in specific cells at the base of spikelet pair meristems. Tu1 branch determination defects resemble those in ramosa mutants, which encode regulatory proteins expressed in these same cells, accounting for synergism in double mutants discovered almost 100 years ago. The Tu1 rearrangement is not found in ancestral teosinte and arose after domestication of maize. PMID:22829149

  9. POD analysis of the turbulent flow downstream a mild and sharp bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpakli Vester, Athanasia; Örlü, Ramis; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements have been taken of the turbulent flow at the exit plane of a mild and a sharp pipe bend. Cross-sectional flow fields were obtained 1, 2 and 3 pipe diameters downstream the bend in order to capture the flow evolution. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied in order to identify the underlying vortical patterns and revealed the existence of a single cell spanning the whole cross section as the most dominant structure, while the Dean cells appeared in the next most energetic modes. The results from these investigations, which indicate the origin of the oscillatory motion of the Dean vortices, the so-called swirl switching, were found to agree with those presented by Hellström et al. (J Fluid Mech 735:R7, 2013). Furthermore, the effect of a honeycomb, mounted at the bend inlet, on the flow field has been studied by means of statistical and POD analysis in order to test the hypothesis by Sakakibara and Machida (Phys Fluids 24:041702, 2012), viz. whether the unsteady behaviour of the Dean cells is related to large-scale structures existing upstream the bend. As a consequence of the honeycomb, the Dean vortices do not appear in the mean field, nor in the most energetic modes, which opens possibilities to overcome or at least delay the problem of fatigue in piping systems which can be caused by the swirl switching.

  10. Automated recognition and tracking of aerosol threat plumes with an IR camera pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauth, Ryan; Powell, Christopher; Gruber, Thomas; Clapp, Dan

    2012-06-01

    Protection of fixed sites from chemical, biological, or radiological aerosol plume attacks depends on early warning so that there is time to take mitigating actions. Early warning requires continuous, autonomous, and rapid coverage of large surrounding areas; however, this must be done at an affordable cost. Once a potential threat plume is detected though, a different type of sensor (e.g., a more expensive, slower sensor) may be cued for identification purposes, but the problem is to quickly identify all of the potential threats around the fixed site of interest. To address this problem of low cost, persistent, wide area surveillance, an IR camera pod and multi-image stitching and processing algorithms have been developed for automatic recognition and tracking of aerosol plumes. A rugged, modular, static pod design, which accommodates as many as four micro-bolometer IR cameras for 45deg to 180deg of azimuth coverage, is presented. Various OpenCV1 based image-processing algorithms, including stitching of multiple adjacent FOVs, recognition of aerosol plume objects, and the tracking of aerosol plumes, are presented using process block diagrams and sample field test results, including chemical and biological simulant plumes. Methods for dealing with the background removal, brightness equalization between images, and focus quality for optimal plume tracking are also discussed.

  11. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD)with SLR and DORIS Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Wang, Y. M.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter follow-on, is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. T/P has demonstrated that, the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based on SLR and DORIS tracking. For verification and cross-calibration, Jason-1, was initially injected into the T/P orbit, flying just 72 seconds ahead of T/P. This configuration lasted over 21 Jason cycles. In mid-August T/P was maneuvered into its final tandem configuration, a parallel groundtrack, in order to improve the combined coverage. Preliminary investigations using cycles 1-9, shown at the June 2002 SWT, indicated that nominal Jason orbits can achieve the 2-3 cm accuracy objective, however several puzzling aspects of SLR and DORIS measurement modeling were also observed. This paper presents recent analysis of Jason SLR+DORIS POD spanning more than 20 cycles, and revisits several of the more puzzling issues, including estimation of the Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) offset. The accuracy of the orbits and of the measurement modeling are evaluated using several tests, including SLR, DORIS, and altimeter crossover residual analysis, altimeter collinear analysis, and direct comparison with GPS and other orbits. T/P POD results over the same period are used as a reference.

  12. Data in support of proteome analysis of gynophores and early swelling pods of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Han; Jiang, Nana; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Ye; Li, Changsheng; Li, Aiqin; Zhao, Chuanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Different from most of other plants, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a typical geocarpic species which flowering and forming pegs (gynophores) above the ground. Pegs penetrate into soil for embryo and pod development. To investigate the molecular mechanism of geocarpy feature of peanut, the proteome profiles of aerial grown gynophores (S1), subterranean unswollen gynophores (S2), and gynophores that had just started to swell into pods (S3) were analyzed by combining 1 DE with nano LC–MS/MS approaches. The proteomic data provided valuable information for understanding pod development of peanut. The data described here can be found in the PRIDE Archive using the reference number PXD002579-81. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article in BMC Plant Biology (Zhao et al., 2015 [1]). PMID:26793750

  13. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.

    PubMed

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

  14. Reverse Kinematic Analysis and Uncertainty Analysis of the Space Shuttle AFT Propulsion System (APS) POD Lifting Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brink, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The space shuttle Aft Propulsion System (APS) pod requires precision alignment to be installed onto the orbiter deck. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) used to perform this task cannot be manipulated along a single Cartesian axis without causing motion along the other Cartesian axes. As a result, manipulations required to achieve a desired motion are not intuitive. My study calculated the joint angles required to align the APS pod, using reverse kinematic analysis techniques. Knowledge of these joint angles will allow the ground support team to align the APS pod more safely and efficiently. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to estimate the accuracy associated with this approach and to determine whether any inexpensive modifications can be made to further improve accuracy.

  15. Broiler performance on finisher diets containing different levels of either Pleurotus ostreatus-fermented dried cocoa pod husk or dried cocoa pod husk supplemented with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alemawor, Francis; Oddoye, Emmanuel Okpoti Kofi; Dzogbefia, Victoria P; Oldham, John H; Donkoh, Armstrong

    2010-06-01

    The purpose was to investigate the feeding value of fibrous cocoa pod husk (CPH) either fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus or supplemented with fibre-degrading multi-enzymes (Viscozyme L + Pectinex 5XL) before inclusion in diets for 3-week-old finishing broilers. Growth performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets containing 100, 200 or 300 g kg(-1) of the P. ostreatus-fermented CPH or 100, 200 or 300 g kg(-1) of the enzyme-supplemented CPH as well as a normal broiler finisher diet (control), were investigated in a 35-day feeding trial setup as a completely randomised design, with the seven treatments replicated three times. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments for some of the parameters measured including growth-related indices, percent weights of abdominal fat, intestine, and gizzard. It was concluded that P. ostreatus-fermented dried CPH up to a level of 200 g kg(-1) and enzyme-supplemented dried CPH up to a level of 100 g kg(-1) could be included in broiler finisher diets without any deleterious effects. PMID:20012483

  16. Low frequency magnetic emissions and resulting induced voltages in a pacemaker by iPod portable music players

    PubMed Central

    Bassen, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Background Recently, malfunctioning of a cardiac pacemaker electromagnetic, caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) by fields emitted by personal portable music players was highly publicized around the world. A clinical study of one patient was performed and two types of interference were observed when the clinicians placed a pacemaker programming head and an iPod were placed adjacent to the patient's implanted pacemaker. The authors concluded that "Warning labels may be needed to avoid close contact between pacemakers and iPods". We performed an in-vitro study to evaluate these claims of EMI and present our findings of no-effects" in this paper. Methods We performed in-vitro evaluations of the low frequency magnetic field emissions from various models of the Apple Inc. iPod music player. We measured magnetic field emissions with a 3-coil sensor (diameter of 3.5 cm) placed within 1 cm of the surface of the player. Highly localized fields were observed (only existing in a one square cm area). We also measured the voltages induced inside an 'instrumented-can' pacemaker with two standard unipolar leads. Each iPod was placed in the air, 2.7 cm above the pacemaker case. The pacemaker case and leads were placed in a saline filled torso simulator per pacemaker electromagnetic compatibility standard ANSI/AAMI PC69:2000. Voltages inside the can were measured. Results Emissions were strongest (≈ 0.2 μT pp) near a few localized points on the cases of the two iPods with hard drives. Emissions consisted of 100 kHz sinusoidal signal with lower frequency (20 msec wide) pulsed amplitude modulation. Voltages induced in the iPods were below the noise level of our instruments (0.5 mV pp in the 0 – 1 kHz band or 2 mV pp in the 0 – 5 MHz bandwidth. Conclusion Our measurements of the magnitude and the spatial distribution of low frequency magnetic flux density emissions by 4 different models of iPod portable music players. Levels of less than 0.2 μT exist very close (1 cm

  17. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate and is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao in the Americas. This Basidiomycete only infects cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty ...

  18. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainabl...

  19. Preliminary Orbit Determination System (PODS) for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)-tracked target Spacecraft using the homotopy continuation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschner, S. M.; Samii, M. V.; Broaddus, S. R.; Doll, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    The Preliminary Orbit Determination System (PODS) provides early orbit determination capability in the Trajectory Computation and Orbital Products System (TCOPS) for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)-tracked spacecraft. PODS computes a set of orbit states from an a priori estimate and six tracking measurements, consisting of any combination of TDRSS range and Doppler tracking measurements. PODS uses the homotopy continuation method to solve a set of nonlinear equations, and it is particularly effective for the case when the a priori estimate is not well known. Since range and Doppler measurements produce multiple states in PODS, a screening technique selects the desired state. PODS is executed in the TCOPS environment and can directly access all operational data sets. At the completion of the preliminary orbit determination, the PODS-generated state, along with additional tracking measurements, can be directly input to the differential correction (DC) process to generate an improved state. To validate the computational and operational capabilities of PODS, tests were performed using simulated TDRSS tracking measurements for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite and using real TDRSS measurements for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) spacecraft. The effects of various measurement combinations, varying arc lengths, and levels of degradation of the a priori state vector on the PODS solutions were considered.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  1. A review of flavor, aroma and color enhancement in gluten free and conventional pastries, waffles and dairy desserts with mesquite pod mesocarp flour (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesquite is a nitrogen fixing tree whose pods were a major food for indigenous desert peoples. The main mesquite flour of commerce is milled from the pod mesocarp (without seeds) and contains 45% sucrose, 25% dietary fiber, 8 % protein, and 2 % fat. The limiting amino acids are methionine and cystei...

  2. Examining the Effectiveness of an iPod Touch with Video Prompts to Teach Community Based Vocational Tasks to Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Angela A.

    2012-01-01

    Three student employees with intellectual disabilities and autism used an iPod touch with video prompts to increase their level of independence at work. Using the iPod, they each experienced an increase in correct task completion across three work tasks. In addition, I conducted a social validation study to determine if employers and job coaches…

  3. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOPARASITIC ISOLATES OF TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM WITH POTENTIAL FOR SUPRESSION OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF CACAO IN CAMEROON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative measures are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod disease in Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitism on P. megakarya. Only Trichoderma asperellum isolates 659-7, PR10, PR11, a...

  4. Isolation and identification of mycoparasitic isolates of Trichoderma asperellum with potential for suppression of black pod disease of cacao in Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative measures to chemical fungicides are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod diseasein Central and West Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitismon P. megakarya. Of over 200 isolates...

  5. Taking advantage of the ESA G-POD service to study deformation processes in mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Cignetti, Martina; Ardizzone, Francesca; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; De Luca, Claudio; Manunta, Michele; Casu, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In mountain environments, the analysis of surface displacements is extremely important for a better understanding the effects of mass wasting phenomena, such as landslides, rock-glaciers, and glacier activity. In this scenario, the use of straightforward tools and approaches to monitor surface displacements at high spatial and temporal resolutions is a real need. Here we use the Parallel-SBAS service recently released within the ESA's Grid Processing On Demand environment (G-POD, http://gpod.eo.esa.int/) to generate Earth's surface deformation time series and interferometric production. This service performs the full SBAS-DInSAR chain starting from Level 0 data, and generates displacement time series. We use the data available on the Virtual Archive 4 (http://eo-virtual-archive4.esa.int/, in the framework of Supersite initiative. In the framework of the HAMMER project (part of the NextData initiative, http://www.nextdataproject.it/ ), we produced mean deformation velocity maps, as well as deformation time series, on a regional scale case (Aosta Valley Region, northern Italy), and at local landslide scale (Puy landslide, Piedmont, northen Italy). The possibility to gather the final results in less than 24h (by processing an average of about 30 SAR images for each frame considered), allowed to perform in relatively short time a large number of attempts. By "tuning" the processing, we have maximized for both datasets the final coverage of coherent points, by analysing the effect of SAR images acquired in the winter season, as well as of the impact of perpendicular and temporal baseline constraints. The results obtained with P-SBAS G-POD service on Valle d'Aosta region have been compared to the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DGSD, reference IFFI project), finding a good correlation with the anomalous areas of surface deformation and the catalogued DGSD. In addition, the results obtained on Valle d'Aosta and Piedmont regions show a good agreement to the

  6. A Powder Delivery System (PoDS) for Mars in situ Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, C.; Blake, D.; Saha, C.; Sarrazin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Many instruments proposed for in situ Mars science investigations work best with fine-grained samples of rocks or soils. Such instruments include the mineral analyzer CheMin [1] and any instrument that requires samples having high surface areas (e.g., mass spectrometers, organic analyzers, etc). The Powder Delivery System (PoDS) is designed to deliver powders of selected grain sizes from a sample acquisition device such as an arm-deployed robotic driller or corer to an instrument suite located on the body of a rover/lander. PoDS is capable of size-selective sampling of crushed rocks, soil or drill powder for delivery to instruments that require specific grain sizes (e.g. 5-50 mg of less than150 micron powder for CheMin). Sample material is transported as an aerosol of particles and gas by vacuum advection. In the laboratory a venturi pump driven by compressed air provides the impulse. On Mars, the ambient atmosphere is a source of CO2 that can be captured and compressed by adsorption pumping during diurnal temperature cycling [2]. The lower atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars (7 torr) will affect fundamental parameters of gas-particle interaction such as Reynolds, Stocks and Knudsen numbers [3]. However, calculations show that the PoDS will operate under both Martian and terrestrial atmospheric conditions. Cyclone separators with appropriate particle size selection ranges remove particles from the aerosol stream. The vortex flow inside the cyclone causes grains larger than a specific size to be collected, while smaller grains remain entrained in the gas. Cyclones are very efficient inertial and centrifugal particle separators with cut sizes (d50) as low as 4 microns. Depending on the particle size ranges desired, a series of cyclones with descending cut sizes may be used, the simplest case being a single cyclone for particle deposition without mass separation. Transmission / membrane filters of appropriate pore sizes may also be used to collect powder from

  7. Landscape epidemiology of bean pod mottle comovirus: molecular evidence of heterogeneous sources.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Chunquan; Hill, John H; Rice, Marlin E

    2011-09-01

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) RNAs are grouped into subgroups (sgI and sgII). A BPMV partial diploid reassortant (IA-Di1) from the perennial Desmodium illinoense contained both RNA1 subgroups and an RNA1 recombinant. The RNA2 of IA-Di1 was characteristic of sgII. Additionally, ten BPMV isolates from a soybean field adjacent to the locality of IA-Di1 shared >98.5% nucleotide identity with RNA1 sgII of IA-Di1. The data demonstrate the co-existence of two differing consensus BPMV RNA1 subgroups in adjacent habitats and illustrate variation in virus genetic structure that can occur in a contiguous plant community. PMID:21562882

  8. Antinociceptive and Toxicological Effects of Dioclea grandiflora Seed Pod in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Rita de Cássia da Silveira e; de Oliveira, Leandra Eugênia Gomes; de Farias Nóbrega, Franklin Ferreira; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega

    2010-01-01

    The acute treatment of mice with an ethanolic extract from the seed pod of Dioclea grandiflora (EDgP) at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration produced a significant antinociceptive effect as displayed by the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the formalin test. The antinociception was observed through the first (neurogenic pain) and second (inflammatory pain) phases in the formalin test. The hot plate test did not show an increase in the antinociceptive latency whereas the motor performance was affected by the administration at 300 mg/kg at the beginning (30 minutes) of the observation period but not at later periods (60 and 120 minutes). These results suggest that EDgP has a central antinociceptive action and a possible anti-inflammatory activity in mice. PMID:20368784

  9. Simulation of hydrodynamic performance of drag and double reverse propeller podded propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chunyu; Dou, Pengfei; Jing, Tao; Zhao, Dagang

    2016-03-01

    The unsteady performance of drag and double reverse propeller podded propulsors in open water was numerically simulated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. A moving mesh method was used to more realistically simulate propulsor working conditions, and the thrust, torque, and lateral force coefficients of both propulsors were compared and analyzed. Forces acting on different parts of the propulsors along with the flow field distribution of steady and unsteady results at different advance coefficients were compared. Moreover, the change of the lateral force and the difference between the abovementioned two methods were mainly analyzed. It was shown that the thrust and torque results of both methods were similar, with the lateral force results having the highest deviation

  10. A Wing Pod-based Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar on HIAPER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Tsai, Peisang; Ellis, Scott; Loew, Eric; Lee, Wen-Chau; Emmett, Joanthan

    2014-05-01

    One of the attractive features of a millimeter wave radar system is its ability to detect micron-sized particles that constitute clouds with lower than 0.1 g m-3 liquid or ice water content. Scanning or vertically-pointing ground-based millimeter wavelength radars are used to study stratocumulus (Vali et al. 1998; Kollias and Albrecht 2000) and fair-weather cumulus (Kollias et al. 2001). Airborne millimeter wavelength radars have been used for atmospheric remote sensing since the early 1990s (Pazmany et al. 1995). Airborne millimeter wavelength radar systems, such as the University of Wyoming King Air Cloud Radar (WCR) and the NASA ER-2 Cloud Radar System (CRS), have added mobility to observe clouds in remote regions and over oceans. Scientific requirements of millimeter wavelength radar are mainly driven by climate and cloud initiation studies. Survey results from the cloud radar user community indicated a common preference for a narrow beam W-band radar with polarimetric and Doppler capabilities for airborne remote sensing of clouds. For detecting small amounts of liquid and ice, it is desired to have -30 dBZ sensitivity at a 10 km range. Additional desired capabilities included a second wavelength and/or dual-Doppler winds. Modern radar technology offers various options (e.g., dual-polarization and dual-wavelength). Even though a basic fixed beam Doppler radar system with a sensitivity of -30 dBZ at 10 km is capable of satisfying cloud detection requirements, the above-mentioned additional options, namely dual-wavelength, and dual-polarization, significantly extend the measurement capabilities to further reduce any uncertainty in radar-based retrievals of cloud properties. This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wave radar, preliminary radar measurements and corresponding derived scientific products. Since some of the primary engineering requirements of this millimeter wave radar are that it should be deployable on an airborne platform

  11. Peas in a pod: quasi-one-dimensional C60 molecules in a nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatica, Silvina M.; Mercedes Calbi, M.; Cole, Milton W.

    2003-03-01

    We evaluate the equation of state of the quasi-one-dimensional phase of C60 molecules in small carbon nanotubes, nicknamed "peas in a pod"[1,2]. The pressure and chemical potential are evaluated as functions of the temperature and density, within the approximation of nearest neighbor interactions and classical statistical mechanics. A phase transition to a 3D anisotropic condensed phase is predicted as a result of the interaction between molecules in adjacent tubes. [1] B.W. Smith, M. Monthioux and D.E. Luzzi, Nature 296, 323 (1998). [2] M. Hodak, L.A. Girifalco, Phys. Rev. B 64, 035407 (2001), Chem. Phys. Lett. 350, 405 (2001); L.A. Girifalco and M. Hodak, App. Phys. A, in press.

  12. Laboratory Pod Data Acquisition from Inner Layer Cracks in Simulated Airframe Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Brian; Madison, Erin; Nakagawa, Norio

    2009-03-01

    This paper discusses the acquisition and processing of experimental data collected using a low frequency eddy current sliding probe to inspect aluminum, simulated airframe structure for inner layer cracks. This effort is part of a model-assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) study aimed at complex structure. Since the experimental data will be compared to idealized model-generated data, an automated scanning setup in the laboratory was used to produce results with minimal human factor variables and low measurement uncertainty. While good reproducibility of the data was achieved, the inherent nature of the multilayer, riveted structure resulted in significant scatter in the data. This scatter required special statically processing techniques to produce a meaningful POD curve, which will be discussed in an accompanying paper.

  13. SR-71 #844 with LASRE pod parked on ramp, rear view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment is seen here almost ready for its first flight aboard NASA's SR-71 No. 844. The initial test flight took place on 31 October 1997. The experiment was mounted on the SR-71 on Aug. 26, at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific

  14. POD based analysis of three-dimensional stall over a pitching wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melius, Matthew; Bayoan Cal, Raul; Mulleners, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine blade is a predominant factor in its power production. Under dynamic loading conditions, predicted aerodynamic loads often do not match operational loads. In the interest of gaining understanding of the complex flow over wind turbine blades, a three-dimensional scaled blade model has been designed and manufactured to be dynamically similar to a rotating full-scale NREL 5MW wind turbine blade. Time resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements collected over the suction surface of an inboard section of the experimental turbine blade. Flow characteristics are analyzed using coherent structure identification techniques to capture dynamic stall behavior. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the velocity field providing information about separation point and stall development time scales based on the associated time coefficients and modes. Additionally, continuity and circulation calculations are used to capture three dimensional effects within stalled volumes during developing stall and re-attachment phases of dynamic stall.

  15. SR-71 with LASRE pod parked on ramp next to SR-71B trainer aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71A with the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment mounted parks beside a NASA SR-71B trainer aircraft. The linear aerospike experiment was mounted on the SR-71 No. 844 on Aug. 26, at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in preparation for its first flight, which took place on 31 October 1997. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the

  16. Teaching Functional Use of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meer, Larah; Kagohara, Debora; Achmadi, Donna; Green, Vanessa A.; Herrington, Christina; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that individuals with developmental disabilities who lack speech may be enabled to communicate through the use of a new iPod-based communication device. However, there appear to be limited empirical data demonstrating successful use of this new device by such individuals. This study was designed to provide empirical…

  17. Survey of High School Students' Perceptions about Their iPod Use, Knowledge of Hearing Health, and Need for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Dunne, Aislinn F.; Young, Matthew D.; Rotan, Suzanne N.; Snelson, Tasha A.; Stockwell, Jennifer S.; McLain, Michelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: High school students' knowledge about hearing health and their perceptions of how they use personal listening devices (PLDs) including iPods were surveyed to determine the need, content, and preferred format for educational outreach to them. Method: This study was a descriptive convenience survey of students at a California high school.…

  18. TOWARDS INTEGRATED CONTROL OF FROSTY POD ROT (MONILIOPHTHORA RORERI) OF CACAO: A MODEL PROGRAMME FOR PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a major biological constraint to cocoa production in Latin America. The pathogen is still in an invasive phase and poses a continuing threat to other cocoa growing areas of Latin America (Brazil and Bolivia), having recently invade...

  19. Personal Devices in Public Settings: Lessons Learned from an iPod Touch/iPad Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Susan; Pegler, Karen; White, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Our paper reports findings from a two-phase deployment of iPod Touch and iPad devices in a large, urban Canadian school board. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the infrastructure required to support handheld devices in classrooms; the opportunities and challenges teachers face as they begin to use handheld devices for…

  20. STS-46 Atlantis', OV-104's, vertical tail and OMS pods lit up by RCS jet firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are highlighted by the glow of the reaction control system (RCS) jet firings. OV-104 was at an altitude of 128 nautical miles. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is partially visible stowed along the port side sill longeron.

  1. Peanut peg strength and post harvest pod scavenging for full phenotypic yield over digging date and variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New peanut cultivars are available with very high yield potential and high levels of disease resistance. With rising input costs and shrinking return margins, all efforts must be made to harvest the full yield produced. Peanut crops are susceptible to high levels of pod loss during digging from a ...

  2. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  3. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  4. The iPod Touch as a Means for Providing English Language Arts Instruction in Grade Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felicello, Kris

    2011-01-01

    In quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated and compared the effectiveness of two types of ELA instruction: (a) traditional ELA instruction methods such as flash cards practice, read aloud, dittos, and (b) instruction using iPod touch applications as a teaching resource. Two classes of heterogeneously grouped 5 [superscript th] grade…

  5. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

  6. Reaction of mid-southern U.S. southern cultivars to Bean pod mottle virus and Tobacco ringspot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) and Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) are two important viral pathogens causing reduction of seed yield and quality in soybean. There are various BPMV and TRSV isolates observed, but no host resistance reported so far. The objective of this study was to screen modern soybean...

  7. Pod mesocarp flour of North and South American species of Leguminous tree (mesquite): Composition and food applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour from the mesocarp of pods of the tree legume known as mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in North America or algarrobo in South America was one of the most important food staples for desert people. Contemporary milling techniques produces a similar flour that is about 40% sucrose, 25% dietary fiber, and...

  8. Sensitive and specific detection of mosaic chromosomal abnormalities using the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mosaic somatic alterations are present in all multi-cellular organisms, but the physiological effects of low-level mosaicism are largely unknown. Most mosaic alterations remain undetectable with current analytical approaches, although the presence of such alterations is increasingly implicated as causative for disease. Results Here, we present the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method for chromosomal abnormality detection in trio-based SNP microarray data. Our software implementation, triPOD, was benchmarked using a simulated dataset, outperformed comparable software for sensitivity of abnormality detection, and displayed substantial improvement in the detection of low-level mosaicism while maintaining comparable specificity. Examples of low-level mosaic abnormalities from a large autism dataset demonstrate the benefits of the increased sensitivity provided by triPOD. The triPOD analyses showed robustness across multiple types of Illumina microarray chips. Two large, clinically-relevant datasets were characterized and compared. Conclusions Our method and software provide a significant advancement in the ability to detect low-level mosaic abnormalities, thereby opening new avenues for research into the implications of mosaicism in pathogenic and non-pathogenic processes. PMID:23724825

  9. Evaluation of bioethanol production from carob pods by Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae In solid submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saharkhiz, Saeed; Mazaheri, Davood; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol production from carob pods has attracted many researchers due to its high sugar content. Both Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used previously for this purpose in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Since extraction of sugars from the carob pod particles is a costly process, solid-state and solid submerged fermentations, which do not require the sugar extraction step, may be economical processes for bioethanol production. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bioethanol production in solid submerged fermentation from carob pods. The maximum ethanol production of 0.42 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained for Z. mobilis at 30°C, initial pH 5.3, and inoculum size of 5% v/v, 9 g carob powder per 50 mL of culture media, agitation rate 0 rpm, and fermentation time of 40 hr. The maximum ethanol production for S. cerevisiae was 0.40 g g(-1) initial sugar under the same condition. The results obtained in this research are comparable to those of Z. mobilis and S. cerevisiae performance in other culture mediums from various agricultural sources. Accordingly, solid submerged fermentation has a potential to be an economical process for bioethanol production from carob pods. PMID:23581778

  10. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  11. An Investigation of Using iPod Fluency Apps and Repeated Reading with Self-Recording for CLDE Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Deanna J.

    2012-01-01

    School districts are struggling with how to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional (CLDE) students. Research has correlated improvement in core language learning--writing, reading decoding, reading comprehension, and listening--with the use of iPods. This dissertation therefore examines the ability of current, portable…

  12. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... States. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) received a request from the national...

  13. Three Students with Developmental Disabilities Learn to Operate an iPod to Access Age-Appropriate Entertainment Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagohara, Debora M.

    2011-01-01

    Students with developmental disabilities may not have the necessary skills or the same opportunities to access multimedia-based leisure materials as their typical peers. Portable multimedia devices such as the iPod Touch[R] may provide them with a useful tool for accessing age-appropriate leisure material. The present study examined the…

  14. Using Video Modeling Delivered through iPods to Teach Vocational Tasks to Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using video modeling delivered through a Portable media player (video iPod) as a means of teaching three job-related tasks to four young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a community-based employment setting. The videos used in the study were enhanced by adding written…

  15. Agricultural Science and Technology Teachers' Perceptions of iPod and Mp3 Technology Integration into Curricular and Cocurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe agricultural science and technology teachers' reaction to iPod and mp3 technology use and potential use in both curricular and cocurricular activities. A total of 112 unique respondents provided written responses to open-ended questions. Study findings reveal that agricultural science and technology…

  16. [Leaf physiological traits at pod-setting stage in peanut cultivars with different drought resistance].

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Feng-Zhen; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wan, Yong-Shan

    2014-07-01

    With twelve peanut cultivars grown under artificial water control, the drought resistance related physiological and biochemical traits and the drought resistance mechanism of peanut leaves were studied. Two water treatments were designed, that were 50% and 70% of the soil relative water content of the 0-80 cm soil layer, respectively, at pod-setting stage. The results showed that the twelve peanut cultivars could be grouped into three different resistance levels based on their yield drought resistance coefficient. The A596, Shanhua 11 and Rugaoxiyangsheng were grouped as cultivars with high resistance, while Huayu 20, Nongda 818, Haihua 1, Shanhua 9 and 79266 with moderate resistance, and the ICG6848, Baisha 1016, Hua 17 and Penglaiyiwohou with weak resistance. The mechanism of high drought resistance in peanut cultivars of A596, Shanhua 11 and Rugaoxiyangsheng were due to more powerful antioxidant capacity, higher activity of photosystem II (PS II) and photosynthetic rate (Pn). By contrast, the moderate resistant cultivars Haihua 1 had stronger antioxidant protection capability, and the Shanhua 9 had much higher PS II activity. The Pn, stomatal limitation value (Ls), maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (q(p)), content of malondialdehyde (MDA), relative electric conductivity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of leaves were very significantly correlated with the drought resistance coefficient. Therefore, they were important indicative traits for the drought resistance at pod-setting stage of peanuts. These traits could be evaluated under normal irrigation condition except that the SOD activity should be identified under drought stress. Based on this study, we proposed that Shanhua 11 and 79266 could serve as standard cultivars of high drought resistance and weak drought resistance, respectively. Shanhua 11 could also serve as a standard cultivar for identification of leaf drought resistance traits in peanut

  17. mQTL-seq delineates functionally relevant candidate gene harbouring a major QTL regulating pod number in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Das, Shouvik; Singh, Mohar; Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Rana, Jai C; Bansal, Kailash C; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-02-01

    The present study used a whole-genome, NGS resequencing-based mQTL-seq (multiple QTL-seq) strategy in two inter-specific mapping populations (Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46 and Pusa 256 × ILWC 46) to scan the major genomic region(s) underlying QTL(s) governing pod number trait in chickpea. Essentially, the whole-genome resequencing of low and high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals (constituting bulks) from each of these two mapping populations discovered >8 million high-quality homozygous SNPs with respect to the reference kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of the physically mapped SNPs was apparent from the identified 2,264 non-synonymous and 23,550 regulatory SNPs, with 8-10% of these SNPs-carrying genes corresponding to transcription factors and disease resistance-related proteins. The utilization of these mined SNPs in Δ (SNP index)-led QTL-seq analysis and their correlation between two mapping populations based on mQTL-seq, narrowed down two (Caq(a)PN4.1: 867.8 kb and Caq(a)PN4.2: 1.8 Mb) major genomic regions harbouring robust pod number QTLs into the high-resolution short QTL intervals (Caq(b)PN4.1: 637.5 kb and Caq(b)PN4.2: 1.28 Mb) on chickpea chromosome 4. The integration of mQTL-seq-derived one novel robust QTL with QTL region-specific association analysis delineated the regulatory (C/T) and coding (C/A) SNPs-containing one pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene at a major QTL region regulating pod number in chickpea. This target gene exhibited anther, mature pollen and pod-specific expression, including pronounced higher up-regulated (∼3.5-folds) transcript expression in high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two mapping populations especially during pollen and pod development. The proposed mQTL-seq-driven combinatorial strategy has profound efficacy in rapid genome-wide scanning of potential candidate gene(s) underlying trait-associated high-resolution robust QTL(s), thereby

  18. mQTL-seq delineates functionally relevant candidate gene harbouring a major QTL regulating pod number in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shouvik; Singh, Mohar; Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Rana, Jai C.; Bansal, Kailash C.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a whole-genome, NGS resequencing-based mQTL-seq (multiple QTL-seq) strategy in two inter-specific mapping populations (Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46 and Pusa 256 × ILWC 46) to scan the major genomic region(s) underlying QTL(s) governing pod number trait in chickpea. Essentially, the whole-genome resequencing of low and high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals (constituting bulks) from each of these two mapping populations discovered >8 million high-quality homozygous SNPs with respect to the reference kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of the physically mapped SNPs was apparent from the identified 2,264 non-synonymous and 23,550 regulatory SNPs, with 8–10% of these SNPs-carrying genes corresponding to transcription factors and disease resistance-related proteins. The utilization of these mined SNPs in Δ (SNP index)-led QTL-seq analysis and their correlation between two mapping populations based on mQTL-seq, narrowed down two (CaqaPN4.1: 867.8 kb and CaqaPN4.2: 1.8 Mb) major genomic regions harbouring robust pod number QTLs into the high-resolution short QTL intervals (CaqbPN4.1: 637.5 kb and CaqbPN4.2: 1.28 Mb) on chickpea chromosome 4. The integration of mQTL-seq-derived one novel robust QTL with QTL region-specific association analysis delineated the regulatory (C/T) and coding (C/A) SNPs-containing one pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene at a major QTL region regulating pod number in chickpea. This target gene exhibited anther, mature pollen and pod-specific expression, including pronounced higher up-regulated (∼3.5-folds) transcript expression in high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two mapping populations especially during pollen and pod development. The proposed mQTL-seq-driven combinatorial strategy has profound efficacy in rapid genome-wide scanning of potential candidate gene(s) underlying trait-associated high-resolution robust QTL(s), thereby expediting

  19. Effects of acute and 2-hour postphysical activity on the estimation of body fat made by the bod pod.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Bradley J; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    The Bod Pod has been found to be reliable/valid against several criterion methods, including hydrostatic weighing and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and under different conditions, such as clothing, dehydrated states, and body temperature changes. However, questions remain regarding the effects of an acute bout of exercise. Therefore, the purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on the estimations made by the Bod Pod. Participants (15 men and 22 women) were of age 18-27 years and were currently exercising. Baseline Bod Pod measures were completed followed by a 30-minute cycling trial at 75% of maximum heart rate. Bod Pod measures were taken immediately after exercise and 2 hours after exercise. Differences between men and women were found at baseline between height (p < 0.001), weight (p < 0.001), body volume (BV; p < 0.001), and body density (Db; p < 0.001). Among men, body mass (p < 0.001), body fat percentage (%BF; p < 0.001), and BV (p < 0.001) decreased, whereas Db (p < 0.001) and body temperature (p < 0.001) increased directly after exercise; body mass (p < 0.001) and BV (p < 0.001) remained lower after 2 hours. Among women, body mass (p < 0.001) and BV (p < 0.001) decreased, whereas thoracic gas volume (p = 0.014) and temperature (p < 0.001) increased directly after exercise; body mass (p < 0.001) and BV (p < 0.001) remained lower, whereas %BF (p < 0.001) and Db (p = 0.006) remained higher 2 hours after exercise. These results suggest that a single bout of exercise immediately before Bod Pod testing seems to alter the estimate of %BF, and continues to affect the prediction 2 hours after exercise in women. PMID:25756324

  20. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Laconi, Erika B.; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest’s fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (p<0.01) with the following order of effectiveness: CPh>CAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05) of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01) with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05). It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the

  1. POD promoted oxidative gelation of water-extractable arabinoxylan through ferulic acid dimers. Evidence for its negative effect on malt filterability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dianhui; Zhou, Ting; Li, Xiaomin; Cai, Guolin; Lu, Jian

    2016-04-15

    As a major component of non-starch polysaccharide in barley, arabinoxylan (AX) plays an important role in quality traits of malt and the final beer product. The Chinese barley malt has encountered filterability problems for a long time. The main reason caused by barley cultivar has been accepted in the malting and brewing industries. In our previous proteomic study, the peroxidase (POD) BP1 was found to be in quite high abundant in the filterability defect Chinese barley malt. Therefore, the present study tried to verify its negative effect on filterability, by surveying its activity in different malt samples and detecting effects of POD on AX gelation and filterability. The results showed that the activity of POD, as well as the content of AX bounded ferulic acid, were both negatively correlated with filterability, while the feruloyl esterase activity was positively correlated with it. In addition, AX gelation catalyzed by POD caused worse filterability, and the natural inhibitor of POD, vitamin C, could blocked the cross linking catalyzed by POD and thus improve the filterability. These results all suggested the great negative effect of POD on malt filterability. PMID:26616970

  2. Combining of different data pools for calculating a reliable POD for real defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Müller, Christina; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-01

    Real defects are essential for the evaluation of the reliability of non destructive testing (NDT) methods, especially in relation to the integrity of components. But in most of the cases the amount of available real defects is not sufficient to evaluate the system. Model-assisted and transfer functions are one way to handle that challenge. This study is focused on a combination of different data pools to create a sufficient amount of data for the reliability estimation. A widespread approach for calculating the Probability of Detection (POD) was used on a radiographic testing (RT) method. The highest contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of each indication is usually selected as the signal in the "â vs. a" (signal-response) approach for RT. By combining real and artificial defects (flat bottom holes, side drill holes, flat bottom squares, notches, etc) in RT the highest signals are close to each other, but the process of creating and evaluating real defects is much more complex. The solution is seen in the combination of real and artificial data using a weighted least square approach. The weights for real or artificial data were based on the importance, the value and the different detection behavior of the different data. For comparison, the alternative combination through the Bayesian Updating was also applied. As verification, a data pool with a large amount of real data was available. In an advanced approach for evaluating the digital RT data, the size of the indication (perpendicular to the X-ray beam) was introduced as additional information. The signal now consists of the CNR and the area of the indication. The detectability is changing depending on the area of the indication, a fact that was ignored in the previous POD calculations for RT. This points out that a weighted least square approach to pool the data might no longer be adequate. The Bayesian Updating of the estimated parameters of the relationship between the signal field (the area of the indication) and

  3. Combining of different data pools for calculating a reliable POD for real defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzler, Daniel E-mail: christina.mueller@bam.de; Müller, Christina E-mail: christina.mueller@bam.de; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-31

    Real defects are essential for the evaluation of the reliability of non destructive testing (NDT) methods, especially in relation to the integrity of components. But in most of the cases the amount of available real defects is not sufficient to evaluate the system. Model-assisted and transfer functions are one way to handle that challenge. This study is focused on a combination of different data pools to create a sufficient amount of data for the reliability estimation. A widespread approach for calculating the Probability of Detection (POD) was used on a radiographic testing (RT) method. The highest contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of each indication is usually selected as the signal in the 'â vs. a' (signal-response) approach for RT. By combining real and artificial defects (flat bottom holes, side drill holes, flat bottom squares, notches, etc) in RT the highest signals are close to each other, but the process of creating and evaluating real defects is much more complex. The solution is seen in the combination of real and artificial data using a weighted least square approach. The weights for real or artificial data were based on the importance, the value and the different detection behavior of the different data. For comparison, the alternative combination through the Bayesian Updating was also applied. As verification, a data pool with a large amount of real data was available. In an advanced approach for evaluating the digital RT data, the size of the indication (perpendicular to the X-ray beam) was introduced as additional information. The signal now consists of the CNR and the area of the indication. The detectability is changing depending on the area of the indication, a fact that was ignored in the previous POD calculations for RT. This points out that a weighted least square approach to pool the data might no longer be adequate. The Bayesian Updating of the estimated parameters of the relationship between the signal field (the area of the indication) and

  4. A Hybrid Optimization Framework with POD-based Order Reduction and Design-Space Evolution Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoman, Satyajit S.

    The main objective of this research is to develop an innovative multi-fidelity multi-disciplinary design, analysis and optimization suite that integrates certain solution generation codes and newly developed innovative tools to improve the overall optimization process. The research performed herein is divided into two parts: (1) the development of an MDAO framework by integration of variable fidelity physics-based computational codes, and (2) enhancements to such a framework by incorporating innovative features extending its robustness. The first part of this dissertation describes the development of a conceptual Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment (M3 DOE), in context of aircraft wing optimization. M 3 DOE provides the user a capability to optimize configurations with a choice of (i) the level of fidelity desired, (ii) the use of a single-step or multi-step optimization strategy, and (iii) combination of a series of structural and aerodynamic analyses. The modularity of M3 DOE allows it to be a part of other inclusive optimization frameworks. The M 3 DOE is demonstrated within the context of shape and sizing optimization of the wing of a Generic Business Jet aircraft. Two different optimization objectives, viz. dry weight minimization, and cruise range maximization are studied by conducting one low-fidelity and two high-fidelity optimization runs to demonstrate the application scope of M3 DOE. The second part of this dissertation describes the development of an innovative hybrid optimization framework that extends the robustness of M 3 DOE by employing a proper orthogonal decomposition-based design-space order reduction scheme combined with the evolutionary algorithm technique. The POD method of extracting dominant modes from an ensemble of candidate configurations is used for the design-space order reduction. The snapshot of candidate population is updated iteratively using evolutionary algorithm technique of

  5. Driving error and anxiety related to iPod mp3 player use in a simulated driving experience.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ashley R; Carden, Randy L

    2009-08-01

    Driver distraction due to cellular phone usage has repeatedly been shown to increase the risk of vehicular accidents; however, the literature regarding the use of other personal electronic devices while driving is relatively sparse. It was hypothesized that the usage of an mp3 player would result in an increase in not only driving error while operating a driving simulator, but driver anxiety scores as well. It was also hypothesized that anxiety scores would be positively related to driving errors when using an mp3 player. 32 participants drove through a set course in a driving simulator twice, once with and once without an iPod mp3 player, with the order counterbalanced. Number of driving errors per course, such as leaving the road, impacts with stationary objects, loss of vehicular control, etc., and anxiety were significantly higher when an iPod was in use. Anxiety scores were unrelated to number of driving errors. PMID:19831096

  6. Model-order reduction of magneto-harmonic problems based on POD: application to planar magnetic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Laurent; Henneron, Thomas; Margueron, Xavier; Le Menach, Yvonnick; Le Moigne, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Predetermination of losses and inductance values in the design phase, is necessary for the development of high-performance magnetic components for power electronics. Numerical modeling, based on the finite element method (FEM) can be used to determine the characteristics of a particular component with a complex geometry in high frequency (HF). These models are very accurate but the computation time required is high compared to analytical models. The model order reduction (MOR) methods can be applied to reduce the computation time while maintaining high accuracy. Nowadays, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the most popular of MOR approaches. This technique has been applied to study problems in many fields of engineering. In this paper, the POD method is developed to solve magneto-harmonic problems in order to study a HF planar magnetic inductor. Contribution to the topical issue "Numelec 2015-Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  7. Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.

    PubMed

    Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

    1986-01-01

    The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40∶60∶4∶6∶10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

  8. A Wing Pod-based Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar on HIAPER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Tsai, Peisang; Ellis, Scott; Loew, Eric; Lee, Wen-Chau; Emmett, Joanthan

    2014-05-01

    One of the attractive features of a millimeter wave radar system is its ability to detect micron-sized particles that constitute clouds with lower than 0.1 g m-3 liquid or ice water content. Scanning or vertically-pointing ground-based millimeter wavelength radars are used to study stratocumulus (Vali et al. 1998; Kollias and Albrecht 2000) and fair-weather cumulus (Kollias et al. 2001). Airborne millimeter wavelength radars have been used for atmospheric remote sensing since the early 1990s (Pazmany et al. 1995). Airborne millimeter wavelength radar systems, such as the University of Wyoming King Air Cloud Radar (WCR) and the NASA ER-2 Cloud Radar System (CRS), have added mobility to observe clouds in remote regions and over oceans. Scientific requirements of millimeter wavelength radar are mainly driven by climate and cloud initiation studies. Survey results from the cloud radar user community indicated a common preference for a narrow beam W-band radar with polarimetric and Doppler capabilities for airborne remote sensing of clouds. For detecting small amounts of liquid and ice, it is desired to have -30 dBZ sensitivity at a 10 km range. Additional desired capabilities included a second wavelength and/or dual-Doppler winds. Modern radar technology offers various options (e.g., dual-polarization and dual-wavelength). Even though a basic fixed beam Doppler radar system with a sensitivity of -30 dBZ at 10 km is capable of satisfying cloud detection requirements, the above-mentioned additional options, namely dual-wavelength, and dual-polarization, significantly extend the measurement capabilities to further reduce any uncertainty in radar-based retrievals of cloud properties. This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wave radar, preliminary radar measurements and corresponding derived scientific products. Since some of the primary engineering requirements of this millimeter wave radar are that it should be deployable on an airborne platform

  9. Geographical variation in shell shape of the pod razor shell Ensis siliqua (Bivalvia: Pharidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, Marta M.; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Pereira, Fábio; Fernández-Tajes, Juan; Darriba, Susana; Méndez, Josefina; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2013-03-01

    The present study assessed the existence of variation in the shell shape of the pod razor shell ( Ensis siliqua) throughout its distributional range in the north-eastern Atlantic. Shells of E. siliqua caught at seven collecting sites (three in Portugal, three in Spain and one in Ireland) were studied by geometric morphometric methods, using both landmark- and contour-based methods. Both approaches (landmarks inside the valves and shell outline) discriminated the shells from Aveiro (centre of Portugal) and Strangford Lough (Ireland) from those caught in the nearby localities (remaining Portuguese and Spanish sites, maximum distance of 550 km by sea). Landmark analysis revealed that shells from Aveiro were more similar to shells from Ireland (~1,500 km far away). Contour analysis revealed that shells from Aveiro had a shape with a comparatively larger height-to-width ratio, whereas shells from Ireland showed a slightly more curved outline than in the remaining sites. Landmark- and contour-based methods provided coherent complementary information, confirming the usefulness of geometric morphometric analyses for discerning differences in shell shape among populations of E. siliqua. A brief review of previous applications of geometric morphometric methods to modern bivalve species is also provided.

  10. Simulation in Nursing Education: iPod As a Teaching Tool for Undergraduate Nurses.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer; Webster, Sue; Gallagher, Susan; Brown, Peter; Sinclair, John

    2015-07-01

    Most people with psychosis and schizophrenia experience auditory hallucinations, particularly the hearing of voices. A common cause of frustration and alienation for consumers is the lack of understanding by therapists, family members and caregivers, who find it difficult to relate to the consumers' experiences. The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate whether students' participation in a simulated auditory hallucination will increase their understanding and knowledge about psychosis and auditory hallucinations. The design method consisted of a lecture on psychosis and schizophrenia disorders, followed by a simulation of auditory hallucinations using iPods. Students' knowledge and perceptions of psychosis and hallucinations was assessed using quasi-experimental pre-post matched-design questionnaires. The questionnaire was divided into two parts, the first comprised closed questions to assess students' knowledge, and the second part consisted of open-ended questions to collect information about students' perceptions of auditory hallucinations. The results confirmed that students' knowledge of psychosis and hallucination increased following the teaching session and simulation is a useful tool to prepare students for clinical placements in mental health practice. PMID:26309169

  11. Multiband infrared plume simulator for HWIL testing of the tactical FLIR pod modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Matthew C.; Pritchett, Donald G.; Ellis, Thomas A.

    1998-07-01

    A multi-band infrared plume simulator (MIPS) system capable of projecting light from three spectrally separate, dynamic infrared (IR) sources has been developed by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) and Mission Research Corporation (MRC). The purpose of this system is to provide long-wave IR (LWIR) movies of bomb explosions for a forward looking IR (FLIR), and high power pulses of medium-wave IR (MWIR) light to simulate the radiance intensity from the plumes in two bands for a non-imaging radiometer. The FLIR and two-color radiometer are detectors in the new Tactical FLIR Pod Modification (TFPM). The LWIR movies are generated with a DSWA Nuclear Optical Dynamic Display System (NODDS) 512 X 512 suspended membrane emitter array. The MWIR plume signatures are generated with two lead-salt laser diodes. The emitter array supplies the 8 micrometer to 12 micrometer, time-varying images with peak apparent temperatures of about 350 K. The two laser diodes, one emitting at 4.6 micrometer and the other at 3.8 micrometer, supply the higher power signals to simulate greater than 1000 K plumes for the two-color radiometer. The design of the MIPS is based on the design of the TFPM and the TFPM is based on the results from the Dipole Pride test series, so this paper will review the Dipole Pride results and the TFPM specifications in addition to examining the operation of the MIPS.

  12. Synthetic aperture radar data visualization on the iPod Touch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouts, Aaron; Vickery, Rhonda; Majumder, Uttam; Burchett, Tracy; Klein, Troy; Minardi, Michael

    2010-04-01

    A major area of focus for the Air Force is sensor performance in urban environments. Aircraft with multiple sensor modalities, such as Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR), Infrared (IR), and Electro-Optics (EO), are essential for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) of current and future urban battlefields. Although applications exist for visualization of these types of imagery, they usually require at least a laptop computer and internet connection. Field operatives need to be able to access georeferenced information about imagery as part of a Geographic Information System (GIS) on mobile devices. The iPod/iPhone has a 640x480 resolution multi-touch display, making it an excellent device for interacting with georeferenced imagery. We created an iPhone application that loads SAR imagery and allows the user to interact with it. The user multi-touch interface provides pan and zoom capabilities as well as options to change parameters relating to the query. We describe how operatives in the field can use this application to investigate SAR and GIS related problems on the iPhone mobile device, which otherwise would require a computer and Internet connection.

  13. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. PMID:20213690

  14. Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of okra pod hydrocolloid.

    PubMed

    Samavati, Vahid

    2013-10-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed to extract the hydrocolloid from okra pods (OPH). The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction of OPH were determined by response surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (microwave power (X1: 100-500 W), extraction time (X2: 30-90 min), and extraction temperature (X3: 40-90 °C)) on the extraction yield of OPH. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the microwave extraction of OPH. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest recovery of OPH (14.911±0.27%) were as follows: microwave power, 395.56 W; extraction time, 67.11 min and extraction temperature, 73.33 °C. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed with the predicted ones by analysis of variance. It indicated high fitness of the model used and the success of response surface methodology for optimizing OPH extraction. After method development, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the OPH was evaluated. MAE showed obvious advantages in terms of high extraction efficiency and radical scavenging activity of extract within the shorter extraction time. PMID:23817104

  15. Pods: a Powder Delivery System for Mars In-situ Organic, Mineralogic and Isotopic Analysis Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, C. P.; Bryson, C. E.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.

    2005-01-01

    Many Mars in situ instruments require fine-grained high-fidelity samples of rocks or soil. Included are instruments for the determination of mineralogy as well as organic and isotopic chemistry. Powder can be obtained as a primary objective of a sample collection system (e.g., by collecting powder as a surface is abraded by a rotary abrasion tool (RAT)), or as a secondary objective (e.g, by collecting drill powder as a core is drilled). In the latter case, a properly designed system could be used to monitor drilling in real time as well as to deliver powder to analytical instruments which would perform complementary analyses to those later performed on the intact core. In addition, once a core or other sample is collected, a system that could transfer intelligently collected subsamples of power from the intact core to a suite of analytical instruments would be highly desirable. We have conceptualized, developed and tested a breadboard Powder Delivery System (PoDS) intended to satisfy the collection, processing and distribution requirements of powder samples for Mars in-situ mineralogic, organic and isotopic measurement instruments.

  16. Genome-Wide Delineation of Natural Variation for Pod Shatter Resistance in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Kilian, Andrzej; Detering, Frank; Carling, Jason; Coombes, Neil; Diffey, Simon; Kadkol, Gururaj; Edwards, David; McCully, Margaret; Ruperao, Pradeep; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Batley, Jacqueline; Luckett, David J.; Wratten, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to pod shattering (shatter resistance) is a target trait for global rapeseed (canola, Brassica napus L.), improvement programs to minimise grain loss in the mature standing crop, and during windrowing and mechanical harvest. We describe the genetic basis of natural variation for shatter resistance in B. napus and show that several quantitative trait loci (QTL) control this trait. To identify loci underlying shatter resistance, we used a novel genotyping-by-sequencing approach DArT-Seq. QTL analysis detected a total of 12 significant QTL on chromosomes A03, A07, A09, C03, C04, C06, and C08; which jointly account for approximately 57% of the genotypic variation in shatter resistance. Through Genome-Wide Association Studies, we show that a large number of loci, including those that are involved in shattering in Arabidopsis, account for variation in shatter resistance in diverse B. napus germplasm. Our results indicate that genetic diversity for shatter resistance genes in B. napus is limited; many of the genes that might control this trait were not included during the natural creation of this species, or were not retained during the domestication and selection process. We speculate that valuable diversity for this trait was lost during the natural creation of B. napus. To improve shatter resistance, breeders will need to target the introduction of useful alleles especially from genotypes of other related species of Brassica, such as those that we have identified. PMID:25006804

  17. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    PubMed

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution. PMID:27191550

  18. Pervasive Monitoring—An Intelligent Sensor Pod Approach for Standardised Measurement Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Bernd; Mittlboeck, Manfred; Lippautz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Geo-sensor networks have traditionally been built up in closed monolithic systems, thus limiting trans-domain usage of real-time measurements. This paper presents the technical infrastructure of a standardised embedded sensing device, which has been developed in the course of the Live Geography approach. The sensor pod implements data provision standards of the Sensor Web Enablement initiative, including an event-based alerting mechanism and location-aware Complex Event Processing functionality for detection of threshold transgression and quality assurance. The goal of this research is that the resultant highly flexible sensing architecture will bring sensor network applications one step further towards the realisation of the vision of a “digital skin for planet earth”. The developed infrastructure can potentially have far-reaching impacts on sensor-based monitoring systems through the deployment of ubiquitous and fine-grained sensor networks. This in turn allows for the straight-forward use of live sensor data in existing spatial decision support systems to enable better-informed decision-making. PMID:22163537

  19. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion…" and "For every action…"), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of how to apply them to observable phenomena. As a firm believer in inquiry-based teaching methods, I like to develop activities where students can experiment and construct understandings based on relevant personal experiences. Consequently, I am always looking for exciting new technologies that can readily demonstrate how physics affects everyday things. In a conceptual physics class designed for ninth-graders, I created a structured activity where students applied Newton's laws to a series of free applications downloaded on iPod Touches. The laws had been introduced during the prior class session with textual descriptions and graphical representations. The course is offered as part of the Enlace Latino Collegiate Society, a weekend enrichment program for middle and high school students in the Bronx. The majority of students had limited or no prior exposure to physics concepts, and many attended high schools where physics was not offered at all.

  20. Beyond third generation: a sensor-fusion targeting FLIR pod for the F/A-18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, William K.; Scribner, Dean A.; Miller, Geoffrey M.; Ogawa, James S.; Schuler, Jonathon M.

    1998-03-01

    The Navy and Marine Corps F/A-18 pilots state that the targeting FLIR system does not provide enough target definition and clarity. As a result, high altitude tactics missions are the most difficult due to the limited amount of time available to identify the target. If the targeting FLIR system had a better stand-off range and an improved target contrast then the pilots' task would be easier. Unfortunately, the replacement cost of the existing FLIR equipment is prohibitive. The purpose of this study is to modify the existing F/A-18 targeting FLIR system with a dual-band color sensor to improve target contrast and stand- off ranges. Methods: A non-real-time color sensor fusion system was flown on a NASA F/A-18 in a NITE Hawk targeting FLIR pod. Flight videotape was recorded from a third generation image intensified CCD and a first generation long-wave infrared sensor. A standard visual search task was used to assess whether pilots' situational awareness was improved by combining the two sensor videotape sequences into a single fused color or grayscale representation. Results: Fleet aviators showed that color fusion improved target detection, but hindered situational awareness. Aviators reported the lack of color constancy caused the scene to be unaesthetically pleasing; however, target detection was enhanced. Conclusion: A color fusion scene may benefit targeting applications but hinder situational awareness.

  1. Flutter Clearance of the F-18 High-angle-of-attack Research Vehicle with Experimental Wingtip Instrumentation Pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1989-01-01

    An F-18 aircraft was modified with wingtip instrumentation pods for use in NASA's high-angle-of-attack research program. Ground vibration and flight flutter testing were performed to clear an acceptable flight envelope for the aircraft. Flight test utilized atmospheric turbulence for structural excitation; the aircraft displayed no adverse aeroelastic trends within the envelope tested. The data presented in this report include mode shapes from the ground vibration and estimates of frequency and damping as a function of Mach number.

  2. Tree Spatial Structure, Host Composition and Resource Availability Influence Mirid Density or Black Pod Prevalence in Cacao Agroforests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  3. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  4. Effects of a military cargo pod and tail fins on the aerodynamic characteristics of a large wide-body transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, L. S.; Croom, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 0.03 scale model of a large wide-body commercial aircraft to determine the effects on the static aerodynamic characteristics resulting from the attachment of a belly pod for the long-range deployment of outsize military equipment. The effectiveness of horizontal-tip fins in augmenting directional stability was investigated. At a test Reynolds number of 1.08 x 1,000,000, the addition of the pod results in an increase in total drag of approximately 20 percent. Trim drag due to the pod is very small. Although the pod produces a significant decrease in directional stability, the addition of the tip fins restores some of the stability, particularly at the lower angles of attack.

  5. Fast detection of peroxidase (POD) activity in tomato leaves which infected with Botrytis cinerea using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; Bao, Yidan; Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Tomatoes are cultivated around the world and gray mold is one of its most prominent and destructive diseases. An early disease detection method can decrease losses caused by plant diseases and prevent the spread of diseases. The activity of peroxidase (POD) is very important indicator of disease stress for plants. The objective of this study is to examine the possibility of fast detection of POD activity in tomato leaves which infected with Botrytis cinerea using hyperspectral imaging data. Five pre-treatment methods were investigated. Genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) was applied to select optimal wavelengths. A new fast learning neural algorithm named extreme learning machine (ELM) was employed as multivariate analytical tool in this study. 21 optimal wavelengths were selected by GA-PLS and used as inputs of three calibration models. The optimal prediction result was achieved by ELM model with selected wavelengths, and the r and RMSEP in validation were 0.8647 and 465.9880 respectively. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be considered as a valuable tool for POD activity prediction. The selected wavelengths could be potential resources for instrument development.

  6. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager. PMID:26367119

  7. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Cichy, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager. PMID:26367119

  8. POD experiments using real and simulated time-sharing observations for GEO satellites in C-band transfer ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fen, Cao; XuHai, Yang; ZhiGang, Li; ChuGang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The normal consecutive observing model in Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) can only supply observations of one GEO satellite in 1 day from one station. However, this can't satisfy the project need for observing many GEO satellites in 1 day. In order to obtain observations of several GEO satellites in 1 day like GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BeiDou, the time-sharing observing model for GEO satellites in CAPS needs research. The principle of time-sharing observing model is illuminated with subsequent Precise Orbit Determination (POD) experiments using simulated time-sharing observations in 2005 and the real time-sharing observations in 2015. From time-sharing simulation experiments before 2014, the time-sharing observing 6 GEO satellites every 2 h has nearly the same orbit precision with the consecutive observing model. From POD experiments using the real time-sharing observations, POD precision for ZX12# and Yatai7# are about 3.234 m and 2.570 m, respectively, which indicates the time-sharing observing model is appropriate for CBTR system and can realize observing many GEO satellites in 1 day.

  9. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  10. Growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of hydroponically grown peanut in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanciel, K.; Mortley, D. G.; Hileman, D. R.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of 'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. Plants were exposed to concentrations of 400 (ambient), 800, and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in reach-in growth chambers. Foliage fresh and dry weights increased with increased CO2 up to 800 micromoles mol-1, but declined at 1200 micromoles mol-1. The number and the fresh and dry weights of pods also increased with increasing CO2 concentration. However, the yield of immature pods was not significantly influenced by increased CO2. Total seed yield increased 33% from ambient to 800 micromoles mol-1 CO2, and 4% from 800 to 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Harvest index increased with increasing CO2. Branch length increased while specific leaf area decreased linearly as CO2 increased from ambient to 1200 micromoles mol-1. Net photosynthetic rate was highest among plants grown at 800 micromoles mol-1. Stomatal conductance decreased with increased CO2. Carboxylation efficiency was similar among plants grown at 400 and 800 micromoles mol-1 and decreased at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 micromoles mol-1 had positive effects on peanut growth and yield, but above 800 micromoles mol-1 enrichment seed yield increased only marginally.

  11. A preliminary study of multi-parameter POD curves for a guided waves based SHM approach to lightweight materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianneo, A.; Carboni, M.; Giglio, M.

    2016-02-01

    In view of an extensive literature about guided waves propagation, interaction and numerical simulation in plate-like structures made of metallic and composite materials, a lack of information is pointed out regarding their reliability in structural health monitoring approaches. Typically, because of uncertainties in the inspection process, the capability of non-destructive testing systems is expressed by means of suitable probability of detection curves. Based on Berens' model, a linear relationship is established between probability of detection and flaw size. Although the uncertain factors differ from a non-destructive inspection technique and a structural health monitoring approach, the same mathematical framework can be assumed. Hence, the authors investigated the application of a recently developed non-destructive testing Multi-Parameter POD approach to a guided waves based SHM one: numerical simulations as well as experimental data from flawed plates were combined to bring about a "master" POD curve. Once established, it can be used to build the POD curves of the single key factors as flaw size, orientation, structural attenuation and so on.

  12. Loss of the Podocyte-Expressed Transcription Factor Tcf21/Pod1 Results in Podocyte Differentiation Defects and FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Maezawa, Yoshiro; Onay, Tuncer; Scott, Rizaldy P.; Keir, Lindsay S.; Dimke, Henrik; Li, Chengjin; Eremina, Vera; Maezawa, Yuko; Jeansson, Marie; Shan, Jingdong; Binnie, Matthew; Lewin, Moshe; Ghosh, Asish; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Vainio, Seppo J.

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are terminally differentiated cells with an elaborate cytoskeleton and are critical components of the glomerular barrier. We identified a bHLH transcription factor, Tcf21, that is highly expressed in developing and mature podocytes. Because conventional Tcf21 knockout mice die in the perinatal period with major cardiopulmonary defects, we generated a conditional Tcf21 knockout mouse to explore the role of this transcription factor in podocytes in vivo. Tcf21 was deleted from podocytes and podocyte progenitors using podocin-cre (podTcf21) and wnt4-cre (wnt4creTcf21) driver strains, respectively. Loss of Tcf21 from capillary-loop stage podocytes (podTcf21) results in simplified glomeruli with a decreased number of endothelial and mesangial cells. By 5 weeks of age, 40% of podTcf21 mice develop massive proteinuria and lesions similar to FSGS. Notably, the remaining 60% of mice do not develop proteinuria even when aged to 8 months. By contrast, earlier deletion of Tcf21 from podocyte precursors (wnt4creTcf21) results in a profound developmental arrest of podocyte differentiation and renal failure in 100% of mice during the perinatal period. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role for Tcf21 in the differentiation and maintenance of podocytes. Identification of direct targets of this transcription factor may provide new therapeutic avenues for proteinuric renal disease, including FSGS. PMID:24904088

  13. Loss of the podocyte-expressed transcription factor Tcf21/Pod1 results in podocyte differentiation defects and FSGS.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, Yoshiro; Onay, Tuncer; Scott, Rizaldy P; Keir, Lindsay S; Dimke, Henrik; Li, Chengjin; Eremina, Vera; Maezawa, Yuko; Jeansson, Marie; Shan, Jingdong; Binnie, Matthew; Lewin, Moshe; Ghosh, Asish; Miner, Jeffrey H; Vainio, Seppo J; Quaggin, Susan E

    2014-11-01

    Podocytes are terminally differentiated cells with an elaborate cytoskeleton and are critical components of the glomerular barrier. We identified a bHLH transcription factor, Tcf21, that is highly expressed in developing and mature podocytes. Because conventional Tcf21 knockout mice die in the perinatal period with major cardiopulmonary defects, we generated a conditional Tcf21 knockout mouse to explore the role of this transcription factor in podocytes in vivo. Tcf21 was deleted from podocytes and podocyte progenitors using podocin-cre (podTcf21) and wnt4-cre (wnt4creTcf21) driver strains, respectively. Loss of Tcf21 from capillary-loop stage podocytes (podTcf21) results in simplified glomeruli with a decreased number of endothelial and mesangial cells. By 5 weeks of age, 40% of podTcf21 mice develop massive proteinuria and lesions similar to FSGS. Notably, the remaining 60% of mice do not develop proteinuria even when aged to 8 months. By contrast, earlier deletion of Tcf21 from podocyte precursors (wnt4creTcf21) results in a profound developmental arrest of podocyte differentiation and renal failure in 100% of mice during the perinatal period. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role for Tcf21 in the differentiation and maintenance of podocytes. Identification of direct targets of this transcription factor may provide new therapeutic avenues for proteinuric renal disease, including FSGS. PMID:24904088

  14. Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Extraction of Luteolin and Apigenin from Tree Peony Pod and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongzheng; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Xiuhua

    2014-01-01

    An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed in simultaneous extraction of luteolin and apigenin from tree peony pod. The MAE procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and compared with other conventional extraction techniques of macerate extraction (ME) and heat reflux extraction (HRE). The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: employing 70% ethanol volume fraction as solvent, soaking time of 4 h, liquid-solid ratio of 10 (mL/g), microwave irradiation power of 265 W, microwave irradiation time of 9.6 min, and 3 extraction cycles. Under the optimal conditions, 151 μg/g luteolin and 104 μg/g apigenin were extracted from the tree peony pod. Compared with ME and HRE, MAE gave the highest extraction efficiency. The antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained by MAE, ME, and HRE were evaluated using a 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and a reducing power assay. Meanwhile, the structural changes of the unprocessed and processed tree peony pod samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25405227

  15. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Through the Combination and Comparison of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Crossover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T/P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason-1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data. The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  16. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Through the Combination and Comparison of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Crossover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7,2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason- 1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data, The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  17. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.

    PubMed

    Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8 MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods. PMID:22497540

  18. Sorption potential of Moringa oleifera pods for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mubeena; Moosa Hasany, S; Bhanger, M I; Iqbal, Shahid

    2007-03-22

    Moringa oleifera pods Lamarck (Drumstick or Horseradish) is a multipurpose medium or small size tree from sub-Himalayan regions of north-west India and indigenous to many parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and in the Pacific and Caribbean Islands. Its pods (MOP) have been employed as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of organics, i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and cumene (BTEC) from aqueous solutions using HPLC method. Effect of different parameters, i.e., sorbent dose 0.05-0.8g, 25cm(-3) agitation time 5-120min, pH 1-10, temperature 283-308K and concentration of sorbate (1.3-13)x10(-3), (1.1-11)x10(-3), (0.9-9)x10(-3), (0.8-8)x10(-3)moldm(-3), on the sorption potential of MOP for BTEC have been investigated. The pore area and average pore diameter of the MOP by BET method using nitrogen as a standard are calculated to be 28.06+/-0.8m(2)g(-1) and 86.2+/-1.3nm respectively. Freundlich, Langumir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption isotherms were employed to evaluate the sorption capacity of MOP. Sorption capacities of BTEC onto MOP have been found to be 46+/-10, 84+/-9, 101+/-4, 106+/-32mmolg(-1) by Freundlich, 8+/-0.1, 9+/-0.1, 10+/-0.3, 9+/-0.1mmolg(-1) by Langumir and 15+/-1, 21+/-1, 23+/-2, 22+/-3mmolg(-1) by D-R isotherms respectively, from BTEC solutions at 303K. While the mean energy of sorption process 9.6+/-0.3, 9.2+/-0.2, 9.3+/-0.3, 9.5+/-0.4kJmol(-1) for BTEC is calculated by D-R isotherm only. Rate constant of BTEC onto MOP 0.033+/-0.003, 0.030+/-0.002, 0.029+/-0.002, 0.027+/-0.002min(-1) at solution concentration of 1.3x10(-3), 1.1x10(-3), 0.9x10(-3) and 0.8x10(-3)moldm(-3) and at 303K have been calculated by employing Lagergren equation. Thermodynamic parameters DeltaH -8+/-0.4, -10+/-0.6, -11+/-0.7, -11+/-0.7kJmol(-1), DeltaS -22+/-2, -26+/-2, -27+/-2, -29+/-3Jmol(-1)K(-1) and DeltaG(303K) -0.9+/-0.2, -1.9+/-0.2, -2.3+/-0.1 and -2.6+/-0.2kJmol(-1) were also estimated for BTEC respectively at temperatures 283-308K. The

  19. Immunological adjuvant activities of saponin extracts from the pods of Acacia concinna.

    PubMed

    Kukhetpitakwong, Ratiya; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Homchampa, Preecha; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Satra, Jarunee; Khunkitti, Watcharee

    2006-11-01

    Pods of Acacia concinna (Leguminosae) contain several saponins. In this study, four saponin fractions which were acetone fraction (AAC), aqueous fraction (WAC), hydromethanolic fraction (HAC) and methanolic fraction (MAC) were generated and their haemolytic activities and surface activities were determined in comparison with quillaja saponin (QS). There were no significant differences between the haemolytic activities of MAC and QS. However, the surface tensions of MAC was significantly lower than QS (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the immunomodulatory effect and the adjuvant potential of MAC on the cellular and humoral immune response of BALB/c mice against ovalbumin were investigated. The splenocyte proliferations induced by MAC were significantly higher than QS at the concentrations of 200, 400, 800 and 1000 microg/ml (p < 0.05). BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously either with OVA 20 microg alone or with OVA 20 microg combining with QS (10 microg) or MAC (10 and 40 microg). Ten days after the second immunization, concanavalin A (Con A)-, pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and OVA-specific antibodies in serum were measured. The results suggested that MAC (40 microg) could activate T and B cells. In addition, OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 IgG2a and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were significantly enhanced by MAC (40 microg) as compared with OVA control group (p < 0.001). This finding suggested that MAC might be effect on Th1 and Th2 helper T cells. In conclusion, the results indicated that MAC at a dose of 40 microg could be used as vaccine adjuvant to increase immune responses. PMID:16979128

  20. Detection of the Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Using the POD GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Astafyeva, E.; Cherniak, I.

    2015-12-01

    By making use of GPS measurements from Precise Orbit Determination (POD) GPS antenna onboard Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites we present results of the equatorial irregularities/plasma bubbles detection. For a given research we use data from a multi-satellite constellation consisting of the three Swarm satellites and the TerraSAR-X satellite. The major advantage of such LEO constellation is rather similar orbit altitude of ~500 km. The GPS-based indices, characterizing the occurrence and the strength of the ionospheric irregularities, were derived from the LEO GPS observations of a zenith-looking onboard GPS antenna. To study GPS fluctuation activity at the topside equatorial ionosphere we used TEC-based indices ROT (rate of TEC change) and ROTI (rate of TEC Index), proposed by Pi et al. (1997). We demonstrate a successful implementation of this technique for several case studies of the equatorial plasma bubbles occurrence in the post-midnight and morning LT hours during the year 2014. The ionospheric irregularities detected with GPS technique in Swarm/TerrasSAR-X data are consistent with the in situ plasma density variations registered by the three Swarm satellites (PLP measurements), as well as by three DMSP satellites at ~840 km orbital height, which indicate a large altitudinal extent of the observed phenomenon. Also we analyzed the global/seasonal distribution of the ionospheric irregularities at the topside equatorial region caused the phase fluctuations in GPS measurements onboard LEO satellite. We demonstrate that ROT/ROTI technique can be applied to LEO GPS data for geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions, as well as detection of the storm-induced equatorial irregularities in the morning local time.

  1. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies. PMID:26896301

  2. Music provided through a portable media player (iPod) blunts pain during physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Cioncoloni, David; Mazzanti, Sandra; Bianchi, Maria Elena; Morrone, Ilenia; Becattelli, Rossana; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    This research studied, 25 adult patients who underwent physical therapy to assess the analgesic effect of distraction with the use of music during physical therapy. Patients randomly underwent physical therapy once with music provided by an iPod and once without music. In both sessions patients underwent identical physical procedures. At end of both sessions patients filled in 5-item questionnaire where they scored pain and other parameters, such as stress, enjoyment, interaction, and satisfaction, on 10-cm visual analog scale. The mean scores (range, 0-10) of the two sessions were statistically compared. Mean pain scores were significantly lower (p = .031) during the session in which patients received music (4.8 ± 2.5) than during the session without music (5.8 ± 2.3). The other items of the questionnaire did not disclose any statistically significant difference when the sessions with versus without music were compared. Enjoyment (8.5 ± 1.6), interaction (8.3 ± 1.9), and satisfaction (8.6 ± 1.7) scores with music did not significantly differ in the sessions without music (8.5 ± 2.1, 8.5 ± 1.9, and, 8.5 ± 1.5, respectively); mean stress score was, 3.9 in both sessions. The conclusion of the study is that music provided through a portable media player has an analgesic effect. This can be an effective analgesic strategy during painful physical therapy. PMID:24315267

  3. Optimized preparation and characterization of CLEA-lipase from cocoa pod husk.

    PubMed

    Khanahmadi, Soofia; Yusof, Faridah; Amid, Azura; Mahmod, Safa Senan; Mahat, Mohd Khairizal

    2015-05-20

    Cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) is easily prepared from crude enzyme and has many advantages to the environment and it is considered as an economic method in the context of industrial biocatalysis compared to free enzyme. In this work, a highly active and stable CLEA-lipase from cocoa pod husk (CPH) which is a by-product after removal of cocoa beans, were assayed for their hydrolytic activity and characterized under the optimum condition successfully. Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to get the optimal conditions of the three significant factors (concentration of ammonium sulfate, concentration of glutaraldehyde and concentration of additive) to achieve higher enzyme activity of CLEA. From 20 runs, the highest activity recorded was around 9.407U (83% recovered activity) under the condition of using 20% saturated ammonium sulfate, 60mM glutaraldehyde as cross-linker and 0.17mM bovine serum albumin as feeder. Moreover, the optimal reaction temperature and pH value in enzymatic reaction for both crude enzyme and immobilized were found to be 45°C at pH 8 and 60°C at pH 8.2, respectively. A systematic study of the stability of CLEA and crude enzyme was taken with regards to temperature (25-60°C) and pH (5-10) value and in both factors, CLEA-lipase showed more stability than free lipase. The Km value of CLEA was higher compared to free enzyme (0.55mM vs. 0.08mM). The CLEA retained more than 60% of the initial activity after six cycles of reuse compared to free enzyme. The high stability and recyclability of CLEA-lipase from CPH make it efficient for different industrial applications. PMID:25481099

  4. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Expression Profiling for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N.; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21311752

  5. Molecular structure, chemical properties and biological activities of Pinto bean pod polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Fazlina; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2016-07-01

    Pinto bean pod polysaccharide (PBPP) was successfully extracted with yield of 38.5g/100g and the PBPP gave total carbohydrate and uronic acid contents of 286.2mg maltose equivalent/g and 374.3mgGal/g, respectively. The Mw of PBPP was 270.6kDa with intrinsic viscosity of 0.262dm(3)/g, which composed of mannose (2.5%), galacturonic acid (15.0%), rhamnose (4.0%), glucose (9.0%), galactose (62.2%), xylose (2.9%) and arabinose (4.3%) with trace amount of ribose and fucose. The result suggested that PBPP has a spherical conformation with a highly branched structure. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis showed that PBPP has a similar structure as commercial pectin with an esterification degree of 59.9%, whereas scanning electron microscopy study showed that the crude polysaccharide formed a thin layer of film that was made of multiple micro strands of fibre. PBPP exhibited substantial free radical scavenging activity (7.7%), metal reducing capability (2.04mmol/dm(3)) and α-amylase inhibitory activity (97.6%) at a total amount of 1mg. PBPP also exhibited high water- and oil-holding capacities (3.6g/g and 2.8g/g, respectively). At a low concentration, PBPP exhibited emulsifying activity of 39.6% with stability of 38.6%. Apart from that, PBPP was able to show thickening capability at low concentration (0.005kg/dm(3)). PMID:27044345

  6. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata. PMID:24785903

  7. Model reduction in coupled groundwater-surface water systems - potentials and limitations of the applied proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosses, Moritz; Moore, Catherine; Wöhling, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of many groundwater-surface water models often results in long model run times even on today's computer systems. This becomes even more problematic in combination with the necessity of (many) repeated model runs for parameter estimation and later model purposes like predictive uncertainty analysis or monitoring network optimization. Model complexity reduction is a promising approach to reduce the computational effort of physically-based models. Its impact on the conservation of uncertainty as determined by the (more) complex model is not well known, though. A potential under-estimation of predictive uncertainty has, however, a significant impact on model applications such as model-based monitoring network optimization. Can we use model reduction techniques to significantly reduce run times of highly complex groundwater models and yet estimate accurate uncertainty levels? Our planned research project hopes to assess this question and apply model reduction to non-linear groundwater systems. Several encouraging model simplification methods have been developed in recent years. To analyze their respective performance, we will choose three different model reduction methods and apply them to both synthetic and real-world test cases to benchmark their computational efficiency and prediction accuracy. The three methods for benchmarking will be proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) (following Siade et al. 2010), the eigenmodel method (Sahuquillo et al. 1983) and inversion-based upscaling (Doherty and Christensen, 2011). In a further step, efficient model reduction methods for application to non-linear groundwater-surface water systems will be developed and applied to monitoring network optimization. In a first step we present here one variant of the implementation and benchmarking of the POD method. POD reduces model complexity by working in a subspace of the model matrices resulting from spatial discretization with the same significant eigenvalue spectrum

  8. Cocoa-based media for culturing Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl., causal agent of black pod disease of cocoa.

    PubMed

    Awuah, R T; Frimpong, M

    2002-01-01

    Green cocoa pod husk agar (GCPA), ripe cocoa pod husk agar (RCPA), green cocoa bean agar (GCBA), ripe cocoa bean agar (RCBA), green cocoa mucilage agar (GCMA) and ripe cocoa mucilage agar (RCMA) were prepared and assessd for their clarity and for potential to support mycelial growth and sporulation of P. palmivora. Oatmeal agar (OMA), potato-dextrose agar (PDA), vegetable 8 juice agar (V8JA) and pineapple crown agar (PCA) were included for comparison. The highest radial growth rates of 8.3 and 7.2 mm/day were recorded, respectively, on OMA and GCPA but these were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other. The two media also supported good aerial mycelial growth but were not clear. Radial mycelial growth rates of 6.5, 7.0 and 6.6 mm/day were obtained on GCMA, RCPA and V8JA, respectively, and these rates were also not significantly different from each other. Of the three media, only the GCMA was clear and supported the best aerial mycelial growth. In comparison, the RCMA supported a significantly lower radial growth (4.6 mm/day) of P. palmivora than the three media. Growth rates were least on RCBA, PCA and PDA but sporulation was poorest on PDA, PCA and V8JA. GCMA was found to be the best medium based on all the growth parameters and media characteristics. GCMA has been used effectively to isolate/detect P. palmivora from infected cocoa pod tissues. Apart from differences in radial growth rate, both the GCMA and RCMA were similar in all other respects and are recommended for culturing P. palmivora. PMID:12617500

  9. Decontamination of Mesquite Pod Flour Naturally Contaminated with Bacillus cereus and Formation of Furan by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Felker, Peter; Sokorai, Kimberly J

    2015-05-01

    Mesquite pod flour produced from nitrogen-fixing trees of the Prosopis species has a unique aroma and flavor that is preferred by some consumers. Due to the presence of wildlife, grazing domestic animals, and insects, the pods have a high potential of being contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus. Nonthermal processing technologies are helpful to reduce the population of microorganisms in the flour because heating deteriorates the characteristic flavor. A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of ionizing radiation in decontaminating two types of mesquite pod flours (Prosopis alba and Prosopis pallida) naturally contaminated with B. cereus and the effects of irradiation on the formation of furan, a possible human carcinogen. Results showed that the populations of B. cereus were 3.8 and 5.4 log CFU/g in nonirradiated P. alba and P. pallida flours, respectively, and populations of microflora, mesophilic spores, B. cereus, and B. cereus spores decreased with increasing radiation doses. At 6 kGy, the populations fell below 1 log CFU/g. Irradiation at 6 kGy had no significant effect on the fructose, glucose, or sucrose content of the flour. Nonirradiated P. alba and P. pallida flours contained 13.0 and 3.1 ng/g of furan, respectively. Furan levels increased with irradiation doses at rates of 2.3 and 2.4 ng/g/kGy in the two flours. The level of 3-methylbutanal was reduced or not affected by irradiation, while the hexanal level was increased. Our results suggested that irradiation was effective in decontaminating contaminated mesquite flour. The significance of furan formation and possible changes in flavor due to irradiation may need to be further examined. PMID:25951390

  10. Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Study of Pod-Intravaginal Rings Delivering Antiretroviral Combinations for HIV Prophylaxis in a Macaque Model

    PubMed Central

    Moss, John A.; Srinivasan, Priya; Smith, Thomas J.; Butkyavichene, Irina; Lopez, Gilbert; Brooks, Amanda A.; Martin, Amy; Dinh, Chuong T.; Smith, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis using oral regimens involving the HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) demonstrated efficacy in three clinical trials. Adherence was determined to be a key parameter for success. Incorporation of the TDF-FTC combination into intravaginal rings (IVRs) for sustained mucosal delivery could increase product adherence and efficacy compared with those of oral and vaginal gel formulations. A novel pod-IVR technology capable of delivering multiple drugs is described; this constitutes the first report of an IVR delivering TDF and FTC, as well as a triple-combination IVR delivering TDF, FTC, and the entry inhibitor maraviroc (MVC). The pharmacokinetics and preliminary local safety of the two combination pod-IVRs were evaluated in the pig-tailed macaque model. The devices exhibited sustained release at controlled rates over the 28-day study period. Median steady-state drug levels in vaginal tissues in the TDF-FTC group were 30 μg g−1 (tenofovir [TFV], in vivo hydrolysis product of TDF) and 500 μg g−1 (FTC) and in the TDF-FTC-MVC group were 10 μg g−1 (TFV), 150 μg g−1 (FTC), and 20 μg g−1 (MVC). No adverse events were observed, and there were no toxicological findings. Mild-to-moderate increases in inflammatory infiltrates were observed in the vaginal tissues of some animals in both the presence and the absence of the IVRs. The IVRs did not disturb the vaginal microbiota, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines remained stable throughout the study. Pod-IVR candidates based on the TDF-FTC combination have potential for the prevention of vaginal HIV acquisition and merit clinical investigation. PMID:24936594

  11. Combination Pod-Intravaginal Ring Delivers Antiretroviral Agents for HIV Prophylaxis: Pharmacokinetic Evaluation in an Ovine Model.

    PubMed

    Moss, John A; Butkyavichene, Irina; Churchman, Scott A; Gunawardana, Manjula; Fanter, Rob; Miller, Christine S; Yang, Flora; Easley, Jeremiah T; Marzinke, Mark A; Hendrix, Craig W; Smith, Thomas J; Baum, Marc M

    2016-06-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV using oral regimens based on the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been effective to various degrees in multiple clinical trials, and the CCR5 receptor antagonist maraviroc (MVC) holds potential for complementary efficacy. The effectiveness of HIV PrEP is highly dependent on adherence. Incorporation of the TDF-MVC combination into intravaginal rings (IVRs) for sustained mucosal delivery could increase product adherence and efficacy compared with oral and vaginal gel formulations. A novel pod-IVR technology capable of delivering multiple drugs is described. The pharmacokinetics and preliminary local safety characteristics of a novel pod-IVR delivering a combination of TDF and MVC were evaluated in the ovine model. The device exhibited sustained release at controlled rates over the 28-day study and maintained steady-state drug levels in cervicovaginal fluids (CVFs). Dilution of CVFs during lavage sample collection was measured by ion chromatography using an inert tracer, allowing corrected drug concentrations to be measured for the first time. Median, steady-state drug levels in vaginal tissue homogenate were as follows: for tenofovir (TFV; in vivo hydrolysis product of TDF), 7.3 × 10(2) ng g(-1) (interquartile range [IQR], 3.0 × 10(2), 4.0 × 10(3)); for TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP; active metabolite of TFV), 1.8 × 10(4) fmol g(-1) (IQR, 1.5 × 10(4), 4.8 × 10(4)); and for MVC, 8.2 × 10(2) ng g(-1) (IQR, 4.7 × 10(2), 2.0 × 10(3)). No adverse events were observed. These findings, together with previous pod-IVR studies, have allowed several lead candidates to advance into clinical evaluation. PMID:27067321

  12. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. Results We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. Conclusions We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits. PMID:23731509

  13. iPod-based in-home system for monitoring gaze-stabilization exercise compliance of individuals with vestibular hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the physical therapy setting, physical therapists (PTs) often prescribe exercises for their clients to perform at home. However, it is difficult for PTs to obtain information about their clients’ compliance with the prescribed exercises, the quality of performance and symptom magnitude. We present an iPod-based system for capturing this information from individuals with vestibular hypofunction while they perform gaze stabilization exercises at home. Method The system’s accuracy for measurement of rotational velocity against an independent motion tracker was validated. Then a seven day in-home trial was conducted with 10 individuals to assess the feasibility of implementing the system. Compliance was measured by comparing the recorded frequency and duration of the exercises with the exercise prescription. The velocity and range of motion of head movements was recorded in the pitch and yaw planes. The system also recorded dizziness severity before and after each exercise was performed. Each patient was interviewed briefly after the trial to ascertain ease of use. In addition, an interview was performed with PTs in order to assess how the information would be utilized. Results The correlation of the velocity measurements between the iPod-based system and the motion tracker was 0.99. Half of the subjects were under-compliant with the prescribed exercises. The average head velocity during performance was 140 deg/s in the yaw plane and 101 deg/s in the pitch plane. Conclusions The iPod-based system was able to be used in-home. Interviews with PTs suggest that the quantitative data from the system will be valuable for assisting PTs in understanding exercise performance of patients, documenting progress, making treatment decisions, and communicating patient status to other PTs. PMID:24746068

  14. Bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management for reduction of bean pod mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Krell, Rayda K; Pedigo, Larry P; Hill, John H; Rice, Marlin E

    2004-04-01

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a management concern for soybean, Glycine max (L.), producers in the North Central states because it can cause yield loss and reduce seed quality by induction of seed coat mottling. The main vector of BPMV is the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). An experiment was conducted in 2000 and 2001 at two locations in northwestern and central Iowa to test three insecticide treatments for suppression of bean leaf beetles, and subsequently, BPMV. Treatments of insecticide applications with lambda-cyhalothrin were 1) a single early-season application (23 g [AI] /ha) (2.5 oz/acre) at the VE-VC soybean developmental stage; 2) two early-season applications, the first the same as treatment 1 and a second at the same rate 9-13 d later; 3) a single early-season application the same as treatment 1, followed by a mid-season application (28 g [AI] /ha (3.2 oz/acre) at approximately R2 (flowering, near 15 July); and 4) an unsprayed control. Application of lambda-cyhalothrin after soybean emergence and again as first-generation bean leaf beetles emerged in northwestern Iowa in 2000 (treatment 3) significantly reduced beetle densities through mid-season, BPMV field incidence by 31.5%, and seed coat mottling by 31.2%, compared with the unsprayed control. Similar effects were measured at the same location when insecticide was applied twice at early season (treatment 2). Yield was 453.7 kg/ha (6.74 bu/acre) greater in treatment 2 and 525.20 kg/ha (7.80 bu/acre) greater in treatment 3 than in the unsprayed control at the northwestern site in 2000. At both locations in 2001 fewer treatment effects were observed, which was likely related to lower beetle populations in that year. Early-season insecticide sprays targeted at overwintered beetles on VC-VE reduced the initial population of vector insects and may have contributed to a lower first-generation population because of reduced overwintered beetle oviposition. In 1 year at one location there

  15. The Regulation of Sugar Uptake and Accumulation in Bean Pod Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Sacher, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    The identity, localization and physiological significance of enzymes involved in sugar uptake and accumulation were determined for endocarp tissue of pods of Kentucky Wonder pole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). An intracellular, alkaline invertase (pH optimum, 8) was assayed in extracted protein, as well as enzymes involved in sucrose synthesis, namely, uridinediphosphate (UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and UDP-glucose-fructose transglucosylase). Indirect evidence indicated the presence also of hexokinase, phosphohexoseisomerase and phosphoglucomutase. The data suggested that sucrose synthesis occurred in the cytoplasm, and that both sugar storage and an alkaline invertase occurred in the vacuole. The latter functions to hydrolyze accumulated sucrose. An outer space invertase (pH optimum, 4.0) was detected, but was variable in occurrence. Although its activity at the cell surface enhanced sucrose uptake, sucrose may be taken up unaltered. Over a wide range of concentrations of exogenous glucose the sucrose/reducing sugar ratio of accumulated sugars remained unchanged at about 20. Synthesis of sucrose appears to be requisite to initial accumulation from glucose or fructose, as free hexoses do not increase at the apparent saturating concentration for uptake. Sucrose accumulation from exogenous hexose represents a steady-state value, in which sucrose is transported across the tonoplast into the vacuole at a rate equivalent to its rate of synthesis. Evidence indicates that this component of the accumulation process involves active transport of sucrose against a concentration gradient. The ratio of sucrose/reducing sugars in the accumulated sugars immediately after a period of uptake was inversely related to the level of inner space invertase. Within 16 hours after a period of accumulation, practically all of the sugar occurs as glucose and fructose. The absence of competition among hexoses and sucrose indicated that a common carrier was not involved in their uptake. From a

  16. POD improvements of GALILEO satellites through the measurement of their non-gravitational accelerations by means of an onboard accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David M.; Santoli, Francesco; Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Kalarus, Maciej; Zielinski, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    The Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of the satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) represents the basic prerequisite in order to provide refined ephemerides for their orbit, aimed at providing a precise and accurate positioning on the Earth. An important factor that impacts negatively in the POD of these satellites is the limited modeling of the accelerations produced by the non-gravitational accelerations. These, indeed, are subtle and generally complex to model properly, especially in the case of a complex in shape spacecraft, with solar panels and antennae for microwave link and the mutual shadowing effects among the many surfaces involved. We have to notice that their modeling has an important impact in the determination of a number of geophysical parameters of interest, such as stations coordinates, Earth's geocenter and orientation parameters. In the case of GNSS satellites, the main NGP acceleration is the one produced by the direct solar radiation pressure, with non-negligible contributions due to Earth's albedo, thermal effects and power radiated by the antennae. The models developed so far for these perturbative effects have shown many limits, as pointed out in the literature. Currently, the models developed for the NGPs are mainly based on empirical blind models (with the goal of absorb unknowns quantities) and more recently with the use of wing-box models, that try to provide a finite-elements approach to the modeling. The European Space Agency (ESA) - in the context of the development of the GALILEO constellation, and especially in view of the next generation of GALILEO spacecraft - besides being interested in possible improvements of the NGPs models, is also envisaging the use of an onboard accelerometer to directly measure them in order to improve the POD of each spacecraft of the constellation. We have been involved in this study by means of a proposal to ESA denominated GALileo and ACcelerometry (GALAC) led by the Space

  17. Predicted versus measured thoracic gas volumes of collegiate athletes made by the BOD POD air displacement plethysmography system.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dale R

    2015-10-01

    Measured (TGVm) and predicted (TGVp) thoracic gas volumes from the BOD POD were compared in 33 lean, university athletes. On average, TGVp (3.529 L) was not significantly different (p = 0.343) from TGVm (3.628 L); however, there was a bias (r = -0.703, p < 0.001). The difference in the percentage of body fat (BF) was within ±2% BF for 76% of the sample, but athletes at the extremes of height should have TGV measured. PMID:26316087

  18. Identification of α-tocopherol and α-tocopheryl acetate from the cuticle of soybean pods armyworm (Spodoptera cosmioides).

    PubMed

    Fronza, Edegar; Migues, Ignacio; Specht, Alexandre; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the soybean pods armyworm Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larval cuticles was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector (GC-MS). Among the usual lipids found in the insect cuticle, α-tocopherol and α-tocopheryl acetate were also isolated from S. cosmioides. On the other hand, no vitamin E derivative was found in A. gemmatalis exuvia. This is the first report of vitamin E occurrence in the insect's cuticle. PMID:23356865

  19. Using Airborne Lidar Data from IcePod to Measure Annual and Seasonal Ice Changes Over Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frearson, N.; Bertinato, C.; Das, I.

    2014-12-01

    The IcePod is a multi-sensor airborne science platform that supports a wide suite of instruments, including a Riegl VQ-580 infrared scanning laser, GPS-inertial positioning system, shallow and deep-ice radars, visible-wave and infrared cameras, and upward-looking pyrometer. These instruments allow us to image the ice from top to bottom, including the surface of melt-water plumes that originate at the ice-ocean boundary. In collaboration with the New York Air National Guard 109th Airlift Wing, the IcePod is flown on LC-130 aircraft, which presents the unique opportunity to routinely image the Greenland ice sheet several times within a season. This is particularly important for mass balance studies, as we can measure elevation changes during the melt season. During the 2014 summer, laser data was collected via IcePod over the Greenland ice sheet, including Russell Glacier, Jakobshavn Glacier, Eqip Glacier, and Summit Camp. The Icepod will also be routinely operated in Antarctica. We present the initial testing, calibration, and error estimates from the first set of laser data that were collected on IcePod. At a survey altitude of 1000 m, the laser swath covers ~ 1000 m. A Northrop-Grumman LN-200 tactical grade IMU is rigidly attached to the laser scanner to provide attitude data at a rate of 200 Hz. Several methods were used to determine the lever arm between the IMU center of navigation and GPS antenna phase center, terrestrial scanning laser, total station survey, and optimal estimation. Additionally, initial bore sight calibration flights yielded misalignment angles within an accuracy of ±4 cm. We also performed routine passes over the airport ramp in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, comparing the airborne GPS and Lidar data to a reference GPS-based ground survey across the ramp, spot GPS points on the ramp and a nearby GPS base station. Positioning errors can severely impact the accuracy of a laser altimeter when flying over remote regions such as across the ice sheets

  20. Comparative assessment of feeding damage by pod-sucking bugs (Heteroptera: Coreoidea) associated with cowpea, Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Soyelu, O L; Akingbohungbe, A E

    2007-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted on three (young, mid-fill and mature) developmental stages of cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata pods in the screenhouse using fourth instar nymphs and adults of Anoplocnemis curvipes (Fabricius), Riptortus dentipes (Fabricius), Mirperus jaculus (Thunberg), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål and C. shadabi Dolling. Anoplocnemis curvipes was observed to be the most damaging coreoid species causing a yield reduction of 26.4-51.7% followed by R. dentipes (24.4-29.4%), M. jaculus (21.9-26.9%), C. tomentosicollis (17.9-22.4%) and C. shadabi (15.9-20.4%). The fourth instar nymphs of each pod-sucking bug species caused a significantly higher cowpea yield reduction than their respective adults. Similarly, infestation on young pods compared to mid-fill and mature stages resulted in significantly higher yield reduction. The results suggest that infestation levels of two fourth instar nymphs of A. curvipes or three fourth instar nymphs of the other four pod-sucking bug species per young pod should be adequate for screening of cowpea varieties for resistance to the coreoid bugs. PMID:17298676

  1. Effect of Water as Lubricant on Friction and Wear Properties of Cgrp Composite Evaluated by Pod and Bor Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, B. F.; El-Tayeb, N. S. M.

    In the current decade, introducing water as a lubricant for tribo-engineering materials has become a concern for many researchers. In the present study, the wear and friction characteristics of a polyester (CGRP) composite reinforced with a chopped glass mat (CSM) 450 g/m2 was investigated under dry and wet conditions against a polished, stainless steel counterface. Two techniques known as Pin on Disc (POD) and Block on Ring (BOR) were used to perform the experimental tests. The tests were conducted on a newly developed machine that could carry out both techniques. The effects of the applied load (30, 50, 70, 100 N), sliding velocity (2.8 and 3.9 m/s), and test duration (5-30 min) on wear rates and the coefficients of friction were investigated. Under dry conditions, the temperature of the interface was measured with an infrared thermometer. Worn surface morphologies of the composite were observed with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and damage features were characterized. The results showed that the test technique and conditions had significant influences on the wear and friction performance of the CGRP composite. The presence of water as a lubricant enhanced the wear and friction characteristics of the composite as determined by both POD and BOR, and the SEM micrographs demonstrated several damage features under dry/wet conditions, e.g., deformation, as well as fiber peeling, cracking, and cutting.

  2. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification

    PubMed Central

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry. PMID:27471732

  3. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification.

    PubMed

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry. PMID:27471732

  4. Antibacterial Activity of the Alkaloid-Enriched Extract from Prosopis juliflora Pods and Its Influence on in Vitro Ruminal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilene T.; Pereira, Mara Lúcia A.; da Silva, Camilla Flávia P.G.; Souza-Neta, Lourdes C.; Geris, Regina; Martins, Dirceu; Santana, Antônio Euzébio G.; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A.; Silva, Herymá Giovane O.; Freitas, Giovana C.; Figueiredo, Mauro P.; de Oliveira, Fernando F.; Batista, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 50 μg/mL), its influence on ruminal digestion was evaluated using a semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, with monensin as the positive control. Results showed that BCE has decreased gas production as efficiently as monensin after 36 h of fermentation, revealing its positive influence on gas production during ruminal digestion. Since P. juliflora is a very affordable plant, this study points out this alkaloid enriched extract from the pods of Prosopis juliflora as a potential feed additive to decrease gas production during ruminal digestion. PMID:23595000

  5. Optimized production of vanillin from green vanilla pods by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Mo, Limei; Chen, Feng; Lu, Minquan; Dong, Wenjiang; Wang, Qinghuang; Xu, Fei; Gu, Fenglin

    2014-01-01

    Production of vanillin from natural green vanilla pods was carried out by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing. In the first step the green vanilla pods were pre-frozen and then thawed to destroy cellular compartmentation. In the second step pectinase from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the pectin between the glucovanillin substrate and β-glucosidase. Four main variables, including enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time and pH, which were of significance for the vanillin content were studied and a central composite design (CCD) based on the results of a single-factor tests was used. Response surface methodology based on CCD was employed to optimize the combination of enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH for maximum vanillin production. This resulted in the optimal condition in regards of the enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH at 84.2 mg, 49.5 °C, 7.1 h, and 4.2, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the experimental yield of vanillin was 4.63% ± 0.11% (dwb), which was in good agreement with the value predicted by the model. Compared to the traditional curing process (1.98%) and viscozyme extract (2.36%), the optimized method for the vanillin production significantly increased the yield by 133.85% and 96%, respectively. PMID:24556615

  6. Moringa oleifera pod inhibits inflammatory mediator production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muangnoi, Channarong; Chingsuwanrote, Pimjai; Praengamthanachoti, Phawachaya; Svasti, Saovaros; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn

    2012-04-01

    Pro-inflammatory mediators produced during inflammatory response have been demonstrated to initiate and aggravate pathological development of several chronic diseases. Plant bioactive constituents have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activities. Various parts of Moringa oleifera have long been used as habitual diets and traditional remedy along the tropical region. Anti-inflammatory activity of boiled M. oleifera pod extract was assessed by measuring pro-inflammatory mediator expression in the lipopolysaccharide-induced murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Prior treatment with 31-250 μg/mL M. oleifera extract for 1 h inhibited elevation of mRNA and protein level of interleukine-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenease-2, induced by lipopolysaccharide for 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect was mediated partly by inhibiting phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B protein and mitogen-activated protein kinases. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity from bioactive compounds present in the M. oleifera pod constituents may contribute to ameliorate the pathogenesis of inflammatory-associated chronic diseases. PMID:21537903

  7. Impact of Genomics Platform and Statistical Filtering on Transcriptional Benchmark Doses (BMD) and Multiple Approaches for Selection of Chemical Point of Departure (PoD)

    PubMed Central

    Webster, A. Francina; Chepelev, Nikolai; Gagné, Rémi; Kuo, Byron; Recio, Leslie; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Many regulatory agencies are exploring ways to integrate toxicogenomic data into their chemical risk assessments. The major challenge lies in determining how to distill the complex data produced by high-content, multi-dose gene expression studies into quantitative information. It has been proposed that benchmark dose (BMD) values derived from toxicogenomics data be used as point of departure (PoD) values in chemical risk assessments. However, there is limited information regarding which genomics platforms are most suitable and how to select appropriate PoD values. In this study, we compared BMD values modeled from RNA sequencing-, microarray-, and qPCR-derived gene expression data from a single study, and explored multiple approaches for selecting a single PoD from these data. The strategies evaluated include several that do not require prior mechanistic knowledge of the compound for selection of the PoD, thus providing approaches for assessing data-poor chemicals. We used RNA extracted from the livers of female mice exposed to non-carcinogenic (0, 2 mg/kg/day, mkd) and carcinogenic (4, 8 mkd) doses of furan for 21 days. We show that transcriptional BMD values were consistent across technologies and highly predictive of the two-year cancer bioassay-based PoD. We also demonstrate that filtering data based on statistically significant changes in gene expression prior to BMD modeling creates more conservative BMD values. Taken together, this case study on mice exposed to furan demonstrates that high-content toxicogenomics studies produce robust data for BMD modelling that are minimally affected by inter-technology variability and highly predictive of cancer-based PoD doses. PMID:26313361

  8. SU-E-T-204: Improving Multiple Isocenter Coincidence: Elekta Beam Modulator with HexaPOD Six Degrees Couchtop

    SciTech Connect

    Duggar, W; Rajaguru, P; Yang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: With evolution from frame-based to image-guided SRS/SRT technique, the coincidence of multiple isocenters must be within a tight tolerance: MV, kV, table mechanical, and, in this case, HexaPOD 6° patient positioning system. Reported here is a method for improving the effectiveness of an isocenter alignment procedure which ultimately led to isocenter coincidence on an Elekta Beam Modulator LINAC equipped with 4 mm MLC leaves and a fixed secondary jaw to within a radius of 1mm. Methods: Utilizing a self-leveling laser, the Elekta ball (BB) bearing phantom (8mm steel ball), the Modus QA Isocenter Cube software, and a colleague-provided isocenter alignment method, the kV, table mechanical, and HexaPOD isocenters were localized to the MV isocenter. Isocenter coincidence was tested using the Isocenter Cube from Modus QA, brought to kV isocenter using CBCT and the HexaPOD system. MV images were taken at various gantry, collimator, and couch angles and then analyzed with the aforementioned software to determine coincidence of the 5mm steel ball at cube center with MV isocenter. To improve overall coincidence, two errors were addressed iteratively: (1) LINAC mechanical and radiation isocenter coincidence allowing each isocenter volume to have similar variations during gantry and collimator rotation and (2) collimator rotational walkout which reduced the size of both mechanical and radiation isocenters. Beam steering was performed to bring MV isocenter closer to mechanical and collimator walkout was adjusted by physically shifting the MLC bank. Initial procedures were repeated to align all isocenters and perform regular checks for consistency. Results: Post-initial alignment revealed a maximum diameter of 1.8mm for MV isocenter and maximum isocenter alignment error of up to 1.22mm radius which improved to roughly 1.0mm MV isocenter diameter and <0.71mm radius alignment error with a consistency within 0.25mm. Conclusion: With the methods described, all isocenters

  9. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARIN Level-2 geophysical data products.. The Processor will make use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products. These output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) and other NetCDF tool. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARIN FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development experiments, to support the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training in training courses and workshops, cross-comparison against third party products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation for the Sentinel-3 Topographic mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal

  10. SAR Altimetry Processing On Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Dinardo, S.

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line, on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor makes use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products and interfaces with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive. The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format, and they are compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processing service is now available to be used by the SAR Altimetry Community worldwide for R&D experiments, on site demonstrations/training in training courses, cross-comparison against third party products, preparation for the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. Initially, the processing was designed and optimized for open ocean studies solely, based on the SAMOSA model developed for Sentinel-3 Ground Segment using CryoSat data, but since June 2015, a new retracker (SAMOSA+) is offered in the service as dedicated retracker for coastal zone, inland water and sea-ice/ice-sheet. In the view of the Sentinel-3 launch, a new flavor of the service

  11. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated. PMID:26920568

  12. Using Enviro-Pod low altitude imagery to inventory building surface materials for an acid rain study - A Baltimore example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, Richard; Coffland, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Low altitude, oblique and vertical color photography taken from EPA's Enviro-Pod Ka 85 camera system has provided the data for taking an inventory of building surface materials in a test area of downtown Baltimore. Photography was acquired from a gridded flight plan to provide views of all sides of buildings. Color, texture, and linear detail are employed in the photo interpretation aided by contextual reference to a classification of building construction type developed in an earlier study. The work could potentially support a materials inventory initiated by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) by scientists from EPA, Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy. Initial results show the method to be viable. Discrete surface materials such as brick, both bare and painted, stone, and metal are identified.

  13. Effect of different production systems on chemical profiles of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Top Crop) pods.

    PubMed

    Jakopic, Jerneja; Slatnar, Ana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Bavec, Franci; Bavec, Martina

    2013-03-13

    The chemical composition of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Top Crop was compared among five production systems: conventional, integrated, organic, and biodynamic production systems and the control. Determination of sugars and organic acids was performed with a HPLC system, and identification of individual phenolic compounds using HPLC-MS. The chemical composition of the beans was unaffected by the production systems; however, the content levels of individual compounds were changed. The pods from integrated production contained the lowest levels of glucose and sucrose and the highest levels of catechin, procyanidin dimers, and a vanillic acid derivative. The control treatment, as well as organic and biodynamic productions, positively affected the levels of sugar content and caused a lower content of catechin and trans-p-coumaroylaldaric acids. Beans from the conventional production system contained the lowest levels of fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, and many phenolics from various groups. PMID:23398279

  14. High quality permanent draft genome sequence of Phaseolibacter flectens ATCC 12775T, a plant pathogen of French bean pods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Reddy, TBK; Huntemann, Marcel; Pillay, Manoj; Markowitz, Victor; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2016-01-13

    We report that the Phaseolibacter flectens strain ATCC 12775T (Halpern et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:268–273, 2013) is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. Ph. flectens is as a plant-pathogenic bacterium on pods of French bean and was first identified by Johnson (1956) as Pseudomonas flectens. After its phylogenetic position was reexamined, Pseudomonas flectens was transferred to the family Enterobacteriaceae as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 44.34 mol%. The chromosome length is 2,748,442 bp.more » It encodes 2,437 proteins and 89 RNA genes. Ph. flectens genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes study.« less

  15. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-Pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (155'000 SAR passes and 41'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing according to their specific requirements by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing, which can be lengthy due to the required intense number-crunching inherent to SAR processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the awarded development contracts by confronting the deliverables to ESA's prototype, is now made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for on-site demonstrations/training in

  16. Can an iPod Touch be used to assess whole-body vibration associated with mining equipment?

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Di Corleto, Luke; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-11-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of ±0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 × standard deviation of the constant error). PMID:25106947

  17. Cocoa pod husk: A new source of CLEA-lipase for preparation of low-cost biodiesel: An optimized process.

    PubMed

    Khanahmadi, Soofia; Yusof, Faridah; Chyuan Ong, Hwai; Amid, Azura; Shah, Harmen

    2016-08-10

    Enzymatic reactions involving lipases as catalyst in transesterification can be an excellent alternative to produce environmental-friendly biodiesel. In this study, lipase extracted from Cocoa Pod Husk (CPH) and immobilized through cross linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) technology catalysed the transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil successfully. Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to get the optimal conditions of 3% (w/w) enzyme loading, 4h reaction time and 1:6 oil/ethanol ratio to achieve the highest conversion of free fatty acid and glycerides into biodiesel (93%). The reusability of CLEA-lipase was tested and after seven cycles, the conversion percentage reduced to 58%. The results revealed that CLEA lipase from CPH is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. PMID:27184429

  18. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this presentation is to feature the G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 and Sentniel-3 data, which was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (210'000 SAR passes and 120'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the multi-mission Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing, according to their specific requirements, by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the development contracts awarded by confronting the deliverables to ESA's computations, has been made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for hands-on demonstrations/training in

  19. How much information do we need? A reflection of the correct use of real defects in POD-evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Müller, Christina

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the capability of a non destructive testing system the "truth" of the used defects is essential. But what exactly is the truth of a real defect? And how much information is usable for the study? This presentation gives an overview about an advanced use of multiple metallographic cuts for the POD evaluation. In the presentation an approach is shown where information of metallographic studies are reconstructed and weighted to gain the essential information about real defects and which information are important for the detection with radiographic testing equipment. Furthermore, different connection points are discussed were additional knowledge from simulation and artificial defects can be used to gain additional certainty for the result of the evaluation. The methodology is used for the evaluation for the digital radiographic testing system for the testing of electron-beam welds, which is one possible choice to seal the Finnish copper canisters for the final deposit of spent nuclear fuel.

  20. Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Roukas, T. . Dept. of Food Science and Technology)

    1994-02-05

    The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial sugar concentration of 300 g/L and F = 167 mL/h. The maximum ethanol productivity was obtained with both free and immobilized cells at a substrate concentration of 300 g/L and F = 334 mL/h. In repeated fed-batch culture, immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave a higher overall ethanol concentration compared with the free cells. The immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in Ca-alginate beads retained their ability to produce ethanol for 10 days.

  1. High quality permanent draft genome sequence of Phaseolibacter flectens ATCC 12775(T), a plant pathogen of French bean pods.

    PubMed

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Pillay, Manoj; Markowitz, Victor; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Phaseolibacter flectens strain ATCC 12775(T) (Halpern et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:268-273, 2013) is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. Ph. flectens is as a plant-pathogenic bacterium on pods of French bean and was first identified by Johnson (1956) as Pseudomonas flectens. After its phylogenetic position was reexamined, Pseudomonas flectens was transferred to the family Enterobacteriaceae as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 44.34 mol%. The chromosome length is 2,748,442 bp. It encodes 2,437 proteins and 89 RNA genes. Ph. flectens genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes study. PMID:26767091

  2. Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the English Oral Reading Fluency of L2 Students with Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Charalambous, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of new technologies has been extensively explored in different aspects of language learning pedagogy. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact Repeated Reading activity, supported by iPod Touch could have on the English Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of second language university students with Special…

  3. Using iPods[R] and iPads[R] in Teaching Programs for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Davis, Tonya N.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Sutherland, Dean; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that involved iPods[R], iPads[R], and related devices (e.g., iPhones[R]) in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. The search yielded 15 studies covering five domains: (a) academic, (b) communication, (c) employment, (d) leisure, and (e) transitioning across school settings.…

  4. The Oil of Matico (Piper aduncum L.) an Alternative for the Control of Cacao Frosty Pod Rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cacao production in many Latin American countries is significantly reduced by frosty pod rot disease (Moniliophthora roreri) and yield reductions are to the extent of over 90% in many cases. The strategies of control includes: phytosanitation, genetic resistance, chemical and biological control....

  5. An investigation on different harvesting methods on young pods of KKU # 922 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar for baby corn production.

    PubMed

    Kasikranan, S

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to search for the best indicator to be used for the harvest of maize pods for baby corn production. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. The treatments are: T1 (Control) Taking sample when silks of female flower had extended from tip of pod up to 3 cm long T2, silks had extended 1 cm long T3, silks had extended 2 cm long T4, blooming of female flower for 2 days T5, blooming of female flowers for 4 days T6, blooming of female flower for 6 days T7, one third blooming of male flower T8, two third blooming of male flower and T9, full bloom of male flower. Five baby corn Characteristics were used i.e., (1) fresh weight of whole ears, (2) fresh weight of ears without husk, (3) commercial standard ears, (4) off standard ears and (5) disordered kernel-rows of ears. A range of scores from 1 to 9 was applied to judge quality and yield in each item of the five baby corn characteristics. A score of 1 = the best whilst further increases in scores indicated the decline in quality of baby corn. The results showed that an indicator for use in harvesting pods of maize for baby corn production was found with T6, i.e. the best time for the harvest of pods is when the female flowers had bloomed for 6 days after the appearance of silks. PMID:21902059

  6. Using an iPod Touch to Teach Social and Self-Management Skills to an Elementary Student with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Erika; Johnson, Jesse W.; Ridenour, Lindsey; Simmons, Karen; Crouch, Starline

    2011-01-01

    A ten year-old boy exhibiting frequent off-task and disruptive behavior during small group math instruction was taught to use an iPod Touch for video modeling and self-monitoring purposes. A single-subject changing conditions (A-B-BC) design was used to investigate the differential effects of video modeling versus a combination of video modeling…

  7. A Tutor in Your Back Pocket: Reflections on the Use of iPods and Podcasting in An Undergraduate Popular Music Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Steve; Dale, Crispin; Spencer, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This article reports upon a research project undertaken at the University of Wolverhampton where iPods and podcasting were used as a delivery and assessment mechanism within an undergraduate Popular Music degree programme. A sample drawn from students studying the programme was interviewed to explore their engagement with the technology and the…

  8. Potentials of Mobile Technology for K-12 Education: An Investigation of iPod Touch Use for English Language Learners in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Navarrete, Cesar C.; Wivagg, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study investigated a m-learning initiative by a large school district in the United States to provide iPod touch devices 24/7 to teachers and students of English Language Learners. We described the initiative and presented the research findings of its implementation for two years at elementary and middle school levels. The results…

  9. Seed transmission rates of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus in soybean may be affected by mixed infection or expression of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To facilitate their spread, plant viruses have developed several methods for dispersal including insect and seed transmission. While insect transmission requires virus stability against insect digestion, seed-transmitted viruses have to overcome barriers to entry into embryos. Bean pod mottle virus ...

  10. Understanding and improving flavor in beans: Screening the USDA Phaseolus core collection for pod sugar and flavor compounds in snap and dry bean accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our research is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. Knowledge of the variation will allow better utilization of germplasm resources ...

  11. Soybean mosaic virus infection and helper component-protease enhance accumulation of Bean pod mottle virus-specific siRNAs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean plants infected with Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) develop acute symptoms that usually decrease in severity over time. In other plant-virus interactions, this type of symptom recovery has been associated with degradation of viral RNAs by post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), which is ac...

  12. A stem–loop structure in the 59 untranslated region of bean pod mottle virus RNA2 is specifically required for RNA2 accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a bipartite, positive-sense (+) RNA plant virus of the family Secoviridae. Its RNA1 encodes all proteins needed for genome replication and is capable of autonomous replication. By contrast, BPMV RNA2 must utilize RNA1-encoded proteins for replication. Here, we sought ...

  13. The Bean pod mottle virus RNA2-encoded 58-kilodalton protein P58 is required in cis for RNA2 accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a bipartite, positive sense (+) RNA plant virus in the Secoviridae family. Its RNA1 encodes proteins required for genome replication, whereas RNA2 primarily encodes proteins needed for virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement. However, the function of a 58 kilo-dalto...

  14. Reducing the Need for Personal Supports among Workers with Autism Using an iPod Touch as an Assistive Technology: Delayed Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Tony; Kriner, Richard; Sima, Adam; McDonough, Jennifer; Wehman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are versatile task organizers that hold promise as assistive technologies for people with cognitive-behavioral challenges. This delayed randomized controlled trial compared two groups of adult workers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine whether the use of an Apple iPod Touch PDA as a vocational…

  15. Development of SCAR markers for typing the Trichoderma asperellum strains used as potential microbial control agents of the Black Pod Disease in Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora megakarya is the most aggressive cocoa pathogen in Central and West Africa where total loss of pods can occur. In the near future, microbial control agents such as Trichoderma asperellum against this pathogen should become an important component of integrated pest management since chem...

  16. Identification of genes associated with the increased number of four-seed pods in soybean (Glycine max L.) using transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Z; Yao, D; Zhang, J; Li, Z L; Ma, J; Liu, S Y; Qu, J; Guan, S Y; Wang, D D; Pan, L D; Wang, D; Wang, P W

    2015-01-01

    Seed number per pod is an important component of yield traits in soybean (Glycine max L.). In 2010, we identified a natural mutant with an increased number of four-seed pods from a soybean variety named 'Jinong 18' (JN18). Subsequent observations indicated that the trait was stably inherited. To identify and understand the function of genes associated with this mutant trait, we analyzed the genetic differences between the mutant (JN18MT01) and source variety (JN18) by transcriptome sequencing. Three types of tissues, axillary buds, unfertilized ovaries, and young pods at three different growth stages, V6, R1, and R3, were analyzed, respectively. The sequencing results yielded 55,582 expressed genes and 4183 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among these, the log2 ratio value of 162 DEGs was >10, and 13 DEGs had overlapping expression at three different growth stages. Comparisons of DEGs among three different growth stages yielded similar results in terms of the percentage of genes classified into each gene ontology (GO) category. DEGs were classified into 25 different functional groups in clusters of orthologous groups analysis. Proportions of the main functional genes differed significantly over developmental stages. A comparison of enriched pathways among the three developmental stages revealed that 646 unigenes were involved in 103 metabolic pathways. These results show that the development of four-seed pods is associated with a complex network involving multiple physiological and metabolic pathways. This study lays the foundation for further research on cloning and on the molecular regulation of genes related to the four-seed pod mutation. PMID:26782540

  17. IcePod - A versatile Science Platform for the New York Air National Guard's LC-130 Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frearson, N.; Bell, R. E.; Zappa, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The ICEPOD program is a five-year effort to develop an ice imaging system mounted on New York Air National Guard (NYANG) LC-130 aircraft to map the surface and sub-surface topography of ice sheets, ice streams and outlet glaciers for the NSF Major Research Instrumentation program. The project is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental goal of the ICEPOD program is to develop an instrumentation package that can capture the dynamics of the changing polar regions, focusing on ice and ocean systems. The vision is that this instrumentation will be operated both on routine flights of the NYANG in the polar regions, such as on missions between McMurdo and South Pole Station, and on targeted science missions, from mapping sea ice and outlet glaciers such as those surrounding Ross Island or Greenland to quantifying the drainage systems from large subglacial lakes in East Antarctica. It is a key aspect of the design that at the conclusion of this program, the Pod, Deployment Arm and Data Acquisition and Management system will become available for use by the science community at large to install their own instruments onto. The science requirements for the primary instruments in the Icepod program have been defined and can be viewed on-line at www.ldeo.columbia.edu/icepod. As a consequence, the instrumentation will consist of a scanning laser for precise measurements of the ice surface, stereo-photogrammetry from both visible and infrared imaging cameras to document the ice surface and temperature, a VHF coherent, pulsed radar to recover ice thickness and constrain the distribution of water at the ice sheet bed and an L-band radar to measure surface accumulation or sea-ice thickness. All instrument data sets will be time-tagged and geo-referenced by recording precision GPS satellite data integrated with inertial measurement technology integrated into the pod. There will also be two operational modes - a low altitude flight mode that will optimize

  18. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B.

    2014-12-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products.The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and it The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools.Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of August 2014 the service allows the user to select data for most of 2013 and part of 2014, no geographical restriction on this data. It is expected that before Fall 2014 all the mission (when available) will be at the disposal of the users.The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options..The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc.So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  19. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products, with the possibility to build and download the stack data products (L1b-S). The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and the output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of December 2014 the service allows the user to select all available mission data from 2010 to end of 2014, without any geographical restriction on this data. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options.. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  20. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  1. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA Synthase 1 Shows Increased Plant Growth, Pod Size and Seed Yield

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  2. A rapid filtering and reconstruction method of two-dimensional image velocimetry signals using a non-iterative POD-method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higham, Jonathan; Brevis, Wernher; Keylock, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    A method is presented, based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), for the detection and estimation of outliers in two-dimensional signals. In experimental fluid mechanics, for a number of reasons, two dimensional data obtained using techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry often contain outliers. The proposed methodology is based on the assumption that statistically significant outliers can be identified as abnormalities in the evolution of the temporal POD coefficients and as changes to the eigenvalues. Unlike previous methods, the estimation technique in the current method is non-iterative. It is instead dependent on a correction of a parameter introduced to search for abnormal, outlier induced magnitudes in the modal decomposition. The method is benchmarked by synthetically simulating outliers applied to two data sets: One data set is obtained experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry; the other is based on a numerical simulation. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to identify the outliers reliably and correct them with acceptable accuracy.

  3. Transcriptome Sequencing, and Rapid Development and Application of SNP Markers for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation. PMID:21754987

  4. [Effects of single-seed sowing on canopy microenvironment, photosynthetic characteristics and pod yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaca)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-yan; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Jia-lei; Meng, Jing-jing; Li, Lin; Wan, Shu-bo; Li, Xin-guo

    2015-12-01

    The large-seed peanut cultivar of Huayu 22 was used to study the differences of canopy microenvironment, photosynthetic characteristics, and pod yield at three single-seed sowing densities, i.e., 225000 (S₁), 195000 (S₂) and 165000 (S₃) holes per hectare, in field experiments. The results showed that the canopy light transmittance, canopy air temperature and canopy CO₂concentration all increased at these three single-seed sowing densities compared with those of double-seed sowing pattern (150000 holes per hectare), while the canopy humidity decreased. It seemed that single-seed sowing was helpful to improve microenvironment and the growth of peanut, especially at late growth stage. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic pigment contents and the net photosynthetic rate of peanut under single-seed sowing, especially in S₂ and S₃, were remarkably higher than those under traditional double-seed sowing. S₂ had the optimum population size with an equal distribution of individuals, which reduced the contradiction between individuals and population, optimized the canopy microenvironment, enhanced the photosynthetic characteristics, and increased the synthesis and accumulation of photosynthetic products to maximize the yield production of peanut. PMID:27112008

  5. Identification of vortical structures inside the human pharynx/larynx region from POD-reconstructed velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinneeb, A.-M.; Pollard, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the vortical structures in the pharynx/larynx region of an idealised human extra-thoracic airway obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The inlet velocity was 0.13 m/s yielding a Reynolds number, based on the inlet condition, of 670. Two thousand images were acquired at each location at a framing rate of 2 Hz. The proper orthogonal decomposition method was applied to the PIV data. Only a few modes were used for POD reconstruction which recovered about 60 % of the turbulent kinetic energy. A vortex identification algorithm was employed to identify and measure properties of the structures. This step was followed by a statistical analysis of the distribution of number, size, and strength of these vortices. The results reveal the formation of a large number of structures identified along two planes in the pharynx/larynx region. This study also revealed an increased strength in the counter-clockwise structures as compared to clockwise structures in the pharynx region. As well, there is some evidence to suggest that the vortical structures, whose axes are perpendicular to the sagittal plane, change their orientation as they proceed further into the laryngeal region.

  6. Genetic architecture and mechanism of seed number per pod in rapeseed: elucidated through linkage and near-isogenic line analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhua; Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Seed number per pod (SNPP) is one of the major yield components and breeding targets in rapeseed that shows great variation and is invaluable for genetic improvement. To elucidate the genetic architecture and uncover the mechanism of SNPP, we identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using the BnaZNRIL population, which were integrated with those of previous studies by physical map to demonstrate a complex and relatively complete genetic architecture of SNPP. A major QTL, qSN.A6, was successfully fine-mapped from 1910 to 267 kb using near-isogenic line (NIL). In addition, qSN.A6 exhibited an antagonistic pleiotropy on seed weight (SW), which is caused by a physiological interaction in which SNPP acts “upstream” of SW. Because the negative effect of qSN.A6 on SW cannot fully counteract its positive effect on SNPP, it also enhanced the final yield (17.4%), indicating its great potential for utilization in breeding. The following genetic and cytological experiments further confirmed that the different rate of ovule abortion was responsible for the ~5 seed difference between Zhongshuang11 and NIL-qSN.A6. This systematic approach to dissecting the comprehensive genetic architecture of SNPP and characterizing the underlying mechanism has advanced the understanding of SNPP and will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars. PMID:27067010

  7. iPods--a surrogate coach for junior and subelite athletes: new ideas based on a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ben A

    2010-12-01

    The global proliferation of MP3 players such as iPods means coaches have an opportunity to access a tool to enhance coaching that much of the population already use widely, without considerable increase in investment of time or money. Research evidence strongly indicates that music has the ability to influence psychological and physiological factors and can improve performance measures significantly. Additionally, the nature of athlete's self-talk could possibly be influenced through the use of 'digiprompts,' resulting in more focused and productive training sessions. Research evidence also indicates a limited effect on athlete adaptation during unsupervised training sessions related to decreased training frequency and intensity. Coaches should always look for ways to enhance their coaching, but new technologies and methodologies will only be widely accepted if seen by the coaching community as readily accessible and able to facilitate efficient improvement in coaching methodologies and athlete development. With technological advances in music delivery systems and digital editing, digital media and delivery systems for distance coaching should be explored. This paper reviews several fields of research in an attempt to highlight how the use of what is now common digital technology can create a 'surrogate coach.' Through the development of structured and specific digital training aids, the effects of music as an ergogenic aid means the use of MP3 players seems a logical step forward for coaches, and unsupervised training could potentially be made more effective. PMID:21068686

  8. Reliable Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty by the Use of an iPod-Based Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Koenen, Paola; Schneider, Marco M.; Fröhlich, Matthias; Driessen, Arne; Bouillon, Bertil; Bäthis, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Axial alignment is one of the main objectives in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) is more accurate regarding limb alignment reconstruction compared to the conventional technique. The aim of this study was to analyse the precision of the innovative navigation system DASH® by Brainlab and to evaluate the reliability of intraoperatively acquired data. A retrospective analysis of 40 patients was performed, who underwent CAS TKA using the iPod-based navigation system DASH. Pre- and postoperative axial alignment were measured on standardized radiographs by two independent observers. These data were compared with the navigation data. Furthermore, interobserver reliability was measured. The duration of surgery was monitored. The mean difference between the preoperative mechanical axis by X-ray and the first intraoperatively measured limb axis by the navigation system was 2.4°. The postoperative X-rays showed a mean difference of 1.3° compared to the final navigation measurement. According to radiographic measurements, 88% of arthroplasties had a postoperative limb axis within ±3°. The mean additional time needed for navigation was 5 minutes. We could prove very good precision for the DASH system, which is comparable to established navigation devices with only negligible expenditure of time compared to conventional TKA. PMID:27313898

  9. Survivorship and fecundity of Culex pipiens pallens feeding on flowering plants and seed pods with differential preferences.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao-Ting; Ding, Yan-Mei; Mo, Xiao-Chang; Liu, Ning; Li, Hong-Jie; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2016-03-01

    Adult mosquitoes rely on ingestion of sugar from plants to survive, swarm and mate. Culex pipiens pallens Coguillett is the primary vector of lymphatic filariasis and epidemic encephalitis. Little is known about the effect of feeding on different sugar sources on the survivorship and fecundity of Cx. pipiens pallens. In the present study, newly emerged mosquitoes were exposed to several flowering plant and seed pod species with different olfactory preferences, and the survival times of mosquitoes exposed to these sugar sources were determined. The proportions of mosquitoes that ingested sugar from host plants were investigated by cold anthrone tests. The numbers of eggs per egg raft laid by mosquitoes were compared when they were provided with different sugar sources and one blood meal. The results revealed that feeding on different kinds of sugar sources significantly affected female and male mosquitoes' survival times. Cold anthrone tests indicated that the proportions of sugar-positive mosquitoes from different nutritional regimes within 24h corresponded to the preference rankings of Cx. pipiens pallens to these sugar sources, and rapid declines in the proportions of surviving individuals might be attributed to their insufficient ingestion of sugar from nutritional regimes. Feeding on different sugar sources strongly affected the proportions of engorged mosquitoes, and females that had fed on their preferred sugar sources laid more eggs than mosquitoes provided with less preferred sugar sources. The results would provide insights in developing mosquito control strategies that target the sugar feeding behavior of mosquitoes. PMID:26739652

  10. Genetic architecture and mechanism of seed number per pod in rapeseed: elucidated through linkage and near-isogenic line analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuhua; Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Seed number per pod (SNPP) is one of the major yield components and breeding targets in rapeseed that shows great variation and is invaluable for genetic improvement. To elucidate the genetic architecture and uncover the mechanism of SNPP, we identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using the BnaZNRIL population, which were integrated with those of previous studies by physical map to demonstrate a complex and relatively complete genetic architecture of SNPP. A major QTL, qSN.A6, was successfully fine-mapped from 1910 to 267 kb using near-isogenic line (NIL). In addition, qSN.A6 exhibited an antagonistic pleiotropy on seed weight (SW), which is caused by a physiological interaction in which SNPP acts "upstream" of SW. Because the negative effect of qSN.A6 on SW cannot fully counteract its positive effect on SNPP, it also enhanced the final yield (17.4%), indicating its great potential for utilization in breeding. The following genetic and cytological experiments further confirmed that the different rate of ovule abortion was responsible for the ~5 seed difference between Zhongshuang11 and NIL-qSN.A6. This systematic approach to dissecting the comprehensive genetic architecture of SNPP and characterizing the underlying mechanism has advanced the understanding of SNPP and will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars. PMID:27067010

  11. Cocoa pod husk, a new source of hydrolase enzymes for preparation of cross-linked enzyme aggregate.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Faridah; Khanahmadi, Soofia; Amid, Azura; Mahmod, Safa Senan

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is a by-product of cocoa production obtained after removing the beans from the fruit. The analysis of CPH has shown that it contains high amounts of protein. This study is aimed to utilize this protein source in hydrolase enzyme production. In this study, seven hydrolase enzymes (amylase, fructosyltransferase, mannanase, glucosidase, glucanase, lipase and protease) were screened from CPH for the first time for feasible industrial production. Among these hydrolases, lipase was chosen for the next steps of experiments as it has a lot of applications in different industries. The extraction of high active lipase from CPH has been done under optimum conditions. The condition that was optimum for the three major factors was achieved using Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the highest enzyme activity of crude lipase from CPH. The optimum condition of extraction is used for preparation of cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA). For the production of immobilized biocatalyst, the technique of CLEA is considered as an effective technique for its industrially attractive advantages. Referring to the results of OFAT, CLEA-lipase was prepared in the best condition at the presence of 30 mM ammonium sulphate, 70 mM glutaraldehyde with 0.23 mM Bovine serum albumin as an additive. Immobilization effectively improved the stability of lipase against various organic solvents. PMID:26904389

  12. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Frimpong Manso, Samuel; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam El; Sasu, Clement; Pobee, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE), flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5-1.0 mg/mL) and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0-4.0 mg/mL). The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:27066294

  13. Ln Is a Key Regulator of Leaflet Shape and Number of Seeds per Pod in Soybean[W

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Namhee; Suh, Su Jeoung; Kim, Min-Hee; Lee, Seukki; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Hong Sig; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Narrow leaflet soybean (Glycine max) varieties tend to have more seeds per pod than broad leaflet varieties. Narrow leaflet in soybean is conferred by a single recessive gene, ln. Here, we show that the transition from broad (Ln) to narrow leaflet (ln) is associated with an amino acid substitution in the EAR motif encoded by a gene (designated Gm-JAGGED1) homologous to Arabidopsis JAGGED (JAG) that regulates lateral organ development and the variant exerts a pleiotropic effect on fruit patterning. The genomic region that regulates both the traits was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing only one gene, Gm-JAG1. Introducing the Gm-JAG1 allele into a loss-of-function Arabidopsis jagged mutant partially restored the wild-type JAG phenotypes, including leaf shape, flower opening, and fruit shape, but the Gm-jag1 (ln) and EAR-deleted Gm-JAG1 alleles in the jagged mutant did not result in an apparent phenotypic change. These observations indicate that despite some degree of functional change of Gm-JAG1 due to the divergence from Arabidopsis JAG, Gm-JAG1 complemented the functions of JAG in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the Gm-JAG1 homoeolog, Gm-JAG2, appears to be sub- or neofunctionalized, as revealed by the differential expression of the two genes in multiple plant tissues, a complementation test, and an allelic analysis at both loci. PMID:23243125

  14. Expressed sequence tags of the peanut pod nematode Ditylenchus africanus: the first transcriptome analysis of an Anguinid nematode

    PubMed Central

    Haegeman, Annelies; Jacob, Joachim; Vanholme, Bartel; Kyndt, Tina; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 4847 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from mixed stages of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode) were investigated. It is the first molecular survey of a nematode which belongs to the family of the Anguinidae (order Rhabditida, superfamily Sphaerularioidea). The sequences were clustered into 2596 unigenes, of which 43% did not show any homology to known protein, nucleotide, nematode EST or plant-parasitic nematode genome sequences. Gene ontology mapping revealed that most putative proteins are involved in developmental and reproductive processes. In addition unigenes involved in oxidative stress as well as in anhydrobiosis, such as LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase were identified. Other tags showed homology to genes previously described as being involved in parasitism (expansin, SEC-2, calreticulin, 14-3-3b and various allergen proteins). In situ hybridization revealed that the expression of a putative expansin and a venom allergen protein was restricted to the gland cell area of the nematode, being in agreement with their presumed role in parasitism. Furthermore, 7 putative novel candidate parasitism genes were identified based on the prediction of a signal peptide in the corresponding protein sequence and homologous ESTs exclusively in parasitic nematodes. These genes are interesting for further research and functional characterization. Finally, 34 unigenes were retained as good target candidates for future RNAi experiments, because of their nematode specific nature and observed lethal phenotypes of Caenorhabditis elegans homologs. PMID:19383517

  15. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical

    PubMed Central

    Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Frimpong Manso, Samuel; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam EL; Sasu, Clement; Pobee, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE), flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5–1.0 mg/mL) and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0–4.0 mg/mL). The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:27066294

  16. Radiation passport: an iPhone and iPod touch application to track radiation dose and estimate associated cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Baerlocher, Mark Otto; Talanow, Roland; Baerlocher, Adrian F

    2010-04-01

    The rapid increase in the use of radiology and related exams and procedures has led to a concomitant increase in associated radiation risk. An application for the iPhone and iPod Touch called 'Radiation Passport' is described, which provides radiation dose estimates and associated cancer risks (non fatal and fatal) and serves as a method by which to track an individual's cumulative exposure. PMID:20362943

  17. Apps for Learning: 40 Best iPad/iPod Touch/iPhone Apps for High School Classrooms. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Harry; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This first book in a three-book series offers a wealth of strategies for integrating 40 of the most effective applications--or apps--for the iPad, iPod Touch, and iPhone into K-12 classrooms to cultivate 21st century fluencies. The authors show how to use them to enhance teaching and learning and to address curricular objectives in an engaging,…

  18. Influence of Rain Tree Pod Meal Supplementation on Rice Straw Based Diets Using In vitro Gas Fermentation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Anantasook, N.; Wanapat, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio with rain tree pod meal (RPM) supplementation on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. The experiment design was a 6×4 factorial arrangement in a CRD. Factor A was 6 levels of R:C ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100) and factor B was 4 levels of RPM (0, 4, 8 and 12 mg). It was found that gas kinetic, extent rate (c) was linearly increased (p<0.01) with an increasing level of concentrate while cumulative gas production (96 h) was higher in R:C of 40:60. In addition, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level affected NH3-N and IVDMD and were highest in R:C of 0:100 with 0, 4 mg of RPM and 40:60 with 8 mg of RPM, respectively. Moreover, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level significantly increased total volatile fatty acids and propionate concentration whereas lower acetate, acetate to propionate ratios and CH4 production in R:C of 20:80 with 8 mg of RPM. Moreover, the two factors, R:C ratio and RPM level influenced the protozoal population and the percentage of methanogens in the total bacteria population. In addition, the use of real-time PCR found that a high level of concentrate in the diet remarkably decreased three cellulolytic bacteria numbers (F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus). Based on this study, it is suggested that the ratio of R:C at 40:60 and RPM level at 12 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of reducing fermentation losses, thus improving VFA profiles and ruminal ecology. PMID:25049570

  19. Influence of Rain Tree Pod Meal Supplementation on Rice Straw Based Diets Using In vitro Gas Fermentation Technique.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio with rain tree pod meal (RPM) supplementation on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. The experiment design was a 6×4 factorial arrangement in a CRD. Factor A was 6 levels of R:C ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100) and factor B was 4 levels of RPM (0, 4, 8 and 12 mg). It was found that gas kinetic, extent rate (c) was linearly increased (p<0.01) with an increasing level of concentrate while cumulative gas production (96 h) was higher in R:C of 40:60. In addition, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level affected NH3-N and IVDMD and were highest in R:C of 0:100 with 0, 4 mg of RPM and 40:60 with 8 mg of RPM, respectively. Moreover, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level significantly increased total volatile fatty acids and propionate concentration whereas lower acetate, acetate to propionate ratios and CH4 production in R:C of 20:80 with 8 mg of RPM. Moreover, the two factors, R:C ratio and RPM level influenced the protozoal population and the percentage of methanogens in the total bacteria population. In addition, the use of real-time PCR found that a high level of concentrate in the diet remarkably decreased three cellulolytic bacteria numbers (F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus). Based on this study, it is suggested that the ratio of R:C at 40:60 and RPM level at 12 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of reducing fermentation losses, thus improving VFA profiles and ruminal ecology. PMID:25049570

  20. Airborne investigation of bathymetric sills in Godthåbsfjord, Greenland - results from IcePOD and Operation IceBridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, K. J.; Zappa, C. J.; Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Cochran, J. R.; Boghosian, A.; Porter, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The bathymetry of Greenlandic fjords is an important boundary condition for understanding circulation within the fjord. This in turn is crucial to the understanding of ocean-ice interactions at the margins of the Greenland ice sheet. Marine-based surveys have identified sills at the heads of many of these fjords, and demonstrated their importance to the circulation patterns within the fjords themselves. The inaccessibility of much of the Greenland fjord system leaves many regions poorly surveyed, with important data gaps remaining in the interior of the fjords. Airborne surveys provide a valuable platform for the study of fjord dynamics by offering wide coverage and the ability to survey otherwise inaccessible regions of fjords. In this study we combine results from Operation IceBridge gravity surveys with visible and infrared imagery from the IcePOD project to investigate circulation, transport, and mixing in Godthåbsfjord, Greenland, at the calving front of Kangiata Nunâta Sermia. The bathymetry of this fjord has been well mapped, but information is sparse from the inner 13 km where the fjord is filled with icebergs. Gravity data show a 4 mGal positive anomaly 10 km from the calving front. Models constrained by the gravity anomaly over a known sill further up the fjord give this newly identified sill a predicted depth of approximately 100 m. IcePOD is a multi-instrument pod flown on an LC130 operated by the New York Air National Guard. During test flights in the summer of 2013 multiple passes were made of the inner, iceberg-filled part of Godthåbsfjord with both visible and infra-red cameras. Here we compare the movement of ice within the fjord with modelled bathymetry from IceBridge to investigate the circulation of the inner part of the fjord.

  1. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP) and late stages (20-30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as "core cold-inducible" transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression

  2. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K.; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5–15 DAP) and late stages (20–30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as “core cold-inducible” transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene

  3. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the source of chocolate, and FPR is one of the most destructive diseases of this important perennial crop in the Americas. This hemibiotroph infects only cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty days, culminating in plant necrosis and sporulation of the fungus without the formation of a basidiocarp. Results We sequenced and assembled 52.3 Mb into 3,298 contigs that represent the M. roreri genome. Of the 17,920 predicted open reading frames (OFRs), 13,760 were validated by RNA-Seq. Using read count data from RNA sequencing of cacao pods at 30 and 60 days post infection, differential gene expression was estimated for the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of this plant-pathogen interaction. The sequencing data were used to develop a genome based secretome for the infected pods. Of the 1,535 genes encoding putative secreted proteins, 1,355 were expressed in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. Analysis of the data revealed secretome gene expression that correlated with infection and intercellular growth in the biotrophic phase and invasive growth and plant cellular death in the necrotrophic phase. Conclusions Genome sequencing and RNA-Seq was used to determine and validate the Moniliophthora roreri genome and secretome. High sequence identity between Moniliophthora roreri genes and Moniliophthora perniciosa genes supports the taxonomic relationship with Moniliophthora perniciosa and the relatedness of this fungus to other basidiomycetes. Analysis of RNA-Seq data from infected plant tissues revealed differentially expressed genes in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. The secreted protein genes that were upregulated in the biotrophic phase are primarily associated with breakdown of the intercellular matrix and modification of the fungal mycelia, possibly to mask the fungus from plant defenses. Based on the

  4. Comparison of the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts with phytoestrogens on the reproductive physiology and sexual behavior in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Juárez-Rojas, L; Hernández, A; Romero, C; López, G; Miranda, L; Guerrero-Aguilera, A; Solano, F; Hernández, E; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-10-01

    Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) and Leucaena leucocephala are widespread legumes, widely used to feed several livestock species and as food source for human populations in several countries. Both mesquite and Leucaena contain several phytoestrogens which might have potential estrogenic effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the male rat. The effects of the extracts were compared with those of estradiol (E2) and of two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact male rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; Leucaena extract; E2; DAI; GEN. The results indicate that mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts disrupt male sexual behavior in a similar way to DAI and GEN, but less than E2. The main disruptor of sexual behavior was E2, however after 40 and 50days of administration, both extracts and phytoestrogens disrupted sexual behavior in a similar way to E2. The extracts also increased testicular germ cell apoptosis, decreased sperm quality, testicular weight, and testosterone levels, as phytoestrogens did, although these effects were less than those caused by estradiol. The number of seminiferous tubules with TUNEL-positive germ cells increased in extracts treated groups in a similar way to phytoestrogens groups, and E2 caused the greatest effect. The number of TUNEL-positive cells per tubule increased only in Leucaena extract and E2 groups, but not in mesquite- and phytoestrogens-treated groups. Spermatocytes and round spermatids were the TUNEL-positive cells observed in all experimental groups. This effect was associated with smaller testicular weights without atrophy in experimental groups compared with control. Testicular atrophy was only observed in estradiol-treated males. Testosterone decreased in males of all experimental groups, compared with control, this androgen was undetectable in E2

  5. Enhancement of Medical Interns' Levels of Clinical Skills Competence and Self-Confidence Levels via Video iPods: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Designing and delivering evidence-based medical practice for students requires careful consideration from medical science educators. Social Web (Web 2.0) applications are a part of today’s educational technology milieu; however, empirical research is lacking to support the impact of interactive Web 2.0 mobile applications on medical educational outcomes. Objectives The aim of our study was to determine whether instructional videos provided by iPod regarding female and male urinary catheter insertion would increase students’ confidence levels and enhance skill competencies. Methods We conducted a prospective study with medical trainee intern (TI) participants: 10 control participants (no technological intervention) and 11 intervention participants (video iPods). Before taking part in a skills course, they completed a questionnaire regarding previous exposure to male and female urinary catheterization and their level of confidence in performing the skills. Directly following the questionnaire, medical faculty provided a 40-minute skills demonstration in the Advanced Clinical Skills Centre (ACSC) laboratory at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. All participants practiced the skills following the demonstrations and were immediately evaluated by the same faculty using an assessment rubric. Following the clinical skill evaluation, participants completed a postcourse questionnaire regarding skill confidence levels. At the end of the skills course, the intervention group were provided video iPods and viewed a male and a female urinary catheterization video during the next 3 consecutive months. The control group did not receive educational technology interventions during the 3-month period. At the end of 3 months, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire and a clinical assessment of urinary catheterization skills at the ACSC lab. Results The results indicate a decline in skill competency over time among the control group for both male and female

  6. Caesalpinone A, a new type of gorgonane sesquiterpenoid containing an unprecedented 1,15-bridge, from the pods of Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Mu, Weihua; Tang, Hongbo; Li, Yuanping; He, Dongyang; Ma, Ruijing; Wang, Liqin

    2016-07-01

    Caesalpinone A (1), a new type of gorgonane sesquiterpenoid containing an unprecedented 1,15-bridge, along with ten known sesquiterpenoids (2-11) were isolated from the pods of Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze (Tara). The structure of caesalpinone A was elucidated based on its 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by the comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Compound 1 was evaluated for the inhibitory activities against five human tumor cell lines. The sesquiterpenoids of isodaucane skeleton and caryolane skeleton were isolated from Caesalpinia genus for the first time. Compounds 5-9 were firstly reported from Tara. PMID:27345940

  7. Feasibility of using an iPod touch device and acceptability of a stigma reduction intervention with HIV-infected women in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Relf, Michael V; Silva, Susan G; Williams, Megan Scull; Moore, Elizabeth; Arscott, Joyell; Caiola, Courtney; Barroso, Julie

    2015-10-01

    As with many infectious diseases throughout history, stigma is a part of the trajectory of the HIV disease process. HIV-related stigma impedes women from being tested for HIV. Once infected, HIV-related stigma hinders women from disclosing their HIV status to sexual partners and health care providers, engaging in medical care, effectively self-managing the disease after infection, and adhering to anti-retroviral therapy. After three decades of the HIV epidemic, no evidenced-based, culturally relevant, gender-specific interventions exist to help women infected with HIV manage the stigma associated with HIV infection. This manuscript reports the feasibility of using an iPod touch device and acceptability of a stigma reduction intervention with HIV-infected women in the Deep South in a mixed-method, randomized clinical trial. Results from the study demonstrate that it is feasible to utilize an iPod touch device to deliver an HIV-related stigma intervention to women. Further, women report that the HIV-related stigma intervention is acceptable and meaningful. PMID:25761644

  8. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendera, M.; Ekesi, S.; Ndung'u, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Torto, B.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior.

  9. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Bendera, M; Ekesi, S; Ndung'u, M; Srinivasan, R; Torto, B

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior. PMID:26280704

  10. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a novel stereotactic radiotherapy device for breast cancer: The GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign

    SciTech Connect

    Mutaf, Yildirim D.; Yi, Byong Yong; Prado, Karl; D'Souza, Warren D.; Regine, William F.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Zhang Jin; Yu, Cedric X.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: A dedicated stereotactic gamma irradiation device, the GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign from Xcision Medical Systems, was developed specifically to treat small breast cancers. This study presents the first evaluation of dosimetric and geometric characteristics from the initial prototype installed at University of Maryland Radiation Oncology Department. Methods: The GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign stereotactic radiotherapy device is an assembly of a hemi-spherical source carrier containing 36 {sup 60}Co sources, a tungsten collimator, a dynamically controlled patient support table, and the breast immobilization system which also functions as a stereotactic frame. The source carrier contains the sources in six columns spaced longitudinally at 60 Degree-Sign intervals and it rotates together with the variable-size collimator to form 36 noncoplanar, concentric arcs focused at the isocenter. The patient support table enables motion in three dimensions to position the patient tumor at the focal point of the irradiation. The table moves continuously in three cardinal dimensions during treatment to provide dynamic shaping of the dose distribution. The breast is immobilized using a breast cup applying a small negative pressure, where the immobilization cup is embedded with fiducials also functioning as the stereotactic frame for the breast. Geometric and dosimetric evaluations of the system as well as a protocol for absorbed dose calibration are provided. Dosimetric verifications of dynamically delivered patient plans are performed for seven patients using radiochromic films in hypothetical preop, postop, and target-in-target treatment scenarios. Results: Loaded with 36 {sup 60}Co sources with cumulative activity of 4320 Ci, the prototype GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign unit delivers 5.31 Gy/min at the isocenter using the largest 2.5 cm diameter collimator. Due to the noncoplanar beam arrangement and dynamic dose shaping features, the GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign device is found to deliver

  11. Transcriptome analysis of various flower and silique development stages indicates a set of class III peroxidase genes potentially involved in pod shattering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant class III peroxidases exist as a large multigenic family involved in numerous functions suggesting a functional specialization of each gene. However, few genes have been linked with a specific function. Consequently total peroxidase activity is still used in numerous studies although its relevance is questionable. Transcriptome analysis seems to be a promising tool to overcome the difficulties associated with the study of this family. Nevertheless available microarrays are not completely reliable for this purpose. We therefore used a macroarray dedicated to the 73 class III peroxidase genes of A. thaliana to identify genes potentially involved in flower and fruit development. Results The observed increase of total peroxidase activity during development was actually correlated with the induction of only a few class III peroxidase genes which supports the existence of a functional specialization of these proteins. We identified peroxidase genes that are predominantly expressed in one development stage and are probable components of the complex gene networks involved in the reproductive phase. An attempt has been made to gain insight into plausible functions of these genes by collecting and analyzing the expression data of different studies in plants. Peroxidase activity was additionally observed in situ in the silique dehiscence zone known to be involved in pod shattering. Because treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor delayed pod shattering, we subsequently studied mutants of transcription factors (TF) controlling this mechanism. Three peroxidases genes -AtPrx13, AtPrx30 and AtPrx55- were altered by the TFs involved in pod shatter. Conclusions Our data illustrated the problems caused by linking only an increase in total peroxidase activity to any specific development stage or function. The activity or involvement of specific class III peroxidase genes needs to be assessed. Several genes identified in our study had not been linked to any particular

  12. The role of egg pod foam and rearing conditions of the phase state of the Asian migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratoria (Orthoptera, Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Ben Hamouda, Amel; Ammar, Mohamed; Ben Hamouda, Mohamed Habib; Bouain, Abderrahmen

    2009-07-01

    Coloration phase state, morphometrical ratios and the numbers of mature oocytes of Locusta migratoria migratoria were examined in a series of experiments to determine the means by which phase characteristics are passed to the next generation. Washing with distilled water of eggs from egg pods laid by gregarious crowd-reared females resulted in solitarization of the hatchlings after their isolation, indicating that a factor present in eggs encapsulated in foam is causal to gregarization. Such locusts showed a significant shift towards the typical solitarious body coloration, morphometry and number of mature oocytes as compared to locusts resulting from unwashed eggs. Gregarious coloration, morphometrical ratios and oocyte numbers could be partially restored when hatchlings from washed eggs were regrouped. When gregarious locusts were reared in isolation, they showed a solitary body color, whereas, morphometry and oocyte numbers were not affected by isolation. PMID:19482135

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher-Implemented Video Prompting on an iPod Touch to Teach Food-Preparation Skills to High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jesse W.; Blood, Erika; Freeman, Amy; Simmons, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A multiple-probe-across-behaviors design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of video prompts delivered on an iPod Touch to teach food-preparation skills to two high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability. The special education teacher implemented the procedure in the high school classroom. Student data…

  14. Integrating Computer Assisted Language Learning into Out-of-Class Extended Learning: The Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the Oral Reading Fluency of English for Specific Academic Purposes Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi

    2015-01-01

    By using the formative experiment, this study investigated how an instructional intervention, consisting of a Repeated Reading (RR) technique and an iPod Touch, helped achieve a valued pedagogical goal, that of enhancing the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of sixteen English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) first-year university students. Students…

  15. The Use of Video Modeling via a Video iPod and a System of Least Prompts to Improve Transitional Behaviors for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David; Fahrenkrog, Cynthia; Ayres, Kevin M.; Smith, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of video modeling delivered via a handheld device (video iPod) and the use of the system of least prompts to assist elementary-age students with transitioning between locations and activities within the school. Four students with autism learned to manipulate a handheld device to watch video models. An ABAB…

  16. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  17. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  18. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin; Liu, Kaiyu; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Xiaoping; Ai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2) from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition sites. The six

  19. Evolution and association analysis of GmCYP78A10 gene with seed size/weight and pod number in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Yinhui; Zhang, Haowei; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Seed-size/weight traits, controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the seed size and weight in soybean remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, P450/CYP78A gene family has been proved extremely relevant to seed size (such as AtCYP78A5, AtCYP78A6 and AtCYP78A9). We found that a soybean GmCYP78A10 gene underwent artificial selection during soybean breeding. The GmCYP78A10a allele mainly distributed in wild soybean (Glycine soja), but has been eliminated in the cultivars during early stage of soybean breeding, while the GmCYP78A10b allele has been accumulated and become the predominant allele in cultivated soybean (G. max). ANOVA analysis showed that the mean seed weight, seed width and seed thickness of soybean varieties with GmCYP78A10b allele was significantly heavier/bigger than those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01). The allele could explain 7.2 % variation in seed weight. The pod number of the soybeans with GmCYP78A10b allele significantly decreased compared to those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01, R(2) = 5.8 %), while other agronomic traits including seed weight/plant were not significantly affected by these two alleles. We speculated that during the early stage of soybean breeding, breeders selected big seed carrying GmCYP78A10b allele, but lowered pod number simultaneously. Overall, the selection did not cause the significantly change in soybean seed yield. Our results suggests that the soybean GmCYP78A10 gene may have a similar function to those genes belonging to P450/CYP78A subfamily in Arabidopsis and provides new information for the genetic control of seed size in soybean. PMID:25324172

  20. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Na; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin; Liu, Kaiyu; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Xiaoping; Ai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2) from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition sites. The six

  1. Fast simulations of patient-specific haemodynamics of coronary artery bypass grafts based on a POD-Galerkin method and a vascular shape parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, Francesco; Faggiano, Elena; Ippolito, Sonia; Manzoni, Andrea; Quarteroni, Alfio; Rozza, Gianluigi; Scrofani, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    In this work a reduced-order computational framework for the study of haemodynamics in three-dimensional patient-specific configurations of coronary artery bypass grafts dealing with a wide range of scenarios is proposed. We combine several efficient algorithms to face at the same time both the geometrical complexity involved in the description of the vascular network and the huge computational cost entailed by time dependent patient-specific flow simulations. Medical imaging procedures allow to reconstruct patient-specific configurations from clinical data. A centerlines-based parametrization is proposed to efficiently handle geometrical variations. POD-Galerkin reduced-order models are employed to cut down large computational costs. This computational framework allows to characterize blood flows for different physical and geometrical variations relevant in the clinical practice, such as stenosis factors and anastomosis variations, in a rapid and reliable way. Several numerical results are discussed, highlighting the computational performance of the proposed framework, as well as its capability to carry out sensitivity analysis studies, so far out of reach. In particular, a reduced-order simulation takes only a few minutes to run, resulting in computational savings of 99% of CPU time with respect to the full-order discretization. Moreover, the error between full-order and reduced-order solutions is also studied, and it is numerically found to be less than 1% for reduced-order solutions obtained with just O(100) online degrees of freedom.

  2. In vitro wear simulation on the RandomPOD wear testing system as a screening method for bearing materials intended for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Saikko, Vesa

    2014-08-22

    The 16-station RandomPOD wear test system, previously validated for prosthetic hip wear, was used in the simulation of knee wear mechanisms with a ball-on-flat test configuration. This consisted of a CoCr pin with a ground and polished spherical bearing surface (radius 28 mm) against a conventional, gamma-sterilized UHMWPE disk in serum lubrication. The biaxial motion, consisting of x and y translations, and the load was non-cyclic. Relative to the disk, the center of contact wandered within a circle of 10mm diameter, and the average sliding velocity was 15.5mm/s (ranging from 0 to 31 mm/s). The load varied non-cyclically between 0 and 142 N (average 73 N). In the 60-day test with 16 similar wear couples, moderate adhesive wear, the principal wear mechanism of a well-functioning prosthetic knee, dominated. This showed as a burnished, circular wear mark (diameter 13.2mm, area 137 mm(2)). The wear factor was 2.04 ± 0.03 × 10(-6)mm(3)/Nm (mean ± 95 percent confidence limit). For the first time a truly multidirectional, realistic and uniform, large capacity pin-on-disk simulation of knee wear mechanisms was implemented. PMID:24835561

  3. Reducing the need for personal supports among workers with autism using an iPod Touch as an assistive technology: delayed randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Tony; Kriner, Richard; Sima, Adam; McDonough, Jennifer; Wehman, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are versatile task organizers that hold promise as assistive technologies for people with cognitive-behavioral challenges. This delayed randomized controlled trial compared two groups of adult workers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine whether the use of an Apple iPod Touch PDA as a vocational support improves work performance and reduces personal support needs on the job. Baseline data were collected on 50 adults with ASD who were beginning a vocational placement supported by a job coach. Participants were randomized to receive training in the use of a PDA as a vocational aid upon starting their job or after working 12 weeks without PDA support. Workers who received PDA training at the beginning of their job placement required significantly less hours of job coaching support (p = 0.013) during their first 12 weeks on the job than those who had not yet received the intervention. Functional performance between the two groups was not significantly different. The significant difference in hours of job coaching support persisted during the subsequent 12 weeks, in which both groups used a PDA (p = 0.017). PMID:25212414

  4. Field application of safe chemical elicitors induced the expression of some resistance genes against grey mold and cottony rot diseases during snap bean pods storage.

    PubMed

    El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Rashid, Ismail A S; Abou-Ali, Rania M; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2016-01-15

    Phaseolus vulgaris is subjected to serious post-harvest diseases such as grey mold and cottony rot diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pythium aphanidermatum, respectively. In current study, potassium silicate (KSi), potassium thiosulfate (KTS) and potassium sulfate (KS) suppressed moderately the growth of B. cinerea and P. aphanidermatum in vitro. The applied treatments significantly suppressed grey mold and cottony rot of Xera and Valentino snap beans varieties' pods stored at 7 ± 1°C and 90-95% RH for 20 days. Ethylene responsive factor (ERF), polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP), phosphatase associated to defense (PA) and pathogenesis-related protein (PR1) defense genes were over-expressed in leaves tissue of both bean varieties responding positively to potassium salts field application. The expression of these genes was influenced by plant genotype and environment as it varied by snap bean varieties. Accumulation of ERF, GIP, PA and PR1 genes transcript under KTS at 4000 ppm treatment were the highest in Xera tissues (3.5-, 4.8-, 4- and 4.8-fold, respectively). In conclusion, pre-harvest potassium salt in vivo application could be used as effective safe alternatives to fungicides against grey mold and cottony rot diseases of snap beans during storage for up to 20 days at 7 ± 1°C. PMID:26526133

  5. Continuous ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae on mineral kissiris using a two-reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Roukas, T.

    1996-06-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from nonsterilized carob pod extract by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae on mineral kissiris using one- and two-reactor systems has been investigated. A maximum ethanol productivity of 9.6 g/L/h was obtained at an initial sugar concentration of 200 g/L and D = 0.4 h{sup -1} with 68% of theoretical yield and 34% of sugar utilization using the one-reactor system. At S{sub 0} = 200 g/L, D = 0.05 h{sup -1}, 83% of theoretical yield, and 64% of sugar utilization, an ethanol productivity of 2.6 g/L/h was achieved. In the two-reactor system, a maximum ethanol productivity of 11.4 g/L/h was obtained at S{sub 0} = 200 g/L and D = 0.4 h{sup -1} with 68.5% of theoretical yield and 41.5% of sugar utilization. The two-reactor system was operated at a constant dilution rate of 0.3 h{sup -1} for 60 d without loss of the original immobilized yeast activity. In this case, the average ethanol productivity, ethanol yield (% of theoretical), and sugar utilization were 10.7 g/L/h, 71.5%, and 48%, respectively. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Results of investigations with an 0.015-scale model (49-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle 140A/B configuration with modified OMS pods and elevons in the AEDC VKF tunnel B (0A79)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, V.; Lindsay, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of an 0.015-scale space shuttle vehicle Orbiter model of a 140A/B configuration with modified orbital manuevering system pods and elevons are documented. Force data was obtained at various control surface settings and Reynolds numbers in the angle of attack range of 15 deg to 45 deg and at angles of sideslip of -5 deg to +5 deg. Control surface variables included elevon, rudder, speed brake, and body flap configurations.

  7. Soybean resistance to stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) increases with exposure to solar UV-B radiation and correlates with isoflavonoid content in pods under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Jorge A; Mazza, Carlos A; Dillon, Francisco M; Chludil, Hugo D; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2015-05-01

    Solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) has a significant influence on trophic relationships in natural and managed ecosystems, affecting plant-insect interactions. We explored the effects of ambient UV-B radiation on the levels of herbivory by stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) in field-grown soybean crops. The experiments included two levels of UV-B radiation (ambient and attenuated UV-B) and four soybean cultivars known to differ in their content of soluble leaf phenolics. Ambient UV-B radiation increased the accumulation of the isoflavonoids daidzin and genistin in the pods of all cultivars. Soybean crops grown under attenuated UV-B had higher numbers of unfilled pods and damaged seeds than crops grown under ambient UV-B radiation. Binary choice experiments with soybean branches demonstrated that stink bugs preferred branches of the attenuated UV-B treatment. We found a positive correlation between percentage of undamaged seeds and the contents of daidzin and genistin in pods. Our results suggest that constitutive and UV-B-induced isoflavonoids increase plant resistance to stink bugs under field conditions. PMID:24811566

  8. Effect of doe milking and supplementation using Dichrostachys cinerea pods on kid and doe performance in grazing goats during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, V; Sikosana, J L N; Muchenje, V

    2009-04-01

    Effects of supplementation and milking of Matebele does four weeks pre-partum to weaning, on milk yield, kid birth weight and growth rate were studied. Forty does were divided into four treatments: supplemented and milked (SM), supplemented and not milked (SNM), not supplemented and milked (NSM); and not supplemented and not milked (NSNM). Supplemented goats were given 200 g/doe/day of Dichrostachys cinerea pods containing 19% CP. The study was carried out in September during time of feed unavailability and animals were grazed on rangelands for seven hours before being given the supplement. Fifty-six kids were born from all the experimental animals and 24 were singles whereas 32 were twins. Milk yield was higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented than non-supplemented does. Although supplementation had no effect on kid birth weights, growth rates were higher (P < 0.05) in the SNM group (103 +/- 10.1 g/day) than in the SM group (74 +/- 10.8 g/day). Among the non-supplemented groups, kids from milked does had higher (P < 0.05) daily gains (85 +/- 10.9 g/day) than those from non-milked does (67 +/- 10.7 g/day). Weaning weights were higher (P < 0.05) in SNM does (12.8 +/- 1.30 g/day) than in the SM does (10.2 +/- 1.17 g/day). Among kids from the non-supplemented does, those from milked does had superior (P < 0.05) weaning weights (11.2 +/- 1.23 g/day) than those from non - milked does (9.2 +/- 1.27 g/day). Mortalities were also lowest in kids born from SNM does. It is concluded that pre-partum to weaning supplementation generally increases milk production which then increases kids growth rates and weaning weights, as well as reduce kid mortalities. PMID:18726706

  9. I Get to Use an iPod in School? Using Technology-Based Advance Organizers to Support the Academic Success of English Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Elsa S.; Mathison, Carla

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of technology-based advance organizers (TBAOs) on the academic performance of 240 4th grade English learners (ELs) participating in a science class in School in the Park (SITP), a museum-school collaboration. While SITP provides a rich, hands-on learning environment, ELs face significant linguistic challenges in their ability to access the dense academic language and concepts provided in SITP's English only curriculum, thus negatively impacting ELs' engagement and learning. The TBAOs were designed in response to this issue. The study investigated two forms of treatment: TBAOs viewed on individual handheld mobile devices (HMDs), specifically iPods; and, TBAOs viewed as a whole class on DVD. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative data sources, including a pre- and posttest, hands-on and performance-based assessments, as well as focus interviews. Results showed a significant interaction effect between group assignment, language status and application assessments, indicating ELs performed significantly better in the treatment groups. Students who used the HMD instead of the DVD or no treatment improved their total scores significantly on hands-on, performance-based measurements. Differences between treatment and control groups' performance on pre-/posttests approached significance. Furthermore, students reported TBAOs supported learning by introducing new material, introducing and reviewing daily academic vocabulary, and helping them anticipate behavioral and procedural expectations of hands-on activities. Classroom and museum educators reported an increase in the treatment groups' motivation and engagement. The study provided important implications in the use and power of learner-controlled technology in supporting ELs' linguistic and academic success.

  10. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. PMID:25845935

  11. Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by supplementation of rain tree pod meal containing tannins and saponins in growing dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A

    2014-02-01

    Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The main factors were two roughage-to-concentrate ratios (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60) and two supplementation levels of rain tree pod meal (RPM) [0 or unsupplemented and 60 g/kg of total dry matter (DM) intake]. Chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was used as a roughage source. All animals received dietary according to respective R:C ratios at 25 g/kg body weight. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 84 and 143 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and propionate concentrations were increased (p < 0.01), while acetate concentration, acetate-to-propionate ratio, CH4 production and protozoal numbers were decreased (p < 0.01) when steers were supplemented with RPM and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Allantoin excretion was found different by both R:C ratio and supplementation of RPM, with the highest value at R:C of 40:60 with 60 g/kg RPM (123.6 mmol/day) (p < 0.05). Allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein were increased (p < 0.05) with an increasing concentrate ratio. Moreover, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was increased (p < 0.05) by feeding a higher ratio of concentrate (R:C 40:60) and supplementation of RPM. Based on this study, it is suggested that supplementation of RPM was beneficial for dairy cows fed on high roughage ratio, which could improved rumen fermentation by reducing fermentation gas loss, thus improving VFA profiles and thus enhancing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. PMID:23294319

  12. SuMoToRI, an Ecophysiological Model to Predict Growth and Sulfur Allocation and Partitioning in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Until the Onset of Pod Formation

    PubMed Central

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; Mollier, Alain; Kauffmann, François; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Goudier, Damien; Sénécal, Emmanuelle; Etienne, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur (S) nutrition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a major concern for this high S-demanding crop, especially in the context of soil S oligotrophy. Therefore, predicting plant growth, S plant allocation (between the plant’s compartments) and S pool partitioning (repartition of the mobile-S vs. non-mobile-S fractions) until the onset of reproductive phase could help in the diagnosis of S deficiencies during the early stages. For this purpose, a process-based model, SuMoToRI (Sulfur Model Toward Rapeseed Improvement), was developed up to the onset of pod formation. The key features rely on (i) the determination of the S requirements used for growth (structural and metabolic functions) through critical S dilution curves and (ii) the estimation of a mobile pool of S that is regenerated by daily S uptake and remobilization from senescing leaves. This study describes the functioning of the model and presents the model’s calibration and evaluation. SuMoToRI was calibrated and evaluated with independent datasets from greenhouse experiments under contrasting S supply conditions. It is run with a small number of parameters with generic values, except in the case of the radiation use efficiency, which was shown to be modulated by S supply. The model gave satisfying predictions of the dynamics of growth, S allocation between compartments and S partitioning, such as the mobile-S fraction in the leaves, which is an indicator of the remobilization potential toward growing sinks. The mechanistic features of SuMoToRI provide a process-based framework that has enabled the description of the S remobilizing process in a species characterized by senescence during the vegetative phase. We believe that this model structure could be useful for modeling S dynamics in other arable crops that have similar senescence-related characteristics. PMID:26635825

  13. SuMoToRI, an Ecophysiological Model to Predict Growth and Sulfur Allocation and Partitioning in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Until the Onset of Pod Formation.

    PubMed

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; Mollier, Alain; Kauffmann, François; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Goudier, Damien; Sénécal, Emmanuelle; Etienne, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur (S) nutrition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a major concern for this high S-demanding crop, especially in the context of soil S oligotrophy. Therefore, predicting plant growth, S plant allocation (between the plant's compartments) and S pool partitioning (repartition of the mobile-S vs. non-mobile-S fractions) until the onset of reproductive phase could help in the diagnosis of S deficiencies during the early stages. For this purpose, a process-based model, SuMoToRI (Sulfur Model Toward Rapeseed Improvement), was developed up to the onset of pod formation. The key features rely on (i) the determination of the S requirements used for growth (structural and metabolic functions) through critical S dilution curves and (ii) the estimation of a mobile pool of S that is regenerated by daily S uptake and remobilization from senescing leaves. This study describes the functioning of the model and presents the model's calibration and evaluation. SuMoToRI was calibrated and evaluated with independent datasets from greenhouse experiments under contrasting S supply conditions. It is run with a small number of parameters with generic values, except in the case of the radiation use efficiency, which was shown to be modulated by S supply. The model gave satisfying predictions of the dynamics of growth, S allocation between compartments and S partitioning, such as the mobile-S fraction in the leaves, which is an indicator of the remobilization potential toward growing sinks. The mechanistic features of SuMoToRI provide a process-based framework that has enabled the description of the S remobilizing process in a species characterized by senescence during the vegetative phase. We believe that this model structure could be useful for modeling S dynamics in other arable crops that have similar senescence-related characteristics. PMID:26635825

  14. Gastroprotective effects of combination of hot water extracts of turmeric (Curcuma domestica L.), cardamom pods (Ammomum compactum S.) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera DC.) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of the combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) on gastric mucosa in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into 6 groups. Four groups were administered with the hot water extracts combination consisted of cardamom pods 36.6 mg/200 g body weight and sembung leaf 91.5 mg/200 g body weight (fixed doses). The herbal extracts combination were also consisted of turmeric in various doses i.e. 10 mg/200 g body weight in the second group, 30 mg/200 g body weight in the first and third groups, and 50 mg/200 g body weight in the fourth group. The fifth group rats received sucralfate 72 mg /200 g body weight. Ten minutes after receiving herbal extracts combinations or sucralfate, the rats were induced with aspirin 90 mg/200 g body weight except the first group. Another group (sixth group) only received aspirin without any protective agent. All treatments were adsministered orally for seven days. The number and area of the gastric ulcers were counted and measured macroscopically. Score of mucosal damage and the number of eosinophils as well as the number of mast cells were observed in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin eosin and toluidine blue, respectively. Results The groups receiving herbal infuse combination exhibited less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers as well as smaller score of mucosal damage in comparison to those of aspirin group (P<0.05). The number of mast cells and eosinophil of herbal groups were also smaller than that of aspirin group. Conclusions The herbal extracts combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) has potential gastroprotective effects. PMID:25183139

  15. Space Shuttle AFRSI OMS pod environment test using model 81-0 test fixture in the Ames Research Center 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel (OS-314A/B/C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 9x7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to help resolve an anomaly that developed during the STS-6 orbiter flight wherein sections of the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) covering the OMS pods suffered some damage. A one-third scale two-dimensional shell structure model of an OMS pod cross-section was employed to support the test articles. These consisted of 15 AFRSI blanket panels form-fitted over the shell structures for exposure to simulated flight conditions. Of six baseline blankets, two were treated with special surface coatings. Two other panels were configured with AFRSI sections removed from the OV099 orbiter vehicle after the STS-6 flight. Seven additional specimens incorporated alternative designs and repairs. Following a series of surface pressure calibration runs, the specimens were exposed to simulated ascent and entry dynamic pressure profiles. Entry conditions included the use of a vortex generator to evaluate the effect of shed vortices on the AFRSI located in the area of concern.

  16. Carob pod insoluble fiber exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits through sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α.

    PubMed

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Lahera, Vicente; de las Heras, Natalia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus IFC (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) (DL+IFC) for 8 wk. IFC was administered in a pellet mixed with the DL diet. The DL-fed group developed mixed dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expression in the aorta were reduced to 77% and 63% of the control group, respectively (P < 0.05), in these rabbits. Administration of IFC to DL-fed rabbits reduced the size of the aortic lesion significantly (DL, 15.2% and DL+IFC, 2.6%) and normalized acetylcholine-induced relaxation (maximal response: control, 89.3%; DL, 61.6%; DL+IFC, 87.1%; P < 0.05) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DL, 52% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group). IFC administration to DL-fed rabbits also reduced cluster of differentiation 36 (DL, 148% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group; P < 0.05), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (DL, 141% and DL+IFC, 107% of the control group), tumor necrosis factor-α (DL, 166% and DL+IFC, 120% of the control group), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (DL, 153% and DL+IFC, 110% of the control group), transforming growth factor-β (DL, 173% and DL+IFC, 99% of the control group), and collagen I (DL, 157% and DL+IFC, 112% of the control group) in the aorta. These effects were accompanied by an enhancement of

  17. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

  18. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

  19. A (Pod)cast of Thousands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlott, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    Dlott, an instructional specialist, was a neophyte at digital broadcasting and blogging, but she could clearly see that creating podcasts would help elementary students reach a large audience and fire their motivation to do research and write. Dlott details three projects involving podcasting that she and classroom teachers launched at elementary…

  20. Using iPods in Dance Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.

    2008-01-01

    Today's "Net Generation" is used to instant access to information that is wireless and mobile. There is so much information that students can access on their own that class time can be saved for things technology cannot teach, such as personal interactions, dance etiquette, and partnering. Technology should not be a substitute for personal and…

  1. More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods

    MedlinePlus

    ... laundry detergent packets," said lead researcher Dr. Gary Smith, director of the Center for Injury Research and ... in 2015 there was another 7 percent increase," Smith said. Laundry detergent packets are more toxic than ...

  2. Your iPod, Your Art Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The author became involved in a project called "Making Objects Speak: Portable Audio Guides for Teaching with Visual Culture in the Humanities." Faculty members from different disciplines formulated the idea for the project, which aims to make museums more accessible to students at City University of New York's (CUNY's) John Jay College of…

  3. More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods

    MedlinePlus

    ... to laundry detergent packets," said lead researcher Dr. Gary Smith, director of the Center for Injury Research ... on the products' packages, the group said. SOURCES: Gary Smith, M.D., Dr.PH, director, Center for ...

  4. Bean pod mottle virus movement in insect feeding resistant soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is a plant-infecting nucleorhabdovirus that is transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons [Forbes] Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner, meaning that the vector is also a host ...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids. PMID:25299086

  6. Proposal for a lunar landing pod for SKITTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, David; Huang, Frank; Morelli, Mark; Njaka, Chima; Pope, Michael; Rice, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design a lunar landing module for the SKITTER vehicle. SKITTER is a three-legged mobile lunar transport and work platform. This lunar landing module must be able to bring SKITTER, with attached crane, from a lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon. This propulsion system is entirely self-contained and removable after touchdown. SKITTER is unmanned and must be able to touch down on the lunar surface and perform assigned tasks independently of other space or lunar vehicles. The propulsion system is designed to ensure that the vehicle will make a lunar landing within the expected velocity range. A landing gear configuration is presented to safely dissipate landing forces on lunar impact and be removed from the SKITTER structure after touchdown. The overall engineering analysis was conducted to determine an economical design to land SKITTER safely on the Moon. SKITTER will perform various tasks on the surface of the Moon. The completion of this project will determine the feasibility of landing SKITTER with the attached crane safely on the lunar surface.

  7. Two Peas in a Pod?: A Case of Questionable Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Based on an actual event, this case study focuses on problems associated with reproductive technologies. It tells the story of the "Jones" who, after in vitro fertilization, discovered that their fraternal twins were less similar in appearance than one would expect two brothers to be. Students work in teams to unravel the mystery using DNA…

  8. Impact of Swarm GPS receiver updates on POD performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den IJssel, Jose; Forte, Biagio; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Swarm satellites are equipped with state-of-the-art Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, which are used for the precise geolocation of the magnetic and electric field instruments, as well as for the determination of the Earth's gravity field, the total electron content and low-frequency thermospheric neutral densities. The onboard GPS receivers deliver high-quality data with an almost continuous data rate. However, the receivers show a slightly degraded performance when flying over the geomagnetic poles and the geomagnetic equator, due to ionospheric scintillation. Furthermore, with only eight channels available for dual-frequency tracking, the amount of collected GPS tracking data is relatively low compared with various other missions. Therefore, several modifications have been implemented to the Swarm GPS receivers. To optimise the amount of collected GPS data, the GPS antenna elevation mask has slowly been reduced from 10° to 2°. To improve the robustness against ionospheric scintillation, the bandwidths of the GPS receiver tracking loops have been widened. Because these modifications were first implemented on Swarm-C, their impact can be assessed by a comparison with the close flying Swarm-A satellite. This shows that both modifications have a positive impact on the GPS receiver performance. The reduced elevation mask increases the amount of GPS tracking data by more than 3 %, while the updated tracking loops lead to around 1.3 % more observations and a significant reduction in tracking losses due to severe equatorial scintillation. The additional observations at low elevation angles increase the average noise of the carrier phase observations, but nonetheless slightly improve the resulting reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit accuracy as shown by independent satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation. The more robust tracking loops significantly reduce the large carrier phase observation errors at the geomagnetic poles and along the geomagnetic equator and do not degrade the observations at midlatitudes. SLR validation indicates that the updated tracking loops also improve the reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit accuracy. It is expected that the Swarm gravity field recovery will benefit from the improved kinematic orbit quality and potentially also from the expected improvement of the kinematic baseline determination and the anticipated reduction in the systematic gravity field errors along the geomagnetic equator. Finally, other satellites that carry GPS receivers that encounter similar disturbances might also benefit from this analysis.

  9. Implementation of Altimetry Data in the GIPSY POD Software Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauch, Jason R.; Gold, Kenn; Born, George H.

    2001-01-01

    Altimetry data has been used extensively to acquire data about characteristics of the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. More recently, the idea of using altimetry for orbit determination has also been explored. This report discusses modifications to JPL's GIPSY/OASIS II software to include altimetry data as an observation type for precise orbit determination. The mathematical foundation of using altimetry for the purpose of orbit determination is presented, along with results.

  10. PAUT inspection of copper canister: Structural attenuation and POD formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianneo, A.; Carboni, M.; Mueller, C.; Ronneteg, U.

    2016-02-01

    For inspection of thick-walled (50mm) copper canisters for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden, ultrasonic inspection using phased array technique (PAUT) is applied. Because thick-walled copper is not commonly used as a structural material, previous experience on Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing for this type of application is limited. The paper presents the progress in understanding the amplitudes and attenuation changes acting on the Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing inspection of copper canisters. Previous studies showed the existence of a low pass filtering effect and a heterogeneous grain size distribution along the depth, thus affecting both the detectability of defects and their "Probability of Detection" determination. Consequently, the difference between the first and second back wall echoes were not sufficient to determine the local attenuation (within the inspection range), which affects the signal response for each individual defect. Experimental evaluation of structural attenuation was carried out onto step-wedge samples cut from full-size, extruded and pierced & drawn, copper canisters. Effective attenuation values has been implemented in numerical simulations to achieve a Multi Parameter Probability of Detection and to formulate a Model Assisted Probability of Detection through a Monte-Carlo extraction model.

  11. Resource Letter PoD-1: The Physics of Dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Kenneth; Lott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the physics of dance. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: General references for dance, physics of dance, research methods in physics of human movement and in biomechanics, using dance in the physics classroom; anatomy and injuries; physics applied to specific dance movements or styles of dance; equipment (dance shoes, flooring, the barre); and dance of physics.

  12. Optimizations for the EcoPod field identification tool

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Aswath; Stamberger, Jeannie; Yu, YuanYuan; Paepcke, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background We sketch our species identification tool for palm sized computers that helps knowledgeable observers with census activities. An algorithm turns an identification matrix into a minimal length series of questions that guide the operator towards identification. Historic observation data from the census geographic area helps minimize question volume. We explore how much historic data is required to boost performance, and whether the use of history negatively impacts identification of rare species. We also explore how characteristics of the matrix interact with the algorithm, and how best to predict the probability of observing a previously unseen species. Results Point counts of birds taken at Stanford University's Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve between 2000 and 2005 were used to examine the algorithm. A computer identified species by correctly answering, and counting the algorithm's questions. We also explored how the character density of the key matrix and the theoretical minimum number of questions for each bird in the matrix influenced the algorithm. Our investigation of the required probability smoothing determined whether Laplace smoothing of observation probabilities was sufficient, or whether the more complex Good-Turing technique is required. Conclusion Historic data improved identification speed, but only impacted the top 25% most frequently observed birds. For rare birds the history based algorithms did not impose a noticeable penalty in the number of questions required for identification. For our dataset neither age of the historic data, nor the number of observation years impacted the algorithm. Density of characters for different taxa in the identification matrix did not impact the algorithms. Intrinsic differences in identifying different birds did affect the algorithm, but the differences affected the baseline method of not using historic data to exactly the same degree. We found that Laplace smoothing performed better for rare species than Simple Good-Turing, and that, contrary to expectation, the technique did not then adversely affect identification performance for frequently observed birds. PMID:18366649

  13. POD DEVELOPMENT INCREASES THE OZONE SENSITIVITY OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine if the O3 sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. changed with plant development. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 throughout the study were compared to those exposed only during the vegetative or reproductive s...

  14. The Role Of Haplotyping In Mapping The Pod Color Trait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao, the source of cocoa beans for chocolate, is an important tropical agriculture commodity that is affected by a number of fungal pathogens and insect pests, as well as concerns about yield and quality. We are trying to find molecular genetic markers that are linked to disease resista...

  15. If I Give You the iPod, I Lose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freado, Mark D.; Stockstill, Kraig

    2009-01-01

    When conflict between adult and youth arises, each side quickly draws lines in the sand, daring the other person to cross the line. The tendency is to react in ways easiest and most convenient for oneself, rather than to maintain a proactive stance that aggressively meets the needs of the child and employs two of the most important…

  16. First-Year Transition in Teacher Education: The Pod Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Jennifer; Donnison, Sharn

    2010-01-01

    Research on student retention and transition in higher education has been an ongoing focus since the 1950s and during the past decade research into this area has gathered momentum as institutions of higher education increasingly recognise the economic and social costs of failing to retain and transition future graduates. Measures to improve…

  17. Tweets, Apps, and Pods: Results of the 6-Month Mobile Pounds Off Digitally (Mobile POD) Randomized Weight-Loss Intervention Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcasts to deliver a behavioral weight-loss intervention. Objective The objective of our study was to examine whether a combination of podcasting, mobile support communication, and mobile diet monitoring can assist people in weight loss. Methods In this 6-month, minimal contact intervention, overweight (n = 96, body mass index 32.6 kg/m2) adults were recruited through television advertisements and email listservs and randomly assigned to Podcast-only or Podcast+Mobile groups. Both groups received 2 podcasts per week for 3 months and 2 minipodcasts per week for months 3–6. In addition to the podcasts, the Podcast+Mobile group was also instructed to use a diet and physical activity monitoring application (app) on their mobile device and to interact with study counselors and other participants on Twitter. Results Weight loss did not differ by group at 6 months: mean –2.7% (SD 5.6%) Podcast+Mobile, n = 47; mean –2.7% (SD 5.1%) Podcast, n = 49; P = .98. Days/week of reported diet monitoring did not differ between Podcast+Mobile (mean 2.3, SD 1.9 days/week) and Podcast groups (mean 1.9, SD 1.7 days/week; P = .28) but method of monitoring did differ. Podcast+Mobile participants were 3.5 times more likely than the Podcast group to use an app to monitor diet (P = .01), whereas the majority of Podcast participants reported using the Web (14/41, 34%) or paper (12/41, 29%). There were more downloads per episode in the Podcast+Mobile group (1.4/person) than in the Podcast group (1.1/person; P < .001). The number of podcasts participants reported downloading over the 6-month period was significantly moderately correlated with weight loss in both the Podcast+Mobile (r = –.46, P = .001) and the Podcast (r = –.53, P < .001) groups. Podcast+Mobile participants felt more user control at 3 months (P = .02), but not at 6 months, and there was a trend (P = .06) toward greater elaboration among Podcast+Mobile participants. There were significant differences in reported source of social support between groups. More Podcast participants relied on friends (11/40, 28% vs 4/40, 10%; P = .045) whereas Podcast+Mobile participants relied on online sources (10/40, 25% vs 0/40; P = .001). Conclusions Results confirm and extend previous findings showing a minimally intensive weight-loss intervention can be delivered via podcast, but prompting and mobile communication via Twitter and monitoring app without feedback did not enhance weight loss. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01139255; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01139255 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/625OjhiDy) PMID:22186428

  18. Using the iPhone and iPod Touch@Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Susan; Nino, Mary; Stewart, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library is a joint co-managed library of the San Jose Public Library and the San Jose State University Library, located in San Jose, California, the capital of Silicon Valley. Working in this merged public and academic environment, the authors find that the uses of technology transcend the differences and enhance…

  19. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion..." and "For every action..."), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of how to apply them…

  20. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive ...