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Sample records for dietary canitine maintains

  1. Dietary Pyridoxine Protects against Stress and Maintains Immunohaematological Status in Chanos chanos Exposed to Endosulfan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Ambasankar, Kondusamy; Krishnani, Kishore Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Minhas, Paramjit Singh

    2016-09-01

    The amelioration effect of water-soluble vitamin pyridoxine against stress was evaluated in milkfish, Chanos chanos exposed to endosulfan. Two hundred and twenty-five fish were distributed randomly into five treatments, each with three replicates. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets with graded levels of pyridoxine feed were as follows: normal water and fed with control diet (En0/PY0); endosulfan-treated water and fed with control diet (En/PY0); and endosulfan-treated water and fed with 50 (En/PY 50 mg/kg), 75 (En/PY 75 mg/kg) and 100 mg/kg (En/PY 100 mg/kg) pyridoxine-supplemented feed. The endosulfan in treated water was maintained at a level of 1/40th of LC50 (0.52 ppb). The effect of dietary pyridoxine supplementation was studied in terms of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase), stress markers [heat-shock protein 70, caspase-3, cortisol, acetylcholine esterase (AChE), blood glucose], immunohaematological parameters (total protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio, nitroblue tetrazolium, RBC, WBC, Hb), gill histopathology and a subsequent challenge study with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The antioxidative enzymes, stress markers, albumin and A/G ratio were significantly (p < 0.01) elevated, brain AChE and immunohaematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.01) decreased, and chromosome aberration and gill histopathology were also altered due to endosulfan exposure. The relative survival % was reduced due to the combined effect of endosulfan stress and bacterial challenge. Fish fed the diet supplemented with pyridoxine at 75 and 100 mg/kg was found to restore the studied parameter towards normal compared with control and indicated protection against endosulfan-induced stress significantly (p < 0.01). Results obtained in the present study indicate that the supplementation of 75 and 100 mg/kg of pyridoxine in the diet has a definitive role in the mitigation of the endosulfan-induced stress in milkfish, C. chanos

  2. Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Filip J; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Ekblom, Björn

    2010-01-15

    The anion nitrate-abundant in our diet-has recently emerged as a major pool of nitric oxide (NO) synthase-independent NO production. Nitrate is reduced stepwise in vivo to nitrite and then NO and possibly other bioactive nitrogen oxides. This reductive pathway is enhanced during low oxygen tension and acidosis. A recent study shows a reduction in oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise attributable to dietary nitrate. We went on to study the effects of dietary nitrate on various physiological and biochemical parameters during maximal exercise. Nine healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (age 30+/-2.3 years, VO(2max) 3.72+/-0.33 L/min) participated in this study, which had a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Subjects received dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (0.1 mmol/kg/day) or placebo (NaCl) for 2 days before the test. This dose corresponds to the amount found in 100-300 g of a nitrate-rich vegetable such as spinach or beetroot. The maximal exercise tests consisted of an incremental exercise to exhaustion with combined arm and leg cranking on two separate ergometers. Dietary nitrate reduced VO(2max) from 3.72+/-0.33 to 3.62+/-0.31 L/min, P<0.05. Despite the reduction in VO(2max) the time to exhaustion trended to an increase after nitrate supplementation (524+/-31 vs 563+/-30 s, P=0.13). There was a correlation between the change in time to exhaustion and the change in VO(2max) (R(2)=0.47, P=0.04). A moderate dietary dose of nitrate significantly reduces VO(2max) during maximal exercise using a large active muscle mass. This reduction occurred with a trend toward increased time to exhaustion implying that two separate mechanisms are involved: one that reduces VO(2max) and another that improves the energetic function of the working muscles. PMID:19913611

  3. Telephone Counseling Helps Maintain Long-Term Adherence to a High-Vegetable Dietary Pattern12

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, John P.; Newman, Vicky A.; Natarajan, Loki; Flatt, Shirley W.; Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Caan, Bette J.; Emond, Jennifer A.; Faerber, Susan; Gold, Ellen B.; Hajek, Richard A.; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Jones, Lovell A.; Karanja, Njeri; Kealey, Sheila; Madlensky, Lisa; Marshall, James; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Rock, Cheryl L.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia; Wasserman, Linda; Parker, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Achieving long-term adherence to a dietary pattern is a challenge in many studies investigating the relationship between diet and disease. The Women’s Healthy Eating and Living Study was a multi-institutional randomized trial in 3088 women at risk for breast cancer recurrence. At baseline, the average participant followed a healthy dietary pattern of 7 vegetable and fruit servings, 21 g/d of fiber, and 28.7% energy from fat, although fat intake increased over the enrollment period. Using primarily telephone counseling, the intervention group was encouraged to substantially increase intakes of vegetables, fruits, and fiber while decreasing fat intake. Sets of 24-h dietary recalls were completed on 90% of eligible participants at 1 y and 86% at 4 y. Using a conservative imputation analysis, at 1 y, the intervention group consumed 38% more vegetable servings (100% when including juice) than the comparison group, 20% more fruit, 38% more fiber, 50% more legumes, and 30% more whole grain foods, with a 20% lower intake of energy from fat. At 4 y, the between-group differences were 65% for vegetables (including juice), 25% fruit, 30% fiber, 40% legumes, 30% whole grain foods, and 13% lower intake of energy from fat. The intervention effect on fat intake was similar for early vs. late enrollees. Plasma carotenoid concentrations on a random 28% sample validated self-reported vegetable and fruit intake, with a between-group difference of 66% at 1 y and over 40% at 4 y. This large change will allow testing of hypotheses on the role of dietary change in preventing additional breast cancer events. PMID:17885013

  4. Telephone counseling helps maintain long-term adherence to a high-vegetable dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P; Newman, Vicky A; Natarajan, Loki; Flatt, Shirley W; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Caan, Bette J; Emond, Jennifer A; Faerber, Susan; Gold, Ellen B; Hajek, Richard A; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Jones, Lovell A; Karanja, Njeri; Kealey, Sheila; Madlensky, Lisa; Marshall, James; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Rock, Cheryl L; Stefanick, Marcia L; Thomson, Cynthia; Wasserman, Linda; Parker, Barbara A

    2007-10-01

    Achieving long-term adherence to a dietary pattern is a challenge in many studies investigating the relationship between diet and disease. The Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study was a multi-institutional randomized trial in 3088 women at risk for breast cancer recurrence. At baseline, the average participant followed a healthy dietary pattern of 7 vegetable and fruit servings, 21 g/d of fiber, and 28.7% energy from fat, although fat intake increased over the enrollment period. Using primarily telephone counseling, the intervention group was encouraged to substantially increase intakes of vegetables, fruits, and fiber while decreasing fat intake. Sets of 24-h dietary recalls were completed on 90% of eligible participants at 1 y and 86% at 4 y. Using a conservative imputation analysis, at 1 y, the intervention group consumed 38% more vegetable servings (100% when including juice) than the comparison group, 20% more fruit, 38% more fiber, 50% more legumes, and 30% more whole grain foods, with a 20% lower intake of energy from fat. At 4 y, the between-group differences were 65% for vegetables (including juice), 25% fruit, 30% fiber, 40% legumes, 30% whole grain foods, and 13% lower intake of energy from fat. The intervention effect on fat intake was similar for early vs. late enrollees. Plasma carotenoid concentrations on a random 28% sample validated self-reported vegetable and fruit intake, with a between-group difference of 66% at 1 y and over 40% at 4 y. This large change will allow testing of hypotheses on the role of dietary change in preventing additional breast cancer events. PMID:17885013

  5. Dietary Protein to Maintain Muscle Mass in Aging: A Case for Per-meal Protein Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C H; Oikawa, S Y; Phillips, S M

    2016-01-01

    It is well accepted that daily protein intake is an important dietary consideration to limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and function. Furthermore, we propose that there is a growing appreciation for the need to consider protein intake on a per-meal basis rather than simply focusing on the total daily protein intake. The existence of a saturable dose-response relationship between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and the quantity of protein consumed in a single meal/bolus provides the rationale for promoting an even/balanced pattern of daily protein intake. We hypothesize that a balanced/even protein intake pattern with the ingestion a quantity of protein shown to optimally stimulate MPS at each meal may be an effective strategy to alleviate sarcopenic muscle loss. In this review we examine the available evidence supporting the influence of dietary protein intake pattern on muscle protein turnover, muscle mass, and muscle function. We present several practical considerations that, it is proposed, should be taken into account when translating a per-meal protein recommendation into dietary advice for older adults. PMID:26980369

  6. DASH and Mediterranean-type Dietary Patterns to Maintain Cognitive Health

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Christy C

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that as the US population ages, nearly a third will experience stroke, dementia or even both. Thus, interest in the role that diet may play in preserving cognitive abilities continues to grow especially in absence of truly effective treatments for dementia, of which Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form. The purpose of this review is to examine whether two a priori dietary patterns influence the rate of cognitive decline or the onset of dementia. Evidence from neuropathology reports of those who have died with AD or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or without cognitive impairment suggests that often the pathological hallmarks of AD---amyloid deposition and presence of tangles are present along with vascular lesions. Hypertension and stroke are strongly associated with incident dementia. Thus, it is possible that lifestyle approaches designed to prevent or reduce cardiovascular risk factors, conditions or diseases may also provide added benefits for brain health. PMID:25599006

  7. Timothy hays differing in dietary cation-anion difference affect the capability of dairy cows to maintain their calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Heron, V S; Tremblay, G F; Oba, M

    2009-01-01

    Forages low in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can be used to decrease the DCAD in prepartum diet but the extent to which DCAD needs to be reduced is of recent interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of timothy hays differing in DCAD at maintaining Ca homeostasis. Six nonlactating and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay with DCAD values of 4.1 +/- 3.6 (LOW), 14.1 +/- 3.0 (MED), or 25.1 +/- 2.5 (HIGH) mEq per 100 g of DM in a duplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 14-d experimental periods. The LOW and MED hays were produced by fertilizing established timothy fields at a rate of 224 kg CaCl(2) per ha, and HIGH hay was obtained from the same field where LOW hay was produced, but from a section not fertilized with CaCl(2). Experimental diets, containing LOW, MED, or HIGH timothy hay at 71% of dietary DM, had DCAD values of 0.7, 7.3, and 14.4 mEq per 100 g of DM, respectively. Animals were fed at 6% of metabolic body weight, which provided 108% of their daily energy requirement. For each period, after a 12 d diet adaptation, cows were subjected to an EDTA challenge (3 cows each on d 13 and 14). Infusion of EDTA solution into the jugular vein decreases the concentration of blood ionized Ca, and the EDTA challenge protocol determined the resistance time and recovery time: the time required for the blood ionized Ca concentration to decrease to 60%, and the time required to recover to 90% of the prechallenge concentrations, respectively. Urine pH was lower when cows were fed LOW compared with HIGH diet (6.88 vs. 7.83), but urine pH when cows were fed MED diet (7.15) did not differ from that when cows received the LOW or HIGH diet. However, immediately before the EDTA challenge, blood pH was lower when cows were fed LOW or MED compared with HIGH diet (7.44 vs. 7.47). Although the resistance time was not affected by treatments, the recovery time was shorter when cows were

  8. Herbs and other dietary supplements: current regulations and recommendations for use to maintain health in the management of the common cold or other related infectious respiratory illnesses.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Angelo; Bellanger, Renee

    2010-04-01

    Herbal preparations are sold as dietary supplements in the United States and are subject to the rules and regulations of various health care and economic government agencies that monitor the sale of these products. One approach to assessing the usefulness of these substances is to focus on one particular disease state and then review both the primary literature and expert opinion. The common cold is an important illness due to its recurring nature, the number of people it afflicts, and its economic impact on patients. Dietary supplements have been shown to decrease the duration, the severity, and the frequency of symptoms of the common cold. The most commonly available supplements are zinc, ginseng, echinacea, and vitamin C. Data from expert opinion suggested that certain supplements are more beneficial than others to maintain one's health during episodes of the common cold. Expert opinion regarding the use of dietary supplements in other related infectious respiratory illnesses, such as the flu, when aggregated with expert opinion findings regarding the common cold were not contradictory. The primary literature provided insights into specific dosages and compounds that may be used in practice. PMID:21507804

  9. Comparison of Two Theory-Based, Fully Automated Telephone Interventions Designed to Maintain Dietary Change in Healthy Adults: Study Protocol of a Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Heeren, Timothy; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Background Health behavior change interventions have focused on obtaining short-term intervention effects; few studies have evaluated mid-term and long-term outcomes, and even fewer have evaluated interventions that are designed to maintain and enhance initial intervention effects. Moreover, behavior theory has not been developed for maintenance or applied to maintenance intervention design to the degree that it has for behavior change initiation. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe a study that compared two theory-based interventions (social cognitive theory [SCT] vs goal systems theory [GST]) designed to maintain previously achieved improvements in fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. Methods The interventions used tailored, interactive conversations delivered by a fully automated telephony system (Telephone-Linked Care [TLC]) over a 6-month period. TLC maintenance intervention based on SCT used a skills-based approach to build self-efficacy. It assessed confidence in and barriers to eating F&V, provided feedback on how to overcome barriers, plan ahead, and set goals. The TLC maintenance intervention based on GST used a cognitive-based approach. Conversations trained participants in goal management to help them integrate their newly acquired dietary behavior into their hierarchical system of goals. Content included goal facilitation, conflict, shielding, and redundancy, and reflection on personal goals and priorities. To evaluate and compare the two approaches, a sample of adults whose F&V consumption was below public health goal levels were recruited from a large urban area to participate in a fully automated telephony intervention (TLC-EAT) for 3-6 months. Participants who increase their daily intake of F&V by ≥1 serving/day will be eligible for the three-arm randomized controlled trial. A sample of 405 participants will be randomized to one of three arms: (1) an assessment-only control, (2) TLC-SCT, and (3) TLC-GST. The maintenance

  10. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  11. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  12. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  13. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  14. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  15. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  16. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  17. Maintaining Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... center but can also be done in nursing facilities, hospitals, or at home. Book a PFF Ambassador for your event. Call 844.TalkPFF > Life with PF About PF Treatment Options Clinical Trials Maintaining Your Health Find Medical Care Support Groups PFF ...

  18. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  19. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  20. Maintaining radiation protection records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

  1. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  2. Maintaining gas cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    An often overlooked key to satisfactory operation and longevity of any mechanical device is proper operation and maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer`s written instructions. Absorption chillers, although they use a different technology than the more familiar vapor compression cycle to produce chilled water, operate successfully in a variety of applications if operated and maintained properly. Maintenance procedures may be more frequent than those required for vapor compression chillers, but they are also typically less complex. The goal of this article is to describe the basic operation of an absorption chiller to provide an understanding of the relatively simple tasks required to keep the machine operating at maximum efficiency for its design life and beyond. A good starting point is definitions. Gas cooling equipment is generally defined as alternative energy, non-electric cooling products. This includes absorption chillers, engine-drive chillers and packaged desiccant units, among others. Natural gas combustion drives the equipment.

  3. Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an ‘active and influential presence’ in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of Management and Budget.The U.S. presence in Antarctica ‘shall include the conduct of scientific activities in major disciplines; year-round occupation of the South Pole and two coastal stations; and availability of related necessary logistics support,’ wrote the President. In addition, NSF should continue to budget for the entire U.S. program in Antarctica. Short-term programs by other agencies require the recommendation of the Antarctica Policy Group and should be coordinated within the framework of NSF logistics support.

  4. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  5. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  6. Dietary patterns in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Huse, D M; Lucas, A R

    1984-08-01

    This study characterized the dietary patterns of 96 patients with anorexia nervosa who were seen for diet history. The mean age of the patients was 16.6 yr, and mean loss from preillness weight was 28%. Twenty-five patients ate high-quality meals regularly but simply restricted calories. Eleven maintained a high-quality diet but ate at irregular intervals; of these, six had episodes of binge-eating and vomiting or fasting. Among patients whose diets were qualitatively poor, 19 consumed regular meals and 41 ate irregularly; 31 of the latter had episodes of binge-eating and vomiting or fasting. No typical profile of dietary manipulations by these patients was found. Beyond the generalization that there was caloric restriction that resulted in weight loss, there was great variability in the diet patterns. PMID:6465058

  7. Dietary manipulation in musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Pattison, Dorothy J

    2008-06-01

    Dietary advice and intervention clearly have a place in rheumatology and allow patients to have some control over their own disease. Although there is no evidence for efficacy of 'fad' diets, 30-40% of rheumatoid patients can benefit from excluding foods individually identified during the reintroduction phase of an elimination diet. A proportion of patients who follow a vegetarian or Mediterranean-type diet will experience benefit. Patients who are either overweight or obese should participate in weight-loss programmes. Those with osteoarthritis need to concentrate on reducing fat mass while maintaining muscle mass. Arthritic patients, other than those with gout, should increase their intake of oily fish and additionally supplement with fish oil for up to 3 months to see whether they experience benefit. All arthritic patients, particularly those with inflammatory disease, should be advised to ensure a good dietary intake of antioxidants, copper and zinc. Supplementation with selenium and vitamin D may be advisable. PMID:18519104

  8. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  9. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  10. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  11. History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ci Wen; Chen, Suming; Chang, Chi-Yen; Lin, Mei Fong; Block, Erik; Lorentsen, Ronald; Chin, Jason S C; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a history of feeding and dietary husbandry of pangolin in captivity. Over the past 150 years, several zoos have attempted to maintain pangolins (Manis spp). Most of these zoos have not succeeded in maintaining these animals for long periods, associated largely with dietary problems. This study reviews the historic records of captive pangolins. The dietary husbandry of pangolins in Taipei Zoo is discussed in detail. Zoo Biol 0:1-8, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360575

  12. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging. PMID:25355192

  13. [Dietary advice in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Rigalleau, Vincent; Gonzalez, Concepcion; Raffaitin, Christelle; Gin, Henri

    2010-04-20

    The dietary advice is a part of the global care for type 2 diabetes. First, overweight implies a caloric restriction. When poor glucose control is associated with weight gain, important errors are obvious (excess fat and sugar), providing more pills or insulin without correcting them is poorly effective, but promotes further weight gain. Normal body weight, or poor glucose control despite loss of weight, needs to reappraise the diagnosis: diabetes type, intercurrent disease. The cofactors of the "metabolic syndrom" are usually present, so saturated fat has to be reduced, while maintaining fish, fruits, vegetables and whole grain cereals. Blood pressure and dyslipidemia may need further counselling about dietary sodium, carbohydrates, cholesterol. When insulin, sulfonylurea or glinids are indicated, the dietary intake of carbohydrates has to be regular to avoid hypoglycemia. PMID:20465121

  14. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  15. Dietary Interviewing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A computer based dietary interviewing program enhanced self awareness for overweight participants. In a three part interview designed for direct interaction between patient and computer, questions dealt with general dietary behavior and details of food intake. The computer assisted the patient in planning a weight reducing diet of approximately…

  16. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  17. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  18. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Celestine; Harris, Philip J.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients. PMID:27314323

  19. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, Celestine; Harris, Philip J; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients. PMID:27314323

  20. Maintaining qualification for 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    After initial acceptance in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, hospitals and health systems should monitor and take steps to maintain their disproportionate share hospital status to continue to qualify for participation. Proactively managing the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Ratio will ensure the organization avoids an unexpected decline in the Medicare portion of its 340B patient base. Even with the surge resulting from Medicaid expansion, tracking patient eligibility for Medicare/ SSI to ensure all patients who qualify are appropriately enrolled in the program is an important step in maintaining 340B program eligibility. PMID:27183761

  1. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  2. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  3. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals. As its resources permit, FDA also reviews product labels and other product information, such as package inserts, ... the address or phone number listed on the product's label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports ...

  4. Dietary Exposure Potential Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing food consumption and contaminant residue databases, typically products of nutrition and regulatory monitoring, contain useful information to characterize dietary intake of environmental chemicals. A PC-based model with resident database system, termed the Die...

  5. Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, L; Simonsen, N; Mottus, K

    1995-01-01

    Dietary components express a wide range of activities that can affect carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring substances in foods have been shown in laboratory experiments to serve as dietary antimutagens, either as bioantimutagens or as desmutagens. Dietary desmutagens may function as chemical inactivaters, enzymatic inducers, scavengers, or antioxidants. Dietary components may also act later in the carcinogenic process as tumor growth suppressors. Examples of dietary factors acting in each of these stages of carcinogenesis are presented, and potential anticarcinogens such as the carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, metal-binding proteins, phytoestrogens, and conjugated linoleic acid are discussed. Individual foods typically contain multiple potential anticarcinogens. Many of these substances can influence carcinogenesis through more than one mechanism. Some substances exhibit both anticarcinogenic and carcinogenic activity in vitro, depending on conditions. Epidemiologic research indicates that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with lower cancer risk. Little research has focused on the effects of single substances or single foods in man. Realization of the potential of foodborne substances to reduce the human burden of cancer will only be achieved with better measurement of dietary exposures and funding of multidisciplinary research in this area commensurate with its importance. PMID:8741780

  6. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  7. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. PMID:26493189

  8. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  9. Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

    2002-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  10. Staradmin -- Starlink User Database Maintainer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Adrian

    The subject of this SSN is a utility called STARADMIN. This utility allows the system administrator to build and maintain a Starlink User Database (UDB). The principal source of information for each user is a text file, named after their username. The content of each file is a list consisting of one keyword followed by the relevant user data per line. These user database files reside in a single directory. The STARADMIN program is used to manipulate these user data files and automatically generate user summary lists.

  11. Dietary management of galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Susan M; Arrowsmith, Fiona E; Allen, Jane R

    2003-01-01

    Galactosemia is detected by newborn screening in New South Wales and managed by the metabolic team at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Infants with the Duarte variant are not treated. Management is based on the Handbook for Galactosemia prepared in 1998. This handbook provides information for the family on the dietary management, inheritance and ovarian function. The major dietary sources of galactose are milk and milk products. Breastfeeding must be ceased and replaced with a soy formula. Once solid foods are commenced certain foods should be avoided. Other foods, which may contain some free galactose are recommended in limited quantities only. There is no restriction on other fruits and vegetables. An ongoing issue with dietary management is adequate nutrient intake, particularly of calcium. Intake of milk substitutes and calcium supplements is often inadequate. PMID:15906738

  12. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  13. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. )

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  14. Installing and maintaining gear pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmire, K.

    1996-03-01

    While not as common as centrifugal pumps in the CPI, gear pumps play important roles in handling many of today`s more difficult-to-pump fluids. Because they operate at lower speeds -- generally, 900 rpm or less -- their seals and bearings tend to last longer than those of centrifugal models. In addition, unlike centrifugal pumps, gear pumps` flows are independent of their systems` pressure curves, and they can handle a wider range of viscosities. Although high-flow, low-head applications remain the domain of centrifugal pumps, the use of gear pumps is increasing in the chemical process industries (CPI). While some application boundaries between gears and centrifugals are blurring, there are some crucial differences between the way the two are operated and maintained -- for example, where pressure relief is concerned. This article provides a general summary of gear pump characteristics and applications, highlighting critical aspects of installation, operation and maintenance.

  15. When to maintain centrifugal pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Karassik, I.J.

    1993-04-01

    Centrifugal pumps comprise critical maintenance equipment. The rationale of when to maintain them relates to a spreading tendency to contain costs in the face of tight money. Plant managers are thus entitled to a thorough analysis of whether reduced expenditures truly lower costs or actually hinder maintenance and increase costs. Absence of such an analysis hides the fact that proper and timely maintenance has a double effect: it not only reduces power consumption but also extends equipment life, and thus reduces the frequency of labor and material expenditures for scheduled or crisis maintenance. Centrifugal pump maintenance can demonstrate well the validity of this observation. The paper discusses: restoring internal clearances; real cost of renewing clearances; and monitoring clearances and pump performance.

  16. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  17. COOPERATION MAINTAINED BY FITNESS ADJUSTMENT

    PubMed Central

    TAYLOR, CHRISTINE; CHEN, JANET; IWASA, YOH

    2008-01-01

    Questions Whether or not cooperation can be enhanced if players with a performance higher than the mean are forced to pay an additional cost in each generation? Mathematical Methods Analysis of replicator dynamics with mutation. The ESS distribution of cooperation level is obtained. Key Assumptions Players engage in cooperative dilemma game, and at the end of each generation, those with higher performance than the mean are forced to pay additional cost. Conclusions Without mutation, the entire population eventually conforms to a single cooperation level determined by the initial composition of the population. With mutation, there is an equilibrium distribution of cooperation level, which has a peak at an intermediate level of cooperation. Whether it is institutionalized such as tax or just a social custom, fitness adjustment based ultimately on people’s emtion of “envy” is able to maintain cooperation. PMID:19079742

  18. Dietary patterns and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2004-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature on dietary patterns (multiple dietary components operationalized as a single exposure) in relation to nutrient adequacy, lifestyle and demographic variables, and health outcome was conducted. Most of the published reports on the subject have used one of two methods to determine dietary patterns: (a) diet indexes or scores that assess compliance with prevailing dietary guidance as dietary patterns, and (b) data-driven methods that use factor or cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns. Irrespective of the approach used, patterns characterized by fruit/vegetable/whole grain/fish/poultry consumption generally have been reported to relate to micronutrient intake, and to selected biomarkers of dietary exposure and disease risk in the expected direction. Age, income, and education have been reported to be among positive predictors of the so-called more healthful dietary patterns. An inverse association of healthful dietary patterns with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease risk was reported in most studies. However, the magnitude of risk reduction was modest and was attenuated after control for confounders. Few published studies showed an association between risk of most incident cancers and dietary patterns. Both of the currently used approaches for extracting dietary patterns have limitations, are subject to dietary measurement errors, and have not generated new diet and disease hypotheses. PMID:15054348

  19. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  20. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrate provides 50 to 60% of the calories consumed by the average American. Although relatively little carbohydrate is needed in the diet, carbohydrate spares protein and fat being metabolized for calories. The principal dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Sugars (simple carbohydrat...

  1. DIETARY EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL total human exposure program. The research builds on previous work to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving NERL's ability to evaluat...

  2. Dietary PUFA and cancer.

    PubMed

    Abel, S; Riedel, S; Gelderblom, W C A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to give a brief overview on the role of dietary fat in carcinogenesis and as possible anticancer agents. Dietary fat is an essential nutrient and important source for the essential fatty acids (FA), linoleic and α-linolenic acids, which contribute to proper growth and development. However, dietary fat has been associated with the development of colorectal, breast, prostate, endometrial and ovarian cancers, with the type and quality of fat playing an underlying role. Tumour growth is the disruption of the homoeostatic balance regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis and is associated with altered lipid metabolism. Animal cancer models and human cancer biopsy tissue demonstrate that a characteristic lipid profile is associated with the growth and development of neoplastic lesions. This entails alterations in membrane cholesterol, phospholipid and PUFA metabolism. Particularly, alterations in cell membrane FA metabolism involving the n-6 and n-3 PUFA, are associated with changes in membrane structure, function, cellular oxidative status, activity of enzymes and signalling pathways. These events are a driving force in sustaining the altered growth of cancerous lesions and provide unique targets for intervention/cancer modulation. Challenges in utilising FA in cancer modulation exist regarding intake and effect on cell structure and biochemical interactions within the cell in the prevention of cancer development. Therefore, utilising dietary PUFA in a specific n-6:n-3 ratio may be an important chemopreventive tool in altering the growth characteristics of cancer cells. PMID:24850051

  3. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  4. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  5. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  6. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  7. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  8. Hydroelectric redevelopment maintains heritage values

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkovshteyn, L.; Chidiac, M.; Hall, W.

    1995-12-31

    The Seymour GS is an 80 year old generating station on the historic Trent-Severn Waterway in Ontario, Canada. The rehabilitation at Seymour was approved by Provincial and Federal authorities on condition that the original appearance of the building be maintained. The capacity of the Generating Station (GS) is being uprated from 3.15 MW to 5.7 MW, by replacing five vertical double runner Francis units with five horizontal Kaplan turbines. The replacement of vertical Francis units with horizontal Kaplan units, necessitated an extensive and innovative demolition approach for the substructure modification. The new turbines required a powerhouse base slab 3.5 m below the grade of the original slab. This required removal of the existing slabs and foundation rock along with most of the interior powerhouse walls. The type of modification and demolition were carefully chosen to accommodate a very tight schedule dictated by the requirement of the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), where in-water work is restricted to certain months of the year.

  9. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  10. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  11. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  12. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  13. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  14. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  15. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  16. Dietary Sodium in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Comprehensive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Julie A.; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite existing guidelines, dietary sodium intake among people worldwide often exceeds recommended limits. Research evidence is growing in both animal and human studies showing indirect and direct adverse consequences of high dietary sodium on the kidney. In patients with kidney disease, dietary sodium may have important effects on proteinuria, efficacy of antiproteinuric pharmacologic therapy, hypertension control, maintaining an optimal volume status, and immunosuppressant therapy. Dietary sodium intake is an important consideration in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis therapy or those who have received a kidney transplant. We review in detail the dietary sodium recommendations suggested by various organizations for patients with kidney disease. Potential barriers to successfully translating current sodium intake guidelines into practice include poor knowledge about the sodium content of food among both patients and providers, complex labeling information, patient preferences related to taste, and limited support for modifications in public policy. Finally, we offer existing and potential solutions that may assist providers in educating and empowering patients to effectively manage their dietary sodium intake. PMID:20557489

  17. Dietary protein and muscle in older persons

    PubMed Central

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Leidy, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review To highlight recent advances in nutrition and protein research that have the potential to improve health outcomes and status in aging adults. Recent Findings The beneficial effects of dietary protein on muscle health in older adults continue to be refined. Recent research has bolstered support for moderately increasing protein consumption beyond the current RDA by adopting a meal-based approach in lieu of a less specific daily recommendation. Results from muscle protein anabolism, appetite regulation and satiety research support that contention that meeting a protein threshold (approximately 30 g/meal) represents a promising strategy for middle-aged and older adults concerned with maintaining muscle mass while controlling body fat. Summary Optimizing dietary protein intake to improve health requires a detailed consideration of topics including muscle protein anabolism, appetite control and satiety. While each area of research continues to advance independently, recent collaborative and translational efforts have highlighted broad, translational consistencies related to the daily distribution and quantity of dietary protein. PMID:24310053

  18. Dietary strategies for weight management.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In an 'obesogenic' environment, getting people to eat appropriate amounts is challenging. Several food-based strategies have the potential to promote satiety and moderate energy intake. Components of foods such as macronutrients and functional ingredients can affect satiety; however, for weight management a more comprehensive approach is needed that emphasizes behavioral strategies to improve the overall diet. Research shows that large portions of energy-dense foods facilitate overconsumption and that reductions in portion size and energy density are associated with reduced energy intake. While this suggests that people should eat smaller portions, recent data show that if people lower the energy density of their diet, they can continue to eat their usual amount of food while limiting calories. Furthermore, serving larger portions of low-energy-dense foods can be used strategically to encourage their consumption and reduce dietary energy density, and this has been shown to be associated with decreased energy intake while maintaining satiety. This new understanding of how portion size can be used positively to manage energy intake has the potential to help people achieve sustainable improvements in their energy intake and bodyweight. Science-based strategies that increase the availability of affordable nutrient-rich, lower energy-dense foods are urgently needed. PMID:23128764

  19. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p < .001) wake times. Also, the Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p < .05) sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  20. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7795421

  1. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  2. Is it dietary insulin?

    PubMed

    Vaarala, Outi

    2006-10-01

    In humans the primary trigger of insulin-specific immunity is a modified self-antigen, that is, dietary bovine insulin, which breaks neonatal tolerance to self-insulin. The immune response induced by bovine insulin spreads to react with human insulin. This primary immune response induced in the gut immune system is regulated by the mechanisms of oral tolerance. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as the gut microflora, breast milk-derived factors, and enteral infections, control the development of oral tolerance. The age of host modifies the immune response to oral antigens because the permeability of the gut decreases with age and mucosal immune response, such as IgA response, develops with age. The factors that control the function of the gut immune system may either be protective from autoimmunity by supporting tolerance, or they may induce autoimmunity by abating tolerance to dietary insulin. There is accumulating evidence that the intestinal immune system is aberrant in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intestinal immune activation and increased gut permeability are associated with T1D. These aberrancies may be responsible for the impaired control of tolerance to dietary insulin. Later in life, factors that activate insulin-specific immune cells derived from the gut may switch the response toward cytotoxic immunity. Viruses, which infect beta cells, may release autoantigens and potentiate their presentation by an infection-associated "danger signal." This kind of secondary immunization may cause functional changes in the dietary insulin primed immune cells, and lead to the infiltration of insulin-reactive T cells to the pancreatic islets. PMID:17130578

  3. Dietary Fiber and Whole Grain Intake Lessen Gains in Weight and Waist Circumference in Normal Weight Individuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods rich in dietary fiber, such as whole grains, may play an important role in maintaining a healthy body weight and preventing obesity because of their lower energy density. We examined the relationship between dietary fiber and whole grain consumption and changes in body weight and waist circumf...

  4. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... notification requirements for dietary supplements that contain an NDI (62 FR 49886, September 23, 1997). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient...

  5. Health effects of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Otles, Semih; Ozgoz, Selin

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fibres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fibres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous beneficial effects on human health. Dietary fibre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fibers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fibers and their important implications on human health will be investigated. PMID:24876314

  6. Dietary manipulation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bachmair, E M; Ostertag, L M; Zhang, X; de Roos, B

    2014-11-01

    Activated platelets contribute to plaque formation within blood vessels in the early and late stages of atherogenesis, and therefore they have been proposed as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin, are now the most prescribed pharmacological treatment in Europe. Certain dietary bioactives also beneficially affect platelet function, and with less side effects, albeit that effects are generally more subtle. Therefore, consumption of dietary bioactives could play a role in the prevention of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Here we review the efficacy of dietary treatment strategies, especially those involving certain dietary fatty acids and polyphenols, to modulate platelet function in healthy subjects or in patients with cardiovascular disease. Variation in study populations, small study sizes and lack of comparability between methods to assess platelet function currently limit robust evidence on the efficacy of dietary bioactives in healthy subjects or specific patient groups. Also, limited knowledge of the metabolism of dietary bioactives, and therefore of the bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, restricts our ability to identify the most effective dietary regimes to improve platelet function. Implementation of uniform point-of-care tests to assess platelet function, and enhanced knowledge of the efficacy by which specific dietary compounds and their metabolites affect platelet function, may enable the identification of functional anti-platelet ingredients that are eligible for a health claim, or combined treatment strategies, including both pharmacological anti-platelet treatment as well as dietary intervention, to tackle atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:24858060

  7. Breeding maintainer lines for hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintainer lines are a component of 3-line hybrid rice production, necessary to perpetuate the male-sterile (MS) line. In practice, it is often the maintainer that is bred with an array of desirable traits, then male-sterility is transferred in through several backcrosses with the new maintainer to...

  8. A Dietary Screening Questionnaire Identifies Dietary Patterns in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns reflect habitual exposure of foods and nutrients, and are a preferred means to assess diet and disease relationships. Our objective was to design a screening tool to assess diet quality and dietary patterns among older adults, and to relate the patterns to markers of general health ...

  9. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  10. What about Those Dietary Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, S. Jane

    1980-01-01

    This elaboration of the Dietary Goals for the United States, set by the U.S. Senate and Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977, details all seven dietary goals and includes a discussion of possible risk factors associated with certain chronic diseases. (JN)

  11. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...

  12. DIETARY INTAKE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary exposure research supports the requirements of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 by improving methods of aggregate and cumulative exposure assessments for children. The goal of this research is to reduce the level of uncertainty in assessing the dietary path...

  13. Dietary restrictions and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, R W; Turturro, A

    1997-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) alters a significant environmental factor in carcinogenesis, dietary intake, thus inhibiting both spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. Potential mechanisms for the inhibition of spontaneous cancer may include the effects of DR to do the following: decrease body weight, which decreases cellular proliferation and increases apoptosis in a number of organs that increase and decrease with body size; decrease body temperature, thereby lowering the amount of endogenous DNA damage temperature generates; decrease oxidative damage, by increasing antioxidant damage defense systems; decrease, generally, cellular proliferation; and protect the fidelity of the genome by decreasing DNA damage, increasing DNA repair, and preventing aberrant gene expression. Potential mechanisms for reducing induced tumor incidence include lowering agent activation, changing agent disposition, decreasing the adducts most associated with agent toxicity, and inhibiting tumor progression through mechanisms similar to those that can effect spontaneous tumorigenesis. As a method to control a major source of environmental cancer, and as the major modulator of the agent induction of this disease, understanding how DR works may significantly contribute to the efforts to explain how diet impacts on development of cancer in the United States, and may suggest methods to reduce the adverse impacts of other environmental agents on the disease. PMID:9255593

  14. Dietary control of cancer.

    PubMed

    El-Bayoumy, K; Chung, F L; Richie, J; Reddy, B S; Cohen, L; Weisburger, J; Wynder, E L

    1997-11-01

    Many laboratory studies and human epidemiological data suggest that most cancer deaths are attributable to lifestyle, including nutritional factors and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Tobacco consumption is causally related to cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Nutrients and non-nutrient dietary components probably account for cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach. This report is based on literature and our own data pertaining to the role of dietary fat, calories, and fiber in the development of colon and breast cancer. We also discuss the evidence from epidemiological, mechanistic, and preclinical efficacy studies indicating a protective effect of micronutrients, non-nutrients, and certain antioxidants in food against oral and lung cancers. Given the continuing cancer burden and the relatively slow impact of proven cancer treatment strategies in reducing cancer mortality, it is essential to evaluate promising nutrients and non-nutrients in foods as chemopreventive agents in persons at increased risk for cancer. Development of reliable intermediate biomarkers is valuable for clinical chemoprevention intervention trials. The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with plausible approaches to cancer control. PMID:9349690

  15. Dietary therapy in gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C R; Cerda, J J

    1989-02-01

    Diet therapy is an important factor in overall care of most GI patients. Historically, diets have been used unscientifically in many of these patients without positive results. Nutritional care and diet therapy are critical for two reasons. First, malnutrition is an expected sequelae to most, if not all, GI diseases or disorders. Failure to eat, digest, or assimilate nutrients can provoke malnutrition in just a few weeks, although careful assessment of anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and nutritional history by a trained professional can protect against this. Diet therapy through the elimination of offending foods such as wheat gluten or lactose, or inclusion of specialized products such as medium chain triglycerides or elemental formulas, can sustain nutritional status. Dietary components such as insoluble fiber appear to have physiologic effects, while soluble fibers may have metabolic effects important to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is a high potential for malnutrition in Crohn's disease during active and remittent phases. Elemental enteral formulas or TPN are used during the active phase to ensure optimal nutritional status and bowel rest. Hyperalimentation using the GI tract during remittent stage maintains this. Avoiding offending foods by Crohn's patients is an acceptable practice as long as entire categories of foods are not deleted. Avoiding all foods containing gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oats, however, is a crucial prerequisite to recovery from celiac disease. Gluten is commonly used as a stabilizer, emulsifier, and extender in the food industry and is not always shown on food labels. Careful consultation with a registered dietitian can identify hidden sources of gluten in the diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2647390

  16. Dietary pattern analysis for the evaluation of dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2008-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines for the promotion of overall good health and the prevention of disease often play an important role in setting nutritional policy and in the education of the public about healthy food choices. Although much has been written about adherence to such guidelines, until recently there was no evidence on whether adherence to specific dietary guidelines is associated with better health. As an outcome variable for such analyses, we have used the incidence of major chronic disease, which includes incidence of any major cardiovascular disease, cancer, or death from any cause excluding violence. We have evaluated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans using a scoring system called the Healthy Eating Index developed by the Department of Agriculture to quantify adherence to these guidelines. We found that adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk in a population of over 100,000 US adult men and women. We also assessed whether an alternate index, which took into account the type of fat and quality of carbohydrate, would better predict risk. In contrast with the original Healthy Eating Index, adherence to the alternative index predicted lower rates of major chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease, suggesting that the Dietary Guidelines were not offering optimal dietary guidance. These analyses suggest that dietary guidelines should be evaluated for their ability to predict the occurrence of major illness, and that such analyses can help refine these guidelines. PMID:18296306

  17. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  18. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  19. Dietary intervention in acne

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  20. Dietary carbohydrates for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Rivellese, Angela A; Giacco, Rosalba; Costabile, Giuseppina

    2012-12-01

    The literature on the impact of dietary carbohydrates in the regulation of blood glucose levels and other metabolic abnormalities in diabetic patients over the last 3 years is reviewed. We try to differentiate the metabolic effects due to the amount of carbohydrates from those due to their different types. The review comprises a part dealing with the effects of diets having low or high carbohydrate content on body weight reduction, and a part in which the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are discussed in relation to isoenergetic diets. Overall, the data accumulated in the period considered seem to confirm that the decrease in energy intake is more important than the qualitative composition of the diet to reduce body weight, but that both the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are important in modulating blood glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in both the fasting and the postprandial phases in diabetic individuals. PMID:22847773

  1. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet. PMID:18296301

  2. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Beneficiaries Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day...

  3. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  4. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  5. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day or...

  6. Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Smith, Brenda J; Lo, Di-Fan; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Dunn, Dale M; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-11-01

    Osteoarthritis is a condition caused in part by injury, loss of cartilage structure and function, and an imbalance in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. It primarily affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of synovial joints and results in joint failure, leading to pain upon weight bearing including walking and standing. There is no cure for osteoarthritis, as it is very difficult to restore the cartilage once it is destroyed. The goals of treatment are to relieve pain, maintain or improve joint mobility, increase the strength of the joints and minimize the disabling effects of the disease. Recent studies have shown an association between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of osteoarthritis-related musculoskeletal inflammation. This review discusses the effects of commonly consumed polyphenols, including curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate and green tea extract, resveratrol, nobiletin and citrus fruits, pomegranate, as well as genistein and soy protein, on osteoarthritis with an emphasis on molecular antiosteoarthritic mechanisms. PMID:22832078

  7. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P < 0.05). Specific growth rate ( SGR) of turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P < 0.05), and then kept stable when dietary protein content was higher than 51.0%. Fish which were fed the diet containing 63.6% protein showed the highest SGR while those fed the diet containing 59.3% protein showed the highest feed efficiency rate. No significant difference of feed intake and protein efficiency ratio was found among experimental diets ( P > 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  8. DIETARY RISK EVALUATION SYSTEM: DRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Risk Evaluation System (DRES) estimates exposure to pesticides in the diet by combining information concerning residues on raw agricultural commodities with information on consumption of those commodities. It then compares the estimated exposure level to a toxicologi...

  9. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  10. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian' ;s relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  11. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  12. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    PubMed Central

    Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  13. The validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders in predicting dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The study examined the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. The aim was to determine if the maintaining mechanisms of clinical perfectionism, core low self esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties have a direct impact on dietary restraint or an indirect impact via eating, shape and weight concerns. The model was tested in a community sample of 224 females recruited via the internet. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data. The relationship between maintaining mechanisms and dietary restraint was due to maintaining mechanisms impacting indirectly on dietary restraint via eating disorder psychopathology. The results lend support for the validity of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders as the maintaining mechanisms lead to restraint via the core psychopathology of eating concerns, weight concerns and shape concerns. The findings suggest the four maintaining mechanisms alone are not enough to lead to dietary restraint, the core psychopathology of eating disorders needs to be present, which supports the predictions of the theory. These results help establish the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. PMID:22365794

  14. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  15. Ecology: Tribal Warfare Maintains Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Greig, Duncan; Goddard, Matthew

    2015-07-20

    When two tribes of Myxococcus bacteria attack each other, the most numerous usually wins. Established colonies can therefore resist invaders by outnumbering them. This shows how positive frequency dependence can maintain diversity across spatially structured environments. PMID:26196492

  16. Mechanisms maintaining grassland biodiversity and ecosystem stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologists need to know how particular processes influence biodiversity and ecosystem stability. We demonstrate how data from biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to identify and quantify the classes of mechanisms maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem stability. We predicted...

  17. Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency'

    MedlinePlus

    ... of oxygen consumption is what researchers call "running economy." They found that even though the gait of ... still maintain youthful energy levels, or good running economy, while exercising. "There's good evidence that it's never ...

  18. An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the need to include studies of reliability and maintainability during the design of any system. Topic areas addressed include availability calculations, complex systems and standby redundancy, availability and malfunction levels, design techniques, fault trees, functional maintenance, and others. (DH)

  19. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  20. Hominoid dietary evolution.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P; Martin, L

    1991-11-29

    During the later Palaeocene and early Miocene, catarrhine primates and the evolving hominoids had adaptations for frugivorous diets, with the emphasis on soft foods. Early in the middle Miocene the hominoids underwent a major shift, both in morphology and in habitat, with the morphology characterized by thickened enamel on the molars, enlarged incisors and massive jaws. The diet indicated by this morphology is interpreted as still mainly frugivorous but with changed emphasis, possibly towards harder objects. The thick-enamelled hominoids are found associated with more open forest habitats, and the distribution of food resources in equivalent habitats today is discontinuous both in time and in space, leading to evolutionary pressures particularly affecting locomotion, brain size and social behaviour. The earliest known hominid fossils differed little in dental and mandibular morphology from the middle Miocene apes, and the implied dietary similarity, together with ape-like patterns of dental development and retained arboreal adaptations of the postcrania, suggests little change in the foraging strategies of the earliest hominids compared with their ape ancestors and further suggests similarity in evolutionary grade. This similarity may have extended to other aspects of behaviour, for example to patterns of tool making and use, which may have been similar in the common ancestor of apes and humans to the pattern shared by the earliest australopithecines and chimpanzees. PMID:1685578

  1. Maintainability planning for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned NASA Space Station, which is expected to have many years of on-orbit operation, for the first time confronts spacecraft designers with major questions of maintainability in design. A Maintainability Guidelines Document has been distributed to all Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design personnel of the Space Station Program Office. Trade studies are being performed to determine the most economical balance between initial (reliability) cost and life cycle cost (crew time and replacement hardware) costs.

  2. Maintainability program requirements for space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

  3. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  4. Strategies for maintaining fitness and performance during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Chaouachi, Anis; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Chamari, Karim

    2012-01-01

    The Muslim athlete, whether living in a Muslim majority country or in a non-Muslim country, face unique challenges to faithfully follow one of the pillars of their faith - Ramadan - while attempting to maintain their participation in sports training and competition. There are conflicting reports on the effects of Ramadan on fitness and physical performance in general and in football in particular. In general, the impact of a brief daytime fast has minor effects on health or factors of physical fitness. Add physical training and now a new set of barriers to both performance and the observance of Ramadan begin to interact. Practising athletes have worked out strategies to cope with the rigors of Ramadan; strategies that have both physical (training modifications, dietary habits, rest and recovery) and emotional (patience, emotional preparations) domains. Carefully blending strategies like these can help the football player be true to their faith and follow the tenants of Ramadan hopefully, with a minimum of impact on their physical performance. In this context, science can help coaches improve their training plans and educate players with respect to the challenges presented by Ramadan to all levels of sports participation. PMID:22606971

  5. Nutritional support to maintain proper immune status during intense training.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function which can increase the risk of picking up minor infections. To maintain robust immunity, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important in the maintenance of immune function. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Similar effects can be seen with daily ingestion of high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplements, though concerns have been expressed that excessive antioxidant intake may impair exercise training adaptations. It is safe to say with reasonable confidence that individual amino acids, colostrum, Echinacea, and zinc are unlikely to boost immunity or reduce infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotic and plant polyphenol (e.g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness. PMID:23765353

  6. Dietary Nitrate Lowers Blood Pressure: Epidemiological, Pre-clinical Experimental and Clinical Trial Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gee, Lorna C; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator critical in maintaining vascular homeostasis, can reduce blood pressure in vivo. Loss of constitutive NO generation, for example as a result of endothelial dysfunction, occurs in many pathological conditions, including hypertension, and contributes to disease pathology. Attempts to therapeutically deliver NO via organic nitrates (e.g. glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) to reduce blood pressure in hypertensives have been largely unsuccessful. However, in recent years inorganic (or 'dietary') nitrate has been identified as a potential solution for NO delivery through its sequential chemical reduction via the enterosalivary circuit. With dietary nitrate found in abundance in vegetables this review discusses epidemiological, pre-clinical and clinical data supporting the idea that dietary nitrate could represent a cheap and effective dietary intervention capable of reducing blood pressure and thereby improving cardiovascular health. PMID:26815004

  7. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  8. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  9. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber. PMID:22872372

  10. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.J.; Blumenthal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing ‘whole’ diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed. PMID:26900574

  11. New Dietary Supplements for Obesity: What We Currently Know.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and its associated cardiometabolic alterations currently are considered an epidemic; thus, their treatment is of major importance. The cornerstone for such treatment involves therapeutic lifestyle changes; however, the vast majority of cases fail and/or significant weight loss is maintained only in the short term because of lack of compliance. The popularity of dietary supplements for weight management has increased, and a wide variety of these products are available over the counter. However, the existing scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend their safe use. Hence, the purpose of this article is to review the clinical effects, proposed mechanism of action, and safety profile of some of the new dietary supplements, including white bean extract, Garcinia cambogia, bitter orange, Hoodia gordonii, forskolin, green coffee, glucomannan, β-glucans, chitosan, guar gum, and raspberry ketones. PMID:27053066

  12. Flavonoids as dietary regulators of nuclear receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Avior, Yishai; Bomze, David; Ramon, Ory

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia are a rising cause of mortality worldwide. The progression of many metabolic diseases is fundamentally regulated on the transcriptional level by a family of ligand-activated transcription factors, called nuclear receptors, which detect and respond to metabolic changes. Their role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis makes nuclear receptors an important pharmaceutical and dietary target. This review will present the growing evidence that flavonoids, natural secondary plant metabolites, are important regulators of nuclear receptor activity. Structural similarities between flavonoids and cholesterol derivatives combined with the promiscuous nature of most nuclear receptors provide a wealth of possibilities for pharmaceutical and dietary modulation of metabolism. While the challenges of bringing flavonoid-derived therapeutics to the market are significant, we consider this rapidly growing field to be an essential aspect of the functional food initiative and an important mine for pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23598551

  13. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  14. Effect of dietary macronutrient composition under moderate hypocaloric intake on maternal adaptation during lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No evidence-based recommendations exist concerning what dietary macronutrient composition optimizes weight loss during lactation while maintaining milk production. This study was designed to test the following hypotheses: compared to a reduced-calorie, high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet, an isonitrogen...

  15. Dietary selenium and selenoprotein function

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Benjamin S.; Hanna, Mirna S.; Cooperstein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Selenium is a trace mineral and an essential nutrient in the human diet. Selenium is found in soil and water and consequently enters the food chain through the root ways of plants and aquatic organisms. Some areas of the world are low in soil selenium resulting in a selenium deficient population and the appearance of an associated heart disease and bone disorders that can be corrected with dietary selenium. Indeed the requirement for dietary selenium was established by these observations and while selenium deficiency is rare in the West, patients requiring long-term intravenous feedings have also show heart disease associated with a deficiency of selenium in the feeding fluids. Subsequently, it has been established that dietary selenium can improve a wide range of human health conditions even in areas with soil replete in selenium. PMID:22847213

  16. Dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Cheng, Zhenyan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-02-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to examine the dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass in seawater floating net cages (1.5 m × 1.5 m × 2.0 m). Six isonitrogenous (crude protein 40%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) diets were formulated to contain different concentrations of leucine (0.9%, 1.49%, 2.07%, 2.70%, 3.30% and 3.88% of dry matter). Crystalline L-amino acids were supplemented to simulate the whole body amino acid pattern of Japanese seabass except for leucine. Three groups (30 fish individuals each, 8.0 g ± 0.20 g in initial weight) were fed to apparent satiation at 5:00 and 17:30 every day. During the experimental period, the water temperature ranged from 26 to 32δC and salinity from 26 to 30, and the dissolved oxygen was maintained at 7 mg L-1. The results showed that weight gain ( WG), nitrogen retention ( NR), feed efficiency ( FE) and protein efficiency ratio ( PER) were significantly increased when dietary leucine was increased from 0.90% to 2.70% of dry matter, and then declined. WG was the highest when fish were fed D4 containing 2.70% of leucine. No significant differences were observed in body composition among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). Considering the change of WG, the optimum dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass was either 2.39% of dry matter or 5.68% of dietary protein.

  17. Progress in Developing Dietary Supplement Databases: The Analytically Validated Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) and Dietary Supplement Label Databases (DSLD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although an estimated 50% of the US population consumes dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on bioactive constituents in them are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database deve...

  18. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fiber URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  1. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  2. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  3. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  4. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  5. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  6. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  7. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  8. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  9. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  10. Maintaining and Repairing. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Booklet (Maintaining and Repairing) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations…

  11. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  12. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  13. Dietary antioxidants: immunity and host defense.

    PubMed

    Puertollano, María A; Puertollano, Elena; de Cienfuegos, Gerardo Álvarez; de Pablo, Manuel A

    2011-01-01

    Natural antioxidants may be defined as molecules that prevent cell damage against free radicals and are critical for maintaining optimum health in both animals and humans. In all living systems, cells require adequate levels of antioxidant defenses in order to avoid the harmful effect of an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to prevent damage to the immune cells. During the inflammatory processes, the activation of phagocytes and/or the action of bacterial products with specific receptors are capable of promoting the assembly of the multicomponent flavoprotein NADPH oxidase, which catalyzes the production of high amounts of the superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)). Under these particular circumstances, neutrophils and macrophages are recognized to produce superoxide free radicals and H(2)O(2), which are essential for defence against phagocytized or invading microbes. In this state, antioxidants are absolutely necessary to regulate the reactions that release free radicals. Antioxidant nutrients commonly included in the diet such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene, selenium, copper, iron and zinc improve different immune function exhibiting an important protective role in infections caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. As a result, dietary antioxidants have been related to modulate the host susceptibility or resistance to infectious pathogens. Overall, numerous studies have suggested that the development of tolerance, and control of inflammation are strongly correlated with specific immune mechanisms that may be altered by an inadequate supply of either macronutrients or micronutrients. Therefore, the present paper will review the effects of dietary antioxidants on immune cell function and the impact on protection against infectious microorganisms. PMID:21506934

  14. Dietary patterns in blacks and Hispanics with diagnosed diabetes in New York City's South Bronx123

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Clyde B; Ortega, Felix; Rosen, Rosa; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Walker, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Background: An understanding of dietary patterns in diverse populations may guide the development of food-based, rather than nutrient-based, recommendations. Objective: We identified and determined predictors of dietary patterns in low-income black and Hispanic adults with diagnosed diabetes. Design: A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake in 235 adults living in the South Bronx, New York City, NY. We used principal factor analysis with promax rotation to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate linear regression models were used to test associations between demographic variables and dietary pattern scores. Results: The following 5 dietary patterns were identified: pizza and sweets, meats, fried foods, fruit and vegetables, and Caribbean starch. The Caribbean starch and fruit and vegetables patterns were high in fruit and vegetables and low in trans fats. In multivariate analyses, sex, language spoken, years living in the United States, and region of birth were significant predictors of dietary patterns. Compared with English speakers, Spanish speakers were less likely to have high scores in pizza and sweets (P = 0.001), meat (P = 0.004), and fried food (P = 0.001) patterns. Participants who lived longer in the United States were less likely to have a meat (P = 0.024) or Caribbean starch pattern (P < 0.001). In Hispanics, the consumption of foods in the Caribbean starch pattern declined for each year that they lived in the United States. Conclusions: In adults with diagnosed diabetes who were living in the South Bronx, a Caribbean starch pattern, which included traditional Hispanic and Caribbean foods, was consistent with a healthier dietary pattern. In developing dietary interventions for this population, one goal may be to maintain healthy aspects of traditional diets. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00797888. PMID:23446901

  15. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly...

  16. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly...

  17. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly...

  18. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  19. DIETARY FIBER CONTENT IN FRESH CITRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a wide variation in the reported values for pectin and dietary fiber content in the edible portions of fresh orange and grapefruit. Two studies done by the Produce Marketing Association in 1990 reported 4.0 g dietary fiber/ 100 g of fresh edible grapefruit and 4.4 g dietary fiber / 100 g f...

  20. Managing Self-Governing Primary Schools in the Locally Maintained, Grant-Maintained and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Les; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study that surveyed heads of locally maintained, grant-maintained, and private sector (British) primary schools concerning their management styles. Questionnaire and interview data suggest that autonomous primary schools are characterized by collective decision making and high job satisfaction levels. Private sector school heads'…

  1. DIETARY EXPOSURE METHODS AND MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research reported in this task description constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL aggregate and cumulative exposure program. Its purpose is to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving N...

  2. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document is intended primarily for use by policymakers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators. The information in the Dietary Guidelines is useful for the development of educational materials and aids policymakers in designing and implementing nutrition-related programs, including federal food, nutrition…

  3. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  4. DIETARY INTAKE AND BONE HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis and related fractures represent major public health problems that will increase dramatically as the population ages. Dietary risk factors are particularly important, as they are modifiable. However, attention has focused almost exclusively on calcium and vitamin D. Recently, there has...

  5. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  6. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective. PMID:23986988

  7. Autophagy maintains stemness by preventing senescence.

    PubMed

    García-Prat, Laura; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Ortet, Laura; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Rebollo, Elena; Ruiz-Bonilla, Vanessa; Gutarra, Susana; Ballestar, Esteban; Serrano, Antonio L; Sandri, Marco; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2016-01-01

    During ageing, muscle stem-cell regenerative function declines. At advanced geriatric age, this decline is maximal owing to transition from a normal quiescence into an irreversible senescence state. How satellite cells maintain quiescence and avoid senescence until advanced age remains unknown. Here we report that basal autophagy is essential to maintain the stem-cell quiescent state in mice. Failure of autophagy in physiologically aged satellite cells or genetic impairment of autophagy in young cells causes entry into senescence by loss of proteostasis, increased mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, resulting in a decline in the function and number of satellite cells. Re-establishment of autophagy reverses senescence and restores regenerative functions in geriatric satellite cells. As autophagy also declines in human geriatric satellite cells, our findings reveal autophagy to be a decisive stem-cell-fate regulator, with implications for fostering muscle regeneration in sarcopenia. PMID:26738589

  8. Ketogenic dietary therapies in adults with epilepsy: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Schoeler, Natasha E; Cross, J Helen

    2016-06-01

    Ketogenic dietary therapies are an effective treatment option for children with drug-resistant epilepsy. There is an increasing worldwide interest in using these diets to manage adult epilepsy; uncontrolled studies show similar response rates to those in children. Despite this, there are only a few centres with dedicated services for adults. We clearly need controlled studies of this treatment in adults. Here, we aim to familiarise adult neurologists with the evidence base for these diets and give practical advice on starting and maintaining them in adults. PMID:26908897

  9. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  10. Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

  11. Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.

    PubMed

    Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation. PMID:18460351

  12. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  13. High dietary protein regimens provide significant protection from mercury nephrotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.M.; Chung, E.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The effects of high protein dietary regimens prior to the administration of inorganic mercury were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed on purified test diets containing either normal (20%) or high (60%) concentrations of protein. Mercury was administered as a single intravenous injection of mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg). All rats maintained on normal dietary protein prior to and following mercury injection exhibited severe kidney dysfunction, extensive necrosis of both second (S2) and third (S3) segments of the kidney proximal tubules, and 100% mortality. In contrast, rats maintained on high dietary protein for 48 hr or longer just prior to mercury injection and returned to normal dietary protein immediately following mercury administration all survived and exhibited normal serum creatinine and BUN values within 4 days following mercury administration. The kidneys of this latter group took up significantly less radiolabeled mercury during the first 12 hr following mercury injection, and exhibited relatively little damage to the second segments (S2) of the proximal tubules. The third segments (S3) of the proximal tubules, however, exhibited the same degree of necrosis as that observed in the control group. Maintaining rats on high dietary protein regimens for shorter periods of time prior to mercury infusion (i.e., 12 or 24 hr) also dramatically reduced subsequent acute renal failure and improved survival, although not to the extent noted following 48 hr or longer on these diets. These observations suggested that high dietary protein regimens may protect from mercury nephrotoxicity by reducing mercury uptake to the second segments (S2) of the proximal tubules during the initial period of exposure to intravenously administered mercury.

  14. Health habits and other characteristics of dietary supplement users: a review.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are used by half to two-thirds of American adults, and the evidence suggests that this usage is one component of a larger effort to develop a healthier lifestyle. Dietary supplement users tend on average to be better educated and to have somewhat higher incomes than nonusers, and these factors may contribute to their health-consciousness. Dietary supplement use also tends to be more prevalent among women than among men, and the prevalence of use increases with age in both men and women. Numerous surveys document that users of dietary supplements are significantly more likely than nonusers to have somewhat better dietary patterns, exercise regularly, maintain a healthy weight, and avoid tobacco products. While supplement users tend to have better diets than nonusers, the differences are relatively small, their diets have some substantial nutrient shortfalls, and their supplement use has been shown to improve the adequacy of nutrient intakes. Overall, the evidence suggests that users of dietary supplements are seeking wellness and are consciously adopting a variety of lifestyle habits that they consider to contribute to healthy living. PMID:24499096

  15. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  16. [Formalized dietary advice in hypercholesterolemia. Results in 110 men diagnosed by selective screening in general practice].

    PubMed

    Agner, E; Christensen, T E; Jacobsen, K; Baastrup, A; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E

    1990-11-01

    In connection with a screening investigation for high blood cholesterol in middle-aged men in general practice in the Municipality of Copenhagen, all participants with cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.5 mmol/l were given brief advice by their own general practitioner and were invited to come for fasting blood lipid tests approximately ten days later. In cases with continued cholesterol greater than or equal to 6.8 mmol/l, the participants together with wives or partners were invited to formalized dietary advice in small groups. Already before the formalized dietary advice, an average decrease in serum cholesterol of 10% was observed. This was attributed to biological variation, absence of fasting, the degree of error between the measuring methods and also a genuine decrease on the basis of the brief dietary advice by the general practitioner. On control after dietary advice, a further decrease in cholesterol of 15% was observed while low density lipoprotein cholesterol fell by 20% and triglycerides by 23%. These decreases must be considered to result mainly from the dietary advice. It is concluded that a single but professional session of dietary advice in small groups and with involvement of the wives or partners is an effective method of treatment in hypercholesterolaemia. If the decrease in cholesterol obtained can be maintained, the literature suggests that the risk of development of ischaemic heart disease during the subsequent 5-7 years is reduced by 20-30%. PMID:2238224

  17. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  18. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  19. Perspectives on dietary adherence among women with inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Alex R; Brewer, Cheryl A; Singh, Rani H

    2010-02-01

    Adherence to highly restrictive diets is critical for women of childbearing age who have inborn errors of metabolism such as phenylketonuria. The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes about diet, barriers to and facilitators of dietary adherence, and experiences with the health care system in promoting dietary adherence among adolescent and adult women with inborn errors of metabolism to identify policy-level interventions to improve adherence. We analyzed the results of four focus groups including a total of 19 women between the ages of 12 and 52 years with phenylketonuria, methylmalonic acidemia, or maple syrup urine disease attending an educational summer camp in 2008. Themes were identified after independent analysis of transcripts. Most participants were highly knowledgeable about their dietary requirements and some could describe their own specific negative experiences of nonadherence. Many reported specific challenges, such as feelings of being different, that they experienced in elementary and middle school. Friends and family play an important role in maintaining dietary adherence. Participants identified one registered dietitian in particular who has played an important supportive role. Insurance coverage for medical foods was a common concern. Most participants identified concerns about transitioning from pediatric to adult medical services. We identified four specific strategies for future evaluation that may improve dietary adherence and health outcomes for women and their potential offspring: symptom-based dietary monitoring for some, educating school officials about medical diets, expanding the role of registered dietitians; and assisting with the transition from pediatric to adult health care providers. PMID:20102852

  20. Strategies to maintain skeletal muscle mass in the injured athlete: nutritional considerations and exercise mimetics.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Morton, James P; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    The recovery from many injuries sustained in athletic training or competition often requires an extensive period of limb immobilisation (muscle disuse). Such periods induce skeletal muscle loss and consequent declines in metabolic health and functional capacity, particularly during the early stages (1-2 weeks) of muscle disuse. The extent of muscle loss during injury strongly influences the level and duration of rehabilitation required. Currently, however, efforts to intervene and attenuate muscle loss during the initial two weeks of injury are minimal. Mechanistically, muscle disuse atrophy is primarily attributed to a decline in basal muscle protein synthesis rate and the development of anabolic resistance to food intake. Dietary protein consumption is of critical importance for stimulating muscle protein synthesis rates throughout the day. Given that the injured athlete greatly reduces physical activity levels, maintaining muscle mass whilst simultaneously avoiding gains in fat mass can become challenging. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that maintaining or increasing daily protein intake by focusing upon the amount, type and timing of dietary protein ingestion throughout the day can restrict the loss of muscle mass and strength during recovery from injury. Moreover, neuromuscular electrical stimulation may be applied to evoke involuntary muscle contractions and support muscle mass maintenance in the injured athlete. Although more applied work is required to translate laboratory findings directly to the injured athlete, current recommendations for practitioners aiming to limit the loss of muscle mass and/or strength following injury in their athletes are outlined herein. PMID:25027662

  1. Self-monitoring dietary intake: current and future practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lora E; Warziski, Melanie; Starrett, Terry; Choo, Jina; Music, Edvin; Sereika, Susan; Stark, Susan; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2005-07-01

    This article reviews the literature on the use of paper diaries for self-monitoring food intake, identifies the strengths and limitations of paper-and-pencil diaries and their new counterpart, the electronic diary or personal digital assistant (PDA), and reports how participants were trained to use a PDA with dietary software in two pilot studies--one with hemodialysis patients and the other with participants in a weight loss study. The report of the pilot studies focuses on the practical issues encountered in training participants in the use of a PDA and addresses the pros and cons of different dietary software programs. Six hemodialysis patients were trained in the first study and seven participants attempting to lose or maintain their weight were trained in the second pilot study. The training focused on how to use a PDA and how to navigate the dietary software to self-monitor food intake. The goals of using the PDA were to improve adherence to the therapeutic diets and to self-monitoring. Lessons learned from the pilot studies are shared. PMID:16007557

  2. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  3. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data. PMID

  4. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  5. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kari L; Kay, Richard F

    2012-02-22

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The 'expensive-tissue hypothesis' (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans. PMID:21831898

  6. Estimation of dietary iron bioavailability from food iron intake and iron status.

    PubMed

    Dainty, Jack R; Berry, Rachel; Lynch, Sean R; Harvey, Linda J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are no satisfactory methods for estimating dietary iron absorption (bioavailability) at a population level, but this is essential for deriving dietary reference values using the factorial approach. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for estimating dietary iron absorption using a population sample from a sub-section of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Data were analyzed in 873 subjects from the 2000-2001 adult cohort of the NDNS, for whom both dietary intake data and hematological measures (hemoglobin and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations) were available. There were 495 men aged 19-64 y (mean age 42.7±12.1 y) and 378 pre-menopausal women (mean age 35.7±8.2 y). Individual dietary iron requirements were estimated using the Institute of Medicine calculations. A full probability approach was then applied to estimate the prevalence of dietary intakes that were insufficient to meet the needs of the men and women separately, based on their estimated daily iron intake and a series of absorption values ranging from 1-40%. The prevalence of SF concentrations below selected cut-off values (indicating that absorption was not high enough to maintain iron stores) was derived from individual SF concentrations. An estimate of dietary iron absorption required to maintain specified SF values was then calculated by matching the observed prevalence of insufficiency with the prevalence predicted for the series of absorption estimates. Mean daily dietary iron intakes were 13.5 mg for men and 9.8 mg for women. Mean calculated dietary absorption was 8% in men (50th percentile for SF 85 µg/L) and 17% in women (50th percentile for SF 38 µg/L). At a ferritin level of 45 µg/L estimated absorption was similar in men (14%) and women (13%). This new method can be used to calculate dietary iron absorption at a population level using data describing total iron intake and SF concentration. PMID:25356629

  7. Design guidelines for remotely maintainable equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Manouchehri, Davoud

    1988-01-01

    The quantity and complexity of on-orbit assets will increase significantly over the next decade. Maintaining and servicing these costly assets represent a difficult challenge. Three general methods are proposed to maintain equipment while it is still in orbit: an extravehicular activity (EVA) crew can perform the task in an unpressurized maintenance area outside any space vehicle; an intravehicular activity (IVA) crew can perform the maintenance in a shirt sleeve environment, perhaps at a special maintenance work station in a space vehicle; or a telerobotic manipulator can perform the maintenance in an unpressurized maintenance area at a distance from the crew (who may be EVA, IVA, or on the ground). However, crew EVA may not always be possible; the crew may have other demands on their time that take precedence. In addition, the orbit of the tasks themselves may be impossible for crew entry. Also crew IVA may not always be possible as option for equipment maintenance. For example, the equipment may be too large to fit through the vehicle airlock. Therefore, in some circumstances, the third option, telerobotic manipulation, may be the only feasible option. Telerobotic manipulation has, therefore, an important role for on-orbit maintenance. It is not only used for the reasons outlined above, but also used in some cases as backup to the EVA crew in an orbit that they can reach.

  8. Online maintaining appearance model using particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siying; Lan, Tian; Wang, Jianyu; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Tracking by foreground matching heavily depends on the appearance model to establish object correspondences among frames and essentially, the appearance model should encode both the difference part between the object and background to guarantee the robustness and the stable part to ensure tracking consistency. This paper provides a solution for online maintaining appearance models by adjusting features in the model. Object appearance is co-modeled by a subset of Haar features selected from the over-complete feature dictionary which encodes the discriminative part of object appearance and the color histogram which describes the stable appearance. During the particle filtering process, feature values both from background patches and object observations are sampled efficiently by the aid of "foreground" and "background" particles respectively. Based on these sampled values, top-ranked discriminative features are added and invalid features are removed out to ensure the object being distinguishable from current background according to the evolving appearance model. The tracker based on this online appearance model maintaining technique has been tested on people and car tracking tasks and promising experimental results are obtained.

  9. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species. PMID:26479494

  10. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  11. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  12. Maintaining Ancient Organelles: Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Rick B.; Horton, Julie L.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome, and to drive the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. PMID:25999422

  13. [Dietary modification of bile lipids].

    PubMed

    Wechsler, J G; Wenzel, H; Swobodnik, W; Splitt, S; Janowitz, P; Ditschuneit, H

    1988-02-01

    The average incidence of gallstones in european countries is about 25%. Excessive secretion of cholesterol into the bile can predispose to saturation and gallstone-formation. Obesity, overnutrition, diets rich in refined carbohydrates, diets high in cholesterol intake and poor in dietary fibre, lipid lowering drugs, age and female sex hormones are recognized causing increased cholesterol secretion into the bile. These metabolic consequences may predispose to a higher incidence of cholesterol gallstone than in normal persons. Taking all the results of the literature together patients with gallstones should be encouraged to take a low cholesterol, low calorie, low refined carbohydrate and high polyunsaturated fat diet rich in bran und vegetable fibre. Obese patients should reduce their body weight. These dietary recommendations should be given for patients with gallstones during bile acid therapy and after successful dissolution in order to prevent gallstone recurrence. PMID:3280933

  14. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  15. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  16. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

  17. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  18. Maintained generalization of delay-specific remembering.

    PubMed

    White, K Geoffrey; Sargisson, Rebecca J

    2011-07-01

    According to the discrimination hypothesis (White, 2002), remembering is a delay-specific discrimination made at the time of retrieval. In the present experiment the delay-specific nature of the discrimination was made explicit by making correct choices in a delayed matching-to-sample task performed by pigeons conditional on whether the retention interval was short or long. Retention interval was varied over several durations in a maintained generalization test without reinforcement for correct matching responses. Opposing gradients demonstrated generalization of delay-specific remembering, consistent with the view that the temporal dimension of the retention interval can be treated in the same way as non-temporal dimensions of the sample stimulus. PMID:21704683

  19. Implementing and maintaining an infusion alliance.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britt M

    2010-01-01

    Infusion therapy models are ever changing and growing in modern health care. New technologies and problems arise daily as researchers and clinicians explore our world. As technologies advance, health care costs are also skyrocketing. The vast majority of hospitalized patients will receive some form of infusion therapy during their stay, and many will continue to receive therapy after they are discharged from the inpatient setting. Infusion alliances can aid cost containment by decreasing infusion-related complication rates, affect customer satisfaction, and promote interdisciplinary collaboration. This article discusses the potential benefits of an infusion alliance, details steps for using the performance improvement process when implementing and maintaining an alliance, and outlines the components of a successful business plan. PMID:20841983

  20. Maintaining robust connectivity in heterogeneous robotic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, P.; Fierro, R.; Lu, W.; Ferrari, S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we are interested in exploiting the heterogeneity of a robotic network made of ground and aerial agents to sense multiple targets in a cluttered environment. Maintaining wireless communication on this type of networks is fundamentally important specially for cooperative purposes. The proposed heterogeneous network consists of ground sensors, e.g., OctoRoACHes, and aerial routers, e.g., quadrotors. Adaptive potential field methods are used to coordinate the ground mobile sensors. Moreover, a reward function for the aerial mobile wireless routers is formulated to guarantee communication coverage among the ground sensors and a fixed base station. A sub-optimal controller is proposed based on an approximate control policy iteration technique. Simulation results of a case study are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  1. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal. PMID:23945438

  2. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  3. Considerations for selecting a dietary assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Stumbo, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    The software available with some food composition databases allows for the dietary assessment of individuals and groups and may provide graphic comparisons of nutrient intakes to dietary standards. Four factors to consider when choosing a computerized dietary assessment system are availability of desired database features, efficiency of the search engine in finding foods in the database, educational value of the output, and cost of purchasing and updating the software. Printed output should clearly characterize dietary adequacy with graphs or simple tables. Dietary assessment data used for research must also be available in electronic spreadsheet format for statistical analysis. Peer-reviewed papers in journals that provide overviews of the features of various computerized dietary assessment software are helpful for informing the selection process. PMID:19337578

  4. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. Objective To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. Design A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Result Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are

  5. Handling alternative dietary requests from pet owners.

    PubMed

    Parr, Jacqueline M; Remillard, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to provide veterinary practitioners with an overview of the types of alternative dietary options available to pet owners and a practical method by which to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of these various options. Our approach to categorizing the alternative dietary options is based on the nutritional adequacy of these dietary options, because patients will be at risk for nutrition-related diseases if fed a nutritionally incomplete or improperly balanced diet long term. PMID:24951340

  6. Too little, too late: ineffective regulation of dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Starr, Ranjani R

    2015-03-01

    Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk. PMID:25602879

  7. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses by dietary palmitic acid and its metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Eri; Inoue, Asuka; Nagasawa, Risa; Suzuki, Yuji; Ishikawa, Izumi; Shikata, Shiori; Arita, Makoto; Aoki, Junken; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-08-15

    Enhancement of intestinal IgA responses is a primary strategy in the development of oral vaccine. Dietary fatty acids are known to regulate host immune responses. In this study, we show that dietary palmitic acid (PA) and its metabolites enhance intestinal IgA responses. Intestinal IgA production was increased in mice maintained on a PA-enriched diet. These mice also showed increased intestinal IgA responses against orally immunized Ag, without any effect on serum Ab responses. We found that PA directly stimulates plasma cells to produce Ab. In addition, mice receiving a PA-enriched diet had increased numbers of IgA-producing plasma cells in the large intestine; this effect was abolished when serine palmitoyltransferase was inhibited. These findings suggest that dietary PA regulates intestinal IgA responses and has the potential to be a diet-derived mucosal adjuvant. PMID:25031459

  8. Dietary intakes, resting metabolic rates, and body composition in benign and malignant gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, M; Bryson, E I; Kark, A E

    1980-01-01

    Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed in 42 patients with cancer and 24 with benign conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The relations of dietary intake to body composition was examined. Resulting metabolic rate was measured in 51 patients. No significant differences in dietary intake or metabolic rate were found between patients with cancer and those with benign disease. There were significant positive correlations between protein and energy intakes and the ratio of total body potassium to total body water in patients with benign disease but not in those with cancer. Weight loss was probably due to inadequate food intake, the main defect being energy deficiency, since protein intake was usually well maintained. Supplementing with energy the voluntary ingested diet of patients with cancer would probably prevent weight loss in most cases. PMID:7427083

  9. Dietary flavonoids as cancer prevention agents.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hua; Xu, Weizheng; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2011-01-01

    Dietary agents identified from fruits and vegetables contribute to keeping balanced cell proliferation and preventing cell carcinogenesis. Dietary flavonoids, combined with other components such as various vitamins, play an important role in cancer prevention. Flavonoids act on reactive oxygen species, cell signal transduction pathways related to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Many studies demonstrate that flavonoids are responsible for chemoprevention, although mechanisms of action remain to be investigated. Overall, exciting data show that dietary flavonoids could be considered as a useful cancer preventive approach. This review summarizes recent advancements on potential cancer preventive effects and mechanic insight of dietary flavonoids. PMID:21424974

  10. Significance of Dietary Antioxidants for Health

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Since evidence became available that free radicals were involved in mechanisms for the development of major diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, there has been considerable research into the properties of natural dietary antioxidants. However, it has become clear that dietary antioxidants can only have beneficial effects in vivo by radical scavenging or effects on redox potential if they are present in tissues or bodily fluids at sufficient concentrations. For many dietary components, absorption is limited or metabolism into derivatives reduces the antioxidant capacity. For many dietary phytochemicals, direct antioxidant effects may be less important for health than other effects including effects on cell signalling or gene expression in vivo. PMID:22312245

  11. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  12. Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

  13. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  14. Interaction Between Dietary Vitamin K Intake and Anticoagulation by Vitamin K Antagonists: Is It Really True?

    PubMed Central

    Violi, Francesco; Lip, Gregory YH; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Pastori, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Educational advice is often given to patients starting treatment with vitamin K Antagonists (VKAs). A great emphasis is made on nutritional information. Common belief is that dietary vitamin K intake could counteract the anticoagulant effect by VKAs and for many years, patients have been discouraged to consume vitamin-K-rich foods, such as green leafy vegetables. The objective of this study is to summarize the current evidence supporting the putative interaction between dietary vitamin K intake and changes in INR with the VKAs. Data sources are MEDLINE via PubMed and Cochrane database. All clinical studies investigating the relationship between dietary vitamin K and measures of anticoagulation were included. We excluded all studies of supplementation of vitamin K alone. We performed a systematic review of the literature up to October 2015, searching for a combination of “food,” “diet,” “vitamin K,” “phylloquinone,” “warfarin,” “INR,” “coagulation,” and “anticoagulant.” Two dietary interventional trials and 9 observational studies were included. We found conflicting evidence on the effect of dietary intake of vitamin K on coagulation response. Some studies found a negative correlation between vitamin K intake and INR changes, while others suggested that a minimum amount of vitamin K is required to maintain an adequate anticoagulation. Median dietary intake of vitamin K1 ranged from 76 to 217 μg/day among studies, and an effect on coagulation may be detected only for high amount of vitamin intake (>150 μg/day). Most studies included patients with various indications for VKAs therapy, such as atrial fibrillation, prosthetic heart valves, and venous thromboembolism. Thus, INR target was dishomogeneous and no subanalyses for specific populations or different anticoagulants were conducted. Measures used to evaluate anticoagulation stability were variable. The available evidence does not support current advice to modify

  15. Achieving and maintaining cognitive vitality with aging.

    PubMed

    Fillit, Howard M; Butler, Robert N; O'Connell, Alan W; Albert, Marilyn S; Birren, James E; Cotman, Carl W; Greenough, William T; Gold, Paul E; Kramer, Arthur F; Kuller, Lewis H; Perls, Thomas T; Sahagan, Barbara G; Tully, Tim

    2002-07-01

    Cognitive vitality is essential to quality of life and survival in old age. With normal aging, cognitive changes such as slowed speed of processing are common, but there is substantial interindividual variability, and cognitive decline is clearly not inevitable. In this review, we focus on recent research investigating the association of various lifestyle factors and medical comorbidities with cognitive aging. Most of these factors are potentially modifiable or manageable, and some are protective. For example, animal and human studies suggest that lifelong learning, mental and physical exercise, continuing social engagement, stress reduction, and proper nutrition may be important factors in promoting cognitive vitality in aging. Manageable medical comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, also contribute to cognitive decline in older persons. Other comorbidities such as smoking and excess alcohol intake may contribute to cognitive decline, and avoiding these activities may promote cognitive vitality in aging. Various therapeutics, including cognitive enhancers and protective agents such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatories, may eventually prove useful as adjuncts for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline with aging. The data presented in this review should interest physicians who provide preventive care management to middle-aged and older individuals who seek to maintain cognitive vitality with aging. PMID:12108606

  16. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  17. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  18. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  19. Exploring how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie T

    2005-01-01

    The role of the nurse lecturer is changing. There is growing pressure from the government and professionals alike to recruit nurse teachers who posses both practical and recent experience of nursing [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care. DOH, London; UKCC, 2000. Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. UKCC, London]. Whilst much of the literature available suggests a growing concern amongst practitioners, students and nurse educationalists themselves about the importance of being ;clinically credible', what is not clear is how tangible it is to maintain currency and clinical credibility. In addition, the term ;clinical credibility' is in itself ill-defined. An exploratory study was undertaken within one higher education institution which sought to seek the views of nurse lecturers. The principles of ethnography were applied to this research. The sample included six of the most recently appointed nurse lecturers within one academic faculty who taught predominantly on pre-registration programmes. Data from individual and focus group interviews was analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. The findings are discussed which embrace the concepts of: working ;hands on' in the clinical area, clinical currency, transferability of skills, clinical visibility and role development. Recommendations for the development of professional practice are offered. PMID:19038175

  20. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

  1. Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    2007-11-27

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

  2. Neurosteroids; potential underpinning roles in maintaining homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Behrouz; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Dargahi, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The neuroactive steroids which are synthesized in the brain and nervous system are known as "Neurosteroids". These steroids have crucial functions such as contributing to the myelination and organization of the brain connectivity. Under the stressful circumstances, the concentrations of neurosteroid products such as allopregnanolone (ALLO) and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) alter. It has been suggested that these stress-derived neurosteroids modulate the physiological response to stress. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediates the physiological adaptation following stress in order to maintain homeostasis. Although several regulatory pathways have been introduced, the exact role of neurosteroids in controlling HPA axis is not clear to date. In this review, we intend to discern specific pathways associated with regulation of HPA axis in which neuroactive steroids have the main role. In this respect, we propose pathways that may be initiated after neurosteroidogenesis in different brain subregions following acute stress which are potentially capable of activating or inhibiting the HPA axis. PMID:26432100

  3. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif 'YxxI', suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  4. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  5. Two retrotransposons maintain telomeres in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pardue, M.-L.; Rashkova, S.; Casacuberta, E.; DeBaryshe, P.G.; George, J. A.; Traverse, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Telomeres across the genus Drosophila are maintained, not by telomerase, but by two non-LTR retrotransposons, HeT-A and TART, that transpose specifically to chromosome ends. Successive transpositions result in long head-to-tail arrays of these elements. Thus Drosophila telomeres, like those produced by telomerase, consist of repeated sequences reverse transcribed from RNA templates. The Drosophila repeats, complete and 5′-truncated copies of HeT-A and TART, are more complex than telomerase repeats; nevertheless these evolutionary variants have functional similarities to the more common telomeres. Like other telomeres, the Drosophila arrays are dynamic, fluctuating around an average length that can be changed by changes in the genetic background. Several proteins that interact with telomeres in other species have been found to have homologues that interact with Drosophila telomeres. Although they have hallmarks of non-LTR retrotransposons, HeT-A and TART appear to have a special relationship to Drosophila. Their Gag proteins are efficiently transported into diploid nuclei where HeT-A Gag recruits TART Gag to chromosome ends. Gags of other non-LTR elements remain predominantly in the cytoplasm. These studies provide intriguing evolutionary links between telomeres and retrotransposable elements. PMID:16132810

  6. Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

    1977-01-01

    The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

  7. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  8. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  9. The role of dietary creatine.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26874700

  10. RECENT ENHANCEMENTS TO THE DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation describes recent enhancements & new applications of the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM), a model developed to assist in design & interpretation of dietary exposure measurements. Model is an interactive system that provides dietary exposure estimates using dat...

  11. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  12. THE INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS (IBIDS) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database provides access to bibliographic citations and abstracts from published, international, scientific literature on dietary supplements. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Instit...

  13. Dietary fibers and cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Bello, Barbara; Scotti, Luca; Cusenza, Salvatore; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke. PMID:22408406

  14. Dietary Fibers and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Bello, Barbara; Scotti, Luca; Cusenza, Salvatore; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke. PMID:22408406

  15. Meta-Analysis-Based Guidance for Dietary Management in Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a prevalent chronic esophageal disorder, triggered and maintained by immunologically mediated responses against dietary antigens. EoE represents the most recent form of food allergy, and its control by avoiding offending foods has increasingly appeared as a therapeutic alternative to achieve and maintain remission. Dietary therapies have proved equally effective in pediatric and adult EoE patients, among whom various types of interventions to eliminate or reduce food antigens exposure have been evaluated. A recent meta-analysis showed elemental diet as the most effective option to induce disease remission, but with a limited application in clinical practice. Inconsistency and wide variability in results from skin allergy testing-directed food restriction contributed to dissatisfaction with implementation of this option, which subsequently was displaced by empiric elimination of common food allergens. Such empiric elimination of common food allergens is now recognized as the best alternative for dietary treatment, with moderate-to-high efficiency and reproducible results. This review provides evidence-based insights into the dietary management of EoE. PMID:26292666

  16. The influence of selected ingredients of dietary supplements on skin condition.

    PubMed

    Szyszkowska, Barbara; Lepecka-Klusek, Celina; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Jazienicka, Iwona; Krasowska, Dorota

    2014-06-01

    Introduction and aim of the article. Healthy skin is an excellent barrier maintaining balance between the internal and external environment of the body. Because it is constantly changing as a result of, on the one hand, environmental factors and, on the other hand, the process associated with skin aging, it requires many nutrients and minerals that help maintain its homeostasis. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the most commonly used ingredients in dietary supplements that improve the appearance and quality of the skin. Brief description of the state of the art. Quick pace of life, unbalanced diet and stress make it impossible to provide all the necessary components, which affects the proper functioning of the skin. That is why, the interest in dietary supplements as products that help to reduce the deficiencies of individual components is increasing. Supplements that affect the skin, hair and nails mainly consist of: vitamins C, E, A, B-vitamins, micro- and macronutrients and fatty acids. In this paper, some of the ingredients of skin affecting dietary supplements are discussed. A varied and proper diet should provide all the nutrients necessary for the correct functioning of the body. Dietary supplements are intended to supplement the normal daily food intake of nutrients which are not supplied with food in a sufficient quantity. Therefore, their use becomes relevant. PMID:25097490

  17. The influence of selected ingredients of dietary supplements on skin condition

    PubMed Central

    Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Jazienicka, Iwona; Krasowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and aim of the article. Healthy skin is an excellent barrier maintaining balance between the internal and external environment of the body. Because it is constantly changing as a result of, on the one hand, environmental factors and, on the other hand, the process associated with skin aging, it requires many nutrients and minerals that help maintain its homeostasis. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the most commonly used ingredients in dietary supplements that improve the appearance and quality of the skin. Brief description of the state of the art. Quick pace of life, unbalanced diet and stress make it impossible to provide all the necessary components, which affects the proper functioning of the skin. That is why, the interest in dietary supplements as products that help to reduce the deficiencies of individual components is increasing. Supplements that affect the skin, hair and nails mainly consist of: vitamins C, E, A, B-vitamins, micro- and macronutrients and fatty acids. In this paper, some of the ingredients of skin affecting dietary supplements are discussed. A varied and proper diet should provide all the nutrients necessary for the correct functioning of the body. Dietary supplements are intended to supplement the normal daily food intake of nutrients which are not supplied with food in a sufficient quantity. Therefore, their use becomes relevant. PMID:25097490

  18. An Evaluation of Inner-City Youth Garden Program Participants' Dietary Behavior and Garden and Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Lauren Lautenschlager; Smith, Chery

    2008-01-01

    Unhealthful eating patterns established early in life tend to be maintained into adulthood, and as a result, chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and obesity may develop. These nutrition-related problems could be reduced through dietary changes; and to facilitate these changes, nutrition education for youth that is delivered…

  19. Long-term changes in dietary and food intake behaviour in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, L.M.; Ma, Y.; Davis, N.; Delahanty, L.M.; Mayer-Davis, E.J.; Franks, P.W.; Brown-Friday, J.; Isonaga, M.; Kriska, A.M.; Venditti, E.M.; Wylie-Rosett, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To 1) compare change in dietary intake, with an emphasis on food groups and food behaviors, over time across treatment arms in a diabetes prevention trial and 2) assess differences in dietary intake across demographic groups within treatment arms. Methods Data are from the Diabetes Prevention Program and Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Participants were randomized to lifestyle (n = 1079), metformin (n = 1073), or placebo (n = 1082) for an average of 3 years when the initial results regarding the benefits of the lifestyle intervention were released and all participants were offered a modified lifestyle intervention. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and at 1, 5, 6, and 9 years post-randomization. Results Compared to the metformin and placebo arms, lifestyle participants maintained a lower total and saturated fat, and higher fiber intake up to 9 years post-randomization; and lower intakes of red meat and sweets were maintained up to 5 years. Younger participants had higher intakes of poultry and lower intakes of fruits compared to their older counterparts, particularly in the lifestyle arm. African Americans tended to have lower dairy and higher poultry intakes compared to Caucasians and Hispanics. In the lifestyle arm, men tended to have higher grain, fruit and fish intakes compared to women. Conclusions Changes in nutrient intake among lifestyle participants were maintained for up to 9 years. Younger participants reported more unhealthy diets over time and thus may benefit from additional support to achieve and maintain dietary goals. PMID:24824893

  20. Influence of Dietary Levels of Lipid and Vitamin E on Growth and Resistance of Nile Tilapia to Streptococcus iniae Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary lipids are an important source of highly digestible energy and are the only source of essential fatty acids required by fish for normal growth, development and maintaining health. Nile tilapia have been shown to have a requirement for linoleic series fatty acids. Linolenic series fatty acids...

  1. A more alkaline diet may enhance the favorable impact of dietary protein on lean tissue mass in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. Dietary protein is required to preserve muscle mass, however the acid load from diets rich in acidogenic protein foods and cereal grains relative to alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to loss of lean tissue...

  2. Symposium on 'nutritional adaptation to pregnancy and lactation'. Pregnancy as a time for dietary change?

    PubMed

    Anderson, A S

    2001-11-01

    It is thought that nutrition during pregnancy plays a key role in the well-being of the mother and the newborn infant, and further influences health during childhood and adulthood. Pregnancy is a time of increased nutritional requirements, but many of these requirements will be met by adaptive physiological changes that occur during gestation, with little need to alter maternal dietary intake. A modest increment of food which provides 0.8 MJ/d (above prepregnant requirements) during the third trimester is considered adequate to meet the needs of fetal and maternal growth, and to satisfy the small increase in requirements of many macro- and micronutrients. However, requirements for vitamin D and folic acid increase substantially, and should be met primarily by supplementation. Food selection may also be altered to avoid a range of food-borne diseases and toxic constituents. There are a number of psycho-social reasons why pregnancy might be considered a good time for promoting changes in dietary behaviour for the health of the wider family. However, pregnancy may be a bad time to promote dietary change if it is perceived to involve slimming, if nutritional requirements are greatest before pregnancy, or if dietary changes made are harmful. There is little evidence to support educational interventions as successful at changing dietary behaviour during pregnancy. Pregnancy may be best viewed as an opportunity for maintaining good dietary selections and for building knowledge for future action, and should not be seen as the only opportunity for promoting dietary change within the life course. PMID:12069403

  3. Maintaining professional activity during breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ganem, G; Antoine, E-C; Touboul, C; Naman, H; Dohollou, N; Facchini, T; Coscas, Y; Lortholary, A; Catala, S; Jacquot, S; Lhomel, C; Eisinger, F

    2016-05-01

    The question of returning to work and pursuing professional activity during cancer treatment is an increasingly important consideration. The present work focuses on factors affecting the feasibility of maintaining professional activity during treatment for breast cancer, for women who wished to do so. Written questionnaires were collected from 216 patients between March and November 2012. Since the onset of their treatment, 31.4% of the women (68/216) had not been on sick-leave. The main factors associated with the pursuit of professional activity were: considering the availability of their physician to answer questions as unimportant [OR = 18.83 (3.60-98.53); P ≤ 0.05]; considering the diagnosis of cancer as likely to have a weak impact on career perspectives [OR = 4.07 (2.49-6.64); P ≤ 0.05]; not having any children in the household [OR = 3.87 (2.38-6.28); P ≤ 0.05]; being in a managerial position [OR = 3.13 (1.88-5.21); P ≤ 0.05]. Negative predictive factors were: physician mentioning adverse effects of the treatment [OR = 0.31 (0.16-0.58); P ≤ 0.05], and patient rating workload as high [OR = 0.26 (0.15-0.46); P ≤ 0.05]. As a result of advances in therapeutic strategies, more patients will expect healthcare professionals, as well as employers and occupational health societies, to prioritise issues pertaining to the maintenance of professional activities during cancer treatment. PMID:26891443

  4. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  5. Andean flat subduction maintained by slab tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, Gerben; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Kosters, Martha; Boschman, Lydian; McQuarrie, Nadine; Spakman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    In two segments below the Andean mountain belt, the Nazca Plate is currently subducting sub-horizontally below South America over a distance of 200-300 km before the plate bends into the mantle. Such flat slab segments have pronounced effects on orogenesis and magmatism and are widely believed to be caused by the downgoing plate resisting subduction due to its local positive buoyancy. In contrast, here we show that flat slabs primarily result from a local resistance against rollback rather than against subduction. From a kinematic reconstruction of the Andean fold-thrust belt we determine up to ~390 km of shortening since ~50 Ma. During this time the South American Plate moved ~1400 km westward relative to the mantle, thus forcing ~1000 km of trench retreat. Importantly, since the 11-12 Ma onset of flat slab formation, ~1000 km of Nazca Plate subduction occurred, much more than the flat slab lengths, which leads to our main finding that the flat slabs, while being initiated by arrival of buoyant material at the trench, are primarily maintained by locally impeded rollback. We suggest that dynamic support of flat subduction comes from the formation of slab tunnels below segments with the most buoyant material. These tunnels trap mantle material until tearing of the tunnel wall provides an escape route. Fast subduction of this tear is followed by a continuous slab and the process can recur during ongoing rollback of the 7000 km wide Nazca slab at segments with the most buoyant subducting material, explaining the regional and transient character of flat slabs. Our study highlights the importance of studying subduction dynamics in absolute plate motion context.

  6. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  7. Maintaining the cold chain for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Vladimir; Seguljev, Zorica; Gajin, Branka

    2005-01-01

    Cold chain for vaccines a is a system for storing and transporting vaccines at very low temperatures to maintain their effectiveness before use. Because vaccines are sensitive biological substances, their exposition to high temperatures directly affects the quality of vaccines and safety of immunization. The goal of this study was to assess the safety of cold chain for vaccines within the cold chain system in two services of Health Center Novi Sad. Cold Chain Monitors (CCM) and Freeze Watch (FW) indicators were used. A total of 155 (94.5%) Cold Chain Monitors (CCM) and 100 (95.2%) Freeze Watch (FW) indicators were analyzed. Only one CCM showed a breack in cold chain. A total of 3 CCMs indicated risk of vaccine wastage. A total of 9 CCMs were colorized without risk of vaccine wastage. FWs were positive in a high percentage in both services of Health Center Novi Sad. FWs were exposed to low temperatures during transport. Statistically significant differencies in the number of exposed CCMs to high temperatures and the number of exposed FWs to low temperatures were observed in these two services. A statistically significant difference in number of FWs exposed to low temperatures was observed in regard to the period of transport and the period of storage at the vaccination stations. The study shows high level of safety of the cold chain in two services of Health Center Novi Sad Cold Chain Monitor is a reliable indicator of the quality of cold chain for vaccines. Freeze Watch is a reliable indicator of the quality of cold chain during storage of vaccines, but not during their transport. PMID:16296574

  8. Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Paul; Shattock, Paul; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Seim, Anders; Reichelt, Karl L.; Todd, Lynda; Carr, Kevin; Hooper, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioral symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free (GF), casein-free (CF), or gluten- and casein-free diet (GFCF) can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention, and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted. PMID:23316152

  9. Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Paul; Shattock, Paul; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Seim, Anders; Reichelt, Karl L; Todd, Lynda; Carr, Kevin; Hooper, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioral symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free (GF), casein-free (CF), or gluten- and casein-free diet (GFCF) can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention, and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted. PMID:23316152

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.