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Sample records for dietary flavour compound

  1. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    PubMed

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt. PMID:26604408

  2. Inclusion complexation of flavour compounds by dispersed high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) in an aqueous model system.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Lihe; Thompson, Donald B; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated how hydrophobicity, solubility and the concentration of flavour compounds related to inclusion complexation by dispersed native high amylose maize starch (HAMS). The effect of native lipid on flavour retention and the effect of time (one day to one month) on flavour retention and precipitated starch yield was also examined. Flavour-starch complexation was dependent on the flavour compound hydrophobicity, the flavour concentration in a dose-dependent manner and also influenced by time (increased during storage). Flavour composition also influenced starch complexation; no flavour complexes were reported with limonene by itself but were observed when added in binary flavour mixtures with menthone or thymol. Furthermore, no difference in flavour retention was observed for native and lipid-free starch dispersions. In summary, flavour inclusion complexes with HAMS exhibited cooperativity-type binding behaviour; with a critical ligand concentration needed for a stable physical association between flavour compounds and HAMS. PMID:26775987

  3. Pecorino Crotonese cheese: study of bacterial population and flavour compounds.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, C L; Pitino, I; Ribbera, A; Caggia, C

    2010-05-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the dominant bacterial population during the manufacture and the ripening of two artisanal Pecorino Crotonese cheeses, provided by different farms, were investigated by the combination of culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Three hundred and thirty-three strains were isolated from selective culture media, clustered using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results indicate a decrease in biodiversity during ripening, revealing the presence of Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus species in the curd and in aged cheese samples and the occurrence of several lactobacilli throughout cheese ripening, with the dominance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus species. Bacterial dynamics determined by Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis provided a more precise description of the distribution of bacteria, highlighting differences in the bacterial community among cheese samples, and allowed to detect Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri and Leuconostoc mesenteroides species, which were not isolated. Moreover, the concentration of flavour compounds produced throughout cheese ripening was investigated and related to lactic acid bacteria presence. Fifty-seven compounds were identified in the volatile fraction of Pecorino Crotonese cheeses by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Esters, alcohols and free fatty acids were the most abundant compounds, while aldehydes and hydrocarbons were present at low levels. PMID:20227601

  4. Relationship between flavour deterioration and the volatile compound profile of semi-ripened sausage.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José Manuel; Bedia, Mario; Bañón, Sancho

    2013-03-01

    This study provides data on the relationship between flavour deterioration and the volatile compound profile of semi-ripened pork salami kept under retail conditions for up to 150 days. The flavour of salami deteriorated for 120 days, resulting in rancidity and a loss of acceptability. TBARS increased from 0.16 to 0.57 MDA/kg. The flavour changes during the shelf life of salami were monitored from changes in the volatile profile. The retailing time influenced (p<0.05) the level of 27 of the 30 headspace volatiles determined by SPME-GC/MS. Flavour deterioration was associated with the loss and/or degradation of volatiles resulting from spices and microbial activities, and the formation of volatiles from lipid oxidation. The levels of 2-heptenal and methyl esters of heptanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids were the best discriminators of storage time, and therefore seem to be promising as marker compounds of flavour deterioration and acceptability. PMID:23273472

  5. Beyond the flavour: a de-flavoured polyphenol rich extract of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L) as a novel dietary antioxidant ingredient.

    PubMed

    NM, Johannah; RM, Renny; G, Gopakumar; Maliakel, Balu; D, Sureshkumar; IM, Krishnakumar

    2015-10-01

    Though kitchen spices constitute an important source of dietary antioxidants, their consumption at a physiologically relevant dose is very often hampered by their unpleasant flavour characteristics. The present paper describes a novel approach to derive stable de-flavoured spice extracts with minimised taste and odour profiles which are suitable for impregnation into a variety of food and beverage matrices at physiologically relevant doses. A popular kitchen spice, clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum L), having strong flavour and pungency characteristics was selected in the present study to derive a de-flavoured extract with a standardised polyphenolic profile (Clovinol) and was incorporated into various foods. The antioxidant efficacy of Clovinol on healthy human volunteers who check and answer official emails involving responsibility was investigated by analysing their endogenous antioxidant enzymes and the extent of lipid peroxidation upon consumption of Clovinol either as capsules or in a different food/beverage at 250 mg per serving per day for 30 days. It was observed that Clovinol can be conveniently incorporated in various food matrices without flavour issues and the consumption of such food/beverage items may support an effective detoxification process with an average elevation of 33 ± 3% in catalase, 66 ± 8% in SOD, 56 ± 5% in GPx and 167 ± 21% in GSH levels, and 81 ± 11% attenuation in membrane lipid peroxidation level. PMID:26273738

  6. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  7. Measurement of interactions between polysaccharides and flavour compounds by exclusion size chromatography: advantages and limits.

    PubMed

    Guichard, E; Etiévant, P

    1998-12-01

    Interactions between flavour compounds and polysaccharides have been studied by exclusion size chromatography, the Hummel and Dreyer method. Hydrogen bonding was found between 2-acetyl thiazole and dextrines of different degrees of polymerisation. The number of binding sites and the affinity constant increase by increasing the degree of polymerisation. Hydrogen bonding was also responsible for the interactions between xanthane and 1-octen-3-ol or 2-acetyl pyrazine, with 1 mole of 1-octen-3-ol bound per pentasaccharide repeating unit. Unfortunately, the number of flavour compounds, which can be studied with this method, is limited due to their low water solubility and their low UV absorption. PMID:9881364

  8. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool. PMID:24237351

  9. Off-flavours in wines through indirect transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from coatings.

    PubMed

    Fumi, M D; Lambri, M; De Faveri, D M

    2009-05-01

    This paper assesses the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the drying of coatings on the sensory characters of corks and wines. According to Italian National Standard Method 11021:2002, a small-scale chamber was used (1) to expose wines to the drying of coatings with both low and high VOCs, and (2) to expose corks to the same coatings. After exposure to the coatings, the corks were then placed in direct contact with wine. Different styles of white, red and rose wines were tested. In both directly exposed wines and in wines after contact with the exposed cork, the taste and smell off-flavour perception and intensity were assessed by a panel of eight experienced wine tasters using a five-point numerical scale according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard methods. The results showed that the sensory characters of wines, especially taste, were influenced by the VOC content of the coatings. The taste off-flavour perception was found to be higher than the smell in wines exposed to coatings with either high or low VOCs contents. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan analysis prove that: (1) panellist's answers were significantly different, (2) it was difficult to differentiate the off-flavour perception on the high-level scale, and (3) the panellist off-flavour perceptions versus wine style discriminated the wines into two groups (red and white/rose). For all the wine styles, Pearson's test showed no significant correlation between off-flavour perception levels and the main chemical characters of the wines. For the wines that were in direct contact with the exposed corks, the panellists detect the off-flavours according to the levels of VOCs in the coating and wine styles and they assessed the highest levels of alteration were to the taste. PMID:19680948

  10. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools. PMID:19088332

  11. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. PMID:26852288

  12. Influence of water quality on the presence of off-flavour compounds (geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol).

    PubMed

    Parinet, Julien; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sérodes, Jean

    2010-12-01

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are off-flavour compounds related to poor organoleptics and a decrease in consumer satisfaction with drinking water. The relationship between these off-flavour compounds and 39 parameters of water quality (chemical, physical and biological) for three different surface waters from lotic systems that supply potable water to Quebec City and Lévis (Canada) was studied using principal component analysis. The objective of this study was to show that a multidimensional approach with principal component analysis using the component matrix serves to differentiate the processes involved in the appearance of the olfactory compounds from those not involved or little involved and to extract the most representative data of these processes. Our study shows that the presence of geosmin can be explained, in the case of the water studied, by a process associated primarily with the eutrophication of water and, to a lesser degree, by an allochthonous origin. However, the presence of 2-methylisoborneol may be linked to two processes with different origins, but of equal importance: a winter origin - most likely allochthonous - involving anthropic contributions and an autochthonous bacterial origin. PMID:20696452

  13. The use of immobilised digestive lipase from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to generate flavour compounds in milk.

    PubMed

    Kurtovic, Ivan; Marshall, Susan N; Cleaver, Helen L; Miller, Matthew R

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the potential of immobilised digestive lipase from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to generate flavour compounds in milk. The lipase was immobilised on hydrophobic resin (Toyopearl® Butyl) and used to hydrolyse milk lipids in a batch reactor. The lipase was stable when immobilised and there was no significant resin fouling or enzyme inhibition between cycles. Eight cycles were achieved before the hydrolysis rate dropped significantly because of physical losses of the immobilised lipase. The immobilised lipase showed the highest specificity towards short-chain fatty acids butanoic and hexanoic acids, the main dairy product flavour and odour compounds. Based on the performance of the reactor, and the ability of the lipase to alter free fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of milk, the immobilised salmon lipase has potential applications in developing dairy products with unique flavours. PMID:26775978

  14. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on black truffle (tuber melanosporum) flavour compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verret, C.; Ballestra, P.; Cruz, C.; Pardon, P.; Largeteau, A.; Moueffak, A. H. E.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), at 4°C or -18°C, on black truffle flavour compounds, alteration enzymes (lipoxigenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO)) and microbiological qualities were evaluated. The choosen analytes for this study are six alcohols, three aldehydes, one ketone and on sulfur component. The highest flavour stability was observed when samples were pressurized at 300 MPa / 4°C / 10 min. All the treatments induced a drastic decrease of LOX activity and a slight decrease of POD activity. On the other hand, the PPO was not inactivated by pressurization at sub-zero (200 MPa / -18°C / 10 min) and was strongly increased after the 300 MPa / 4°C / 10 min treatment. Pressurization at 300 and 550 MPa lead to an almost complete Pseudomonas fluorescens reduction (6 and 6.5 log destruction, respectively) whereas pressurization at -18°C (200MPa) allowed to obtain only 3 log reduction.

  15. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. PMID:25089786

  16. Analysis of volatile flavour compounds and acrylamide in roasted Malaysian tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) nuts using supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. While low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, significant (P<0.05) increases occurred in concentration with increased roasting temperature and time. Carboxylic acids were the most abundant volatiles in the roasted almond nuts and less significant (P>0.05) concentration of acrylamide was generated with mild roasting and shorter roasting period. PMID:20510332

  17. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    PubMed

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed. PMID:15582202

  18. Probing the molecular forces involved in binding of selected volatile flavour compounds to salt-extracted pea proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Arntfield, Susan D

    2016-11-15

    Molecular interactions between heterologous classes of flavour compounds with salt-extracted pea protein isolates (PPIs) were determined using various bond disrupting agents followed by GC/MS analysis. Flavour bound by proteins decreased in the order: dibutyl disulfide>octanal>hexyl acetate>2-octanone=benzaldehyde. Benzaldehyde, 2-octanone and hexyl acetate interacted non-covalently with PPIs, whereas octanal bound PPIs via covalent and non-covalent forces. Dibutyl disulfide reacted with PPIs covalently, as its retention was not diminished by urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Using propylene glycol, H-bonding and ionic interactions were implicated for hexyl acetate, benzaldehyde, and 2-octanone. A protein-destabilising salt (Cl3CCOONa) reduced bindings for 2-octanone, hexyl acetate, and benzaldehyde; however, retention for octanal and dibutyl disulfide increased. Conversely, a protein-stabilising salt (Na2SO4) enhanced retention for benzaldehyde, 2-octanone, hexyl acetate and octanal. Formation of a volatile flavour by-product, 1-butanethiol, from dibutyl disulfide when PPIs were treated with dithiothreitol indicated occurrence of sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions. PMID:27283627

  19. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components. PMID:26143651

  20. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for “Ugba” Production

    PubMed Central

    Nwokeleme, C. O.; Ugwuanyi, J. Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. PMID:26904664

  1. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    PubMed

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. PMID:26904664

  2. Quantitation of tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin in cola-flavoured soft drinks to improve the assessment of their dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Antonio; D'Aloise, Antonio; Magrì, Antonio L; Leclercq, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Quantitation of tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin was carried out in 70 samples of cola-flavoured soft drinks purchased in eight European countries with the purpose of assessing the variability in the levels of these substances. Results indicated a limited variability in the content of the three substances: the ratio between the 90th and the 10th percentile concentration amounted to 21, 6 and 13 for tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin, respectively. The uncertainty in the assessment of dietary exposure to these substances due to the variability of their level in cola-flavoured drinks was low. Based on these analytical data and on refined food consumption data, estimates of exposure to safrole associated to cola drink consumption, along with Margin of Exposure (MOE) values, were obtained. For high consumers of cola-flavoured soft drinks in certain age groups, within some European countries, MOE values lower than 10,000 resulted, MOE values of 10,000 or higher having been stated by the EFSA as a quantitative criterion to identify low concern from a public health point of view and low priority for risk management actions. The lowest MOE values, from 1900 to 3000, were observed for children and teen agers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. PMID:23845511

  3. Chemoprevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by dietary natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver disease that is not from excess alcohol consumption, but is often associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD pathogenesis is complicated and involves oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, insulin resistance, inflammation, and excessive dietary fat intake, which increase hepatic lipid influx and de novo lipogenesis and impair insulin signaling, thus promoting hepatic triglyceride accumulation and ultimately NAFLD. Overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines from adipose tissue also affects hepatic metabolic function. Current NAFLD therapies are limited; thus, much attention has been focused on identification of potential dietary substances from fruits, vegetables, and edible plants to provide a new strategy for NAFLD treatment. Dietary natural compounds, such as carotenoids, omega-3-PUFAs, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, terpenoids, curcumin, and resveratrol, act through a variety of mechanisms to prevent and improve NAFLD. Here, we summarize and briefly discuss the currently known targets and signaling pathways as well as the role of dietary natural compounds that interfere with NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:24302567

  4. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Adahchour, M; Vreuls, R J; van der Heijden, A; Brinkman, U A

    1999-06-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water fraction are collected by off-line SPE on cartidges packed with a copolymer sorbent. After desorption with 500 microliters of methyl acetate, 1-microliter aliquots are quantified and/or identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The procedure was tested with respect to recovery, linearity and limit of detection in real-life samples using five polar model analytes. It allows the characterisation of polar flavour compounds in butter prior to and after heat treatment at 170 degrees C. From the five model compounds, vanillin, traces of diacetyl and maltol were found to be present in the butter samples. After heat treatment 500-1000-fold increased concentration of maltol, and substantial amounts of furaneol were detected. PMID:10399332

  5. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of α-terpineol thioacetate and thiol derivatives and their use as flavouring compounds.

    PubMed

    Bel-Rhlid, Rachid; Fleury Rey, Yvette; Welti, Dieter; Fumeaux, René; Moine, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of (R,S)-α-terpineol with thioacetic acid in food-grade n-hexane resulted into two α-terpineol thioacetate derivatives with the same molecular weight. After 5 h of reaction time, (R,S)-α-terpineol was completely transformed and the mixture analysed by different chromatographic techniques. The aroma character of the α-terpineol thioacetates was described as exotic, sweet, blackcurrant, roasted and sulphury. Of eight lipases and two esterases assayed, only non-immobilized pig liver esterase (PLE) hydrolysed α-terpineol thioacetates into the corresponding α-terpineol thiols. When reactions were performed in 0.2 m phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 and 30 °C with non-immobilized PLE, α-terpineol thiols were produced in an optimal yield of 88% after 24 h of reaction time. The aroma character of α-terpineol thiols was described as green, exotic and fresh grapefruit. Flavouring powders were prepared by freeze-drying the α-terpineol thioacetates and α-terpineol thiols in the presence of maltodextrine. Preliminary applications showed that these flavouring preparations could be used to improve the flavour quality of lighter cooked notes and tropical fruit aromas. PMID:25400090

  6. New short and general synthesis of three key Maillard flavour compounds: 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine.

    PubMed

    Deblander, Jurgen; Van Aeken, Sam; Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert; Abbaspour Tehrani, Kourosch

    2015-02-01

    A new general synthetic route towards three key Maillard flavour compounds, namely 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine, was developed. The key step in the process is the methylenation reaction of azaheterocyclic carboxylic esters by means of dimethyltitanocene, giving rise to intermediate vinyl ethers which can be considered as excellent and stable precursors for the title compounds, as a simple acidic treatment of these precursors suffices to release the characteristic Maillard flavours. PMID:25172717

  7. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  8. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2016-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in refill bottles from local ‘vape’ shops and online retailers. Results In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1–4% range (10–40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6–2.4% (6 to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a compound class recognised as ‘primary irritants’ of mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals: vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL. Conclusions The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient labeling should also be required. PMID:25877377

  9. An update on dietary phenolic compounds in the prevention and management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rosillo, María Angeles; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina

    2016-07-13

    Certain nutritional components influence the cellular metabolism and interfere in the pathological inflammatory process, so that they may act as a coadjuvant in the treatment of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Particularly, a wide range of evidence has demonstrated the beneficial roles of dietary phenolic compounds in RA because of their ability to modulate pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways reducing the onset of arthritic disease progression. These natural phenolic compounds can modulate both the action and the production of inflammatory mediators either directly or indirectly by modulating the action of other molecules involved in RA pathology. Subsequently, the purpose of this article is to review the main in vitro and in vivo studies in RA, which have documented interesting insights into the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties of dietary phenolic compounds focusing on their molecular action mechanisms involved in RA. The observations reported above are promising and suggest that the dietary phenolic compounds may influence the course of RA, ameliorating the RA symptoms and downregulating the inflammation at the molecular level; however, most of the studies conducted to date have been preclinical. Thus, future studies should therefore focus more on understanding the efficacy of these phenolic compounds in humans and bringing them to the forefront of the treatment of chronic human diseases. PMID:27295367

  10. Dietary fibers as immunoregulatory compounds in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Wismar, René; Brix, Susanne; Frøkiaer, Hanne; Laerke, Helle Nygaard

    2010-03-01

    Many nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) classified as dietary fibers have been reported to possess immunoregulatory properties. The fibers reported to activate or by other means modulate immune responses originate from both plant, fungal, and microbial sources and constitute highly distinct structures. In order to enhance our understanding of factors important for the immunoregulatory activities, this article addresses the importance of chemical structure, origin, and purity of fibers for their capacity to interact with key regulatory immune cells. Furthermore, we assess bioavailability, and discuss possible mechanisms involved. The binding of some NSPs to carbohydrate receptors on immune cells is well established and this event leads to activation or other changes. Especially, certain beta-glucans and some mannans have demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity with the specific structure being important for the activity. Within beta-glucans the activity varies according to structure, molecular weight, and solubility. As many of the preparations tested constitute crude extracts or partly purified NSPs, the risk of contaminants holding immunoregulatory activities should not be ignored. To what extent NSPs enter systemic circulation has been difficult to assess, partly due to lack of sensitive analytical methods. The presence of NSPs in blood and Peyer's patches in the gut has been demonstrated, supporting encounter between NSPs and immune cells, but bioavailability studies still constitute a major challenge. Studies demonstrating in vivo effects of beta-glucans on microbial infections and cancer treatment strongly indicate an immunoregulatory mechanism behind the effects. However, the potential of NSPs as immunoregulatory food ingredients is still far from fully explored. PMID:20388138

  11. Could gestational diabetes mellitus be managed through dietary bioactive compounds? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Carmela; Zicari, Alessandra; Mandosi, Elisabetta; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Mari, Emanuela; Morano, Susanna; Masella, Roberta

    2016-04-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious problem growing worldwide that needs to be addressed with urgency in consideration of the resulting severe complications for both mother and fetus. Growing evidence indicates that a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, extra-virgin olive oil and fish has beneficial effects in both the prevention and management of several human diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review, we discuss the latest data concerning the effects of dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and PUFA on the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose homoeostasis. Several studies, mostly based on in vitro and animal models, indicate that dietary polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, positively modulate the insulin signalling pathway by attenuating hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, reducing inflammatory adipokines, and modifying microRNA (miRNA) profiles. Very few data about the influence of dietary exposure on GDM outcomes are available, although this approach deserves careful consideration. Further investigation, which includes exploring the 'omics' world, is needed to better understand the complex interaction between dietary compounds and GDM. PMID:26879600

  12. Characterization of industrial onion wastes (Allium cepa L.): dietary fibre and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A; Esteban, Rosa M

    2011-03-01

    The food industry produces a large amount of onion wastes, making it necessary to search for possible ways for their utilization. One way could be to use these onion wastes as a natural source of high-value functional ingredients, since onion are rich in several groups of compounds, which have perceived benefits to human health. The objective of this work is to gain knowledge of any differences between the different onion wastes obtained from industry and non-commercial bulbs to use them as food ingredients rich in specific compounds. The results showed that brown skin and top-bottom could be potentially used as functional ingredient rich in dietary fibre, mainly in insoluble fraction, and in total phenolics and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity. Moreover, brown skin showed a high concentration of quercetin aglycone and calcium, and top-bottom showed high concentration of minerals. Outer scales could be used as source of flavonols, with good antioxidant activity and content of dietary fibre. However, inner scales could be an interesting source of fructans and alk(en)yl cystein sulphoxides. In addition, discarded onions (cvs Recas and Figueres) could be used as a good source of dietary fibre, and cv Recas also as a source of phenolics compounds. PMID:21318305

  13. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05) in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05) in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  14. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05) in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05) in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  15. Dietary Components Related to N-Nitroso Compound Formation: A Prospective Study of Adult Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S.; Park, Yikyung; Mayne, Susan T.; Moore, Steven C.; Kilfoy, Briseis; Cross, Amanda J.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Ward, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Background N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) are found in processed meat and are formed endogenously from intake of nitrite and nitrate. Endogenous NOC formation is antagonized by nitrosation inhibitors in fruit and vegetables (e.g., vitamin C) and promoted by heme in red meat. It has been hypothesized that a diet resulting in high exposure to NOCs increases adult glioma risk. Methods Using proportional hazards models, we tested this hypothesis among 545,770 participants in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which assessed dietary intake at baseline (1995–96) with a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and at ages 12–13 years with an abbreviated FFQ. Results During follow-up through 2003, 585 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no significant trends in glioma risk for consumption of processed or red meat, nitrate, or vitamin C or E. We found significant positive trends for nitrite intake from plant sources (hazard ratio [HR] for quintile 5 vs. 1, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–2.10; p-trend = 0.028) and, unexpectedly, for fruit and vegetable intake (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08–1.86; p-trend = .0081). Examination of interactions between dietary intakes (e.g., nitrite and vitamin C) and a limited analysis of diet at ages 12–13 provided no support for the NOC hypothesis. Conclusions Our results cast doubt on the NOC hypothesis in relation to dietary intake and adult glioma risk. Impact Further work is needed on early life diet, adult intake of nitrite from plant sources, and adult intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to adult glioma risk. PMID:20570910

  16. Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: a review.

    PubMed

    Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Tarko, Tomasz; Satora, Paweł; Sroka, Paweł

    2015-04-01

    The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the metabolism of chemical compounds found within food. Bacterial metabolites are different from those that can be generated by human enzymes because bacterial processes occur under anaerobic conditions and are based mainly on reactions of reduction and/or hydrolysis. In most cases, bacterial metabolism reduces the activity of dietary compounds; however, sometimes a specific product of bacterial transformation exhibits enhanced properties. Studies on the metabolism of polyphenols by the intestinal microbiota are crucial for understanding the role of these compounds and their impact on our health. This review article presents possible pathways of polyphenol metabolism by intestinal bacteria and describes the diet-derived bioactive metabolites produced by gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on polyphenols and their potential impact on human health. Because the etiology of many diseases is largely correlated with the intestinal microbiome, a balance between the host immune system and the commensal gut microbiota is crucial for maintaining health. Diet-related and age-related changes in the human intestinal microbiome and their consequences are summarized in the paper. PMID:25672526

  17. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in food and dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Te Biesebeek, Jan Dirk; Mengelers, Marcel J B; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2011-07-13

    This study presents concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food and the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in The Netherlands. The concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food were analyzed in pooled samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in several Dutch retail store chains with nation-wide coverage. The concentrations analyzed for PFOS and PFOA were used to assess the exposure to these compounds in The Netherlands. As concentrations in drinking water in The Netherlands were missing for these compounds, conservative default concentrations of 7 pg/g for PFOS and 9 pg/g for PFOA, as reported by European Food Safety Authority, were used in the exposure assessment. In food, 6 out of 14 analyzed perfluorinated compounds could be quantified in the majority of the food categories (perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and PFOS). The highest concentration of the sum of these six compounds was found in crustaceans (825 pg/g product, PFOS: 582 pg/g product) and in lean fish (481 pg/g product, PFOS: 308 pg/g product). Lower concentrations were found in beef, fatty fish, flour, butter, eggs, and cheese (concentrations between 20 and 100 pg/g product; PFOS, 29-82 pg/g product) and milk, pork, bakery products, chicken, vegetable, and industrial oils (concentration lower than 10 pg/g product; PFOS not detected). The median long-term intake for PFOS was 0.3 ng/kg bw/day and for PFOA 0.2 ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding high level intakes (99th percentile) were 0.6 and 0.5 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. These intakes were well below the tolerable daily intake values of both compounds (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day). The intake calculations quantified the contribution of drinking water to the PFOS and PFOA intake in The Netherlands. Important contributors of PFOA intake were vegetables/fruit and flour. Milk

  18. Understanding flavour at the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Huge progress in flavour physics has been achieved by the two B-factories and the Tevatron experiments. This progress has, however, deepened the new physics flavour puzzle: If there is new physics at the TeV scale, why aren't flavour changing neutral current processes enhanced by orders of magnitude compared to the standard model predictions? The forthcoming ATLAS and CMS experiments can potentially solve this puzzle. Perhaps even more surprisingly, these experiments can potentially lead to progress in understanding the standard model flavour puzzle: Why is there smallness and hierarchy in the flavour parameters? Thus, a rich and informative flavour program is awaiting us not only in the flavour-dedicated LHCb experiment, but also in the high-pT ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  19. Methylation Landscape of Human Breast Cancer Cells in Response to Dietary Compound Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Medina-Aguilar, Rubiceli; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Marchat, Laurence A; Gariglio, Patricio; García Mena, Jaime; Rodríguez Cuevas, Sergio; Ruíz-García, Erika; Astudillo-de la Vega, Horacio; Hernández Juárez, Jennifer; Flores-Pérez, Ali; López-Camarillo, César

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent epigenetic alteration in cancer cells that has emerged as a pivotal mechanism for tumorigenesis. Accordingly, novel therapies targeting the epigenome are being explored with the aim to restore normal DNA methylation patterns on oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. A limited number of studies indicate that dietary compound resveratrol modulates DNA methylation of several cancer-related genes; however a complete view of changes in methylome by resveratrol has not been reported yet. In this study we performed a genome-wide survey of DNA methylation signatures in triple negative breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Our data showed that resveratrol treatment for 24 h and 48 h decreased gene promoter hypermethylation and increased DNA hypomethylation. Of 2476 hypermethylated genes in control cells, 1,459 and 1,547 were differentially hypomethylated after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Remarkably, resveratrol did not induce widespread non-specific DNA hyper- or hypomethylation as changes in methylation were found in only 12.5% of 27,728 CpG loci. Moreover, resveratrol restores the hypomethylated and hypermethylated status of key tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively. Importantly, the integrative analysis of methylome and transcriptome profiles in response to resveratrol showed that methylation alterations were concordant with changes in mRNA expression. Our findings reveal for the first time the impact of resveratrol on the methylome of breast cancer cells and identify novel potential targets for epigenetic therapy. We propose that resveratrol may be considered as a dietary epidrug as it may exert its anti-tumor activities by modifying the methylation status of cancer -related genes which deserves further in vivo characterization. PMID:27355345

  20. Methylation Landscape of Human Breast Cancer Cells in Response to Dietary Compound Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Aguilar, Rubiceli; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Marchat, Laurence A.; Gariglio, Patricio; García Mena, Jaime; Rodríguez Cuevas, Sergio; Ruíz-García, Erika; Astudillo-de la Vega, Horacio; Hernández Juárez, Jennifer; Flores-Pérez, Ali; López-Camarillo, César

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent epigenetic alteration in cancer cells that has emerged as a pivotal mechanism for tumorigenesis. Accordingly, novel therapies targeting the epigenome are being explored with the aim to restore normal DNA methylation patterns on oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. A limited number of studies indicate that dietary compound resveratrol modulates DNA methylation of several cancer-related genes; however a complete view of changes in methylome by resveratrol has not been reported yet. In this study we performed a genome-wide survey of DNA methylation signatures in triple negative breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Our data showed that resveratrol treatment for 24 h and 48 h decreased gene promoter hypermethylation and increased DNA hypomethylation. Of 2476 hypermethylated genes in control cells, 1,459 and 1,547 were differentially hypomethylated after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Remarkably, resveratrol did not induce widespread non-specific DNA hyper- or hypomethylation as changes in methylation were found in only 12.5% of 27,728 CpG loci. Moreover, resveratrol restores the hypomethylated and hypermethylated status of key tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively. Importantly, the integrative analysis of methylome and transcriptome profiles in response to resveratrol showed that methylation alterations were concordant with changes in mRNA expression. Our findings reveal for the first time the impact of resveratrol on the methylome of breast cancer cells and identify novel potential targets for epigenetic therapy. We propose that resveratrol may be considered as a dietary epidrug as it may exert its anti-tumor activities by modifying the methylation status of cancer -related genes which deserves further in vivo characterization. PMID:27355345

  1. Cancer-promoting and Inhibiting Effects of Dietary Compounds: Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Joann B.; Ghotbaddini, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic aromatic amines and dioxin-like compounds are environmental carcinogens shown to initiate cancer in a number of tissue types including prostate and breast. These environmental carcinogens elicit their effects through interacting with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand activated transcription factor. Naturally occurring compounds found in fruits and vegetables shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects also interact with the AhR. This review explores dietary and environmental exposure to chemical carcinogens and beneficial natural compounds whose effects are elicited by the AhR. PMID:25258701

  2. Future flavour physics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543

  3. The Flavour of Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, I.

    2008-11-23

    A new class of particle physics models of inflation based on the phase transition associated with the spontaneous breaking of family symmetry is proposed. The Higgs fields responsible for the breaking of family symmetry, the flavons, are natural inflaton candidates or waterfall fields in hybrid inflation. This opens up a rich vein of possible inflation models, all linked to the physics of flavour, with several interesting cosmological implications.

  4. Monitoring of 35 illegally added steroid compounds in foods and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Cho, So-Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyung Joo; Cho, Sooyeul; Yoon, Chang-Yong; Kim, Woo Seong

    2014-01-01

    The adulteration of foods and dietary supplements with steroids has been well attested and has the potential to be dangerous owing to various possible side-effects. Therefore, detecting the presence of steroids in various health food products has become increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to monitor illegally adulterated health food products by applying multiple reaction monitoring techniques to tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Various food and supplement samples advertised for the treatment of arthritis, bone ache and joint pain were collected over a 4-year period (2010-13) from local and online Korean sources. The method was validated based on limits of quantification of 0.5-15.0 ng g(-1) and recoveries in spiked solid samples of 81-119%. Approximately 30% of the tested samples were identified as having been illicitly adulterated. Six compounds were observed overall, including dexamethasone (45.1%), cotrisone-21-aceteate and prednisone-21-acetate (16.2%), and betamethasone (14.4%), and found in some samples in high concentrations. PMID:25036882

  5. Impacts on Sirtuin Function and Bioavailability of the Dietary Bioactive Compound Dihydrocoumarin

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Jennifer L.; Yang, Bo; Li, Xu; Menze, Anna K.; Laurentz, Sara M.; Janle, Elsa M.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; McCabe, George P.; Chapple, Clint; Kirchmaier, Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    The plant secondary metabolite and common food additive dihydrocoumarin (DHC) is an inhibitor of the Sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases. Sirtuins are key regulators of epigenetic processes that maintain silent chromatin in yeast and have been linked to gene expression, metabolism, apoptosis, tumorogenesis and age-related processes in multiple organisms, including humans. Here we report that exposure to the polyphenol DHC led to defects in several Sirtuin-regulated processes in budding yeast including the establishment and maintenance of Sir2p-dependent silencing by causing disassembly of silent chromatin, Hst1p-dependent repression of meiotic-specific genes during the mitotic cell cycle. As both transient and prolonged exposure to environmental and dietary factors have the potential to lead to heritable alterations in epigenetic states and to modulate additional Sirtuin-dependent phenotypes, we examined the bioavailability and digestive stability of DHC using an in vivo rat model and in vitro digestive simulator. Our analyses revealed that DHC was unstable during digestion and could be converted to melilotic acid (MA), which also caused epigenetic defects, albeit less efficiently. Upon ingestion, DHC was observed primarily in intestinal tissues, but did not accumulate over time and was readily cleared from the animals. MA displayed a wider tissue distribution and, in contrast to DHC, was also detected in the blood plasma, interstitial fluid, and urine, implying that the conversion of DHC to the less bioactive compound, MA, occurred efficiently in vivo. PMID:26882112

  6. Approaches that ascertain the role of dietary compounds in colonic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bordonaro, Michael; Venema, Koen; Putri, Adeline K; Lazarova, Darina

    2014-01-01

    Preventive approaches against cancer have not been fully developed and applied. For example, the incidence of some types of cancer, including colon cancer, is highly dependent upon lifestyle, and therefore, amenable to prevention. Among the lifestyle factors, diet strongly affects the incidence of colon cancer; however, there are no definitive dietary recommendations that protect against this malignancy. The association between diet-derived bioactives and development of colonic neoplasms will remain ill defined if we do not take into account: (1) the identity of the metabolites present in the colonic lumen; (2) their concentrations in the colon; and (3) the effect of the colonic contents on the function of individual bioactives. We review two approaches that address these questions: the use of fecal water and in vitro models of the human colon. Compared to treatment with individual diet-derived compounds, the exposure of colon cancer cells to samples from fecal water or human colon simulators mimics closer the in vitro conditions and allows for more reliable studies on the effects of diet on colon cancer development. The rationale and the advantages of these strategies are discussed from the perspective of a specific question on how to analyze the combined effect of two types of bioactives, butyrate and polyphenol metabolites, on colon cancer cells. PMID:24578783

  7. Impacts on Sirtuin Function and Bioavailability of the Dietary Bioactive Compound Dihydrocoumarin.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Jennifer L; Yang, Bo; Li, Xu; Menze, Anna K; Laurentz, Sara M; Janle, Elsa M; Ferruzzi, Mario G; McCabe, George P; Chapple, Clint; Kirchmaier, Ann L

    2016-01-01

    The plant secondary metabolite and common food additive dihydrocoumarin (DHC) is an inhibitor of the Sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases. Sirtuins are key regulators of epigenetic processes that maintain silent chromatin in yeast and have been linked to gene expression, metabolism, apoptosis, tumorogenesis and age-related processes in multiple organisms, including humans. Here we report that exposure to the polyphenol DHC led to defects in several Sirtuin-regulated processes in budding yeast including the establishment and maintenance of Sir2p-dependent silencing by causing disassembly of silent chromatin, Hst1p-dependent repression of meiotic-specific genes during the mitotic cell cycle. As both transient and prolonged exposure to environmental and dietary factors have the potential to lead to heritable alterations in epigenetic states and to modulate additional Sirtuin-dependent phenotypes, we examined the bioavailability and digestive stability of DHC using an in vivo rat model and in vitro digestive simulator. Our analyses revealed that DHC was unstable during digestion and could be converted to melilotic acid (MA), which also caused epigenetic defects, albeit less efficiently. Upon ingestion, DHC was observed primarily in intestinal tissues, but did not accumulate over time and was readily cleared from the animals. MA displayed a wider tissue distribution and, in contrast to DHC, was also detected in the blood plasma, interstitial fluid, and urine, implying that the conversion of DHC to the less bioactive compound, MA, occurred efficiently in vivo. PMID:26882112

  8. A mechanistic review on plant-derived natural compounds as dietary supplements for prevention of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Sodagari, Hamid Reza; Esfahani, Shadi A; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a recurrent idiopathic inflammatory condition, characterized by disruption of the gut mucosal barrier. This mechanistic review aims to highlight the significance of plant-derived natural compounds as dietary supplements, which can be used in addition to restricted conventional options for the prevention of IBD and induction of remission. Various clinical trials confirmed the effectiveness and tolerability of natural supplements in patients with IBD. Mounting evidence suggests that these natural compounds perform their protective and therapeutic effect on IBD through numerous molecular mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative stress, modulation of intracellular signaling transduction pathways, as well as improving gut microbiota. In conclusion, natural products can be considered as dietary supplements with therapeutic potential for IBD, provided that their safety and efficacy is confirmed in future well-designed clinical trials with adequate sample size. PMID:26799847

  9. Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2016-04-01

    Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential inhalation toxicity of this compound, we measured benzaldehyde in aerosol generated in a laboratory setting from flavoured e-cigarettes purchased online and detected benzaldehyde in 108 out of 145 products. The highest levels of benzaldehyde were detected in cherry-flavoured products. The benzaldehyde doses inhaled with 30 puffs from flavoured e-cigarettes were often higher than doses inhaled from a conventional cigarette. Levels in cherry-flavoured products were >1000 times lower than doses inhaled in the workplace. While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. Given the uncertainty surrounding adverse health effects stemming from long-term inhalation of flavouring ingredients such as benzaldehyde, clinicians need to be aware of this emerging risk and ask their patients about use of flavoured e-cigarettes. PMID:26822067

  10. Grand Unified Flavour Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, Susanne

    2010-02-10

    We probe the unification of down quarks and leptons in a supersymmetric SO(10) GUT. The large atmospheric neutrino mixing angle induces b{sub R}-s{sub R} transitions, which can account for the sizeable CP phase oe{sub s} measured in B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing. Corrections to down-quark-lepton unification from higher-dimensional Yukawa terms translate neutrino mixing also into s{sub R}-d{sub R} and b{sub R}-d{sub R} currents. We find the flavour structure of Yukawa corrections to be strongly constrained by epsilon{sub K}.

  11. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODEL FOR DIETARY UPTAKE OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY FISH: I. FEEDING STUDIES WITH 2,2',5,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe dietary uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds by fish. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was modeled using four compartments corresponding to the stomach, pyloric ceca, upper intestine, and lower intesti...

  12. Study on lipolysis-oxidation and volatile flavour compounds of dry-cured goose with different curing salt content during production.

    PubMed

    Ying, Wang; Ya-Ting, Jiang; Jin-Xuan, Cao; Yin-Ji, Chen; Yang-Ying, Sun; Xiao-Qun, Zeng; Dao-Dong, Pan; Chang-Rong, Ou; Ning, Gan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dry-curing salt content (4% low salt (LS), 8% high salt (HS)) on lipolysis, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds in dry-cured goose was investigated in our study. The activities of acid lipase and neutral lipase increased during dry-curing, while phospholipase reached its maximum at the end of marinating. Lipoxygenase (LOX) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values increased during dry-curing and marinating then decreased during dry-ripening. Total free fatty acids (TFFA) increased at dry-curing and dry-ripening points and decreased during marinating. Total peak area of lipids derived volatile compounds (TPALDVC) and total peak area increased during entire stages. Compared to LS, HS group has higher lipolytic and LOX activities, TBARS, TFFA, unsaturated fatty acids and TPALDVC. The higher TPALDVC in HS could be attributed to higher lipid hydrolysis and oxidation during processing. PMID:26212938

  13. The impact of supplemental dietary methionine sources on volatile compound concentrations in broiler excreta.

    PubMed

    Chavez, C; Coufal, C D; Carey, J B; Lacey, R E; Beier, R C; Zahn, J A

    2004-06-01

    group had the significantly lowest concentrations of CH3SH, CH3SSCH3, and CH3SSSCH3 compared with the other treatment groups. In experiment 2, at wk 6, an electronic nose was used to evaluate 15 air samples per treatment group. In addition, 15 air samples (containing 6 to 8 L of air in a Tedlar bag, 3 samples per treatment group) were collected for odor evaluation by a sensory panel. Electronic nose sensor data revealed that volatile compounds in broiler excreta from the control group were significantly different from the other 4 treatment groups. Evaluation of the air samples by a sensory panel determined that there was a statistically significant difference in odor threshold detection between the control group and the other treatment groups. The dilutions to threshold of control group, NaMet, dry MetHA, Liq MetHA, and D,L-Met were 350, 492, 568, 496, and 526 odor units, respectively. These findings demonstrate that dietary Met sources significantly influenced odorous volatile concentrations in broiler excreta. PMID:15206616

  14. Variation in the Ability to Taste Bitter Thiourea Compounds: Implications for Food Acceptance, Dietary Intake, and Obesity Risk in Children.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kathleen L; Adise, Shana

    2016-07-17

    The ability to taste bitter thiourea compounds, such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), is inherited. Polymorphisms in the bitter-taste receptor TAS2R38 explain the majority of phenotypic variation in the PROP phenotype. It has been hypothesized that the PROP phenotype is a marker for perception of a variety of chemosensory experiences. In this review, we discuss studies that have investigated the relationship between bitter-taste response and dietary behaviors and chronic health in children. Investigators have hypothesized that children who are PROP tasters have lower liking and consumption of bitter foods, such as cruciferous vegetables. Additionally, several studies suggest that children who are unable to taste PROP (i.e., nontasters) like and consume more dietary fat and are prone to obesity. The relationship between the PROP phenotype and obesity is influenced by multiple confounders, including sex, food access, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Future studies that adjust for these variables are needed. PMID:27070900

  15. Identification of loci affecting flavour volatile emissions in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise M; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric A; Taylor, Mark G; Bliss, Peter; Kirst, Matias; Klee, Harry J

    2006-01-01

    Fresh tomato fruit flavour is the sum of the interaction between sugars, acids, and a set of approximately 30 volatile compounds synthesized from a diverse set of precursors, including amino acids, lipids, and carotenoids. Some of these volatiles impart desirable qualities while others are negatively perceived. As a first step to identify the genes responsible for the synthesis of flavour-related chemicals, an attempt was made to identify loci that influence the chemical composition of ripe fruits. A genetically diverse but well-defined Solanum pennellii IL population was used. Because S. pennellii is a small green-fruited species, this population exhibits great biochemical diversity and is a rich source of genes affecting both fruit development and chemical composition. This population was used to identify multiple loci affecting the composition of chemicals related to flavour. Twenty-five loci were identified that are significantly altered in one or more of 23 different volatiles and four were altered in citric acid content. It was further shown that emissions of carotenoid-derived volatiles were directly correlated with the fruit carotenoid content. Linked molecular markers should be useful for breeding programmes aimed at improving fruit flavour. In the longer term, the genes responsible for controlling the levels of these chemicals will be important tools for understanding the complex interactions that ultimately integrate to provide the unique flavour of a tomato. PMID:16473892

  16. Perfluorinated compounds: levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E

    2013-11-15

    The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA. PMID:24095201

  17. Dietary Regulation of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Pathway: Focus on Plant-Derived Compounds and Trace Minerals

    PubMed Central

    Stefanson, Amanda L.; Bakovic, Marica

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that chronic inflammation underpins the development of many chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is inherently a biochemical dysregulation of the redox status of the intracellular environment, which under homeostatic conditions is a reducing environment, whereas inflammation is the biological response to oxidative stress in that the cell initiates the production of proteins, enzymes, and other compounds to restore homeostasis. At the center of the day-to-day biological response to oxidative stress is the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, which regulates the transcription of many antioxidant genes that preserve cellular homeostasis and detoxification genes that process and eliminate carcinogens and toxins before they can cause damage. The Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway plays a major role in health resilience and can be made more robust and responsive by certain dietary factors. Transient activation of Nrf2 by dietary electrophilic phytochemicals can upregulate antioxidant and chemopreventive enzymes in the absence of actual oxidative stress inducers. Priming the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway by upregulating these enzymes prior to oxidative stress or xenobiotic encounter increases cellular fitness to respond more robustly to oxidative assaults without activating more intense inflammatory NFκB-mediated responses. PMID:25244368

  18. Use of volatile compound metabolic signatures in poultry liver to back-trace dietary exposure to rapidly metabolized xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Berge, Philippe; Ratel, Jérémy; Fournier, Agnès; Jondreville, Catherine; Feidt, Cyril; Roudaut, Brigitte; Le Bizec, Bruno; Engel, Erwan

    2011-08-01

    The study investigated the feasibility of using volatile compound signatures of liver tissues in poultry to detect previous dietary exposure to different types of xenobiotic. Six groups of broiler chickens were fed a similar diet either noncontaminated or contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDD/Fs; 3.14 pg WHO-TEQ/g feed, 12% moisture), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; 0.08 pg WHO-TEQ/g feed, 12% moisture), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; 1.63 ng/g feed, 12% moisture), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; 0.72 μg/g fresh matter), or coccidiostats (0.5 mg/g feed, fresh matter). Each chicken liver was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction - mass spectrometry (SPME-MS) for volatile compound metabolic signature and by gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify xenobiotic residues. Volatile compound signature evidenced a liver metabolic response to PAH although these rapidly metabolized xenobiotics are undetectable in this organ by the reference methods. Similarly, the volatile compound metabolic signature enabled to differentiate the noncontaminated chickens from those contaminated with PBDEs or coccidiostats. In contrast, no clear signature was pointed out for slowly metabolized compounds such as PCDD/Fs and PCBs although their residues were found in liver at 50.93 (±6.71) and 0.67 (±0.1) pg WHO-TEQ/g fat, respectively. PMID:21749145

  19. Volatile flavour components of baked potato flesh. A comparison of eleven potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Duckham, S C; Dodson, A T; Bakker, J; Ames, J M

    2001-10-01

    Tubers of eleven cultivars of potato were baked and the flavour compounds from the flesh were isolated by headspace adsorption onto Tenax and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Lipid degradation and the Maillard reaction were the main sources of flavour compounds, accounting for 22-69% and 28-77%, respectively, of the total yields. Various sulfur compounds, methoxypyrazines and terpenes were also identified at lower levels. Relative aroma impact values (RAVs) were calculated by dividing compound yields by the odour threshold value. Compounds contributing most to aroma (RAV > 10,000 in at least one cultivar) were 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, beta-damascenone, dimethyl trisulfide, decanal and 3-methylbutanal. The observed differences in yields and RAVs for compounds among cultivars would be expected to result in differences in perceived flavour. PMID:11715342

  20. Dietary phenolic compounds selectively inhibit the individual subunits of maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase with the potential of modulating glucose release

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, it was hypothesized that dietary phenolic compounds selectively inhibit the individual C- and N-terminal (Ct, Nt) subunits of the two small intestinal alpha-glucosidases, maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI), for a modulated glycemic carbohydrate digestion. The inhi...

  1. Lifetime of heavy flavour particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lueth, V.

    1985-10-01

    Recent measurements of the lifetime of the tau leptons and charm and beauty hadrons are reviewed and their significance for the couplings of the charged weak current, flavour mixing, and models relating quarks to hadron decay are discussed. 70 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Profiling Methods for the Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profiling methods are needed to separate and detect all the phenolic compounds in a single extract of a food material. These methods must be comprehensive, rapid, and rich in spectral information. Fourteen methods have been selected from the recent literature that meet, or have the potential to meet...

  3. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY METHIONINE SOURCE ON VOLATILE SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN BROILER EXCRETA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the impact of methionine source on volatile sulfur compounds in broiler excreta a trial was conducted using straight run broiler chicks raised in battery cages. Chicks were randomly distributed into 3 replications of 5 treatment groups with 16 birds per pen. The treatment groups were d...

  4. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

  5. Modulation of Histone Deacetylase Activity by Dietary Isothiocyanates and Allyl Sulfides: Studies with Sulforaphane and Garlic Organosulfur Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nian, Hui; Delage, Barbara; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reactivate epigenetically-silenced genes in cancer cells, triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that dietary constituents can act as HDAC inhibitors, such as the isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables and the allyl compounds present in garlic. Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that is metabolized via the mercapturic acid pathway and inhibits HDAC activity in human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. In mouse preclinical models, SFN inhibited HDAC activity and induced histone hyperacetylation coincident with tumor suppression. Inhibition of HDAC activity also was observed in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from people who consumed a single serving of broccoli sprouts. Garlic organosulfur compounds can be metabolized to allyl mercaptan (AM), a competitive HDAC inhibitor that induced rapid and sustained histone hyperacetylation in human colon cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC activity by AM was associated with increased histone acetylation and Sp3 transcription factor binding to the promoter region of the P21WAF1 gene, resulting in elevated p21 protein expression and cell cycle arrest. Collectively, the results from these studies, and others reviewed herein, provide new insights into the relationships between reversible histone modifications, diet, and cancer chemoprevention. PMID:19197985

  6. The effects of dietary boron compounds in supplemented diet on hormonal activity and some biochemical parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Ismail; Akbel, Erten; Karabag, Funda; Ince, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of dietary boric acid or borax, as a boron (B) source, on hormonal status (leptin, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine) and some biochemical parameter levels as glucose, carnitine, nonesterified fatty acids, and betahydroxybutyric acid in rats. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds especially borax decreased leptin, insulin, and glucose levels, whereas increased T3 and carnitine levels in plasma. In addition, body weight of rats was found to be low in the boric acid group at the end of 4 weeks. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases body weight, leptin, and insulin, whereas increases T3 levels in plasma, so enhances the metabolic activity of rats. Between the B compounds used in this study, it was found that borax had a greater effect on hormonal status than boric acid. PMID:23293135

  7. The bioavailability of different zinc compounds used as human dietary supplements in rat prostate: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sapota, Andrzej; Daragó, Adam; Skrzypińska-Gawrysiak, Małgorzata; Nasiadek, Marzenna; Klimczak, Michał; Kilanowicz, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The normal human prostate accumulates the highest levels of zinc (Zn) of any soft tissue in the body. The pool of zinc available to the body is known to significantly decrease with age. It is suggested that dietary Zn supplementation protects against oxidative damage and reduces the risk of cancer. Zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate were the most frequently mentioned in per os administration in studies on Zn supplementation. The major aim of the study was to compare the bioavailability of different Zn compounds (sulfate, gluconate and citrate) in the prostate after their daily administration to male rats at three different doses (3.0; 15.0; and 50.0 mg Zn/kg b.w.) for 30 days. The results show that bioavailability in the prostate differs significantly between individual zinc preparations. A significantly elevated Zn concentration in the dorso-lateral lobe of the prostate, compared to controls, was found in the rats supplemented with two compounds only: zinc gluconate and zinc citrate. However, after administration of zinc gluconate, this effect occurred even at the lowest dose. The lowest zinc bioavailability in the prostate was found in the rats administered zinc sulfate: no significant Zn increase was seen in particular zones of the prostate. To sum up, the use of zinc gluconate is worth considering as a possible means of zinc supplementation in men. PMID:24619814

  8. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Amat-ur-Rasool, Hafsa; Ahmed, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh). The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals) and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD. PMID:26325402

  9. Dietary compound isoliquiritigenin prevents mammary carcinogenesis by inhibiting breast cancer stem cells through WIF1 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Xie, Xiaoming; Shen, Jiangang; Peng, Cheng; You, Jieshu; Peng, Fu; Tang, Hailin; Guan, Xinyuan; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the root of mammary tumorigenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that ISL efficiently limited the activities of breast CSCs. However, the cancer prevention activities of ISL and its precise molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report a novel function of ISL as a natural demethylation agent targeting WIF1 to prevent breast cancer. ISL administration suppressed in vivo breast cancer initiation and progression, accompanied by reduced CSC-like populations. A global gene expression profile assay further identified WIF1 as the main response gene of ISL treatment, accompanied by the simultaneous downregulation of β-catenin signaling and G0/G1 phase arrest in breast CSCs. In addition, WIF1 inhibition significantly relieved the CSC-limiting effects of ISL and methylation analysis further revealed that ISL enhanced WIF1 gene expression via promoting the demethylation of its promoter, which was closely correlated with the inhibition of DNMT1 methyltransferase. Molecular docking analysis finally revealed that ISL could stably dock into the catalytic domain of DNMT1. Taken together, our findings not only provide preclinical evidence to demonstrate the use of ISL as a dietary supplement to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis but also shed novel light on WIF1 as an epigenetic target for breast cancer prevention. PMID:25918249

  10. The influence of oscillating dietary protein concentrations on finishing cattle. I. Feedlot performance and odorous compound production.

    PubMed

    Archibeque, S L; Miller, D N; Freetly, H C; Berry, E D; Ferrell, C L

    2007-06-01

    We hypothesized that oscillation of the dietary CP concentration, which may improve N retention of finishing beef steers, would reduce production of manure odor compounds and total N inputs while yielding comparable performance. Charolais-sired steers (n = 144; 303 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were used in a completely randomized block design (6 pens/treatment). The steers were fed to 567 kg of BW on the following finishing diets, which were based on dry-rolled corn: 1) low (9.1% CP), 2) medium (11.8% CP), 3) high (14.9% CP), or 4) low and high oscillated on a 48-h interval for each feed (oscillating). Steers fed low tended (P = 0.08) to have less DMI (7.80 kg/d) than steers fed medium (8.60 kg/d) or oscillating (8.67 kg/d), but not less than steers fed high (8.12 kg/d). Daily N intake was greatest (P < 0.01) for steers fed high (189 g), intermediate for medium (160 g) and oscillating (164 g), and least for low (113 g). The ADG was lower (P < 0.01) for steers fed low (1.03 kg) than for those fed medium (1.45 kg), high (1.45 kg), or oscillating (1.43 kg). Similarly, steers fed low had a lower adjusted fat thickness (P < 0.01) and yield grade (P = 0.05) and tended (P = 0.10) to have less marbling than steers fed the other 3 diets. In slurries with feces, urine, soil, and water, incubated for 35 d, nonsoluble CP was similar among slurries from steers fed medium, high, or oscillating, but was less (P < 0.01) in slurries from steers fed low. However, throughout the incubation period, slurries from steers fed high or oscillating had greater (P < 0.01) concentrations of total aromatics and ammonia than those from steers fed low or medium. Also, the slurries from steers fed oscillating had greater (P < 0.01) concentrations of branched-chain VFA than manure slurries from steers fed any of the other diets. These data indicate that although there is no apparent alteration in the performance of finishing steers fed diets with oscillation of the dietary protein, there may be

  11. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  12. Behavioural effects of compounds co-consumed in dietary forms of caffeinated plants.

    PubMed

    Haskell, C F; Dodd, F L; Wightman, E L; Kennedy, D O

    2013-06-01

    Research into the cognitive and mood effects of caffeine in human subjects has highlighted some fairly robust and well-accepted effects. However, the majority of these studies have focused on caffeine in isolation; whilst caffeine is normally consumed in the form of plant-derived products and extracts that invariably contain other potentially bioactive phytochemicals. The aim of the present review is to consider the possible mechanisms of action of co-occurring phytochemicals, and any epidemiological evidence suggesting that they contribute to potential health benefits ascribed to caffeine. Intervention studies to date that have been conducted to explore the effects on brain function of the non-caffeine components in caffeine-bearing plants (coffee, tea, cocoa, guaraná), either alone or in combination with caffeine, will also be summarised. Research is beginning to accumulate showing independent effects for several of the phytochemicals that co-occur with caffeine, and/or a modulation of the effects of caffeine when it is co-consumed with these naturally concomitant phytochemicals. The present review highlights that more research aimed at understanding the effects of these compounds is needed and, more importantly, the synergistic relationship that they may have with caffeine. PMID:23561485

  13. Comparison of flavour qualities of three sourced Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; He, Yu; Wang, Yayue; Tao, Ningping; Wu, Xugan; Wang, Xichang; Qiu, Weiqiang; Ma, Mingjun

    2016-06-01

    Flavour qualities of three edible parts of three types of Chinese mitten crab from different areas were examined. The flavour profiles detected by E-tongue and E-nose showed that differences existed in tastes and odours among wild-caught crabs (WC), Yangcheng crabs (YC) and Chongming crabs (CM). The total free amino acids contents of WC were all at the highest level in meat, gonads and hepatopancreas. Ovaries had the highest nucleotides content and equivalent umami concentration (EUC) than other tissues in both female and male. The EUC was the highest in all parts of WC, followed by YC and CM. The total content of nine key volatile compounds was the highest for WC in the gonads and hepatopancreas; in the muscle, they were the highest in female YC and male CM, but the lowest for WC. PMID:26830556

  14. Use of market share data to select food products for an occurrence survey on flavourings in eight EU countries within the FACET project.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Catasta, Giovina; Ferrari, Marika; Hearty, Aine; Connolly, Aileen; Leclercq, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Dietary exposure assessment to flavourings presents a challenge due to the very large number of food products in which they may be present and the lack of knowledge of their actual presence. Industry claims to be adding more than 2800 different chemically defined flavourings in the European Union (EU). Within the Flavours, Additives and Food Contact Material Exposure Task (FACET) EU project, an occurrence survey was performed to explore the possible use of the information that can be collected from the labels to reduce the uncertainty in exposure assessment. An ad hoc procedure based on the use of market share data of food and drinks was developed for the selection of products to be collected. A database of information retrieved from the food labels of branded products from large and small companies was created. Such information may be used to populate some databases of the software developed within the FACET project to assess total dietary exposure to flavourings. PMID:23617633

  15. Dietary supplementation of usnic acid, an antimicrobial compound in lichens, does not affect rumen bacterial diversity or density in reindeer.

    PubMed

    Glad, Trine; Barboza, Perry; Mackie, Roderick I; Wright, André-Denis G; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Mathiesen, Svein D; Sundset, Monica A

    2014-06-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) may include large proportions of lichens in their winter diet. These dietary lichens are rich in phenolic secondary compounds, the most well-known being the antimicrobial usnic acid. Previous studies have shown that reindeer host rumen bacteria resistant to usnic acid and that usnic acid is quickly detoxified in their rumen. In the present study, reindeer (n = 3) were sampled before, during, and after usnic acid supplementation to determine the effect on their rumen microbial ecology. Ad libitum intake of usnic acid averaged up to 278 mg/kg body mass. Population densities of rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea determined by real-time PCR, ranged from 1.36 × 10(9) to 11.8 × 10(9) and 9.0 × 10(5) to 1.35 × 10(8) cells/g wet weight, respectively, and the two populations did not change significantly during usnic acid supplementation (repeated measures ANOVA) or vary significantly between the rumen liquid and particle fraction (paired t test). Rumen bacterial community structure determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis did not change in response to intake of usnic acid. Firmicutes (38.7 %) and Bacteriodetes (27.4 %) were prevalent among the 16S rRNA gene sequences (n = 62) from the DGGE gels, but representatives of the phyla Verrucomicrobia (14.5 %) and Proteobacteria (1.6 %) were also detected. Rapid detoxification of the usnic acid or resistance to usnic acid may explain why the diversity of the dominant bacterial populations and the bacterial density in the reindeer rumen does not change during usnic acid supplementation. PMID:24509720

  16. Influence of flavour absorption on oxygen permeation through LDPE, PP, PC and PET plastics food packaging.

    PubMed

    van Willige, R W G; Linssen, J P H; Meinders, M B J; van der Stege, H J; Voragen, A G J

    2002-03-01

    The effect of flavour absorption on the oxygen permeability of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied using an isostatic continuous flow system. Polymer samples were exposed to a model solution containing limonene, hexyl acetate, nonanone and decanal at 40 degrees C. After exposure, one part of each sample was analysed for absorbed flavour compounds using a Large Volume Injection GC Ultrasonic 'in vial' extraction method, and from the other part, oxygen permeability was measured in a permeation cell at 25 degrees C. After 8 h of exposure, LDPE and PP samples showed a significant linear (R2 = 0.82 and 0.99) increase in oxygen permeability of 21 and 130%, respectively. Owing to swelling of the polymer samples resulting from flavour absorption, the structure of the polymeric network changed (i.e. opened) and consequently increased oxygen permeability. The oxygen permeability of exposed PC showed a significant linear (R2 = 0.78) decrease of 11% after 21 days. PC obviously did not swell like LDPE or PP. Therefore, it was suggested that absorbed flavour compounds occupied or blocked 'microcavities' through which normally oxygen is transported. Absorption of flavour compounds by PET did not affect the oxygen permeability of PET significantly. PMID:11837243

  17. Emerging aspects of dietary glutamate metabolism in the developing gut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutamate is a major constituent of dietary protein and is also consumed in many prepared foods as a flavour additive in the form of monosodium glutamate (MSG). Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that glutamate is the major oxidative fuel for the gut and that dietary glutamate is exten...

  18. Green tea flavour determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Flavour determinants in tea infusions and their changes during manufacturing processes were studied using Camellia sinensis cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') possessing significant floral scents and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD') with common green tea odour. Metabolite profiling based on odour activity threshold revealed that 'BAS' contained higher levels of the active odorants β-ionone, linalool and its two oxides, geraniol, epoxylinalool, decanal and taste determinant catechins than 'FUD' (p<0.05). Enhanced transcription of some terpenoid and catechin biosynthetic genes in 'BAS' suggested genetically enhanced production of those flavour compounds. Due to manufacturing processes, the levels of linalool and geraniol decreased whereas those of β-ionone, linalool oxides, indole and cis-jasmone increased. Compared with pan-fire treatment, steam treatment reduced the levels of catechins and proportion of geraniol, linalool and its derivatives, consequently, reducing catechin-related astringency and monoterpenol-related floral scent. Our study suggests that flavour determinant targeted modulation could be made through genotype and manufacturing improvements. PMID:27374591

  19. Combining Flavour and CP Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio

    2013-07-01

    I shortly review the impact of the most recent neutrino oscillation data on our attempts to construct a realistic model for neutrino masses and mixing angles. Models based on anarchy and its variants remain an open possibility, reinforced by the latest experimental findings. Many models based on discrete symmetries no longer work in their simplest realizations. I illustrate several proposals that can rescue discrete symmetries. In particular I discuss the possibility of combining discrete flavour symmetries and CP, and I describe a recently proposed symmetry breaking pattern that allows to predict all mixing parameters, angles and phases, in terms of a single real unknown. I analyze several explicit examples of this construction, providing new realistic mixing patterns.

  20. Massive neutrinos and flavour violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, Antonio; Vempati, Sudhir K.; Vives, Oscar

    2004-12-01

    In spite of the large lepton flavour violation (LFV) observed in neutrino oscillations, within the Standard Model, we do not expect any visible LFV in the charged lepton sector (μ → e, γ, τ → μ, γ, etc). On the contrary, the presence of new physics close to the electroweak scale can enhance the amplitudes of these processes. We discuss this in general and focus on a particularly interesting case: the marriage of low-energy supersymmetry (SUSY) and seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses (SUSY seesaw). Several ideas presented in this context are reviewed both in the bottom-up and top-down approaches. We show that there exist attractive models where the rate for LFV processes can attain values to be probed in pre-LHC experiments.

  1. Production of a transparent lavender flavour nanocapsule aqueous solution and pyrolysis characteristics of flavour nanocapsule.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Feng, Nienie

    2015-07-01

    Flavour plays an important role and has been widely used in many products. Usually, the components of flavour are volatile and the sensory perception can be changed as a result of volatilization, heating, oxidation and chemical interactions. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the core materials. This work concentrated on production of a transparent lavender flavour nanocapsule aqueous solution. The results showed that a transparent lavender flavour microcapsule aqueous solution can be produced using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as wall material. The combination and interaction of flavour and wall materials were investigated by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters of the flavour nanocapsule were determined. During thermal degradation of blank HP-β-CD and flavour-HP-β-CD inclusion complex, three main stages can be distinguished. Due to the vaporization of lavender flavour encapsulated in HP-β-CD, the thermogravimetric (TG) curve of blank HP-β-CD shows a leveling-off from room temperature to 269 °C, while the TG curve of flavour-HP-β-CD inclusion complex is downward sloping in this temperature range. The kinetic parameters are helpful in understanding the mechanism of molecular recognition between hosts and guests. PMID:26139932

  2. From pure compounds to complex exposure: Effects of dietary cadmium and lignans on estrogen, epidermal growth factor receptor, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Hurmerinta, Teija; Nurmi, Tarja; Berglund, Marika; Rüegg, Joelle; Poutanen, Matti; Halldin, Krister; Mäkelä, Sari; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina

    2016-06-24

    Exposure to environmental endocrine active compounds correlates with altered susceptibility to disease in human populations. Chemical risk assessment is single compound based, although exposure often takes place as heterogeneous mixtures of man-made and natural substances within complex matrices like diet. Here we studied whether the effects of cadmium and enterolactone on endocrine endpoints in dietary exposure can be predicted based on pure compound effects. Ovariectomized estrogen reporter ERE-luciferase (ERE-luc) mice were maintained on diets that intrinsically contain increasing concentrations of cadmium and enterolactone precursors for three and 21 days. The activation of the ERE-luc, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2, and classical estrogen responses were measured. Interactions between the diets and endogenous hormone were evaluated by challenging the animals with 17β-estradiol. Compared to animals on basal purified diet, mice consuming experimental diets were exposed to significantly higher levels of cadmium and enterolactone, yet the exposure remained comparable to typical human dietary intake. Surprisingly, we could not detect effects on endpoints regulated by pure enterolactone, such as ERE-luc activation. However, cadmium accumulation in the liver was accompanied with activation of EGFR and MAPK-ERK1/2 in line with our earlier CdCl2 studies. Further, attenuation of 17β-estradiol-induced ERE-luc response in liver by experimental diets was observed. Our findings indicate that the exposure context can have substantial effects on the activity of endocrine active compounds in vivo. Thus, whenever possible, a context that mimics human exposure should be tested along with pure compounds. PMID:27108949

  3. Geosmin causes off-flavours in artic char raised in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “earthy” and “muddy” off-flavour taste in pond-reared fish is due to the presence of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the flesh of the fish. Planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are known sources of MIB and geosmin. When these compounds are absorbed into the flesh of the...

  4. WIMP abundance and lepton (flavour) asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Stuke, Maik; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2012-03-01

    We investigate how large lepton asymmetries affect the evolution of the early universe at times before big bang nucleosynthesis and in particular how they influence the relic density of WIMP dark matter. In comparison to the standard calculation of the relic WIMP abundance we find a decrease, depending on the lepton flavour asymmetry. We find an effect of up to 20 per cent for lepton flavour asymmetries l{sub f} = O(0.1)

  5. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  6. Relationships between volatile and non-volatile metabolites and attributes of processed potato flavour.

    PubMed

    Morris, Wayne L; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; McNicol, James W; Taylor, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    Although the flavour of processed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) is important to consumers, the blend of volatile and non-volatile metabolites that impact on flavour attributes is not well-defined. Additionally, it is important to understand how potato flavour changes during storage. In this study, quantitative descriptive analysis of potato samples by a trained taste panel was undertaken, comparing tubers from S. tuberosum group Phureja with those from S. tuberosum group Tuberosum, both at harvest and following storage. The cooked tuber volatile profile was analysed by solid phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis in sub-samples of the tubers that were assessed by taste panels. A range of non-volatile metabolites including the major umami compounds, glycoalkaloids and sugars was also measured in tuber sub-samples. Correlation and principal component analyses revealed differences between the potato cultivars and storage conditions and demonstrated associations of metabolites with the different sensory attributes. PMID:20678781

  7. Heavy Flavour results from Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Borissov, G.; /Lancaster U.

    2012-06-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments finalize the analysis of their full statistics collected in the p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper presents several new results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy b- and c-quarks obtained by both collaborations. These results include the search for the rare decays B{sup 0}, B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} (CDF), the study of CP asymmetry in B{sub s} {yields} J{psi}{phi} decay (CDF, D0), the measurement of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry (D0), the measurement of CP asymmetry in D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays (CDF), and the new measurement of the B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching fraction (CDF). Both experiments still expect to produce more results on the properties of heavy flavours.

  8. Two-Higgs-doublet models with Minimal Flavour Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2010-12-22

    The tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents in the two-Higgs-doublet models can be suppressed by protecting the breaking of either flavour or flavour-blind symmetries, but only the first choice, implemented by the application of the Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis, is stable under quantum corrections. Moreover, a two-Higgs-doublet model with Minimal Flavour Violation enriched with flavour-blind phases can explain the anomalies recently found in the {Delta}F = 2 transitions, namely the large CP-violating phase in B{sub s} mixing and the tension between {epsilon}{sub K} and S{sub {psi}KS}.

  9. A fluorescence-based demonstration of intestinal villi and epithelial cell in chickens fed dietary silicic acid powder including bamboo vinegar compound liquid.

    PubMed

    Ruttanavut, J; Matsumoto, Y; Yamauchi, K

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the combined effect of silicic acid and bamboo vinegar compound liquid (SPV) on the growth and intestinal histological alterations in poultry. Forty-eight 7-day-old male Sanuki Cochin chickens were fed a commercial mash diet supplemented with SPV at 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% level ad libitum for 112 days. Body weight gain tended to improve with increased concentrations of dietary SPV, although these results were not statistically significant (P<0.1). Tissue observation by light microscopy revealed that the jejunal villus height (P<0.01) and duodenal and jejunal villus area (P<0.05) increased in the 0.2 and 0.3% SPV groups, respectively, compared with the control. Cell mitosis within the duodenum and jejunum also increased in the 0.2 and 0.3% SPV groups. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a prominent increase in the number of protuberant cells on the villus apical surface of the duodenum and jejunum for the 0.2 and 0.3% SPV groups compared with the control. Poultry in the 0.3% SPV group had the highest body weight gain and hypertrophied histological alterations of intestinal villi. Fluorescent microscopic images of cell mitosis and protuberant cells in the duodenal crypt clearly confirmed positive reactions for the activator protein 2α (AP-2α) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), compared with the control. The present results indicate that dietary SPV stimulates adsorption by the epithelial cells, which activate cell proliferation and self-renewal and regulate the expression of cell cycle regulators AP-2α and PCNA, resulting in higher body weight gain. Thus, we can conclude that a concentration of 0.3% dietary SPV is ideal for promoting growth in poultry. PMID:22936452

  10. Flavour-dependent leptogenesis with reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan

    2007-11-20

    Upper bounds on the reheat temperature of the early universe, as they appear for example in classes of supergravity models, impose severe constraints on the thermal leptogenesis mechanism. To analyse these constraints, we extend the flavour-dependent treatment of leptogenesis to include reheating. We solve the flavour-dependent Boltzmann equations to obtain the leptogenesis efficiency as a function of the flavour dependent washout parameter m-tilde{sub 1,{alpha}} and of m{sub N{sub 1}}/T{sub RH}, the ratio of the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino over the reheat temperature, and calculate the minimal values of the reheat temperature compatible with thermal leptogenesis in type I and type II seesaw scenarios.

  11. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Carotenoid-Derived Flavours and Fragrances.

    PubMed

    Serra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are important isoprenoid compounds whose oxidative degradation produces a plethora of smaller derivatives, called apocarotenoids, which possess a range of different chemical structures and biological activities. Among these natural products, compounds having less than 15 carbon atoms in their frameworks are often relevant flavours or fragrances and their manufacturing represents an important economic resource for chemical companies. The strict correlation between stereochemical structure and odour has made the stereospecific synthesis of the latter biological active compounds increasingly important. In this review, the recent advances on the synthesis of the most relevant carotenoid-derived flavours and fragrances are discussed. In particular, the new synthetic methods that have given new and innovative perspectives from a scientific standpoint and the preparative approaches that might possess industrial importance are described thoroughly. PMID:26184154

  12. Phenolic compounds analysis in foods and dietary supplements is not the same using different sample preparation procedures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a positive correlation between diets rich in fruits and vegetables and a reduced incidence of chronic diseases. This beneficial effect is partially attributed to secondary phenolic phytochemicals. Phenolic compounds are the most complex group of phytochemical...

  13. Use of dietary rosemary diterpenes to inhibit rancid volatiles in lamb meat packed under protective atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, J; Serrano, R; Bañón, S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effect of dietary rosemary diterpenes on the formation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) responsible for rancid flavour in raw lamb meat. The lamb diet was supplemented during the fattening stage with two levels (200 and 400 mg/kg feed) of a dietary rosemary extract (DRE) containing carnosic acid and carnosol (1 : 1, w/w). The formation of VOCs (determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 40°C and MS) and odour deterioration (assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis) were monitored in meat fillets (longissimus dorsi-lumborum muscle) packed in a 70/30 O2/CO2 protective atmosphere and kept at 2°C for up to 14 days. The raw meat odour deteriorated under pro-oxidizing conditions due to the development of an incipient rancidity caused by the formation of volatiles from lipid oxidation. A total of 46 volatile compounds were determined in lamb headspace: 18 aldehydes, seven alcohols, seven organic acids, six ketones, four furan compounds, two benzene compounds, one ester and one terpenoid. The use of DRE contributed to inhibit VOC formation and rancidity. Heptanal, octanal, nonanal and 2-pentyl-furan were the only VOCs affected (P0.75; P<0.001), although similar values were obtained for the coefficients of a large number of carbonyl, alcohols and furan compounds, among other volatiles, which can be considered molecular markers of rancidity in raw lamb meat. Principal component analysis confirmed that the differences in the VOC profile make it possible to identify whether or not samples have been reinforced with dietary rosemary diterpenes. Thus, VOC profiling can be regarded as a useful tool for assessing the dietary treatments used in sheep to improve the oxidative stability of lamb meat. PMID:26940773

  14. Lepton Flavour Violation and electron EDM in SUSY with a non-abelian flavour symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Calibbi, Lorenzo

    2008-11-23

    We present the lepton sector phenomenology of a supersymmetric flavour model based on a SU(3) horizontal symmetry. This model successfully reproduces the observed fermion masses and mixings, without introducing unacceptably large SUSY sources of flavour and CP violation. We show that the model, which is at present weakly constrained, predicts the electron EDM and {mu}{yields}e,y to be within the final sensitivity of the currently running experiments, at least for SUSY masses within the reach of the LHC.

  15. Acute elevation by short-term dietary restriction or food deprivation of type I I-compound levels in rat liver DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G D; Hernandez, N S; Randerath, E; Randerath, K

    1999-01-01

    Type I I-compounds are bulky endogenous DNA modifications detectable by 32P postlabeling that exhibit age, species, tissue, genotype, gender, and diet dependence. Their formation appears unrelated to oxidative stress. In fact, several lines of indirect evidence suggest that many type I I-compounds may represent normal functional DNA modifications. For example, long-term dietary restriction (DR), which retards the development of age-related diseases including cancer and extends median and maximum life spans, unexpectedly elicits significant increases rather than decreases in the levels of many I-compounds in different rodent tissues. Positive linear correlations have been observed between such levels and median life spans of the animals. In the present work we have investigated 1) whether elevation of I-compound levels does not depend on chronic DR, i.e., occurs after a short period of DR or fasting, and 2) whether I-compound levels return to control values after the animals are returned to unrestricted feeding after food deprivation. Female Fischer 344 rats (approx 140 g each) were randomized into three groups. Group I was fed a natural ingredient (Purina 5001) diet ad libitum (AL) throughout the study, Group 2 was switched to 60% of the AL amount (40% DR) at 0 hour, and Group 3 was given no food for up to 72 hours and then returned to AL feeding until the end of the experiment. Liver DNA of individual rats (n = 4) was isolated for I-compound analysis at 24, 72, and 240 hours. Restricted and food-deprived rats showed elevated levels of hepatic I-compounds, with fasting eliciting the highest levels. These effects were seen as early as the 24-hour time point. Refeeding after 72 hours of food deprivation restored the levels to control values, measured at 240 hours. Our observations are discussed in relation to carcinogenesis and tumor promotion. The almost instantaneous changes of endogenous DNA modifications showed their exquisite sensitivity to nutritional factors

  16. Chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination of steroidal compounds from Dioscorea villosa, Dioscorea species and dietary supplements using UHPLC-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-02-01

    Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with evaporative light scattering detection was used for the quantification of steroidal saponins and diosgenin from the rhizomes or tubers of various Dioscorea species and dietary supplements that were purported to contain Dioscorea. The analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC™ system with an UPLC™ BEH Shield RP18 column using a gradient elution with water and acetonitrile. Owing to their low UV absorption, the steroidal saponins were observed by evaporative light scattering detection. The 12 compounds could be separated within 15 min using the developed UHPLC method with detection limits of 5-12 µg/mL with 2 μL injection volume. The analytical method was validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, limits of detection and limits of quantification. The relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day experiments were <3.1%, and the recovery efficiency was 97-101%. The total content of standard compounds was found to be in the ranges 0.01-14.5% and 0.9-28.6 mg daily intake for dry plant materials and solid commercial preparations, respectively. UHPLC-mass spectrometry with a quadrupole mass analyzer and ESI source was used only for confirmation of the identity of the various saponins. The developed method is simple, rapid and especially suitable for quality control analysis of commercial products. PMID:24019066

  17. Chemical Fingerprint Analysis and Quantitative Determination of Steroidal Compounds from Dioscorea villosa, Dioscorea Species, and Dietary Supplements using UHPLC-ELSD

    PubMed Central

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with evaporative light scattering (ELS) detection was used for the quantification of steroidal saponins and diosgenin from the rhizomes or tubers of various Dioscorea species and dietary supplements that were purported to contain Dioscorea. The analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC™ system with an UPLC™ BEH Shield RP18 column using a gradient elution with water and acetonitrile. Due to their low UV absorption, the steroidal saponins were observed by evaporative light scattering detection. The twelve compounds could be separated within 15 minutes using the developed UHPLC method with detection limits of 5–12 μg/mL with 2μL injection volume. The analytical method was validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). The Relative Standard Deviations (RSD) for intra- and inter-day experiments were less than 3.1 %, and the recovery efficiency was 97–101 %. The total content of standard compounds was found to be in the range from 0.01–14.5% and 0.9–28.6 mg daily intake for dry plant materials and solid commercial preparations, respectively. UHPLC-mass spectrometry with a quadrupole mass analyzer and ESI source was used only for confirmation of the identity of the various saponins. The developed method is simple, rapid and especially suitable for quality control analysis of commercial products. PMID:24019066

  18. Effects of UV-B Radiation Levels on Concentrations of Phytosterols, Ergothioneine, and Polyphenolic Compounds in Mushroom Powders Used As Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Byrdwell, William Craig; Lobato, Amada; Romig, Bill

    2014-03-27

    Compositional changes of powder dietary supplements made from mushrooms exposed to different levels of UV-B irradiation were evaluated for the bioactive naturally occurring mushroom antioxidant, ergothioneine; other natural polyphenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, lignans, etc.; and selected phytosterols. Four types of mushroom powder consisting of white, brown (Agaricus bisporus), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), and shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushrooms from three different treatment groups (control, low and high UV-B exposures) were evaluated. Ergothioneine concentrations found in mushroom powders were 0.4-10.4 mg/g dry weight (dw) and were not appreciably affected by UV-B radiation. No individual polyphenols were detected above 0.1 μg/g. Phytosterols ergosterol (2.4-6.2 mg/g dw) and campesterol (14-43 μg/g dw) were measured in mushroom powder samples. Ergosterol concentrations decreased significantly with the increased level of UV-B treatment for all mushroom powder types, except for white. These results provide some new information on effects of UV-B radiation on these important natural bioactive compounds in mushrooms. PMID:24628700

  19. Targeting mitochondrial alterations to prevent type 2 diabetes--evidence from studies of dietary redox-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhiyong; Schmelz, Eva M; Liu, Dongmin; Hulver, Matthew W

    2014-08-01

    As a growing epidemic, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has significantly affected the individual's quality of life and economy of the society. Understanding the mechanisms of the disease and discovery of new therapeutic options has become more urgent than ever before. Mitochondrial alterations (e.g. functional alterations, and impaired biogenesis and dynamics) are strongly associated with the development of T2DM. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species or intermediates of incomplete fatty acid oxidation due to mitochondrial deficiency activates stress kinases and dampens insulin signaling. Redox-active compounds such as resveratrol, pyrroloquinoline quinone, and hydroxytyrosol can potently counteract reactive oxygen species, and improve mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Therefore, targeting the mitochondrial alterations with these redox-active compounds may lead to new therapeutic or preventive options for T2DM. In this article, we review the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial alterations in T2DM, and the action of redox-active compounds to reverse mitochondrial changes and oxidative stress in T2DM. In addition, the current challenges and future directions are discussed and prospected. PMID:24668725

  20. Monitoring the influence of high-gravity brewing and fermentation temperature on flavour formation by analysis of gene expression levels in brewing yeast.

    PubMed

    Saerens, S M G; Verbelen, P J; Vanbeneden, N; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-10-01

    During fermentation, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces a broad range of aroma-active substances, which are vital for the complex flavour of beer. In order to obtain insight into the influence of high-gravity brewing and fermentation temperature on flavour formation, we analysed flavour production and the expression level of ten genes (ADH1, BAP2, BAT1, BAT2, ILV5, ATF1, ATF2, IAH1, EHT1 and EEB1) during fermentation of a lager and an ale yeast. Higher initial wort gravity increased acetate ester production, while the influence of higher fermentation temperature on aroma compound production was rather limited. In addition, there is a good correlation between flavour production and the expression level of specific genes involved in the biosynthesis of aroma compounds. We conclude that yeasts with desired amounts of esters and higher alcohols, in accordance with specific consumer preferences, may be identified based on the expression level of flavour biosynthesis genes. Moreover, these results demonstrate that the initial wort density can determine the final concentration of important volatile aroma compounds, thereby allowing beneficial adaptation of the flavour of beer. PMID:18751696

  1. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of 10 selected dietary/environmental compounds with the in vitro micronucleus cytokinesis-block assay in an interlaboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Katic, Jelena; Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Laubenthal, Julian; Bassano, Irene; Stølevik, Solvor B; Granum, Berit; Namork, Ellen; Nygaard, Unni C; Løvik, Martinus; van Leeuwen, Danitsja; Vande Loock, Kim; Anderson, Diana; Fucić, Aleksandra; Decordier, Ilse

    2010-10-01

    Complex exposure to xenobiotics is one of the reasons for the reported increase of respiratory diseases, cancer and immunological disturbances. Among such xenobiotics there are food mutagens whose effects on human health in the low level and/or chronic exposure still remains unknown. In the present manuscript, the compounds ethanol (EtOH), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), malondialdehyde (MDA), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazol[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and acrylamide (AA) were evaluated in an interlaboratory comparison in the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with objective of assessing the induction of micronuclei, buds and nucleoplasmic bridges in dose responses. Statistically significant increase in MNBN frequency in binucleated cells was recorded by both laboratories for the compound PhIP (2.5μM). The compounds PCB (250 microM) and AA (500 microM) induced statistically significant increase of MNBN although it was recorded by one of the two laboratories. Induction of buds and nucleoplasmic bridges was only observed for BaP (100 microM) and AA (500 microM) by one of the laboratories. Data generated in this study may assist in the interpretation of the mother/newborn biomonitoring study being carried out within project NewGeneris and will contribute to overall knowledge on the genotoxic potential of dietary/environmental toxicants. PMID:20600534

  2. Neutrino observables from predictive flavour patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebola, Luís M.; Emmanuel-Costa, David; Felipe, Ricardo González

    2016-03-01

    We look for predictive flavour patterns of the effective Majorana neutrino mass matrix that are compatible with current neutrino oscillation data. Our search is based on the assumption that the neutrino mass matrix contains equal elements and a minimal number of parameters, in the flavour basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal and real. Three unique patterns that can successfully explain neutrino observables at the 3\\upsigma confidence level with just three physical parameters are presented. Neutrino textures described by four and five parameters are also studied. The predictions for the lightest neutrino mass, the effective mass parameter in neutrinoless double beta decays and for the CP-violating phases in the leptonic mixing are given.

  3. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  4. Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Paulini, M.; CDF and D0 Collaborations

    1997-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{bar B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given. 38 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Paulini, M.; CDF and D0 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{anti B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given.

  6. Biotechnology of flavours--the next generation.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ralf G

    2009-11-01

    Volatile organic chemicals (flavours, aromas) are the sensory principles of many consumer products and govern their acceptance and market success. Flavours from microorganisms compete with the traditional agricultural sources. Screening for overproducers, elucidation of metabolic pathways and precursors and application of conventional bioengineering has resulted in a set of more than 100 commercial aroma chemicals derived via biotechnology. Various routes may lead to volatile metabolites: De novo synthesis from elementary biochemical units, degradation of larger substrates such as lipids, and functionalization of immediate flavour precursor molecules. More recently, the field was stimulated by the increasing preference of alienated consumers for products bearing the label "natural", and by the vivid discussion on healthy and "functional" food ingredients. The unmistakable call for sustainable sources and environmentally friendly production is forcing the industry to move towards a greener chemistry. Progress is expected from the toolbox of genetic engineering which is expected to help in identifying metabolic bottlenecks and in creating novel high-yielding strains. Bioengineering, in a complementary way, provides promising technical options, such as improved substrate dosage, gas-phase or two-phase reactions and in situ product recovery. PMID:19609491

  7. Calcium phosphate: an alternative calcium compound for dietary prevention of colon cancer? A study on intestinal and faecal parameters in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cats, A; Mulder, N H; de Vries, E G; Oremus, E T; Kreumer, W M; Kleibeuker, J H

    1993-09-01

    In an effort to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer development, oral calcium carbonate supplementation has been used in previous studies for the precipitation of cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. In human intervention trials its effect on mucosal hyperproliferation in the colorectum has not always been satisfactory. Because the complexation of calcium and bile acids requires the formation of calcium phosphate, we performed an intervention study in 14 healthy volunteers, giving them 1,500 mg calcium as Ca3(PO4)2 for 1 week. The effects of tricalcium phosphate on luminal and faecal parameters of cytolytic activity were evaluated before, during, and after calcium phosphate supplementation. The cytolytic activity of faecal water and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity in faecal water were not affected by supplemental calcium phosphate. In duodenal bile, the proportion of cholic acid tended to increase, whereas that of chenodeoxycholic acid tended to decrease during calcium phosphate supplementation. Neither concentrations of total and individual faecal bile acids, nor that of faecal fat were affected during calcium phosphate supplementation. It is suggested that, although phosphate is involved in bile acid precipitation, phosphate competes for calcium in the binding of fatty acids. This might possibly explain the unchanged cytolytic potency of faecal water, and therefore does not make tricalcium phosphate a suitable calcium compound for dietary intervention. PMID:8401176

  8. Carcinogenic Chromium(VI) Compounds Formed by Intracellular Oxidation of Chromium(III) Dietary Supplements by Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lindsay E; Levina, Aviva; Harris, Hugh H; Cai, Zhonghou; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; James, David E; Lay, Peter A

    2016-01-26

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely consumed for their purported antidiabetic activities. X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) studies have now shown that non-toxic doses of [Cr3 O(OCOEt)6 (OH2 )3 ](+) (A), a prospective antidiabetic drug that undergoes similar H2 O2 induced oxidation reactions in the blood as other Cr supplements, was also oxidized to carcinogenic Cr(VI) and Cr(V) in living cells. Single adipocytes treated with A had approximately 1 μm large Cr hotspots containing Cr(III) , Cr(V) , and Cr(VI) (primarily Cr(VI) thiolates) species. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the antidiabetic activity of Cr(III) and the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) compounds arise from similar mechanisms involving highly reactive Cr(VI) and Cr(V) intermediates, and highlight concerns over the safety of Cr(III) nutritional supplements. PMID:26696553

  9. Dietary Compound Kaempferol Inhibits Airway Thickening Induced by Allergic Reaction in a Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Daekeun; Park, Sin-Hye; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Habibah, Nurina Umy; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by aberrant airways including epithelial thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy within the airway wall. The current study examined whether kaempferol inhibited mast cell degranulation and prostaglandin (PG) release leading to the development of aberrant airways, using an in vitro model of dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and an in vivo model of BSA-challenged asthmatic mice. Nontoxic kaempferol at 10–20 μM suppressed β-hexosaminidase release and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in sensitized mast cells. Oral administration of ≤20 mg/kg kaempferol blocked bovine serum albumin (BSA) inhalation-induced epithelial cell excrescence and smooth muscle hypertrophy by attenuating the induction of COX2 and the formation of PGD2 and PGF2α, together with reducing the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in mouse airways. Kaempferol deterred the antigen-induced mast cell activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) responsive to protein kinase Cμ (PKCμ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the antigen-challenged activation of Syk-phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway was dampened in kaempferol-supplemented mast cells. These results demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited airway wall thickening through disturbing Syk-PLCγ signaling and PKCμ-ERK-cPLA2-COX2 signaling in antigen-exposed mast cells. Thus, kaempferol may be a potent anti-allergic compound targeting allergic asthma typical of airway hyperplasia and hypertrophy. PMID:26694364

  10. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories. PMID:27542428

  11. Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhon Peter; Zhao, Jing; Green, Roger; Sun, Zhuoyu; Roebothan, Barbara; Squires, Josh; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Zhao, Jinhui; Cotterchio, Michelle; Campbell, Peter T; Jain, Meera; Parfrey, Patrick S; Mclaughlin, John R

    2014-03-28

    Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk. PMID:24160559

  12. Flavour perception of oxidation in beef.

    PubMed

    Campo, M M; Nute, G R; Hughes, S I; Enser, M; Wood, J D; Richardson, R I

    2006-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is a major factor in meat quality. In order to relate human perceptions of lipid oxidation, as determined by a trained taste panel, to a chemical measurement of oxidation, we studied meat from animals with a wide range of potential oxidation through differences in their PUFA composition and by displaying the meat in high oxygen modified atmosphere packs for varying lengths of time. Meat was obtained from 73 Angus- and Charolais-cross steers from different trials that had been raised on 10 different diets: grass silage (high in C18:3, n-3), cereal concentrate (high in C18:2, n-6), three diets with 3% added fat consisting of three levels of protected lipid supplement (high in C18:2, n-6 and C18:3, n-3, ratio 1:1), a control with Megalac(®) (relatively saturated), three diets with three levels of inclusion of protected fish oil (high in C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3) plus a constant amount of unprotected fish oil and a final diet with an unprotected fish oil control. The longissimus dorsi muscle was excised from the left carcass side, aged vacuum packaged for 10-13 days depending on the projects and frozen for less than eight months. TBARS and sensory analyses were performed on steaks displayed for 0, 4 or 9 days under simulated retail conditions, exposed to light in modified atmosphere packaging (CO(2):O(2); 25:75). Meat oxidation increased throughout display for each of the diets, as shown by a rise in TBARS values. This increase was not linear, differences between 0 and 4 days of display were smaller than between 4 and 9 days of display. The lowest TBARS and lowest increment occurred in the two control diets and the grass-fed animals, probably due to the more saturated fat of meat from animals fed the control diets and the higher content of vitamin E. Sensory attributes were also influenced by time of display. Positive attributes, such as beef flavour or overall liking, decreased throughout display, whereas negative attributes, such as abnormal and

  13. New Physics Search in Flavour Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hurth, Tobias; /CERN /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    With the running B, kaon and neutrino physics experiments, flavour physics takes centre stage within today's particle physics. We discuss the opportunities offered by these experiments in our search for new physics beyond the SM and discuss their complementarity to collider physics. We focus on rare B and kaon decays, highlighting specific observables in an exemplary mode. We also comment on the so-called B {yields} {pi}{pi} and B {yields} K{pi} puzzles. Moreover, we briefly discuss the restrictive role of long-distance strong interactions and some new tools such as QCD factorization and SCET to handle them.

  14. Tau Flavour Violation at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Carquin, E.

    2009-04-17

    We study the relevance of neutrino oscillation data for sparticle decays that violate the {tau} lepton number at the LHC, in the context of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) and in SU(5) extensions of the theory. We study the conditions required for {chi}{sub 2}{yields}{chi}+{tau}{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}} decays to yield observable tau flavour violation, for cosmologically interesting values of the neutralino relic density. We present detailed studies of the relevant supersymmetric parameter space and pay particular emphasis to signals from tau hadronisation, that are analysed using PYTHIA event simulation.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Dietary Cancer Chemopreventive Compound Dibenzoylmethane in the Rats and Impacts of Nanoemulsion and Genetic knockout of Nrf2 on its Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Hong, Jin-Liern; Shen, Guoxiang; Wu, Rachel T.; Wu, Yuwen; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Newmark, Harold L.; Huang, Qingrong; Khor, Tin Oo; Heimbach, Tycho; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic disposition of a dietary cancer chemopreventive compound dibenzoylmethane (DBM) was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats after intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administrations. Following a single i.v. bolus dose, the mean plasma clearance (CL) of DBM was low as compared to the hepatic blood flow. DBM displayed a high volume of distribution (Vss). The elimination terminal t1/2 was long. The mean CL, Vss and AUC0-∞/dose were similar between the i.v. 10 and 10 mg/kg doses. After single oral doses (10, 50, and 250 mg/kg), the absolute oral bioavailability (F*) of DBM was 7.4 to 13.6%. The increase in AUC was not proportional to the oral doses, suggesting non-linearity. In silico prediction of oral absorption also demonstrated low DBM absorption in vivo. An oil-in-water nanoemulsion containing DBM was formulated to potentially overcome low F* due to poor water solubility of DBM, with enhanced oral absorption. Finally, to examine the role of Nrf2 on the pharmacokinetics of DBM since DBM activates the Nrf2-dependent detoxification pathways, the Nrf2 wild-type (+/+) mice and Nrf2 knockout (−/−) mice were utilized. There was an increased systemic plasma exposure of DBM in Nrf2 (−/−) mice, suggesting that Nrf2 genotype could also play a role in the pharmacokinetic disposition of DBM. Taken together, our results show that DBM has low oral bioavailability which could be due in part to poor water-solubility and this could be overcome by nanotechnology-based drug delivery system and furthermore Nrf2 genotype could also play a role in the pharmacokinetics of DBM. PMID:21341276

  16. Linear flavour violation and anomalies in B physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripaios, Ben; Nardecchia, Marco; Renner, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    We propose renormalizable models of new physics that can explain various anomalies observed in decays of B-mesons to electron and muon pairs. The new physics states couple to linear combinations of Standard Model fermions, yielding a pattern of flavour violation that gives a consistent fit to the gamut of flavour data. Accidental symmetries prevent contributions to baryon- and lepton-number-violating processes, as well as enforcing a loop suppression of new physics contributions to flavour violating processes. Data require that the new flavour-breaking couplings are largely aligned with the Yukawa couplings of the SM and so we also explore patterns of flavour symmetry breaking giving rise to this structure.

  17. B decays and lepton flavour (universality) violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, A.

    2016-07-01

    LHCb found hints for physics beyond the standard model in Bto K^*μ^+μ^- , Bto K^*μ^+μ^-/Bto K^*e^+e^- and B_stoφμ^+μ^- . In addition, the BABAR results for Bto D^{(*)}τν and the CMS excess in htoτ^±μ^∓ also point towards lepton flavour (universality) violating new physics. While Bto D^{(*)}τν and htoτ^±μ^∓ can be naturally explained by an extended Higgs sector, the probably most promising explanation for the bto sμμ anomalies is a Z' boson. Furthermore, combining a 2HDM with a gauged L_μ-L_τ symmetry allows for explaining the bto sμ^+μ^- anomalies and htoτ^±μ^∓ simultaneously, with interesting correlations to τto3μ . In the light of these deviations from the SM we also discuss the possibilities of observing lepton flavour violating B decays ( e.g. Bto K^{(*)}τ^±μ^∓ and B_stoτ^±μ^∓ in Z^' models.

  18. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian' ;s relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  19. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  20. The Strong Interactions, Flavour Physics and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuberi, Saba

    In this thesis we use effective field theories of the strong interactions to improve our understanding of several quantities in the Standard Model of particle physics (SM). We also examine constraints on an extension of the SM scalar sector and study the implications for the Higgs mass. We first examine an approach to extracting the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |Vub| via the relationship between the B meson decays B → X uℓnul and B → Xsgamma, where Xi is any final state hadron containing a quark of flavour i. Model dependence is reduced in this approach since the non-perturbative shape function at leading order is universal and drops out; however the perturbative expansion at next-to-leading order is found to be poorly behaved. We carry out a renormalon analysis of the relationship between these spectra to examine higher order perturbative corrections and compare the fixed-order and log expansions. Our analysis can be used to estimate the perturbative uncertainty in the extraction of |Vub|, which we show to be relatively small. Next we take a step towards the broader goal of summing large phase space logarithms from a variety of jet algorithms using Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). We develop a consistent approach to implementing arbitrary phase space constraints in SCET and demonstrate the connection between cutoffs in SCET and phase space limits. By considering several jet algorithms at next-to-leading order, we gain some insight into factorization of final state jets. In particular, we point out the connection between the ultraviolet regulator and factorization. Finally we consider a scalar sector that contains a colour-octet electroweak-doublet scalar, in addition to the SM Higgs. This extension contains the only scalar representations that Yukawa-couple to quarks and are consistent with minimal flavour violation. We examine constraints from electroweak precision data, direct production from LEPII and the Tevatron, and from flavour

  1. CP violation versus flavour in supersymmetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, S.; Branco, G. C.; Khalil, S.

    2003-09-01

    We show that the quark flavour structure and CP violating phenomena are strongly correlated in supersymmetric theories. For a generic pattern of supersymmetry breaking the two broad categories of Yukawa couplings, democratic and hierarchical textures, have entirely different phenomenological implications. With hierarchical Yukawas, the rephasing invariant phase, arg(VusVcbVcb∗Vcs∗), in the CKM mixing matrix has to be of order unity, while the SUSY CP violating phases are severely constrained by electric dipole moments, giving rise to the so-called SUSY CP problem. With democratic Yukawas, all experimental CP results can be accommodated with small values for the CKM and SUSY CP violating phases (i.e., CP can be considered as an approximate symmetry at the high energy scale). We also show that within this scenario, an entirely real CKM matrix in supersymmetric models is still allowed by the present experimental results.

  2. Volatiles and water- and fat-soluble precursors of Saanen goat and cross Suffolk lamb flavour.

    PubMed

    Madruga, Marta; Dantas, Ingrid; Queiroz, Angela; Brasil, Luciana; Ishihara, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the concentrations of water- and fat-soluble precursors of meat flavour, with the aim of characterising the effect of species on the volatile profile of grilled goat and lamb meat. Compared to goat, lamb meat had higher levels of saturated fatty acids--SFA, monounsaturated fatty acids--MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids--PUFA and similar levels of sugars and free amino acids, except for lysine and glycine, which were higher in goat. Major differences were detected in lipid-derived volatiles; only pyrazine, thiazole, and some Strecker aldehydes were at different concentrations in these species. Volatile compounds derived from the oxidation of linoleic acid were at higher levels in meat from lamb due to the higher concentration of the latter, while compounds formed from α-linolenic acid were at higher levels in goat. It can be concluded that lamb meat has a stronger flavour profile compared to goat meat because it has the highest concentrations of lipid-derived volatile compounds, primarily straight saturated alkanals, pyrazines and thiazole. PMID:23434868

  3. Can we see tau-Flavour Violation at the LHC?

    SciTech Connect

    Carquin, E.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2010-02-10

    We study the conditions required for chi{sub 2}->chi+tau{sup +}-mu{sup +}- decays to yield observable tau flavour violation at the LHC, for cosmologically interesting values of the neutralino relic density.

  4. Effect of infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olive paste and spices on quality of naturally flavoured virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Caponio, Francesco; Durante, Viviana; Varva, Gabriella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Previtali, Maria Assunta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Squeo, Giacomo; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso; Baiano, Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Olive oil flavouring with aromatic plants and spices is a traditional practice in Mediterranean gastronomy. The aim of this work was to compare the influence of two different flavouring techniques (infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olives paste and spices) on chemical and sensory quality of flavoured olive oil. In particular, oxidative and hydrolytic degradation (by routine and non-conventional analyses), phenolic profiles (by HPLC), volatile compounds (by SPME-GC/MS), antioxidant activity, and sensory properties (by a trained panel and by consumers) of the oils were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the malaxation method was more effective in extracting the phenolic compounds, with a significantly lower level of hydrolysis of secoiridoids. As a consequence, antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the oils obtained by infusion, which were characterized by a higher extent of the oxidative degradation. The volatile compounds were not significantly influenced by changing the flavouring method, apart for sulfur compounds that were more abundant in the oils obtained by the combined malaxation method. From a sensory point of view, more intense bitter and pungent tastes were perceived when the infusion method was adopted. PMID:26920288

  5. Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, L; Simonsen, N; Mottus, K

    1995-01-01

    Dietary components express a wide range of activities that can affect carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring substances in foods have been shown in laboratory experiments to serve as dietary antimutagens, either as bioantimutagens or as desmutagens. Dietary desmutagens may function as chemical inactivaters, enzymatic inducers, scavengers, or antioxidants. Dietary components may also act later in the carcinogenic process as tumor growth suppressors. Examples of dietary factors acting in each of these stages of carcinogenesis are presented, and potential anticarcinogens such as the carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, metal-binding proteins, phytoestrogens, and conjugated linoleic acid are discussed. Individual foods typically contain multiple potential anticarcinogens. Many of these substances can influence carcinogenesis through more than one mechanism. Some substances exhibit both anticarcinogenic and carcinogenic activity in vitro, depending on conditions. Epidemiologic research indicates that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with lower cancer risk. Little research has focused on the effects of single substances or single foods in man. Realization of the potential of foodborne substances to reduce the human burden of cancer will only be achieved with better measurement of dietary exposures and funding of multidisciplinary research in this area commensurate with its importance. PMID:8741780

  6. The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part I: Flavourings and additives.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard R; Pereira da Silva, José R; Smith, Graham

    2004-01-01

    over the one-year period of this study. The ingredients were added to the experimental cigarettes at or above the maximum levels used commercially by British American Tobacco. The effect of the ingredient mixtures on total particulate matter and carbon monoxide levels in smoke was not significantly different to the control in most cases, and was never more than 10% with any ingredient mixture. It was found that, in most cases, the mixtures of flavouring ingredients (generally added in parts per million levels) had no statistically significant effect on the analyte smoke yields relative to the control cigarette. Occasionally with some of the mixtures, both increases and decreases were observed for some smoke analyte levels relative to the control cigarette. These differences were generally up to about 15% with the mixtures containing flavouring ingredients. The significance of many of the differences was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical methodology was taken into account. For the test cigarettes with ingredient mixtures containing casing ingredients, there were again no significant changes in smoke analyte levels in most cases. Those changes that were observed are as follows. Decreases in smoke levels were observed with some ingredient mixtures for most of the tobacco specific nitrosamines (up to 24%), NO(x), most of the phenols (up to 34%), benzo[a]pyrene, and some of the aromatic amines and miscellaneous organic compounds on the "Hoffmann list". Increases were observed for some test cigarettes in smoke ammonia, HCN, formaldehyde and lead levels (up to 24%). The significance of the ammonia and lead increases was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical methodology was taken into account. The yields of some carbonyl compounds in smoke were increased in one comparison with an additives mixture containing cellulosic components; in particular, formaldehyde was increased by 68%. This was the largest single change seen in any

  7. Effects of UV-B radiation levels on concentrations of phytosterol, ergothioneine, and polyphenolic compounds in mushroom powder used as dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional changes of powder dietary supplement made from mushrooms previously exposed to different levels of UV-B irradiation were evaluated for the bioactive naturally occurring mushroom anti-oxidant, ergothioneine, other natural polyphenolic anti-oxidants: e.g. flavonoids, lignans, and others,...

  8. Understanding Darjeeling tea flavour on a molecular basis.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Bornali; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bhorali, Priyadarshini; Agarwal, Niraj; Bhuyan, L P; Rahman, A; Sakata, K; Mizutani, M; Shimizu, B; Gurusubramaniam, G; Ravindranath, R; Kalita, M C; Hazarika, M; Das, Sudripta

    2012-04-01

    Darjeeling teas are the highest grown teas in the world and preferred for its flavour, aroma and quality. Apart from the genetic makeup of the plant, earlier reports suggest that insect infestation, particularly jassids and thrips triggers the aroma and flavour formation in Darjeeling tea. The present work encompasses the identification of the genes/transcriptomes responsible for the typical flavour of Darjeeling tea, besides understanding the role of jassids and thrips in particular, in producing the best cup character and quality. The quantitative real time PCR analysis was based on a suppression subtractive hybridisation forward library of B157 (tea clone infested with thrips), providing us transcripts related to aroma and flavour formation. We observed the expression of genes like leucine zipper, ntd, nced, geraniol synthase, raffinose synthase, trehalose synthase, amylase, farnesyl transferase, catalase, methyl transferase, linalool synthase, peroxidases, elicitor responsive proteins, linamarase, nerolidol linalool synthase 2, 12-oxophytodienoate reductase, glucosidase, MYB transcription factor, and alcohol dehydrogenase, highly regulated due to insect infestation, manufacturing stresses and mechanical injury. The first report on gene expression dynamics in thrips infested Darjeeling tea leaves can be extrapolated with increase in volatiles which is responsible for enhancing the quality of Darjeeling tea, specially the flavour and aroma of the infusion. We hope to model these responses in order to understand the molecular changes that occur during Darjeeling tea flavour formation. PMID:22328090

  9. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. PMID:26830592

  10. Implication of Higgs mediated Flavour Changing Neutral Currents with Minimal Flavour Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, M. N.

    2015-07-01

    We analise phenomenological implications of two Higgs doublet models with Higgs flavour changing neutral currents suppressed in the quark sector by small entries of the Cabibbo- Kokayashi-Maskawa matrix. This suppression occurs in a natural way since it is the result of a symmetry applied to the Lagrangian. These type of models were proposed some time ago by Branco Grimus and Lavoura. Our results clearly show that these class of models allow for new physical scalars, with masses which are reachable at the LHC. The imposed symmetry severely reduces the number of free parameters and allows for predictions. Therefore these models can eventually be proved right or eliminated experimentally.

  11. Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Salas, Pablo F.; Pastor, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, Neff. We find a value of Neff = 3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), predicted in many theoretical models where neutrinos acquire mass. For two sets of NSI parameters allowed by present data, we find that Neff can be reduced down to 3.040 or enhanced up to 3.059.

  12. Flavour dependent gauged radiative neutrino mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwon; Okada, Hiroshi; Yagyu, Kei

    2015-04-01

    We propose a one-loop induced radiative neutrino mass model with anomaly free flavour dependent gauge symmetry: μ minus τ symmetry U(1) μ- τ . A neutrino mass matrix satisfying current experimental data can be obtained by introducing a weak isospin singlet scalar boson that breaks U(1) μ- τ symmetry, an inert doublet scalar field, and three right-handed neutrinos in addition to the fields in the standard model. We find that a characteristic structure appears in the neutrino mass matrix: two-zero texture form which predicts three non-zero neutrino masses and three non-zero CP-phases from five well measured experimental inputs of two squared mass differences and three mixing angles. Furthermore, it is clarified that only the inverted mass hierarchy is allowed in our model. In a favored parameter set from the neutrino sector, the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment between the experimental data and the the standard model prediction can be explained by the additional neutral gauge boson loop contribution with mass of order 100 MeV and new gauge coupling of order 10-3.

  13. Flavour physics in the soft wall model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Paul R.; Huber, Stephan J.; Jäger, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    We extend the description of flavour that exists in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model to the soft wall (SW) model in which the IR brane is removed and the Higgs is free to propagate in the bulk. It is demonstrated that, like the RS model, one can generate the hierarchy of fermion masses by localising the fermions at different locations throughout the space. However, there are two significant differences. Firstly the possible fermion masses scale down, from the electroweak scale, less steeply than in the RS model and secondly there now exists a minimum fermion mass for fermions sitting towards the UV brane. With a quadratic Higgs VEV, this minimum mass is about fifteen orders of magnitude lower than the electroweak scale. We derive the gauge propagator and despite the KK masses scaling as m_n^2 ˜ n , it is demonstrated that the coefficients of four fermion operators are not divergent at tree level. FCNC's amongst kaons and leptons are considered and compared to calculations in the RS model, with a brane localised Higgs and equivalent levels of tuning. It is found that since the gauge fermion couplings are slightly more universal and the SM fermions typically sit slightly further towards the UV brane, the contributions to observables such as ɛ K and Δ m K , from the exchange of KK gauge fields, are significantly reduced.

  14. Health effects of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Otles, Semih; Ozgoz, Selin

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fibres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fibres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous beneficial effects on human health. Dietary fibre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fibers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fibers and their important implications on human health will be investigated. PMID:24876314

  15. Dietary manipulation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bachmair, E M; Ostertag, L M; Zhang, X; de Roos, B

    2014-11-01

    Activated platelets contribute to plaque formation within blood vessels in the early and late stages of atherogenesis, and therefore they have been proposed as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin, are now the most prescribed pharmacological treatment in Europe. Certain dietary bioactives also beneficially affect platelet function, and with less side effects, albeit that effects are generally more subtle. Therefore, consumption of dietary bioactives could play a role in the prevention of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Here we review the efficacy of dietary treatment strategies, especially those involving certain dietary fatty acids and polyphenols, to modulate platelet function in healthy subjects or in patients with cardiovascular disease. Variation in study populations, small study sizes and lack of comparability between methods to assess platelet function currently limit robust evidence on the efficacy of dietary bioactives in healthy subjects or specific patient groups. Also, limited knowledge of the metabolism of dietary bioactives, and therefore of the bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, restricts our ability to identify the most effective dietary regimes to improve platelet function. Implementation of uniform point-of-care tests to assess platelet function, and enhanced knowledge of the efficacy by which specific dietary compounds and their metabolites affect platelet function, may enable the identification of functional anti-platelet ingredients that are eligible for a health claim, or combined treatment strategies, including both pharmacological anti-platelet treatment as well as dietary intervention, to tackle atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:24858060

  16. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  17. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  18. True Neutrality as a New Type of Flavour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-06-01

    A classification of leptonic currents with respect to C-operation requires the separation of elementary particles into the two classes of vector C-even and axial-vector C-odd character. Their nature has been created so that to each type of lepton corresponds a kind of neutrino. Such pairs are united in families of a different C-parity. Unlike the neutrino of a vector type, any C-noninvariant Dirac neutrino must have his Majorana neutrino. They constitute the purely neutrino families. We discuss the nature of a corresponding mechanism responsible for the availability in all types of axial-vector particles of a kind of flavour which distinguishes each of them from others by a true charge characterized by a quantum number conserved at the interactions between the C-odd fermion and the field of emission of the corresponding types of gauge bosons. This regularity expresses the unidenticality of truly neutral neutrino and antineutrino, confirming that an internal symmetry of a C-noninvariant particle is described by an axial-vector space. Thereby, a true flavour together with the earlier known lepton flavour predicts the existence of leptonic strings and their birth in single and double beta decays as a unity of flavour and gauge symmetry laws. Such a unified principle explains the availability of a flavour symmetrical mode of neutrino oscillations.

  19. Chiral order and fluctuations in multi-flavour QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descotes-Genon, S.; Girlanda, L.; Stern, J.

    2003-03-01

    Multi-flavour (N_f ge 3) chiral perturbation theory (χPT) may exhibit instabilities due to vacuum fluctuations of sea bar q q pairs. Keeping the fluctuations small would require a very precise fine tuning of the low-energy constants L_4(μ) and L_6(μ) to L_4^{crit}(M_ρ) = - 0.51 \\cdot 10^{-3}, L_6^{crit}(M_ρ) = - 0.26 \\cdot 10^{-3}. A small deviation from these critical values - like the one suggested by the phenomenology of OZI-rule violation in the scalar channel - is amplified by huge numerical factors inducing large effects of vacuum fluctuations. This would lead in particular to a strong Nf dependence of chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) and a suppression of the multi-flavour chiral order parameters. A simple resummation is shown to cure the instability of N_fge 3 χPT, but it modifies the standard expressions of some O( p 2 ) and O( p 4 ) low-energy parameters in terms of observables. On the other hand, for r= m s / m & gt; 15, the two-flavour condensate is not suppressed, due to the contribution induced by massive vacuum bar ss pairs. Thanks to the latter, the standard two-flavour χPT is protected from multi-flavour instabilities and could provide a well-defined expansion scheme in powers of non-strange quark masses.

  20. Earthy off-flavour in wine: evaluation of remedial treatments for geosmin contamination.

    PubMed

    Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Gambuti, Angelita; Genovese, Alessandro; Piombino, Paola; Moio, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Seven treatments (activated charcoal, bentonite, PVPP, yeast cell walls, potassium caseinate, zeolite and grape seed oil) were evaluated for their efficacy in decreasing the concentration of geosmin, responsible for earthy off-flavour in wine. In the red wine the potassium caseinate and grape seed oil treatments decreased the concentration of geosmin by 14% and 83%, respectively, while in the white wine, the activated charcoal and the grape seed oil were able to decrease the concentration of geosmin by 23% and 81%, respectively. The effective treatments in decreasing geosmin also decreased aroma volatile compounds, most of all esters, responsible for fruity notes. Considering the OAVs (concentration/odour threshold) only the treatment with grape seed oil was able to decrease the relative contribution of geosmin to the profile of the odour active compounds, both in red and in white wine. Sensory analysis confirmed the efficacy of the grape seed oil as a remedial treatment. PMID:24518330

  1. Impact of sterile neutrinos in lepton flavour violating processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Romeri, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    We discuss charged lepton flavour violating processes occurring in minimal extensions of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions. We firstly investigate the possibility of their indirect detection at a future high-luminosity Z-factory (such as FCC-ee). Rare decays such as Z → l 1 ± l 2 ± can indeed be complementary to low-energy (high-intensity) observables of lepton flavour violation. We further consider a sterile neutrino-induced charged lepton flavour violating process occurring in the presence of muonic atoms: their (Coulomb enhanced) decay into a pair of electrons μ¯e¯ → e¯e¯. Our study reveals that, depending on their mass range and on the active-sterile mixing angles, sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the above mentioned observables, some of them even lying within present and future sensitivity of dedicated cLFV experiments and of FCC-ee.

  2. Signatures of top flavour-changing dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, Jorgen; Mariotti, Alberto; Mawatari, Kentarou; Moortgat, Seth; Tziveloglou, Pantelis; Van Onsem, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    We develop the phenomenology of scenarios in which a dark matter candidate interacts with a top quark through flavour-changing couplings, employing a simplified dark matter model with an s-channel vector-like mediator. We study in detail the top-charm flavour-changing interaction, by investigating the single top plus large missing energy signature at the LHC as well as constraints from the relic density and direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. We present strategies to distinguish between the top-charm and top-up flavour-changing models by taking advantage of the lepton charge asymmetry as well as by using charm-tagging techniques on an extra jet. We also show the complementarity between the LHC and canonical dark matter experiments in exploring the viable parameter space of the models.

  3. Local Hamiltonian Monte Carlo study of the massive schwinger model, the decoupling of heavy flavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranft, J.

    1983-12-01

    The massive Schwinger model with two flavours is studied using the local hamiltonian lattice Monte Carlo method. Chiral symmetry breaking is studied using the fermion condensate as order parameter. For a small ratio of the two fermion masses, degeneracy of the two flavours is found. For a large ratio of the masses, the heavy flavour decouples and the light fermion behaves like in the one flavour Schwinger model. On leave from Sektion Physik, Karl-Marx-Universität, Leipzig, GDR.

  4. Levels of cystathionine gamma lyase production by Geotrichum candidum in synthetic media and correlation with the presence of sulphur flavours in cheese.

    PubMed

    Gente, Stéphanie; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Guéguen, Micheline

    2007-03-10

    Geotrichum candidum is a cheese-ripening agent with the potential to produce sulphur flavour compounds in soft cheeses. We aimed to develop an alternative test for predicting the aromatic (sulphur flavours) potential of G. candidum strains in soft cheese. Twelve strains of G. candidum with different levels of demethiolase activity (determined by a chemical method) in YEL-met (yeast extract, lactate methionine) medium were studied. We investigated cgl (cystathionine gamma lyase) gene expression after culture in three media - YEL-met, casamino acid and curd media - and then carried out sensory analysis on a Camembert cheese matrix. We found no correlation between demethiolase activity in vitro and cgl gene expression. Sensory analysis (detection of sulphur flavours) identified different aromatic profiles linked to cgl expression, but not to demethiolase activity. The RT-PCR technique described here is potentially useful for predicting the tendency of a given strain of G. candidum to develop sulphur flavours in cheese matrix. This is the first demonstration that an in vitro molecular approach could be used as a predictive test for evaluating the potential of G. candidum strains to generate sulphur compounds in situ (Camembert cheese matrix). PMID:16973233

  5. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selected natural compounds contained in a dietary supplement on two human immortalized keratinocyte lines.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Elena; Serini, Simona; Mondella, Nadia; Trombino, Sonia; Celleno, Leonardo; Lanza, Paola; Cittadini, Achille; Calviello, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Several advantages may derive from the use of dietary supplements containing multiple natural antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory agents. At present, however, there is scarce information on the properties and potential of combined supplements. To fill the gap, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities exerted by a combination of seven natural components (coenzyme Q10, krill oil, lipoic acid, resveratrol, grape seed oil, α-tocopherol, and selenium) contained in a dietary supplement used for the prevention of skin disorders were investigated in vitro. Each component was administered, alone or in combination, to human keratinocytes, and the inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species production and lipid peroxidation as well as the ability to reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion and to modulate Nuclear Factor-κB pathway was evaluated. The combination exhibited high antioxidant activity and in specific conditions the combination's efficiency was higher than that of the most powerful components administered individually. Moreover, the combination showed remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. It reduced more efficiently than each component the secretion of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, a crucial cytokine for the development of chronic inflammation in skin, and inhibited Nuclear Factor-κB molecular pathway. Overall, our findings suggest that the combined formulation may have the potential to powerfully inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation at skin level. PMID:25197638

  6. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Selected Natural Compounds Contained in a Dietary Supplement on Two Human Immortalized Keratinocyte Lines

    PubMed Central

    Serini, Simona; Mondella, Nadia; Celleno, Leonardo; Lanza, Paola; Calviello, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Several advantages may derive from the use of dietary supplements containing multiple natural antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory agents. At present, however, there is scarce information on the properties and potential of combined supplements. To fill the gap, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities exerted by a combination of seven natural components (coenzyme Q10, krill oil, lipoic acid, resveratrol, grape seed oil, α-tocopherol, and selenium) contained in a dietary supplement used for the prevention of skin disorders were investigated in vitro. Each component was administered, alone or in combination, to human keratinocytes, and the inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species production and lipid peroxidation as well as the ability to reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion and to modulate Nuclear Factor-κB pathway was evaluated. The combination exhibited high antioxidant activity and in specific conditions the combination's efficiency was higher than that of the most powerful components administered individually. Moreover, the combination showed remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. It reduced more efficiently than each component the secretion of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, a crucial cytokine for the development of chronic inflammation in skin, and inhibited Nuclear Factor-κB molecular pathway. Overall, our findings suggest that the combined formulation may have the potential to powerfully inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation at skin level. PMID:25197638

  7. Crossmodal integration between visual linguistic information and flavour perception.

    PubMed

    Razumiejczyk, Eugenia; Macbeth, Guillermo; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Noguchi, Kimihiro

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have found processing interference in working memory when complex information that enters the cognitive system from different modalities has to be integrated to understand the environment and promote adjustment. Here, we report on a Stroop study that provides evidence concerned with the crossmodal processing of flavour perception and visual language. We found a facilitation effect in the congruency condition. Acceleration was observed for incomplete words and anagrams compared to complete words. A crossmodal completion account is presented for such findings. It is concluded that the crossmodal integration between flavour and visual language perception requires the active participation of top-down and bottom-up processing. PMID:25843936

  8. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  9. Dietary Phenolic Compounds Interfere with the Fate of Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Adipose Tissue but Do Not Directly Inhibit Primary Amine Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Carpéné, Christian; Hasnaoui, Mounia; Balogh, Balázs; Matyus, Peter; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Víctor; Mercader, Josep; Portillo, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to inhibit monoamine oxidases (MAO). Many substrates or inhibitors of neuronal MAO interact also with other amine oxidases (AO) in peripheral organs, such as semicarbazide-sensitive AO (SSAO), known as primary amine oxidase, absent in neurones, but abundant in adipocytes. We asked whether phenolic compounds (resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin, and caffeic acid) behave as MAO and SSAO inhibitors. AO activity was determined in human adipose tissue. Computational docking and glucose uptake assays were performed in 3D models of human AO proteins and in adipocytes, respectively. Phenolic compounds fully inhibited the fluorescent detection of H2O2 generated during MAO and SSAO activation by tyramine and benzylamine. They also quenched H2O2-induced fluorescence in absence of biological material and were unable to abolish the oxidation of radiolabelled tyramine and benzylamine. Thus, phenolic compounds hampered H2O2 detection but did not block AO activity. Only resveratrol and quercetin partially impaired MAO-dependent [14C]-tyramine oxidation and behaved as MAO inhibitors. Phenolic compounds counteracted the H2O2-dependent benzylamine-stimulated glucose transport. This indicates that various phenolic compounds block downstream effects of H2O2 produced by biogenic or exogenous amine oxidation without directly inhibiting AO. Phenolic compounds remain of interest regarding their capacity to limit oxidative stress rather than inhibiting AO. PMID:26881018

  10. Investigating the in-vitro and in-vivo flavour release from 21 fresh-cut apples.

    PubMed

    Ting, Valentina J L; Romano, Andrea; Soukoulis, Christos; Silcock, Patrick; Bremer, Phil J; Cappellin, Luca; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-12-01

    In-vitro and in-vivo flavour release from 21 different apple cultivars was studied using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) with a focus on the relationship between texture and volatile organic compound (VOC) emission. Generally, firm-juicy cultivars had a shorter time to first swallow (Tswal) and a higher number of swallows (Nswal), while softer-mealy cultivars had a longer Tswal and a lower Nswal. Firm-juicy cultivars containing high VOC concentrations had a short time to maximum intensity (Tmax) owing to a shorter Tswal and a higher Nswal as juice was released during mastication. Swallowing increased VOC flow through the nasal cavity. These results differ from previous flavour release studies with gel/gel-like model systems as juiciness/release of fluids is not a factor in such matrices. The current study, therefore, highlights the benefits of using in-vivo analysis to gain a better understanding of flavour release in real food products. PMID:27374566

  11. The role of flavon cross couplings in leptonic flavour mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoli, Silvia; Zhou, Ye-Ling

    2016-06-01

    In models with discrete flavour symmetries, flavons are critical to realise specific flavour structures. Leptonic flavour mixing originates from the misalignment of flavon vacuum expectation values which respect different residual symmetries in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors. Flavon cross couplings are usually forbidden, in order to protect these symmetries. Contrary to this approach, we show that cross couplings can play a key role and give raise to necessary corrections to flavour-mixing patterns, including a non-zero value for the reactor angle and CP violation. For definiteness, we present two models based on A 4. In the first model, all flavons are assumed to be real or pseudo-real, with 7 real degrees of freedom in the flavon sector in total. A sizable reactor angle associated with nearly maximal CP violation is achieved, and, as both originate from the same cross coupling, a sum rule results with a precise prediction for the value of the Dirac CP-violating phase. In the second model, the flavons are taken to be complex scalars, which can be connected with supersymmetric models and multi-Higgs models. The complexity properties of flavons provide new sources for generating the reactor angle. Models in this new approach introduce very few degrees of freedom beyond the Standard Model and can be more economical than those in the framework of extra dimension or supersymmetry.

  12. Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Høgaasen, H.; Richard, J.-M.; Sorba, P.

    2007-02-01

    The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty.

  13. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds. PMID:25806548

  14. Ascorbic Acid Offsets the Inhibitory Effect of Bioactive Dietary Polyphenolic Compounds on Transepithelial Iron Transport in Caco-2 Intestinal Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Young; Ham, Soo-Kyung; Bradke, Daniel; Ma, Qianyi; Han, Okhee

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and grape seed extract (GSE) at high concentration nearly blocked intestinal iron transport across the enterocyte. In this study, we aimed to determine whether small amounts of EGCG, GSE, and green tea extract (GT) are capable of inhibiting iron absorption, to examine if ascorbic acid counteracts the inhibitory action of polyphenols on iron absorption, and to explore the mechanisms of polyphenol-mediated apical iron uptake and basolateral iron release. An55Fe absorption study was conducted by adding various concentrations of EGCG, GSE, and GT using Caco-2 intestinal cells. Polyphenols were found to inhibit the transepithelial 55Fe transport in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of ascorbic acid offset the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on iron transport. Ascorbic acid modulated the transepithelial iron transport without changing the apical iron uptake and the expression of ferroportin-1 protein in the presence of EGCG. The polyphenol-mediated apical iron uptake was inhibited by membrane impermeable Fe2+ chelators (P < 0.001), but at a low temperature (4°C), the apical iron uptake was still higher than the control values at 37°C (P < 0.001). These results suggest that polyphenols enhance the apical iron uptake partially by reducing the conversion of ferric to ferrous ions and possibly by increasing the uptake of polyphenol-iron complexes via the energy-independent pathway. The present results indicate that the inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols on iron absorption can be offset by ascorbic acid. Further studies are needed to confirm the current findings in vivo. PMID:21430251

  15. Repetition counts: repeated exposure increases intake of a novel vegetable in UK pre-school children compared to flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Ahern, Sara M; Remy, Eloise; Nicklaus, Sophie; Blundell, Pam; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-06-01

    Children are not consuming sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables in their habitual diet. Methods derived from associative learning theories could be effective at promoting vegetable intake in pre-school children. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different learning strategies in promoting the intake of a novel vegetable. Children aged between 9 and 38 months were recruited from UK nurseries. The children (n 72) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (repeated exposure, flavour-flavour learning or flavour-nutrient learning). Each child was offered ten exposures to their respective version of a novel vegetable (artichoke). Pre- and post-intervention measures of artichoke purée and carrot purée (control vegetable) intake were taken. At pre-intervention, carrot intake was significantly higher than artichoke intake (P<0·05). Intake of both vegetables increased over time (P<0·001); however, when changes in intake were investigated, artichoke intake increased significantly more than carrot intake (P<0·001). Artichoke intake increased to the same extent in all three conditions, and this effect was persistent up to 5 weeks post-intervention. Five exposures were sufficient to increase intake compared to the first exposure (P<0·001). Repeated exposure to three variants of a novel vegetable was sufficient to increase intake of this vegetable, regardless of the addition of a familiar taste or energy. Repetition is therefore a critical factor for promoting novel vegetable intake in pre-school children. PMID:23110783

  16. Higgs and flavour as doors to new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    A natural solution to the hierarchy problem of the Fermi scale motivates signals of New Physics at current and near-future experiments. After a critical synthesis of this general motivation, we concentrate our attention on the interplay between LHC searches for new resonances, and precision measurements of both Higgs couplings and flavour violating observables. We do so for i) the Higgs sectors of the NMSSM and MSSM, as paradigmatic examples of theories providing extra scalars, and for ii) CKM-like flavour symmetries, with a focus on U(2)3. This article is mainly based on several papers by the author, but it also reviews other recent related results. Its goal is to provide a synthetic, yet comprehensive, orientation on these subjects, at the dawn of several (ATLAS and CMS, LHCb, NA62, etc.) forthcoming experimental results.

  17. Matter inflation with A{sub 4} flavour symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch

    2013-10-01

    We discuss model building in tribrid inflation, which is a framework for realising inflation in the matter sector of supersymmetric particle physics models. The inflaton is a D-flat combination of matter fields, and inflation ends by a phase transition in which some Higgs field obtains a vacuum expectation value. We first describe the general procedure for implementing tribrid inflation in realistic models of particle physics that can be applied to a wide variety of BSM particle physics models around the GUT scale. We then demonstrate how the procedure works for an explicit lepton flavour model based on an A{sub 4} family symmetry. The model is both predictive and phenomenologically viable, and illustrates how tribrid inflation connects cosmological and particle physics parameters. In particular, it predicts a relation between the neutrino Yukawa coupling and the running of the spectral index α{sub s}. We also show how topological defects from the flavour symmetry breaking can be avoided automatically.

  18. New physics searches with heavy flavour with the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupkova, Ina; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    Flavour changing neutral currents and precision measurements of CP violation are investigated by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN as probes to physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper presents recent update of flavour tagged time- dependent analysis of Bs → J/ψ phi, angular analysis of Bd → K*μ+μ- and a search for the rare decay B0s → μ+μ- with measurement of upper limit on its branching fraction. All analyses use 4.9 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and the results are in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  19. Lepton flavour violating top decays at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Sacha; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Perries, Stéphane; Sordini, Viola

    2015-09-01

    We consider lepton-flavour violating decays of the top quark, mediated by 4-fermion operators. We compile constraints on a complete set of SU(3) × U(1)-invariant operators, arising from their loop contributions to rare decays and from HERA's single-top search. The bounds on e-μ flavour change are more restrictive than on ℓ -τ ; nonetheless the top could decay to a jet {+} e bar{μ } with a branching ratio of order 10^{-3}. We estimate that the currently available LHC data (20 fb^{-1} at 8 TeV) could be sensitive to BR(t → e bar{μ }+ jet) {˜ } 6× 10^{-5}, and we extrapolate that 100 fb^{-1} at 13 TeV could reach a sensitivity of {˜ } 1 × 10^{-5}.

  20. Lepton Flavour Violation in Tau Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, F.F.; /Rutherford

    2011-11-07

    Recent results from {tau} physics studies at BABAR are presented with an emphasis on Lepton Flavour Violation measurements. The results from the current generation of B-meson Factories are already beginning to constrain the parameter space of models that go beyond the Standard Model. By the end of their data-taking, the current generation of B-meson factories will have produced nearly 2 billion {tau} pair decays. The physics potential of this legacy has only just begun to be exploited.

  1. A Grand Δ(96)×SU(5) Flavour Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Stuart, Alexander J.

    2013-02-01

    Recent results from the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments have measured the smallest lepton mixing angle and found it to have a value of θ13≈9°. This result presents a new challenge for the existing paradigms of discrete flavour symmetries which attempt to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. Here we propose a Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory of Flavour based on Δ(96)×SU(5), together with a U(1)×Z3 symmetry, including a full discussion of Δ(96) in a convenient basis. The Grand Δ(96)×SU(5) Flavour Model relates the quark mixing angles and masses in the form of the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation and realises the Georgi-Jarlskog mass relations between the charged leptons and down-type quarks. We predict a Bi-trimaximal (not Tri-bimaximal) form of neutrino mixing matrix, which, after including charged lepton corrections with zero phase, leads to the following GUT scale predictions for the atmospheric, solar, and reactor mixing angles: θ23≈36.9°, θ12≈32.7° and θ13≈9.6°, in good agreement with recent global fits, and a zero Dirac CP phase δ≈0.

  2. A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  3. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  4. Stability of encapsulated beef-like flavourings prepared from enzymatically hydrolysed mushroom proteins with other precursors under conventional and microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Shereen N; Fadel, Hoda H M; El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Shaheen, Mohamed S

    2015-11-15

    A comparative study was carried out between two beef-like flavourings prepared by conventional and microwave heating (CBF and MBF) of enzymatic hydrolysate of mushroom protein with other flavour precursors. GC-MS analysis of the isolated volatiles revealed that the thiol containing compounds were the predominate in both samples. However, MBF comprised higher concentration of these compounds (13.84 ± 0.06%) than CBF (10.74 ± 0.06%). The effect of microencapsulation with gum Arabic by using spray drying on the odour profile and volatile compounds of the two encapsulated samples (E-CBF and E-MBF) was investigated. The results revealed significant qualitative and quantitative variations in the volatiles of both samples. The highly volatile compounds decreased remarkably in concentration with encapsulation, while the pyrazines, thiazoles and disulphides showed opposite trend. The significant decrease in the thiol containing compounds in E-CBF and E-MBF were attributed to their oxidation to other compounds such as disulphide compounds which showed significant increase in the encapsulated samples. PMID:25976991

  5. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 quark flavours : chiral symmetry and topology.

    SciTech Connect

    Lagae, J.-F.

    1998-06-09

    We have studied the restoration of chiral symmetry in lattice QCD at the finite temperature transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. By measuring the screening masses of flavour singlet and non-singlet meson excitations, we have seen evidence that, although flavour chiral symmetry is restored at this transition, flavour singlet (U(1)) axial symmetry is not. We conclude that this indicates that instantons continue to play an important role in the quark-gluon plasma phase.

  6. Chemical studies on curuba (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) fruit flavour.

    PubMed

    Conde-Martínez, Natalia; Sinuco, Diana Cristina; Osorio, Coralia

    2014-08-15

    The odour-active volatiles of curuba fruit (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) were isolated by solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GC-MS analyses identified linalool, hexyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, and butyl acetate as key aroma compounds of this fruit. Other odorants relevant because of their contribution to the overall aroma were: 2-methylpropyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Sulphur compounds, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate and methional, were reported here for first time as odour-active volatiles in curuba. By HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of glycosidic mixtures and GC-MS analyses of volatiles released enzymatically with a glucosidase, (Z)-3-hexenyl β-D-glucopyranoside and linalyl β-D-glucopyranoside were identified as aroma precursors in P. mollissima fruit. Thermal treatment of the glycosidic mixture at native pH of fruit gave furanoid cis- and trans-linalool oxides, as well as, α-terpineol, compounds that exhibit flowery odour notes. Biogenic relationships among odour-active volatiles and their glycosidic precursors were also proposed. PMID:24679791

  7. Effect of the dietary supplementation of essential oils from rosemary and artemisia on muscle fatty acids and volatile compound profiles in Barbarine lambs.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Aouadi, Dorra; Brogna, Daniela M R; Scerra, Manuel; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; Ben Salem, Hichem

    2013-10-01

    Eighteen Barbarine lambs (3 months of age), were assigned for 95 days to 3 treatments: six lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate plus oat hay ad libitum (control group, C); other lambs received the control diet plus essential oil (400 ppm DM) either of Rosmarinus officinalis (R400 group; n=6) or of Artemisia herba alba (A400 group; n=6). At slaughter the muscle longissimus dorsi was sampled and subjected to fatty acid and volatile organic compounds (VOC) analyses. The A400 lambs presented a greater amount of vaccenic, rumenic and linolenic acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in meat than the C and R400 animals. Essential oils supplementation did not affect meat VOC profile though the sesquiterpenes copaene and β-caryophyllene were detected only in the meat of R400 and A400 lambs. It is concluded that the supplementation of rosemary or artemisia essential oils does not produce detrimental effects on lamb meat VOC profile. The supplementation of artemisia can improve meat healthy properties. PMID:23747617

  8. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  9. Collider Aspects of Flavour Physics at High Q

    SciTech Connect

    del Aguila, F.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Allanach, B.C.; Alwall, J.; Andreev, Yu.; Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Bartl, A.; Beccaria, M.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Bityukov, S.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Burdman, G.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, N.; Clerbaux, B.; de Campos, F.; de Gouvea, A.; Dennis, C.; Djouadi, A.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Louvain U., CP3 /Moscow, INR /Valencia U. /Vienna U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Karlsruhe U. /Sao Paulo U. /LIP, Coimbra /Brussels U. /Sao Paulo U., Guaratingueta /Northwestern U. /Oxford U. /Orsay, LPT /Athens U. /Lisbon U.

    2008-03-07

    This chapter of the report of the 'Flavour in the era of LHC' workshop discusses flavor related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at LHC, both from the experimental side and from the theoretical side. We review top quark physics and discuss flavor aspects of several extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs model or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects as well as measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present public available computational tools related to this topic.

  10. Test of the flavour independence of αs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Oest, T.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Morton, W. T.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thompson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Wanke, R.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Thulasidas, M.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Ganis, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Using about 950000 hadronic events collected during 1991 and 1992 with the ALEPH detector, the ratios r b = {α sb}/{α sudsc} and r uds = {α suds}/{α scb} have been measured in order to test the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant αs. The analysis is based on event-shape variables using the full hadronic sample, two b-quark samples enriched by lepton tagging and lifetime tagging, and a light-quark sample enriched by lifetime antitagging. The combined results are rb = 1.002±0.023 and ruds = 0.971 ± 0.023.

  11. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF. The structural and functional dynamics of microbiota during AAF process was determined by metagenomics and favour analyses. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, and Alternaria, respectively. Total 88 flavours including 2 sugars, 9 organic acids, 18 amino acids, and 59 volatile flavours were detected during AAF process. O2PLS-based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavours dynamics showed bacteria made more contribution to flavour formation than fungi. Seven genera including Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Enhydrobacter, Lactococcus, Gluconacetobacer, Bacillus and Staphylococcus were determined as functional core microbiota for production of flavours in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provides a perspective for bridging the gap between the phenotype and genotype of ecological system, and advances our understanding of MSSF mechanisms in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. PMID:27241188

  12. Can rats learn to associate a flavour with the delayed delivery of food?

    PubMed

    Simbayi, L C; Boakes, R A; Burton, M J

    1986-03-01

    Associations between a specific flavour and access to food were studied using a discrimination procedure devised by Holman (1975). This involved giving rats one flavour (e.g. cinnamon) of saccharin solution on some days, and following this by delivery of food, and a second flavour (e.g. wintergreen) on other days which was never followed by food. Experiment 1 used glucose delivered after a 30-min delay and a slight increase in preference for the paired flavour was detected. Using a 20-min delay Experiment 2 varied the kind of food used; some evidence for discrimination learning was again found in the glucose group, but there was no evidence that rats could associate a flavour with starch solution or solid chow over this delay. To check that the general procedure was a sensitive one, in Experiment 3 one flavour was added to glucose i.e. without delay, and this produced large shifts in a subsequent preference test. Overall the results threw doubt on claims that rats as readily form flavour-calorie associations over delays as they do flavour-toxicosis associations. PMID:3963797

  13. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF. The structural and functional dynamics of microbiota during AAF process was determined by metagenomics and favour analyses. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, and Alternaria, respectively. Total 88 flavours including 2 sugars, 9 organic acids, 18 amino acids, and 59 volatile flavours were detected during AAF process. O2PLS-based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavours dynamics showed bacteria made more contribution to flavour formation than fungi. Seven genera including Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Enhydrobacter, Lactococcus, Gluconacetobacer, Bacillus and Staphylococcus were determined as functional core microbiota for production of flavours in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provides a perspective for bridging the gap between the phenotype and genotype of ecological system, and advances our understanding of MSSF mechanisms in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. PMID:27241188

  14. Flavour-changing Higgs couplings in a class of two Higgs doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, F. J.; Branco, G. C.; Nebot, M.; Rebelo, M. N.

    2016-03-01

    We analyse various flavour-changing processes like trightarrow hu,hc, hrightarrow τ e,τ μ as well as hadronic decays hrightarrow bs,bd, in the framework of a class of two Higgs doublet models where there are flavour-changing neutral scalar currents at tree level. These models have the remarkable feature of having these flavour-violating couplings entirely determined by the CKM and PMNS matrices as well as tan β . The flavour structure of these scalar currents results from a symmetry of the Lagrangian and therefore it is natural and stable under the renormalisation group. We show that in some of the models the rates of the above flavour-changing processes can reach the discovery level at the LHC at 13 TeV even taking into account the stringent bounds on low energy processes, in particular μ rightarrow eγ.

  15. Light flavour hadron production in the ALICE experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalà, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Unique among the LHC experiments, ALICE has excellent particle identification capabilities for the measurement of light-flavour hadrons. A large number of hadron species from pions to multi-strange baryons and light nuclei have been measured over a large transverse momentum region. The measurement of the production of these particles is a valuable tool to study the properties of the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. In particular they give information on the collective phenomena of the fireball, on the parton energy loss in the hot QCD medium and on the hadronization mechanisms such as recombination and statistical hadronization. The measurements in pp and in p-nucleus collisions provide the necessary baseline for heavy-ion data and help to investigate the effects of the ordinary nuclear matter. In this paper some of the main ALICE results on identified light-flavour hadron production in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV will be presented.

  16. Lepton flavour violation in D and B decays at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrič, M.

    2011-09-01

    We search for the flavour-changing neutral current decays D→μμ and D→ee, and for the lepton-flavour violating decays D→eμ using 660 fb of data. We also search for lepton-number violating decays B→Dee, B→Dμμ and B→Dμe using 710 fb of data. All the data is collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy ee collider. We find no evidence for any of these decays. We obtain significantly improved upper limits on the branching fractions: B(D→μμ)<1.4×10, B(D→ee)<7.9×10, B(D→eμ)+B(D→μe)<2.6×10, B(B→Dee)<2.6×10, B(B→Deμ)<1.6×10 and B(B→Dμμ)<0.9×10 at 90% confidence level.

  17. Extended shelf life flavoured dairy drink using dissolved carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Menon Rekha; Rao, K Jayaraj; Nath, B Surendra; Ram, Chand

    2014-01-01

    Cardamom flavoured dairy beverage prepared using standardized method was carbonated in glass bottles. Carbonation at 50 psi pressure for 30 s was recommended. The pasteurized flavoured drink, carbonated or otherwise was evaluated for sensory, chemical and microbial quality during its refrigerated storage. The uncarbonated control samples were found to be sensorily acceptable up to 14 days, while the carbonated beverage remained acceptable up to 30 days. Carbonation of drink significantly affected the pH and acidity of product without reducing its acceptability. Carbonation resulted in inhibition of microbes, the effect was pronounced on psychrotrophic count. There was a linear but marginal increase in the pH of the carbonated samples till the 17(th) day of storage; the values diminished thereafter. The carbonated samples also had significantly reduced contents of FFA and soluble nitrogen compared to that of uncarbonated control samples as storage progressed beyond 10 days and this was attributed to inhibited microbial growth. PMID:24426058

  18. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing

    2015-10-15

    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum. PMID:26159472

  19. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  20. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  1. Role of anterior piriform cortex in the acquisition of conditioned flavour preference.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Cristina; Martin-Signes, Mar; Risco, Severiano

    2016-01-01

    Flavour aversion learning (FAL) and conditioned flavour preference (CFP) facilitate animal survival and play a major role in food selection, but the neurobiological mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Neuroanatomical bases of CFP were examined by using Fos immunohistochemistry to record neuronal activity. Rats were trained over eight alternating one-bottle sessions to acquire a CFP induced by pairing a flavour with saccharin (grape was CS+ in Group 1; cherry in Group 2; in Group 3, grape/cherry in half of animals; Group 4, grape/cherry in water). Animals were offered the grape flavour on the day immediately after the training and their brains were processed for c-Fos. Neurons evidencing Fos-like immunoreactivity were counted in the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens core, and anterior piriform cortex (aPC). Analysis showed a significantly larger number of activated cells after learning in the aPC alone, suggesting that the learning process might have produced a change in this cortical region. Ibotenic lesions in the aPC blocked flavour-taste preference but did not interrupt flavour-toxin FAL by LiCl. These data suggest that aPC cells may be involved in the formation of flavour preferences and that the integrity of this region may be specifically necessary for the acquisition of a CFP. PMID:27624896

  2. Anarchic Yukawas and top partial compositeness: the flavour of a successful marriage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying; Flacke, Thomas; Lee, Seung J.; Parolini, Alberto; Serôdio, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    The top quark can be naturally singled out from other fermions in the Standard Model due to its large mass, of the order of the electroweak scale. We follow this reasoning in models of pseudo Nambu Goldstone Boson composite Higgs, which may derive from an underlying confining dynamics. We consider a new class of flavour models, where the top quark obtains its mass via partial compositeness, while the lighter fermions acquire their masses by a deformation of the dynamics generated at a high flavour scale. One interesting feature of such scenario is that it can avoid all the flavour constraints without the need of flavour symmetries, since the flavour scale can be pushed high enough. We show that both flavour conserving and violating constraints can be satisfied with top partial compositeness without invoking any flavour symmetry for the up-type sector, in the case of the minimal SO(5)/SO(4) coset with top partners in the four-plet and singlet of SO(4). In the down-type sector, some degree of alignment is required if all down-type quarks are elementary. We show that taking the bottom quark partially composite provides a dynamical explanation for the hierarchy causing this alignment. We present explicit realisations of this mechanism which do not require to include additional bottom partner fields. Finally, these conclusions are generalised to scenarios with non-minimal cosets and top partners in larger representations.

  3. Early experience and reinforcer quality in delayed flavour-food learning in the rat.

    PubMed

    Boakes, R A; Rossi-Arnaud, C; Garcia-Hoz, V

    1987-12-01

    The ability of hungry rats to associate flavours with the consequences of ingesting glucose solutions was studied in three experiments. Experiment 1 used a procedure in which on some days one flavour, e.g. cinnamon, was presented and followed after 20 min by 20% glucose, while on other days a second flavour, e.g. wintergreen, was presented, but not followed by any event. During this training, subjects who received quinine-tainted glucose increased their consumption of the predictive flavour relative to groups given no quinine, but quinine tainting did not affect conditioned preference for the predictive flavour in choice tests. With the aim of discovering whether prior experience of a variety of foods improves ability to learn new flavour-calorie associations, Experiment 2 and used a similar procedure to compare subjects raised on a varied diet ("supermarket" rats) with controls previously given only chow. Contrary to expectation, the supermarket rats showed some impairment both on this delay task and, in Experiment 3, on one using a "mixtures" procedure. This involved presenting a mixture of one cue flavour with glucose-quinine on some days and a mixture of a second cue with an equally palatable saccharin solution on other days. Acquisition was particularly rapid in control subjects, reaching asymptote after only two flavour-glucose pairings. It was concluded that neither a decrease in palatability, as in Experiment 1, nor prior experience with a range of foods, as in Experiments 2 and 3, improve a rat's ability to associate a new flavour with calories. PMID:3435136

  4. An MCMC Study of General Squark Flavour Mixing in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Björn; De Causmaecker, Karen; Fuks, Benjamin; Mahmoudi, Farvah; O'Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner; Sekmen, Sezen; Strobbe, Nadja

    2015-10-05

    We present an extensive study of non-minimally flavour violating (NMFV) terms in the Lagrangian of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We impose a variety of theoretical and experimental constraints and perform a detailed scan of the parameter space by means of a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) setup. This represents the first study of several non-zero flavour-violating elements within the MSSM. We present the results of the MCMC scan with a special focus on the flavour-violating parameters. Based on these results, we define benchmark scenarios for future studies of NMFV effects at the LHC.

  5. Flavour symmetries in a renormalizable SO(10) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, P. M.; Grimus, W.; Jurčiukonis, D.; Lavoura, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the context of a renormalizable supersymmetric SO (10) Grand Unified Theory, we consider the fermion mass matrices generated by the Yukawa couplings to a 10 ⊕ 120 ⊕ 126 ‾ representation of scalars. We perform a complete investigation of the possibilities of imposing flavour symmetries in this scenario; the purpose is to reduce the number of Yukawa coupling constants in order to identify potentially predictive models. We have found that there are only 14 inequivalent cases of Yukawa coupling matrices, out of which 13 cases are generated by Zn symmetries, with suitable n, and one case is generated by a Z2 ×Z2 symmetry. A numerical analysis of the 14 cases reveals that only two of them-dubbed A and B in the present paper-allow good fits to the experimentally known fermion masses and mixings.

  6. A search for lepton flavour violation in Z 0 decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrawy, M. Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Armitage, J. C.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Ashton, P.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J. T. M.; Ball, A. H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Batley, J. R.; Beck, A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R. M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H. J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Cohen, I.; Collins, W. J.; Conboy, J. E.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Debu, P.; Deninno, M. M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M. S.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dumas, D. J. P.; Elcombe, P. A.; Estarbrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fischer, H. M.; Fong, D. G.; French, M. T.; Fukunaga, C.; Gaidot, A.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N. I.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Giacomelli, G.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gillies, J. D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Granite, D.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Hagedorn, H.; Hagemann, J.; Hansroul, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harrus, I.; Hart, J.; Hattersley, P. M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Heflin, E.; Hemingway, R. J.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Ho, C.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Holl, B.; Homer, R. J.; Hou, S. R.; Howarth, C. P.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Humbert, R.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ihssen, H.; Imrie, D. C.; Janissen, L.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jobes, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kleinwort, C.; Klem, D. E.; Knop, G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kokott, T. P.; Köpke, L.; Kowalewski, R.; Kreutzmann, H.; Kroll, J.; Kuwano, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lamarche, F.; Larson, W. J.; Layter, J. G.; Le Du, P.; Leblanc, P.; Lee, A. M.; Lehto, M. H.; Lellouch, D.; Lennert, P.; Lessard, L.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lorah, J. M.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Ma, J.; Macbeth, A. A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellino, S.; Maringer, G.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; Maur, U.; McMahon, T. J.; McNutt, J. R.; Meijers, F.; Menszner, D.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Mikenberg, G.; Mildenberger, J.; Miller, D. J.; Milstene, C.; Minowa, M.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Moss, M. W.; Murphy, P. G.; Murray, W. J.; Nellen, B.; Nguyen, H. H.; Nozaki, M.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, B. P.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogg, M.; Oh, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pansart, J. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Pawley, S. J.; Pfister, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Plane, D. E.; Poli, B.; Pouladdej, A.; Prebys, E.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Redmond, M. W.; Rees, D. L.; Regimbald, M.; Riles, K.; Roach, C. M.; Robins, S. A.; Rollnik, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossberg, S.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Sanghera, S.; Sansum, R. A.; Sasaki, M.; Saunders, B. J.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Schappert, W.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schreiber, S.; Schwarz, J.; Shapira, A.; Shen, B. C.; Sherwood, P.; Simon, A.; Singh, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Stier, H. E.; Stroehmer, R.; Strom, D.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Taras, P.; Thackray, N. J.; Tsukamoto, T.; Turner, M. F.; Tysarczyk-Niemeyer, G.; Van den plas, D.; VanDalen, G. J.; Van Kooten, R.; Vasseur, G.; Virtue, C. J.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Krogh, J.; Wagner, A.; Wahl, C.; Walker, J. P.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, M.; Weisz, S.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter, I.; Winterer, V.-H.; Wood, N. C.; Wotton, S.; Wuensch, B.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yaari, R.; Yang, Y.; Yekutieli, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zeuner, W.; Zorn, G. T.; OPAL Collaboration

    1991-01-01

    We have searched for lepton flavour violation in about 14000 Z 0 decays into collinear lepton pairs, recorded in an energy scan around the Z 0 resonance. Decays of the type Z0→ eτ, Z0→ μτ and Z0→ eμ have been considered. Observed candidates in the eτ and μτ modes are consistent with expected Z0→ τ+τ- backgrounds; no candidates are observed for the eμ mode. We obtain limits (at 95% confidence level) on the branching ratios for such Z 0 decays of 7.2×10 -5 for the eτ decay, 35×10 -5 for the μτ decay and 4.6×10 -5 for the eμ decay.

  7. Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.

    PubMed

    el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

    1998-12-01

    Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven. PMID:9881373

  8. Exotic Lepton Flavour Violating Processes in the Presence of Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoulias, D. K.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2013-02-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations indicates the existence of massive neutrinos in contrast to the massless neutrinos predicted by the Standard Model. One of the simplest extensions of the SM obtained by adding a heavy right-handed neutrino singlet, NR, per neutrino generation is the Seesaw mechanism. Within the context of this mechanism, flavour changing neutral current neutrino-nucleus reactions of the type are predicted to occur. In this contribution, motivated by the extensive studies (theoretical and experimental) of the LFV in ν- → e- conversion in nuclei, we investigate FCNC in neutrino-nucleus reactions. From a nuclear theory point of view, the Donnelly-Walecka model for cross sections calculations is employed. To this purpose, the single-particle transition matrix elements are evaluated from a Mathematica code developed in this work. Neutrino-nucleus reactions have important impact in Astrophysics and hence a detailed study of such exotic processes is of significant importance.

  9. Flavour physics and the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Valerie

    2012-02-28

    An exciting new era in flavour physics has just begun with the start of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHCb (where b stands for beauty) experiment, designed specifically to search for new phenomena in quantum loop processes and to provide a deeper understanding of matter-antimatter asymmetries at the most fundamental level, is producing many new and exciting results. It gives me great pleasure to describe a selected few of the results here-in particular, the search for rare B(0)(s)-->μ+ μ- decays and the measurement of the B(0)(s) charge-conjugation parity-violating phase, both of which offer high potential for the discovery of new physics at and beyond the LHC energy frontier in the very near future. PMID:22253243

  10. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of five flavour enhancers (glutamates) on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Türkoğlu, Şifa

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different treatments with flavour enhancers monosodium glutamate, monopotassium glutamate, calcium diglutamate, monoammonium glutamate, and magnesium diglutamate on the cytology, DNA content, and interphase nuclear volume (INV) of A. cepa were investigated. Three concentrations of these additives - 20, 40, and 60 ppm - were applied for 6, 12, and 24 h. All the concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all the treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities, among them are micronuclei, c-mitosis, anaphase bridges, stickiness, binucleus, laggards, and breaks. The nuclear DNA content and INV decreased when compared with control groups. PMID:23377115

  11. Flavour formation from hydrolysis of pork sarcoplasmic protein extract by a unique LAB culture isolated from Harbin dry sausage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Liu, Qian; Sun, Qinxiu; Kong, Baohua; Xiong, Youling

    2015-02-01

    The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from Harbin dry sausage were assessed for their protein hydrolysis and flavour development in pork muscle sarcoplasmic protein extracts. Gel electrophoresis indicated that sarcoplasmic proteins were degraded by all of the strains, especially by P. pentosaceus and L. curvatus. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides increased in all of the samples (P < 0.05), especially samples inoculated with P. pentosaceus. Samples inoculated with P. pentosaceus and L. curvatus had higher free amino acid contents than did the other two strains(P < 0.05), and glutamic acid and alanine appeared to be the predominant free amino acids. The volatile compound analysis indicated that the highest aldehydes, alcohols and acid contents were found in the sample with P. pentosaceus followed by L. curvatus. The results revealed that P. pentosaceus could be appropriate for use as a meat starter culture. PMID:25460113

  12. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  13. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  14. On the algebra of gauge invariants for one-flavour chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowski, J.; Rudolph, G.; Rudolph, M.

    1997-08-01

    The structure of the algebra of gauge invariant differential forms built from SU(3)-gauge potentials as well as (Grassmann algebra-valued) quark and antiquark fields is discussed. The relevance to one-flavour chromodynamics is outlined.

  15. The Higgs mass in the MSSM at two-loop order beyond minimal flavour violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Nickel, Kilian; Staub, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Soft supersymmetry-breaking terms provide a wealth of new potential sources of flavour violation, which are tightly constrained by precision experiments. This has posed a challenge to construct flavour models which both explain the structure of the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and also predict soft-breaking patterns that are compatible with these constraints. While such models have been studied in great detail, the impact of flavour violating soft terms on the Higgs mass at the two-loop level has been assumed to be small or negligible. In this letter, we show that large flavour violation in the up-squark sector can give a positive or negative mass shift to the SM-like Higgs of several GeV, without being in conflict with other observations. We investigate in which regions of the parameter space these effects can be expected.

  16. EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

  17. Flavour fields in steady state: stress tensor and free energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of a probe brane in a given gravitational background is governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. The corresponding open string metric arises naturally in studying the fluctuations on the probe. In Gauge-String duality, it is known that in the presence of a constant electric field on the worldvolume of the probe, the open string metric acquires an event horizon and therefore the fluctuation modes on the probe experience an effective temperature. In this article, we bring together various properties of such a system to a formal definition and a subsequent narration of the effective thermodynamics and the stress tensor of the corresponding flavour fields, also including a non-vanishing chemical potential. In doing so, we point out a potentially infinitely-degenerate scheme-dependence of regularizing the free energy, which nevertheless yields a universal contribution in certain cases. This universal piece appears as the coefficient of a log-divergence in free energy when a space-filling probe brane is embedded in AdS d+1-background, for d = 2, 4, and is related to conformal anomaly. For the special case of d = 2, the universal factor has a striking resemblance to the well-known heat current formula in (1 + 1)-dimensional conformal field theory in steady-state, which endows a plausible physical interpretation to it. Interestingly, we observe a vanishing conformal anomaly in d = 6.

  18. Generalised geometrical CP violation in a T ' lepton flavour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, Ivan; Meroni, Aurora; Petcov, S. T.; Spinrath, Martin

    2014-02-01

    We analyse the interplay of generalised CP transformations and the non-Abelian discrete group T ' and use the semi-direct product G f = T ' ⋊ H CP, as family symmetry acting in the lepton sector. The family symmetry is shown to be spontaneously broken in a geometrical manner. In the resulting flavour model, naturally small Majorana neutrino masses for the light active neutrinos are obtained through the type I see-saw mechanism. The known masses of the charged leptons, lepton mixing angles and the two neutrino mass squared differences are reproduced by the model with a good accuracy. The model allows for two neutrino mass spectra with normal ordering (NO) and one with inverted ordering (IO). For each of the three spectra the absolute scale of neutrino masses is predicted with relatively small uncertainty. The value of the Dirac CP violation (CPV) phase δ in the lepton mixing matrix is predicted to be δ = π/2 or 3 π/2. Thus, the CP violating effects in neutrino oscillations are predicted to be maximal (given the values of the neutrino mixing angles) and experimentally observable. We present also predictions for the sum of the neutrino masses, for the Majorana CPV phases and for the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay. The predictions of the model can be tested in a variety of ongoing and future planned neutrino experiments.

  19. Flavour changing Z ' signals in a 6D inspired model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frère, Jean-Marie; Libanov, Maxim; Mollet, Simon; Troitsky, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    We consider the phenomenology of new neutral gauge bosons with flavour non-diagonal couplings to fermions, inherent in 6D models explaining successfully the hierarchy of masses as well as the mixing for quarks, charged leptons and neutrinos (this model can in particular be credited with the correct prediction of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13). We present a general relation between masses of new gauge bosons and their couplings to fermions. We show that in the current realization of the model, the new heavy bosons are unreachable at LHC but argue why the constraint could be relaxed in the context of a different realization. In view of a more systematic study, we use an effective model inspired by the above to relate directly rare meson decays to possible LHC observations. In terms of effective Lagrangians, this can be seen as the introduction in the model of only one overall scaling parameter to extend our approach without modifying the 4D (gauge) structure.

  20. A taste of dark matter: Flavour constraints on pseudoscalar mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Kahlhoefer, Felix; McCabe, Christopher; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2015-03-31

    Dark matter interacting via the exchange of a light pseudoscalar can induce observable signals in indirect detection experiments and experience large self-interactions while evading the strong bounds from direct dark matter searches. The pseudoscalar mediator will however induce flavour-changing interactions in the Standard Model, providing a promising alternative way to test these models. We investigate in detail the constraints arising from rare meson decays and fixed target experiments for different coupling structures between the pseudoscalar and Standard Model fermions. The resulting bounds are highly complementary to the information inferred from the dark matter relic density and the constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the dark matter self-interaction cross section and the prospects of probing dark matter coupled to a light pseudoscalar with direct or indirect detection experiments. In particular, we find that a pseudoscalar mediator can only explain the Galactic Centre excess if its mass is above that of the B mesons, and that it is impossible to obtain a sufficiently large direct detection cross section to account for the DAMA modulation.

  1. A taste of dark matter: Flavour constraints on pseudoscalar mediators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Kahlhoefer, Felix; McCabe, Christopher; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2015-03-31

    Dark matter interacting via the exchange of a light pseudoscalar can induce observable signals in indirect detection experiments and experience large self-interactions while evading the strong bounds from direct dark matter searches. The pseudoscalar mediator will however induce flavour-changing interactions in the Standard Model, providing a promising alternative way to test these models. We investigate in detail the constraints arising from rare meson decays and fixed target experiments for different coupling structures between the pseudoscalar and Standard Model fermions. The resulting bounds are highly complementary to the information inferred from the dark matter relic density and the constraints from primordialmore » nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the dark matter self-interaction cross section and the prospects of probing dark matter coupled to a light pseudoscalar with direct or indirect detection experiments. In particular, we find that a pseudoscalar mediator can only explain the Galactic Centre excess if its mass is above that of the B mesons, and that it is impossible to obtain a sufficiently large direct detection cross section to account for the DAMA modulation.« less

  2. Impact of Flavour Variability on Electronic Cigarette Use Experience: An Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Romagna, Giorgio; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Spyrou, Alketa; Voudris, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    Background: A major characteristic of the electronic cigarette (EC) market is the availability of a large number of different flavours. This has been criticised by the public health authorities, some of whom believe that diverse flavours will attract young users and that ECs are a gateway to smoking. At the same time, several reports in the news media mention that the main purpose of flavour marketing is to attract youngsters. The importance of flavourings and their patterns of use by EC consumers have not been adequately evaluated, therefore, the purpose of this survey was to examine and understand the impact of flavourings in the EC experience of dedicated users. Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were asked to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Participants were divided according to their smoking status at the time of participation in two subgroups: former smokers and current smokers. Results: In total, 4,618 participants were included in the analysis, with 4,515 reporting current smoking status. The vast majority (91.1%) were former smokers, while current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. Both subgroups had a median smoking history of 22 years and had been using ECs for 12 months. On average they were using three different types of liquid flavours on a regular basis, with former smokers switching between flavours more frequently compared to current smokers; 69.2% of the former subgroup reported doing so on a daily basis or within the day. Fruit flavours were more popular at the time of participation, while tobacco flavours were more popular at initiation of EC use. On a scale from 1 (not at all important) to 5 (extremely important) participants answered that variability of flavours was “very important” (score = 4) in their effort to reduce or quit smoking. The majority reported that restricting variability will make ECs less enjoyable and more

  3. Construction of an N-nitroso database for assessing dietary intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary N-nitroso compounds are carcinogens synthesized during food processing from two main classes of precursors, oxides of nitrogen and amines or amides. Quantification of the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds is significant to human cancers, including those of the stomach and upper gastro-in...

  4. Use of flavoured cigarettes in Poland: data from the global adult tobacco survey (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays the European Union faces a debate on the ban of sale of flavoured cigarettes. There is growing evidence that certain subgroups of smokers are more vulnerable to the use of flavoured cigarettes. However in some European countries, figures on the use of these cigarettes are still scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of flavoured cigarettes use in Poland, and examine whether its use among adults varies by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data on tobacco use including flavoured cigarettes and other characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS provided data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals covering 2,254 current smokers. Logistic regression model was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the selected socio-economic variables on the use of flavoured cigarettes. Results Among females the aromatized cigarettes use was 26.1% compared to 10.5% in males (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.62–3.2; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aged 20–29 years had an increased likelihood of using flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects aged 60 years or older (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aware of negative health consequences of smoking had OR = 1.4 95% CI: 1.1–2.1 (p ≤ 0.05) of smoking aromatized cigarettes compared to those who were unaware. Participants who perceived some kinds of cigarettes less harmful than others were also more likely to use flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects who were convinced that all cigarettes are equally harmful (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.8; p ≤ 0.01). High educational attainment, living in large cities, being non-economically active was also associated with use of flavoured cigarettes. Conclusion Our results are consistent with majority of epidemiology studies on this topic to date and

  5. Children's liking and wanting of snack products: Influence of shape and flavour

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin G; Zandstra, Liesbeth H

    2009-01-01

    Background Children's food choices are guided by their preferences. However, these preferences may change due to repeated exposure. Methods This study investigated children's (n = 242, 7–12 yrs-old) liking and wanting for snacks over 3 weeks of daily consumption. The snacks differed in size (small vs large) or flavour (sweet vs sweet-sour). Two conditions were designed: 1) a monotonous group in which children continuously consumed the same snack across the 3 weeks, and 2) a free choice group in which children were allowed to freely choose amongst 3 different flavours of the snack each day during 3 weeks. Results Shape influenced long-term liking, i.e. small shaped snacks remained stable in liking over repeated consumption, whereas large shaped snacks with the same flavour decreased in liking. Mean wanting ratings for all snack products decreased over 3 weeks daily consumption. Flavour did not significantly influence liking and wanting over time. The ability to freely choose amongst different flavours tended to decrease children's liking (p < 0.1) and wanting (p < 0.001) for these products. Changes in liking rather than initial liking was the best predictor of snack choice during the intervention. Conclusion Wanting rather than liking was most affected by repeated daily consumption of snack foods over three weeks. In order to increase the likelihood that children will repeatedly eat a food product, smaller sized healthy snacks are preferred to larger sized snacks. Future research should focus on stabilizing wanting over repeated consumption. PMID:19573228

  6. The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavour ingredient. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Doull, J; Goodman, J I; Munro, I C; Newberne, P; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L; Wagner, B M; Weil, C S; Woods, L A; Ford, R A

    1997-08-01

    The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA) has assessed the safety of furfural for its continued use as a flavour ingredient. The safety assessment takes into account the current scientific information on exposure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Furfural was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) as a flavour ingredient under conditions of intended use based on: (1) its mode of metabolic detoxication in humans; (2) its low level of flavour use compared with higher intake levels as a naturally occurring component of food; (3) the safety factor calculated from results of subchronic and chronic studies, (4) the lack of reactivity with DNA; and (5) the conclusion that the only statistically significant finding in the 2-year NTP bioassays, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in the high-dose group of male mice, was secondary to pronounced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these data do not indicate any risk to human health under conditions of use as a flavour ingredient. This evidence of safety is supported by the occurrence of furfural as a natural component of traditional foods, at concentrations in the diet resulting in a 'natural intake' that is at least 100 times higher than the intake of furfural from use as a flavour ingredient. PMID:9350219

  7. Flavour and spin of the proton and the meson cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtmann, H.; Szczurek, A.; Speth, J.

    1996-02-01

    We present a complete set of formulas for longitudinal momentum distribution functions (splitting functions) of mesons in the nucleon. It can be applied in the framework of the convolution formalism to the deep-inelastic structure functions (quark distributions) of the nucleon viewed as a system composed of virtual "mesons" and "baryons". Pseudoscalar and vector mesons as well as octet and decuplet baryons are included. In contrast to many approaches in the literature the present approach ensures charge and momentum conservation by the construction. We present not only spin averaged splitting functions but also helicity-dependent ones, which can be used to study the spin content of the nucleon. The cut-off parameters of the underlying form factors for different vertices are determined from high-energy particle production data. We find a universal cut-off parameter for processes involving octet baryons. This information allows one to calculate the flavour and spin content of the nucleon. The value of the Gottfried Sum Rule obtained from our model ( SG = 0.224) nicely agrees with that obtained by the NMC. In addition, we calculate the x-dependence of the overlined - overlineu asymmetry and get an impressive agreement with a recent fit of Martin-Stirling-Roberts. The calculated axial coupling constants for semileptonic decays of the octet baryons agree with the experimental data already with the SU(6) wave function for the bare nucleon. As a consequence the Bjorken Sum Rule is nicely reproduced. Although we get improvements for the Ellis-Jaffe Sum Rules for the proton and neutron in comparison to the naive quark model, the MCM is not sufficient to reproduce the experimental data.

  8. Removal of off-flavours from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) anthocyanin-rich pigments using chitosan and its mechanism(s).

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruichang; Jing, Pu; Ruan, Siyu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhao, Shujuan; Cai, Zhan; Qian, Bingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we examined the role of chitosan in the removal of off-flavours from radish anthocyanin-rich pigments and studied the mechanisms of the process. Four radish glucosinolates (glucoraphenin, dehydroerucin, glucobrassicin, and glucoerucin) were identified by LC-MSn from root extracts and dehydroerucin was found to be the major glucosinolate in red radish roots. Application of chitosan with 76%, 83% or 89% deacetylation in radish extracts attributed to 26%, 35% or 43% adsorption rate for glucosinolates, and 28%, 26% or 22% for anthocyanins, respectively. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the concentration of volatile compounds decreased by 70%, resulting in the loss of odorous compounds. The changes in chitosan spectra before/after adsorption and after desorption at 1590 and 3360cm(-1) and at broad bands from 2600 to 2000cm(-1) suggest that the dominant adsorption mechanisms of glucosinolates on chitosan may be electrostatic attractions, including hydrogen bonds and charge neutralisation. PMID:24176362

  9. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Acamovic, T

    2011-04-01

    1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed. PMID:21491246

  10. Lepton Universality and Lepton Flavour Violation tests at the B-factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusiani, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We review the experimental status of the lepton universality tests and lepton flavour violation searches after the completion of the data-taking and most of the data analysis of the B-factories BABAR and Belle. The universality of the Standard Model charged weak couplings has been confirmed and moderately improved in precision by the B-factories results. Lepton Flavour violation in the τ lepton decays has been searched in several decay modes and no evidence has been found. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the Lepton Flavour violating branching ratios in the 10-7-10-8 range, greatly extending the previous limits set mainly by CLEO in the 10-6 range.

  11. The LCFIVertex package: Vertexing, flavour tagging and vertex charge reconstruction with an ILC vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D.; Devetak, E.; Grimes, M.; Harder, K.; Hillert, S.; Jackson, D.; Pinto Jayawardena, T.; Jeffery, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Lynch, C.; Martin, V.; Walsh, R.; Allport, P.; Banda, Y.; Buttar, C.; Cheplakov, A.; Cussans, D.; Damerell, C.; De Groot, N.; Fopma, J.; Foster, B.; Galagedera, S.; Gao, R.; Gillman, A.; Goldstein, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Halsall, R.; Hawes, B.; Hayrapetyan, K.; Heath, H.; John, J.; Johnson, E.; Kundu, N.; Laing, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Lau, W.; Li, Y.; Lintern, A.; Mandry, S.; Murray, P.; Nichols, A.; Nomerotski, A.; Page, R.; Parkes, C.; Perry, C.; O'Shea, V.; Sopczak, A.; Stefanov, K.; Tabassam, H.; Thomas, S.; Tikkanen, T.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Velthuis, J.; Villani, G.; Wijnen, T.; Woolliscroft, T.; Worm, S.; Yang, S.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-11-01

    The precision measurements envisaged at the International Linear Collider (ILC) depend on excellent instrumentation and reconstruction software. The correct identification of heavy flavour jets, placing unprecedented requirements on the quality of the vertex detector, will be central for the ILC programme. This paper describes the LCFIVertex software, which provides tools for vertex finding and for identification of the flavour and charge of the leading hadron in heavy flavour jets. These tools are essential for the ongoing optimisation of the vertex detector design for linear colliders such as the ILC. The paper describes the algorithms implemented in the LCFIVertex package as well as the scope of the code and its performance for a typical vertex detector design.

  12. Influence of storage temperature and duration on lipid and protein oxidation and flavour changes in frozen pork dumpling filler.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Xiong, Youling L; Kong, Baohua; Huang, Xiangang; Li, Jing

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and duration on oxidation and flavour changes in frozen pork dumpling filler. Freshly prepared dumplings were stored for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 180 d at -7°C, -18°C, and an oscillation between -7°C and -18°C. The samples stored at -7°C for 180 d had significantly higher levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls than those stored at -18°C and the fluctuating -7°C/-18°C (P<0.05). The percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in total lipids decreased with extended storage times. The volatile compounds with pleasant odours decreased with time, while the compounds with pungent tastes and smells increased (P<0.05). The sensory results showed that the dumplings stored at higher frozen temperatures for long periods of time had significantly lower acceptability scores (P<0.05). The results suggest that oxidation is a primary cause of quality deterioration in pork dumpling filler during frozen storage. PMID:23747621

  13. Effect of Storage on the Physicochemical and Flavour Attributes of Two Cultivars of Strawberry Cultivated in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rachna

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to understand the changes in physicochemical quality (total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars, total phenolics, anthocyanin content, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay) and total volatile/aroma compounds of two cultivars of strawberry (Camarosa and Chandler) during storage at 5°C for 9 days at an interval of three days. Observations indicated a significant quantitative difference both in the physicochemical and in total volatile content among the cultivars indicating the importance of cultivar for determining the postharvest quality and shelf life. At the end of 9 days of storage significant changes in the physicochemical and total volatile/aroma compounds were observed. Total antioxidants and total phenols were found to increase significantly, whereas total soluble solids and total sugars decreased with the advent of storage period for both cultivars. Total anthocyanin contents however remained almost constant throughout the storage period. Titratable acidity in Camarosa reduced with the increase in the storage period whereas it remained almost constant in Chandler. Ascorbic acid increased in Camarosa whereas the same decreased significantly in Chandler. Significantly higher contents of esters and terpenoids in Camarosa indicated a better retention of the typical fruits flavour of strawberry compared to that of Chandler. PMID:24587754

  14. Chemical compositions and muddy flavour/odour of protein hydrolysate from Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish mince and protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Penjamras, Pimpimol; Kristinsson, Hordur G

    2014-01-01

    Chemical compositions and muddy compounds in dorsal and ventral muscles of Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish were comparatively studied. On a dry weight basis, Nile tilapia was rich in protein (93.1-93.8%), whilst broadhead catfish contained protein (55.2-59.5%) and lipid (36.6-42.4%) as the major constituents. Ventral portion had higher lipid or phospholipid contents with coincidentally higher geosmin and/or 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) contents. Geosmin was found in mince of Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish at levels of 1.5 and 3.2μg/kg, respectively. Broadhead catfish mince had 2-MIB at level of 0.8μg/kg, but no 2-MIB was detected in Nile tilapia counterpart. When pre-washing and alkaline solubilisation were applied for preparing protein isolate (PI), lipid and phospholipid contents were lowered with concomitant decrease in geosmin and 2-MIB contents. Protein hydrolysate produced from PI had a lighter colour and a lower amount of muddy compounds, compared with that prepared from mince. Therefore, PI from both Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish could serve as the promising proteinaceous material, yielding protein hydrolysate with the negligible muddy odour and flavour. PMID:24001833

  15. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity. PMID:26003925

  16. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  17. Dietary Interviewing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A computer based dietary interviewing program enhanced self awareness for overweight participants. In a three part interview designed for direct interaction between patient and computer, questions dealt with general dietary behavior and details of food intake. The computer assisted the patient in planning a weight reducing diet of approximately…

  18. Investigating flavour characteristics of British ale yeasts: techniques, resources and opportunities for innovation

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Neva; James, Steve; Dicks, Jo; Bond, Chris; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; White, Chris; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-01-01

    Five British ale yeast strains were subjected to flavour profiling under brewery fermentation conditions in which all other brewing parameters were kept constant. Significant variation was observed in the timing and quantity of flavour-related chemicals produced. Genetic tests showed no evidence of hybrid origins in any of the strains, including one strain previously reported as a possible hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Variation maintained in historical S. cerevisiae ale yeast collections is highlighted as a potential source of novelty in innovative strain improvement for bioflavour production. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25361168

  19. Investigating flavour characteristics of British ale yeasts: techniques, resources and opportunities for innovation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Neva; James, Steve; Dicks, Jo; Bond, Chris; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; White, Chris; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-01-01

    Five British ale yeast strains were subjected to flavour profiling under brewery fermentation conditions in which all other brewing parameters were kept constant. Significant variation was observed in the timing and quantity of flavour-related chemicals produced. Genetic tests showed no evidence of hybrid origins in any of the strains, including one strain previously reported as a possible hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Variation maintained in historical S. cerevisiae ale yeast collections is highlighted as a potential source of novelty in innovative strain improvement for bioflavour production. PMID:25361168

  20. Vector-like quarks and New Physics in the flavour sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, Francisco J.; Nebot (speaker, Miguel; Branco, Gustavo C.

    2013-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of recent flavour data in the framework of a simple extension of the Standard Model, where a Q = 2/3 vector-like isosinglet quark is added to the spectrum. Constraints from all the relevant quark flavour sectors are used. Important deviations from Standard Model expectations in different observables such as the semileptonic asymmetry in Bd decays, AdSL, the time-dependent CP asymmetry in Bs → J/ΨΦ, and rare decays such as K+ → π+bar nuν can be obtained.

  1. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  2. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  3. Evaluation of HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction for monitoring of plant flavours added by the bees to herbhoneys: traceability biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Jerković, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The volatile composition of 21 herbhoneys (HHs) of 7 different botanical origins was characterised for the first time. Ultrasound solvent extraction (USE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by GC-FID/MS were successfully applied as complementary methods for monitoring the volatile plant flavours added by the bees. HHs showed significant compositional variability related to the botanical origin and compounds that could serve as traceability biomarkers were identified. The most important compounds with high abundance were (E,extract; H, headspace): caffeine (up to 68.7%, E) and trans-linalool oxide (up to 26.0%, H) in coffee HH, α-terpineol (up to 8.2%, E; 27.1%, H) and bornyl acetate (up to 3.1, E; 11.9%, H) in pine HH, thymol (up to 3.1%, E; 55.4%, H) in thyme HH. Hawthorn HH was characterised by the presence of herniarin (up to 13.4%, E) and lemon HH contained limonene (up to 1.6%, E; 33.2%, H). Other HHs (nettle and aloe) contained lower amounts of volatiles and their profiles were not specific. In all the HHs, methyl syringate was found and it was most abundant in thyme HH (up to 17.4%, E). The volatile fraction of HHs showed some substantial similarities and differences with the composition of herbs from which they derive. It confirms the selective bee-mediated transfer of phytochemicals, including known flavour-active volatiles into the final product, but also biotransformation of several compounds. Additionally, several similarities to the corresponding natural honeys were observed, but in general HHs exhibited less rich volatile profiles. PMID:26365314

  4. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  5. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 59.70% to 44.61% and 91.78% to 87.18%, respectively. Sterilization (121 °C/15 min) resulted in complete degradation of aspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 50.36% to 8.67%. Results indicated that neotame exhibited better stability than aspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk. PMID:26593524

  6. Flavour Profiling of 'Marion' and Thornless Blackberries by Instrumental and Sensory Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flavour of thornless blackberries grown in Pacific Northwest including 'Thornless Evergreen', 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', 'Nightfall', ORUS 1843-3, 'Waldo', NZ 9351-4, and 'Chester Thornless' as well as 'Marion' was profiled by sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Sensory results sh...

  7. A new algorithm for identifying the flavour of B0s mesons at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A new algorithm for the determination of the initial flavour of B0s mesons is presented. The algorithm is based on two neural networks and exploits the b hadron production mechanism at a hadron collider. The first network is trained to select charged kaons produced in association with the B0s meson. The second network combines the kaon charges to assign the B0s flavour and estimates the probability of a wrong assignment. The algorithm is calibrated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb‑1 collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The calibration is performed in two ways: by resolving the B0s–bar B0s flavour oscillations in B0s → D‑sπ+ decays, and by analysing flavour-specific B*s2(5840)0 → B+K‑ decays. The tagging power measured in B0s → D‑sπ+ decays is found to be (1.80 ± 0.19 (stat) ± 0.18 (syst))%, which is an improvement of about 50% compared to a similar algorithm previously used in the LHCb experiment.

  8. Interactions of flavoured oil in-water emulsions with polylactide.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Rómulo; Domenek, Sandra; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-04-01

    Polylactide (PLA), a biobased polymer, might prove suitable as eco-friendly packaging, if it proves efficient at maintaining food quality. To assess interactions between PLA and food, an oïl in-water model emulsion was formulated containing aroma compounds representing different chemical structure classes (ethyl esters, 2-nonanone, benzaldehyde) at a concentration typically found in foodstuff (100 ppm). To study non-equilibrium effects during food shelf life, the emulsions were stored in a PLA pack (tray and lid). To assess equilibrium effects, PLA was conditioned in vapour contact with the aroma compounds at concentrations comparable to headspace conditions of real foods. PLA/emulsion interactions showed minor oil and aroma compound sorption in the packaging. Among tested aroma compounds, benzaldehyde and ethyl acetate were most sorbed and preferentially into the lid through the emulsion headspace. Equilibrium effects showed synergy of ethyl acetate and benzaldehyde, favouring sorption of additional aroma compounds in PLA. This should be anticipated during the formulation of food products. PMID:24262538

  9. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to

  10. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals. As its resources permit, FDA also reviews product labels and other product information, such as package inserts, ... the address or phone number listed on the product's label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports ...

  11. Dietary Exposure Potential Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing food consumption and contaminant residue databases, typically products of nutrition and regulatory monitoring, contain useful information to characterize dietary intake of environmental chemicals. A PC-based model with resident database system, termed the Die...

  12. Successful N{sub 2} leptogenesis with flavour coupling effects in realistic unified models

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Stephen F.

    2015-10-02

    In realistic unified models involving so-called SO(10)-inspired patterns of Dirac and heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino masses, the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1} is too light to yield successful thermal leptogenesis, barring highly fine tuned solutions, while the second heaviest right-handed neutrino N{sub 2} is typically in the correct mass range. We show that flavour coupling effects in the Boltzmann equations may be crucial to the success of such N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis, by helping to ensure that the flavour asymmetries produced at the N{sub 2} scale survive N{sub 1} washout. To illustrate these effects we focus on N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis in an existing model, the A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam, where the neutrino Dirac mass matrix may be equal to an up-type quark mass matrix and has a particular constrained structure. The numerical results, supported by analytical insight, show that in order to achieve successful N{sub 2} leptogenesis, consistent with neutrino phenomenology, requires a “flavour swap scenario” together with a less hierarchical pattern of RH neutrino masses than naively expected, at the expense of some mild fine-tuning. In the considered A to Z model neutrino masses are predicted to be normal ordered, with an atmospheric neutrino mixing angle well into the second octant and the Dirac phase δ≃20{sup ∘}, a set of predictions that will be tested in the next years in neutrino oscillation experiments. Flavour coupling effects may be relevant for other SO(10)-inspired unified models where N{sub 2} leptogenesis is necessary.

  13. Flavour characterisation and free radical scavenging activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) foliage.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, Siddharth; Khanum, Hafeeza; Ravi, Ramasamy; Borse, Babasaheb Baskarrao; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective was to characterize Indian Coriandrum sativum L. foliage (Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC varieties) and its radical scavenging activity. Foliage of Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC contained ascorbic acid (1.16 ± 0.35 and 1.22 ± 0.54 mg/g), total carotenoids (1.49 ± 0.38 and 3.08 ± 1.2 mg/g), chlorophyll 'a' (8.23 ± 2.4 and 12.18 ± 2.9 mg/g), chlorophyll 'b' (2.74 ± 0.8 and 4.39 ± 1.3 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (10.97 ± 2.6 and 16.57 ± 3.2 mg/g). The polyphenol content was 26.75 ± 1.85 and 30.00 ± 2.64 mg/g in Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC, respectively. Ethanol extracts (200 ppm) of alef and Microcarpum DC showed higher radical scavenging activity of 42.05 ± 2.42 % and 62.79 ± 1.36 % when compared with 95 % butylated hydroxyanisole. The principal component analysis results indicated that e-nose can distinguish the volatiles effectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis showed that Microcarpum DC variety is superior to Vulgare alef variety. Nearly 90 % of the flavour compounds present were identified by GC-MS in both varieties. The principal component identified in both the varieties were decanal (7.645 and 7.74 %), decanol < n- > (25.12 and 39.35 %), undecanal (1.20 and 1.75 %), dodecanal (7.07 and 2.61 %), tridecen-1-al < 2E > (6.67 and 1.21 %), dodecen-1-ol < 2E- > (16.68 and 8.05 %), 13-tetradecenal (9.53 and 8.60 %), tetradecanal (5.61 and 4.35 %) and 1-octadecanol (1.25 and 3.67 %). PMID:27570292

  14. A 13-lipoxygenase, TomloxC, is essential for synthesis of C5 flavour volatiles in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jiyuan; Tieman, Denise; Chen, Kunsong; Klee, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    C5 volatile compounds, derived from fatty acids, are among the most important contributors to consumer liking of fresh tomatoes. Despite their important roles in flavour, the genes responsible for C5 volatile synthesis have yet to be identified. This work shows that their synthesis is catalysed in part by a 13-lipoxygenase (LOX), TomloxC, the same enzyme responsible for synthesis of C6 volatiles. C5 synthesis is independent of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL); moreover, HPL knockdown significantly increased C5 volatile synthesis. This LOX-dependent, HPL-independent pathway functions in both fruits and leaves. Synthesis of C5 volatiles increases in leaves following mechanical wounding but does not increase in response to infection with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Large reductions in C5 and C6 volatiles in antisense TomloxC knockdown plants were observed but those reductions did not alter the development of disease symptoms, indicating that these volatiles do not have an important defensive function against this bacterial pathogen. PMID:24453226

  15. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships. PMID:22463762

  16. The anatomy of neutral scalars with FCNCs in the flavour precision era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.; De Fazio, Fulvia; Girrbach, Jennifer; Knegjens, Robert; Nagai, Minoru

    2013-06-01

    In many extensions of the Standard Model (SM) flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) processes can be mediated by tree-level heavy neutral scalars and/or pseudo-scalars H 0( A 0). This generally introduces new sources of flavour violation and CP violation as well as left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) scalar (1 ∓ γ 5) currents. These new physics (NP) contributions imply a pattern of deviations from SM expectations for FCNC processes that depends only on the couplings of H 0( A 0) to fermions and on their masses. In situations in which a single H 0 or A 0 dominates NP contributions stringent correlations between Δ F = 2 and Δ F = 1 observables exist. Anticipating the Flavour Precision Era (FPE) ahead of us we illustrate this by searching for allowed oases in the landscape of a given model assuming significantly smaller uncertainties in CKM and hadronic parameters than presently available. To this end we analyze Δ F = 2 observables in B_{s,d}^0-overline{B}_{s,d}^0 and {K^0}-{{overline{K}}^0} systems and rare B and K decays with charged leptons in the final state including both left-handed and right-handed scalar couplings of H 0 and A 0 to quarks in various combinations. We identify a number of correlations between various flavour observables that could test and distinguish these different scenarios. The prominent role of the decays B s,d → μ + μ - in these studies is emphasized. Imposing the existing flavour constraints, a rich pattern of deviations from the SM expectations in rare B s,d decays emerges provided M H ≤ 1 TeV. NP effects in rare K decays, except for K L → μ + μ -, turn out to be very small. In K L → μ + μ - they can be as large as the SM contributions but due to hadronic uncertainties this is still insufficient to learn much about new scalars from this decay in the context of models considered here. Flavour violating SM Higgs contributions to rare B d and K decays turn out to be negligible once the constraints from Δ F = 2

  17. A review of the preparation and application of flavour and essential oils microcapsules based on complex coacervation technology.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Liu, Wanlong; Zhu, Guangyong; Zhou, Rujun; Niu, Yunwei

    2014-06-01

    This paper briefly introduces the preparation and application of flavour and essential oils microcapsules based on complex coacervation technology. The conventional encapsulating agents of oppositely charged proteins and polysaccharides that are used for microencapsulation of flavours and essential oils are reviewed along with the recent advances in complex coacervation methods. Proteins extracted from animal-derived products (gelatin, whey proteins, silk fibroin) and from vegetables (soy proteins, pea proteins), and polysaccharides such as gum Arabic, pectin, chitosan, agar, alginate, carrageenan and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose are described in depth. In recent decades, flavour and essential oils microcapsules have found numerous potential practical applications in food, textiles, agriculturals and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, the different coating materials and their application are discussed in detail. Consequently, the information obtained allows criteria to be established for selecting a method for the preparation of microcapsules according to their advantages, limitations and behaviours as carriers of flavours and essential oils. PMID:24282124

  18. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Blumlein, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Garzelli, M. -V.; Guzzi, M.; Kuprash, O.; Moch, S. -O.; Nadolsky, P.; et al

    2015-08-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x~5×10-6. This kinematic range is currently not covered by othermore » experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.« less

  19. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    SciTech Connect

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Blumlein, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Garzelli, M. -V.; Guzzi, M.; Kuprash, O.; Moch, S. -O.; Nadolsky, P.; Placakyte, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Schienbein, I.; Starovoitov, P.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x~5×10-6. This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.

  20. Time to Talk: 5 Things To Know About Safety of Dietary Supplements for Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nearly 12 percent of children (about 1 in 9) in the United States are using some form of complementary health product or practice, such as dietary or herbal supplements . A dietary or herbal supplement may contain many compounds and its active ingredients may not be known. Also, what’s on ...

  1. Identification of new synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors analogues found as minor components in a dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Schramek, Nicholas; Wollein, Uwe; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    A dietary supplement sold in erotic shops was analysed. It contains dithiodesmethylcarbodenafil as the major component, which was already reported as an adulterant in dietary supplements. Additionally three more compounds were found and their structures were elucidated after isolation using NMR and mass spectroscopy. They were designated as isonitrosoprodenafil, dithiodesethylcarbodenafil and norcarbodenafil. PMID:24726888

  2. Dietary management of galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Susan M; Arrowsmith, Fiona E; Allen, Jane R

    2003-01-01

    Galactosemia is detected by newborn screening in New South Wales and managed by the metabolic team at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Infants with the Duarte variant are not treated. Management is based on the Handbook for Galactosemia prepared in 1998. This handbook provides information for the family on the dietary management, inheritance and ovarian function. The major dietary sources of galactose are milk and milk products. Breastfeeding must be ceased and replaced with a soy formula. Once solid foods are commenced certain foods should be avoided. Other foods, which may contain some free galactose are recommended in limited quantities only. There is no restriction on other fruits and vegetables. An ongoing issue with dietary management is adequate nutrient intake, particularly of calcium. Intake of milk substitutes and calcium supplements is often inadequate. PMID:15906738

  3. Novel flavours paired with glutamate condition increased intake in older adults in the absence of changes in liking.

    PubMed

    Dermiki, Maria; Prescott, John; Sargent, Laura J; Willway, Joanne; Gosney, Margot A; Methven, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on the repeat exposure to a novel flavour combined with monosodium glutamate (MSG) has shown an increase in liking and consumption for the particular flavour. The aim of the current work was to investigate whether this could also be observed in the case of older people, since they are most affected by undernutrition in the developed world and ways to increase consumption of food are of significant importance for this particular age group. For this study, 40 older adults (age 65-88) repeatedly consumed potato soup with two novel flavours (lemongrass and cumin) which were either with or without a high level of MSG (5% w/w). A randomized single blind within-subject design was implemented, where each participant was exposed to both soup flavours three times over 6 days, with one of the soup flavours containing MSG. After three repeat exposures, consumption increased significantly for the soups where the flavours had contained MSG during the repeated exposure (mean weight consumed increased from 123 to 164 g, p = 0.017), implying that glutamate conditioned for increased wanting and consumption, despite the fact that the liking for the soup had not increased. PMID:25754148

  4. Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, M A; Grati-Kamoun, N; Attia, H

    2009-10-01

    Objectives of this work were studying physico-chemical change and heat stability of olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Flavoured olive oils were prepared by maceration of fresh plant materials (rosemary, lavender, sage, menthe, basil, lemon and thyme) with olive oil at a 5% w/w level for 15 days. A sensorial evaluation was applied to select more appreciate flavoured olive oils by consumers. An oxidative procedure was applied to test the stability of selected flavoured olive oils: oils samples were kept in glass bottles and heated at 60 and 130 degrees C during 55 days and 6h, respectively. The resistance to oxidation of these selected flavoured oils was compared to a control samples by measuring PV, K232 and K270 values and change in chlorophyll, carotenes and polyphénols contents. Obtained results show that addition of aromatic plants causes a slight increase in free acidity and viscosity of aromatised olive oils. L*, b* and a* values show that addition of thyme cause a great change in olive oil colours. Heat stability results shows that from selected aromatic plants, rosemary was effectiveness against oxidation followed by thyme and lemon. However, olive oil flavoured with basil exhibit a similar behaviour versus thermal oxidation then the natural olive oil. PMID:19635520

  5. QCD-aware partonic jet clustering for truth-jet flavour labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Andy; Pollard, Chris

    2016-02-01

    We present an algorithm for deriving partonic flavour labels to be applied to truth particle jets in Monte Carlo event simulations. The inputs to this approach are final pre-hadronisation partons, to remove dependence on unphysical details such as the order of matrix element calculation and shower generator frame recoil treatment. These are clustered using standard jet algorithms, modified to restrict the allowed pseudojet combinations to those in which tracked flavour labels are consistent with QCD and QED Feynman rules. The resulting algorithm is shown to be portable between the major families of shower generators, and largely insensitive to many possible systematic variations: it hence offers significant advantages over existing ad hoc labelling schemes. However, it is shown that contamination from multi-parton scattering simulations can disrupt the labelling results. Suggestions are made for further extension to incorporate more detailed QCD splitting function kinematics, robustness improvements, and potential uses for truth-level physics object definitions and tagging.

  6. Food, flavouring and feed plant traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Salerno, Giovanni; Caneva, Giulia

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research was carried out in the years 2002–2003 into food, flavouring and feed folk traditions of plants in the Tyrrhenian part of the Basilicata region (southern Italy). This area was colonized in ancient times by Greeks. Data was collected through field interviews, especially of farmers. Methods: Field data were collected through structured interviews. The informants, numbered 49, belonged to families which had strong links with the traditional activities of the area. Results: 61 taxa are cited, belonging to 26 botanical families, amongst which 44 used as food or flavouring and 22 for animal alimentation. Besides 7 taxa are involved in rituals especially connected with agriculture and plant growth. Conclusion: The preservation of some rituals especially concerning agricultural plants is noteworthy in the area, together with a certain degree of continuity in food uses. Knowledge and rediscovery of recipes in human and animal diet could represent an economic potential for the area. PMID:16959031

  7. Lepton flavour violating slepton decays to test type-I and II seesaw at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Villanova del Moral, Albert

    2010-02-10

    Searches at the LHC of lepton flavour violation (LFV) in slepton decays can indirectly test both type-I and II seesaw mechanisms. Assuming universal flavour-blind boundary conditions, LFV in the neutrino sector is related to LFV in the slepton sector by means of the renormalization group equations. Ratios of LFV slepton decay rates result to be a very effective way to extract the imprint left by the neutrino sector. Some neutrino scenarios within the type-I seesaw mechanism are studied. Moreover, for both type-I and II seesaw mechanisms, a scan over the minimal super-gravity parameter space is performed to estimate how large LFV slepton decay rates can be, while respecting current low-energy constraints.

  8. Structure-property relationships in flavour-barrier membranes with reduced high-temperature diffusivity

    SciTech Connect

    Heitfeld, Kevin A.; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2010-10-12

    Encapsulation is used to decrease the premature release of volatile flavour ingredients while offering protection against environmental damage such as oxidation, light-induced reactions, etc. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) is investigated here as a 'smart,' temperature responsive membrane for flavour encapsulation and delivery. Gel films were synthesized and characterized by diffusion and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. Increasing temperature typically increases the diffusion rate across a membrane; HPC, however, can be tailored to give substantially improved elevated temperature properties. Scattering results indicate processing conditions have a significant impact on membrane morphology (micro phase separation). Under certain synthetic conditions, micro phase separation is mitigated and the membranes show temperature-independent diffusivity between 25 C and 60 C.

  9. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  10. Leptogenesis in the E{sub 6}SSM: Flavour Dependent Lepton Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    King, S. F.; Luo, R.; Miller, D. J.; Nevzorov, R.

    2008-11-23

    We discuss flavour dependent lepton asymmetries in the Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model (E{sub 6}SSM). In the E{sub 6}SSM, the right-handed neutrinos do not participate in gauge interactions, and they decay into leptons and leptoquarks. Their Majorana nature allows violation of lepton number. New particles and interactions can result in substantial lepton asymmetries, even for scales as low as 10{sup 6} GeV.