Science.gov

Sample records for dietary lead intakes

  1. Dietary lead intakes for mother/child pairs and relevance to pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Vidal, M; Jameson, C W; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Smith, A J; Korsch, M J

    1997-01-01

    Blood and environmental samples, including a quarterly 6-day duplicate diet, for nine mother/child pairs from Eastern Europe have been monitored for 12 to >24 months with high precision stable lead isotope analysis to evaluate the changes that occur when the subjects moved from one environment (Eastern Europe) to another with different stable lead isotopes (Australia). The children were between 6 and 11 years of age and the mothers were between 29 and 37 years of age. These data were compared with an Australian control mother/child pair, aged 31 and 6 years, respectively. A rationale for undertaking this study of mother/child pairs was to evaluate if there were differences in the patterns and clearance rates of lead from blood in children compared with their mothers. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 3.9 microg/dl in the children and between 1.8 and 4.5 microg/dl in the mothers, but the mean of differences between each mother and her child did not differ significantly from zero. Duplicate diets contained from 2.4 to 31.8 microg Pb/kg diet; the mean+/- standard deviation was 5.5 +/- 2.1 microg Pb/kg and total daily dietary intakes ranged from 1.6 to 21.3 microg/day. Mean daily dietary intakes relative to body weight showed that the intake for children was approximately double that for the mothers (0.218 vs. 0. 113 microg Pb/kg body weight/day). The correlations between blood lead concentration and mean daily dietary intake either relative to body weight or total dietary intake did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05). Estimation of the lead coming from skeletal (endogenous) sources relative to the contribution from environmental (exogenous) sources ranges from 8 to 70% for the mothers and 12 to 66% for the children. The difference between mothers and children is not statistically significant (p = 0.28). The children do not appear to achieve the Australian lead isotopic profile at a faster rate than their mothers. These data provide evidence that

  2. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  3. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  4. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  5. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. PMID:25532675

  6. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition. PMID:12949379

  7. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  8. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  9. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*

    PubMed Central

    Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

  10. DIETARY INTAKE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary exposure research supports the requirements of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 by improving methods of aggregate and cumulative exposure assessments for children. The goal of this research is to reduce the level of uncertainty in assessing the dietary path...

  11. Dietary nutrient intake and antioxidant status in preeclamptic women

    PubMed Central

    Sheykhi, Mahdiye; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is the most common cause of maternal death in the world. Some studies showed that inadequate intake of foods rich in antioxidant leads to increase oxidative stress and adverting obstetrical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and dietary nutrient intake in pregnant women with PE. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 55 pregnant women with PE admitted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were interviewed about demographic data and dietary intakes by using a 168-items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of this serum was measured by using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Nonparametric correlation statistics were used to meet assumptions of normality and equal variances. Results: Total antioxidant status was significantly higher in comparison with healthy pregnant women (which measured as pilot). Intake of vitamin E was below the dietary reference intakes, and was positively associated with serum TAC (r = 0.367, P = 0.003), but this correlation was significantly negative about dietary selenium. There wasn’t any significant correlation between intake of vitamin C, β-carotene, riboflavin, copper and serum TAC. Conclusion: Our findings showed that intake of vitamin E was positively associated with serum TAC. Little support was found on a relationship between dietary intakes of other micronutrients and serum TAC. Further research is required to explore the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and antioxidant status in women with PE. PMID:26605222

  12. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  13. Dietary intake of acrylamide in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, K; Abramsson, L; Becker, W; Glynn, A; Hellenäs, K-E; Lind, Y; Rosén, J

    2003-11-01

    High levels of acrylamide have been found in foods heated at high temperatures, especially in carbohydrate rich foods. Several kinds of foods (industrially produced) representing different food/product groups available on the Swedish market have been analysed for acrylamide. A considerable variation in levels of acrylamide between single foodstuffs (different brands) within food categories were found, which also applies for levels in different food categories. Using recent Swedish food consumption data the dietary intake of acrylamide for the Swedish adult population was assessed based on foodstuffs with low to high levels of acrylamide (<30-2300 microg/kg), such as processed potato products, bread, breakfast cereals, biscuits, cookies, snacks and coffee. The estimated dietary intake of acrylamide per person (total population) given as the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile were 9.1, 27 and 62 microg/day respectively, from those food/product groups (mean 31 microg/day). No acrylamide was found in many other foodstuffs analysed and those were therefore not included in the dietary intake assessment of acrylamide. However, an additional minor contribution of a few microg/day of acrylamide from foods/products like poultry, meat, fish, cocoa powder and chocolates cannot be excluded. An average daily intake of 35 microg corresponds to 0.5 microg per kg body weight and day (body weight 70 kg). Risk assessments of acrylamide, made by US EPA and WHO, imply that this dietary intake of acrylamide could be associated with potential health risks. PMID:12963011

  14. Setting dietary intake levels: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Russell, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Recommended dietary intake levels are the nutrient standards used in designing food assistance programmes, institutional feeding programmes, counselling and teaching. In the USA, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the basis for setting the poverty threshold and food stamp allotments. In the 1990s, a new paradigm was put forth for estimating nutrient requirements and recommended intake levels. This considered the level of nutrient needed for normal body functioning (versus the amount needed to prevent a deficiency state from occurring). An estimated average requirement (EAR), an RDA and a tolerable upper intake level (UL) were determined for most nutrients. In setting forth these nutrient intake levels (dietary reference intakes, DRIs), a number of data challenges were encountered. For example, it was recognized that for most nutrients there was an absence of dose-response data, and few chronic human or animal studies had been undertaken. In considering how to revise nutrient intake recommendations for populations in the future, the following pitfalls must be overcome: (1) invalid assumption that a threshold level for a requirement will hold for all nutrients; (2) lack of uniform criteria for the selection of the endpoints used (need for evidence-based review, consideration of comparative risk); (3) invalid extrapolations to children for many nutrients; (4) lack of information on variability of responses, and interactions with other nutrients; and (5) lack of understanding in the community of how to use the various DRI numbers. PMID:17913222

  15. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  16. DIETARY INTAKE AND BONE HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis and related fractures represent major public health problems that will increase dramatically as the population ages. Dietary risk factors are particularly important, as they are modifiable. However, attention has focused almost exclusively on calcium and vitamin D. Recently, there has...

  17. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  18. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  19. Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Tu-bao; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and hyperuricemia (HU). Methods 5168 subjects were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia (HU) was defined as uric acid ≥ 416 μmol/L for male population and ≥ 360 μmol/L for female. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the associations after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Results The relative odds of the overall prevalence of HU were decreased by 0.57 times in the fourth quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35–0.94) and 0.55 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–1.01) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.091. The results of multivariable linear regression also suggested a significant inverse association between serum uric acid and Mg intake (β = -0.028, P = 0.022). For male, the relative odds of HU were decreased by 0.62 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97), 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23–0.72) and 0.35 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.006. Multivariable adjusted inverse association was also existed between serum uric acid and Mg intake in male population (β = -0.061, P = 0.002). However, no significant association was observed between dietary Mg intake and HU for female. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated that dietary Mg intake is inversely associated with HU, independent of some major confounding factors. In addition, this association remains valid for the male subgroup, but not for the female subgroup. Level of Evidence LevelIII, cross-sectional study. PMID:26536119

  20. Dietary intake data collection: challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to succinctly review the origin of US dietary surveys, the challenges and limitations of obtaining dietary intake data, the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990, the integrated US federal food survey, and the development of the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) automated multiple-pass method. The USDA has monitored the food consumption patterns of Americans since the late 1890 s. In 2002, the US Department of Health and Human Services and the USDA integrated their data collection efforts, with data now collected on a continuous basis. Two 24-hour dietary recalls are obtained using USDA's automated multiple-pass method. By combining their respective areas of expertise, the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services have increased research opportunities for scientists and provided data foundational for establishing programs and public policy. PMID:23121343

  1. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population. PMID:24769296

  2. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds. PMID:21645427

  3. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case-control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  4. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  5. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  6. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  7. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults. PMID:19050230

  8. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-16

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  9. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer. PMID:23467443

  10. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (<1% of ADI) was negligible. A comparison of observed intake for the total population with intake for diabetics (acesulfame-K: 3.55 versus 3.75; aspartame: 6.77 versus 6.53; cyclamate: 1.97 versus 2.06; saccharine: 1.14 versus 0.97; sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  11. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  12. Dietary Intake Research in Asian Children: Significance and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Food intake studies have a long history. However, until a few decades ago, there was limited quantitative data on feeding patterns and food intake in infants and children living in South Asia. The recent SEANUT study and MING study have provided several new insights into the dietary patterns of children living in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. The complexity and variety of Asian diets makes the collation of dietary information a challenge. The double burden of under-nutrition and over-nutrition is prevalent in many Asian countries. Compared to obesity, stunting is widespread in South East Asia. Our future challenge is to develop food intake assessment techniques which can be refined and made available as a common dietary assessment tool across this region. Successful nutritional intervention can only be achieved if we know what Asian children eat. Dietary intake research will be a key factor in realizing our goal to eradicate malnutrition in this region. PMID:26598852

  13. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  14. USDA develops a database for flavonoids to assess dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beneficial health effects of dietary flavonoids continue to interest the scientific community in associating the flavonoid intakes and certain chronic diseases. Scientists at the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) and the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG), USDA planned a study of the intakes of fl...

  15. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  16. Intake and sources of dietary fatty acids in Europe: Are current population intakes of fats aligned with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Eilander, Ans; Harika, Rajwinder K.

    2015-01-01

    1 The development of food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of the contribution of common foods to SFA and PUFA intake. We systematically reviewed available data from European countries on population intakes and dietary sources of total fat, SFA, and PUFA. Data from national dietary surveys or population studies published >1995 were searched through Medline, Web of Science, and websites of national public health institutes. Mean population intakes were compared with FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, and contributions of major food groups to overall intakes of fat and fatty acids were calculated. Fatty acid intake data from 24 European countries were included. Reported mean intakes ranged from 28.5 to 46.2% of total energy (%E) for total fat, from 8.9 to 15.5%E for SFA, from 3.9 to 11.3%E for PUFA. The mean intakes met the recommendation for total fat (20–35%E) in 15 countries, and for SFA (<10%E) in two countries, and for PUFA (6–11%E) in 15 of the 24 countries. The main three dietary sources of total fat and SFA were dairy, added fats and oils, and meat and meat products. The majority of PUFA in the diet was provided by added fats and oils, followed by cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Practical applications: While many European countries meet the recommended intake levels for total fat and PUFA, a large majority of European population exceeds the widely recommended maximum 10%E for SFA. In particular animal based products, such as dairy, animal fats, and fatty meat contribute to SFA intake. Adhering to food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD and other chronic diseases in Europe, including eating less fatty meats, low‐fat instead of full‐fat dairy, and more vegetable fats and oils will help to reduce SFA intake and at the same time increase PUFA intake. In European countries, SFA intakes are generally higher than the recommended <10%E and PUFA intakes lower than the

  17. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  18. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  19. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  20. Associations between dietary antioxidants intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 4685 participants were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade 2 in at least one leg. A multivariable logistic analysis model was established to test the relationship between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee OA with adjustment of a number of potential confounding factors. A significant positive association between dietary vitamin C intake (P value for trend was 0.04 in multivariable adjusted analysis) and radiographic knee OA was observed. The relative odds of radiographic knee OA were increased by 0.39 times in the third quintile (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.11-1.73), 0.42 times in the fourth quintile (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.13-1.79), and 0.33 times in the fifth quintile (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.03-1.71). However, radiographic knee OA was not significantly associated with dietary carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium. Among dietary antioxidants, dietary vitamin C intake was positively correlated with the prevalence of radiographic knee OA, while no significant association was found between dietary intake of carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium and the prevalence of radiographic knee OA. PMID:26781781

  1. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  2. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  3. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  4. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  5. An Analytical Pipeline for Quantitative Characterization of Dietary Intake: Application To Assess Grape Intake.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Chambers, Edward S; Nicholson, Jeremy K; C Mathers, John; Beckmann, Manfred; Draper, John; Holmes, Elaine; Frost, Gary

    2016-03-23

    Lack of accurate dietary assessment in free-living populations requires discovery of new biomarkers reflecting food intake qualitatively and quantitatively to objectively evaluate effects of diet on health. We provide a proof-of-principle for an analytical pipeline to identify quantitative dietary biomarkers. Tartaric acid was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a dose-responsive urinary biomarker of grape intake and subsequently quantified in volunteers following a series of 4-day dietary interventions incorporating 0 g/day, 50 g/day, 100 g/day, and 150 g/day of grapes in standardized diets from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Most accurate quantitative predictions of grape intake were obtained in 24 h urine samples which have the strongest linear relationship between grape intake and tartaric acid excretion (r(2) = 0.90). This new methodological pipeline for estimating nutritional intake based on coupling dietary intake information and quantified nutritional biomarkers was developed and validated in a controlled dietary intervention study, showing that this approach can improve the accuracy of estimating nutritional intakes. PMID:26909845

  6. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  7. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  8. Implications of dietary salt intake for multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hucke, Stephanie; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2016-02-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly clear that, alongside genetic risk factors, environmental factors strongly influence the incidence and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). Based on observations from epidemiological studies, the potential contribution of dietary habits has lately been a matter of debate. Recently it was shown that high salt conditions promote pathogenic T-cell responses and aggravate autoimmunity in an animal model of MS, suggesting that high dietary salt intake might promote central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity. However, so far, not much is known about the influence of dietary salt intake on MS disease pathology. Here, we discuss the association of dietary salt levels and MS with a special focus on the mechanisms of salt-mediated modulation of the different cell types critically involved in the pathophysiology of MS. PMID:26447064

  9. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. PMID:24976425

  10. Metabolomics in the identification of biomarkers of dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    O'Gorman, Aoife; Gibbons, Helena; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods for assessing dietary exposure can be unreliable, with under reporting one of the main problems. In an attempt to overcome such problems there is increasing interest in identifying biomarkers of dietary intake to provide a more accurate measurement. Metabolomics is an analytical technique that aims to identify and quantify small metabolites. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the application of metabolomics coupled with statistical analysis for the identification of dietary biomarkers, with a number of putative biomarkers identified. This minireview focuses on metabolomics based approaches and highlights some of the key successes. PMID:24688686

  11. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation. PMID:26903293

  12. Intake of Dietary Phylloquinone and Menaquinones and Risk of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, Linda E. T.; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Monique Verschuren, W. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary vitamin K intake is thought to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by reducing vascular calcification, although vitamin K is also involved in coagulation. Studies investigating the association between phylloquinone intake and risk of stroke are scarce, and the relation with menaquinones has not been investigated to date. Methods and Results We investigated the association between intake of phylloquinone and menaquinones and stroke in a prospective cohort of 35 476 healthy subjects. Information on occurrence of stroke was obtained by linkage to national registries, and stroke was further specified into ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Vitamin K intake was estimated using a validated food‐frequency questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle, and other dietary factors were used to estimate the associations. During a follow‐up of 12.1±2.1 years, 580 incident cases of stroke were identified, 163 of which were hemorrhagic and 324 were ischemic. Phylloquinone intake was not associated with risk of stroke with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.09 (95% CI: 0.85 to 1.40, Ptrend 0.41) for the highest versus lowest quartile. For intake of menaquinones similar results were found, with an HRQ4 versus Q1 of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.75 to 1.29, Ptrend 0.82). When specifying hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke or menaquinone subtypes, no significant associations were detected. Conclusion In our study, neither dietary phylloquinone nor dietary menaquinones intake were associated with stroke risk. PMID:24326161

  13. ESTIMATING DIETARY INTAKE OF ANTIOXIDANTS FROM OATS AND OTHER GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several large cohort studies have shown that subjects with high consumption of whole grain cereals have significantly lower coronary heart disease. High intakes of whole grain, fruits and vegetables have also been associated with lower risk of some cancers. Apart from dietary fiber, whole grains als...

  14. Pesticides on Household Surfaces May Influence Dietary Intake of Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical and chemical environment influences children’s exposures to pesticides in and around the home. Children’s activities, which increase their potential for exposure especially during eating, have been captured in the Children’s Dietary Intake Model (CDIM). In addition t...

  15. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  16. BEYOND NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT: PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCES ON DIETARY INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Designing and funding of nutrition interventions are increasingly requiring assessment, not only of current dietary intake but also of nutrition behavioral factors such as intent to act, self-efficacy, and other psychosocial influences. This study presents Will Try, a new instrument to assess factor...

  17. Dietary indicators for assessing the adequacy of population zinc intakes.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The assessment of dietary zinc intakes is an important component of evaluating the risk of zinc deficiency in populations, and for designing appropriate food-based interventions, including fortification, to improve zinc intakes. The prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes can describe the relative magnitude of the risk of zinc deficiency in the population and identify subpopulations at elevated risk. As a cornerstone to evaluating the adequacy of population zinc intakes globally, a set of internationally appropriate dietary reference intakes must be defined. The World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO/FAO/IAEA) and the Food and Nutrition Board/US Institute of Medicine (FNB/IOM) have presented estimated average requirements (EAR) for dietary zinc intake, and, more recently, the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) presented a revised set of recommendations for international use. A prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes greater than 25% is considered to represent an elevated risk of population zinc deficiency. As the requirement estimates are derived from smaller, clinical studies and, for children, most components of the estimates are extrapolated from data for adults, it was desirable to evaluate their internal validity. The estimated physiological requirements for adult men and women appear to adequately predict zinc status as determined by biochemical indicators of status and/or zinc balance. With the use of data from available studies, the reported prevalence of low serum zinc concentration and the estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes predict similar levels of risk of zinc deficiency, particularly among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conformity between these two indicators is less consistent for children, suggesting that further data and/or direct studies of zinc requirements among children are needed. PMID:17988006

  18. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  19. Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Skin Photoaging

    PubMed Central

    Latreille, Julie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Malvy, Denis; Andreeva, Valentina; Galan, Pilar; Tschachler, Erwin; Hercberg, Serge; Guinot, Christiane; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. Conclusion/Significance These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging. PMID:22970231

  20. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban African-American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Improper dietary intake pattern is a risk factor for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African American adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to describe dietary intake patterns including energy, nutrient, food g...

  1. Dietary intake by Dutch 1- to 3-year-old children at childcare and at home.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Raaijmakers, Lieke G M; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to assess dietary intake in a large sample (N=1016) of Dutch toddlers (1-3 years old), both at childcare and at home. Dietary intake during two weekdays was recorded using an observation format applied by childcare staff for intake at childcare, and partially pre-coded dietary journals filled out by parents for intake at home. Children's intake of energy, macronutrients and energy balance-related food groups (fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks, savoury snacks) were compared with Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, differences between the dietary intake by various subgroups (based on gender, age, childcare attendance, socio-economic status of childcare centre) were explored using multilevel regression analyses, adjusting for nesting of children within centres. Energy intake was high relative to dietary guidelines, and children consumed more or less equal amounts of energy at home and at childcare. Dietary fibre, fruit and vegetable and snack intakes were low. Intake at childcare mainly consisted of carbohydrates, while intake at home contained more proteins and fat. The findings imply various opportunities for childcare centres to improve children's dietary intake, such as providing fruit and vegetables at snacking moments. In addition, the findings underline the importance of assessing dietary intake over a whole day, both at childcare and at home, to allow intake to be compared with dietary guidelines. PMID:24406847

  2. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. PMID:20190347

  3. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  4. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    PubMed

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake. PMID:26005740

  5. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  6. Toxicity of dietary lead in young cockerels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Custer, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Day-old cockerels received 1850 ppm dietary lead for 4 wks. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was reduced to 1.6% of control activity by the end of the study. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb) in lead-exposed cockerels was significantly less than that of controls at 7, 14, and 28 days, and packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly reduced at 14 days. Blood lead residues reached 832 ug/dl in exposed cockerels; kidney residues were about three times liver residues. At the termination of the study mean body weight of lead-exposed birds was 47% of controls.

  7. Toxicity of dietary lead in young cockerels.

    PubMed

    Franson, J C; Custer, T W

    1982-12-01

    Day-old cockerels received 1850 ppm dietary lead for 4 wks. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was reduced to 1.6% of control activity by the end of the study. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb) in lead-exposed cockerels was significantly less than that of controls at 7, 14, and 28 days, and packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly reduced at 14 days. Blood lead residues reached 832 micrograms/dl in exposed cockerels; kidney residues were about three times liver residues. At the termination of the study mean body weight of lead-exposed birds was 47% of controls. PMID:7179714

  8. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  9. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake. PMID:24779693

  10. Dietary fat intake and risk for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jing; Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Park, YikYung; Huang, Xuemei; Blair, Aaron; Kamel, Freya; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary fat intakes and risk for Parkinson’s disease (PD). We therefore prospectively examined these associations in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. METHODS A 124-item food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline in 1995–1996, and PD diagnosis was self-reported at the follow-up survey in 2004–2006. A total of 1,087 cases with a PD diagnosis between 2000 and 2006 and 299,617 controls were included in the analyses. RESULTS Overall, intakes of fats and other macronutrients were not associated with PD risk. However, we found a weak positive association between n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the risk for PD. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between extreme quintiles of n-6 PUFA intake was 1.23 (95% CI=1.02–1.49, P for trend=0.02). A similar association was observed for the intake of linoleic acid. Results were similar among men and among women. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that fat intake in general is not related to the risk for PD. The weak positive association between intake of n-6 PUFA and PD risk needs further investigation. PMID:25186946

  11. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zujko, Małgorzata Elżbieta; Witkowska, Anna Maria; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs) in comparison with young (20–40 yrs) and middle age (41–60 yrs) groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ) took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and flavonoid content (FC) were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake. PMID:26236427

  12. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  13. Monosodium Glutamate Intake, Dietary Patterns and Asthma in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Wittert, Gary A.; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Adams, Robert; Taylor, Anne W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. Methods Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN) were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. Results Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between ‘traditional’ (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable) food pattern and asthma. No association between ’macho’ (rich in meat and alcohol), ‘sweet tooth’ (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt) ‘vegetable rich’ (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable) food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. Conclusion While a ‘Traditional’ food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma. PMID:23240044

  14. Dietary reference intakes: cases of appropriate and inappropriate uses.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R; Barr, Susan I; Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A

    2013-10-01

    The dietary reference intakes (DRIs) are a set of reference intake levels for nutrients that can be used for planning diets and assessing nutrient inadequacies of individuals and groups. Since the publication of the DRI reports 1997-2004, the reference intake levels have been used for various purposes. While DRIs have been used appropriately for planning and assessing diets for many different situations, there have been instances in which specific DRI categories have not been applied as intended. In this review, cases are described in which DRIs were applied correctly, as well as cases from the growing number of examples in which the wrong DRI was used or DRIs were used incorrectly. PMID:24117790

  15. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  16. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  17. U.S. trends in dietary variety and its association with BMI and micronutrient intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One proposed contributor to excess energy intake is dietary variety, particularly energy-dense variety (McCrory et al 1999). Using national survey data, we examined the potential role of dietary variety in the obesity epidemic and relationships among variety and micronutrient intake. Usual dietary i...

  18. Assessment of usual dietary intake in population studies of gene-diet interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intake is a critical exposure when examining genetic factors on disease risk. Weighed diet records can provide the most accurate assessment of intake, but are usually not realistic in large population studies. Multiple 24 hour dietary recalls provide detail, allowing for diverse dietary prac...

  19. Dietary intake and ghrelin and leptin changes after sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zavadilová, Vladislava; Holéczy, Pavol; Švagera, Zdeněk; Švorc, Pavol; Foltys, Aleš; Zonča, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surgical intervention in obesity is today the most effective treatment method in high level obesity management. Bariatric interventions not only ensure body weight reduction, but may influence dietary habits. Aim To assess changes in adipose hormones and dietary habits in obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy. Material and methods The study set comprised 37 subjects (29 females and 8 males) 24 to 68 years old with body mass index 43.0 ±4.9 kg/m2. Pre-operative examination included baseline measurements of body composition. Dietary habits and intake frequency were monitored by a questionnaire method. Follow-up examinations were carried out in a scope identical to the pre-operative examination, 6 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. Results The average patient weight loss 12 months after surgery was 31.7 kg. Excess weight loss was 55.2 ±20.6%. Patients reported reduced appetite (p < 0.001), increasingly regular food intake (p < 0.001), intake of more meal portions per day (p = 0.003) and a decrease in consuming the largest portions during the afternoon and evening (p = 0.030). Plasma levels of fasting glucose, leptin and ghrelin significantly decreased (p = 0.006; p = 0.0.043); in contrast, the level of adiponectin significantly increased (p < 0.001). Conclusions Sleeve gastrectomy and follow-up nutritional therapy resulted in a significant body weight reduction within 1 year after surgery. An improvement of certain dietary habits in patients was registered. At 12 months after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences in decreases in ghrelin and leptin concentrations between patients without changed appetite and those reporting decreased appetite. PMID:25561993

  20. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  1. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation. Methods Literature searches were conducted to identify nationally representative input parameters for the U.S. population, which included prevalence of functional constipation; current dietary fiber intakes; proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes; and the percentage that would be expected to respond, in terms of alleviation of constipation, to a change in dietary fiber consumption. A dose–response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to U.S. $ 2012. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact on adult vs. pediatric populations and the robustness of the model to each input parameter. Results The base case direct medical cost-savings was $12.7 billion annually among adults. The base case assumed that 3% of men and 6% of women currently met recommended dietary fiber intakes; each 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake would lead to a reduction of 1.9% in constipation prevalence; and all adults would increase their dietary fiber intake to recommended levels (mean increase of 9 g/day). Sensitivity analyses, which explored numerous alternatives, found that even if only 50% of the adult population increased dietary fiber intake by 3 g/day, annual medical costs savings exceeded $2 billion. All plausible scenarios resulted in cost savings of at least $1 billion. Conclusions Increasing dietary fiber

  2. Dietary intake in adults at risk for Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Marder, K; Zhao, H; Eberly, S; Tanner, C M.; Oakes, D; Shoulson, I

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine caloric intake, dietary composition, and body mass index (BMI) in participants in the Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study (PHAROS). Methods: Caloric intake and macronutrient composition were measured using the National Cancer Institute Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in 652 participants at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who did not meet clinical criteria for HD. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between macronutrients, BMI, caloric intake, and genetic status (CAG <37 vs CAG ≥37), adjusting for age, gender, and education. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between caloric intake, BMI, and CAG repeat length. Results: A total of 435 participants with CAG <37 and 217 with CAG ≥37 completed the FFQ. Individuals in the CAG ≥37 group had a twofold odds of being represented in the second, third, or fourth quartile of caloric intake compared to the lowest quartile adjusted for age, gender, education, and BMI. This relationship was attenuated in the highest quartile when additionally adjusted for total motor score. In subjects with CAG ≥37, higher caloric intake, but not BMI, was associated with both higher CAG repeat length (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.26, p = 0.032) and 5-year probability of onset of HD (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.024; p = 0.013). Adjusted analyses showed no differences in macronutrient composition between groups. Conclusions: Increased caloric intake may be necessary to maintain body mass index in clinically unaffected individuals with CAG repeat length ≥37. This may be related to increased energy expenditure due to subtle motor impairment or a hypermetabolic state. GLOSSARY BEE = basal energy expenditure; BMI = body mass index; FFQ = Food Frequency Questionnaire; HD = Huntington disease; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease; PHAROS = Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study; TEE = total energy expenditure; UHDRS = Unified

  3. Self-monitoring dietary intake: current and future practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lora E; Warziski, Melanie; Starrett, Terry; Choo, Jina; Music, Edvin; Sereika, Susan; Stark, Susan; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2005-07-01

    This article reviews the literature on the use of paper diaries for self-monitoring food intake, identifies the strengths and limitations of paper-and-pencil diaries and their new counterpart, the electronic diary or personal digital assistant (PDA), and reports how participants were trained to use a PDA with dietary software in two pilot studies--one with hemodialysis patients and the other with participants in a weight loss study. The report of the pilot studies focuses on the practical issues encountered in training participants in the use of a PDA and addresses the pros and cons of different dietary software programs. Six hemodialysis patients were trained in the first study and seven participants attempting to lose or maintain their weight were trained in the second pilot study. The training focused on how to use a PDA and how to navigate the dietary software to self-monitor food intake. The goals of using the PDA were to improve adherence to the therapeutic diets and to self-monitoring. Lessons learned from the pilot studies are shared. PMID:16007557

  4. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Marin E.; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Kenwood, Brandon M.; Taddeo, Evan P.; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2016-01-01

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity. PMID:26924712

  5. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marin E; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R; Chow, Jenny D Y; Byrne, Frances L; Breen, David S; Kenwood, Brandon M; Taddeo, Evan P; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2016-01-01

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity. PMID:26924712

  6. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  7. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  8. Leaded crystal as a source of dietary lead: An exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Shorten, C.V.; Glowacki, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    Lead is a potent systemic toxic with many environmental sources. It can enter the body through a number of pathways, the most significant is ingestion. While many investigators of lead ingestion have focused on paint and dust sources, the authors examined food contaminated with lead from crystal ware. The rates and amounts of lead leached into vinegar stored in leaded crystal cruets were measured over the course of a 42-day laboratory study. Replicate lead oxide (PbO, 24%) crystal cruets (N = 13) were filled with vinegar, and sample aliquots were periodically removed for analysis. Lead leaching rates were determined by fitting a two-stage, non-linear model to the data, and observed rate coefficients were 0.066 hr{sup {minus}1} and 0.0019{sup {minus}1} for the first and second stages of leaching, respectively (R{sup 2} = 0.9680). Average lead concentrations in the stored vinegar range from 118 {micro}g/L at 8 parameters (ingestion rate, exposure frequency and duration, body weight, and averaging time) was generated to characterize the realm of potential intake estimates. Lead concentrations were input using the fitted model. Results indicated that a worst case lead intake estimate from this source could be as high as 420 {micro}g/kg/yr for a child. Crystal ware can be considered to be a potentially significant dietary source of lead, and risk characterizations cannot ignore this potential avenue when combining risks across all exposure pathways.

  9. The Effect of Dietary Intake on Inflammation and Inflammatory Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cailliau, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Within the Human Health and Performance Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, it is the responsibility of the Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory to determine nutrient requirements and research the role of nutrition as a potential countermeasure to the negative effects of spaceflight on human physiology. As a part of the lab, the goal of my project was to determine if and how diet affects inflammation and immune system function during spaceflight. This project involved analysis of both dietary and biochemical data from 20 participants in a prior bed rest study as well as from 17 subjects' flight data. Specifically, I evaluated how the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a calculated estimate, compared to a set of immune and inflammatory blood and urine biomarkers. Comparing DII score and biomarkers helps to determine how intake of certain diet patterns influences inflammation in the body. My project will evaluate the effectiveness of this tool for use in the spaceflight analog bed rest.

  10. The lipid messenger OEA links dietary fat intake to satiety

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gary J.; Li, Xiaosong; Gaetani, Silvana; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Piomelli, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    Summary The association between fat consumption and obesity underscores the need to identify physiological signals that control fat intake. Previous studies have shown that feeding stimulates small-intestinal mucosal cells to produce the lipid messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which, when administered as a drug, decreases meal frequency by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPAR-α). Here we report that duodenal infusion of fat stimulates OEA mobilization in the proximal small intestine, whereas infusion of protein or carbohydrate does not. OEA production utilizes dietary oleic acid as a substrate and is disrupted in mutant mice lacking the membrane fatty-acid transporter CD36. Targeted disruption of CD36 or PPAR-α abrogates the satiety response induced by fat. The results suggest that activation of small-intestinal OEA mobilization, enabled by CD36-mediated uptake of dietary oleic acid, serves as a molecular sensor linking fat ingestion to satiety. PMID:18840358

  11. Dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day. PMID:7721197

  12. Dietary modulation of oral amphetamine intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, R B; Marks-Kaufman, R

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of sucrose availability and oral self-administration of amphetamine was examined in 23 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Fourteen rats were given a 0.075 mg/ml amphetamine sulfate solution as their sole source of fluid and 9 rats were given water. Feeding conditions were alternated between weeks with both granulated sucrose and chow available and weeks with only chow present. Rats drank significantly less of the amphetamine solution when consuming sucrose and chow than when eating chow alone. Sucrose intake had a slight effect on water intake. Rats drinking the amphetamine solution consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and were significantly less efficient at using calories for weight gain than rats drinking water. However, when given access to sucrose, rats drinking the amphetamine solution chose a significantly greater proportion of their daily caloric intake as sucrose (60%) than rats drinking water (42.5%). The present results demonstrate that 1) amphetamine intake alters nutrient choice and 2) that dietary variables can profoundly affect drug self-administration. PMID:3237840

  13. Dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of erectile dysfunction1

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Aedín; Franz, Mary; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    Background: The predominant etiology for erectile dysfunction (ED) is vascular, but limited data are available on the role of diet. A higher intake of several flavonoids reduces diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, but no studies have examined associations between flavonoids and erectile function. Objective: This study examined the relation between habitual flavonoid subclass intakes and incidence of ED. Design: We conducted a prospective study among 25,096 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Total flavonoid and subclass intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 y. Participants rated their erectile function in 2000 (with historical reporting from 1986) and again in 2004 and 2008. Results: During 10 y of follow-up, 35.6% reported incident ED. After multivariate adjustment, including classic cardiovascular disease risk factors, several subclasses were associated with reduced ED incidence, specifically flavones (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.97; P-trend = 0.006), flavanones (RR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.95; P-trend = 0.0009), and anthocyanins (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.98; P-trend = 0.002) comparing extreme intakes. The results remained statistically significant after additional adjustment for a composite dietary intake score. In analyses stratified by age, a higher intake of flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavones was significantly associated with a reduction in risk of ED only in men <70 y old and not older men (11–16% reduction in risk; P-interaction = 0.002, 0.03, and 0.007 for flavones, flavanones, and anthocyanins, respectively). In food-based analysis, higher total intake of fruit, a major source of anthocyanins and flavanones, was associated with a 14% reduction in risk of ED (RR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92; P = 0.002). Conclusions: These data suggest that a higher habitual intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods is associated with reduced ED incidence. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the

  14. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  15. Partitioning of Dietary Metal Intake--A Metal Dietary Exposure Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Scrafford, Carolyn; Bi, Xiaoyu; Troxell, Terry

    2015-05-01

    Detection of heavy metals at trace or higher levels in foods and food ingredients is not unexpected given the widespread unavoidable presence of several metals in nature, coupled with advancement in analytical methods and lowering limits of detection. To assist risk managers with a rapid risk assessment when facing these situations, a metal dietary exposure screening tool (MDEST) was developed. The tool uses food intake rates based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 consumption data for the U.S. population two+ years and up and for infants age six months to lead, and mercury). The tool has data entry fields for detected concentrations and includes algorithms that combine metal levels with consumption data to generate screening-level exposure estimates, which it then compares to MDEST assigned default portions of the exposure limits in the risk characterization module. As a screening-level tool, the risk assessment output is intentionally conservative, public health protective, and useful for a rapid assessment to set aside issues that are not of concern. Issues that cannot be readily resolved using this screening tool will need to be further evaluated with more refined input data that are tailored to the specific question or situation under consideration. PMID:25545420

  16. Assessment of dietary intake: NuGO symposium report

    PubMed Central

    Boeing, Heiner; Boushey, Carol J.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Kaput, Jim; Scalbert, Augustin; Welch, Ailsa A.; Mathers, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in genomics science and associated bioinformatics and technology mean that excellent tools are available for characterising human genotypes. At the same time, approaches for characterising individual phenotypes are developing rapidly. In contrast, there has been much less investment in novel methodology for measuring dietary exposures so that there is now a significant gap in the toolkit for those investigating how diet interacts with genotype to determine phenotype. This symposium reviewed the strengths and limitations of current tools used in assessment of dietary intake and the potential to improve these tools through, for example, the use of statistical techniques that combine information from different sources (such as modelling and calibration methods) to ameliorate measurement error and to provide validity checks. Speakers examined the use of approaches based on technologies such as mobile ‘phones, digital cameras and Web-based systems which offer the potential for more acceptable (for study participants) and less laborious (for researchers and participants) routes to more robust data collection. In addition, the application of omics, especially metabolomics, tools to biofluids to identify new biomarkers of intake offers great potential to provide objective measures of food consumption with the advantage that data may be collected in forms that can be integrated readily with other high throughput (nutrigenomic) technologies. PMID:21052527

  17. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  18. Dietary surveys indicate vitamin intakes below recommendations are common in representative Western countries.

    PubMed

    Troesch, Barbara; Hoeft, Birgit; McBurney, Michael; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Weber, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Vitamins play a crucial role in health, but modern lifestyles may lead to suboptimal intakes even in affluent countries. The aim of the present study is to review vitamin intakes in Germany, the UK, The Netherlands and the USA and to compare them with respective national recommendations. Data on adults from the most recently published national dietary intake surveys for the first three countries and data for adults from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 to 2008 for the USA were used as a basis for the analysis. The proportions of the populations with intakes below recommendations were categorised as < 5, 5-25, >25-50, >50-75 and >75 % for each vitamin. The data generated are presented in a 'traffic light display', using colours from green to red to indicate degrees of sufficiency. The trends found were compared with the results from the European Nutrition and Health Report 2009, even though in that report, only information on mean intakes in the different countries was available. We showed that, although inter-country differences exist, intakes of several vitamins are below recommendations in a significant part of the population in all these countries. The most critical vitamin appears to be vitamin D and the least critical niacin. The variation between the countries is most probably due to differences in recommendations, levels of fortification and local dietary habits. We show that a gap exists between vitamin intakes and requirements for a significant proportion of the population, even though diverse foods are available. Ways to correct this gap need to be investigated. PMID:22691229

  19. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, Stephanie M.; McCargar, Linda J.; Berglund, Casey; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Rhonda C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98) completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103) completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake. PMID:26225996

  20. Cadmium dietary intake in the Canary Islands, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, C.; Revert, C.; Gonzalez-Iglesias, T.

    2006-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd) in the human diet constitutes a potential chronic hazard to health. In the nonsmoking general population, diet is the major source of cadmium exposure; therefore, it is important to monitor the dietary intake of this heavy metal to quantify and improve the understanding of Cd accumulation in the human body. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Cd in a range of food and drink commonly consumed in the Canary Islands. Food samples (420) were analyzed for Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. The most recent nutritional survey conducted for the Canarian population was used to define the food and drink groups analyzed. The measured Cd concentrations combined with the food consumption data resulted in a total Cd intake in the Canary Islands of 0.16 {mu}g/kg of body weight/day, which is well below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake of Cd of 1 {mu}g/kg of body weight per day determined by the FAO/WHO. The results are also compared with values reported for other national and international communities.

  1. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi. PMID:24471093

  2. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi. PMID:24471093

  3. Dietary Fiber Intake and Cardiometabolic Risks among US Adults, NHANES 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Kya N.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Pham, Do Quyen; Djousse, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Methods Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and non-pregnant women aged 20+ years from 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Results Dietary fiber intake remained consistently below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7g–17.0g. Mexican-Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic Whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic Blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% CI) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69–0.88), 0.66 (0.61–0.72), and 0.77 (0.71–0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, though statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Conclusions Low dietary fiber intake from 1999–2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. PMID:24135514

  4. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  5. CHANGES IN THE DIETARY PATTERNS AND FOOD INTAKES OF CHILDREN OVER THE PAST 25 YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the dietary patterns and food and nutrient intakes of children in relation to changes over time is critical to designing result-based strategies to improve dietary status and ultimately, health. National food and nutrient intake data of children from What We Eat in America, NHANES 200...

  6. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  7. Impact on Dietary Intake of Removable Partial Dentures Replacing a Small Number of Teeth.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Chisato; Ikebe, Kazunori; Okada, Tadashi; Takeshita, Hajime; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of wearing removable partial dentures (RPDs) replacing a small number of teeth on dietary intake. Participants had at least 20 teeth and were classified as Eichner B1 or B2. The participants underwent dental and oral examinations, and their dietary intake was assessed. Analysis of covariance showed that RPD wearers consumed more vegetables, n-3 fatty acids, calcium, vitamin A, and dietary fiber than nonwearers after adjusting for possible confounding factors. It is concluded that RPDs are effective for improving dietary intake even in participants who have lost a small number of teeth. PMID:26523716

  8. 3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH WHEEL, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Wegmueller, Rita; Zhao, Jinkou; Kok, Frans J.; Shi, Zumin

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the “traditional” pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the “sweet tooth” pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more “traditional” food pattern, but less for subjects with a “sweet tooth” food pattern. PMID:22822450

  10. Dietary flavonoid intakes and cardiovascular disease incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were ...

  11. Asthma and dietary intake: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Larsen, V; Del Giacco, S R; Moreira, A; Bonini, M; Charles, D; Reeves, T; Carlsen, K-H; Haahtela, T; Bonini, S; Fonseca, J; Agache, I; Papadopoulos, N G; Delgado, L

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological research on the relationship between diet and asthma has increased in the last decade. Several components found in foods have been proposed to have a series of antioxidant, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, which can have a protective effect against asthma risk. Several literature reviews and critical appraisals have been published to summarize the existing evidence in this field. In the context of this EAACI Lifestyle and asthma Task Force, we summarize the evidence from existing systematic reviews on dietary intake and asthma, using the PRISMA guidelines. We therefore report the quality of eligible systematic reviews and summarize the results of those with an AMSTAR score ≥32. The GRADE approach is used to assess the overall quality of the existing evidence. This overview is centred on systematic reviews of nutritional components provided in the diet only, as a way to establish what type of advice can be given in clinical practice and to the general population on dietary habits and asthma. PMID:26505989

  12. Dietary sodium intake and asthma: an epidemiological and clinical review.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, T D; Fogarty, A

    2006-12-01

    The changes in diet associated with the development of a more affluent lifestyle have been considered one of the environmental factors that may have contributed to the rise in the prevalence of asthma over the past few decades, and dietary sodium has been considered to be a dietary constituent which may be implicated in this phenomenon. The data presented in this review demonstrate that adoption of a low sodium diet for a period of 2-5 weeks may improve lung function and decrease bronchial reactivity in adults with asthma, while sodium loading appears to have a detrimental effect. Similarly, a low sodium diet maintained for 1-2 weeks decreases bronchoconstriction in response to exercise in individuals with asthma. There is no data as to the longer-term effect of a low sodium diet on either the prevalence or severity of asthma or on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. As a low sodium diet has other beneficial health effects, it can be considered as a therapeutic option for adults with asthma, although it should be considered as an adjunctive intervention to supplement optimal pharmacological management of asthma and not as an alternative. If the relationship between higher sodium intake and increased prevalence and severity of asthma is causal, then there are potential population benefits for asthma as well as cardiovascular disease to be derived from public health measures to reduce sodium consumption. PMID:17109669

  13. Inadequate dietary magnesium intake increases atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    King, Jennifer L.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.; Erdman, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and serum Mg levels to be inversely correlated with the development of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that low levels of Mg would promote atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits (4 months old, n = 22) were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.12% (−Mg), 0.27% (control), or 0.43% (+Mg) Mg for 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks and were assayed for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein, serum Mg, and erythrocyte Mg. Aortas from −Mg had significantly more plaque, with an intima thickness 42% greater than control and 36% greater than +Mg. Serum cholesterol levels rose over time, and at 8 weeks, −Mg had the highest and +Mg the lowest total and non-HDL cholesterol and TG levels, although these results did not reach significance. Over time, serum Mg levels increased, and erythrocyte Mg levels decreased. C-reactive protein significantly increased in all groups at 4 and 6 weeks but returned to baseline levels by 8 weeks. This study supports the hypothesis that inadequate intake of Mg results in an increase in atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits. PMID:19555816

  14. Differences in dietary intake associated with smoking status.

    PubMed

    Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

    1990-03-01

    This study was designed to identify and describe smoking-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of tobacco-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study which was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products and consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on sex and age (+/- 5 years). Nutritional data were analysed as log-transformed frequencies of thirty food items, nine factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and estimated daily nutrient scores for fat, vitamin A, fibre, and cholesterol. In general, the dietary habits of ex-smokers more closely resembled those of never-smokers than those of current smokers. We found that after controlling for case-control status, education, alcohol consumption, and age, there were many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by smoking status than could be explained merely by chance. For both sexes we observed significantly increased consumption of fruits and higher vitamin A and fibre scores in non-smokers compared to current smokers (for any smoking vs non-smoking comparison the P-value was always less than 0.002, 0.01, and 0.007, respectively). A similar but weaker relationship was observed for high-fat, sweet foods such as ice cream. An inverse association, also of smaller magnitude, was found for other high-fat foods items. Implications for further study and strengths and weaknesses of the current study are discussed. PMID:2369884

  15. Dietary intake at competition in elite Olympic combat sports.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes' (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8-10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices. PMID:23980253

  16. Maternal dietary intake of choline in mice regulates development of the cerebral cortex in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Surzenko, Natalia; Friday, Walter B; Zeisel, Steven H

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diets low in choline, an essential nutrient, increase the risk of neural tube defects and lead to low performance on cognitive tests in children. However, the consequences of maternal dietary choline deficiency for the development and structural organization of the cerebral cortex remain unknown. In this study, we fed mouse dams either control (CT) or low-choline (LC) diets and investigated the effects of choline on cortical development in the offspring. As a result of a low choline supply between embryonic day (E)11 and E17 of gestation, the number of 2 types of cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)-radial glial cells and intermediate progenitor cells-was reduced in fetal brains (P< 0.01). Furthermore, the number of upper layer cortical neurons was decreased in the offspring of dams fed an LC diet at both E17 (P< 0.001) and 4 mo of age (P< 0.001). These effects of LC maternal diet were mediated by a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in NPCs related to the disruption of EGFR posttranscriptional regulation. Our findings describe a novel mechanism whereby low maternal dietary intake of choline alters brain development.-Wang, Y., Surzenko, N., Friday, W. B., Zeisel, S. H. Maternal dietary intake of choline in mice regulates development of the cerebral cortex in the offspring. PMID:26700730

  17. Using dietary reference intake-based methods to estimate prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among female students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual nutrient intake among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study in which 119 students at a public university in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, completed 3-day estimated food records. These were analyzed for nutrient content, and intake distributions were determined. Nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the National Research Council method. For nutrients for which an Estimated Average Requirement has been established, the Estimated Average Requirement cutpoint method was used to determine the proportion of students with inadequate intake. The students' food records indicated inadequate intakes of folate (99%), zinc (47%), and copper (33%). For approximately 95% of the students in this study, calcium was less than the Adequate Intake. The results showed the need for improvement in dietary choices to minimize the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate, zinc, copper, and calcium in this group. PMID:16647333

  18. Inadequate Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D Intake in Patients with Osteoporotic Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dong Sik; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake is a possible risk factor of osteoporosis. Our purposes were to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake in women with osteoporotic fractures, to determine associated factors for low calcium and vitamin D intake, and to evaluate the effects of calcium and vitamin D intake on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This is a multicenter, hospital-based, and cross-sectional study involving 277 women with osteoporotic fractures. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were evaluated using the Korean Calcium Assessment Tool (KCAT) self-reported questionnaire. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Results Average daily calcium and vitamin D intake was 503.7±274.7 mg and 7.5±12.6 µg, respectively. Patients with low calcium intake had less family history of osteoporosis and were older. There was a negative correlation between age and calcium intake (r=-0.14; P=0.019). In multivariate analysis, calcium intake showed a positive correlation with BMD of femoral neck (β=0.0005, P=0.021). Conclusions About 80% of patients with osteoporotic fracture had calcium and vitamin D intake below the recommended dietary intake. Low calcium intake was associated with no family history of osteoporosis and older age. Dietary calcium intake showed positive effect on BMD. PMID:27294077

  19. International project on human daily dietary intake of minor and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, V.

    1986-01-01

    A coordinate research program on dietary intake of nutrient and other elements initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently under way. The purpose of the core program of this project is to obtain reliable data on the average daily intakes of several important minor and trace elements in diets consumed in a number of developed and developing countries such as Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Italy, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, and Turkey. In the core program which will be collected for determination of the nutrient elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, iodine, selenium, and zinc, among others. The project also provides for the measurement of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in view of the biological significance of these elements as toxicants in the diet and includes estimation of the energy, phytate, and fiber components of the diet.

  20. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    PubMed Central

    Muscariello, Espedita; Nasti, Gilda; Siervo, Mario; Di Maro, Martina; Lapi, Dominga; D’Addio, Gianni; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women. Materials and methods A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM) was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex −0.071× age +5.102). Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2), as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2). A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104) was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50) administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins), and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54), for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up. Results The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the HPI sarcopenic group (NPI 6.98±0.1 vs 7.10±0.2 kg/m2, HPI 7.13±0.4 vs 6.96±0.1 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). Conclusion A diet moderately rich in proteins was able to preserve MM in sarcopenic women. Therefore, adequate protein intake could contribute to the prevention of lean-mass loss associated with weight reduction in obese older people. PMID:26917955

  1. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  2. Dietary intakes, resting metabolic rates, and body composition in benign and malignant gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, M; Bryson, E I; Kark, A E

    1980-01-01

    Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed in 42 patients with cancer and 24 with benign conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The relations of dietary intake to body composition was examined. Resulting metabolic rate was measured in 51 patients. No significant differences in dietary intake or metabolic rate were found between patients with cancer and those with benign disease. There were significant positive correlations between protein and energy intakes and the ratio of total body potassium to total body water in patients with benign disease but not in those with cancer. Weight loss was probably due to inadequate food intake, the main defect being energy deficiency, since protein intake was usually well maintained. Supplementing with energy the voluntary ingested diet of patients with cancer would probably prevent weight loss in most cases. PMID:7427083

  3. Examining differences in nutrient intake and dietary quality on weekdays versus weekend days in Canada.

    PubMed

    Yang, Penny H W; Black, Jennifer L; Barr, Susan I; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2014-12-01

    This study examined differences in dietary intake on weekdays versus weekends in Canada (n = 34,402) and found that energy intake was 62 ± 23 kcal higher, and dietary quality was slightly lower on weekends (p < 0.05). After energy adjustment, Canadians consumed 66% more alcohol, 10% more cholesterol, and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrates, protein, and most micronutrients (ranging from 2.0%-6.9% lower) on weekends. Findings suggest that Canadians consume a slightly less favourable nutrient profile and poorer dietary quality on weekends. PMID:25350458

  4. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

  5. Does the importance of dietary costs for fruit and vegetable intake vary by socioeconomic position?

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-11-14

    Evidence suggests that diets meeting recommendations for fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake are more costly. Dietary costs may be a greater constraint on the diet quality of people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP). The aim of this study was to examine whether dietary costs are more strongly associated with F&V intake in lower-SEP groups than in higher-SEP groups. Data on individual participants' education and income were available from a population-based, cross-sectional study of 10 020 British adults. F&V intake and dietary costs (GBP/d) were derived from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Dietary cost estimates were based on UK food prices. General linear models were used to assess associations between SEP, quartiles of dietary costs and F&V intake. Effect modification of SEP gradients by dietary costs was examined with interaction terms. Analysis demonstrated that individuals with lowest quartile dietary costs, low income and low education consumed less F&V than individuals with higher dietary costs, high income and high education. Significant interaction between SEP and dietary costs indicated that the association between dietary costs and F&V intake was stronger for less-educated and lower-income groups. That is, socioeconomic differences in F&V intake were magnified among individuals who consumed lowest-cost diets. Such amplification of socioeconomic inequalities in diet among those consuming low-cost diets indicates the need to address food costs in strategies to promote healthy diets. In addition, the absence of socioeconomic inequalities for individuals with high dietary costs suggests that high dietary costs can compensate for lack of other material, or psychosocial resources. PMID:26353803

  6. Development of a Polyamine Database for Assessing Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    ZOUMAS-MORSE, CHRISTINE; ROCK, CHERYL L.; QUINTANA, ELIZABETH L.; NEUHOUSER, MARIAN L.; GERNER, EUGENE W.; MEYSKENS, FRANK L.

    2010-01-01

    Reducing the concentration of polyamines (spermine, spermidine, and putrescine) in the body pool may slow the cancer process. Because dietary spermine, spermidine, and putrescine contribute to the body pool of polyamines, quantifying them in the diet is important. Limited information about polyamine content of food is available, especially for diets in the United States. This brief report describes the development of a polyamine database linked to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Values for spermine, spermidine, and putrescine were calculated and reported per serving size (nmol/serving). Of the foods from the database that were evaluated, fresh and frozen corn contain the highest levels of putrescine (560,000 nmol/serving and 902,880 nmol/serving) and spermidine (137,682 nmol/serving and 221,111 nmol/serving), and green pea soup contains the highest concentration of spermine (36,988 nmol/serving). The polyamine database and FFQ were tested with a convenience sample (n=165). Average daily polyamine intakes from the sample were: 159,133 nmol/day putrescine, 54,697 nmol/day spermidine, and 35,698 nmol/day spermine. Orange and grapefruit juices contributed the greatest amount of putrescine (44,441 nmol/day) to the diet. Green peas contributed the greatest amount of spermidine (3,283 nmol/day) and ground meat contributed the greatest amount of spermine (2,186 nmol/day). Development of this database linked to an FFQ provides a means of estimating polyamine intake and contributes to investigations relating polyamines to cancer. PMID:17524725

  7. Relation of dietary fat intake perception to nutritional status and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Yong, H Y; Zalilah, M S; Yap, L D

    2009-09-01

    Excess dietary fat intake is associated with many chronic diseases. This cross-sectional study determines the differences in nutritional status and diet-related psychosocial factors by accuracy levels of dietary fat intake perceptions among adults. A total of 202 Universiti Putra Malaysia staff (20-55 years old) volunteered to participate in the study. Dietary fat accuracy levels (under-estimate, accurate and over-estimate) were determined by assessing actual fat intake through 24-hour diet recall and self-rated fat intake. Diet-related psychosocial factors assessed were perceived risks, intention to change, outcome expectancies and perceived barriers. About half (49.5%) of the respondents were classified as accurate estimators, while 35.6% and 14.9% were under-estimators and over-estimators, respectively. Dietary fat intake differed significantly between the dietary fat accuracy groups with under-estimators having the highest amount of dietary fat intake (F=17.10; p<0.001) and percentage of fat calories (F=103.99 + 0.533%, p<0.001). Over-estimators had the highest mean BMI (F=3.11, p<0.05) compared to other groups. Among the fat accuracy groups, under-estimators reported the least barriers to eating low fat foods (F= 3.671, p<0.05). There were no significant differences in waist circumference, energy intake, perceived disease risks, intention to change and outcome expectancies among the dietary fat accuracy groups. These findings suggest that inaccurate perceptions of dietary fat intake should not be overlooked as one of the cognitive barriers to dietary change and factors that influence nutritional status among adults. PMID:22691817

  8. Excess dietary salt intake alters the excitability of central sympathetic networks.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Madden, Christopher J; Sved, Alan F

    2010-07-14

    The ingestion of excess dietary salt (defined as NaCl) is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, mortality, and is regarded as a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Although several mechanisms contribute to the adverse consequences of dietary salt intake, accumulating evidence suggests that dietary salt loading produces neurogenically-mediated increases in total peripheral resistance to raise arterial blood pressure (ABP). Evidence from clinical studies and experimental models clearly establishes a hypertensive effect of dietary salt loading in a subset of individuals who are deemed "salt-sensitive". However, we will discuss and present evidence to develop a novel hypothesis to suggest that while chronic increases in dietary salt intake do not elevate mean ABP in "non-salt-sensitive" animals, dietary salt intake does enhance several sympathetic reflexes thereby predisposing these animals and/or individuals to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Additional evidence raises an intriguing hypothesis that these enhanced sympathetic reflexes are largely attributed to the ability of excess dietary salt intake to selectively enhance the excitability of sympathetic-regulatory neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Insight into the cellular mechanisms by which dietary salt intake alters the responsiveness of RVLM circuits will likely provide a foundation for developing new therapeutic approaches to treat salt-sensitive hypertension. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20434471

  9. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    PubMed Central

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  10. Effects of dietary salt intake on plasma arginine.

    PubMed

    Kitiyakara, C; Chabrashvili, T; Jose, P; Welch, W J; Wilcox, C S

    2001-04-01

    Because L-arginine is degraded by hepatic arginase to ornithine and urea and is transported by the regulated 2A cationic amino acid y(+) transporter (CAT2A), hepatic transport may regulate plasma arginine concentration. Groups of rats (n = 6) were fed a diet of either low salt (LS) or high salt (HS) for 7 days to test the hypothesis that dietary salt intake regulates plasma arginine concentration and renal nitric oxide (NO) generation by measuring plasma arginine and ornithine concentrations, renal NO excretion, and expression of hepatic CAT2A, and arginase. LS rats had lower excretion of NO metabolites and cGMP, lower plasma arginine concentration (LS: 83 +/- 7 vs. HS: 165 +/- 10 micromol/l, P < 0.001), but higher plasma ornithine concentration (LS: 82 +/- 6 vs. HS: 66 +/- 4 micromol/l, P < 0.05) and urea excretion. However, neither the in vitro hepatic arginase activity nor the mRNA for hepatic arginase I was different between groups. In contrast, LS rats had twice the abundance of mRNA for hepatic CAT2A (LS: 3.4 +/- 0.4 vs. HS: 1.6 +/- 0.5, P < 0.05). The reduced plasma arginine concentration with increased plasma ornithine concentration and urea excretion during LS indicates increased arginine metabolism by arginase. This cannot be ascribed to changes in hepatic arginase expression but may be a consequence of increased hepatic arginine uptake via CAT2A. PMID:11247829

  11. Pattern of dietary carbohydrate intake among urbanized adult Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    AKAROLO-ANTHONY, SALLY N.; ODUBORE, FOLAKE O.; YILME, SUSAN; ARAGBADA, OMOLOLA; ODONYE, GEORGE; HU, FRANK; WILLETT, WALTER; SPIEGELMAN, DONNA; ADEBAMOWO, CLEMENT A.

    2013-01-01

    As the nutrition transition continues in Africa, it is crucial to identify population-specific dietary patterns. Healthy diets may then be promoted for prevention and alleviation of the chronic disease burden associated with nutrition. Using a semi-quantitate food frequency questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional study and computed the proportions of foods commonly consumed, and collected data on anthropometric characteristics. The median total energy intake per day from these carbohydrate sources was 1034 kcal (interquartile range (IOR) 621.5–1738.6 kcal). The main carbohydrate food eaten was rice (48.6%) followed by fufu (30.5%) and bread (13.1%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 63%, and 73% of the women in the study were either overweight or obese compared to 56% of men. Our study showed that parboiled long grain white rice is now the most commonly consumed carbohydrate by urbanized Nigerians. Other traditional carbohydrate foods are still consumed frequently and remain quite popular. PMID:23198770

  12. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Penagini, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Brunetti, Domenica; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Neurologically impaired (NI) children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children. PMID:26580646

  13. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency. PMID:27455794

  14. Obesity susceptibility loci and dietary intake in the Look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified consistent associations with obesity. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the association between obesity susceptibility loci and dietary intake. DESIGN: The association of GWAS-identifi...

  15. Dietary zinc intake of vegetarian and nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bakan, R; Birmingham, C L; Aeberhardt, L; Goldner, E M

    1993-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and zinc deficiency, found most frequently in young females, have a number of symptoms in common. These include weight loss, alterations in taste and appetite, depression, and amenorrhea. Approximately half of anorexia nervosa patients (ANs) are vegetarian (VANs), a practice that may increase their risk for zinc deficiency. This study compared the dietary intake of zinc and related nutrients in 9 outpatient VANs with that of 11 outpatient nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa (NVANs). VANs reported significantly lower (p < .05) dietary intakes of zinc, fat, and protein, and a significantly higher (p < .05) intake of calories from carbohydrates than NVANs. There were no significant differences between the groups in dietary intake of calories, calcium, copper, iron, or magnesium. These findings indicate that zinc intake should be routinely assessed in VANs and that zinc supplementation of their diets may be indicated. PMID:8477292

  16. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    PubMed

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  17. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    PubMed Central

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  18. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population. PMID:24869974

  19. Validation of dietary intake data in black women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amend, Allison; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A; Galasso, Pamela; Wylie-Rosett, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The validity of baseline dietary intake data in women participating in a culturally competent intervention study for black women with type 2 diabetes was assessed. The relationship of sociodemographic and physiologic factors with underreporting of dietary intake was determined. Criterion validity of dietary intake, which had been assessed using the Nutritionist Five Collection Form, a combination of a standard 2-day dietary recall and a modified, culturally appropriate food frequency questionnaire, was determined. Data were analyzed using First Data Bank Nutritionist Five (version 2.3, 2000, First Data Bank, San Bruno, CA) software. Validation of baseline dietary data in 109 women was performed by calculating the ratio of energy intake to resting metabolic rate. Chi(2) and t tests were used to assess relationships between underreporting and sociodemographic and physiologic factors. Mean ratio of energy intake to resting metabolic rate was 1.46 (+/-0.4). Using a lower limit of 1.35, the prevalence of underreporting was 46.8%. Underreporting was significantly associated with body mass index (P< or =0.001) and waist circumference (P<0.001). Use of this combined dietary recall and modified food frequency questionnaire might, therefore, provide more accurate dietary assessment in this population. Additional modification and validity testing is warranted in this and other populations. PMID:17197278

  20. Construction of an N-nitroso database for assessing dietary intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary N-nitroso compounds are carcinogens synthesized during food processing from two main classes of precursors, oxides of nitrogen and amines or amides. Quantification of the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds is significant to human cancers, including those of the stomach and upper gastro-in...

  1. Dietary Intake of Adults with Mental Retardation Who Reside in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    The dietary intake of adults with mental retardation among three different community residential settings was described and compared. Two dietary screeners were administered to 325 adults. The women's Fruit and Vegetable Screener scores from group homes were significantly higher than scores from those with family members and in semi-independent…

  2. Multivitamin/mineral Calculator for Assessing Nutrient Intake Using the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analytically-based Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database-Release One (DSID-1) was recently released to the scientific community and made publicly available through a web site hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Complete information on nutrient intake from both foods and dietary supplem...

  3. MyPyramid food intake pattern modeling for the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modeling analyses using the MyPyramid intake patterns were conducted in collaboration with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in response to their research questions and to determine likely effects of possible recommendations on overall dietary adequacy. Scenarios modeled included the fe...

  4. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk. PMID:27085960

  5. Dietary intakes of choline: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the choline intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to intake. The dietary data was from twenty-four hour recall provided by all 9,118 individuals who participated in What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007–2008. The analys...

  6. Dietary sources and determinants of soy isoflavone intake among midlife Chinese Women in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sieu-gaen; Ho, Suzanne C; Kreiger, Nancy; Darlington, Gerarda; So, Kam F; Chong, Portia Y Y

    2007-11-01

    The dietary sources, intake levels, and determinants of soy isoflavone intake were examined using 3217 dietary recalls (DR) collected from 141 Hong Kong Chinese women aged 50-61 y. Multiple-pass 24-h DR were administered by phone by trained interviewers on 23 random, nonconsecutive days to participants over a 12-mo period from 2001 to 2002. We calculated isoflavone intake using analytical values in the Chinese University of Hong Kong Soy Isoflavone Database. Results indicated that the daily intake of total isoflavones was 7.8 +/- 5.6 mg in the study population. Non-Cantonese women had a higher intake of 10.7 +/- 7.6 mg compared with 7.3 +/- 5.0 mg in Cantonese women (P = 0.04). Altogether, 22 foods contributed approximately 90% of the total isoflavone intake. Soft tofu alone accounted for approximately 21% of the isoflavone intake, followed by bean curd skin (7.1%), name-brand soybean milk (6.3%), homemade soybean milk (6.2%), and generic soybean milk (5.8%). Combined, these 5 food items contributed 46% of the total dietary isoflavones. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated dialect group, self-reported health, and age group were significant independent predictors of soy isoflavone consumption. The data provide the basis for elucidating the patterns, determinants, and assessment of dietary soy isoflavone intake in Asian women. PMID:17951484

  7. Inadequate dietary protein intake: When does it occur and what are the consequences?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work with country-level data has shown associations between inadequate protein supply and stunting rates. Inadequate protein intake is known to be deleterious in animals. Low dietary protein intake in children is associated with growth faltering. According to World Health Organization (WHO)...

  8. Intake of grains and dietary fiber and prostate cancer aggressiveness by race.

    PubMed

    Tabung, Fred; Steck, Susan E; Su, L Joseph; Mohler, James L; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Hebert, James R; Zhang, Hongmei; Arab, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the associations among intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans (AA, n = 930) and European Americans (EA, n = 993) in a population-based, case-only study (The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, PCaP). Methods. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was categorized as high, intermediate or low based on Gleason grade, PSA level and clinical stage. Dietary intake was assessed utilizing the NCI Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression (comparing high to intermediate/low aggressive cancers) and polytomous regression with adjustment for potential confounders were used to determine odds of high prostate cancer aggressiveness with intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber from all sources. Results. An inverse association with aggressive prostate cancer was observed in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of total fiber intake (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50-0.97 and OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93, resp.) as compared to the lowest tertile of intake. In the race-stratified analyses, inverse associations were observed in the 3rd tertile of total fiber intake for EA (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87) and the 2nd tertile of intake for AA (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.95). Conclusions. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer among both AA and EA men. PMID:23213538

  9. Intake of Grains and Dietary Fiber and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness by Race

    PubMed Central

    Tabung, Fred; Steck, Susan E.; Su, L. Joseph; Mohler, James L.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Hebert, James R.; Zhang, Hongmei; Arab, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the associations among intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans (AA, n = 930) and European Americans (EA, n = 993) in a population-based, case-only study (The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, PCaP). Methods. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was categorized as high, intermediate or low based on Gleason grade, PSA level and clinical stage. Dietary intake was assessed utilizing the NCI Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression (comparing high to intermediate/low aggressive cancers) and polytomous regression with adjustment for potential confounders were used to determine odds of high prostate cancer aggressiveness with intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber from all sources. Results. An inverse association with aggressive prostate cancer was observed in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of total fiber intake (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50–0.97 and OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.93, resp.) as compared to the lowest tertile of intake. In the race-stratified analyses, inverse associations were observed in the 3rd tertile of total fiber intake for EA (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.87) and the 2nd tertile of intake for AA (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35–0.95). Conclusions. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer among both AA and EA men. PMID:23213538

  10. Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model – Food Commodity Intake Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEEM is a dietary exposure analysis system for performing chronic and acute exposure assessments. DEEM employs Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) techniques in order to provide probabilistic assessments of dietary pesticide exposures when residue data for targeted foods are available as ...

  11. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. PMID:24553693

  12. Sleep Symptoms Associated with Intake of Specific Dietary Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007–2008 NHANES were used (N=4,552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally-representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, BMI and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were independently associated with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): Alpha-Carotene (OR=0.96), Selenium (OR=0.80), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.91), Calcium (OR=0.83), and Hexadecanoic Acid (OR=1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleep maintenance difficulties included: Salt (OR=1.19), Butanoic Acid (0,81), Carbohydrate (OR=0.71), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.90), Vitamin D (OR=0.84),, Lycopene (OR=0.98), Hexanoic Acid (OR= 1.25), and Moisture (OR=1.27). Nutrients that were independently associated with non-restorative sleep included Butanoic Acid (OR=1.09), Calcium (OR=0.81), Vitamin C (OR=0.92), Water (OR=0.98), Moisture (OR= 1.41), and Cholesterol (OR= 1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleepiness included: Moisture (OR=1.20), Theobromine (OR=1.04), Potassium (OR= 0.70), Water (OR=0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533

  13. 71. View of channel leading to the tunnel intake building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. View of channel leading to the tunnel intake building which is visible in the distance; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake. PMID:27121045

  15. Dietary intake in Australian children aged 4-24 months: consumption of meat and meat alternatives.

    PubMed

    Mauch, Chelsea Emma; Perry, R A; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2015-06-14

    Meat/meat alternatives (M/MA) are key sources of Fe, Zn and protein, but intake tends to be low in young children. Australian recommendations state that Fe-rich foods, including M/MA, should be the first complementary foods offered to infants. The present paper reports M/MA consumption of Australian infants and toddlers, compares intake with guidelines, and suggests strategies to enhance adherence to those guidelines. Mother-infant dyads recruited as part of the NOURISH and South Australian Infants Dietary Intake studies provided 3 d of intake data at three time points: Time 1 (T1) (n 482, mean age 5·5 (SD 1·1) months), Time 2 (T2) (n 600, mean age 14·0 (SD 1·2) months) and Time 3 (T3) (n 533, mean age 24 (SD 0·7) months). Of 170 infants consuming solids and aged greater than 6 months at T1, 50 (29%) consumed beef, lamb, veal (BLV) or pork on at least one of 3 d. Commercial infant foods containing BLV or poultry were the most common form of M/MA consumed at T1, whilst by T2 BLV mixed dishes (including pasta bolognaise) became more popular and remained so at T3. The processed M/MA increased in popularity over time, led by pork (including ham). The present study shows that M/MA are not being eaten by Australian infants or toddlers regularly enough; or in adequate quantities to meet recommendations; and that the form in which these foods are eaten can lead to smaller M/MA serve sizes and greater Na intake. Parents should be encouraged to offer M/MA in a recognisable form, as one of the first complementary foods, in order to increase acceptance at a later age. PMID:25902735

  16. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    PubMed

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21554818

  17. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and estrogen receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Holford, Theodore R.; Zhang, Yawei; Boyle, Peter; Mayne, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the hypothesis that relation of breast cancer associated with dietary fiber intakes varies by type of fiber, menopausal, and the tumor’s hormone receptor status. Methods A case-control study of female breast cancer was conducted in Connecticut. A total of 557 incident breast cancer cases and 536 age frequency-matched controls were included in the analysis. Information on dietary intakes was collected through in-person interviews with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and was converted into nutrient intakes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results Among pre-menopausal women, higher intake of soluble fiber (highest versus lowest quartile of intake) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15–0.97, Ptrend = 0.08). When further restricted to pre-menopausal women with ER− tumors, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile of intake was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.03–0.69, Ptrend = 0.02) for soluble fiber intake. Among post-menopausal women, no reduced risk of breast cancer was observed for either soluble or insoluble fiber intakes or among ER+ or ER− tumor groups. Conclusions The results from this study show that dietary soluble fiber intake is associated with a significantly reduced risk of ER− breast cancer among pre-menopausal women. Additional studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22350922

  18. Type D personality and dietary intake: The mediating effects of coping style.

    PubMed

    Booth, Lorna; Williams, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Type D and dietary intake and to determine whether this relationship is mediated by coping. In a cross-sectional study, 187 healthy participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring Type D personality, dietary intake and coping. Results showed that Type D was associated with maladaptive coping and significantly less healthy food intake, including more consumption of fat and sugar, and significantly less consumption of fruit and vegetables. Regression analyses showed that this relationship was partially mediated by coping. The results suggest that Type D personality may represent a risk factor for unhealthy eating. PMID:26032807

  19. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  20. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions. PMID:25851731

  1. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  2. An overview of the state of the art of automated capture of dietary intake information.

    PubMed

    Steele, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Significant benefits arise from being able to capture dietary or nutritional intake information automatically or semi-automatically. These include the ability for individuals to know and understand their nutritional intake and hence improve their diet and health. To date, only highly manual processes such as 24-hour recall, food diaries, and food journals have been utilized which have been overly cumbersome for widespread adoption. Emerging informatics, computer vision, mobile computing, and sensor-based approaches are likely to play a role in further automating the capture of dietary intake information and these are becoming increasingly utilizable through such advents as the rapid and ubiquitous uptake of smartphones with built-in digital cameras and other sensors. In this paper, we review the state of the art of technologies for automatic capture of dietary intake information and identify significant outstanding research problems and promising directions. PMID:24950017

  3. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely <0.25 g (100 mg), normal (physiological) intake <2.5 g (1000 mg), recommended intake <5.0 g (2000 mg), high ≥5.0 g (2000 mg), very high >10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if <2.5 g (1000 mg), moderate if 2.5 to 5.0 g (1000-2000 mg) and large if >5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium. PMID:25413335

  4. Dietary fat intakes in Irish adults in 2011: how much has changed in 10 years?

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; McNulty, Breige A; Tiernery, Ann M; Devlin, Niamh F C; Joyce, Triona; Leite, Joao C; Flynn, Albert; Walton, Janette; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P

    2016-05-01

    Imbalances in dietary fat intakes are linked to several chronic diseases. This study describes dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in 1051 Irish adults (aged 18-90 years), using data from the 2011 national food consumption survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey. It also compares current intakes for 18-64-year-olds with those reported in the last such survey in 2001, the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey. Dietary fat intakes were estimated using data from 4-d semi-weighed (2011) and 7-d estimated (2001) food diaries. In 2011, intakes for 18-64-year-olds were as follows: total fat, 34·1 (sd 6·1) % total energy (%TE); SFA, 13·3 (sd 3·3) %TE; MUFA, 12·5 (sd 2·6) %TE; PUFA, 6·1 (sd 2·2) %TE; and trans-fat, 0·511 (sd 0·282) %TE. Apart from MUFA, intakes decreased (P65 years had the highest intakes of SFA; however, intakes were typically higher than UK-recommended values for all groups. In contrast, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids were lowest in younger age groups. Intakes of trans-fat were well within UK-recommended levels. Although there have been some improvements in the profile of intakes since 2001, imbalances persist in the quantity and quality of dietary fat consumed by Irish adults, most notably for total and SFA and for younger age groups for long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PMID:26996058

  5. Dietary phytoestrogen intake and mammographic density -- results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Gabriele; Mack, U; von Fournier, D; Linseisen, J

    2005-09-12

    The influence of dietary phytoestrogens provided by Western diets on mammographic density is not well established. Soy and soy products as source of isoflavones were found to be inversely associated with high mammographic density, a marker for breast cancer risk. Another class of phytoestrogens, the lignans, which are more frequent in Western diets, are rarely investigated. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Heidelberg (EPIC-Heidelberg) we explored the feasibility of mammogram collection and measurement of mammographic density in order to investigate the association between dietary phytoestrogen intake and breast density patterns. Wolfe classification was used to summarize mammographic density. Dietary habits were assessed by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. - Out of the 505 randomly selected women, 317 (63%) returned the questionnaire and 310 (61.4%) women provided informed consent to collect mammograms. Dietary intake of seven women with dense patterns (DY) was compared with 47 women without dense patterns. A high dietary intake of fibre (p-value = 0.008) and secoisolariciresinol (p-value = 0.043) is inversely associated with non-dense breast patterns. This is also observed for a high dietary intake of soy-products (p-value = 0.004) and, in tendency, genistein (p-value = 0.069). After adjustment for energy intake and age the groups of dense and non-dense mammographic patterns were different regarding the intake of carbohydrate (p = 0.032), soy-products (p = 0.020), fibre (p = 0.046), and secoisolariciresinol (p = 0.027). - Our results suggest an inverse association between dietary lignan intake and breast density, similar to the findings for isoflavones. To our knowledge this is the first report on this association, but due to the risk of chance finding, this has to be confirmed in a study with sufficient statistical power. PMID:16183551

  6. Disclosure of Genetic Information and Change in Dietary Intake: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Daiva E.; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of consumer genetic tests claim that the information can positively impact health behaviors and aid in chronic disease prevention. However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear. Methods A double-blinded, parallel group, 2∶1 online randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the short- and long-term effects of disclosing nutrition-related genetic information for personalized nutrition on dietary intakes of caffeine, vitamin C, added sugars, and sodium. Participants were healthy men and women aged 20–35 years (n = 138). The intervention group (n = 92) received personalized DNA-based dietary advice for 12-months and the control group (n = 46) received general dietary recommendations with no genetic information for 12-months. Food frequency questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3- and 12-months after the intervention to assess dietary intakes. General linear models were used to compare changes in intakes between those receiving general dietary advice and those receiving DNA-based dietary advice. Results Compared to the control group, no significant changes to dietary intakes of the nutrients were observed at 3-months. At 12-months, participants in the intervention group who possessed a risk version of the ACE gene, and were advised to limit their sodium intake, significantly reduced their sodium intake (mg/day) compared to the control group (−287.3±114.1 vs. 129.8±118.2, p = 0.008). Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: −244.2±150.2, p = 0.11). Among those with the risk version of the ACE gene, the proportion who met the targeted recommendation of 1500 mg/day increased from 19% at baseline to 34% after 12 months (p = 0.06). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes

  7. Picky eating in preschool children: Associations with dietary fibre intakes and stool hardness.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Northstone, Kate; Wernimont, Susan M; Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-05-01

    It has been suggested that constipation may be associated with picky eating. Constipation is a common condition in childhood and a low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. Differences in fibre intake between picky and non-picky children and its relation to stool consistency is currently not well-understood. Children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children identified as picky eaters (PE) were compared with non-picky eaters (NPE): (1) to determine dietary fibre intake at 38 months; (2) to investigate whether any difference in dietary fibre intake was predictive of usual stool hardness at 42 months. PE was identified from questionnaires at 24 and 38 months. Usual stool hardness was identified from a questionnaire at 42 months. Dietary intake was assessed at 38 months with a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre intake was lower in PE than NPE (mean difference -1.4 (95% CI -1.6, -1.2) g/day, p < 0.001). PE was strongly associated with dietary fibre intake (adjusted regression model; unstandardised B -1.44 (95% CI -1.62, -1.24) g/day, p < 0.001). PE had a lower percentage of fibre from vegetables compared with NPE (8.9% vs 15.7%, respectively, p < 0.001). There was an association between PE and usually having hard stools (adjusted multinomial model; OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07, 1.61; p = 0.010). This was attenuated when dietary fibre was included in the model, suggesting that fibre intake mediated the association (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94, 1.43, p = 0.180). Picky eating in 3-year-old children was associated with an increased prevalence of usually having hard stools. This association was mediated by low dietary fibre intake, particularly from vegetables, in PE. For children with PE, dietary advice aimed at increasing fibre intake may help avoid hard stools. PMID:26879221

  8. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake of children can be challenging due to the limited reliability of current dietary assessment methods in children. While plasma carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in chi...

  9. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23608001

  10. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  11. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  12. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  13. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  14. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because 1) they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, 2) lead adsorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult, and 3) the child's development is more vulnerable ...

  15. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n=5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (p<0.001), and men had higher intakes than women (p=0.017). According to Institute of Medicine's specification, we estimate that nearly 45% of Irish women need supplemental intake of 500 mg daily but <4% need supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  16. Why can't we control our food intake? The downside of dietary variety on learned satiety responses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley A

    2016-08-01

    A striking feature of the modern food environment is the sheer amount of dietary choice available to the individual. In addition to an endless variety of highly palatable and energy dense foods, efforts to combat obesity have resulted in the production of several low- and reduced-calorie versions of these foods that are marketed to consumers. As a result, we are now confronted with a staggering amount of 'dietary variability'-the same food item can be obtained in a variety of different energy densities. This is a concern because evidence in rodents suggests that this kind of dietary variability can compromise one of the major cognitive determinants of food intake among non-human animals-flavor-nutrient satiety learning. Flavor-nutrient satiety learning enables animals to learn about the energy content or satiating quality of the foods they consume and adjust their intake to fit their energy needs. Notably, evidence suggests that dietary variability can disrupt this kind of learning, leading to overeating and weight gain. Here, I discuss the utility of flavor-nutrient satiety learning in human dietary behavior, highlighting certain features of the modern environment that can be disruptive to the acquisition of this kind of learning in humans. Special emphasis is placed on dietary variability, however I also highlight other aspects of the environment that can undermine this kind of learning, such as competition from other satiety-relevant cues (i.e., food labels), detrimental effects of Western diets on food-related cognitive processing, and the abundance of macronutrients that are inadequate at supporting learned satiety responses. The goal of this work is to highlight novel ways in which the environment may disrupt food-relevant learning and energy intake, and to provide some explanation for the elusive nature of flavor-nutrient learning in humans. PMID:27074352

  17. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Several observational studies have investigated the relation of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinone intake with occurrence of chronic diseases. Most of these studies relied on food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to estimate the intake of phylloquinone and menaquinones. However, none of...

  18. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  19. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  20. Analysis of dietary intake of selected metals in the NHEXAS-Maryland investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, P B; Scanlon, K A; MacIntosh, D L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a large pilot investigation of multimedia exposure to several classes of environmental contaminants, the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)-Maryland study, we collected 388 semiquantitative food checklists and duplicate diet solid food samples, analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead concentrations, from 80 individuals in Maryland in 1995-1996 in a repeated measures design. Here we explore several methods to infer foods most strongly associated with concentrations of these metals observed in the duplicate diet in our data set. We employed two techniques in which logarithmically transformed metal concentrations in the duplicate diet were regressed on individual food item consumption using algorithms designed to identify the foods most associated with the observed duplicate diet concentrations. We also employed an alternative strategy in which foods to be used as independent variables in regression were selected using data collected in national food consumption and residue surveys, with regression procedures proceeding with the selected foods in a similar manner. The concordance of foods selected as major predictors among these three techniques is noteworthy and is discussed. Finally, the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) was used with the Dietary Checklist data to predict duplicate diet concentrations within our sample. A comparison between the predicted values and those observed gave R(2) values of 0.180, 0.206, and 0.076 for As, Cd, and Pb, respectively (p < 0.0001 in all cases). We discuss the significance of these observations and the implications for dietary-exposure-based risk analysis and dietary intake epidemiology. PMID:11266320

  1. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary isoflavone intake during two randomized soy trials (13-24 months) among 256 premenopausal women with a total of 1,385 repeated urine samples. Participants consumed a high-soy diet (2 servings/day) and a low-soy diet (<3 servings/week), completed 7 unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls, and donated repeated urine samples, which were analyzed for isoflavonoid excretion by liquid chromatography methods. We computed Spearman correlation coefficients and applied logistic regression to estimate the area under the curve. Median overall daily dietary isoflavone intakes at baseline, during low- and high-soy diet were 2.3, 0.2, and 60.4 mg aglycone equivalents, respectively. The corresponding urinary isoflavonoid excretion values were 0.4, 1.0, and 32.4 nmol/mg creatinine. Across diets, urinary isoflavonoid excretion was significantly associated with dietary isoflavone intake (rs=0.51, AUC=0.85; p<0.0001) but not within diet periods (rs=0.05-0.06, AUC=0.565-0.573). Urinary isoflavonoid excretion is an excellent biomarker to discriminate between low- and high-soy diets across populations, but the association with dietary isoflavone intake is weak when the range of soy intake is small. PMID:24901088

  2. EFFECTS OF DIETARY FLAVONOIDS INTAKE IN SAUDI PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa A.; Alhamdan, Adel A.H.; Alorf, Saada; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Alawami, Shatha

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary intake of flavonoids and their effect on serum lipid levels in Saudi patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methodology: A cross-sectional study with a sample of 50 CHD patients and 50 controls. A 24-hour recall method was used to collect data on the dietary intake of macronutrients, flavonoids, and antioxidant vitamins. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect data on habitual consumption during the year preceding the interview. Baseline data collection included medical history, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, and smoking status. Results: CHD patients showed significantly less intake of fruits and vegetables compared to the controls. Serum lipids including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were found to be significantly higher in CHD patients than in the controls. The main sources of flavonoids in a typical Saudi diet are tea, fruits (apples), vegetables (onions), and chocolate. The intake of flavonoids and antioxidant vitamins was significantly lower in CHD patients compared to the controls. A negative correlation between the dietary intake of different flavonoids and serum LDL was observed in CHD patients. Significant correlation was found between the intake of flavonol and waist to hip ratio Conclusions: The findings of the study support a potential protective effect of dietary flavonoids in relation to CHD. The study showed that consuming more Flavonoids may have positive effect on lowering blood lipids. PMID:23012157

  3. The Family-Home Nutrition Environment and Dietary Intake in Rural Children

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jennifer A.; Smit, Ellen; Manore, Melinda M.; John, Deborah; Gunter, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars) in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102). Parents/caregivers completed surveys on FN, food insecurity, and the Block Kids Food Screener (BKFS). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated from measured height and weight. Approximately 33% of children were classified as overweight/obese and 28% of families were at-risk for food insecurity. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between dietary intakes with FN and food insecurity. More favorable FN scores were associated with lower added sugar intake (B = −1.38, p = 0.04) and higher vegetable (B = 0.15, p < 0.001), fruit (B = 0.71, p = 0.01), and dairy (B = 0.31, p < 0.001) intakes. No significant associations were found between food insecurity and dietary intake. Given the association between higher FN scores and more favorable dietary intake, promoting healthy FN environments among rural children is warranted. PMID:26610566

  4. Inappropriate Feeding Behaviors and Dietary Intakes in Children with FASD or Probable PAE

    PubMed Central

    Werts, Rachel L.; Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Wargowski, David S.; Smith, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a leading cause of significant neurobehavioral and neurocognitive deficits. Its potential consequences for eating behaviors, nutritional status and other nutritional issues in childhood have received little attention. Methods Nineteen children (11 male, 8 female) of mean age 9.6 years, referred for FASD screening and assessment, were analyzed with physical exams and caregiver questionnaires to identify possible abnormalities in food and eating behaviors. Fourteen children contributed 24-hour diet recalls and were assessed for nutritional status. Results Seventy-nine percent of participants were diagnosed with FASD and 63.2% had confirmed PAE. Fifty percent of females were overweight or obese, whereas 37% of males had reduced stature, weight, or BMI for their age. Recurring feeding problems included constant snacking (36.8%), lack of satiety (26.3%), and picky eating/poor appetite (31.6%). None had oral feeding problems. Constipation was common (26.3%). Macronutrient intakes were largely normal but sugar consumption was excessive (140%-190% of recommendations) in 57% of subjects. Vitamin A intake exceeded the Upper Limit for 64% of participants, whereas ≥50% had intakes <80% of RDAs for choline, vitamin E, potassium, β-carotene, and essential fatty acids; 100% had vitamin D intakes <80% of the RDA. Conclusions PAE may be associated with altered acquisition and distribution of body mass with increasing age. Disordered eating was common. The increased feeding behaviors surrounding lack of satiety suggest self-regulation may be altered. Constipation could reflect low dietary fiber or altered gastrointestinal function. These exploratory data suggest that children with PAE may be at risk for nutritional deficiencies, which are influenced by inappropriate food preferences, disordered eating patterns, medication use, and the stressful dynamics surrounding food preparation and mealtime. PMID:24164456

  5. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Vega-López, Sonia; Pignotti, Giselle A. P.; Todd, Michael; Keller, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern. PMID:26445060

  6. Interaction Between Dietary Vitamin K Intake and Anticoagulation by Vitamin K Antagonists: Is It Really True?

    PubMed Central

    Violi, Francesco; Lip, Gregory YH; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Pastori, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Educational advice is often given to patients starting treatment with vitamin K Antagonists (VKAs). A great emphasis is made on nutritional information. Common belief is that dietary vitamin K intake could counteract the anticoagulant effect by VKAs and for many years, patients have been discouraged to consume vitamin-K-rich foods, such as green leafy vegetables. The objective of this study is to summarize the current evidence supporting the putative interaction between dietary vitamin K intake and changes in INR with the VKAs. Data sources are MEDLINE via PubMed and Cochrane database. All clinical studies investigating the relationship between dietary vitamin K and measures of anticoagulation were included. We excluded all studies of supplementation of vitamin K alone. We performed a systematic review of the literature up to October 2015, searching for a combination of “food,” “diet,” “vitamin K,” “phylloquinone,” “warfarin,” “INR,” “coagulation,” and “anticoagulant.” Two dietary interventional trials and 9 observational studies were included. We found conflicting evidence on the effect of dietary intake of vitamin K on coagulation response. Some studies found a negative correlation between vitamin K intake and INR changes, while others suggested that a minimum amount of vitamin K is required to maintain an adequate anticoagulation. Median dietary intake of vitamin K1 ranged from 76 to 217 μg/day among studies, and an effect on coagulation may be detected only for high amount of vitamin intake (>150 μg/day). Most studies included patients with various indications for VKAs therapy, such as atrial fibrillation, prosthetic heart valves, and venous thromboembolism. Thus, INR target was dishomogeneous and no subanalyses for specific populations or different anticoagulants were conducted. Measures used to evaluate anticoagulation stability were variable. The available evidence does not support current advice to modify

  7. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home

  8. Dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation in hungarian patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Speer, Gábor; Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy-when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81-68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81-68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81-68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium-from both dietary intake and supplementation-was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000-1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

  9. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

  10. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index: insights from 177 330 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Downer, Mary K.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Smith, Caren E.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Sonestedt, Emily; Chu, Audrey Y.; Renström, Frida; Lin, Xiaochen; Ängquist, Lars H.; Huang, Jinyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Yanping; Asif Ali, Muhammad; Xu, Min; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Chen, Peng; Daimon, Makoto; Eriksson, Johan; Perola, Markus; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Heppe, Denise H.M.; Holloway, John W.; Houston, Denise K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kim, Yu-Mi; Laaksonen, Maarit A.; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Lee, Nanette R.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Lu, Wei; Luben, Robert N.; Manichaikul, Ani; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Monda, Keri L.; Ngwa, Julius S.; Perusse, Louis; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Wojczynski, Mary K; Zhu, Jingwen; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bouchard, Claude; Cai, Qiuyin; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita G.; Hansen, Torben; Christiansen, Lene; Hofman, Albert; Johansson, Ingegerd; Jørgensen, Torben; Karasawa, Shigeru; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kristiansson, Kati; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt K.; Long, Jirong; Mikkilä, Vera; Mozaffarian, Dariush; North, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf; Raitakari, Olli; Rissanen, Harri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Franco, Oscar H.; Shyong Tai, E.; Ou Shu, Xiao; Siscovick, David S.; Toft, Ulla; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Zheng, Wei; Ridker, Paul M.; Kang, Jae H.; Liang, Liming; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Hunter, David J.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Uusitupa, Matti; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rankinen, Tuomo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Wang, Tao; Chasman, Daniel I.; Franks, Paul W.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Hu, Frank B.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Qi, Lu

    2014-01-01

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177 330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m2, P = 1.9 × 10−105), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m2, P = 3.6 × 10−107). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10−16), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (−6.4 [−10.1, −2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (−0.07 [−0.11, −0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10−9) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity. PMID:25104851

  11. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index: insights from 177,330 individuals.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Downer, Mary K; Tanaka, Toshiko; Smith, Caren E; Sluijs, Ivonne; Sonestedt, Emily; Chu, Audrey Y; Renström, Frida; Lin, Xiaochen; Ängquist, Lars H; Huang, Jinyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Yanping; Asif Ali, Muhammad; Xu, Min; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Boer, Jolanda M A; Chen, Peng; Daimon, Makoto; Eriksson, Johan; Perola, Markus; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Heppe, Denise H M; Holloway, John W; Houston, Denise K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kim, Yu-Mi; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Lee, Nanette R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lu, Wei; Luben, Robert N; Manichaikul, Ani; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Monda, Keri L; Ngwa, Julius S; Perusse, Louis; van Rooij, Frank J A; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Wojczynski, Mary K; Zhu, Jingwen; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bouchard, Claude; Cai, Qiuyin; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita G; Hansen, Torben; Christiansen, Lene; Hofman, Albert; Johansson, Ingegerd; Jørgensen, Torben; Karasawa, Shigeru; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kristiansson, Kati; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt K; Long, Jirong; Mikkilä, Vera; Mozaffarian, Dariush; North, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf; Raitakari, Olli; Rissanen, Harri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Uitterlinden, André G; Zillikens, M Carola; Franco, Oscar H; Shyong Tai, E; Ou Shu, Xiao; Siscovick, David S; Toft, Ulla; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zheng, Wei; Ridker, Paul M; Kang, Jae H; Liang, Liming; Jensen, Majken K; Curhan, Gary C; Pasquale, Louis R; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Uusitupa, Matti; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rankinen, Tuomo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Wang, Tao; Chasman, Daniel I; Franks, Paul W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Hu, Frank B; Loos, Ruth J F; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Qi, Lu

    2014-12-20

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177,330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m(2), P = 1.9 × 10(-105)), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m(2), P = 3.6 × 10(-107)). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10(-16)), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (-6.4 [-10.1, -2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (-0.07 [-0.11, -0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10(-9)) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity. PMID:25104851

  12. Intakes of dietary folate and other B vitamins are associated with risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, and reflux esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Linda; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Cantwell, Marie M; Anderson, Lesley A; Murray, Liam J

    2013-12-01

    Folate is implicated in carcinogenesis via effects on DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Efficient folate metabolism requires other B vitamins and is adversely affected by smoking and alcohol. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) may develop through a process involving inflammation [reflux esophagitis (RE)] leading to metaplasia [Barrett's esophagus (BE)] and carcinoma. Within a population-based, case-control study, we investigated associations between dietary folate and related factors and risks of EAC, BE, and RE. EAC and BE cases had histologically confirmed disease; RE cases had endoscopically visible inflammation. Controls, age-sex frequency matched to EAC cases, were selected through population and general practice registers. Participants underwent structured interviews and completed food-frequency questionnaires. Multivariate ORs and 95% CIs were computed using logistic regression. A total of 256 controls and 223 EAC, 220 BE, and 219 RE cases participated. EAC risk decreased with increasing folate intake (OR highest vs. lowest = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31, 1.00; P-trend < 0.01). Similar trends were found for BE (P-trend < 0.01) and RE (P-trend = 0.01). Vitamin B-6 intake was significantly inversely related to risks of all 3 lesions. Riboflavin intake was inversely associated with RE. Vitamin B-12 intake was positively associated with EAC. For EAC, there was a borderline significant interaction between folate intake and smoking (P-interaction = 0.053); compared with nonsmokers with high (≥ median) folate intake, current smokers with low intakes (dietary methyl-group factors are implicated in the etiology of EAC and its precursors. PMID:24132576

  13. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  14. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern

    PubMed Central

    Wehmeyer, Malte H.; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany. Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake. NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001). Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  15. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Wehmeyer, Malte H; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany.Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake.NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001).Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  16. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  17. Comparison of the dietary cobalt intake in three different Australian diets.

    PubMed

    Hokin, Bevan; Adams, Michelle; Ashton, John; Louie, Honway

    2004-01-01

    Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is no RDI for cobalt, however, the cobalt intake of Australians was similar to that reported in other countries. Microflora above the terminal ileum have been shown to produce significant amounts of biologically available vitamin B12. This study was unable to demonstrate a correlation between elemental cobalt intake and serum vitamin B12 concentrations in humans, as has been shown in vitro. PMID:15331342

  18. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  19. Dietary Carbohydrate Intake Does Not Impact Insulin Resistance or Androgens in Healthy, Eumenorrheic Women

    PubMed Central

    Schisterman, Enrique F.; Schliep, Karen C.; Plowden, Torie; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Yeung, Edwina; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Diet is proposed to contribute to androgen-related reproductive dysfunction. Objective: This study evaluated the association between dietary macronutrient intake, carbohydrate fraction intake, and overall diet quality on androgens and related hormones, including anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and insulin, in healthy, regularly menstruating women. Design: This was a prospective cohort study from 2005 and 2007. Setting: The study was conducted at the University at Buffalo, western New York State, USA. Participants: Participants were 259 eumenorrheic women without a self-reported history of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or other endocrine disorder. Main Outcome Measures: A 24-hour dietary recall was administered 4 times per menstrual cycle, and hormones were measured 5 to 8 times per cycle for 1 (n = 9) or 2 (n = 250) cycles per woman (n = 509 cycles). Associations between the dietary intake of carbohydrates (starch, sugar, sucrose, and fiber), macronutrients, overall diet quality and hormones (insulin, AMH, and total and free testosterone), as well as the relationship of dietary intake with occurrences of high total testosterone combined with high AMH (fourth quartile of each), ie, the “PCOS-like phenotype,” were assessed. Results: No significant relationships were identified between dietary intake of carbohydrates, percent calories from any macronutrient or overall diet quality (ie, Mediterranean diet score) and relevant hormones (insulin, AMH, and total and free testosterone). Likewise, no significant relationships were identified between dietary factors and the occurrence of a subclinical PCOS-like phenotype. Conclusions: Despite evidence of a subclinical continuum of a PCOS-related phenotype of elevated androgens and AMH related to sporadic anovulation identified in previous studies, dietary carbohydrate and diet quality do not appear to relate to these subclinical endocrine characteristics in women without overt PCOS. PMID:26066675

  20. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Pantavos, Athanasios; Ruiter, Rikje; Feskens, Edith F; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-05-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly. PMID:25284450

  1. Is socioeconomic status associated with dietary sodium intake in Australian children? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Carley A; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and dietary sodium intake, and to identify if the major dietary sources of sodium differ by socioeconomic group in a nationally representative sample of Australian children. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Participants A total of 4487 children aged 2–16 years completed all components of the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sodium intake was determined via one 24 h dietary recall. The population proportion formula was used to identify the major sources of dietary salt. SES was defined by the level of education attained by the primary carer. In addition, parental income was used as a secondary indicator of SES. Results Dietary sodium intake of children of low SES background was 2576 (SEM 42) mg/day (salt equivalent 6.6 (0.1) g/day), which was greater than that of children of high SES background 2370 (35) mg/day (salt 6.1 (0.1) g/day; p<0.001). After adjustment for age, gender, energy intake and body mass index, low SES children consumed 195 mg/day (salt 0.5 g/day) more sodium than high SES children (p<0.001). Low SES children had a greater intake of sodium from processed meat, gravies/sauces, pastries, breakfast cereals, potatoes and potato snacks (all p<0.05). Conclusions Australian children from a low SES background have on average a 9% greater intake of sodium from food sources compared with those from a high SES background. Understanding the socioeconomic patterning of salt intake during childhood should be considered in interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease. PMID:23396559

  2. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third-Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third-graders residing in three rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved their dietary intake. METHODS Dietary intake was measured for 238 third-graders at the beginning of the 2007-2008 school year and for 224 third-graders at the end of that year. The FoodMASTER curriculum was delivered to 204 students (test group). Intake was measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire 2004. The final analysis included 138 students. RESUTS The FoodMASTER curriculum did not significantly affect the diets of the students in the test group, as no significant differences in intake of macronutrients, specific nutrients, or food groups were found between the test and control groups. Majorities of students did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intakes for fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin E. The students as a whole did not meet the MyPyramid recommendations for any food group, and nearly one-fifth of their calories came from sweets. Significant differences in percentages of kilocalories from protein and sweets and in servings of fats, oils, and sweets were seen between groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Energy-dense foods are replacing healthy foods in the diets of Ohio children living in rural Appalachia. The prevalence of poor dietary intake in Appalachia warrants further nutrition interventions involving programming for nutrition, such as future FoodMASTER curricula. PMID:21039552

  3. Estimated dietary phytoestrogen intake and major food sources among women during the year before pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phytoestrogens may be associated with a variety of different health outcomes, including outcomes related to reproductive health. Recently published data on phytoestrogen content of a wide range of foods provide an opportunity to improve estimation of dietary phytoestrogen intake. Methods Using the recently published data, we estimated intake among a representative sample of 6,584 women of reproductive age from a multi-site, population-based case-control study, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). The NBDPS uses a shortened version of the Willett food frequency questionnaire to estimate dietary intake during the year before pregnancy. We estimated intake among NBDPS control mothers. Results Lignans contributed 65% of total phytoestrogen intake; isoflavones, 29%; and coumestrol, 5%. Top contributors to total phytoestrogen intake were vegetables (31%) and fruit (29%); for isoflavones, dairy (33%) and fruit (21%); for lignans, vegetables (40%) and fruit (29%); and for coumestans, fruit (55%) and dairy (18%). Hispanic women had higher phytoestrogen intake than non-Hispanic white or black women. Associations with maternal age and folic acid-containing supplements were more modest but indicated that older mothers and mothers taking supplements had higher intake. Conclusions The advantage of the approach used for the current analysis lies in its utilization of phytoestrogen values derived from a single laboratory that used state-of-the-art measurement techniques. The database we developed can be applied directly to other studies using food frequency questionnaires, especially the Willett questionnaire. The database, combined with consistent dietary intake assessment, provides an opportunity to improve our ability to understand potential associations of phytoestrogen intake with health outcomes. PMID:21978267

  4. Dietary intake and nutritional status of HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Florianopolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation. PMID:24352121

  5. Dietary and supplementary intake of nutrients by patients with gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Harju, E

    1986-12-01

    The dietary and supplementary intake of food, energy, and nutrients were examined in 54 patients after various gastrointestinal operations and in 33 patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer, or undefined abdominal pain. Forty-six of the operated and 21 of the nonoperated patients had to avoid certain foods (p less than 0.001, chi 2-test), mainly milk, beans, cabbage and other vegetables, bread, and fried foods. Only a few patients got discomfort from coffee, fatty foods, and meat. The intake of energy was at the level of light physical work. The dietary intake of iron, vitamin A, and niacin did not reach the level of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). One-half of the patients used vitamins and supplements, which increased their intake over the level of RDA. It is important to inform patients before operations about the possibility of persistent abdominal symptoms after the operation. PMID:3805666

  6. Could a specific dietary intake be a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma?

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Clarissa B; Bonamigo, Renan R; Segatto, Majoriê M; Costa, Manuela M; Mastroeni, Simona; Fortes, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has increased in the last decade. Some risk factors are well known, but there are other possible risk factors being studied, such as those involving nutrition. The objective of this case-control study was to assess the association between diet and CM. Classical risk factors, dietary intake, and body mass index were assessed. Binary logistic regression was used to study the association between dietary intake and the risk for CM. Classical risk factors associated with CM were confirmed. The findings suggest that some foods rich in vitamins A and D and phytochemicals may be related to CM. PMID:27416086

  7. What Do We Know about Dietary Fiber Intake in Children and Health? The Effects of Fiber Intake on Constipation, Obesity, and Diabetes in Children1

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L.; Miller, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children’s dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children’s health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children’s health through increased dietary fiber. PMID:22332100

  8. Paternal dietary folate, B6 and B12 intake, and the risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; Bailey, Helen D; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Bower, Carol; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Ashton, Lesley J; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    It is biologically plausible that a paternal preconception diet low in nutrients related to DNA integrity could affect sperm DNA and subsequently risk of cancer in the offspring. The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether paternal preconception dietary folate, B6, or B12 intake was associated with the risk of childhood brain tumors (CBT) in an Australian case-control study. Cases <15 years of age were recruited from 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010, and controls from random-digit dialing, frequency-matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Paternal dietary information was obtained by food-frequency questionnaires. Nutrient values were energy adjusted and divided into tertiles for analysis by unconditional logistic regression. In fathers with relevant data (237 cases and 629 controls), no association with dietary folate and B6 and risk of CBT was seen; high B12 intake was associated with an increased risk of CBT (odds ratio highest vs. lowest tertile: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 2.66) without an increasing trend. These results do not support the hypothesis that paternal dietary folate intake influences the risk of CBT. The increased OR observed between dietary B12 intake and risk of CBT is without any certain explanation. PMID:25625505

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that dietary cholesterol intake increases risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Changkun; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Wenjie

    2016-07-01

    Several epidemiological investigations have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and risk of breast cancer, but the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to summarize the evidence from observational studies to test the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol intake increases the risk of breast cancer. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for relevant articles published up to July 2015. Pooled relative risks were calculated with random effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model. Overall, 9 articles involving 6 cohort studies and 3 case-control studies were included in this study. The pooled relative risk with 95% confidence intervals of breast cancer for the highest vs lowest category of dietary cholesterol intake was 1.29 (1.06-1.56). For dose-response analysis, a nonlinear relationship was found between dietary cholesterol and breast cancer, and the association became statistically significant when the cholesterol intake was greater than 370 mg/d. Results from this meta-analysis indicated that dietary cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27333953

  10. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. However, little is known of the effect of dietary fiber on total death and cause-specific deaths. Methods We examined dietary fiber intake in relation to total mortality and death from specific causes in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cause of death was identified using the National Death Index Plus. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20,126 deaths in men and 11,330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate RR comparing the highest vs. the lowest quintile =0.78, 95% CI:0.73–0.82, p-trend, <0.001 in men; 0.78. 95% CI:0.73–0.85, p-trend, <0.001 in women). Dietary fiber intake also lowered risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24%–56% in men and 34%–59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men, but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women. Conclusions Dietary fiber may reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases. Making fiber-rich food choices more often may provide significant health benefits. PMID:21321288

  11. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Jamie I.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1). Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults.

  12. Toxic metal interactions affect the bioaccumulation and dietary intake of macro- and micro-nutrients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Sardar; Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Aamir, Muhammad; Qamar, Zahir; Ur Rehman, Zahir; Perveen, Sajida

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and Cd-Pb mix) on bioaccumulation of different nutrients. Three plant species including potato, tomato and lettuce were grown in pots containing soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb mix at four different levels. The edible portions of each plant were analysed for Cd, Pb and different macro- and micro-nutrients including protein, vitamin C, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Results indicated significant variations in selected elemental concentrations in all the three plants grown in different treatments. The projected daily dietary intake values of selected metals were significant (P < 0.001) for Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg but not significant for protein, vitamin C, N and P. The elemental contribution to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was significant for Mn. Similarly, Fe and Mg also showed substantial contribution to RDA, while Ca, N, P, K, protein and vitamin C showed the minimal contribution for different age groups. This study suggests that vegetables cultivated on Cd and Pb contaminated soil may significantly affect their quality, and the consumption of such vegetables may result in substantial negative effects on nutritional composition of the consumer body. Long term and continuous use of contaminated vegetables may result in malnutrition. PMID:26714294

  13. Diabetes-related nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; O'Shea, Donal

    2015-08-14

    Nutrition knowledge and skills enable individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to make food choices that optimise metabolic self-management and quality of life. The present study examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and skills, and nutrient intake in T2DM. A cross-sectional analysis of diabetes-related nutrition knowledge and nutrient intake was conducted in 124 T2DM individuals managed in usual care (64% male, age 57.4 (sd 5.6) years, BMI 32.5 (sd 5.8) kg/m2), using the Audit of Diabetes Knowledge (ADKnowl) questionnaire and a 4 d food diary. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, food label use and weight management were also collected. The average ADKnowl dietary subscale score was 59.2 (sd 16.4) %. Knowledge deficits relating to the impact of macronutrients/foods on blood glucose and lipids were identified. Lower diabetes-related nutrition knowledge was associated with lower intakes of sugar (10.8 (sd 4.7) v. 13.7 (sd 4.6) % for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001), non-milk sugar (9.1 (sd 4.8) v. 12.1 (sd 4.7) % for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001) and fruit/vegetables (230.8 (sd 175.1) v. 322.8 (sd 179.7) g for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001), and higher dietary glycaemic index (GI) (61.4 (sd 4.5) v. 58.4 (sd 4.6) for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.002). The majority of the participants were dissatisfied with their weight. Sugar was the most frequently checked nutrient on food labels (59%), with only 12.1% checking foods for their energy content. Significant knowledge and skill deficits, associated with the impact of macronutrients/foods on metabolic parameters and food label use, were found. Lower diabetes-related nutrition knowledge was associated with lower sugar and fruit/vegetable intake and higher dietary GI. Dietary education, integrated throughout the lifespan of T2DM, may

  14. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  15. Maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy is associated with infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Kuzava, Sierra E; Werner, Elizabeth A; Monk, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Research with rodents and nonhuman primates suggests that maternal prenatal dietary fat intake is associated with offspring behavioral functioning indicative of risk for psychopathology. The extent to which these findings extend to humans remains unknown. The current study administered the Automated Self-Administered 24 hr Dietary Recall Questionnaire three times in pregnancy (n = 48) to examine women's dietary fat intake in relation to infant temperament assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 4-months old. The amount of saturated fat that the mother consumed was considered as a moderator of the association between total fat intake and child temperament. Results from a series of multiple linear regressions indicate that greater total fat intake was associated with poorer infant regulation and lower surgency. However, this second effect was moderated by maternal saturated fat intake, such that total fat intake was only related to infant surgency when mothers consumed above the daily recommended allowance of saturated fat. Under conditions of high total fat and high saturated fat, infants were rated as lower on surgency; under conditions of low total fat yet high saturated fat, infants were rated as higher on surgency. There were no associations between maternal prenatal fat intake and infant negative reactivity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that pregnant women's dietary fat intake is associated with infants' behavioral development, though future research is needed to address this report's limitations: a relatively small sample size, the use of self-report measures, and a lack of consideration of maternal and infant postnatal diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 528-535, 2016. PMID:26709151

  16. Dietary intake of manganese and the risk of the metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Biao; Su, Xuefen; Su, Danting; Zeng, Fangfang; Wang, Maggie Haitian; Huang, Lichun; Huang, Enshan; Zhu, Yibo; Zhao, Dong; He, Denghua; Zhu, Xuhui; Yeoh, Engkiong; Zhang, Ronghua; Ding, Gangqiang

    2016-09-01

    Animal studies have suggested that Mn might be associated with some components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A few epidemiological studies have assessed dietary Mn intake and its association with the risk of the MetS and its components among Chinese adults. In this study, we assessed daily dietary Mn intake and its relationship with MetS risk among Chinese adults in Zhejiang Province using data from the 5th Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (2010-2012). A total of 2111 adults were included. Dietary Mn intake was assessed using 3-d 24-h dietary recalls; health-related data were obtained by questionnaire surveys, physical examinations and laboratory assessments. The mean intake of Mn was 6·07 (sd 2·94) mg/d for men (n 998) and 5·13 (sd 2·65) mg/d for women (n 1113). Rice (>42 %) was the main food source of Mn. The prevalence of the MetS was 28·0 % (590/2111). Higher Mn intake was associated with a decreased risk of the MetS in men (Q4 v. Q1 OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92; P trend=0·043) but an increased risk in women (Q4 v. Q1 OR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·02, 2·45; P trend=0·078). In addition, Mn intake was inversely associated with abdominal obesity (P trend=0·016) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (P trend=0·029) in men, but positively associated with low HDL-cholesterol in both men (P trend=0·003) and women (P trend<0·001). Our results suggest that higher Mn intakes may be protective against the MetS in men. The inverse association between Mn intake and the MetS in women might be due to the increased risk for low HDL-cholesterol. PMID:27385039

  17. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients. PMID:27432261

  18. CALORIC INTAKE AND DIETARY FAT TO CARBOHYDRATE RATIO INFLUENCE BODY WEIGHT ACCRETION AND ADIPOSITY IN RATS FED BY TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of high energy high-fat diets leads to weight gain and adiposity in rodents. However the relative roles of higher caloric intake vs. increased dietary fat remain unclear. Low carbohydrate high fat diets, like the Atkins diet, claim to promote weight loss. We employed a total enteral nutr...

  19. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bitarafan, Sama; Harirchian, Mohammad-Hossein; Nafissi, Shahriar; Sahraian, Mohammad-Ali; Togha, Mansoureh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Alipour, Elham; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Chamary, Maryam; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI) values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101) were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium. Conclusion Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients. PMID:24800044

  20. Patterns of nutrient intake among dietary supplement users: attitudinal and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Levy, A S; Schucker, R E

    1987-06-01

    A national telephone interview survey of an age-stratified random sample of 2,991 adults, aged 16 and over, provided detailed information from 1,142 vitamin and mineral supplement users about their nutrient intake patterns from dietary supplements. Dietary supplement users were divided into four groups (Light, Moderate, Heavy, and Very Heavy) on the basis of the type and amount of nutrient intake from supplements. The Light, Moderate, Heavy, and Very Heavy nutrient intake groups accounted for 42%, 16%, 28%, and 14%, respectively, of the total users. Young supplement users (aged 16 to 25) tended to be in the Light user group. Older adults (aged 41 to 64) and residents of the western United States tended to be in the Heavy and Very Heavy user groups. Users in the Light and Moderate nutrient intake groups generally used only one broad-spectrum vitamin and mineral product. Users in the Heavy and Very Heavy groups were typically taking two or more specialized vitamin and mineral products at a time as part of a personalized supplement regimen. Heavy and Very Heavy nutrient intakes were associated with more frequent visits to health food stores, greater nutrition activity, and less physician involvement. Light and Moderate nutrient intakes were more likely to be associated with a defensive interest in avoiding nutritional deficiencies. The implications of generally different motivations for dietary supplement use are discussed in the context of public information strategies. PMID:3584757

  1. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  2. The Relation Between Nutrition Knowledge and the Dietary Intake of Selected Women: A Basis for Adult Education Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Reba Jones

    To investigate the relationship between the estimated quality of dietary intake and (1) knowledge of nutrition concepts, (2) attitude toward nutrition, (3) food preferences, and (4) perception of personal control of dietary intake, information was gathered from two 24-hour food recalls and other instruments administered to 102 women representing…

  3. Self-reported dietary intake of youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes: Results from the TODAY study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the widely recognized importance of diet in managing diabetes, few studies have documented usual dietary intake in young people with type 2 diabetes. The objective of our study were to assess dietary intake among a large, ethnically diverse cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes and com...

  4. DIETARY ENERGY INTAKE IS ASSOCIATED WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES RISK MARKERS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Donin, Angela S; Nightingale, Claire M; Owen, Christopher G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Jebb, Susan A; Ambrosini, Gina L; Stephen, Alison M; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Energy intake, energy density and nutrient intakes are implicated in type 2 diabetes risk in adults, but little is known about their influence on emerging type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. We examined these associations in a multi-ethnic population of children. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional study of 2017 children predominantly of white European, South Asian and black African-Caribbean origin aged 9-10 years who had a detailed 24 hour dietary recall, measurements of body composition and provided a fasting blood sample for measurements of plasma glucose, HbA1c and serum insulin; HOMA insulin resistance was also derived. Results Energy intake was positively associated with insulin resistance. After the removal of 176 participants with implausible energy intakes (unlikely to be representative of habitual intake), energy intake was more strongly associated with insulin resistance, and was also associated with glucose and fat mass index. Energy density was also positively associated with insulin resistance and fat mass index. However, in mutually adjusted analyses, the associations for energy intake remained while those for energy density became non-significant. Individual nutrient intakes showed no associations with type 2 diabetes risk markers. Conclusions Higher total energy intake was strongly associated with high levels of insulin resistance and may help to explain emerging type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. Studies are needed to establish whether reducing energy intake produces sustained favourable changes in insulin resistance and circulating glucose levels. PMID:23939542

  5. Mate and Tea Intake, Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela; Sanchez, Gustavo; Rosa, Alejandro De

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported an inverse association between high 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South America) and breast cancer (BC) risk. Stronger inverse associations were found in high strata of tea, vegetable, fruit and energy intakes, and in overweight/obese women, suggesting possible roles for 'mate' mainly from its antioxidant contribution. The present study attempted to thoroughly explore possible associations among 'mate' and tea intake, dietary antioxidants and BC risk. Combining two databases of previous studies, 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls were interviewed with a specific questionnaire featuring socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire (64 items), focusing on 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit). Food-derived nutrients were calculated from available databases. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest 'mate' intake was significantly inversely associated with BC risk for both low and high carotenoids (OR=0.40 vs. 0.41), vitamin C (OR=0.33 vs. 0.50), vitamin E (OR=0.37 vs. 0.45), flavonols (OR=0.38 vs. 0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.48 vs. 0.46) strata. High tea intake showed significant inverse risk associations only with high carotenoids (OR=0.41), vitamin E (OR=0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.43) strata. In conclusion, a strong and inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC was found, independent of dietary antioxidant levels. Also strong inverse associations with tea intake were more evident only at high levels of certain dietary antioxidants. PMID:27356713

  6. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2009-04-15

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (P(trend) = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  7. Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Icelanders Following Voluntarily a Low Carbohydrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Elidottir, Anita S.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Ramel, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20–66yrs) in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors. Results Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months. Fifty percent claimed they had lost weight during the past month. The median intake of carbohydrate, protein and fat were 8%, 22% and 68% E (hereof 25% saturated fatty acids), respectively. The consumption of bread and wholegrain cereals was very low (<5g/day), including the intake of dietary fiber (11g/day). Median fruit intake was 12 g/day. Intake of red meat and meat products was double that of the general population or ~900 g/week. Median intake of vitamins and minerals were mostly higher than the estimated average requirements. Cardiovascular risk factors were mostly within normal range. Mean blood lipids were slightly elevated although the high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was normal. Conclusion Despite poor diet quality and high prevalence of obesity, individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD have cardiovascular risk factors mostly within reference range. These individuals consume very low amounts of carbohydrates and high amounts of fat and saturated fat acids. Intake of red meat and processed meat exceeds recommended intake. Very low intake of whole grain cereals and fruits results in low intake of fiber. Long term health implications need to be examined further in longitudinal studies. PMID:27560647

  8. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  9. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  10. Dietary intake of vitamin K is inversely associated with mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emili; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Bulló, Mònica

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin K has been related to cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. However, data on total mortality are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the dietary intake of different types of vitamin K and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in 7216 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (median follow-up of 4.8 y). Energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary vitamin K intake was calculated annually using the USDA food composition database and other published sources. Deaths were ascertained by an end-point adjudication committee unaware of the dietary habits of participants after they had reviewed medical records and linked up to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the RR of mortality. Energy-adjusted baseline dietary phylloquinone intake was inversely associated with a significantly reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality after controlling for potential confounders (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96; and HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.90, respectively). In longitudinal assessments, individuals who increased their intake of phylloquinone or menaquinone during follow-up had a lower risk of cancer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; and HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.64, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.73; and HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.73, respectively) than individuals who decreased or did not change their intake. Also, individuals who increased their intake of dietary phylloquinone had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality risk (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.86). However, no association between changes in menaquinone intake and cardiovascular mortality was observed (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.29). An increase in dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular

  11. Estimation of dietary iron bioavailability from food iron intake and iron status.

    PubMed

    Dainty, Jack R; Berry, Rachel; Lynch, Sean R; Harvey, Linda J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are no satisfactory methods for estimating dietary iron absorption (bioavailability) at a population level, but this is essential for deriving dietary reference values using the factorial approach. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for estimating dietary iron absorption using a population sample from a sub-section of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Data were analyzed in 873 subjects from the 2000-2001 adult cohort of the NDNS, for whom both dietary intake data and hematological measures (hemoglobin and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations) were available. There were 495 men aged 19-64 y (mean age 42.7±12.1 y) and 378 pre-menopausal women (mean age 35.7±8.2 y). Individual dietary iron requirements were estimated using the Institute of Medicine calculations. A full probability approach was then applied to estimate the prevalence of dietary intakes that were insufficient to meet the needs of the men and women separately, based on their estimated daily iron intake and a series of absorption values ranging from 1-40%. The prevalence of SF concentrations below selected cut-off values (indicating that absorption was not high enough to maintain iron stores) was derived from individual SF concentrations. An estimate of dietary iron absorption required to maintain specified SF values was then calculated by matching the observed prevalence of insufficiency with the prevalence predicted for the series of absorption estimates. Mean daily dietary iron intakes were 13.5 mg for men and 9.8 mg for women. Mean calculated dietary absorption was 8% in men (50th percentile for SF 85 µg/L) and 17% in women (50th percentile for SF 38 µg/L). At a ferritin level of 45 µg/L estimated absorption was similar in men (14%) and women (13%). This new method can be used to calculate dietary iron absorption at a population level using data describing total iron intake and SF concentration. PMID:25356629

  12. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dibaba, D. T.; Xun, P.; Fly, A. D.; Yokota, K.; He, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate quantitatively the association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome by combining the relevant published articles using meta-analysis. Methods We reviewed the relevant literature in PubMed and EMBASE published up until August 2013 and obtained additional information through Google or a hand search of the references in relevant articles. A random-effects or fixed-effects model, as appropriate, was used to pool the effect sizes on metabolic syndrome comparing individuals with the highest dietary magnesium intake with those having the lowest intake. The dose–response relationship was assessed for every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome. Result Six cross-sectional studies, including a total of 24 473 individuals and 6311 cases of metabolic syndrome, were identified as eligible for the meta-analysis. A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17% (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0. 77, 0.89). Conclusion Findings from the present meta-analysis suggest that dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Further studies, in particular well-designed longitudinal cohort studies and randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, are warranted to provide solid evidence and to establish causal inference. PMID:24975384

  13. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  14. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  15. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  16. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  17. [Dietary fiber intake and intake patterns among the general population in Aomori, calculated using modified Southgate and Prosky methods].

    PubMed

    Nakaji, S; Sakamoto, J; Sugawara, K; Iwane, S; Ohta, M; Mori, B

    1993-06-01

    Based on the result of the Aomori Nutrition Survey, we have calculated daily dietary fiber (DF) intake using modified Southgate and Prosky methods. Result obtained were as follows: DF intake in Aomori was 23.7 +/- 8.4g by the modified Southgate method, and 22.2 +/- 8.5g by the modified Prosky method. As for supply sources of DF, 32.3% was from grains; 22.7%, vegetables; 15.6%, beans; and 7.8%, fruits calculated by the modified Southgate method, and 31.3%, vegetables; 19.0%, grains; 18.0%, beans; and 11.6%, fruits by the modified Prosky method. As to types of DF, intake of hemicellulose was 11.5 +/- 4.2g, cellulose 7.8 +/- 3.0g and lignin 4.4 +/- 2.3g. In the group with DF intake below 10.0g, DF came mainly from grains and fruits, while the group with DF intake above 30.0g took DF from various foods. PMID:8393118

  18. Dietary Intake among U.S. Adults with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical, mental, and financial barriers among individuals with disability may limit their access to fruit and vegetable. In this study, we examined the relationship between disability status and vegetable, fruit, and fruit juice intake among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older using a large nationally representative sample. Methods:…

  19. Failure of differences in prepubertal dietary intake to affect ovarian development in pubertal beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing replacement heifers on lower energy diets to a lighter body weight at first breeding can reduce input costs but may impede follicular development and onset of puberty. The objective was to determine whether lower dietary intake prepubertally impedes ovarian development in purebred or cros...

  20. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  1. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  2. The 2011 dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D: what dietetics practitioners need to know

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, comprehensively reviewed the evidence for both skeletal and nonskeletal health outcomes and concluded, that a causal role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health provided the necessary basis for th...

  3. Associations between Parental Concern for Adolescent Weight and the Home Food Environment and Dietary Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine associations between parental concern about adolescent weight and adolescent perceptions of their dietary intake, home food availability, family mealtime environment, and parents' feeding practices. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Adolescents, aged 12-15 years from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and their…

  4. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiological evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mechanistically mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review aims to provide an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relationships between habitual short sleep durat...

  5. Effect of snacking frequency on adolescents' dietary intakes and meeting national recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how snacking frequency impacts intake of nutrients and food groups and contributes to meeting recommendations outlined in USDA's MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from 4,357 adolescents 12-19 years of age participating in ...

  6. Estimation of the Vitamin D Content of Foods for the Assessment of Dietary Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is important for bone health, and growing evidence indicates that it may reduce the risk of other diseases including colon cancer. This has resulted in great interest in being able to assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in the U.S., since many factors can impair sunlight-induced cutan...

  7. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Nondiabetic Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…

  8. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  9. Individual and environmental correlates of dietary fat intake in rural communities: a structural equation model analysis.

    PubMed

    Hermstad, April K; Swan, Deanne W; Kegler, Michelle C; Barnette, J K; Glanz, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Total dietary fat and saturated fat intake are associated with obesity, elevated cholesterol, and heart disease. This study tested a multi-group structural equation model to explore differences in the relative influence of individual, social, and physical environment factors on dietary fat intake amongst adults aged 40-70 years. Participants from four rural Georgia, U.S., counties (n=527) completed a cross-sectional survey that included questions about eating patterns and individual and social influences on healthy eating. Observational measures of nutrition environments in stores and restaurants in these counties also were completed. Models for both women and men found significant positive relationships between self-efficacy for healthy eating and perceived nutrition environments and family support for healthy eating. The association between self-efficacy for eating a low-fat diet and frequency of eating out and grocery shopping was negative for both genders. The home nutrition environment was associated with dietary fat intake for women but not men. The results indicate that the influence of individual and environmental factors on dietary fat intake differs for men and women, with the home environment playing a larger role for women in rural communities. PMID:20462682

  10. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  11. Obesity susceptibility loci and dietary intake in the Look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified consistent associations with obesity. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. The objective was to determine the association between obesity susceptibility loci and dietary intake. The association of GWAS-identified obesity risk alleles (FTO, MC...

  12. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity. PMID:19239175

  13. Association between dietary intake of micronutrients and cardiorespiratory fitness in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sasaki, Azusa; Oh, Taewoong; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tabata, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that meeting the dietary recommendations for macronutrients was significantly associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels in adults. However, the relation between the status of micronutrient intake and CRF still remains unclear. This study examined the association between micronutrient intake status (based on adherence to the dietary reference intakes (DRI)) and CRF in Japanese men. The study comprised 373 Japanese men aged 30-69 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Overall micronutrient intake status was quantified using an overall nutrient adequacy score (ONAS) for thirteen selected micronutrients. ONAS was calculated based on adherence to the DRI for Japanese. CRF was defined as O2max during a maximal incremental test on a bicycle ergometer. Physical activity was measured using accelerometer-based activity monitors for seven consecutive days. We observed a significant inverse trend for the prevalence of inadequacy for the intake of vitamin A and Ca across incremental CRF categories (P < 0·05). In a multivariate model, the ONAS was positively associated with absolute (β = 0·10, P = 0·02) and relative O2max (β = 0·09, P = 0·04), independent of physical activity. The OR for being unfit (the lowest 25 % of the age-specific distribution of O2max) in the third ONAS tertile compared with the first ONAS tertile was 0·52 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·96). These results demonstrated that the intake of several individual micronutrients and overall micronutrient intake status are independently and positively associated with CRF in Japanese men. PMID:25191541

  14. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  15. Dietary intake and main sources of plant lignans in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Tapanainen, Heli; Christensen, Tue; Lampe, Johanna W.; Fagt, Sisse; Håkansson, Niclas; Lundquist, Annamari; Hallund, Jesper; Valsta, Liisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intakes of plant lignans have been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer. Earlier studies were based on a Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) with two lignan precursors, secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and matairesinol (MAT). More recently, a Dutch database, including SECO and MAT and the newly recognized lignan precursors lariciresinol (LARI) and pinoresinol (PINO), was compiled. The objective was to re-estimate and re-evaluate plant lignan intakes and to identify the main sources of plant lignans in five European countries using the Finnish and Dutch lignan databases, respectively. Methods Forty-two food groups known to contribute to the total lignan intake were selected and attributed a value for SECO and MAT from the Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) or for SECO, MAT, LARI, and PINO from the Dutch database. Total intake of lignans was estimated from food consumption data for adult men and women (19–79 years) from Denmark, Finland, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the contribution of aggregated food groups calculated using the Dutch lignin database. Results Mean dietary lignan intakes estimated using the Dutch database ranged from 1 to 2 mg/day, which was approximately four-fold higher than the intakes estimated from the Fineli® database. When LARI and PINO were included in the estimation of the total lignan intakes, cereals, grain products, vegetables, fruit and berries were the most important dietary sources of lignans. Conclusion Total lignin intake was approximately four-fold higher in the Dutch lignin database, which includes the lignin precursors LARI and PINO, compared to estimates based on the Finnish database based only on SECO and MAT. The main sources of lignans according to the Dutch database in the five countries studied were cereals and grain products, vegetables, fruit, berries, and beverages. PMID:23766759

  16. Obesigenic families: parents’ physical activity and dietary intake patterns predict girls’ risk of overweight

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K Krahnstoever; Birch, L Lipps

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether obesigenic families can be identified based on mothers’ and fathers’ dietary and activity patterns. METHODS A total of 197 girls and their parents were assessed when girls were 5 y old; 192 families were reassessed when girls were 7 y old. Measures of parents’ physical activity and dietary intake were obtained and entered into a cluster analysis to assess whether distinct family clusters could be identified. Girls’ skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed and were used to examine the predictive validity of the clusters. RESULTS Obesigenic and a non-obesigenic family clusters were identified. Mothers and fathers in the obesigenic cluster reported high levels of dietary intake and low levels of physical activity, while mothers and fathers in the non-obesigenic cluster reported low levels of dietary intake and high levels of activity. Girls from families in the obesigenic cluster had significantly higher BMI and skinfold thickness values at age 7 and showed significantly greater increases in BMI and skinfold thickness from ages 5 to 7 y than girls from non-obesigenic families; differences were reduced but not eliminated after controlling for parents’ BMI. CONCLUSIONS Obesigenic families, defined in terms of parents’ activity and dietary patterns, can be used predict children’s risk of obesity. PMID:12187395

  17. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  18. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  19. Perceptions and dietary intake of self-described healthy and unhealthy eaters with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nancy E; Blake, Christine E; Saunders, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine how community-dwelling adults with severe mental illness describe themselves as eaters and how these eating identities relate to dietary intake. Twenty participants completed one in-depth qualitative interview and three 24-h dietary recalls. Two distinct groups were identified; self-described healthy eaters (n = 10) and self-described unhealthy eaters (n = 10). Healthy eaters emphasized fruits and vegetables, limiting sweets, three meals a day, overcoming cost concerns, and benefits of healthy eating. Unhealthy eaters emphasized junk foods, fried foods, few fruits and vegetables, cost and household barriers to healthy eating, and concerns about consequences of unhealthy eating. Self-described healthy eaters consumed significantly more vegetables and less kilocalories, carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat than self-described unhealthy eaters. Understanding how eating identities relate to dietary intake provides important insights for development of more effective approaches to promote healthy eating in this high risk population. PMID:25535051

  20. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  1. Estimation of daily dietary fluoride intake: 3-d food diary v. 2-d duplicate plate.

    PubMed

    Omid, N; Maguire, A; O'Hare, W T; Zohoori, F V

    2015-12-28

    The 3-d food diary method (3-d FD) or the 2-d duplicate plate (2-d DP) method have been used to measure dietary fluoride (F) intake by many studies. This study aimed to compare daily dietary F intake (DDFI) estimated by the 3-d FD and 2-d DP methods at group and individual levels. Dietary data for sixty-one healthy children aged 4-6 years were collected using 3-d FD and 2-d DP methods with a 1-week gap between each collection. Food diary data were analysed for F using the Weighed Intake Analysis Software Package, whereas duplicate diets were analysed by an acid diffusion method using an F ion-selective electrode. Paired t test and linear regression were used to compare dietary data at the group and individual levels, respectively. At the group level, mean DDFI was 0·025 (sd 0·016) and 0·028 (sd 0·013) mg/kg body weight (bw) per d estimated by 3-d FD and 2-d DP, respectively. No statistically significant difference (P=0·10) was observed in estimated DDFI by each method at the group level. At an individual level, the agreement in estimating F intake (mg/kg bw per d) using the 3-d FD method compared with the 2-d DP method was within ±0·011 (95 % CI 0·009, 0·013) mg/kg bw per d. At the group level, DDFI data obtained by either the 2-d DP method or the 3-d FD method can be replaced. At an individual level, the typical error and the narrow margin between optimal and excessive F intake suggested that the DDFI data obtained by one method cannot replace the dietary data estimated from the other method. PMID:26568435

  2. The effect of nutrition knowledge on dietary intake among Croatian university students.

    PubMed

    Kresić, Greta; Kendel Jovanović, Gordana; Pavicić Zezel, Sandra; Cvijanović, Olga; Ivezić, Goran

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes among university students. The students (264 males and 741 females) were asked to answer a validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and to fulfil a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Gender, university status (freshmen, juniors, seniors) and eating arrangements (home, restaurants, self-cooking) were used as predictors of the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. The findings indicated that women (p = 0.008), senior students (p < 0.001) and those who prepare food for themselves (p = 0.038) have higher nutrition knowledge scores. The assessment of nutrition knowledge had parallels in dietary intake, and adherence to the dietary recommendations was significantly associated with nutrition knowledge scores (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed differences in daily intakes of grains (p < 0.001), meat and beans group (p < 0.001), vegetables (p < 0.001), fruits (p = 0.002) and oils (p < 0.001) in relation to all predictors. However nutrition knowledge acted as a modifier of the influence of eating arrangements. Logistic regression has shown that students with the highest nutrition knowledge are twelve times more likely to have a diet in accordance to recommendations compared to students with the lowest level of knowledge ([OR] = 12.03, 95% [CI] = 6.64-21.79, p < 0.001). The results support the value of including nutrition knowledge in health education campaigns targeting the student population with the aim of improving their dietary intake. PMID:20102047

  3. Dietary intake estimated using different methods in two Italian older populations.

    PubMed

    Bartali, Benedetta; Turrini, Aida; Salvini, Simonetta; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2004-01-01

    Most of the tools used to assess nutritional intake in large epidemiological studies were originally developed to be used in young and middle-aged subjects and, therefore, their validity and reliability when employed in older subjects remain uncertain. We conducted this study to verify whether the questionnaire developed in the context of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) could be used to assess dietary intake in the participants of InCHIANTI, an epidemiological study of risk factors for disability in late life, performed in 633 men (78% aged, > or =65 years) and 802 women (81% aged, > or =65 years) randomly sampled from the general population. In particular, the aim of this project was to collect preliminary information that could support a future study of concurrent validity. Data on food consumption assessed using the EPIC questionnaire from the InCHIANTI participants were compared with those collected using a 7-day diary in the National Nutritional Investigation into Dietary Behavior (INN-CA), a study conducted in 15 Italian centres aimed at assessing Italian households' and individuals' dietary intake. In spite of different populations and different methods used in data collection, the distributions of dietary intake from the two studies were remarkably similar for most macro- and micro-nutrients, both in men and women and according to age groups. At a population level, a food frequency questionnaire and a costly and time-consuming objective method provided similar estimates of dietary intake. Future study should attempt to generalize these findings at an individual level by collecting data with both instruments in the same subjects. PMID:14599704

  4. Does temporomandibular disorder pain dysfunction syndrome affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Irving, J; Wood, G D; Hackett, A F

    1999-11-01

    Temporomandibular disorder pain dysfunction syndrome (TDPDS) is the most common cause of facial pain after toothache. The symptoms are varied but are likely to affect the choice, intake and enjoyment of food. This has not been previously investigated. In this paper a preliminary study of 35 patients attending a department of oral and maxillofacial surgery at a general hospital is presented. Thirty-one subjects reported that eating was a problem; 15 prepared food differently and 24 considered that their choice of food was limited. Four of the five foods most often reported to be difficult to eat are valuable in the diet: meat (22), apples (20), bread (13), toast (7) and toffees (6). Twenty-three subjects reported eating a softer diet. Most (25) reported pain when eating. Such circumstances make it harder for TDPDS sufferers to meet current nutritional guidelines, especially, perhaps, for some to achieve an adequate intake of iron. PMID:10765783

  5. Effects of dietary guidance on the symptoms, quality of life and habitual dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazzawi, Tarek; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2013-09-01

    Diet is important in triggering the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study investigated the impact of dietary guidance on the symptoms, quality of life and habitual diet of patients with IBS. Forty-six patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of IBS were included. Of these patients, 17 completed the entire study. Each patient attended three sessions (~45 min in duration) and received individual guidance on their dietary management. The patients were asked to complete the following questionnaires prior to receiving the dietary guidance, and at least 3 months subsequently: The Birmingham IBS symptom score questionnaire, the IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) questionnaire, the Short-Form Nepean and Dyspepsia Index (SF‑NDI) and the MoBa Food Frequency Questionnaire (MoBa FFQ). The time at which patients completed the questionnaires following dietary guidance ranged from 3-9 months (median, 4 months). The total IBS symptom scores were reduced once the patients had received dietary guidance (P=0.001). The total score for the quality of life, as assessed by the IBS‑QOL and the SF-NDI, increased significantly following the dietary guidance sessions (P=0.003 and P=0.002, respectively). There were no statistical differences in the intake of calories, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat or alcohol in the patients with IBS following dietary guidance. There were increases in the consumption of dairy products, β-carotene, retinol equivalents, riboflavin, vitamin B12 and calcium, although only the increase in vitamin B12 consumption was statistically significant. There was a significant reduction in the consumption of certain fruits and vegetables that were rich in highly fermentable short-chain carbohydrates, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols, as well as insoluble fibers. In conclusion, three 45-min dietary guidance sessions, administered by a nurse, reduced the symptoms and improved the quality of life of patients with IBS, and

  6. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    PubMed

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual. PMID:25585294

  7. Dietary B vitamin and methionine intakes and lung cancer risk among female never smokers in China

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Yumie; Cai, Qiuyin; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Li, Honglan; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2012-01-01

    Purpose B vitamins and methionine have been postulated to have potential effects on carcinogenesis; however, findings from previous epidemiologic studies on B vitamins, methionine, and lung cancer risk are inconsistent. We investigated associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins (i.e., riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12) and methionine with lung cancer risk among female never smokers. Methods The Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study, included 74,941 women. During a median follow-up of 11.2 years, 428 incident lung cancer cases accrued among 71,267 women with no history of smoking or cancer at baseline. Baseline dietary intakes were derived from a validated, interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cancer incidence and vital status were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Cancer Registry and Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry databases and through biennial in-person follow-ups with participants. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox regression. Results Dietary riboflavin intake was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.43–0.89; P-trend = 0.03 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest). A higher than median intake of methionine was associated with lower risk of lung cancer (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.60–0.99), however, there was no dose-response relation. Intakes of other B vitamins were not associated with lung cancer risk. Conclusions Our study suggests that dietary riboflavin intake may be inversely associated with lung cancer risk among female never smokers, which warrants further investigation. PMID:23065072

  8. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. Objective To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. Design A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Result Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are

  9. Dietary Strategies for the Treatment of Cadmium and Lead Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qixiao; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals that cause adverse health effects in humans and animals. Chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Recent studies have shown that dietary supplements play important roles in protecting against Cd and Pb toxicity. This paper reviews the evidence for protective effects of essential metals, vitamins, edible plants, phytochemicals, probiotics and other dietary supplements against Cd and Pb toxicity and describes the proposed possible mechanisms. Based on these findings, dietary strategies are recommended for people at risk of Cd and Pb exposure. The application of these strategies is advantageous for both the prevention and alleviation of Cd and Pb toxicity, as such supplements can be added easily and affordably to the daily diet and are expected to have very few side effects compared to the chelation therapy. PMID:25594439

  10. Dietary strategies for the treatment of cadmium and lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qixiao; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals that cause adverse health effects in humans and animals. Chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Recent studies have shown that dietary supplements play important roles in protecting against Cd and Pb toxicity. This paper reviews the evidence for protective effects of essential metals, vitamins, edible plants, phytochemicals, probiotics and other dietary supplements against Cd and Pb toxicity and describes the proposed possible mechanisms. Based on these findings, dietary strategies are recommended for people at risk of Cd and Pb exposure. The application of these strategies is advantageous for both the prevention and alleviation of Cd and Pb toxicity, as such supplements can be added easily and affordably to the daily diet and are expected to have very few side effects compared to the chelation therapy. PMID:25594439

  11. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III123

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alex R; Lazo, Mariana; Appel, Lawrence J; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality, but little is known about risk associated with dietary phosphorus intake. Objective: We investigated the association between phosphorus intake and mortality in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults (NHANES III; 1998–1994). Design: Study participants were 9686 nonpregnant adults aged 20–80 y without diabetes, cancer, or kidney or cardiovascular disease. Exposure to dietary phosphorus, which was assessed by using a 24-h dietary recall, was expressed as the absolute intake and phosphorus density (phosphorus intake divided by energy intake). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed through 31 December 2006. Results: Median phosphorus intake was 1166 mg/d (IQR: 823–1610 mg/d); median phosphorus density was 0.58 mg/kcal (0.48–0.70 mg/kcal). Individuals who consumed more phosphorus-dense diets were older, were less often African American, and led healthier lifestyles (smoking, physical activity, and Healthy Eating Index). In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and energy intake, higher phosphorus intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality in individuals who consumed >1400 mg/d [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.09, 4.5) per 1-unit increase in ln(phosphorus intake); P = 0.03]. At <1400 mg/d, there was no association. A similar association was seen between higher phosphorus density and all-cause mortality at a phosphorus density amount >0.35 mg/kcal [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.27 (1.19, 4.33) per 0.1-mg/kcal increase in phosphorus density; P = 0.01]. At <0.35 mg/kcal (approximately the fifth percentile), lower phosphorus density was associated with increased mortality risk. Phosphorus density was associated with cardiovascular mortality [adjusted HR (95% CI): 3.39 (1.43, 8.02) per 0.1 mg/kcal at >0.35 mg/kcal; P = 0.01], whereas no association was shown in analyses with phosphorus intake. Results were similar by subgroups of

  12. Healthcare-Associated Infections Are Associated with Insufficient Dietary Intake: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kossovsky, Michel P.; Iavindrasana, Jimison; Chikhi, Marinette; Meyer, Rodolphe; Pittet, Didier; Zingg, Walter; Pichard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Indicators to predict healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are scarce. Malnutrition is known to be associated with adverse outcomes in healthcare but its identification is time-consuming and rarely done in daily practice. This cross-sectional study assessed the association between dietary intake, nutritional risk, and the prevalence of HCAI, in a general hospital population. Methods and findings Dietary intake was assessed by dedicated dieticians on one day for all hospitalized patients receiving three meals per day. Nutritional risk was assessed using Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS)-2002, and defined as a NRS score ≥ 3. Energy needs were calculated using 110% of Harris-Benedict formula. HCAIs were diagnosed based on the Center for Disease Control criteria and their association with nutritional risk and measured energy intake was done using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. From 1689 hospitalised patients, 1024 and 1091 were eligible for the measurement of energy intake and nutritional risk, respectively. The prevalence of HCAI was 6.8%, and 30.1% of patients were at nutritional risk. Patients with HCAI were more likely identified with decreased energy intake (i.e. ≤ 70% of predicted energy needs) (30.3% vs. 14.5%, P = 0.002). The proportion of patients at nutritional risk was not significantly different between patients with and without HCAI (35.6% vs.29.7%, P = 0.28), respectively. Measured energy intake ≤ 70% of predicted energy needs (odds ratio: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.24 to 4.11, P = 0.008) and moderate severity of the disease (odds ratio: 3.38; 95% CI: 1.49 to 7.68, P = 0.004) were associated with HCAI in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Measured energy intake ≤ 70% of predicted energy needs is associated with HCAI in hospitalised patients. This suggests that insufficient dietary intake could be a risk factor of HCAI, without excluding reverse causality. Randomized trials are needed to assess whether improving energy intake in

  13. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: A dose response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Lyu, Chen; Gao, Jian; Du, Li; Shan, Boer; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua-Ying; Gao, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Since body fatness is a convincing risk factor for endometrial cancer, dietary fat intake was speculated to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, epidemiological studies are inconclusive. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of science databases updated to September 2015. In total, 7 cohort and 14 case-control studies were included. Pooled analysis of case-control studies suggested that endometrial cancer risk was significantly increased by 5% per 10% kilocalories from total fat intake (P=0.02) and by 17% per 10 g/1000 kcal of saturated fat intake (P < 0.001). Summary of 3 cohort studies showed significant inverse association between monounsaturated fatty acids and endometrial cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.98) with a total of 524583 participants and 3503 incident cases. No significant associations were found for polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acid. In conclusion, positive associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for total fat and saturated fat intake in the case-control studies. Results from the cohort studies suggested higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake was significantly associated with lower endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27399120

  14. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration Clinical

  15. Dietary intake of lutein and diabetic retinopathy in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Michelle W.; Mares, Julie A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Klein, Ronald; Brady, William E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Donahue, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of lutein is inversely associated with prevalence of diabetic retinopathy due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and its location within the retina. Methods We used logistic regression to examine the association between prevalent DR and energy-adjusted lutein intake [by quartile (Q)] using data collected from 1,430 ARIC study participants with diabetes (n=994 White and n=508 Black). DR was assessed using a 45-degree nonmydriatic retinal photograph from one randomly chosen eye taken at visit 3 (1993–95). Dietary lutein intake was estimated using a 66-item food frequency questionnaire at visit 1(1987–89). Results The median estimated daily lutein intake was 1,370 μg/1000 kcals and the prevalence of DR was ~21%. We found a crude association between lutein and DR [OR (95% CI) for Q4 (high intake) vs. Q1 (low intake) =2.11 (1.45–3.09); p for trend<0.0001] which was attenuated after adjustment for race, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, field center and energy intake [1.41 (0.87–2.28); p for trend=0.01]. In analyses limited to persons with a short duration of diabetes (<6 years), the association no longer persisted [0.94 (0.31–2.16); p for trend=0.72] as compared to the association in those with a longer duration of diabetes (≥6 year) [1.58 (0.91–2.75); p for trend=0.01]. Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the odds of higher lutein intake were greater among those with DR than those without DR. However, after adjusting for confounders, intake of lutein was not associated with DR. PMID:26949989

  16. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  17. Comparison of polyphenol intakes according to distinct dietary patterns and food sources in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort.

    PubMed

    Burkholder-Cooley, Nasira; Rajaram, Sujatha; Haddad, Ella; Fraser, Gary E; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between polyphenol intake and health benefits. Polyphenol intake among a large US cohort with diverse dietary practices ranging from meatless to omnivorous diets has not been previously evaluated. The primary aim of this study was to compare polyphenol intakes of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns and to assess phenolic intake by food source. To characterise dietary intake, a FFQ was administered to 77 441 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Dietary patterns were defined based on the absence of animal food consumption as vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Polyphenol intakes were calculated based on chromatography-derived polyphenol content data of foods from Phenol-Explorer, US Department of Agriculture databases and relevant literature. Results revealed a mean unadjusted total polyphenol intake of 801 (sd 356) mg/d, and the main foods contributing to polyphenol intakes were coffee, fruits and fruit juices. Total polyphenol intake differed significantly between dietary patterns, with phenolic acids from coffee contributing the greatest variation. The dominant classes and sources of dietary polyphenols differed between vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Flavonoid intake was the highest among pesco-vegetarians, and phenolic acid intake was the highest among non-vegetarians. In addition, coffee consumers appeared to have a different dietary profile than non-coffee consumers, including greatly reduced contribution of fruits, vegetables and legumes to total phenolic intake. Coffee drinkers were more likely to be non-vegetarians, which explained several of these observations. Further evaluating these differences may be important in identifying relationships between plant-based diets and health outcomes. PMID:27080936

  18. Nutritional intake and dietary patterns in pregnancy: a longitudinal study of women with lifetime eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nadia; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Naumann, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet L

    2012-12-14

    There is limited knowledge about dietary patterns and nutrient/food intake during pregnancy in women with lifetime eating disorders (ED). The objective of the present study was to determine patterns of food and nutrient intake in women with lifetime ED as part of an existing longitudinal population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women with singleton pregnancies and no lifetime psychiatric disorders other than ED (n 9723) were compared with women who reported lifetime (ever) ED: (anorexia nervosa (AN, n 151), bulimia nervosa (BN, n 186) or both (AN+BN, n 77)). Women reported usual food consumption using a FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation. Nutrient intakes, frequency of consumption of food groups and overall dietary patterns were examined. Women with lifetime ED were compared with control women using linear regression and logistic regression (as appropriate) after adjustment for relevant covariates, and for multiple comparisons. Women with lifetime ED scored higher on the 'vegetarian' dietary pattern; they had a lower intake of meat, which was compensated by a higher consumption of soya products and pulses compared with the controls. Lifetime AN increased the risk for a high ( ≥ 2500 g/week) caffeine consumption in pregnancy. No deficiencies in mineral and vitamin intake were evident across the groups, although small differences were observed in macronutrient intakes. In conclusion, despite some differences in food group consumption, women with lifetime ED had similar patterns of nutrient intake to healthy controls. Important differences in relation to meat eating and vegetarianism were highlighted, as well as high caffeine consumption. These differences might have an important impact on fetal development. PMID:22784642

  19. Dietary Intake in Body Mass Index Differences in Community-Based Japanese Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    ITO, Haruyuki; KUMAGAI, Takako; KIMURA, Midori; KOIKE, Shotaro; SHIMIZU, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia reportedly have a high prevalence of obesity. One of the reasons is a poor choice of diet. The goal of this study was to clarify characteristics of the dietary intake across the strata of the body mass index (BMI) and to compare the general population and patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 51 patients with schizophrenia residing in rural areas in 2011. Anthropometric indices (of height, weight, body mass index) were measured at the commencement of the survey. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, total fiber, and salt were noted through a 3-day dietary recording. The nutrient intake was estimated using Excel add-in software (Excel Eiyou-kun Ver. 6.0, Kenpakusha Co., Ltd.). Patients were divided into two groups: those with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and with a BMI <25 kg/m2, and the differences in their nutrition intake were analyzed. To compare these patients with the general population, the results of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2010 (NHNS) were used (the NHNS group). For statistical analysis, an unpaired t-test was performed with P < 0.05. Results: Patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 had the higher intakes than those with a BMI <25 kg/m2 of energy, fat and phosphorus and salt. Patients with schizophrenia showed higher intakes of energy, carbohydrate, fat, calcium, phosphorus and salt than the NHNS group. Conclusion: The characteristics of the dietary intake in patients with schizophrenia were suggested the food constitution that is likely to increase the body weight. PMID:26284204

  20. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding “western” food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p < 0.001), while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa = 1.51; p < 0.001), seemingly in private universities (p = 0.053). Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Male university students reported a higher

  1. Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Galván-Portillo, Marcia V.; Ward, Mary H.; Agudo, Antonio; González, Carlos A.; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F.; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    N-Nitroso compounds (NOC) are potent animal carcinogens and potential human carcinogens. The primary source of exposure for most individuals may be endogenous formation, a process that can be inhibited by dietary polyphenols. To estimate the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to the individual and combined consumption of polyphenols and NOC precursors (nitrate and nitrite), a population-based case–control study was carried out in Mexico City from 2004 to 2005 including 257 histologically confirmed GC cases and 478 controls. Intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. High intakes of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol were associated with an ~50% reduction in GC risk. A high intake of total nitrite as well as nitrate and nitrite from animal sources doubled the GC risk. Odds ratios around 2-fold were observed among individuals with both low intake of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol or coumestrol and high intake of animal-derived nitrate or nitrite, compared to high intake of the polyphenols and low animal nitrate or nitrite intake, respectively. Results were similar for both the intestinal and diffuse types of GC. Our results show, for the first time, a protective effect for GC because of higher intake of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol, and suggest that these polyphenols reduce GC risk through inhibition of endogenous nitrosation. The main sources of these polyphenols were pears, mangos and beans for cinnamic acids; beans, carrots and squash for secoisolariciresinol and legumes for coumestrol. PMID:19449378

  2. [Chromium content in foods and dietary intake estimation in the Northwest of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Ballesteros Vázquez, M N; Cabrera Pacheco, R M

    2001-03-01

    Chromium is an indispensable nutrient for the carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. In this study the chromium content in the twenty main foods of the diet from Northwestern Mexico was determined, as well as the daily mean intake which was estimated based on the food intake basket of this region. Chromium content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the graphite furnace technique and previous digestion of foods in microwave oven. The chromium mean intake was estimated considering the chromium daily mean intake for person per day and the chromium content of the foods analyzed in this study. The range chromium content in the foods analyzed was between 0.0004 and 0.1641 microgram/g dry weight. White cheese showed the highest chromium content followed by pasta soup, wheat tortilla, bread and meat. The main foods chromium contributors in the diet were: wheat tortilla (20%), white cheese (11%), corn tortilla (11%), pasta soup (10%), milk (10%), meat (9%) and white bread (8%). The daily chromium intake was 30.43 +/- 1.6 micrograms/d. Chromium values obtained in the food analyzed are considered low. Moreover, chromium intake obtained from the diet is not enough to meet the safety and adequate daily chromium intake. Therefore, the population from the Northwestern Mexico has a suboptimal dietary chromium intake. PMID:11515227

  3. Dietary exposure to lead of adults in Shenzhen city, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liubo; Wang, Zhou; Peng, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Jiang, Jie; Pathiraja, Nimal; Xiao, Ying; Jiao, Rui; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, can be found in the environment and food. The present study is the first to estimate the lead dietary exposure of Shenzhen adults (≥ 20 years old) in various age-gender subgroups, and to assess the associated health risk. Food samples that represented the Shenzhen people's dietary pattern were collected and prepared for analysis. Lead was determined in 13 food groups using 276 individual cooked samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the local food consumption data of Shenzhen adults. The mean and 95th percentile lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 0.59-0.73 and 0.75-0.94 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. In all food groups, the highest lead exposure was from 'Eggs and their products' (42.4-51.6% of the total exposure); preserved eggs being the main contributor. The other major contributors to lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 'Fish and seafood, and their products' (14.3-16.7% of the total exposure) and 'Vegetables and their products' (15.5-16.2% of the total exposure). The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for the risk assessment of lead, and the results showed that the risk was considered to be low in all age-gender groups for Shenzhen adults. However, having considered a number of toxic effects of lead, it is suggested that more efforts should be made to reduce the lead levels in foodstuff for Shenzhen adults. PMID:27295315

  4. Weight Loss, Dietary Intake and Pulse Wave Velocity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristina; Blanch, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We have recently conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of weight loss achieved by an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise, anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery on pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured at all arterial segments. Twenty studies, including 1,259 participants, showed that modest weight loss (8% of the initial body weight) caused a reduction in PWV measured at all arterial segments. However, due to the poor methodological design of the included studies, the results of this meta-analysis can only be regarded as hypothesis generating and highlight the need for further research in this area. In the future, well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on PWV and the mechanisms involved. In addition, there is observational evidence that dietary components such as fruit, vegetables, dairy foods, sodium, potassium and fatty acids may be associated with PWV, although evidence from well-designed intervention trials is lacking. In the future, the effect of concurrently improving dietary quality and achieving weight loss should be assessed in randomised controlled trials. PMID:26587462

  5. Weight Loss, Dietary Intake and Pulse Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kristina; Blanch, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have recently conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of weight loss achieved by an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise, anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery on pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured at all arterial segments. Twenty studies, including 1,259 participants, showed that modest weight loss (8% of the initial body weight) caused a reduction in PWV measured at all arterial segments. However, due to the poor methodological design of the included studies, the results of this meta-analysis can only be regarded as hypothesis generating and highlight the need for further research in this area. In the future, well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on PWV and the mechanisms involved. In addition, there is observational evidence that dietary components such as fruit, vegetables, dairy foods, sodium, potassium and fatty acids may be associated with PWV, although evidence from well-designed intervention trials is lacking. In the future, the effect of concurrently improving dietary quality and achieving weight loss should be assessed in randomised controlled trials. PMID:26587462

  6. Relationship between alcohol intake and dietary pattern: Findings from NHANES III

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between macronutrient dietary patterns and alcohol consumption using the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. METHODS: A total of 9877 subjects (5144 males) constituted the study cohort. Dietary interviews were conducted with all examinees by a trained dietary interviewer in a mobile examination center (MEC). Subjects reported all foods and beverages consumed except plain drinking water for the previous 24-h time period. Physical examination and history of alcohol consumption were obtained. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the association of the levels of alcohol consumption and the percentage of energy derived from macronutrients. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight to further explore the relationships between alcohol consumption and calories derived from each macronutrient. RESULTS: Subjects who drank were younger than non-drinker controls in both genders (P < 0.01). Alcohol intake was inversely associated with body mass index and body weight in women. Of all macronutrients, carbohydrate intake was the first to decrease with increasing alcohol consumption. In the multivariate analyses, the level of alcohol consumption was found to be an independent predictor associated with lower intake of other macronutrients. CONCLUSION: Our results show that there is an alteration in the daily dietary pattern with increasing alcohol consumption and that energy derived from alcoholic beverages substitutes that from other macronutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, and fat. PMID:20731019

  7. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    PubMed

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  8. Effects of Particulate Matter and Antioxidant Dietary Intake on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Graciela B.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Reyes, Angela G.; Izumi, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed 2 pathways through which dietary antioxidants may counter adverse effects of exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) on blood pressure (BP): main (compensatory) and modifying (protective) models. Methods. We used 2002 to 2003 data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership community survey conducted with a multiethnic sample of adults (n = 347) in low- to moderate-income, predominantly Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan. We used generalized estimating equations to test the effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 and dietary antioxidant intake on BP, with adjustment for multiple confounders. Results. Dietary antioxidant intake was inversely associated with systolic BP (b = −0.5; P < .05) and pulse pressure (b  = −0.6; P < .05) in neighborhoods closest to major sources of air pollutants. Adverse effects of PM2.5 remained significant after accounting for antioxidant intakes. Exploratory analyses suggested potential modifying effects of antioxidant intake on associations between ambient PM2.5 exposure and BP. Conclusions. Interventions to improve access to antioxidant-rich foods in polluted urban areas may be protective of cardiovascular health. However, efforts to reduce PM2.5 exposure remain critical for cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:25320896

  9. Dietary protein intake impacts human skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rates after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Douglas R; Pikosky, Matthew A; Gaine, P Courtney; Martin, William; Wolfe, Robert R; Tipton, Kevin D; Maclean, David; Maresh, Carl M; Rodriguez, Nancy R

    2005-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the physiological impact of different dietary protein intakes on skeletal muscle protein synthesis postexercise in endurance runners. Five endurance-trained, male runners participated in a randomized, crossover design diet intervention, where they consumed either a low (0.8 g/kg; LP)-, moderate (1.8 g/kg; MP)-, or high (3.6 g/kg; HP)-protein diet for 4 wk. Diets were designed to be eucaloric with carbohydrate, fat, and protein approximating 60, 30, and 10%; 55, 30, and 15%; and 40, 30, and 30% for LP, MP, and HP, respectively. Substrate oxidation was assessed via indirect calorimetry at 3 wk of the dietary interventions. Mixed-muscle protein fractional synthetic rate (FSR) was measured after an endurance run (75 min at 70% V(O2 peak)) using a primed, continuous infusion of [(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Protein oxidation increased with increasing protein intake, with each trial being significantly different from the other (P < 0.01). FSR after exercise was significantly greater for LP (0.083%/h) and MP (0.078%/h) than for HP (0.052%/h; P < 0.05). There was no difference in FSR between LP and MP. This is the first investigation to establish that habitual dietary protein intake in humans modulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis after an endurance exercise bout. Future studies directed at mechanisms by which level of protein intake influences skeletal muscle turnover are needed. PMID:15914508

  10. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among Finnish male smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, T; Kontto, J; Jestoi, M; Valsta, L; Peltonen, K; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, SM; Sinkko, H; Kronberg-Kippilä, C; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among male smokers. Methods The study consisted of 27,111 male smokers, aged 50–69 years, without history of cancer. They were participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study in Finland. The men completed a validated dietary questionnaire and a questionnaire on general background characteristics (including smoking habits) at baseline. Incident cases of cancer were identified through the national Finnish Cancer Registry. Results During an average 10.2 year follow-up 1703 lung cancers, 799 prostate cancers, 365 urothelial cancers, 316 colorectal cancers, 224 stomach cancers, 192 pancreatic cancers, 184 renal cell cancers, and 175 lymphomas were diagnosed. Dietary acrylamide intake was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer; relative risk (RR) in the highest vs. the lowest quintile in the multivariate-adjusted model was 1.18 ((95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.38, p for trend 0.11). Other cancers were not associated with acrylamide intake. Conclusions High acrylamide intake is associated with increased risk of lung cancer but not with other cancers in male smokers. PMID:20859673

  11. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  12. Assessment of antioxidant nutrient intake of a population of southern US African-American and Caucasian women of various ages when compared to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Thorn, B; Cardoso, S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Feuers, R J

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant nutrient intervention strategies to ameliorate negative health factors are of notable research interest. Central to the thesis that antioxidant nutrients improve biological defense systems and provide health benefits is an accurate indication of daily antioxidant nutrient intake. Little information is available concerning these nutrient intakes among non-affluent women of the southern U.S. This study examines the 24-h intake of vitamins: A, E, C, -carotene, a-tocopherol, riboflavin, and minerals: zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, iron, and molybdenum among 259 Caucasian (CA) and African-American (AA) women from small urban communities. Women were non-pregnant females, 19-93 y of age. Statistical comparisons of nutrient intake were made by least squares means within age groups. Intakes were compared to various Dietary Reference Intakes including Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) and Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) values as established by the U.S. National Research Council. Numerous dietary deficiencies in important antioxidant nutrients associated with metabolic antioxidant systems were identified. Few race-related differences were detected. Intake of vitamin A was generally within recommended levels while vitamin E intake was below the EAR. The vitamin precursors, -carotene and a-tocopherol, were significantly (P<0.05) below customary intakes at all ages. More than 60% of this population reported dietary copper, zinc, and selenium intakes below recommended levels. A lack of race differences for most nutrient intakes suggests similar socioeconomic or endogeneous regional factors. All women in this population reported dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and minerals below recommended values, conditions that could contribute to subsequent health risks unless nutrient-dense food choices and antioxidant supplementation are considered in their overall nutritional support. PMID:12679833

  13. Estimation of dietary intake of ochratoxin A from liquorice confectionery.

    PubMed

    Herrera, M; Herrera, A; Ariño, A

    2009-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analyzed from 44 liquorice confectionery samples using immunoaffinity cleanup and liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The presence of OTA was confirmed by methyl-ester derivatization. Liquorice confectionery samples were purchased from different retail outlets and supermarkets in Spain during 2007-2008, 16 of hard candies and 28 of soft candies. The incidence of OTA varied between 75% and 39% and mean ranged from 2.96 to 0.34 microg/kg for hard and soft candies, respectively. Assuming a total mean value of 1.29 microg OTA/kg sweet and a consumption of about 1.2g liquorice sweets per day, an OTA weekly uptake of 11 ng was obtained, or, based on a total body weight of 30 kg for a child consuming these sweets regularly, a weekly intake of 0.37 ng/kg body weight. This corresponds to 0.31% of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) established by the European Food Safety Authority based of toxicological studies. Risk assessment in a worst case scenario (children high consumers and maximum content of OTA) represented 8.94% TWI by liquorice confectionery alone. PMID:19450650

  14. Dietary polyamine intake and colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women12

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ashley J; Ashbeck, Erin L; Wertheim, Betsy C; Wallace, Robert B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thompson, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine (i.e., polyamines) are small cationic amines synthesized by cells or acquired from the diet or gut bacteria. Polyamines are required for both normal and colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth. Objective: We investigated the association between dietary polyamines and risk of CRC incidence and mortality. Design: The study was a prospective analysis in 87,602 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Multivariate Cox regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs. Results: Total dietary polyamine intake (mean ± SD: 289.2 ± 127.4 μmol/d) was not positively associated with CRC in fully adjusted models. Instead, intake ≥179.67 μmol/d was associated with reduced risk of CRC [HR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.68, 1.00), 0.81 (0.66, 0.99), 0.91 (0.74, 1.12), and 0.80 (0.62, 1.02) for quintiles 2–5, respectively, compared with quintile 1]. Reduced risk was not significant across all quintiles. Polyamines were not significantly associated with CRC-specific mortality in fully adjusted models. When stratified by risk factors for CRC, only body mass index (BMI) and fiber intake significantly modified the association between polyamine intake and CRC. In women with BMI (in kg/m2) ≤25 or fiber consumption above the median, polyamine intake was associated with significantly lower risk of CRC. Conclusions: No positive association between dietary polyamines and CRC or CRC-specific mortality risk in women was observed. Instead, a protective effect of dietary polyamines was suggested in women with some CRC risk-lowering behaviors in particular. These results are consistent with emerging evidence that exogenous polyamines may be beneficial in colon health and warrant additional study. PMID:26135350

  15. Effects of Dietary Phosphate and Calcium Intake on Fibroblast Growth Factor-23

    PubMed Central

    van Ittersum, Frans J.; Büttler, Rahel M.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; ter Wee, Piet M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Little is known about the influence of dietary phosphate intake on fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its subsequent effects on vitamin D levels. This study addresses changes in intact FGF23 (iFGF23) and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23), phosphaturia, and levels of vitamin D on high and low phosphate and calcium intake. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Ten healthy subjects adhered to a diet low or high in phosphate and calcium content for 36 hours each with a 1-week interval during which subjects adhered to their usual diet. Serum phosphate, calcium, vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and FGF23 levels (cFGF23 and iFGF23) were measured several times a day. Phosphate, calcium, and creatinine excretion was measured in 24-hour urine on all study days. Results Serum phosphate levels and urinary phosphate increased during high dietary phosphate intake (from 1.11 to 1.32 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 and 21.6 to 28.8 mmol/d, P = 0.0005, respectively). FGF23 serum levels increased during high dietary phosphate/calcium intake (cFGF23 from 60 to 72 RU/ml, P < 0.001; iFGF23 from 33 to 37 ng/L, P = 0.003), whereas PTH declined. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) showed an inverse relation with FGF23. Conclusions Variation in dietary phosphate and calcium intake induces changes in FGF23 (on top of a circadian rhythm) and 1,25D blood levels as well as in urinary phosphate excretion. These changes are detectable the day after the change in the phosphate content of meals. Higher FGF23 levels are associated with phosphaturia and a decline in 1,25D levels. PMID:21030580

  16. Dietary Intake and Rural-Urban Migration in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Liza; Ebrahim, Shah; De Stavola, Bianca; Ness, Andy; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A.V.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    Background Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants. Methods and findings The diets of migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 6,509 participants were included. Median energy intake in the rural, migrant and urban groups was 2731, 3078, and 3224 kcal respectively for men, and 2153, 2504, and 2644 kcal for women (p<0.001). A similar trend was seen for overall intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates (p<0.001), though differences in the proportion of energy from these nutrients were <2%. Migrant and urban participants reported up to 80% higher fruit and vegetable intake than rural participants (p<0.001), and up to 35% higher sugar intake (p<0.001). Meat and dairy intake were higher in migrant and urban participants than rural participants (p<0.001), but varied by region. Sibling-pair analyses confirmed these results. There was no evidence of associations with time in urban area. Conclusions Rural to urban migration appears to be associated with both positive (higher fruit and vegetables intake) and negative (higher energy and fat intake) dietary changes. These changes may be of relevance to cardiovascular health and warrant public health interventions. PMID:21731604

  17. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. PMID:24259558

  18. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Conclusion: Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification. PMID:25263336

  19. Environmental factors associated with preschool obesity. III. Dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Crawford, P B; Hankin, J H; Huenemann, R L

    1978-06-01

    This longitudinal study of children from six months to six years of age showed differences by age, sex, and race in dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements. Except for calories and iron at all ages and calcium between two and four years, most children consumed at least two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary protein was consistently high at all ages. There was no apparent relationship between the use and need for vitamin or mineral supplements. At six years of age, most children ate five meals or snacks per day. Television commercials, children accompanying mothers to grocery stores, and the publicized relationships of dietary fat and cholesterol to coronary disease influenced food practices of families. Anthropometric measurements revealed that boys were consistently taller and heavier than girls. However, at all ages, even at six months, girls had higher skinfold values than boys. These data on dietary intakes, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements will be correlated with obesity indexes at each age in subsequent papers. PMID:670612

  20. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Karen; Booth, Alison; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Bailey, Karl B.; Irving, David; Nowson, Caryl; Riddell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1) describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2) investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3) investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379). Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection), and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326). Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD) iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5) mg/day and 9.3 (3.8) mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 22 (12–38) μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD) were 12.6 (1.7) μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0) μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L) were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340). Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort. PMID:25903453

  1. Associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between biochemical iron and zinc status in women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen; Booth, Alison; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Bailey, Karl B; Irving, David; Nowson, Caryl; Riddell, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1) describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2) investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3) investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18-50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379). Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection), and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326). Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD) iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5) mg/day and 9.3 (3.8) mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 22 (12-38) μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD) were 12.6 (1.7) μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0) μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L) were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340). Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort. PMID:25903453

  2. Personality and Dietary Intake – Findings in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiainen, Anna-Maija K.; Männistö, Satu; Lahti, Marius; Blomstedt, Paul A.; Lahti, Jari; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Personality traits are associated with health outcomes including non-communicable diseases. This could be partly explained by lifestyle related factors including diet. The personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are linked with resilience, meaning adaptability in challenging situations. Resilient people usually comply with favorable health behaviors. Objective Our objective was to explore the associations between food and nutrient intake, personality traits and resilience. Design A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to measure diet and the NEO-personality inventory to assess personality in 1681 subjects. Linear regression analysis was used to explore diet-personality associations and cluster analysis to define resilient and non-resilient personality profiles. Results Adjusting for age, education and energy intake, and applying Bonferroni corrections, openness in men was associated with higher vegetable (14.9 g/d for 1 SD increase in the personality score, PBonf <0.01) and lower confectionery and chocolate (−2.8 g/d, PBonf <0.01) intakes. In women, neuroticism was associated with lower fish (−4.9 g/d, PBonf <0.001) and vegetable (−18.9 g/d, PBonf <0.01) and higher soft drink (19.9 g/d, PBonf <0.001) intakes. Extraversion, in women, associated with higher meat (5.9 g/d, PBonf <0.05) and vegetable (24.8 g/d, PBonf<0.001) intakes, openness with higher vegetable (23.4 g/d, PBonf <0.001) and fruit (29.5 g/d, PBonf <0.01) intakes. Agreeableness was associated with a lower soft drink (−16.2 g/d, PBonf <0.01) and conscientiousness with a higher fruit (32.9 g/d, PBonf<0.01) intake in women. Comparing resilient and non-resilient subjects, we found resilience in women to be associated with higher intakes of vegetables (52.0 g/d, P<0.001), fruits (58.3 g/d, P<0.01), fish (8.6 g/d, P<0.01) and dietary fiber (1.6 g/d, P<0.01). Conclusion Personality traits are associated with

  3. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a “canned fraction” parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  4. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  5. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  6. Implications for cancer epidemiology of differences in dietary intake associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

    1991-01-01

    Several dietary factors are thought to modify risk for cancers that are known to be associated with alcohol intake. In this study, we sought to identify and describe alcohol-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of alcohol-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study that was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products. Study subjects consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on age (+/- 5 yrs). Nutritional data were analyzed as log-transformed frequencies of 30 food items, 9 factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and nutrient scores estimating daily intake of fat, vitamin A, fiber, and cholesterol. We observed many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by alcoholic beverage intake than would be expected merely by chance. For males, the most striking relationships included increased meat and egg consumption with increasing alcohol consumption and higher intake of cantaloupe and cold cereal among lighter drinkers. For females, we observed strong inverse relationships between alcohol consumption and reported intake of fruit, cold cereal, and ice cream. We also observed a direct association between alcohol and meat consumption, though it was weaker than that found among men. Findings based on factors and nutrients followed the pattern observed for the individual food items, with highest fat scores and lowest fruit scores among the heaviest drinkers. Implications for nutrient-alcohol interactions and statistical considerations are discussed. PMID:2038565

  7. The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups). Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029 PMID:21294869

  8. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. PMID:26710981

  9. Long-term changes in dietary and food intake behaviour in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, L.M.; Ma, Y.; Davis, N.; Delahanty, L.M.; Mayer-Davis, E.J.; Franks, P.W.; Brown-Friday, J.; Isonaga, M.; Kriska, A.M.; Venditti, E.M.; Wylie-Rosett, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To 1) compare change in dietary intake, with an emphasis on food groups and food behaviors, over time across treatment arms in a diabetes prevention trial and 2) assess differences in dietary intake across demographic groups within treatment arms. Methods Data are from the Diabetes Prevention Program and Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Participants were randomized to lifestyle (n = 1079), metformin (n = 1073), or placebo (n = 1082) for an average of 3 years when the initial results regarding the benefits of the lifestyle intervention were released and all participants were offered a modified lifestyle intervention. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and at 1, 5, 6, and 9 years post-randomization. Results Compared to the metformin and placebo arms, lifestyle participants maintained a lower total and saturated fat, and higher fiber intake up to 9 years post-randomization; and lower intakes of red meat and sweets were maintained up to 5 years. Younger participants had higher intakes of poultry and lower intakes of fruits compared to their older counterparts, particularly in the lifestyle arm. African Americans tended to have lower dairy and higher poultry intakes compared to Caucasians and Hispanics. In the lifestyle arm, men tended to have higher grain, fruit and fish intakes compared to women. Conclusions Changes in nutrient intake among lifestyle participants were maintained for up to 9 years. Younger participants reported more unhealthy diets over time and thus may benefit from additional support to achieve and maintain dietary goals. PMID:24824893

  10. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    -based foods could lead to unintended dietary outcomes without simultaneous changes in the types and amounts of plant foods currently consumed. Increasing dairy foods, which are currently under-consumed, could assist in improving the intakes of many nutrients of concern. PMID:27409633

  11. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cifelli, Christopher J.; Houchins, Jenny A.; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    -based foods could lead to unintended dietary outcomes without simultaneous changes in the types and amounts of plant foods currently consumed. Increasing dairy foods, which are currently under-consumed, could assist in improving the intakes of many nutrients of concern. PMID:27409633

  12. Dietary Flavonols Intake and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Huang, Shifeng; Su, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Many studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonols intake and the risk of EC and GC, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a systematic analysis of relevant population-based studies to assess the association and derive a more precise estimation. Methods: The Cochrane, PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify articles published through January 2016 that met the predetermined inclusion criterion. Twelve studies involving 4593 patients and 519,378 controls were included. Results: The summary odds ratios (ORs) of EC, GC and the two combined were respectively 0.88 (95% CI: 0.73–1.08), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70–0.91) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74–0.92) for the highest category of dietary flavonols intake compared with the lowest. No significant heterogeneities were observed in these studies. Further analysis showed that the pooled ORs of EC and GC for cohort, population-based case-control and hospital-based case-control studies were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.61–1.34), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.72–1.18), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.38–1.24) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.65–1.06), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.45–1.59), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56–0.88). The subgroup analyses revealed a significant association of flavonol intake with a reduced risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma but not gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Moreover, significant inverse associations of flavonol intake with GC risk were observed in women but not in men, in smokers but not in nonsmokers, in European populations but not in American populations. Similarly, a significant inverse association of flavonols intake with EC risk was also observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Conclusion: High intake of dietary flavonols is significantly related to a reduced risk of GC, especially in women and smokers. PMID:26891324

  13. 5-A-DAY: dietary behavior and the fruit and vegetable intake of Latino children.

    PubMed Central

    Basch, C E; Zybert, P; Shea, S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to examine children's intake of fruits and vegetables in relation to the recent national "5-A-DAY" campaign. METHODS. Four 24-hour dietary recalls per child collected from 205 mothers of 4- to 5-year-old urban Latino children were used to analyze average 5-A-DAY fruit and vegetable consumption and examine associations between 5-A-DAY consumption, nutrient intakes, and eating patterns. RESULTS. The reported mean servings per day of fruits and vegetables, as defined by 5-A-DAY criteria, were 1.8 and 1.0, respectively, with only 6.8% (n = 14) of the children averaging five or more servings per day. Fruit juice accounted for 36% of 5-A-DAY servings. There were significant linear trends in intake of vitamins A and C, potassium, iron, cholesterol, protein, and fiber across quintiles of 5-A-DAY intake. There were no differences among quintiles in intake of saturated or total fat or in servings from most non-5-A-DAY food groups. CONCLUSIONS. Latino children's intake of fruits and vegetables falls far short of current recommendations. Fruit juice accounted for a disproportionate amount of 5-A-DAY intake in this population. Sensible 5-A-DAY interventions should take into consideration the existing eating patterns of the target population. PMID:8179054

  14. Dietary flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2015-11-14

    This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were assessed using a FFQ among the Framingham Offspring Cohort at baseline and three times during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to characterise prospective associations between the natural logarithms of flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence using a time-dependent approach, in which intake data were updated at each examination to represent average intakes from previous examinations. Mean baseline age was 54 years, and 45 % of the population was male. Over an average 14·9 years of follow-up among 2880 participants, there were 518 CVD events and 261 CHD events. After multivariable adjustment, only flavonol intake was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD incidence (hazard ratios (HR) per 2·5-fold flavonol increase=0·86, P trend=0·05). Additional adjustment for total fruit and vegetable intake and overall diet quality attenuated this observation (HR=0·89, P trend=0·20 and HR=0·92, P trend=0·33, respectively). There were no significant associations between flavonoids and CHD incidence after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the observed association between flavonol intake and CVD risk may be a consequence of better overall diet. However, the strength of this non-significant association was also consistent with relative risks observed in previous meta-analyses, and therefore a modest benefit of flavonol intake on CVD risk cannot be ruled out. PMID:26334117

  15. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  16. Dietary intake of folate by adolescents and the potential effect of flour fortification with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, P J; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Butler, T J; Adamson, A J

    2001-10-01

    The UK Department of Health recently recommended that flour be fortified with folic acid, at 2400 microg/kg. The objectives of the present paper were: to determine the consequence of this on folic acid intake of adolescents; to determine the level of fortification necessary to achieve an intake of 400 microg/d in adolescent girls (the amount recommended periconceptionally); to estimate the consequence of fortification on folic acid intake of high flour consumers; and to report on folate intake of adolescents. Dietary intake of folate and flour were determined by analysis of an existing database of the diets of 379 English adolescents. The folic acid intake that would result from white flour fortification with folic acid at 2400 microg/kg was determined and the level of folic acid fortification necessary to achieve an intake of 400 microg/d in girls from this source was also calculated. Without flour fortification, 6.9 % of girls failed to reach the UK lower reference nutrient intake for total folate. Fortification of white flour with folic acid at 2400 microg/kg would result in an additional folic acid intake of 191(sem 6) microg/d in girls. To ensure 97 % of girls received 400 microg/d from white flour, white flour would need to be fortified at a level of 10 430 microg/kg, resulting in intakes of 1260 microg/d from flour in the highest (97.5 centile) female white flour consumers and 1422 microg/d from flour in the highest (97.5 centile) male white flour consumers. PMID:11591241

  17. Dietary Intake of Resveratrol Enhances the Adaptive Immunity of Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jiangshui; Lu, Linlin; Zhang, Zongliang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is well known that immune response declines with aging. Resveratrol, a polyphenol that occurs naturally in several plant species including grapevines and berries, has been shown to have potent antiaging and health-promoting activities. However, the mechanism underlying these activities remains largely unknown. Here we clearly demonstrate that: (1) Dietary intake of resveratrol induced a significant increase in T helper cells (CD4+) in middle-aged (12 months old) and aged (21 months old) Wistar male rats; (2) resveratrol supplementation considerably increased the delayed-type hypersensitivity response, a T cell–mediated immune response, in aged rats; and (3) reveratrol supplementation remarkably promoted the production of total anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-KLH IgG1, and anti-KLH IgG2α in aged rats without disturbing immune homeostasis. These data together indicate that resveratrol is capable of counteracting immunosenescence, thereby leading to rejuvenation. In practice, resveratrol can be useful to help the elderly generate an improved response to vaccine with stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:22950432

  18. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  19. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-01-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  20. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  1. Trends in nutrient and dietary intake among adults and the elderly: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate trends in nutrients and sources of dietary intake for Taiwanese people from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996 to 2005-2008. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were obtained from the 2005-2008 NAHSIT. The results showed that intake of cereals and grains, and dietary fiber has decreased, whereas intake of carbohydrate rich convenience foods has increased. As a result, 10-20 g of dietary fat is now obtained from carbohydrate rich foods. A greater proportion of Taiwanese are choosing low-fat meat products, however, excessive intake of meat by men and women aged 19 to 64 years is resulting in excessive intakes of protein, cholesterol and saturated fat. Men and women aged 19 to 30 years had insufficient intakes of fruit and vegetables. Consumption of fruit, dairy/products, and nuts was low in all age groups. We recommend strengthening public nutrition education and changing diet related environment to improve dietary quality and food group distributions. Issues of concern include excessive intakes of energy and the soybean/fish/meat/eggs food group in all subjects, high amount of processed foods and refined-carbohydrate rich foods in men aged 19 to 64 years and women aged 19-30 years, as well as intakes below the DRI for a variety of nutrients in elderly persons. PMID:21669594

  2. Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre intake in relation to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study.

    PubMed

    Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S; Griep, Linda M Oude; Griep, Linda M O; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary S

    2015-11-14

    Prospective cohort studies have shown inverse associations between fibre intake and CVD, possibly mediated by blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the impact of types of fibre on BP. We examined cross-sectional associations with BP of total, insoluble and soluble fibre intakes. Data were used from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) study, including 2195 men and women aged between 40 and 59 years from the USA. During four visits, eight BP, four 24 h dietary recalls and two 24 h urine samples were collected. Linear regression models adjusted for lifestyle and dietary confounders to estimate BP differences per 2 sd higher intakes of total and individual types of fibre were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, total fibre intake higher by 6·8 g/4184 kJ (6·8 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·69 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; 95% CI -2·97, -0·41) and attenuated to -1·01 mmHg (95% CI -2·35, 0·34) after adjustment for urinary K. Insoluble fibre intake higher by 4·6 g/4184 kJ (4·6 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·81 mmHg lower SBP (95% CI -3·65, 0·04), additionally adjusted for soluble fibre and urinary K excretion, whereas soluble fibre was not associated with BP. Raw fruit was the main source of total and insoluble fibre, followed by whole grains and vegetables. In conclusion, higher intakes of fibre, especially insoluble, may contribute to lower BP, independent of nutrients associated with higher intakes of fibre-rich foods. PMID:26328746

  3. Dietary intake of phytonutrients in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Cho, Yang-Hee; Park, Juyeon; Shin, Hye-Rim; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for health policy creation by estimating phytonutrient intake and identifying major food sources of phytonutrients. Dietary recall data collected in the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and phytonutrient database of the Korea National Academy of Agricultural Science were used in this study. The proportions of the population satisfying recommended dietary guidelines for fruits and vegetables were estimated, and phytonutrient intake was compared between populations who consumed the recommended intake and those who did not. The study found that 5.3% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake. In particular, the proportions of adolescents (13 to 18 years of age) and young adults (19 to 39 years of age) meeting the recommended fruit and vegetable intake were lower than other age groups (P<0.001). Intakes of major carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), flavonoids (anthocyanidins, hesperitin, quercetin, catechin, and isoflavones), and one phenolic compound (gallic acid) were significantly higher (P<0.001) among subjects who met the recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption compared with those who did not. Carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, tomatoes, and watermelons were found to be major sources of carotenoids. Flavonoids were mainly obtained from persimmons, mandarins, apples, grapes, onions, soybeans, and chestnuts. However, one or two food items contributed to nearly all intake of each phytonutrient, suggesting a lack of variety. In conclusion, the Korean population needs to consume a larger quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables. PMID:23830325

  4. Dietary PUFA intakes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ka-Hung; Meyer, Barbara J; Reece, Lauren; Sinn, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    Research has shown associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and erythrocyte long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) levels, with limited evidence for dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake and ADHD. The aims of the present study were to assess dietary PUFA intakes and food sources in children with ADHD, to compare these intakes to previously published Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS) data and determine any relationships between intakes and ADHD symptoms. Eighty-six 3-d-weighed food records (FR) were analysed from children with ADHD. The median (interquartile range) daily intakes of fatty acids (mg/d) were: linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6), 7797 (6240-12 333); arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6), 55 (27.0-93); total n-6 PUFA, 7818 (6286-10 662); alpha-linolenic acid (18 : 3n-3), 1039 (779-1461); EPA (20 : 5n-3), 18 (6.0-32.0); docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3), 17 (6.3-39.3); DHA (22 : 6n-3), 16 (8.5-445); total LC n-3 PUFA (addition of 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3), 65 (28.3-120.1); total n-3 PUFA, 1151 (876-1592). In comparison to the NNS data, 18 : 3n-3 intakes were higher and 20 : 4n-6 were lower (P < 0.05). Children with ADHD consumed half the amount of fish/seafood, meat and eggs when compared to the NNS (P < 0.05). No significant correlations were found between fatty acids and ADHD symptoms. Children with ADHD met the adequate intake for LC n-3 PUFA, but fell short of other recommendations. PMID:19631022

  5. Dietary sources and sodium intake in a sample of Australian preschool children

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Nowson, Caryl A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess dietary sodium intake and the food sources of sodium in a sample of Australian preschool children. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Mothers were followed up when children were approximately 3.5 years of age after participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial: the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program. Participants 251 Australian children aged 3.5±0.19 (SD) years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The average daily sodium intake was determined using three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The contributions of food groups, core, discretionary and processed foods to daily sodium intake were assessed. Results The average sodium intake was 1508±495 (SD) mg/day, (salt equivalent 3.9±1.3 (SD) g/day) and 87% of children exceeded the Australian Upper Level of Intake (UL) for sodium of 1000 mg/day (salt equivalent 2.6 g/day). Main food sources of sodium were cereal/cereal products (25%), milk products (19%), meat, poultry/game (17%) and cereal-based products (15%). Core foods contributed 65%, and discretionary foods 35% of total daily sodium intake, and within the total diet, minimally processed, processed, processed culinary ingredient and ultraprocessed foods contributed 16%, 35%, 1% and 48% of sodium, respectively. Conclusions Within this sample, most children exceeded the recommended UL for sodium. Core and ultraprocessed foods were key sources of sodium which suggests that reductions in the sodium content of these foods are required to reduce sodium intake in young children. These data also provide further support for public health campaigns that seek to reduce consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26846894

  6. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

  7. Dietary intake of PCDDs/PCDFs and coplanar PCBs among the Japanese population estimated by duplicate portion analysis: a low proportion of adults exceed the tolerable daily intake.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshio; Morinaga, Kenji; Kodama, Kazunori; Suzuki, Taka-ichiro; Nagai, Masaki; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Dietary intake of dioxins was estimated by duplicate portion analysis of consecutive 3-day food samples among 86 men and 288 women (aged 17-72 years), who were living in 75 different areas of 25 prefectures in Japan. The mean (median) intake of PCDDs+PCDFs, coplanar PCBs (co-PCBs), and total dioxins, expressed on the basis of toxicity equivalents (TEQ), was 0.46 (0.34), 0.59 (0.39), and 1.06 (0.79)pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Dietary intake was highest in fishing areas, followed by farming and urban areas. In multiple regression analysis, TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins were positively associated with age and intake amount of fish and shellfish, and milk and dairy products, and negatively associated with survey year. There were significant positive correlations between dietary intake and blood levels for TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins (Pearson r=0.35-0.36). The proportion of those whose dietary intake exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI), set by the World Health Organization (4pg TEQ/kg/day) and European Union (2pg TEQ/kg/day), was estimated at 2.1% and 10.4%, respectively. However, these proportions were considered to be overestimated because of the effect of day-to-day within-person variation. Therefore, the ratio of within- and between-person variance was estimated by applying random effects one-way analysis of variance to repeated measurements for another group of 35 persons. When the effect of within-person variation of dietary intake was accounted for, the proportion of subjects whose long-term intake exceeded the TDI of WHO and EU decreased to 0.06% and 2.9%, respectively. PMID:18692182

  8. Differential effects of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Wu, Congqing; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Charnigo, Richard J; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The amount of dietary sodium intake regulates the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure, both of which play critical roles in atherosclerosis. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on atherosclerosis. This study applied a broad range of dietary sodium concentrations to determine the concomitant effects of dietary sodium intake on the RAS, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis in mice. Eight-week-old male low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet containing selected sodium concentrations (Na 0.01%, 0.1%, or 2% w/w) for 12 weeks. Mice in these three groups were all hypercholesterolemic, although mice fed Na 0.01% and Na 0.1% had higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than mice fed Na 2%. Mice fed Na 0.01% had greater abundances of renal renin mRNA than those fed Na 0.1% and 2%. Plasma renin concentrations were higher in mice fed Na 0.01% (14.2 ± 1.7 ng/ml/30 min) than those fed Na 0.1% or 2% (6.2 ± 0.6 and 5.8 ± 1.6 ng/ml per 30 min, respectively). However, systolic blood pressure at 12 weeks was higher in mice fed Na 2% (138 ± 3 mm Hg) than those fed Na 0.01% and 0.1% (129 ± 3 and 128 ± 4 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, mice fed Na 0.01% (0.17 ± 0.02 mm(2)) had larger atherosclerotic lesion areas in aortic roots than those fed Na 2% (0.09 ± 0.01 mm(2)), whereas lesion areas in mice fed Na 0.1% (0.12 ± 0.02 mm(2)) were intermediate between and not significantly different from those in Na 0.01% and Na 2% groups. In conclusion, while high dietary sodium intake led to higher systolic blood pressure, low dietary sodium intake augmented atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22705323

  9. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI = 0.95–1.001; I2 = 0%; n = 11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.94–1.18; I2 = 0%; n = 5) and animal-based fat (summary RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.92–1.36; I2 = 85.0%; n = 6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:26568366

  10. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  11. Intake of Dietary Supplements and Malnutrition in Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Mehnoosh; Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Ghotbodin-Mohammadi, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is prevalent among patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and causes various complications. Dietary supplementation to provide appropriate nutritional support may reduce the malnutrition and complications through improvement in nutritional status. This study was carried out to assess the association between dietary supplementation and malnutrition among patients in ICUs. Methods: A case–control study was conducted on 180 male patients aged 20–60 years in the ICUs of the hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran in 2013. Data of two groups including 83 patients (cases) who had consumed regular hospital meals and dietary supplements and 97 patients (controls) who had received regular hospital meals were compared. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory values, and dietary intakes were extracted from medical records, and Maastricht index (MI) was calculated. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 21. T-test and paired-sample t-test were used to determine the difference between groups. Results: Taking supplements increased daily energy intake, carbohydrate, and protein in case group (n = 83) significantly (P < 0.05). MI changed to 3.1 ± 3.8 and 4.3 ± 4.2 in case (n = 83) and control (n = 97) groups, respectively. Although the MI fell in both groups, it showed a greater reduction in case group (from 6.3 ± 5.3 to 3.1 ± 3.8). Conclusions: Since consuming dietary supplements besides the regular hospital meals increased intake of energy and macronutrients and reduced the MI significantly, it was concluded that it helped supply nutritional requirements more effectively and improved the malnutrition in ICU. PMID:27512556

  12. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Smoking-Related Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To systematically investigate the effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on the risk of smoking-related cancer in observational studies. Methods Summary estimates and corresponding standard errors were calculated using the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) and 95% CI of selected studies and weighted by the inverse variance. Results A total of 35 studies, including 19 case-controls (9,525 cases and 15,835 controls) and 15 cohort studies (988,082 subjects and 8,161 cases), were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Total dietary flavonoids and most of the flavonoid subclasses were inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In subgroup analyses by cancer site, significant associations were observed in aerodigestive tract and lung cancers. Total dietary flavonoid intake was significantly associated with aerodigestive tract cancer risk (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83) marginally associated with lung cancer risk (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-1.00). Subgroup analyses by smoking status showed significantly different results. The intake of total flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones, as well as the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was significantly associated with decreased risk of smoking-related cancer in smokers, whereas no association was observed in non-smokers, except for flavanones. In meta-analysis for the effect of subclasses of dietary flavonoids by cancer type, aerodigestive tract cancer was inversely associated with most flavonoid subclasses. Conclusion The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk varied across studies, but the overall results indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, was inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk. The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk were more prominent in smokers. PMID:24069431

  13. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. RESULTS There were three dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in this study: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m2), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be

  14. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration. PMID:23268328

  15. Can adherence to dietary guidelines address excess caloric intake? An empirical assessment for the UK.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C S

    2013-12-01

    The facilitation of healthier dietary choices by consumers is a key element of government strategies to combat the rising incidence of obesity in developed and developing countries. Public health campaigns to promote healthier eating often target compliance with recommended dietary guidelines for consumption of individual nutrients such as fats and added sugars. This paper examines the association between improved compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients and excess calorie intake, the most proximate determinant of obesity risk. We apply quantile regressions and counterfactual decompositions to cross-sectional data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000-01) to assess how excess calorie consumption patterns in the UK are likely to change with improved compliance with dietary guidelines. We find that the effects of compliance vary significantly across different quantiles of calorie consumption. Our results show that compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients, even if successfully achieved, is likely to be associated with only modest shifts in excess calorie consumption patterns. Consequently, public health campaigns that target compliance with dietary guidelines for specific nutrients in isolation are unlikely to have a significant effect on the obesity risk faced by the population. PMID:23665354

  16. Dietary Pattern and Nutrient Intake of Korean Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hui Song; Ahn, In Su; Byun, Yun Sun; Yang, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jin Hye; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by itching and eczema-like skin lesions, and its symptoms alleviate with age. Recently, the prevalence of AD has increased among adolescents and adults. The increasing prevalence of AD seems to be related to westernized lifestyles and dietary patterns. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary patterns and nutrient intake of patients with AD. Methods The study population consisted of 50 children with AD who visited the Department of Dermatology at Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea from May 2008 to May 2009. Physical condition and calorie intake were evaluated using the Eczema Area and Severity Index score and Food Record Questionnaire completed by the subjects, and the data were analyzed using the Nutritional Assessment Program Can-pro 3.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, 2005) program to determine the gap between the actual ingestion and average requirements of 3 major nutrients (i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), vitamins (i.e. A, B, C, and E), niacin, folic acid, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc in all subjects. Results The intake rate of proteins was 18.02% (recommended dietary allowance [RDA], 7%~20%), of carbohydrates was 67.7% (RDA, 55%~70%), and of lipids was 14.24% (RDA, 15%~30%). Thirty-one subjects (62%) showed deficiency of folic acid, and 21 subjects (42%), of iron supplements. Conclusion Essential nutrient intake tends to be lower in AD patients than in healthy subjects, and this low intake is closely related to the severity of AD. PMID:25324648

  17. Associations between Dietary Intake of Fruits and Vegetables in relation to Urinary Estrogen DNA Adduct Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Zahid, Muhammad; Cavalieri, Ercole; Rogan, Eleanor G.; Raccor, Brianne S.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Yong, Mellissa; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Estrogen exposure plays a role in breast cancer (BC) development. A novel estrogen biomarker, the estrogen DNA adduct (EDA) ratio, was shown to be elevated in women at high-risk of BC and among BC cases. Modifiable factors may impact the EDA ratio, with studies demonstrating that resveratrol reduces EDA ratio in vitro. We sought to examine the hypothesis that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with EDA ratio. Methods This analysis was conducted in 53 pre-menopausal, healthy women aged 40–45 years from a cross-sectional study in which participants provided first-void urine samples and 3-day food records. Urine samples were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The EDA ratio was calculated as the estrogen-DNA adducts divided by estrogen metabolites and conjugates. A trend test was used to assess associations between tertiles of dietary intake using linear regression. Results After adjustment for age, total energy, percent adiposity, serum estradiol and estrone-sulfate, we observed inverse associations of EDA ratio with carbohydrate consumption (P=0.01) and vegetable intake (P =0.01). EDA ratio was inversely associated with 5 botanical groups (Chenopodiaceae: P=0.02; Umbelliferae: P=0.03; Compositae: P=0.01; Ericaceae: P=0.01; Musaceae: P=0.03) but not fruit intake overall. Conclusion Although these data require replication before conclusions are drawn, this report suggests an inverse association between vegetable and carbohydrate consumption and EDA ratio. Impact While more information is still needed, these findings suggest a link between dietary intake and a biomarker that is both associated with high-risk BC status and associated with modifiable factors. PMID:25431744

  18. Adolescent Dietary Fiber, Vegetable Fat, Vegetable Protein, and Nut Intakes and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The importance of early-life exposures in breast cancer development is increasingly recognized. However, limited research has evaluated the relationship between adolescent diet and subsequent risk of breast cancer and reported inconsistent results. This population-based case-control study investigated the associations of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence with adult breast cancer risk. Methods Women, ages 25–74 years, who were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2003 were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through random digit dialing and age-frequency matched to cases. Diet at ages 10–15 was assessed with a 55-item food frequency questionnaire among 2,865 cases and 3,299 controls. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Inverse associations were found between intakes of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts during adolescence and breast cancer risk, which persisted after controlling for adult intakes. The ORs (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.66 (0.55 to 0.78; Ptrend<0.0001) for fiber, 0.80 (0.68 to 0.95; Ptrend=0.01) for vegetable protein, 0.74 (0.63 to 0.87; Ptrend=0.002) for vegetable fat, 0.76 (0.61 to 0.95 for ≥1 serving/day versus <1 serving/month intake; Ptrend=0.04) for nuts. The reduced risk for adolescent intakes of fiber, vegetable protein and nuts was largely limited to postmenopausal women (Pinteraction≤0.05). Conclusions Dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence were associated with reduced breast cancer risk. PMID:24737167

  19. Assessment of the daily intake of 62 polychlorinated biphenyls from dietary exposure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jun-Tae; Park, Hyokeun; Kim, Meehye; Paek, Ock-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-11-01

    The dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was estimated using the sum of 62 PCB congeners (∑(62)PCBs), including seven indicator PCBs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs, in the South Korea. In this study, 200 individual food samples belonging to 40 different foodstuffs were investigated to estimate the distribution of PCB congeners in five sampling cities. PCB exposure was estimated using Korean dietary habits as established by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The PCB concentrations in rice, the most frequently consumed food in Korea, was relatively low in whole food samples. The mean PCB levels measured in fish were the highest in this study, but each fish is consumed in relatively small amounts by the general population. Therefore, the daily dietary intake should also be considered with regard to human exposure to PCBs, especially with the consumption of contaminated foods. Dioxin-like PCB levels were also calculated using TEF values that were established in 2005. The average levels (pg TEQ/g) were 0.0002 for rice and 0.0098 for fish. The dioxin-like PCBs accounted for a relatively small percentage of the total PCBs, compared to previous studies. According to our research, the health risks associated with exposure to PCBs could be estimated using the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the general population. PMID:22874429

  20. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  1. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS. PMID:26523968

  2. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults

    PubMed Central

    Witkowska, Anna M.; Zujko, Małgorzata E.; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Terlikowska, Katarzyna M.; Piotrowski, Walerian

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003–2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents. PMID:26569297

  3. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Nöthlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjønneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quirós, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sánchez, M. J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. Patients and methods The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case–control subset. Results Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17–1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55–0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52–0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23–1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37–0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Conclusions Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk. PMID:23123507

  4. Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake, Its Major Food Sources and Assisted Reproduction Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background High dietary fat consumption may alter oocyte development and embryonic development. This prospective study was conducted to determine the relation between dietary fat consumption level, its food sources and the assisted reproduction parameters. Methods A prospective study was conducted on 240 infertile women. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle, fat consumption and major food sources over the previous three months were identified. The number of retrieved oocytes, metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes numbers, fertilization rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate were also determined. The data were analyzed using multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-square and t-test. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Total fat intake adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity and etiology of infertility was positively associated with the number of retrieved oocytes and inversely associated with the high embryo quality rate. An inverse association was observed between sausage and turkey ham intake and the number of retrieved oocytes. Also, oil intake level had an inverse association with good cleavage rate. Conclusion The results revealed that higher levels of fat consumption tend to increase the number of retrieved oocytes and were adversely related to embryonic development. Among food sources of fat, vegetable oil, sausage and turkey ham intake may adversely affect assisted reproduction parameters. PMID:25473630

  5. Voluntary fortification of breakfast cereals with folic acid: contribution to dietary intake in Australia.

    PubMed

    Japar, Devina; Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Shrestha, Ashok; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-05-01

    Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals have been voluntarily fortified with folic acid since 1995, with the purpose of reducing the prevalence of neural tube defects in utero. Using data from the recent Australian Health Survey, this study aimed to estimate folate intake from one serving of breakfast cereals (median amount). Various commercial brands were purchased in 2002 (n = 19) and in 2014 (n = 14); folate was determined by microbiological assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total folate (μg/100 g) in 2002 and 2014 selections were 144-633 and 147-564, respectively, and mostly comparable to nutrition labels. Folic acid (2014 selection) using HPLC, ranged from 85 to 411 μg/100 g. Intake of 51 g cereals/serving by individuals ≥2 years could contribute 75-288 μg dietary folate equivalent. It seems that folic acid intake among children (2-3 years) exceeds the recommended dietary intake, when certain brands of breakfast cereals are consumed. Accordingly, the benefits and potential detrimental effects of the voluntary fortification need to be further explored. PMID:26903206

  6. Dietary intakes and food use of groups of elite Australian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Gollan, R A; Read, R S

    1991-12-01

    The present study conducted dietary surveys of four groups of Australian male athletes: triathletes, marathon runners, Australian Rules football players, and Olympic weightlifters. Their training diets were assessed via a 7-day food record from which mean daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients were estimated. The data were compared between groups as well as to recommendations in the literature for athlete nutrition. Results showed major differences between groups. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake was greater for triathletes and marathon runners than for the other two groups. There was no difference between all four groups in the total amount of fat consumed, yet its contribution to total energy intake was significantly lower for triathletes and marathon runners. The football players and weightlifters consumed a similar fat:energy ratio as the typical Australian diet. Furthermore, the micronutrient density of the football players' diets was significantly lower than that of the other groups. PMID:1844570

  7. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  8. Dietary sources of fiber intake and its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents' employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  9. Obesity coexists with malnutrition? Adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction. PMID:24528344

  10. The Impact of Dietary Folate Intake on Reproductive Function in Premenopausal Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Zhang, Cuilin; Pollack, Anna Z.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Folic acid is recommended to reproductive-aged women to prevent birth defects, though little is known about the effects of dietary intake on other reproductive outcomes. Improved pregnancy rates have been documented after folic acid supplement use, suggesting a possible link with ovulation, however research is limited. Our objective was to evaluate the association between dietary folate intake, hormone levels, and sporadic anovulation in healthy, regularly menstruating women. Methodology/Principal Findings The BioCycle study (2005–2007) prospectively followed 259 healthy women aged 18–44 years from the western New York region for up to 2 menstrual cycles. Total folate and specific sources of folate were assessed up to 4 times per cycle by 24-hour recall. Estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured in serum up to 8 times per cycle, timed using fertility monitors. Anovulation was defined as a cycle with peak progesterone concentration ≤5 ng/mL and no LH peak in the mid/late luteal phase. Higher intake of dietary folate (in dietary equivalents) across tertiles had a marginally significant association with greater luteal progesterone levels (P trend 0.08). Higher intake of synthetic folate was significantly associated with higher luteal progesterone levels (P trend 0.05). Specifically, women in the 3rd tertile of synthetic folate intake had, on average, 16.0% (95% CI, 0.5–33.8%) higher luteal progesterone levels compared to women in the 1st tertile. Moreover, consumption of synthetic folate was significantly and inversely associated with anovulation such that women in the 3rd tertile had a 64% (95% CI, 8–86%) decreased odds of anovulation compared to the women in the 1st tertile (P trend 0.03). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that a diet high in synthetic folate may be associated with increased progesterone levels and lower risk of sporadic anovulation. Further study of the effect of

  11. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. Objective To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Methods Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. Results The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (P<.001) compared to TEE measured with the SWA, and there was no significant correlation between EI and TEE. Accuracy of EI relative to TEE increased with a weekend day in the record (P=.007) and lower BMI z-score (P=.001). TEE assessed with the mobile phone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (P<.001), and the correlation between the methods was .75 (P<.001). Analysis of physical activity levels (PAL) from the mobile phone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. Conclusions By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents’ EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app

  12. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: The Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O’Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the “Food4Me” study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. Methods The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the

  13. Dietary carbohydrate modifies the inverse association between saturated fat intake and cholesterol on very low-density lipoproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary saturated fat on fasting triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and any mediation of this relationship by dietary carbohydrate intake. Men and women in the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 1036, mea...

  14. Dietary intake of four artificial sweeteners by Irish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A; O'Reilly, Emer; Tlustos, Christina; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In spite of rigorous pre- and post-market reviews of safety, there remains a high level of debate regarding the use of artificial sweeteners in foods. Young children are of particular interest when assessing food chemical exposure as a result of their unique food consumption patterns and comparatively higher exposure to food chemicals on a body weight basis when compared with the general population. The present study examined the intakes of four intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) in the diets of children aged 1-4 years using food consumption and sweetener presence data from the Irish National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (2010-11) and analytical data for sweetener concentration in foods obtained from a national testing programme. Four exposure assessment scenarios were conducted using the available data on sweetener occurrence and concentration. The results demonstrated that the mean daily intakes for all four sweeteners were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (17-31%), even considering the most conservative assumptions regarding sweetener presence and concentration. High consumer intakes (P95) were also below the ADI for the four sweeteners when more realistic estimates of exposure were considered. Both sweetener occurrence and concentration data had a considerable effect on reducing the estimated intake values, with a combined reduction in intakes of 95% when expressed as a proportion of the ADI. Flavoured drinks were deemed to be a key contributor to artificial sweetener intakes in this population cohort. It was concluded that there is no health risk to Irish pre-school children at current dietary intake levels of the sweeteners studied. PMID:26939625

  15. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    PubMed

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking. PMID:8660033

  16. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  17. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 90 percent of adults do not obtain the Adequate Intake (AI) for dietary fiber (DF). Using only reliable recalls in NHANES 2003–2006, we modeled the following changes to assess impact on usual DF intakes in US adults 19+ yrs: 1) increase all fiber containing foods by 10, 25, 50, or 100 percent; ...

  18. Comparison of Dietary Intake between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women and Controls.

    PubMed

    Shishehgar, Farnaz; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajian, Sepideh; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Moslehi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated endocrinopathy affecting women in reproductive age. The crucial role of obesity and insulin resistance in progression of metabolic and cardiovascular features of PCOS has been confirmed. Although it has been suggested that there is a possible association between dietary pattern and risk of PCOS, few studies investigating the diet composition of PCOS women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intakes between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and eumenorrheic non hirsute women. This was a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 eumenorrheic non hirsute healthy age and BMI matched controls. We compared the dietary intakes of our study group using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), using T-test or Mann-Whitney to compare the means of two groups. One way Anova was used to compare the tertiles of GI and GL in each group and a two way ANOVA was used to compare between tertiles of GI-GL and groups. The results demonstrated that energy and macronutrient intakes in PCOS women compared to controls were similar. PCOS group consumed more food items with high glycemic index (p=0.042) and less legumes (P=0.026) and vegetables (p=0.037) than controls. Both groups in the highest tertile of glycemic load (GL) had higher body mass index and waist circumference. Considering the results of this study, it was concluded that PCOS women had a dietary pattern that was characterized by a higher consumption of high GI food items and lower legumes and vegetables. PMID:27157182

  19. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Low, Julia Y. Q.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  20. Gut microbiota richness promotes its stability upon increased dietary fibre intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tap, Julien; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Bensaada, Martine; Philippe, Catherine; Roth, Hubert; Rabot, Sylvie; Lakhdari, Omar; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Corthier, Gérard; Fontaine, Eric; Doré, Joël; Leclerc, Marion

    2015-12-01

    Gut microbiota richness and stability are important parameters in host-microbe symbiosis. Diet modification, notably using dietary fibres, might be a way to restore a high richness and stability in the gut microbiota. In this work, during a 6-week nutritional trial, 19 healthy adults consumed a basal diet supplemented with 10 or 40 g dietary fibre per day for 5 days, followed by 15-day washout periods. Fecal samples were analysed by a combination of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, intestinal cell genotoxicity assay, metatranscriptomics sequencing approach and short-chain fatty analysis. This short-term change in the dietary fibre level did not have the same impact for all individuals but remained significant within each individual gut microbiota at genus level. Higher microbiota richness was associated with higher microbiota stability upon increased dietary fibre intake. Increasing fibre modulated the expression of numerous microbiota metabolic pathways such as glycan metabolism, with genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes active on fibre or host glycans. High microbial richness was also associated with high proportions of Prevotella and Coprococcus species and high levels of caproate and valerate. This study provides new insights on the role of gut microbial richness in healthy adults upon dietary changes and host microbes' interaction. PMID:26235304

  1. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: a cost-of-illness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada. PMID:26652739

  2. Dietary survey methods. 1. A semi-weighted technique for measuring dietary intake within families.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Nettleton, P A

    1980-10-01

    Family diet studies which measure total family consumption can determine only the average nutrient intake. A method has been devised to measure all family members' individual diets concurrently in order to learn how food and nutrient intake is distributed within the family. In this semi-weighed method, the total quantity of food available for consumption by the family is weighted at time of preparation or serving, and the distribution between family members is recorded in household measures. The method is described in detail. It provides data on individual consumption with an accuracy approaching that of a weighed survey. A co-operation rate of 73 per cent in a random sample of 74 households with two adults and two or three children indicates that this semi-weighed method can be used to assess family diets in a broad cross-section of socio-economic backgounds. PMID:7419908

  3. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  4. Eating out of home and its association with dietary intake: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Lachat, C; Nago, E; Verstraeten, R; Roberfroid, D; Van Camp, J; Kolsteren, P

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades, eating out of home (OH) has gained importance in the diets worldwide. We document the nutritional characteristics of eating OH and its associations with energy intake, dietary quality and socioeconomic status. We carried out a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies in eight databases up to 10 March 2011. Of the 7,319 studies retrieved, 29 met the inclusion criteria and were analysed in this review. The quality of the data was assessed and a sensitivity analysis was conducted by isolating nationally representative or large cohort data from 6 and 11 countries, respectively. OH foods were important sources of energy in all age groups and their energy contribution increased in adolescents and young adults. Eating OH was associated with a higher total energy intake, energy contribution from fat in the daily diet and higher socioeconomic status. Two large studies showed how eating OH was also associated with a lower intake of micronutrients, particularly vitamin C, Ca and Fe. Although the studies were cross-sectional and heterogeneous in the way they classified eating OH, we conclude that eating OH is a risk factor for higher energy and fat intake and lower micronutrient intake. PMID:22106948

  5. Anthropometry and Dietary Intake before and during a Competition in Mountain Runners

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Mountain running is a non-Olympic sport consisting of uphill or up- and downhill races at moderate-to-high altitude. Special nutritional requirements are anticipated, but no nutritional data of mountain runners are available. In three studies, physique of elite and recreational athletes (N = 62), maximum oxygen uptake (N = 3), and prerace and race day dietary intake (N = 6) were measured (mean ± SD). Mean oxygen uptake was 68.7 ± 5.2 mL/kg/min. Energy and carbohydrate intake before a race (29 ± 15 km, 1596 ± 556 m HD) was 3199 ± 701 kcal/d (13.4 ± 2.9 MJ/d) and 497 ± 128 g/d (8.3 ± 1.8 g/kg/d) in German national team members. Fluid intake was calculated as 2783 ± 1543 mL/d. During the race, athletes consumed 336 ± 364 kcal and 927 ± 705 mL of fluids. Substrate intake per hour was calculated as 23 ± 22 g of carbohydrates and 4.0 ± 3.2 g of proteins. In conclusion, anthropometric and oxygen uptake characteristics of mountain runners were similar to those reported for elite distance runners. Carbohydrate intake before and during the race was below recommendations for endurance athletes. This is of concern when considering the increased reliance on carbohydrates at altitude. PMID:25177498

  6. Habitual dietary intake is associated with stool microbiota composition in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Simões, Catarina D; Maukonen, Johanna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Saarela, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The impact of diet on the gut microbiota has usually been assessed by subjecting people to the same controlled diet and thereafter following the shifts in the microbiota. In the present study, we used habitual dietary intake, clinical data, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to characterize the stool microbiota of Finnish monozygotic twins. The effect of diet on the numbers of bacteria was described through a hierarchical linear mixed model that included the twin individuals, stratified by body mass index, and their families as random effects. The abundance and diversity of the bacterial groups studied did not differ between normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals with the techniques used. Intakes of energy, monounsaturated fatty acids, n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), n6 PUFAs, and soluble fiber had significant associations with the stool bacterial numbers (e.g., increased energy intake was associated with reduced numbers of Bacteroides spp.). In addition, co-twins with identical energy intake had more similar numbers and DGGE-profile diversities of Bacteroides spp. than did the co-twins with different intake. Moreover, the co-twins who ingested the same amounts of saturated fatty acids had very similar DGGE profiles of Bacteroides spp., whereas the co-twins with similar consumption of fiber had a very low bifidobacterial DGGE-profile similarity. In conclusion, our findings confirm that the diet plays an important role in the modulation of the stool microbiota, in particular Bacteroides spp. and bifidobacteria. PMID:23343669

  7. A Review of the Impact of Dietary Intakes in Human Pregnancy on Infant Birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; Clifton, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies assessing maternal dietary intakes and the relationship with birthweight are inconsistent, thus attempting to draw inferences on the role of maternal nutrition in determining the fetal growth trajectory is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide updated evidence from epidemiological and randomized controlled trials on the impact of dietary and supplemental intakes of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, folate, iron, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as dietary patterns, on infant birthweight. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken via the electronic databases Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Included articles were those published in English, in scholarly journals, and which provided information about diet and nutrition during pregnancy and infant birthweight. There is insufficient evidence for omega-3 fatty acid supplements’ ability to reduce risk of low birthweight (LBW), and more robust evidence from studies supplementing with zinc, calcium, and/or vitamin D needs to be established. Iron supplementation appears to increase birthweight, particularly when there are increases in maternal hemoglobin concentrations in the third trimester. There is limited evidence supporting the use of folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for LBW; however, supplementation may increase birthweight by ~130 g. Consumption of whole foods such as fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean meats throughout pregnancy appears beneficial for appropriate birthweight. Intervention studies with an understanding of optimal dietary patterns may provide promising results for both maternal and perinatal health. Outcomes from these studies will help determine what sort of dietary advice could be promoted to women during pregnancy in order to promote the best health for themselves and their baby. PMID:25551251

  8. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. PMID:26148242

  9. Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Chambless, Lloyd E; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Zeisel, Steven H; Heiss, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    Background Low dietary intake of the essential nutrient choline and its metabolite betaine may increase atherogenesis both through effects on homocysteine methylation pathways as well as through choline's antioxidants properties. Nutrient values for many common foods for choline and betaine have recently become available in the U.S. nutrient composition database. Our objective was to assess the association of dietary intake of choline and betaine with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusting for dietary intake measurement error. Methods We conducted a prospective investigation of the relation between usual intake of choline and betaine with the risk of CHD in 14,430 middle-aged men and women of the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutrient intake. Proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the risk of incident CHD. A regression calibration method was used to adjust for measurement error. Results During an average 14 years of follow-up (1987–2002), 1,072 incident CHD events were documented. Compared with the lowest quartile of intake, incident CHD risk was slightly and non-significantly higher in the highest quartile of choline and choline plus betaine, HR = 1.22 (0.91, 1.64) and HR = 1.14 (0.85, 1.53), controlling for age, sex, education, total energy intake, dietary intakes of folate, methionine and vitamin B6. No association was found between dietary choline intake and incident CHD when correcting for measurement error. Conclusion Higher intakes of choline and betaine were not protective for incident CHD. Similar investigations in other populations are of interest. PMID:17629908

  10. Underreporting of Dietary Energy Intake in Five Populations of the African Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Dugas, Lara R.; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic underreporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among individuals of African ancestry (n=324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index scale, a United Nations statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24-hour recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labeled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values to identify underreporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all countries. The South African cohort displayed the greatest mean % under-reporting: −52.1% ([self-report - expenditure/expenditure]×100) compared to −22.5%, −17.9%, −25.0%, and −18.5%, for, Ghana, Jamaica, Seychelles and the United States cohorts, respectively. Body mass index was the most consistent predictor of underreporting compared to other factors. We conclude that there is substantial under-reporting in populations across the whole range of the human development index and that this systematic error increases according to an individual’s body mass index. PMID:25585294

  11. Dietary Intake Patterns and Diet Quality in a Nationally Representative Sample of Women With and Without Severe Headache or Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E. Whitney; Lipton, Richard B.; Peterlin, B. Lee; Raynor, Hollie A.; Thomas, J. Graham; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Pavlovic, Jelena; Wing, Rena R.; Bond, Dale S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background The role of diet in migraine is not well understood. We sought to characterize usual dietary intake patterns and diet quality in a nationally representative sample of women with and without severe headache or migraine. We also examined whether the relationship between migraine and diet differs by weight status. Methods In this analysis, women with migraine or severe headache status was determined by questionnaire for 3069 women, ages 20-50 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study, 1999-2004. Women who experienced severe headaches or migraines were classified as migraine for the purposes of this analysis. Dietary intake patterns (micro- and macronutrient intake and eating frequency) and diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index, 2005, were determined using one 24-hour dietary recall. Results Dietary intake patterns did not significantly differ between women with and without migraine. Normal weight women with migraine had significantly lower diet quality (Healthy Eating Index, 2005 total scores) than women without migraine (52.5 ± 0.9 vs 45.9 ± 1.0; P < .0001). Conclusions Whereas findings suggest no differences in dietary intake patterns among women with and without migraine, dietary quality differs by migraine status in normal weight women. Prospective analyses are needed to establish how diet relates to migraine onset, characteristics, and clinical features in individuals of varying weight status. PMID:25758250

  12. Are school employees healthy role models? Dietary intake results from the ACTION worksite wellness trial

    PubMed Central

    Hartline-Grafton, Heather L.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rice, Janet C.; Webber, Larry S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the dietary intake of school employees, a key target group for improving school nutrition. Objective To investigate selected dietary variables and weight status among elementary school personnel. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Subjects/setting Elementary school employees (n=373) from 22 schools in a suburban parish (county) of southeastern Louisiana were randomly selected for evaluation at baseline of ACTION, a school-based worksite wellness trial. Methods Two 24-hour dietary recalls were administered on non-consecutive days by registered dietitians using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Height and weight were measured by trained examiners and body mass index calculated as weight (kilograms)/height (meters squared). Statistical analyses performed Descriptive analyses characterized energy, macronutrient, fiber, and MyPyramid food group consumption. Inferential statistics (t-tests, analysis of variance, chi-square) were used to examine differences in intake and compliance with recommendations by demographic and weight status categories. Results Approximately 31% and 40% of the sample were overweight and obese, respectively, with higher obesity rates than state and national estimates. Mean daily energy intake among women was 1862 kilocalories (kcal) (±492) and among men was 2668 kcal (±796). Obese employees consumed more calories (+288 kcal, p<0.001) and more calories from fat (p<0.001) than those who were normal weight. Approximately 45% of the sample exceeded dietary fat recommendations. On average, only 9% had fiber intakes at or above their Adequate Intake, which is consistent with the finding that over 25% of employees did not eat fruit, 58% did not eat dark green vegetables, and 45% did not eat whole grains on the recalled days. Only 7% of employees met the MyPyramid recommendations for fruits or vegetables, and 14% of the sample met those for milk and dairy foods. Conclusions These results suggest that

  13. Effects of the Menopausal Transition on Dietary Intake and Appetite. A MONET Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Karine, Duval; Denis, Prud’homme; Rémi, Rabasa-Lhoret; Irene, Strychar; Martin, Brochu; Jean-Marc, Lavoie; Éric, Doucet

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in dietary intake and appetite across the menopausal transition. Methods This was a 5-year observational, longitudinal study on the menopausal transition. The study included 94 premenopausal women at baseline (age: 49.9 ± 1.9 yrs; BMI: 23.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2). Body composition (DXA), appetite (visual analogue scale), eating frequency, energy intake (EI) and macronutrient composition (7-day food diary and buffet-type meal) were measured annually. Results Repeated-measures analyses revealed that total EI and carbohydrate intake from food diary decreased significantly over time in women who became postmenopausal by year 5 (P > 0.05) compared to women in the menopausal transition. In women who became postmenopausal by year 5, fat and protein intakes decreased across the menopausal transition (0.05 > P < 0.01). Although a decrease in % fat intake was observed during the menopausal transition (P < 0.05), this variable was significantly increased in the postmenopausal years (P < 0.05). Spontaneous EI and protein intake also declined over time and were higher in the years preceding menopause onset (P < 0.05). Desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption increased during the menopausal transition and remained at this higher level in the postmenopausal years (0.05 > P< 0.001). Fasting fullness decreased across the menopausal transition (P < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that menopausal transition is accompanied with a decrease in food intake and an increase in appetite. PMID:24065065

  14. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans. PMID:26489826

  15. A comparison of two methods to ascertain dietary intake: the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Dyer, A; Jacobs, D R; Hilner, J E; Caan, B J; Bild, D E; Liu, K; McDonald, A; Van Horn, L; Hardin, M

    1994-07-01

    Data on dietary intake were collected in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study at the baseline examination in 1985-86 and again at the second examination 2 years later. At baseline, a diet history questionnaire developed for the CARDIA study was used; at the second exam the NCI (Block) food frequency questionnaire was used. The purpose of the present report is to compare the estimated nutrient intakes obtained with the two instruments; to compare correlations of nutrient intakes obtained at the two exams with those observed for other lifestyle and physiological variables also measured 2 years apart; and to assess ability to test hypotheses relating 2-year changes in risk factors to between-exam differences in reported nutrient intakes. Mean levels of reported intake were generally greater for both blacks and whites on the CARDIA diet history than on the Block food frequency. Rank order correlations of reported nutrient intakes between the two questionnaires indicated greater consistency between instruments for whites (r's ranging between 0.35 and 0.52) than for blacks (r's ranging between 0.29 and 0.45). Correlations over time for nutrients were smaller than those observed for body size measures and lipid levels but were similar in magnitude to those for blood pressure, physical activity, and life events. At both exams, total caloric intake was positively associated with physical activity (range of r's for CARDIA were 0.07 for white women to 0.23 for black men, the range of r's for Block were 0.06 for women to 0.11 for white men). Using data from the two examinations, 2-year changes in total plasma cholesterol were significantly related to 2 year changes in Keys scores. The results of this comparison are useful in that they show similarities and differences between two instruments developed to gather dietary intake data. The study also illustrates the need to monitor young adults during a time when rapid changes occur in many lifestyle

  16. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, Sandra; Ayton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female) during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI)/adequate intakes (AI)] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001), magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001), potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001) and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001), and above the upper limit (UL) for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001), whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001) and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d). Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05), nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy) foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year. PMID:26253749

  17. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women123

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. Objective: We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. Design: We included 13,818 women from the Nurses’ Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Results: Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Conclusion: Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. PMID

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Ridoutt, Brad G.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.; Noakes, Manny

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) for different food sectors. These data were augmented with food intake estimates from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. The GHGe of the average Australian diet was 14.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per person per day. The recommended dietary patterns in the Australian Dietary Guidelines are nutrient rich and have the lowest GHGe (~25% lower than the average diet). Food groups that made the greatest contribution to diet-related GHGe were red meat (8.0 kg CO2e per person per day) and energy-dense, nutrient poor “non-core” foods (3.9 kg CO2e). Non-core foods accounted for 27% of the diet-related emissions. A reduction in non-core foods and consuming the recommended serves of core foods are strategies which may achieve benefits for population health and the environment. These data will enable comparisons between changes in dietary intake and GHGe over time, and provide a reference point for diets which meet population nutrient requirements and have the lowest GHGe. PMID:24406846

  19. Dietary intake of pollutant aerosols via vegetables influenced by atmospheric deposition and wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Richa; Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-02-01

    Pot culture experiments were conducted to study dietary intake of heavy metals via vegetables, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) grown under the influence of atmospheric deposition and wastewater irrigation. The results indicated substantial accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables, which contribute significantly to dietary intake of total heavy metals ranging from 1.34 to 110.40 μg g⁻¹ through leaves (spinach), 1.04 to 105.86 μg g⁻¹ through root (radish) and 0.608 to 82.19 μg g⁻¹ through fruits (tomato). Concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb in vegetables exceeded the safe limits of Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954. Health risk index for Cd and Pb exceeded the safe limits set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The study indicated that the atmospheric depositions as well as wastewater irrigation have significantly elevated the levels of heavy metals in dietary vegetables presenting a significant threat for the health of users. PMID:22019253

  20. Enterostatin inhibition of dietary fat intake is modulated through the melanocortin system.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ling; Park, MieJung; York, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Enterostatin injected into the amygdala selectively reduces dietary fat intake by an action that involves a serotonergic component in the paraventricular nucleus. We have investigated the role of melanocortin signaling in the response to enterostatin by studies in melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) knockout mice and by the use of the MC4R and MC3R antagonist SHU9119, and by neurochemical phenotyping of enterostatin activated cells. We also determined the effect of enterostatin in vivo on the expression of AgRP in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats and in culture on a GT1-7 neuronal cell line. Enterostatin had no effect on food intake in MC4R knock out mice. SHU9119 icv blocked the feeding response to amygdala enterostatin in rats. Amygdala enterostatin induced fos activation in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Enterostatin also reduced the expression of AgRP in the hypothalamus and amygdala and in GT1-7 cells. These data suggest enterostatin inhibits dietary fat intake through a melanocortin signaling pathway. PMID:17113194

  1. Risk factors of low dietary vitamin A intake among children in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, W W; Herrera, M G; Nestel, P; el Amin, A; Mohammed, K A

    1997-04-01

    We examined the determinants of dietary vitamin A intake among Sudanese children, information which is important for designing effective interventions based on the dietary approach. Children under the age of two years were at greater risk of consuming a diet low in vitamin A compared with children who were five years or older. Compared with children from relatively affluent households, those from poorer households were about twice as likely to consume low levels of carotenoid or preformed vitamin A. Low vitamin A intake was also significantly associated with lack of running water, a latrine, radio, or television in the household, and inversely associated with maternal or paternal illiteracy and with cleanliness of the child subjectively assessed by the interviewer. As expected, breastfed children in the first two years of life were likely to consume lower levels of preformed vitamin A and carotenoid from food (excluding breast milk) compared with non-breastfed children. Low vitamin A intake was more prevalent in the dry months of the year. Efforts to increase accessibility to vitamin A containing food, combined with nutrition education campaigns and public health programmes directed at improving sanitation and reducing infection are necessary as part of the long-term solution to the problem of vitamin A deficiency. PMID:9299823

  2. The Influence of Dietary Protein Intake on Mammalian Tryptophan and Phenolic Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Poesen, Ruben; Mutsaers, Henricus A. M.; Windey, Karen; van den Broek, Petra H.; Verweij, Vivienne; Augustijns, Patrick; Kuypers, Dirk; Jansen, Jitske; Evenepoel, Pieter; Verbeke, Kristin; Meijers, Björn; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been increasing interest in the use of high protein diets, little is known about dietary protein related changes in the mammalian metabolome. We investigated the influence of protein intake on selected tryptophan and phenolic compounds, derived from both endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism. Furthermore, potential inter-species metabolic differences were studied. For this purpose, 29 healthy subjects were allocated to a high (n = 14) or low protein diet (n = 15) for 2 weeks. In addition, 20 wild-type FVB mice were randomized to a high protein or control diet for 21 days. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for measurement of tryptophan and phenolic metabolites. In human subjects, we observed significant changes in plasma level and urinary excretion of indoxyl sulfate (P 0.004 and P 0.001), and in urinary excretion of indoxyl glucuronide (P 0.01), kynurenic acid (P 0.006) and quinolinic acid (P 0.02). In mice, significant differences were noted in plasma tryptophan (P 0.03), indole-3-acetic acid (P 0.02), p-cresyl glucuronide (P 0.03), phenyl sulfate (P 0.004) and phenylacetic acid (P 0.01). Thus, dietary protein intake affects plasma levels and generation of various mammalian metabolites, suggesting an influence on both endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism. Metabolite changes are dissimilar between human subjects and mice, pointing to inter-species metabolic differences with respect to protein intake. PMID:26469515

  3. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  4. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations. PMID:26057750

  5. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

  6. Neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out in relation to dietary intake in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food service establishments is considered to encourage consumption and contribute to poorer diet quality, and hence adverse health profiles. However, empirical verification of these links remains rare, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out are associated with unfavorable patterns of dietary intake and thus possibly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. The subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 y of age. Dietary intake and frequency of eating out (i.e., consumption of commercially prepared meals) during the preceding month were assessed using a comprehensive, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Neighborhood restaurant availability was defined as the number of restaurants within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (i.e., full-service restaurants, limited-service restaurants, and cafeterias). Increasing frequency of eating out was associated with higher intake of meat, confectionery and bread, and dietary fat, lower intake of fruit and vegetables, rice, and dietary fiber, and higher dietary energy density. However, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with either the frequency of eating out or any of the dietary variables examined. Further, frequency of eating out and neighborhood restaurant availability were not associated with BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, although frequency of eating out was positively associated with unfavorable dietary intake patterns in a group of young Japanese women, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with frequency of eating out or dietary intake. PMID:21512296

  7. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Nelia P.; Jaffer, Nasreen; Nel, Johanna; Levitt, Naomi; Steyn, Krisela; Lombard, Carl; Peer, Nasheeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544), stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E)) and women (33.4%E) in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E) while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E) than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E) while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01) in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016), saturated fat (p = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002) and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046). Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001). Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR) as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers. PMID:27187459

  8. Dietary intake of minerals and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from the Golestan Cohort Study123

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Maryam; Poustchi, Hossein; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul J; Pharoah, Paul; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors have been hypothesized to affect the risk of esophageal cancer via different mechanisms, but the intake of minerals is understudied and the evidence is conflicting. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations of dietary intake of minerals with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Design: We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, which was launched in a high-risk region for esophageal cancer in Iran. Participants were enrolled in 2004–2008 and were followed to 2014. Intakes of minerals were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of ESCC for dietary intakes of selected minerals. Results: We identified 201 ESCC cases among 47,405 subjects. Calcium intake was significantly inversely associated with the risk of ESCC (HR per 100-mg/d increase: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96; P = 0.005; quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.82; P-trend = 0.013). Zinc intake was also inversely associated with ESCC, but the quartile association did not reach significance (HR per 1-mg/d increase: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98; P = 0.027; quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.12; P-trend = 0.097). The relations between dietary intakes of selenium, magnesium, and copper and risk of ESCC were nonlinear (P-nonlinear trend = 0.001, 0.016, and 0.029, respectively). There was no relation between dietary intake of manganese and the risk of ESCC. Conclusion: The results suggest that higher intakes of calcium and zinc are associated with a lower risk of ESCC in a high-risk region of Iran. PMID:26016858

  9. Dietary assessment of adolescents undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: macro- and micronutrient, fiber and supplement intake

    PubMed Central

    Jeffreys, Renee M.; Hrovat, Kathleen; Woo, Jessica G.; Schmidt, Marcia; Inge, Thomas H.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, there are as yet no data available which describe the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient’s diet pre- and post-operatively. Objective Assess the 1-year change in dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Setting Tertiary care children’s hospital Methods Twenty-seven subjects [67% female, 77% white, age 16.7 ± 1.4 years, baseline body mass index (BMI) 60.1 ± 14.1 kg/m2] were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study one month prior to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) between August 2005 and March 2008. Three-day dietary intake was recorded at baseline (n=24), at 2 weeks (n=16), 3 months (n=11), and 1 year (n=9) post-operatively. Dietary record data were verified by structured interview and compared with Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for ages 14–18. Results By 1 year post-surgery, mean caloric intake adjusted for BMI was 1015 ± 182 kcal/day, a 35% reduction from baseline. The proportion of fat, protein and carbohydrate intake did not differ from baseline. However, protein intake was lower than recommended postoperatively. Calcium and fiber intake was also persistently lower than recommended. Calcium and vitamin B12 supplementation increased the likelihood of meeting daily minimal recommendations (p≤0.02). Conclusions One year after RYGB, adolescents’ caloric intake remained restricted with satisfactory macronutrient composition, but with lower than desirable intake of calcium, fiber and protein. PMID:22260884

  10. [Inadequate dietary micronutrient intake in men and women in southern Brazil: the EpiFloripa Adults Study, 2012].

    PubMed

    Cembranel, Francieli; González-Chica, David Alejandro; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate dietary intake of micronutrients among adults in a city in Southern Brazil according to sex and age, and to measure the prevalence of inadequate dietary micronutrient intake according to sex. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,222 adults 22 to 63 years of age living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data on dietary intake were obtained from two 24-hour recalls (one in the total sample and the other in a subsample of 40% of the research subjects). Micronutrient intake and prevalence rates for inadequate intake were estimated according to the guidelines of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. High prevalence rates of inadequate intake in the entire sample were seen for vitamins A, C, D, and E (range, 52%-100%). Calcium and iron intake were more inadequate in women (87.3% and 13.7%, respectively), as was zinc in men (25.1%). Adults in Florianópolis, showed high prevalence rates of inadequate intake of essential micronutrients. PMID:27580235

  11. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of incident depression in midlife and older women123

    PubMed Central

    Rimm, Eric B; O’Reilly, Eilis J; Okereke, Olivia I

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of dietary flavonoid intakes on risk of depression is unclear. Objective: We prospectively examined associations between estimated habitual intakes of dietary flavonoids and depression risk. Design: We followed 82,643 women without a previous history of depression at baseline from the Nurses’ Health Study [(NHS) aged 53–80 y] and the Nurses’ Health Study II [(NHSII) aged 36–55 y]. Intakes of total flavonoids and subclasses (flavonols, flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, polymeric flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins) were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires collected every 2–4 y. Depression was defined as physician- or clinician-diagnosed depression or antidepressant use and was self-reported in response to periodic questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to examine associations. Results: A total of 10,752 incident depression cases occurred during a 10-y follow-up. Inverse associations between flavonol, flavone, and flavanone intakes and depression risk were observed. Pooled multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.88, 0.99), 0.92 (0.86, 0.98), and 0.90 (0.85, 0.96) when comparing the highest (quintile 5) with the lowest (quintile 1) quintiles, respectively, with evidence of linear trends across quintiles (P-trend = 0.0004–0.08). In flavonoid-rich food-based analyses, the HR was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.91) among participants who consumed ≥2 servings citrus fruit or juices/d compared with <1 serving/wk. In the NHS only, total flavonoids, polymers, and proanthocyanidin intakes showed significantly (9–12%) lower depression risks. In analyses among late-life NHS participants (aged ≥65 y at baseline or during follow-up), for whom we were able to incorporate depressive symptoms into the outcome definition, higher intakes of all flavonoid subclasses except for flavan-3-ols were associated with significantly lower depression risk; flavones and proanthocyanidins showed the

  12. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-12-15

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95-1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77-1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95-1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88-1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93-1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84-1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81-1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98-1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  13. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95–1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77–1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95–1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88–1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93–1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84–1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81–1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98–1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  14. Dietary intakes and nutritional status of old people with dementia living at home in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Nes, M; Sem, S W; Rousseau, B; Bjørneboe, G E; Engedal, K; Trygg, K; Pedersen, J I

    1988-07-01

    A nutritional study was carried out of 16 independent-living elderly (9 women, 7 men) suffering from dementia and a control group matched for sex and age. The study consisted of interview (with participants or relatives/home helps), a 3-d weighed dietary record and biochemical determinations of blood components. No significant difference in mean daily energy intake between demented elderly (women 7.2 +/- 2.0 MJ, men 8.6 +/- 1.2 MJ) and controls (women 6.9 +/- 0.7 MJ, men 9.4 +/- 2.0 MJ) was found. The women with dementia had lower dietary intakes of protein (P less than 0.05), thiamin (P less than 0.05) and vitamin C (P less than 0.01) than female controls. For both sexes in both groups the nutrients most lacking were vitamin D and thiamin. Dietary supplements were more frequently used among elderly with dementia (50 per cent) than among controls (13 per cent) (P less than 0.05). Except for vitamin D, supplements did not reduce the number of demented elderly with low intakes (less than two-thirds of the recommendations) because generally those in most need were non-users. The demented elderly had lower levels of haemoglobin and folic acid (blood and plasma) (P less than 0.05) but better thiamin status (alpha-transketolase) than controls (P less than 0.05). No difference in mean levels of protein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B12 in serum was found. Individuals with blood or serum levels of nutrients below reference values were more frequently found among the demented elderly than among controls. In the dementia group 2 individuals with low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D also had clinical evidence of osteomalacia. PMID:3265665

  15. Effect of dietary intake of freeze dried bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Platel, K; Srinivasan, K

    1995-01-01

    Consumption of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) by diabetic patients is a common practice in India, with the belief that it has an useful hypoglycemic potential. In the absence of conclusive information on the hypoglycemic influence of continuous intake of bitter gourd, in the present investigation, we have examined the hypoglycemic potency of dietary bitter gourd in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) were maintained on a semi-synthetic diet containing freeze dried bitter gourd powder at 0.5% level for 6 weeks. The excretion of glucose, protein, urea and creatinine was monitored during the experimental period. Plasma glucose, albumin, urea and cholesterol were analysed at the end of the experimental regime. Dietary bitter gourd did not show any beneficial hypoglycemic influence as evidenced by the blood glucose levels as well as the excretion of diabetes related metabolites. PMID:7477242

  16. Relationship of dietary intake to DDE residues in breast milk of nursing mothers in Beirut.

    PubMed

    Dagher, S M; Talhouk, R S; Nasrallah, S S; Tannous, R I; Mroueh, S M

    1999-07-01

    Milk samples were collected from 32 nursing mothers living in the Beirut area, Lebanon. Dietary intakes of participating mothers were obtained from data of their diet histories, 24 h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Milk samples were screened for the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues and DDE levels were estimated using gas chromatographic techniques. The relationship between consumption of various food groups and DDE content of milk was investigated. A positive correlation was found between the consumption of either/or high fat meat, tuna fish and DDE levels in milk. Consumption of poultry products showed a weak correlation with DDE content of milk, whereas consumption of vegetable oils showed a negative correlation. PMID:10656056

  17. Fate of dietary cadmium at two intake levels in the odonate nymph, Aeshna canadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.A.; Lasenby, D.C.; Evans, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    While it is known that Cadmium (Cd) is concentrated from the water to the tissues of aquatic biota through respiration and surface adsorption, the role of food in the uptake of Cd is not well understood, and current evidence is contradictory. In study the flux of dietary Cd through aquatic invertebrates, it has been repeatedly noted that the Cd concentration of faecal pellets is much greater than that of the food source. This seems to indicate that the majority of dietary Cd is subsequently egested, and that food is therefore not an important source of Cd accumulation. In the present study the authors monitored the flux of dietary Cd using the mass balance technique with the dragonfly nymph (Aeshna canadensis). The use of a predatory test organism eliminates the problem of the predator selecting food of high C4 concentration, as the animals are fed discrete, quantifiable prey items of known metal concentration. Faeces of predatory invertebrates are generally excreted in the form of compact pellets facilitating chemicals analysis of determination of metal egestion. Nymphs were first fed rations of a Cd concentration typical of prey items found in relatively unpolluted waters, and were then exposed to a Cd-enriched diet to determine if a change in metal flux and body accumulation occurred at elevated levels of dietary intake.

  18. Modulation of electrolyte homeostasis by dietary nitrogen intake in growing goats.

    PubMed

    Muscher, Alexandra S; Piechotta, Marion; Breves, Gerhard; Huber, Korinna

    2011-06-01

    In goats, the combination of dietary N and Ca reduction caused hypocalcaemia and further changes in Ca homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N reduction under normocalcaemia on mineral and bone metabolism in young goats. Young male goats of the Saanen breed were fed a diet reduced in N (8 %) for about 7 weeks (ten animals per group) and were compared with goats fed with an adequate N (14 %) diet. When N intake was reduced in young goats, plasma urea concentrations as well as renal elimination of urea were reduced. This was inversely related to creatinine in plasma and urine, which increased during a dietary N reduction as a function of reduced renal activity to save urea during N scarcity. During this decrease in renal function, associated with declined insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations, a reduction in calcidiol and calcitriol concentrations could be observed. Meanwhile, carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen values and activity of total alkaline phosphatase were both elevated, indicating some bone remodelling processes taking place during a reduced N diet in young goats. The concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and total Ca were changed in several body fluids, indicating that Pi and Ca homeostasis was perturbed in goats fed a reduced N diet. Therefore, more research is needed to find the balance between reduction of environmental N pollution by reducing dietary N in ruminant feeding and maintaining the animal's health. PMID:21443813

  19. [Estimation of dietary intake of radioactive materials by total diet methods].

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive contamination in foods is a matter of great concern after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In order to estimate human intake and annual committed effective dose of radioactive materials, market basket and duplicate diet samples from various areas in Japan were analyzed for cesium-134 ((134)Cs), -137 ((137)Cs), and natural radionuclide potassium-40 ((40)K) by γ-ray spectroscopy. Dietary intake of radioactive cesium around Fukushima area was somewhat higher than in other areas. However, maximum committed effective doses obtained by the market basket and duplicate diet samples were 0.0094 and 0.027 mSv/year, respectively, which are much lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) in foods in Japan. PMID:25212819

  20. High dietary intake of prebiotic inulin-type fructans in the prehistoric Chihuahuan Desert.

    PubMed

    Leach, Jeff D; Sobolik, Kristin D

    2010-06-01

    Archaeological evidence from dry cave deposits in the northern Chihuahuan Desert reveal intensive utilisation of desert plants that store prebiotic inulin-type fructans as the primary carbohydrate. In this semi-arid region limited rainfall and poor soil conditions prevented the adoption of agriculture and thus provides a unique glimpse into a pure hunter-forager economy spanning over 10 000 years. Ancient cooking features, stable carbon isotope analysis of human skeletons, and well-preserved coprolites and macrobotanical remains reveal a plant-based diet that included a dietary intake of about 135 g prebiotic inulin-type fructans per d by the average adult male hunter-forager. These data reveal that man is well adapted to daily intakes of prebiotics well above those currently consumed in the modern diet. PMID:20416127

  1. Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Vary in an Adult Multiethnic Population123

    PubMed Central

    Yonemori, Kim M.; Lim, Unhee; Koga, Karin R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Au, Donna; Boushey, Carol J.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2013-01-01

    Choline and betaine are important nutrients for human health, but reference food composition databases for these nutrients became available only recently. We tested the feasibility of using these databases to estimate dietary choline and betaine intakes among ethnically diverse adults who participated in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. Of the food items (n = 965) used to quantify intakes for the MEC FFQ, 189 items were exactly matched with items in the USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods for total choline, choline-containing compounds, and betaine, and 547 items were matched to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference for total choline (n = 547) and 148 for betaine. When a match was not found, choline and betaine values were imputed based on the same food with a different form (124 food items for choline, 300 for choline compounds, 236 for betaine), a similar food (n = 98, 284, and 227, respectively) or the closest item in the same food category (n = 6, 191, and 157, respectively), or the values were assumed to be zero (n = 1, 1, and 8, respectively). The resulting mean intake estimates for choline and betaine among 188,147 MEC participants (aged 45–75) varied by sex (372 and 154 mg/d in men, 304 and 128 mg/d in women, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.0001) and by race/ethnicity among Caucasians, African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians (P-heterogeneity < 0.0001), largely due to the variation in energy intake. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of assessing choline and betaine intake and characterize the variation in intake that exists in a multiethnic population. PMID:23616508

  2. MTHFR polymorphisms, dietary folate intake, and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Shrubsole, Martha J; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao Ou; Dai, Qi; Hébert, James R; Jin, Fan; Zheng, Wei

    2004-02-01

    Folate plays an important role in DNA methylation, synthesis, and repair; intake has been associated with breast cancer. The folate-metabolizing enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is polymorphic at nucleotides 677 (C-->T) and 1298 (A-->C), resulting in allozymes with decreased activity. We evaluated these two common polymorphisms and their effects on the folate intake and breast cancer risk association in a population-based case-control study of 1144 breast cancer cases and 1236 controls using a PCR-RFLP-based assay. All subjects completed in-person interviews, which included a food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Cases and controls were similar in the distribution of MTHFR polymorphisms at codons 677 (41.4% cases and 41.8% controls carried the T allele) and 1298 (17.6% cases and 17.5% controls carried the C allele). An inverse association of breast cancer risk with folate intake was observed in all genotype groups, particularly among subjects with the 677TT genotype. Compared with those with the 677CC genotype and high folate, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with low folate intake were 1.94 (1.15-3.26), 2.17 (1.34-3.51), and 2.51 (1.37-4.60) for subjects who had CC, CT, and TT genotypes (p for interaction, 0.05). No modifying effect of A1298C genotypes on the association of folate intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Results of this study suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms may modify the association between dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk. PMID:14973091

  3. The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kourouniotis, S; Keast, R S J; Riddell, L J; Lacy, K; Thorpe, M G; Cicerale, S

    2016-08-01

    The 'taste of food' plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake. PMID:26972352

  4. [The impact of known and unknown dietary components to phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D'Alessandro, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of CKD-MBD is multifactorial but the tendency towards phosphorus retention due to an excessive dietary intake for the residual renal function plays a central role. The dietary phosphorus is absorbed in the intestine as inorganic free phosphorus. The share of intestinal absorption (about 60% on average) is negligible for plant phosphorus (in the form of phytate), while it is maximal for phosphate or polyphosphates contained in food additives. The latter represent a dangerous extra load of phosphorus because they are poorly recognized by patients and widely used in modern nutrition, in particular in low-cost food. In a free mixed diet, the phosphorus content is directly related to that of proteins. It follows that protein-rich foods are the main source of phosphorus. This is a favorable condition for CKD patients in conservative therapy when a low-protein diet is implemented, while it represents a huge problem for dialysis patients, who need a high-protein diet. A simple and effective approach to reduce the load of dietary phosphorus without reducing protein intake is to educate patients to avoid foods high in phosphorus (cheese, egg yolk, nuts, etc.), and particularly those containing phosphorus additives. In addition, they should prefer boiling (resulting also in a decrease in sodium and potassium) to other methods of cooking. Counseling by a dietician is important for successful patient care. The dietician provides nutritional education, can help the patient with the choice of food, and may favor the adherence to dietary prescriptions, which is a crucial aspect in an integrated approach to CKD-MBD. PMID:21626496

  5. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds), pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute). Results At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile) and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage. Conclusions Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:23111146

  6. Dietary intakes of fats, fish and nuts and olfactory impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Sue, Carolyn M; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-07-01

    It is unclear whether lifestyle modifications, such as dietary changes, should be advocated to prevent olfactory dysfunction. We investigated the association between dietary intakes of fats (saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and cholesterol) and related food groups (nuts, fish, butter, margarine) with olfactory impairment. There were 1331 and 667 participants (older than 60 years) at baseline and 5-year follow-up, respectively, with complete olfaction and dietary data. Dietary data were collected using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Olfaction was measured using the San Diego Odor Identification Test. In a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data, those in the highest v. lowest quartile of n-6 PUFA intake had reduced odds of having any olfactory impairment, multivariable-adjusted OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.44, 0.97), P for trend = 0.06. Participants in the highest v. lowest quartile of margarine consumption had a 65% reduced odds of having moderate/severe olfactory impairment (P for trend = 0.02). Participants in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (reference) of nut consumption had a 46% (P for trend = 0.01) and 58% (P for trend = 0.001) reduced odds of having any or mild olfactory impairment, respectively. Older adults in the highest v. lowest quartile of fish consumption had 35% (P for trend = 0.03) and 50% (P for trend = 0.01) reduced likelihood of having any or mild olfactory impairment, respectively. In longitudinal analyses, a marginally significant association was observed between nut consumption and incidence of any olfactory impairment, highest v. lowest quartile of nut consumption: OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.37, 1.00). Older adults with the highest consumption of nuts and fish had reduced odds of olfactory impairment, independent of potential confounding variables. PMID:26079067

  7. Optimal management of iron deficiency anemia due to poor dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    Aspuru, Kattalin; Villa, Carlos; Bermejo, Fernando; Herrero, Pilar; López, Santiago García

    2011-01-01

    Iron is necessary for the normal development of multiple vital processes. Iron deficiency (ID) may be caused by several diseases, even by physiological situations that increase requirements for this mineral. One of its possible causes is a poor dietary iron intake, which is infrequent in developed countries, but quite common in developing areas. In these countries, dietary ID is highly prevalent and comprises a real public health problem and a challenge for health authorities. ID, with or without anemia, can cause important symptoms that are not only physical, but can also include a decreased intellectual performance. All this, together with a high prevalence, can even have negative implications for a community’s economic and social development. Treatment consists of iron supplements. Prevention of ID obviously lies in increasing the dietary intake of iron, which can be difficult in developing countries. In these regions, foods with greater iron content are scarce, and attempts are made to compensate this by fortifying staple foods with iron. The effectiveness of this strategy is endorsed by multiple studies. On the other hand, in developed countries, ID with or without anemia is nearly always associated with diseases that trigger a negative balance between iron absorption and loss. Its management will be based on the treatment of underlying diseases, as well as on oral iron supplements, although these latter are limited by their tolerance and low potency, which on occasions may compel a change to intravenous administration. Iron deficiency has a series of peculiarities in pediatric patients, in the elderly, in pregnant women, and in patients with dietary restrictions, such as celiac disease. PMID:22114518

  8. Restrictive rules of Dutch mothers regarding their children's dietary intake between meals.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Raaijmakers, Lieke G M; Bessems, Kathelijne M H H; Teuscher, Dorit; Kremers, Stef P J; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    The use of restrictive food rules by parents has been found to be associated with dietary intake in their children. The aim of this study was to explore the use of restrictive rules of Dutch mothers regarding their child's food intake between main meals in detail, to generate necessary input for setting priorities for further research and intervention development. A cross-sectional questionnaire study on nine restrictive rules was completed by 359 mothers of primary school children aged 4-12years. Mothers reported to use an average of 4.1 (SD 2.1) out of nine restrictive food rules and all rules measured in this study were used. The rules mother's reported to use most were not eating shortly before meals, not eating certain foods too often and not eating too much of certain foods. The rules varied according to different foods, but particularly applied to the intake of potato chips, nuts and savory snacks, candy and chocolate. Mothers of a younger age, lower educated mothers and mothers with a higher BMI were less likely to use (certain) restrictive rules. This study showed that mothers use a large variety of rules, particularly to restrict the intake of unhealthy foods and reported on several subgroups that were less likely to use (certain) rules. Our results direct further research and inform the development of interventions. PMID:25913009

  9. Title VII--Nutrition Program for the Elderly. I. Contribution to one day's dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, M B; O'Hanlon, P; Eklund, D

    1978-05-01

    Food records kept by 466 individuals participating in the federally funded Nutrition Program for the Elderly show that those eating at the meal site on the day of the food record consumed more energy, protein, and calcium than non-participants and participants who did not eat there on the day of the record. Dietary ratings, which included eight nutrients and energy, indicated they also had better overall diets than non-participants. Non-participants consumed more iron than participants. The daily intake of all nutrients, except calcium, of those eating at the meal site reflected what was offered. Between 40 and 50 per cent of the total daily intake was consumed at the meal center. Women consumed a significantly greater proportion of their daily intake of most nutrients from the food provided by program than the men. The desirability of providing a high proportion of the recommended allowances for protein and other nutrients through the meal program menus is emphasized. The results of the study demonstrated the importance of nutritionists in administrative roles at the state and area levels in determining the effectiveness of a meal program, since food intake reflected menu planning. PMID:649896

  10. Ethanol intake of chickens treated with fenfluramine, fluoxetine, and dietary tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Lu, M R; Wagner, G C; Fisher, H

    1992-10-01

    Male, white leghorn chickens fed a standard diet with or without tryptophan supplementation were treated with single injections of 8 mg/kg fenfluramine in one series of experiments, or 8 mg/kg fluoxetine in another series. The birds had been food- and water-deprived prior to injection. They were offered, following the drug or saline injection, water, a 5% ethanol solution, or an isocaloric sucrose solution (8.75%) for 1 hr. Both fluoxetine and fenfluramine significantly reduced consumption of the ethanol solution, an effect exacerbated by tryptophan supplementation. Water or sucrose solution intake was also significantly reduced, but significantly less so than ethanol after fenfluramine injection. Since the birds drank significantly more of the sucrose solution after saline injection than of water, the consumption decrease caused by fenfluramine resulted, nevertheless, in a higher intake than that of either water or ethanol. Body temperature was decreased by ethanol intake and/or fluoxetine injection. Fenfluramine injection had an opposite, body temperature-increasing effect. It appears that both fenfluramine and fluoxetine decrease ethanol intake in a manner more specific than for water or sucrose, and that this effect is amplified by dietary tryptophan supplementation. PMID:1443420

  11. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  12. Income and race/ethnicity influence dietary fiber intake and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen; Anderson, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Grains, fruits, and vegetables are the primary sources of dietary fiber (DF), with the white potato contributing nearly 7% of the DF to the US food supply. The DF composition of the white potato-with or without the skin and regardless of cooking method-compares well with the DF content of other vegetables. Many health benefits, including improved gastrointestinal health, are attributed to greater DF consumption; however, less than 3% of males and females have an adequate intake of DF. Because of this population-wide shortfall, DF is considered to be a nutrient of concern. In this study, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010, we examined the mean intake of DF across sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and poverty threshold. This study shows that mean intake of DF is far below recommendations, with children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years consuming an average of less than 14 g of DF per day. Adults 20+ years old consume, on average, about 17 g of DF per day, and men consume significantly more DF than women. Non-Hispanic black adults consume significantly less DF compared with other race/ethnic groups. Lower family income and living at less than 131% of poverty were associated with lower DF intakes among adults. Federal and local government policies should encourage consumption of all vegetables, including the white potato, as an important source of DF. PMID:25262170

  13. Alcohol intake and risk of colorectal cancer: Results from the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Park, J Y; Dahm, C C; Keogh, R H; Mitrou, P N; Cairns, B J; Greenwood, D C; Spencer, E A; Fentiman, I S; Shipley, M J; Brunner, E J; Cade, J E; Burley, V J; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D; Stephen, A M; White, I R; Luben, R N; Mulligan, A A; Khaw, K-T; Rodwell, S A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have suggested that excessive alcohol intake increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, findings regarding tumour subsites and sex differences have been inconsistent. Methods: We investigated the prospective associations between alcohol intake on overall and site- and sex-specific CRC risk. Analyses were conducted on 579 CRC cases and 1996 matched controls nested within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium using standardised data obtained from food diaries as a main nutritional method and repeated using data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Results: Compared with individuals in the lightest category of drinkers (>0–<5 g per day), the multivariable odds ratios of CRC were 1.16 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.88, 1.53) for non-drinkers, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.24) for drinkers with 5–<15 g per day, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.25) for drinkers with 15–<30 g per day, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.58) for drinkers with 30–<45 g per day and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.91) for drinkers with ⩾45 g per day. No clear associations were observed between site-specific CRC risk and alcohol intake in either sex. Analyses using FFQ showed similar results. Conclusion: We found no significantly increased risk of CRC up to 30 g per day of alcohol intake within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium. PMID:20648013

  14. Effect of dietary intake of trimethylamine on human metabolism of the industrial catalyst dimethylethylamine.

    PubMed Central

    Lundh, T; Akesson, B; Skerfving, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim was to study the effect of trimethylamine (TMA) on the metabolism of the industrial catalyst dimethylethylamine (DMEA) to ascertain whether biological monitoring of industrial exposure to DMEA is compromised and excretion of the malodorous DMEA in sweat and urine is increased by dietary intake of TMA. METHODS--DMEA (0/25 mg) and TMA (0/300/600 mg) were given simultaneously once weekly for six weeks to five healthy volunteers. Plasma was collected before and one hour after the doses, and urine 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, and 8-24 hours after the doses. Specimens were analysed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen sensitive detector. RESULTS--Both amines were readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and excreted in urine within 24 hours (DMEA 80%; TMA 86%). Oral intake of TMA increased the DMEA content of plasma and urine dose dependently, although there were large individual differences. Plasma and urinary TMA concentrations also increased, but not dose dependently. Moreover, the findings suggested the formation of endogenous TMA, little dealkylation of DMEA and TMA, and considerable first-pass metabolism. CONCLUSIONS--Although intake of TMA reduced N-oxygenation of DMEA and TMA, total urinary DMEA values (aggregate of DMEA and its oxide DMEAO excretion) were unaffected. Thus, monitoring occupational exposure to DMEA by analysis of biological specimens is not confounded by dietary intake of TMA, provided that total urinary DMEA is monitored. Although the increased urinary and hidrotic excretion of DMEA may contribute to body odour problems, they were primarily due to TMA excretion, which is much the greater. PMID:7670623

  15. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in food and dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Te Biesebeek, Jan Dirk; Mengelers, Marcel J B; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2011-07-13

    This study presents concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food and the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in The Netherlands. The concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food were analyzed in pooled samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in several Dutch retail store chains with nation-wide coverage. The concentrations analyzed for PFOS and PFOA were used to assess the exposure to these compounds in The Netherlands. As concentrations in drinking water in The Netherlands were missing for these compounds, conservative default concentrations of 7 pg/g for PFOS and 9 pg/g for PFOA, as reported by European Food Safety Authority, were used in the exposure assessment. In food, 6 out of 14 analyzed perfluorinated compounds could be quantified in the majority of the food categories (perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and PFOS). The highest concentration of the sum of these six compounds was found in crustaceans (825 pg/g product, PFOS: 582 pg/g product) and in lean fish (481 pg/g product, PFOS: 308 pg/g product). Lower concentrations were found in beef, fatty fish, flour, butter, eggs, and cheese (concentrations between 20 and 100 pg/g product; PFOS, 29-82 pg/g product) and milk, pork, bakery products, chicken, vegetable, and industrial oils (concentration lower than 10 pg/g product; PFOS not detected). The median long-term intake for PFOS was 0.3 ng/kg bw/day and for PFOA 0.2 ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding high level intakes (99th percentile) were 0.6 and 0.5 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. These intakes were well below the tolerable daily intake values of both compounds (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day). The intake calculations quantified the contribution of drinking water to the PFOS and PFOA intake in The Netherlands. Important contributors of PFOA intake were vegetables/fruit and flour. Milk

  16. Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (p<0.01). The study revealed that only 62 % of children eat the breakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO

  17. Dietary Intake Estimates and Urinary Cadmium Levels in Danish Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Levine, Keith; McElroy, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Harrington, James M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a known carcinogen that can disrupt endocrine signalling. Cigarette smoking and food are the most common routes of non-occupational exposure to cadmium. Cadmium accumulates in the kidney and can be measured in urine, making urine cadmium (U-Cd) a biomarker of long-term exposure. However dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake estimates are often used as surrogate indicator of cadmium exposure in non-smoking subjects. It is therefore important to investigate the concordance between D-Cd estimates obtained with Food Frequency Questionnaires and U-Cd. Methods U-Cd levels were compared with estimated dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake in 1764 post-menopausal women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. For each participant, a food frequency questionnaire, and measures of cadmium content in standard recipes were used to judge the daily intake of cadmium, normalized by daily caloric intake. Cadmium was measured by ICP-MS in spot urine sampled at baseline and normalized by urinary creatinine. Information on diet, socio-demographics and smoking were self-reported at baseline. Results Linear regressions between U-Cd and D-Cd alone revealed minimal but significant positive correlation in never smokers (R2 = 0.0076, β = 1.5% increase per 1 ng Cd kcal-1, p = 0.0085, n = 782), and negative correlation in current smokers (R2 = 0.0184, β = 7.1% decrease per 1 ng Cd kcal-1 change, p = 0.0006, n = 584). In the full study population, most of the variability in U-Cd was explained by smoking status (R2 = 0.2450, n = 1764). A forward selection model revealed that the strongest predictors of U-Cd were age in never smokers (Δ R2 = 0.04), smoking duration in former smokers (Δ R2 = 0.06) and pack-years in current smokers (Δ R2 = 0.07). Food items that contributed to U-Cd were leafy vegetables and soy-based products, but explained very little of the variance in U-Cd. Conclusions Dietary-Cd intake estimated from food frequency questionnaires correlates only minimally

  18. An exploratory NMR nutri-metabonomic investigation reveals dimethyl sulfone as a dietary biomarker for onion intake.

    PubMed

    Winning, Hanne; Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Dragsted, Lars O; Viereck, Nanna; Poulsen, Morten; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Engelsen, Søren B

    2009-11-01

    The metabolome following intake of onion by-products is evaluated. Thirty-two rats were fed a diet containing an onion by-product or one of the two derived onion by-product fractions: an ethanol extract and the residue. A 24 hour urine sample was analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in order to investigate the effects of onion intake on the rat metabolism. Application of interval extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) proved to be able to distinguish between the metabolomic profiles from rats consuming normal feed and rats fed with an onion diet. Two dietary biomarkers for onion intake were identified as dimethyl sulfone and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The same two dietary biomarkers were subsequently revealed by interval partial least squares regression (PLS) to be perfect quantitative markers for onion intake. The best PLS calibration model yielded a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.97% (w/w) with only 1 latent variable and a squared correlation coefficient of 0.94. This indicates that urine from rats on the by-product diet, the extract diet, and the residue diet all contain the same dietary biomarkers and it is concluded that dimethyl sulfone and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid are dietary biomarkers for onion intake. Being able to detect specific dietary biomarkers is highly beneficial in the control of nutritionally enhanced functional foods. PMID:19838425

  19. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  20. Iron deficiency is uncommon among lactating women in urban Nepal, despite a high risk of inadequate dietary iron intake.

    PubMed

    Henjum, Sigrun; Manger, Mari; Skeie, Eli; Ulak, Manjeswori; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Chandyo, Ram; Shrestha, Prakash S; Locks, Lindsey; Ulvik, Rune J; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Strand, Tor A

    2014-07-14

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the association between dietary Fe intake and dietary predictors of Fe status and Hb concentration among lactating women in Bhaktapur, Nepal. We included 500 randomly selected lactating women in a cross-sectional survey. Dietary information was obtained through three interactive 24 h recall interviews including personal recipes. Concentrations of Hb and plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors were measured. The daily median Fe intake from food was 17·5 mg, and 70% of the women were found to be at the risk of inadequate dietary Fe intake. Approximately 90% of the women had taken Fe supplements in pregnancy. The prevalence of anaemia was 20% (Hb levels < 123 g/l) and that of Fe deficiency was 5% (plasma ferritin levels < 15 μg/l). In multiple regression analyses, there was a weak positive association between dietary Fe intake and body Fe (β 0·03, 95% CI 0·014, 0·045). Among the women with children aged < 6 months, but not those with older infants, intake of Fe supplements in pregnancy for at least 6 months was positively associated with body Fe (P for interaction < 0·01). Due to a relatively high dietary intake of non-haem Fe combined with low bioavailability, a high proportion of the women in the present study were at the risk of inadequate intake of Fe. The low prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency may be explained by the majority of the women consuming Fe supplements in pregnancy. PMID:24708993

  1. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  2. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  3. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  4. alpha-Tocopherol intake and plasma concentration of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white elders is associated with dietary intake pattern.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Martin, Antonio; Lin, Hai; Bermudez, Odilia I; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-10-01

    alpha-Tocopherol from foods has been associated with protection against several chronic diseases and maintenance of immune function. However, most people do not meet current recommendations for intake. We examined alpha-tocopherol intake and plasma concentration in a representative sample of Puerto Rican and Dominican older adults (n = 447) and in neighborhood-matched non-Hispanic whites (n = 155). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Mean dietary intakes of alpha-tocopherol were 6 mg in both ethnicities. Only 4.7% of women and 7.9% of men met the estimated average requirement (12 mg/d) for vitamin E from food alone. Top sources of alpha-tocopherol for Hispanics included oils and milk, and for non-Hispanic whites they were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and sweet baked products. Mean plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations were 24.5 micromol/L for Hispanics and 25.8 micromol/L for non-Hispanic whites (P > 0.05). Plasma alpha-tocopherol was positively associated with alpha-tocopherol intake (P = 0.003), and significance remained after adjusting covariates and after exclusion of supplement users (P for trend = 0.008). We identified the following 5 dietary patterns by cluster analysis: 1) fruit and breakfast cereal, 2) starchy vegetables, 3) rice, 4) milk and milk products, and 5) sweets. Those following the sweets pattern had the lowest plasma alpha-tocopherol relative to those following the fruit and breakfast cereal or milk patterns (P < 0.05 for all), although they had similar intakes. A large proportion of these elders (>90%) have inadequate intake of alpha-tocopherol, and plasma concentrations were associated with intake patterns. PMID:16988129

  5. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [≥150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ≥2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was

  6. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Budiningsari, Dwi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Susetyowati, Susetyowati

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT). Subjects and methods A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge), animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish), and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh), with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test. Results There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P<0.05), protein (r=0.843, P<0.05), carbohydrate (r=0.912, P<0.05), and fat (r=0.952; P<0.05). Nutrient intakes as assessed using PDAT and food weighing were rather similar (295±163 vs 292±158 kcal for energy; 13.9±7.8 vs 14.1±8.0 g for protein; 46.1±21.4 vs 46.7±22.3 g for carbohydrate; 7.4±3.1 vs 7.4±3.1 g for fat; P>0.05). The PDAT and food weighing method showed a satisfactory agreement beyond chance (k) (0.81 for staple food and animal source

  7. Dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV infection and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca Maria; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Mohammed, Saira Saddia; Fung, Lillia Yan; Jalali, Pegah; Salit, Irving Elliot; Allard, Johane Pierette

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV and metabolic abnormalities and to compare the data to Canadian recommendations. Sixty-five HIV-infected men with at least one feature associated with the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, or lipodystrophy) were enrolled. Results from 7-day food records and activity logs were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and recommendations of Canada's Physical Activity Guide, respectively. Anthropometric data were also measured. Fifty-two percent of the subjects were overweight, another 15% were obese. However, energy intake (mean+/-SEM) (2153+/-99 kcal/d) was lower than the estimated requirement (2854+/-62 kcal/d; p<0.0001), and 84.5% of the patients reached the recommended minimum of 60 min of mild or 30 min of moderate daily exercise. Intake was adequate for protein, but high for fat and cholesterol in 40% of patients. No patient reached the recommendation for fiber. Intake from diet alone was suboptimal for most micronutrients. Prevalence was highest for low vitamin E (91% of patients) and magnesium (68%) intake, and high sodium intake (72%). In summary, a large proportion of HIV patients with metabolic abnormalities were overweight or obese. However, this was not associated with high energy intake, or reduced physical activity. High fat, low fiber and inadequate micronutrient intakes were prevalent. PMID:18288980

  8. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Siobhan A.; Grimes, Carley A.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Campbell, Karen J.; Nowson, Caryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits. PMID:27529278

  9. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits. PMID:27529278

  10. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect of dietary intake of macronutrient: results from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Asmae; Rostom, Samira; Hassani, Asmae; El Badri, Dalal; Bouaadi, Ilham; Barakat, Amina; Chkirat, Bouchra; Elkari, Khalid; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods A cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering out patient with JIA. The characteristics of patients were collected. The nutritional status was assessed by a food questionnaire including data of food intake during 7 consecutive days using 24-hour dietary recall. Food intake was quantified using the software Bilnut (Bilnut version 2.01, 1991). Dietary intake of macronutrients was expressed as percentage contribution to total energy. Body composition was evaluated with DXA total-body measurements (bone mineral content BMC expressed in g, lean body mass LBM and fat mass FM expressed in kg). Results 33 patients were included. The mean age was 10.4 ± 4.3 years. The median disease duration was 2 (1-4.5) years. The median of LBM, FM and BMC were 19 kg (13.82-33.14), 5 kg (3.38-9.14) and 1044.90 g (630.40-1808.90) respectively. We found a positive correlation between LBM and dietary intake of carbohydrate (r= 0.4; p = 0.03). There were no significant association between LBM and intake of lipids, or protein. Moreover, no association was found between FM, BMC and intake of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a positive correlation between carbohydrates intake and LBM; however, dietary intake does not influence FM and BMC. Prospective studies with larger numbers of patients appear to be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26161167

  11. Heavy metal content in various types of candies and their daily dietary intake by children.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Bajala, Vandana; Garg, V K; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to heavy metal contamination through consumption of candies and chocolates. Considering this representative samples (69) of candies and chocolates based on cocoa, milk and sugar were analyzed for selected heavy metals by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd was found to be 2.52 ± 2.49, 2.0 ± 1.20, 0.84 ± 1.35, and 0.17 ± 0.22 μg/g respectively. Results indicate that cocoa-based candies have higher metal content than milk- or sugar-based candies. The daily dietary intake of metals for children eating candies and chocolates was also calculated, and results indicated highest intake of Pb and Zn followed by Ni, Cd, and Cu. Comparison of the current study results with other studies around the globe shows that the heavy metal content in candies and chocolates is lower in India than reported elsewhere. However, to reduce the further dietary exposure of heavy metals through candies and chocolates, their content should be monitored regularly and particularly for Pb as children are highly susceptible to its toxicity. PMID:26759032

  12. Dietary Oily Fish Intake and Blood Pressure Levels: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Castillo, Pablo R; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-Eun

    2016-04-01

    The effect of fish consumption on blood pressure is controversial. The authors measured blood pressure and calculated oily fish servings per week in 677 community-dwellers aged 40 years and older living in rural coastal Ecuador. Using regression models with linear splines, the authors evaluated whether dietary fish intake was related to blood pressure levels, after adjusting for relevant confounders. Mean oily fish consumption was 9.1±5.6 servings per week. There was a nonlinear relationship between systolic pressure and fish servings. In the group of individuals consuming up to five servings per week, each serving significantly reduced systolic pressure by 2.3 mm Hg (P=.020). Any extra serving provided no further effects. The study shows an inverse relationship between oily fish consumption and systolic pressure. Currently recommended amounts of dietary oily fish intake per week (1-2 servings) might be insufficient to exert beneficial effects of fish in the control of blood pressure. PMID:26395549

  13. Elemental composition of green coffee and its contribution to dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Şemen, Sevcan; Mercan, Selda; Yayla, Murat; Açıkkol, Münevver

    2017-01-15

    The concentration of twenty-seven elements (Li, Be, B, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) in green coffee samples and their infusions were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, green coffee samples were prepared by microwave digestion, while infusions were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The accuracy and precision of the proposed methods were verified by recovery experiments. Considering samples; K, Cu, and Al had the highest mean concentrations with 6714.5μgg(-1), 12.1μgg(-1), and 25.9μgg(-1) among major, trace and toxic elements, respectively. The impact of brewing type on leachability of elements was also studied and the results outlined that mean leachability of elements to Turkish coffee were greater than to mud coffee. Furthermore, dietary element intakes through green coffee consumption were also estimated. This is the first study presenting wide range of elements in green coffee brews and calculating dietary intakes. PMID:27542454

  14. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  15. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  16. Perfluorinated compounds: levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E

    2013-11-15

    The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA. PMID:24095201

  17. The usage, occurrence and dietary intakes of white mineral oils and waxes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tennant, D R

    2004-03-01

    Dietary exposures to mineral hydrocarbons were estimated from information about patterns of usage, concentrations in foods and quantities of foods consumed. An industry survey showed that the largest usage of food-grade white mineral oils was in plastics manufacture although the majority are used in non-food applications. The largest volumes of wax usage were in packaging. Conservative estimates indicated that daily intakes of white mineral oils ranged from 0.39 to 0.91 mg/kg bw/day for adults and from 0.75 to 1.77 mg/kg bw/day for children (mean and 97.5th percentiles). Total wax intakes ranged from 0.08 to 0.19 mg/kg bw/day for adults and 0.23 to 0.64 mg/kg bw/day for pre-school children. When usage factors were applied, estimates of chronic intakes of white oils were reduced to 0.09-0.20 mg/kg bw/day for adults and to 0.17-0.39 mg/kg bw/day for children. Total wax intakes were reduced to 0.01-0.02 mg/kg bw/day for adults and to 0.02-0.06 mg/kg bw/day for children. For white mineral oils the principal source of exposure for most consumers was imported de-dusted grain. The principal source of potential wax exposure was from glazing agents on confectionery. There was no evidence of intakes exceeding SCF ADIs for microcrystalline waxes or certain white mineral oils and levels of exposure were similar to those of naturally-occurring mineral hydrocarbons in foods. PMID:14871591

  18. Dietary intake of vegetables, folate, and antioxidants and the risk of Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Li; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Parente, Paola; Verstovsek, Gordana; Alsarraj, Abeer; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Diet is a potentially modifiable risk factor for Barrett's esophagus (BE). We investigated the associations between intakes of fruits and vegetables and risk of BE. Methods We identified study subjects from 1,859 participants who underwent the endoscopy in a single VA Medical Center in the U.S between 2008 and 2011. Dietary intake in the previous year was elicited using a self-administered Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for BE. Results A total of 151 cases with definite BE and 777 controls completed the FFQ. When highest tertile of intake was compared with the lowest, the OR (95% CI) was 0.46 (0.26-0.81) for dark green vegetables, 0.52 (0.30- 0.90) for legumes, 0.50 (0.28-0.90) for total fiber, 0.45 (0.25-0.81) for isoflavones, 0.52 (0.30- 0.67) for total folate, and 0.45 (0.26-0.79) for lutein, adjusting for multiple confounding factors including use of aspirin or proton pump inhibitor, gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms, and physical activity. The association for dark green vegetables was attenuated after adjustment for lutein, total fiber, and total folate (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.30-2.22). Conclusion Higher intake of dark green vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of BE in a veteran population. Such an inverse association may be partially mediated by lutein, fiber and folate. The novel findings on the association between intake of lutein, total folate, or isoflavones and risk of BE need further confirmation. PMID:23420329

  19. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load, glycaemic index and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Bandera, Elisa V

    2016-02-28

    Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95% CI 1·08, 2·28; P trend=0·03) and 1·61 (95% CI 1·12, 2·30; P trend<0·01), respectively. A suggestion of an inverse association was found for fibre intake. Higher GL was positively associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95% CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women. PMID:26669283

  20. Relationship Between Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries Among Japanese Preschool Children with Relatively Low Sugar Intake (Japan Nursery School SHOKUIKU Study): A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Saido, Miyuki; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Objectives The WHO has recently proposed to halve the recommendation for free sugar intake from 10 to 5 % of energy intake to reduce the incidence of diseases such as obesity and dental caries. The Japanese population is suitable to confirm the appropriateness of this proposal, because dietary sugar intake in Japan is exceptionally low among developed countries. We sought to establish a method to estimate dietary sugar intake in Japan and to examine the relationship between sugar and the number of dental caries using data obtained from the Japan Nursery School SHOKUIKU study. Methods Dietary intake during the preceding month and the number of caries was examined in children aged 5-6 years using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children completed by their guardians and another questionnaire on lifestyle. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used for the analysis. Results When subjects were ranked into quintiles by the proportion of energy from free sugar, those in higher quintiles had more caries than those in the lowest quintile. On close analysis, the number of caries among children with a relatively small proportion of energy intake from free sugar (3.18-3.77 %) was not significantly different from that in the lowest group (0.95-3.17 %). Conclusions The recent proposition of WHO might be valid, because the adverse effect of relatively small proportion (approximately less than 5 %) of energy intake from free sugar on caries was not detected among the subjects in this study. However, more study will be necessary to reach a conclusion. PMID:26576592

  1. Gonadal Transcriptome Alterations in Response to Dietary Energy Intake: Sensing the Reproductive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment. PMID:19127293

  2. High dietary phosphate intake induces hypertension and augments exercise pressor reflex function in rats.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masaki; Mitchell, Jere H; Crawford, Scott; Huang, Chou-Long; Maalouf, Naim; Hu, Ming-Chang; Moe, Orson W; Smith, Scott A; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2016-07-01

    An increasing number of studies have linked high dietary phosphate (Pi) intake to hypertension. It is well established that the rise in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP) during physical exertion is exaggerated in many forms of hypertension, which are primarily mediated by an overactive skeletal muscle exercise pressor reflex (EPR). However, it remains unknown whether high dietary Pi intake potentiates the EPR-mediated SNA and BP response to exercise. Accordingly, we measured renal SNA (RSNA) and mean BP (MBP) in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats fed a normal Pi diet (0.6%, n = 13) or high Pi diet (1.2%, n = 13) for 3 mo. As previously reported, we found that resting BP was significantly increased by 1.2% Pi diet in both conscious and anesthetized animals. Activation of the EPR by electrically induced hindlimb contraction triggered greater increases in ΔRSNA and ΔMBP in the 1.2% compared with 0.6% Pi group (126 ± 25 vs. 42 ± 9%; 44 ± 5 vs. 14 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01). Activation of the muscle mechanoreflex, a component of the EPR, by passively stretching hindlimb muscle also evoked greater increases in ΔRSNA and ΔMBP in the 1.2% compared with 0.6% Pi group (109 ± 27 vs. 24 ± 7%, 38 ± 7 vs. 8 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01). A similar response was produced by hindlimb intra-arterial capsaicin administration to stimulate the metaboreflex arm of the EPR. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel action of dietary Pi loading in augmenting EPR function through overactivation of both the muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex. PMID:27170660

  3. Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase, dietary folate intake, and the risk of leukemia in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Min; Xie, Xing; Jin, Jie; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2016-03-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are critical enzymes in folate metabolism. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk, which may due to the lack of information on folate intake. We investigated the risks of adult leukemia with genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolic enzymes (MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and TS) and evaluated if the associations varied by dietary folate intake from a multicenter case-control study conducted in Chinese. This study comprised 442 incident adult leukemia cases and 442 outpatient controls, individually matched to cases by gender, birth quinquennium, and study site. Genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Dietary folate intake was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The MTHFR 677TT genotype conferred a significant higher risk of leukemia in males than in females and exhibited an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but a decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The MTHFR 1298AC genotype appeared to decrease the risks of leukemia in both genders, in AML and ALL. Stratified analysis by dietary folate intake showed the increased risks of leukemia with the MTHFR 677TT and TS 2R3R/2R2R genotypes were only significant in individuals with low folate intake. A significant interaction between TS polymorphism and dietary folate intake was observed (P = 0.03). This study suggests that dietary folate intake and gender may modify the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk. PMID:26438060

  4. The Relationship Between Dietary Intakes of Amino Acids and Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Nazari, Maryam; Latifi, Sahar; Soltani, Zahra; Shakeri, Hania; Larijani, Bagher; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed-Hassan Emami

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The effect of dietary protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD) has not been explained in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we looked at the relationship between BMD and higher protein intake in patients with SCI while controlling for possible confounders. Methods Patients with SCI, who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2012, were included in the study. In total, the dietary intakes of 103 patients were assessed by 24–hour dietary recall interviews. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD in the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, hip, and lumbar vertebras. Results Eighty-six men and 17 women participated in this study. Protein intake was negatively associated with the BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.001, r = –0.37 for T-score and p = 0.030, r = –0.24 for Z-score). The BMD of lumbar vertebrae were negatively associated with intake of tryptophan, isoleucine, lysine, cysteine, and tyrosine (p = 0.007, 0.005, 0.009, 0.008, and 0.008 for T-score, respectively). Higher intakes of threonine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine were related to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.006, 0.010, 0.009, 0.010, 0.009, and 0.008 respectively for T-scores). Conclusions We found that high protein intake led to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae in patients with SCI after controlling for confounders including demographic and injury-related characteristics and calcium intake. No relationship between higher amino acids intake and BMD of the femur and hip was detected. Intake of alanine, arginine, and aspartic acid were not related to BMD. PMID:26816565

  5. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Xiao, Qian; Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao Ou; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Zheng, Wei; Li, Hong Lan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds (NOC), known animal carcinogens. Nitrosation reactions forming NOCs can be inhibited by vitamin C and other antioxidants. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a cohort of 73,118 women ages 40 to 70 residing in Shanghai. We evaluated effect modification by factors that affect endogenous formation of NOCs: vitamin C (at or above/below median) and red meat intake (at or above/below median). Nitrate, nitrite and other dietary intakes were estimated from a 77-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Over a mean of 11 years of follow-up, we identified 619 colorectal cancer cases (n=383, colon; n=236, rectum). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Overall, nitrate intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.73–1.59). However, among women with vitamin C intake below the median (83.9 mg/day) and hence higher potential exposure to NOCs, risk of colorectal cancer increased with increasing quintiles of nitrate intake (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.15–5.18; p-trend = 0.02). There was no association among women with higher vitamin C intake. We found no association between nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer overall or by intake level of vitamin C. Our findings suggest that high dietary nitrate intake among subgroups expected to have higher exposure to endogenously-formed NOCs increases risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:24242755

  6. Foods Sold in School Vending Machines are Associated with Overall Student Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Alisha J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between foods sold in school vending machines and students’ dietary behaviors. Methods The 2005-2006 US Health Behavior in School Aged Children (HBSC) survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Students’ dietary intake was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. Administrators completed questions about foods sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence and school poverty. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th to 10th grades. Results Eighty-three percent of schools (152 schools, 5,930 students) had vending machines which primarily sold foods of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruits/vegetables and chocolate/sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty explaining 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit/vegetable consumption, and 71.7% in sweets consumption. In older grades, there was no significant effect of foods available in vending machines on reported consumption of those foods. Conclusions Vending machines are widely available in US public schools. In younger grades, school vending machines were related to students’ diets positively or negatively, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence children’s diets; therefore attention to foods sold in them is necessary in order to try to improve children’s diets. PMID:21185519

  7. Heavy Metal Dietary Intake and Potential Health Risks for University Hostel Students.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdel-Rahim H A; Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Wahab, Mariam A; Tolba, Mona H

    2016-03-01

    The study was conducted to determine the residual concentration of Cd, Pb, Asand Hg in some foodstuffs served to university students living at hostels of Beni-Suef University (BSU), Egypt, and to estimate the dietary intake of such metals, as well as to assess the potential health risks associated with the consumption of such foods. Therefore, a total of 200 samples, 50 each of, soft cheese, UHT milk, raw broiler carcasses and canned tuna, were periodically collected from university hostels of BSU and examined for the residual levels of these metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The obtained results revealed that the mean residual levels of Cd in soft cheese, UHT milk, broiler's meat and canned tuna samples were 0.37, 0.26, 0.089 and 0.093 mg/kg, respectively, while those of Pb were 0.187, 0.20, 0.181 and 0.164 mg/kg, respectively. Regarding As, they were 0.196, 0.24, 0.14 and 0.201 mg/kg, respectively, and Hg mean residual concentration accounted for 0.05, 0.05, 0.117 and 0.235 mg/kg, respectively. Some of the examined food samples had heavy metals' concentrations above the international standards. The total weekly dietary intakes of Cd, Pb, As and Hg were 4.99, 5.38, 4.77 and 2.76 μg/kg bw/week, respectively, that were comparable to the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) of broiler's meat was over 1 (1.686), thus indicating possible health risks in contrast to the TTHQs of other foodstuffs that were below one. PMID:26271305

  8. Effects of dietary protein and ethanol intake on pregnant beagles fed purified diets.

    PubMed

    Switzer, B R; Anderson, J J; Pick, J R

    1986-04-01

    Maternal weight gain of beagles was approximately 50% lower when ethanol was given twice daily at a dose of 1.8 g/kg body weight with either control protein (17% energy from protein) or low protein (8.5%) diet as compared to isocalorically sucrose-treated animals. Similarly, pup birth weights were about 27% lower from beagles given ethanol with either diet when compared to those from sucrose-treated bitches. Two weeks after beginning ethanol treatment, pregnant bitches fed either diet had higher hematocrit values and lower plasma concentrations of albumin and calcium as compared to sucrose-treated animals. Low dietary protein treatment, rather than ethanol, lowered maternal concentrations of red blood cell folate during pregnancy. As compared to sucrose-treated bitches, ethanol prevented folate levels in red blood cells from returning to the no