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Sample records for diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dtpa

  1. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  2. Human biodistribution of [111In]diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-(DTPA)-D-[Phe1]-octreotide and peroperative detection of endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Ohrvall, U; Westlin, J E; Nilsson, S; Wilander, E; Juhlin, C; Rastad, J; Akerström, G

    1995-12-01

    Requisites for preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization with [111In]diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-[Phe1]-octreotide scanning were explored in 23 patients with endocrine tumors (15 carcinoids, 4 insulinomas, and single cases of gastrinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, aldosteronoma, and paraganglioma). The patients were subjected to Octreoscan single photon emission computed tomographic examination prior to surgery and well counter investigation of nuclide uptake in tumors and normal tissues sampled at surgery. Somatostatin receptor-positive tumors demonstrated efficient nuclide accumulation with mean tumor:blood radioactivity ratios of 180-370 (for carcinoids and insulinoma), compared with tissue:blood ratios of 302 for spleen, 42 for liver, and < 10-15 in other normal tissues (pancreas, small intestine, and mesenteric fat). Inefficient preoperative visualization of lesions was related to inconspicuous size, as for primary intestinal carcinoids, tiny liver metastases, and a single small insulinoma. High background activity, pronounced tumor fibrosis, and meager accumulation of tracer also interfered with visualization. Tumor deposits in organs with low background activity (such as carcinoid mesenteric metastases and endocrine pancreatic tumors) were generally most readily detected. Intraoperative investigations with hand-held gamma detector probes were disturbed by obvious high background activity. These investigations revealed two preoperatively unrecognized primary intestinal carcinoids, which, however, were both palpable during surgery. These studies, therefore, had little impact on the surgical strategy. PMID:7493348

  3. Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

    2015-03-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides. PMID:25627942

  4. Preparation of alginate beads containing a prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; He, Weiling; Tsai, Tsuimin; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Yong; Jay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the radionuclide decorporation agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was encapsulated in alginate beads by the ionotropic gelation method. An optimal formulation was found by varying initial concentrations of DTPA pentaethyl ester, alginate polymer, Tween 80 surfactant and calcium chloride. All prepared alginate beads were ~1.6 mm in diameter, and the optimal formulation had loading and encapsulation efficiencies of 91.0 ± 1.1 and 72.6 ± 2.2%, respectively, and only 3.2 ± 0.8% water absorption after storage at room temperature in ~80% relative humidity. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester did not react with excipients during formation of the DTPA penta-ethyl ester-containing alginate beads. Release of prodrug from alginate beads was via anomalous transport, and its stability enhanced by encapsulation. Collectively, these data suggest that this solid dosage form may be suitable for oral administration after radionuclide contamination. PMID:23399237

  5. Synthesis, biodistribution, and estrogen receptor scintigraphy of indium-111-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-tamoxifen analogue.

    PubMed

    Delpassand, E S; Yang, D J; Wallace, S; Cherif, A; Quadri, S M; Price, J; Joubert, A; Inoue, T; Podoloff, D A

    1996-06-01

    This study was aimed at developing a hydrophilic diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-tamoxifen (DTPA-Tam) analogue for use in imaging estrogen receptor positive (ER+) lesions. In rat uterine cytosol, the IC50 of DTPA-Tam conjugate was 1 microM and of tamoxifen, 2 microM. Biodistribution, autoradiography, and radionuclide imaging of 111In-DTPA-Tam in breast-tumor-bearing rats showed that tumor-to-tissue ratios increased steadily between 30 min and 48 h. The in vivo response of MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts to tamoxifen and DTPA-Tam in nude mice demonstrated that DTPA-Tam could reduce tumor growth rate. These results indicate that DTPA-Tam, a new hydrophilic ER+ ligand, might be useful in diagnosing ER+ lesions. PMID:8773948

  6. Selective two-step titration of thorium by sulfate displacement of the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, P.

    1980-07-01

    Thorium and other metals are complexed with excess diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at pH 1.4, the excess DTPA is titrated with Bi(III) to a xylenol orange end point, sulfate is added to complex Th(IV), and the displaced DTPA again is titrated with Bi(III). Of 61 metal ions and nonmetal anions tested, only Ga(III), Sc(III), tungstate, citrate, oxalate, and thiosulfate interfere seriously. Lesser interferences are In(III), Zr(IV), V(IV), and permanganate. The standard deviation is 2 ..mu..g for 56 to 840 ..mu..g Th.

  7. Detection of obstructive uropathy using 99m technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Grove, R.B.; Bauriedel, J.K.; Orr, S.C.; Melton, R.E.; Bowenn, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    A simple, accurate test with no morbidity and effective for the detection of urinary tract obstruction in patients with normal and impaired renal function would be of significant clinical use. The ability of 99m technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid to detect the presence or absence of obstruction is evaluated. Obstructions were defined as abnormal retention of activity in the collecting system persisting in the delayed images. Diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid identified correctly 13 of 13 patients proved to have obstruction and 17 of 18 without obstruction. These data indicate a sensitivity of 100 percent, specificity of 94 percent and accuracy of 97 percent.

  8. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Johnson, Andrew; Tian, Guoxin; Jiang, Weilin; Rao, Linfeng; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for application in spent nuclear fuel separation. The high affinity of DTPA towards actinides aids in separation from the highly acidic medium of nuclear waste. The solubility and magnetization of particles at low pH is protected by encapsulating them in silica layer. Surface functionalization of silica coated particles with polyamines enhances the loading capacity of the chelators on MNPs. The particles were characterized before and after surface modification using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and uncoated samples were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to understand the change in magnetic properties due to the influence of the surface functionalization. The hydrodynamic size and surface charge of the particles are investigated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was investigated. The sorption result shows the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. The high removal efficiency and fast uptake of actinides make the chelator conjugated MNPs an effective method for spent nuclear fuel separation.

  9. Leachability of retorted oil shale by strong complexometric agents. [Sodium citrates, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, E.; Carroll, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Extraction of solid waste materials with complexometric agents may offer a quick and effective method for assessing the potential long-term release of hazardous chemical constituents. Complexometric agent extraction may establish the maximum amount of elements of environmental concern that can be released to the environment and the capability of waste materials to release them. In this study, four samples of directly (DH) and indirectly (IH) retorted oil shales were extracted with deionized-distilled water and strong complexometric agents. The complexometric agent solutions were composed of 0.5M sodium citrate (citrate), 0.05M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 0.05M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The water extracts were very alkaline with pH values ranging from 11.0 to 11.8 for IH extracts and 12.2 to 12.8 for DH extracts. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were the predominant dissolved species in the IH water extracts. The DH water extracts contained mainly sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. Water-extractable minor and trace elements were aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, silicon, and strontium. Complexometric extraction released detectable amounts of arsenic, antimony, selenium, lead, vanadium, and zinc. Other elements of environmental concern, including silver, cobalt, chromium, and nickel, were not detected in excess of the limits of quantitation in complexometric extracts. Based upon the analytical results, it was found that the retorted oil shale mineralogy influenced the extracting solution composition, i.e., when comparing the leachates from the IH and DH samples. Also, the complexometric agents hastened the release of certain constituents into solution compared to water extracts. 17 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Ligand-modified polyelectrolyte-enhanced ultrafiltration with electrostatic attachment of ligands. 2. Use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid/cationic polyelectrolyte mixtures to remove both cations and anions from aqueous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, M. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK ); Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Taylor, R.W.; Scamehorn, J.F. )

    1994-12-01

    A mixture of a cationic polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or PDADMAC, and the anionic ligand diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be added to aqueous streams as a water-soluble colloid to bind simultaneously divalent cations, such as Cu[sup 2+] and Pb[sup 2+], and anions, such as CrO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  11. Formulation for Tin-.sup.117m /diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides improved formulations of .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) DTPA which allow higher doses of .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) to be administered than were previously possible. Methods for making pharmaceutical compositions comprising .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) DTPA in which the amount of unchelated DTPA is minimized are disclosed along with methods of using the improved formlulations, both for palliation of bone pain associated with cancer and for treatment of osseous tumors.

  12. Process for the manufacture of 117Sn diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Li, Zizhong; Meinken, George

    2003-01-01

    Novel methods are provided for the manufacture of .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) DTPA. The method allows the use of DTPA, a toxic chelating agent, in an approximately 1:1 ratio to .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) via either aqueous conditions, or using various organic solvents, such as methylene chloride. A pharmaceutical composition manufactured by the novel method is also provided, as well as methods for treatment of bone tumors and pain associated with bone cancer using the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

  13. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  14. Comparison of the Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Ethylenedicysteine Radiopharmaceuticals using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Pirdamooie, Shokufeh; Shanei, Ahmad; Moslehi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the investigation of absorbed dose to the kidneys, spleen, and liver during technetium-99 m ethylene dicysteine and technetium-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan, were divided into two groups (Groups 1 and 2). The first group (Group 1) and the second group (Group 2) received intravenous injection of 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTP, respectively. A certain amount of radiopharmaceuticals was injected into each patient and was immediately imaged with dual-head gamma camera to calculate the activity through the conjugated view method. Then, the doses of kidney, liver, and spleen were measured using medical internal radiation dosimetry method. Finally, absorbed dose of these organs was compared. Based on these different results (P < 0.05), organs absorbed dose was significantly less with radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-EC as compared with 99mTc-DTPA. PMID:26284173

  15. MRI and quantitative autoradiographic studies following bolus injections of unlabeled and (14)C-labeled gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in a rat model of stroke yield similar distribution volumes and blood-to-brain influx rate constants.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Ewing, James R; Karki, Kishor; Jacobs, Paul E; Divine, George W; Fenstermacher, Joseph D; Patlak, Clifford S; Knight, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    In previous studies on a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia, the blood and brain concentrations of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) following intravenous bolus injection were repeatedly assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and blood-to-brain influx rate constants (K(i)) were calculated from Patlak plots of the data in areas with blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. For concurrent validation of these findings, after completing the DCE-MRI study, radiolabeled sucrose or α-aminoisobutyric acid was injected intravenously, and the brain disposition and K(i) values were calculated by quantitative autoradiography (QAR) assay employing the single-time equation. To overcome two of the shortcomings of this comparison, the present experiments were carried out with a radiotracer virtually identical to Gd-DTPA, Gd-[(14)C]DTPA, and K(i) was calculated from both sets of data by the single-time equation. The protocol included 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion and 2.5 h of reperfusion in male Wistar rats (n = 15) preceding the DCE-MRI Gd-DTPA and QAR Gd-[(14)C]DTPA measurements. In addition to K(i) , the tissue-to-blood concentration ratios, or volumes of distribution (V(R) ), were calculated. The regions of BBB opening were similar on the MRI maps and autoradiograms. Within them, V(R) was nearly identical for Gd-DTPA and Gd-[(14)C]DTPA, and K(i) was slightly, but not significantly, higher for Gd-DTPA than for Gd-[(14)C]DTPA. The K(i) values were well correlated (r = 0.67; p = 0.001). When the arterial concentration-time curve of Gd-DTPA was adjusted to match that of Gd-[(14)C]DTPA, the two sets of K(i) values were equal and statistically comparable with those obtained previously by Patlak plots (the preferred, less model-dependent, approach) of the same data (p = 0.2-0.5). These findings demonstrate that this DCE-MRI technique accurately measures the Gd-DTPA concentration in blood and brain, and that K(i) estimates

  16. [Renal functional reserve in children with a history of hemolytic uremic syndrome through technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid clearance].

    PubMed

    Bruno, Guillermo O A; Diéguez, Stella Maris; Voyer, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    Protein loads in normal subjects increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which implies a renal functional reserve (RFR). Patients who have suffered a loss in the number of nephrons may show normal values of GFR due to hyperfiltration of remnant nephrons, with subsequent loss of RFR. This could be an early sign of renal damage, and probably a contributory factor to renal damage progress. The objective of this study is to determine the RFR through technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (99m Tc-DTPA) clearance in patients who have recovered from hemolytic uremic syndrome. Renal functional reserve was determined in 33 children from 2 to 16 years old, with normal values of proteinuria, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance after over a year of having suffered hemolitic uremic syndrome. For that purpose 99m Tc-DTPA clearance was determined in basal condition and following protein load. In 17 patients DTPA clearance increased 20% or more after protein load compared to basal condition, and they were considered to have normal RFR, a probably index of totally recovered renal function; in the remaining 16 patients the increases were lower than 20%, and were considered to have no RFR, condition that was postulated as a contributing factor to renal damage progress. There was not significant differences either in age or basal GFR between both groups. Being the test easier than inuline clearance and more accurate than creatinine clearance, it proves particularly useful for early diagnosis of patients that need special follow-up and treatment. PMID:22307424

  17. Thermodynamic study of the complexation of protactinium(V) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mickaël; Leguay, Sébastien; Le Naour, Claire; Hamadi, Séna; Roques, Jérôme; Moisy, Philippe; Guillaumont, Dominique; Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean; Den Auwer, Christophe; Hennig, Christoph

    2013-07-01

    The complex formation of protactinium(V) with DTPA was studied at different temperatures (25-50 °C) and ionic strengths (0.1-1 M) with the element at tracer scale. Irrespective of the temperature and ionic strength studied, only one neutral complex with (1:1) stoichiometry was identified from solvent extraction and capillary electrophoresis coupled to ICP-MS (CE-ICP-MS) experiments. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that two complexes can be considered: Pa(DTPA) and PaO(H2DTPA). The associated formation constants were determined from solvent extraction data at different ionic strengths and temperatures and then extrapolated to zero ionic strength by SIT methodology. These constants are valid, regardless of complex form, Pa(DTPA) or PaO(H2DTPA). The standard thermodynamic data determined with these extrapolated constants revealed a very stable complex formed energetically by an endothermic contribution which is counter balanced by a strong entropic contribution. Both, the positive enthalpy and entropy energy terms suggest the formation of an inner sphere complex. PMID:23767403

  18. Chelation in metal intoxication. XIII. Polyaminocarboxylic acids as chelators in lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Behari, J.R.; Singh, S.

    1983-01-01

    Diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and hydroxyethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) were investigated for their ability to reduce Pb body burden and to restore altered urinary and blood parameters in Pb-poisoned rats.

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination and Removal of Unchelated Europium Ions from Solutions Containing Eu-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Chelate-Peptide Conjugates1

    PubMed Central

    Dayan Elshan, N. G. R.; Patek, Renata; Vagner, Josef; Mash, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    Europium chelates conjugated with peptide ligands are routinely used as probes for conducting in vitro binding experiments. The presence of unchelated Eu ions in these formulations gives high background luminescence and can lead to poor results in binding assays. In our experience, the reported methods for purification of these probes do not achieve adequate removal of unchelated metal ions in a reliable manner. In this work, a xylenol orange-based assay for the quantification of unchelated metal ions was streamlined and used to determine levels of metal ion contamination, as well as the success of metal ion removal upon attempted purification. We compared the use of Empore™ chelating disks and Chelex® 100 resin for the selective removal of unchelated Eu ions from several Eu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid chelate-peptide conjugates. Both purification methods gave complete and selective removal of the contaminant metal ions. However, Empore™ chelating disks were found to give much higher recoveries of the probes under the conditions utilized. Related to the issue of probe recovery, we also describe a significantly more efficient method for the synthesis of one such probe using Rink amide AM resin in place of Tentagel S resin. PMID:25058927

  20. A New Approach in the Preparation of Dendrimer-Based Bifunctional Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid MR Contrast Agent Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Nwe, Kido; Xu, Heng; Regino, Celeste Aida S.; Bernardo, Marcelino; Ileva, Lilia; Riffle, Lisa; Wong, Karen J.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report a new method to prepare and characterize a contrast agent based on a fourth-generation (G4) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer conjugated to the gadolinium complex of the bifunctional diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid derivative (1B4M-DTPA). The method involves pre-forming the metal-ligand chelate in alcohol prior to conjugation to the dendrimer. The dendrimer-based agent was purified by a Sephadex® G-25 column and characterized by elemental analysis. The analysis and SEHPLC data gave a chelate to dendrimer ratio of 30:1 suggesting conjugation at approximately every other amine terminal on the dendrimer. Molar relaxivity of the agent measured at pH 7.4 displayed a higher value than that of the analogous G4 dendrimer based agent prepared by the post-metal incorporation method (r1 = 26.9 vs. 13.9 mM-1s-1 at 3T and 22°C). This is hypothesized to be due to the higher hydrophobicity of this conjugate, and the lack of available charged carboxylate groups from non-complexed free ligands that might coordinate to the metal and thus also reduce water exchange sites. Additionally, the distribution populations of compounds that result from the post-metal incorporation route are eliminated from the current product simplifying characterization as quality control issues pertaining to the production of such agents for clinical use as MR contrast agents. In vivo imaging in mice showed a reasonably fast clearance (t1/2 = 24 min) suggesting a viable agent for use in clinical application. PMID:19555072

  1. Iron chelation using subcutaneous infusions of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA).

    PubMed

    Pippard, M J; Jackson, M J; Hoffman, K; Petrou, M; Modell, C B

    1986-05-01

    The iron chelating ability and potential toxicity of subcutaneous infusions of the calcium and zinc salts of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) have been assessed in metabolic balance studies in 2 iron-loaded thalassaemic patients. Infusions of calcium DTPA were locally well tolerated and the drug was as effective as desferrioxamine in mobilising iron. However, daily infusions in the 1st patient also produced symptomatic zinc depletion which could not be controlled by simultaneous oral zinc supplements. Zinc DTPA proved ineffective as an iron chelator, but zinc balance could be maintained in the 2nd patient by combining intermittent (every 4 d) use of calcium DTPA with oral zinc supplements. Combined studies with desferrioxamine and calcium DTPA showed the drugs to have additive effects, probably as a result of the chelation of iron from different body sites. PMID:3738427

  2. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides, such as americium, from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of 241Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and 241Am in plasma, the 241Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for 241Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose-response curves of DTPA for 241Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9 and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize 241Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg−1 intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen. PMID:23799506

  3. Thermodynamics, PMR, and fluorescence studies for the complexation of trivalent lanthanides, Ca[sup 2+], Cu[sup 2+], and Zn[sup 2+] by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid bis(methylamide)

    SciTech Connect

    Rizkalla, E.N.; Choppin, G.R. ); Cacheris, W. )

    1993-03-03

    [sup 1]H-NMR shift data were measured for the diamagnetic La[sup 3+] and Lu[sup 3+] complexes with diethylenetriaminepentaacetate-N,N[prime]-bis(methylamide) (DTPA-BMA) at different temperatures. Quartet splitting of the methylene protons of the terminal acetate groups and of the amide groups upon complexation with metal ions is indicative of long-lived metal-nitrogen bonds and short-lived metal-oxygen bonds. The observation of two quartets for the terminal acetates and the splitting of the N-methyl singlet upfield is attributed to the presence of more than one conformation in solution. Thermodynamic data indicate that DTPA-BMA acts as an octadentate ligand toward lanthanide ions and possibly as a hexadentate ligand toward Ca[sup 2+], Cu[sup 2+], and Zn[sup 2+] ions. Fluorescence data for the Eu[sup 3+] complex support the octadentate behavior of the ligand toward lanthanides and indicate that the complex contains one coordinated water molecule. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 76 FR 51992 - Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) Solution for Intravenous or Inhalation Administration, Equivalent to 1 Gram Base/5 Milliliters (Equivalent to 200 Milligrams Base/Milliliter), Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or... (Zn-DTPA)) solution for intravenous or inhalation administration, equivalent to (EQ) 1 gram (g)...

  5. Decorporation of Pu/Am Actinides by Chelation Therapy: New Arguments in Favor of an Intracellular Component of DTPA Action.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Laurent, David; Coudert, Sylvie; Griffiths, Nina M; Miccoli, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is currently still the only known chelating drug that can be used for decorporation of internalized plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am). It is generally assumed that chelation occurs only in biological fluids, thus preventing Pu/Am deposition in target tissues. We postulate that actinide chelation may also occur inside cells by a mechanism called "intracellular chelation". To test this hypothesis, rats were given DTPA either prior to (termed "prophylactic" treatment) or belatedly after (termed "delayed" treatment) Pu/Am injection. DTPA decorporation efficacy was systematically tested for both plutonium and americium. Both prophylactic and delayed DTPA elicited marked decreases in liver Pu/Am. These results can be explained by chelation within subcellular compartments where DTPA efficacy increased as a function of a favorable intracellular DTPA-to-actinide molar ratio. The efficacy of intracellular chelation of liver actinides decreased with the delay of treatment. This is probably explained by progressive actinide binding to the high-affinity ligand ferritin followed by migration to lysosomes. Intracellular chelation was reduced as the gap between prophylactic treatment and contamination increased. This may be explained by the reduction of the intracellular DTPA pool, which declined exponentially with time. Skeletal Pu/Am was also reduced by prophylactic and delayed DTPA treatments. This decorporation of bone actinides may mainly result from extracellular chelation on bone surfaces. This work provides converging evidence for the involvement of an intracellular component of DTPA action in the decorporation process. These results may help to improve the interpretation of biological data from DTPA-treated contamination cases and could be useful to model DTPA therapy regimens. PMID:27195610

  6. Chemical breakdown of technetium-99m DTPA during nebulization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.; Oberdoerster, G.D.; Drago, S.R.; Utell, M.J.; Hyde, R.W.; Morrow, P.E.

    1987-03-01

    Aerosols of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) used for measuring lung permeability and lung ventilation require a radioaerosol delivery system to produce an aerosol with reproducible size and radiochemical purity. To test how well nebulizers meet this requirement, radiochemical purity of aerosols produced with a jet and an ultrasonic nebulizer was evaluated. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) and geometric standard deviation (sigma g) of radioaerosols were 0.46 micron (sigma g = 1.6) for the jet nebulizer and 0.70 micron (sigma g = 1.7) for the ultrasonic nebulizer. Paper and liquid chromatographic assays were obtained on the (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol solute produced with each nebulizer. The results of these tests showed major differences in radiochemical purity. Aerosols produced in the jet nebulizer consistently showed greater than 90% of the radioactivity bound to the DTPA ligand whereas aerosols produced in the ultrasonic nebulizer showed less than 10% of the radioactivity bound to DTPA. The results support the need to test radiochemical purity of aerosols before using an aerosol nebulizer for pulmonary imaging and clearance studies.

  7. On hafnium chelation by EDTA and DTPA for TDPAC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, A. F.

    2010-04-01

    Polyaminocarboxilate chelating agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), form stable complexes with many heavy metals ions and are of spread use in the industrial and biomedical field. In this paper, Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the formation of Hf-complexes prepared from 181Hf-HfF4 and polyaminocarboxylic acids, by taking into account the possible formation of inorganic compounds. The obtained wet precipitates were measured at room temperature. Different behaviors were observed depending on the ratio fluorine/sodium atoms present in the sample. The obtaining of sodium heptafluorohafnate Na3HfF7 was verified when the ratio F/Na was approximately 1.5 and tridecafluorodihafnate Na5Hf2F13 appeared for relations between 3 and 4. No evidence of hafnium complexation by the polyaminocarboxilic acids was observed.

  8. [55Co]- and [64Cu]DTPA: new radiopharmaceuticals for quantitative tomocisternography.

    PubMed

    Mazière, B; Stulzaft, O; Verret, J M; Comar, D; Syrota, A

    1983-03-01

    The diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) complexes of the convenient half-life positron emitters 55Co and 64Cu have been prepared for quantitation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) kinetics in different areas of the brain using positron emission tomography. The radionuclides are prepared by proton bombardment of natural nickel (58Ni(p, alpha)55 Co and 64Ni (p,n)64Cu reactions). The chemical separation of the radionuclides from the target is described, and the production yields, radionuclidic purities and specific activities are given. PMID:6602099

  9. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  10. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled (241)Am.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Huckle, James E; Leed, Marina G D; Weber, Waylon M; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A; Jay, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [(14) C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared with a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of (241) Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of (241) Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  11. Hydrothermally synthesized PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating Gd-DTPA for contrast enhanced MRI diagnosis of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Kumagai, Michiaki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Aoki, Ichio; Terada, Yasuko; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-01-28

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with calcium phosphate (CaP) core and PEGylated shell were developed to incorporate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) for noninvasive diagnosis of solid tumors. A two-step preparation method was applied to elaborate hybrid nanoparticles with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 80nm, neutral surface ξ-potential and high colloidal stability in physiological environments by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) block copolymer, Gd-DTPA, and CaP in aqueous solution, followed with hydrothermal treatment. Incorporation into the hybrid nanoparticles allowed Gd-DTPA to show significant enhanced retention ratio in blood circulation, leading to high accumulation in tumor positions due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, Gd-DTPA revealed above 6 times increase of relaxivity in the nanoparticle system compared to free form, and eventually, selective and elevated contrast enhancements in the tumor positions were observed. These results indicate the high potential of Gd-DTPA-loaded PEGylated CaP nanoparticles as a novel contrast agent for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24211705

  12. Assessment of liver function in primary biliary cirrhosis using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Henrik; Blomqvist, Lennart; Douglas, Lena; Nordell, Anders; Jonas, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Gd-EOB-DTPA (gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a gadolinium-based hepatocyte-specific contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to determine whether the hepatic uptake and excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA differ between patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and healthy controls, and whether differences could be quantified. Methods Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI was performed in 20 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with PBC. The uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA was assessed using traditional semi-quantitative parameters (Cmax, Tmax and T1/2), as well as model-free parameters derived after deconvolutional analysis (hepatic extraction fraction [HEF], input-relative blood flow [irBF] and mean transit time [MTT]). In each individual, all parameters were calculated for each liver segment and the median of the segmental values was used to define a global liver median (GLM). Results Although the PBC patients had relatively mild disease according to their Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD), Child–Pugh and Mayo risk scores, they had significantly lower HEF and shorter MTT values compared with the healthy controls. These differences significantly increased with increasing MELD and Child–Pugh scores. Conclusions Dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI (DHCE-MRI) has a potential role as an imaging-based liver function test. The high spatial resolution of MRI enables hepatic function to be assessed on segmental and sub-segmental levels. PMID:20887325

  13. Liver fibrosis and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI: A histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Verloh, Niklas; Utpatel, Kirsten; Haimerl, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Fellner, Claudia; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Teufel, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Evert, Matthias; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Because the hepatic uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA depends on the integrity of the hepatocyte mass, this uptake can be quantified to assess liver function. We report the relationship between the extent of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake and the degree of liver fibrosis. T1-weighted volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. Strong correlations of the uptake characteristics of Gd-EOB-DTPA with the relative enhancement (RE) of the liver parenchyma and the grade of fibrosis/cirrhosis, classified using the Ishak scoring system, were observed. The subdivisions between the grades of liver fibrosis based on RE were highly significant for all combinations, and a ROC revealed sensitivities ≥82% and specificities ≥87% for all combinations. MR imaging is a satisfactorily sensitive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. PMID:26478097

  14. Enhanced Delivery of Plasmid Encoding Interleukin-12 Gene by Diethylene Triamine Penta-Acetic Acid (DTPA)-Conjugated PEI Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dehshahri, Ali; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Keykhaee, Maryam; Khalvati, Bahman; Sheikhsaran, Fatemeh

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins have been considered as an efficient category of medications used for the treatment of various diseases. Despite their effectiveness, there are some reports on the systemic adverse effects of recombinant therapeutic proteins limiting their wide clinical applications. Among different cytokines used for cancer immunotherapy, interleukin-12 (IL-12) has shown great ability as a powerful antitumor and antiangiogenic agent. However, significant toxic reactions following the systemic administration of IL-12 have led researchers to seek for alternative approaches such as the delivery and local expression of the IL-12 gene inside the tumor tissues. In order to transfer the plasmid encoding IL-12 gene, the most extensively investigated polycationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), was modified by diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) to modulate the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of the polymer as well as its toxicity. DTPA-conjugated PEI derivatives were able to form complexes in the size range around 100-180 nm with great condensation ability and protection of the plasmid against enzymatic degradation. The highest gene transfer ability was achieved by the DTPA-conjugated PEI at the conjugation degree of 0.1 % where the level of IL-12 production increased up to twofold compared with that of the unmodified PEI. Results of the present study demonstrated that modulation of the surface positive charge of PEI along with the improvement of the polymer hydrophobic balance could be considered as a successful strategy to develop safe and powerful nanocarriers. PMID:26801817

  15. Effectiveness of DTPA treatments following the injection of particulate plutonium.

    PubMed

    Bruenger, F W; Taylor, D M; Taylor, G N; Lloyd, R D

    1991-11-01

    A limited long-term experiment has been completed in which the chronic toxicity resulting from a single intravenous injection of 31.4 kBq of a poly-disperse 239Pu colloid sol per kg of body weight was tested in Beagle dogs. The Pu deposited mostly in the phagocytic cells of liver, spleen and to a lesser degree in lung and bone marrow. Slow solubilization of the Pu particles by endogenous ligands caused translocation of the nuclide and redeposition mostly as monomeric Pu in the skeleton and in liver hepatocytes. Thus, the deposit behaved as expected from a pulmonary or wound contamination in humans with a moderately soluble depot of Pu such as Class W hot particles. Therefore, this type of deposit provided the basis for a practical model to study the ensuing radiation effects under various experimental conditions. The dogs were divided into three groups of four animals each, and the following conditions were applied: (a) no further treatment was given, allowing free translocation of the Pu to its secondary deposition sites; (b) interception of the Pu translocation by weekly injections of 30 mumol of Ca-DTPA/kg of body weight (Ca-chelate of diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid); and (c) interception of translocation by daily injections of 30 mumol/kg body weight of Zn-DTPA. For each of the groups (b) and (c), three dogs were used in a lifetime study, and one was sacrificed for nuclide distribution studies. Free translocation and subsequent deposition in the skeleton resulted in the death of each of the non-chelated dogs from osteosarcoma between 1267 and 1594 days after injection. Weekly treatment with Ca-DTPA reduced the total Pu burden significantly, but these dogs also died with osteosarcoma between 1462 and 1783 days. Daily injections with Zn-DTPA reduced the total Pu burden more efficiently than Ca-DTPA and prevented continuous deposition of solubilized Pu on bone surfaces. The mean post-injection survival of these dogs was 3520 days or about 2.1 times that of

  16. Synthesis of novel tetravalent galactosylated DTPA-DSPE and study on hepatocyte-targeting efficiency in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Huafang; Zhang, Zhaoguo; Yan, Mina; Lei, Ming; Zeng, Ke; Zhao, Chunshun

    2013-01-01

    For the purposes of obtaining a hepatocyte-selective drug delivery system, a novel tetravalent galactosylated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (4Gal-DTPA-DSPE) was synthesized. The chemical structure of 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The four galactose-modified liposomes (4Gal-liposomes) were prepared by thin-film hydration method, then doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated into liposomes using an ammonium sulfate gradient loading method. The liposomal formulations with 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE were characterized by laser confocal scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, and the results demonstrated that the 4Gal-liposomes facilitated the intracellular uptake of DOX into HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the cell proliferation inhibition effect of 4Gal-liposomes was higher than that of the conventional liposomes without the galactose. Additionally, pharmacokinetic experiments in rats revealed that the 4Gal-liposomes displayed slower clearance from the systemic circulation compared with conventional liposomes. The organ distributions in mice and the study on frozen sections of liver implied that the 4Gal-liposomes enhanced the intracellular uptake of DOX into hepatocytes and prolonged the circulation. Taken together, these results indicate that liposomes containing 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE have great potential as drug delivery carriers for hepatocyte-selective targeting. PMID:23976853

  17. Conversion of arterial input functions for dual pharmacokinetic modeling using Gd-DTPA/MRI and 18F-FDG/PET.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Eric; Lebel, Réjean; Croteau, Etienne; Blanchette, Marie; Tremblay, Luc; Lecomte, Roger; Bentourkia, M'hamed; Lepage, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Reaching the full potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-positron emission tomography (PET) dual modality systems requires new methodologies in quantitative image analyses. In this study, methods are proposed to convert an arterial input function (AIF) derived from gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in MRI, into a (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) AIF in PET, and vice versa. The AIFs from both modalities were obtained from manual blood sampling in a F98-Fisher glioblastoma rat model. They were well fitted by a convolution of a rectangular function with a biexponential clearance function. The parameters of the biexponential AIF model were found statistically different between MRI and PET. Pharmacokinetic MRI parameters such as the volume transfer constant (K(trans)), the extravascular-extracellular volume fraction (ν(e)), and the blood volume fraction (ν(p)) calculated with the Gd-DTPA AIF and the Gd-DTPA AIF converted from (18)F-FDG AIF normalized with or without blood sample were not statistically different. Similarly, the tumor metabolic rates of glucose (TMRGlc) calculated with (18) F-FDG AIF and with (18) F-FDG AIF obtained from Gd-DTPA AIF were also found not statistically different. In conclusion, only one accurate AIF would be needed for dual MRI-PET pharmacokinetic modeling in small animal models. PMID:22570280

  18. Species-dependent chelation of (241)Am by DTPA Di-ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA-approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore, a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established, and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles, and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 h in beagles. PMID:25706138

  19. Species-Dependent Chelation of 241Am by DTPA Di-ethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg−1 dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 hours in beagles. PMID:25706138

  20. Variability in soil micronutrients extracted by DTPA and Mehlich-3 at the plot scale in an acidic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Lado, Marcos; de Abreu, Cleide A.

    2014-05-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on micronutrient extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse long-term effects of land use on the concentration, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients. To this end, neighboring forest and cultivated stands were compared. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with a surface of 100 m2 were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land, microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg kg-1), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg kg-1), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg kg-1). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg kg-1), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg kg-1), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1). With the exception of Fe-DTPA, microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the studied scale, nutrient management was the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions were probably responsible for the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the studied nutrients at the small plot scale also were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results were discussed in the frame of sustainable land use and organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use

  1. Aragonite–calcite–vaterite: A temperature influenced sequential polymorphic transformation of CaCO{sub 3} in the presence of DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Gopi, Shanmukhaprasad; Subramanian, V.K.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Crystallization of CaCO{sub 3} between 60 and 230 °C in the presence of DTPA. ► Formation of exclusive and individual polymorphs at different temperatures. ► Violation of second law of thermodynamics/Ostwald rule of stages has been observed. - Abstract: Calcium carbonate was precipitated from calcium chloride using sodium carbonate in the presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) between 60 and 230 °C. The samples were characterized by FTIR, Raman, XRD and SEM techniques. CaCO{sub 3} with different crystal morphologies such as spherolite/datura pod, dumbbell, peanut, were obtained depending on the experimental conditions. The results showed that pure aragonite, calcite and vaterite were formed at low, moderate and high temperatures respectively. A binary mixture of calcite and vaterite was resulted between 150 and 200 °C. The data suggested an unusual conversion of stable calcite to meta stable vaterite at higher temperature in presence of DTPA. The study revealed a novel methodology for the exclusive/individual preparation of different crystalline polymorphs of CaCO{sub 3}. Formation of pure vaterite above 200 °C divulged the possibility of DTPA as a potential scale inhibitor and boiler sludge conditioner at elevated temperatures.

  2. Pediatric leptomeningeal metastasis: 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, M C

    1994-04-01

    Nine children (five girls and four boys) ranging in age from 1 to 18 years (median age, 12 years) with leptomeningeal metastasis were evaluated for cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization with cerebrospinal fluid flow studies using ventricular diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with indium 111 (111In-DTPA). Histologic diagnosis included medulloblastoma (two), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (two), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (two), pineoblastoma (one), ependymoma (one), and anaplastic astrocytoma (one). Sixteen 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies were performed, of which nine demonstrated normal anterograde cerebrospinal fluid flow of radionuclide, with the following cerebrospinal fluid compartment median times to appearance, with ranges in parentheses: ventricles, 1 minute (0 to 3 minutes); cisterna magna/basal cisterns, 5 minutes (3 to 5 minutes); cervical subarachnoid space, 8 minutes (5 to 10 minutes); thoracic subarachnoid space, 15 minutes (10 to 30 minutes); lumbar subarachnoid space, 35 minutes (20 to 45 minutes); and sylvian cistern, 80 minutes (60 to 90 minutes). Blockage of normal anterograde cerebrospinal fluid flow was seen in seven 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies in the following cerebrospinal fluid compartments: cervical subarachnoid space (four), lumbar subarachnoid space (two), and cisterna magna/basal cisterns (one). Five 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies were performed after demonstration of cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization and treatment with limited-field radiation therapy to involved regions; cerebrospinal fluid flow blocks resolved in three. In conclusion, cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization, as shown by radionuclide ventriculography, is a common occurrence in pediatric leptomeningeal metastasis (four of nine patients, or 44%) and may be palliated by involved-field radiotherapy. PMID:8006365

  3. Comparison of technetium-99m pyrophosphate and technetium-99m DTPA aerosols for SPECT ventilation lung imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Isitman, A.T.; Collier, B.D.; Palmer, D.W.; Trembath, L.; Krasnow, A.Z.; Rao, S.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Peck, D.C.; Dellis, C.J.

    1988-11-01

    Although (/sup 99m/Tc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is currently the most widely used radioaerosol, rapid alveolar clearance limits its usefulness for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation lung imaging. Previous research has shown that (/sup 99m/Tc)phosphate compounds have high alveolar deposition and slow clearance and thus provide suitable aerosols for pulmonary ventilation studies. We have compared the pulmonary retention and blood levels of (/sup 99m/Tc)pyrophosphate (PYP) and (99mTc)DTPA in eight normal nonsmoking male volunteers. These two radioaerosols have comparable pulmonary deposition. Technetium-99m PYP, however, has a much slower pulmonary clearance which allows sufficient time (20 or more minutes) for SPECT data acquisition using a single-headed rotating gamma camera. While the radiation absorbed dose to the lungs for (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP (0.31 rad/mCi) is greater than for (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA (0.11 rad/mCi), it is at a clinically acceptable and safe level.

  4. Effects of combined treatment with diethyldithiocarbamate and diethylenetriaminepentaacetate on organ distribution and excretion of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, G.R.; Atkins, L.M.; Walker, E.M. Jr.; Smith, A.B.

    1983-09-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) were assessed to determine if combination treatment with these two chelators of different chemical classes would enhance mobilization and excretion of metallothionein-bound cadmium (Cd) from selected organs of mice which had earlier received 0.03 mg of CdCl/sub 2/ . 2.5 H/sub 2/O along with 1.0 microCi of /sup 109/Cd. In addition to measuring individual organ radioactivity after seven and after 13 injections of each compound individually as well as in combination, whole body Cd burden was measured, and the routes and rates of Cd excretion were determined. When used alone, DDTC was effective in mobilizing Cd from kidney, liver, intestine, and spleen. The DTPA when used alone was not consistently effective in reducing Cd burdens in any of the organs assessed. Co-administration of DDTC and DTPA promoted an enhancement of Cd mobilization from liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine over that which was observed with DDTC alone. When DTPA was administered with DDTC, it did not prevent accumulation of Cd in lung and brain which was observed upon treatment with DDTC alone. Combined treatment did produce a more marked depletion of total body /sup 109/Cd burden than did the administration of DDTC alone. A more rapid rate of both fecal and urinary excretion of Cd was observed when the chelators were co-administered. It was concluded that at least an additive or possibly supraadditive effect may be obtained by combining a dithiocarbamate chelator with one of the aminocarboxylate class in total body Cd decorporation.

  5. Relationship of end-expiratory pressure, lung volume, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; van der Zee, H.; Line, B.R.; Malik, A.B.

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the dose-response effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and increased lung volume on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Clearance of lung radioactivity was expressed as percent decrease per minute. Base-line clearance was measured while anesthetized sheep (n = 20) were ventilated with 0 cmH/sub 2/O end-expiratory pressure. Clearance was remeasured during ventilation at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP. Further studies showed stepwise increases in functional residual capacity (FRC) (P less than 0.05) measured at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP. At 2.5 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP, the clearance rate was not different from that at base line (P less than 0.05), although FRC was increased from base line. Clearance rate increased progressively with increasing PEEP at 5, 10, and 15 cmH/sub 2/O (P less than 0.05). Between 15 and 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP, clearance rate was again unchanged, despite an increase in FRC. The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA shows a sigmoidal response to increasing FRC and PEEP, having both threshold and maximal effects. This relationship is most consistent with the hypothesis that alveolar epithelial permeability is increased by lung inflation.

  6. Diethylentriaminepenta acetic acid glucose conjugates as a cell permeable iron chelator

    PubMed Central

    Mosayebnia, Mona; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Pasalar, Parvin; Mashayekhi, Mojgan; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether DTPA-DG complex can enhance clearance of intracellular free iron. Materials and Methods: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-deoxy-glucosamine (DTPA-DG) was synthesized and examined for its activity as a cell-permeable iron chelator in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) cell line exposed to high concentration of iron sulfate and compared with deferoxamine (DFO), a prototype iron chelator. The effect of DTPA-DG on cell viability was monitored using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay as well. Results: There was a significant increase of iron level after iron overload induction in HEPG2 cell culture. DTPA-DG presented a remarkable capacity to iron burden reducing with estimated 50% inhibitory concentration value of 65.77 nM. In fact, glycosyl moiety was gained access of DTPA to intracellular iron deposits through glucose transporter systems. Conclusion: DTPA-DG, more potent than DFO to sequester deposits of free iron with no profound toxic effect. The results suggest the potential of DTPA-DG in chelating iron and permitting its excretion from primary organ storage. PMID:24554907

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Therapy-Induced Necrosis Using Gadolinium-Chelated Polyglutamic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Edward F.; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Wen Xiaoxia; Ng, Chaan S.; Daniel, Sherita L.; Price, Roger E.; Rivera, Belinda; Charnsangavej, Chusilp; Gelovani, Juri G.; Li Chun . E-mail: cli@di.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: Necrosis is the most common morphologic alteration found in tumors and surrounding normal tissues after radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Accurate measurement of necrosis may provide an early indication of treatment efficacy or associated toxicity. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the selective accumulation of polymeric paramagnetic magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents-gadolinium p-aminobenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-poly(glutamic acid) (L-PG-DTPA-Gd and D-PG-DTPA-Gd)-in necrotic tissue. Methods and Materials: Two different solid tumor models, human Colo-205 xenograft and syngeneic murine OCA-1 ovarian tumors, were used in this study. Necrotic response was induced by treatment with poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel conjugate (PG-TXL). T{sub 1}-weighted spin-echo images were obtained immediately and up to 4 days after contrast injection and compared with corresponding histologic specimens. Two low-molecular-weight contrast agents, DTPA-Gd and oligomeric(L-glutamic acid)-DTPA-Gd, were used as nonspecific controls. Results: Initially, there was minimal tumor enhancement after injection of either L-PG-DTPA-Gd or D-PG-DTPA-Gd, but rapid enhancement after injection of low-molecular-weight agents. However, polymeric contrast agents, but not low-molecular-weight contrast agents, caused sustained enhancement in regions of tumor necrosis in both tumors treated with PG-TXL and untreated tumors. These data indicate that high molecular weight, rather than in vivo biodegradation, is necessary for the specific localization of polymeric MR contrast agents to necrotic tissue. Moreover, biotinylated L-PG-DTPA-Gd colocalized with macrophages in the tumor necrotic areas, suggesting that selective accumulation of L- and D-PG-DTPA-Gd in necrotic tissue was mediated through residing macrophages. Conclusions: Our data suggest that MR imaging with PG-DTPA-Gd may be a useful technique for noninvasive characterization of treatment-induced necrosis.

  8. 111In-BnDTPA-F3: an Auger electron-emitting radiotherapeutic agent that targets nucleolin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The F3 peptide (KDEPQRRSARLSAKPAPPKPEPKPKKAPAKK), a fragment of the human high mobility group protein 2, binds nucleolin. Nucleolin is expressed in the nuclei of normal cells but is also expressed on the membrane of some cancer cells. The goal was to investigate the use of 111In-labeled F3 peptide for Auger electron-targeted radiotherapy. Methods F3 was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for confocal microscopy and conjugated to p-SCN-benzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BnDTPA) for labeling with 111In to form 111In-BnDTPA-F3. MDA-MB-231-H2N (231-H2N) human breast cancer cells were exposed to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 and used in cell fractionation, γH2AX immunostaining (a marker of DNA double-strand breaks), and clonogenic assays. In vivo, biodistribution studies of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 were performed in 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice. In tumor growth delay studies, 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 μg, 6 MBq/μg) was administered intravenously to 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice once weekly for 3 weeks. Results Membrane-binding of FITC-F3 was observed in 231-H2N cells, and there was co-localization of FITC-F3 with nucleolin in the nuclei. After exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 for 2 h, 1.7% of 111In added to the medium was membrane-bound. Of the bound 111In, 15% was internalized, and of this, 37% was localized in the nucleus. Exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (1 μM, 6 MBq/μg) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in γH2AX foci and in a significant reduction of clonogenic survival compared to untreated cells or cells exposed to unlabeled BnDTPA-F3 (46 ± 4.1%, 100 ± 1.8%, and 132 ± 7.7%, respectively). In vivo, tumor uptake of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 μg, 6 MBq/μg) at 3-h post-injection was 1% of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g), and muscle uptake was 0.5%ID/g. In tumor growth delay studies, tumor growth rate was reduced 19-fold compared to untreated or unlabeled BnDTPA-F3-treated mice (p = 0.023). Conclusion 111In-BnDTPA-F3 is

  9. Effect of inspiratory resistance and PEEP on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brodovich, H.; Coates, G.; Marrin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of markedly negative pleural pressure (Ppl) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pulmonary clearance (k) of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA). A submicronic aerosol containing /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized intubated sheep. In six experiments k was 0.44 +/- 0.46% (SD)/min during the initial 30 min and was unchanged during the subsequent 30-min interval (k = 0.21 +/- 12%/min) when there was markedly increased inspiratory resistance. A 3-mm-diam orifice in the inspiratory tubing created the resistance. It resulted on average in a 13-cmH2O decrease in inspiratory Ppl. In eight additional experiments sheep were exposed to 2, 10, and 15 cmH2O PEEP (20 min at each level). During 2 cmH2O PEEP k = 0.47 +/- 0.15%/min, and clearance increased slightly at 10 cmH2O PEEP (0.76 +/- 0.28%/min, P less than 0.01). When PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O a marked increase in clearance occurred (k = 1.95 +/- 1.08%/min, P less than 0.001). The experiments demonstrate that markedly negative inspiratory pressures do not accelerate the clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from normal lungs. The effect of PEEP on k is nonlinear, with large effects being seen only with very large increases in PEEP.

  10. Orally Administered DTPA Di-ethyl Ester for Decorporation of 241Am in dogs: Assessment of Safety and Efficacy in an Inhalation-Contamination Model

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Pacyniak, Erik; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Agha, Bushra J.; Susick, Robert L.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently two injectable products of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for decorporation of 241Am, however, an oral product is considered more amenable in a mass casualty situation. The diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is being developed as an oral drug for treatment of internal radionuclide contamination. Materials and methods Single dose decorporation efficacy of C2E2 administered 24-hours post contamination was determined in beagle dogs using a 241Am nitrate inhalation contamination model. Single and multiple dose toxicity studies in beagle dogs were performed as part of an initial safety assessment program. In addition, the genotoxic potential of C2E2 was evaluated by the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation Ames test, mammalian cell chromosome aberration cytogenetic assay and an in vivo micronucleus test. Results Oral administration of C2E2 significantly increased 241Am elimination over untreated controls and significantly reduced the retention of 241Am in tissues, especially liver, kidney, lung and bone. Daily dosing of 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days was well tolerated in dogs. C2E2 was found to be neither mutagenic or clastogenic. Conclusions The di-ethyl ester of DTPA (C2E2) was shown to effectively enhance the elimination of 241Am after oral administration in a dog inhalation-contamination model and was well tolerated in toxicity studies. PMID:25912343

  11. Gd-DTPA-Dopamine-Bisphytanyl Amphiphile: Synthesis, Characterisation and Relaxation Parameters of the Nanoassemblies and Their Potential as MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Willis, Scott A; Waddington, Lynne J; Stait-Gardner, Tim; de Campo, Liliana; Hwang, Dennis W; Kirby, Nigel; Price, William S; Moghaddam, Minoo J

    2015-09-28

    Here, a new amphiphilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a Gd(III)-chelated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated to two branched alkyl chains via a dopamine spacer, Gd-DTPA-dopamine-bisphytanyl (Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy), which is readily capable of self-assembling into liposomal nanoassemblies upon dispersion in an aqueous solution, is reported. In vitro relaxivities of the dispersions were found to be much higher than Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent, at 0.47 T but comparable at 9.40 T. Analysis of variable temperature (17)O NMR transverse relaxation measurements revealed the water exchange of the nanoassemblies to be faster than that previously reported for paramagnetic liposomes. Molecular reorientation dynamics were probed by (1)H NMRD profiles using a classical inner and outer sphere relaxation model and a Lipari-Szabo "model-free" approach. High payloads of Gd(III) ions in the liposomal nanoassemblies made solely from the Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy amphiphiles, in combination with slow molecular reorientation and fast water exchange makes this novel amphiphile a suitable candidate to be investigated as an advanced MRI contrast agent. PMID:26376329

  12. Localization of neurofibromas by scanning with technetium-99m diethylene triamine-pentacetic acid (Tc-99 DTPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m DTPA is commonly utilized to evaluate renal function. Reports of a uterine myoma and a soft tissue sarcoma accumulating this radiopharmaceutical have also appeared in the literature. The authors have observed the affinity for plexiform as well as well circumscribed soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis for Tc-99m DTPA. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, twenty-eight sites of abnormal soft tissue localization of the isotope were documented by clinical and radiographic (predominantly CT) correlation. The best visualization of the tumors occurred 1 to 3 hours post-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Multiple images (150,000 to 500,000 counts) of areas suspected of having neurofibromatous involvement were obtained. Several unsuspected lesions were recognized. Similar images obtained in sixteen control patients showed no similar soft tissue localization. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-centimeter subcutaneous neurofibroma. The mechanism for selectivity of neurofibroma for Tc-99m DTPA does not appear to be related to hypervascularity or necrosis. Time activity curves of several lesions demonstrate gradual increase in their activity pointing to cellular uptake or stasis within the tumor as possible explanations. The significance of this observation relates to easy mapping of lesions with minimal radiation. Important implications of this discovery include sequential evaluation of tumor growth and detection of unsuspected lesions.

  13. Complexation of Curium(III) with DTPA at 10–70 °C: Comparison with Eu(III)–DTPA in Thermodynamics, Luminescence, and Coordination Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-16

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)) is a challenging task because of their nearly identical chemical properties. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), a key reagent used in the TALSPEAK process that effectively separates An(III) from Ln(III), is believed to play a critical role in the An(III)/Ln(III) separation. However, the underlying principles for the separation based on the difference in the complexation of DTPA with An(III) and Ln(III) remain unclear. In this work, the complexation of DTPA with Cm(III) at 10-70 ºC was investigated by spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry, in conjunction with computational methods. The binding strength, the enthalpy of complexation, the coordination modes, and the luminescence properties are compared between the Cm(III)-DTPA and Eu(III)-DTPA systems. The experimental and computational data have demonstrated that the difference between Cm(III) and Eu(III) in the binding strength with DTPA can be attributed to the stronger covalence bonding between Cm(III) and the nitrogen donors of DTPA.

  14. Metal complexes as allosteric effectors of human hemoglobin: an NMR study of the interaction of the gadolinium(III) bis(m-boroxyphenylamide)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex with human oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Aime, S; Digilio, G; Fasano, M; Paoletti, S; Arnelli, A; Ascenzi, P

    1999-05-01

    The boronic functionalities on the outer surface of the Gd(III) bis(m-boroxyphenylamide)DTPA complex (Gd(III)L) enable it to bind to fructosamine residues of oxygenated glycated human adult hemoglobin. The formation of the macromolecular adduct can be assessed by NMR spectroscopy via observation of the enhancement of the solvent water proton relaxation rate. Unexpectedly, a strong binding interaction was also observed for the oxygenated unglycated human adult hemoglobin, eventually displaying a much higher relaxation enhancement. From relaxation rate measurements it was found that two Gd(III)L complexes interact with one hemoglobin tetramer (KD = 1.0 x 10(-5) M and 4.6 x 10(-4) M, respectively), whereas no interaction has been observed with monomeric hemoproteins. A markedly higher affinity of the Gd(III)L complex has been observed for oxygenated and aquo-met human adult hemoglobin derivatives with respect to the corresponding deoxy derivative. Upon binding, a net change in the quaternary structure of hemoglobin has been assessed by monitoring the changes in the high-resolution 1H-NMR spectrum of the protein as well as in the Soret absorption band. On the basis of these observations and the 11B NMR results obtained with the diamagnetic La(III)L complex, we suggest that the interaction between the lanthanide complex and deoxygenated, oxygenated, and aquo-met derivatives of human adult hemoglobin takes place at the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) binding site, through the formation of N-->B coordinative bonds at His143beta and His2beta residues of different beta-chains. The stronger binding to the oxygenated form is then responsible for a shift of the allosteric equilibrium toward the high-affinity R-state. Accordingly, Gd(III)L affinity for oxygenated human fetal hemoglobin (lacking His143beta) is significantly lower than that observed for the unglycated human adult tetramer. PMID:10233088

  15. Step-down infusions of Gd-DTPA yield greater contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images of BBB damage in acute stroke than bolus injections.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Nagesh, Vijaya; Ewing, James R; Whitton, Polly A; Fenstermacher, Joseph D; Knight, Robert A

    2007-04-01

    A rat model of transient suture occlusion of one middle cerebral artery (MCA) was used to create a unilateral reperfused cerebral ischemic infarct with blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. Opening of the BBB was visualized and quantitated by magnetic resonance (MR) contrast enhancement with a Look-Locker T(1)-weighted sequence either following an intravenous bolus injection (n=7) or during a step-down infusion (n=7) of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Blood levels of Gd-DTPA after either input were monitored via changes in sagittal sinus relaxation rate. Blood-to-brain influx constants (K(i)) were calculated by Patlak plots. On the basis of the MRI parameters and lesion size, the ischemic injury was determined to be similar in the two groups. The bolus injection input produced a sharp rise in blood levels of Gd-DTPA that declined quickly, whereas the step-down infusion led to a sharp rise that was maintained relatively constant for the period of imaging. Visual contrast enhancement and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were better with the step-down method (S/N=1.8) than with bolus injection (S/N=1.3). The K(i) values were not significantly different between the two groups (P>.05) and were around 0.005 ml/(g min). The major reason for the better imaging of BBB opening by the step-down infusion was the higher amounts of Gd-DTPA in plasma and tissue during most of the experimental period. These results suggest that step-down MR contrast agent (MRCA) administration schedule may be more advantageous for detection and delineation of acute BBB injury than the usually used bolus injections. PMID:17371719

  16. The CONRAD approach to biokinetic modeling of DTPA decorporation therapy.

    PubMed

    Breustedt, Bastian; Blanchardon, Eric; Bérard, Philippe; Fritsch, Paul; Giussani, Augusto; Lopez, Maria Antonia; Luciani, Andrea; Nosske, Dietmar; Piechowski, Jean; Schimmelpfeng, Jutta; Sérandour, Anne-Laure

    2010-10-01

    Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) is used for decorporation of plutonium because it is known to be able to enhance its urinary excretion for several days after treatment by forming stable Pu-DTPA complexes. The decorporation prevents accumulation in organs and results in a dosimetric benefit, which is difficult to quantify from bioassay data using existing models. The development of a biokinetic model describing the mechanisms of actinide decorporation by administration of DTPA was initiated as a task in the European COordinated Network on RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD). The systemic biokinetic model from Leggett et al. and the biokinetic model for DTPA compounds of International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 53 were the starting points. A new model for biokinetics of administered DTPA based on physiological interpretation of 14C-labeled DTPA studies from literature was proposed by the group. Plutonium and DTPA biokinetics were modeled separately. The systems were connected by means of a second order kinetics process describing the chelation process of plutonium atoms and DTPA molecules to Pu-DTPA complexes. It was assumed that chelation only occurs in the blood and in systemic compartment ST0 (representing rapid turnover soft tissues), and that Pu-DTPA complexes and administered forms of DTPA share the same biokinetic behavior. First applications of the CONRAD approach showed that the enhancement of plutonium urinary excretion after administration of DTPA was strongly influenced by the chelation rate constant. Setting it to a high value resulted in a good fit to the observed data. However, the model was not yet satisfactory since the effects of repeated DTPA administration in a short time period cannot be predicted in a realistic way. In order to introduce more physiological knowledge into the model several questions still have to be answered. Further detailed studies of human contamination cases and experimental data will be needed in

  17. Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of a Diethyl Ester Prodrug of DTPA and Its Investigation as an Oral Decorporation Agent in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Leed, Marina G D; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Mumper, Russell J; Semelka, Richard C; Jay, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The increasing threats of nuclear terrorism have made the development of medical countermeasures a priority for international security. Injectable formulations of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) have been approved by the FDA; however, an oral formulation is more amenable in a mass casualty situation. Here, the diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is investigated for potential as an oral treatment for internal radionuclide contamination. C2E2 was synthesized and characterized using NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. The physiochemical properties of solubility, lipophilicity, and stability were investigated in order to predict its oral bioavailability. Finally, an animal efficacy study was conducted in Sprague Dawley rats pre-contaminated by intramuscular injection with (241)Am(NO3)3 to establish effectiveness of the therapy via the oral route. Synthesis of C2E2 yielded a crystalline powder with high solubility and improved lipophilicity over DTPA. The ester was stable in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluids over the anticipated time course of absorption. Capsules containing C2E2 were demonstrated to be stable for 12 months under accelerated stability conditions. After a single dose, C2E2 enhanced the elimination of (241)Am in a dose-dependent manner. Significant improvement was seen in both total (241)Am decorporation and reduction of (241)Am liver and skeletal burden. C2E2 was concluded to be effective when orally administered to (241)Am-contaminated rats. It may therefore have potential for medical countermeasure in treating humans contaminated with (241)Am or other transuranic elements. An oral capsule or powder for reconstitution may be suitable formulations for future development based on the physiochemical properties and anticipated dose required for efficacy. PMID:27106838

  18. Synthesis of 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl) derivatives of DTPA and EDTA. Antibody labeling and tumor-imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Brechbiel, M.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Atcher, R.W.; Schlom, J.; Esteban, J.; Simpson, D.E.; Colcher, D.

    1986-07-30

    To investigate the /sup 111/In labeling of tumor-localizing monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), the chelate 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (p-SCN-Bz-DPTA) (1) and its EDTA analogue (2) have been synthesized. By the use of a MoAb (B72.3) specific for a high molecular weight antigen (TAG-72) on cells of a colorectal carcinoma grown in nude mice, optimal chemical conditions for MoAb conjugation of those ligands and of the dicyclic and isobutylcarboxy carbonic anhydrides of DTPA and subsequent /sup 111/In labeling were determined. All conjugates were shown by a competitive binding assay to retain their specificity and activity in vitro when less than one ligand is protein coupled both prior to and after /sup 111/In labeling. Chemical methods for purification of the MoAb were systematically investigated by injection of purified immunoprotein into athymic mice bearing LS-174T tumors that express the TAG-72 antigen. Tissue distribution studies revealed that simple addition of EDTA to labeled immunoglobulins was ineffective at complexing indium not linked to protein by chelates. Similarly, gel chromatography (Sephadex G-50) was not sufficient; rather, size exclusion HPLC had to be employed to remove unreacted /sup 111/In and aggregated antibody. To compare the relative utility of the four chelates for /sup 111/In diagnostic radioimmunoimaging, scintigraphic images of tumor-bearing mice were obtained and evaluated along with tissue distributions. Results showed that clear images of these solid tissue tumors free of extraneous radiation could be obtained only by using p-SCN-Bz-DTPA purified by HPLC. Methods developed are now being employed in clinical trials for diagnosis of human colorectal cancer. 71 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  19. MRI and quantitative autoradiographic studies following bolus injections of unlabeled and 14C-labeled gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid in a rat model of stroke yield similar distribution volumes and blood-to-brain influx rate constants

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N.; Ewing, James R.; Karki, Kishor; Jacobs, Paul E.; Divine, George W.; Fenstermacher, Joseph D.; Patlak, Clifford S.; Knight, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous studies on a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia, the blood and brain concentrations of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) following intravenous bolus injection were repeatedly assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and blood-to-brain influx rate constants (Ki) were calculated from Patlak plots of the data in areas with blood–brain barrier (BBB) opening. For concurrent validation of these findings, after completing the DCE-MRI study, radiolabeled sucrose or α-aminoisobutyric acid was injected intravenously, and the brain disposition and Ki values were calculated by quantitative autoradiography (QAR) assay employing the single-time equation. To overcome two of the shortcomings of this comparison, the present experiments were carried out with a radiotracer virtually identical to Gd-DTPA, Gd-[14C]DTPA, and Ki was calculated from both sets of data by the single-time equation. The protocol included 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion and 2.5 h of reperfusion in male Wistar rats (n = 15) preceding the DCE-MRI Gd-DTPA and QAR Gd-[14C]DTPA measurements. In addition to Ki, the tissue-to-blood concentration ratios, or volumes of distribution (VR), were calculated. The regions of BBB opening were similar on the MRI maps and autoradiograms. Within them, VR was nearly identical for Gd-DTPA and Gd-[14C]DTPA, and Ki was slightly, but not significantly, higher for Gd-DTPA than for Gd-[14C]DTPA. The Ki values were well correlated (r = 0.67; p = 0.001). When the arterial concentration–time curve of Gd-DTPA was adjusted to match that of Gd-[14C]DTPA, the two sets of Ki values were equal and statistically comparable with those obtained previously by Patlak plots (the preferred, less model-dependent, approach) of the same data (p = 0.2–0.5). These findings demonstrate that this DCE-MRI technique accurately measures the Gd-DTPA concentration in blood and brain, and that Ki estimates based on such data are good quantitative

  20. Effectiveness of DTPA therapy when administered intragastrically or intraperitoneally to remove Pu from adult or neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Ruemmler, P.S.

    1986-11-01

    Adult and neonatal rats were given /sup 238/Pu by gavage or parenterally and treated with 0.5 mmoles/kg of calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), by gavage or parenterally, to determine its effectiveness for removing Pu. Parenteral administration of DTPA to adult rats 2 h after an intravenous /sup 238/Pu injection was much more effective than intragastric treatment, removing nearly 70% of the retained dose. When /sup 238/Pu was given to adults intragastrically (IG), followed by DTPA given either intraperitoneally (IP) or IG 2 h later, /sup 238/Pu absorption increased while retention remained either unchanged, or increased. When neonates were given /sup 238/Pu IG and treated 2 h later with intraperitoneal or intragastric DTPA, removal of /sup 238/Pu was better than in adults: more than 80% of the /sup 238/Pu that was absorbed and retained was removed by intragastric DTPA. When neonates were injected IP with /sup 238/Pu, treatment with intraperitoneal DTPA was more effective for /sup 238/Pu removal than intragastric treatment.

  1. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture.

  2. DTPA complexation of bismuth in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Montavon, G; Le Du, A; Champion, J; Rabung, T; Morgenstern, A

    2012-07-28

    The in vivo(212)Pb/(212)Bi generator is promising for application in targeted alpha therapy (TAT) of cancer. One main limitation of its therapeutic application is due to potential release of (212)Bi from the radioconjugate upon radioactive decay of the mother nuclide (212)Pb, potentially leading to irradiation of healthy tissue. The objective of the present work is to assess whether the chelate CHX-A''-DTPA (N-(2-aminoethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N',N''-pentaacetic acid) bound to a biological carrier molecule may be able to re-complex released (212)Bi under in vivo conditions to limit its translocation from the target site. CHX-A''-DTPA was bound to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) to mimic a model conjugate and the stability of the Bi-CHX-A''-DTPA-BGG conjugate was studied in blood serum by ultrafiltration. TRLFS experiments using Cm(III) as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that linking CHX-A''-DTPA to BGG does not affect the coordination properties of the ligand. Furthermore, comparable stability constants were observed between Bi(III) and free CHX-A''-DTPA, BGG-bound CHX-A''-DTPA and DTPA. The complexation constants determined between Bi(III) and the chelate molecules are sufficiently high to allow ultra trace amounts of the ligand to efficiently compete with serum transferrin controlling Bi(III) speciation in blood plasma conditions. Nevertheless, CHX-A''-DTPA is not able to complex Bi(III) generated in blood serum because of the strong competition between Bi(III) and Fe(II) for the ligand. In other words, CHX-A''-DTPA is not "selective" enough to limit Bi(iii) release in the body when applying the (212)Pb/(212)Bi in vivo generator. PMID:22678751

  3. Straightforward thiol-mediated protein labelling with DTPA: Synthesis of a highly active 111In-annexin A5-DTPA tracer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Annexin A5 (anxA5) has been found useful for molecular imaging of apoptosis and other biological processes. Methods Here, we report an optimised two-step synthesis of annexin A5-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) (anxA5-DTPA) for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with a single purification step. The use of a recombinant annexin A5 (cys-anxA5) with a single thiol group allowed regionally specific coupling, without affecting the binding domain of cys-anxA5. Results The metal complexing capacity of anxA5-DTPA was investigated by labelling with 111In3+ and Eu3+. Binding of modified anxA5-DTPA to apoptotic cells was tested in competition experiments with a fluorescent anxA5 derivative (anxA5-FITC) using flow cytometry and compared with that of wildtype anxA5 or non-binding anxA5-DTPA (M1234-anxA5-DTPA). The binding affinity to apoptotic cells of the anxA5-DTPA conjugate does not differ from that of wildtype anxA5. Conclusions This two-step synthesis of annexin A5-DTPA resulted in biologically active anxA5-DTPA, which can be labelled with radionuclides for use in SPECT and PET imaging. PMID:22541756

  4. Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanwoo; Kwon, Taekmin; Yoo, Sangjun; Jung, Jaeyoon; Lee, Chunwoo; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2016-05-01

    We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time. PMID:27134496

  5. Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time. PMID:27134496

  6. Spectroscopic studies on interaction of BSA and Eu(III) complexes with H5ph-dtpa and H5dtpa ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Deyong; Qin, Cui; Fan, Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    An novel aromatic aminopolycarboxylic acid ligand, N-(2-N,N-Dicarboxymethylaminophenyl) ethylenediamine-N,N‧,N‧-triacetic acid (H5ph-dtpa), was synthesized by improving experimental method and its corresponding Eu(III) complex, Na2[EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method. As a comparison, the Eu(III) complex with diethylenetriamine-N,N,N‧,N‧,N″-pentaacetic acid (H5dtpa) ligand, Na2[EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was also prepared by the same method. And then, the interaction between prepared Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution were studied by the combination of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. In addition, the binding sites of Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. Moreover, the theoretical and experimental results show that the Van der Waals, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interactions are the mainly impulse to the reaction. The binding distances (r) between Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and BSA were obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. Also, the determined UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the conformation of BSA could be changed in the presence of Eu(III) complexes. The obtained results can help understand the action mode between rare earth metal complexes of aminopolycarboxylic acid ligands with BSA and they are also expected to provide important information of designs of new inspired drugs.

  7. Tin-117m-labeled stannic (Sn/sup 4 +/) chelate of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for application in diagnosis and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Richards, P.

    1983-08-25

    The radiopharmaceutical reagents of this invention and the class of Tin-117m radiopharmaceuticals are therapeutic and diagnostic agents that incorporate gamma-emitting nuclides that localize in bone after intravenous injection in mammals (mice, rats, dogs, and rabbits). Images reflecting bone structure or function can then be obtained by a scintillation camera that detects the distribution of ionizing radiation emitted by the radioactive agent. Tin-117m-labeled chelates of stannic tin localize almost exclusively in cortical bone. Upon intravenous injection of the reagent, the preferred chelates are phosphonate compounds, preferable, PYP, MDP, EHDP, and DTPA. This class of reagents is therapeutically and diagnostically useful in skeletal scintigraphy and for the radiotherapy of bone tumors and other disorders.

  8. Influence of DTPA Treatment on Internal Dose Estimates.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Peleau, Bernadette; Correze, Philippe; Bohand, Sandra; Franck, Didier

    2016-06-01

    In case of internal contamination with plutonium materials, a treatment with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be administered in order to reduce plutonium body burden and consequently avoid some radiation dose. DTPA intravenous injections or inhalation can start almost immediately after intake, in parallel with urinary and fecal bioassay sampling for dosimetric follow-up. However, urine and feces excretion will be significantly enhanced by the DTPA treatment. As internal dose is calculated from bioassay results, the DTPA effect on excretion has to be taken into account. A common method to correct bioassay data is to divide it by a factor representing the excretion enhancement under DTPA treatment by intravenous injection. Its value may be based on a nominal reference or observed after a break in the treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of this factor on internal dose by comparing the dose estimated using default or upper and lower values of the enhancement factor for 11 contamination cases. The observed upper and lower values of the enhancement factor were 18.7 and 63.0 for plutonium and 24.9 and 28.8 for americium. For americium, a default factor of 25 is proposed. This work demonstrates that the use of a default DTPA enhancement factor allows the determination of the magnitude of the contamination because dose estimated could vary by a factor of 2 depending on the value of the individual DTPA enhancement factor. In case of significant intake, an individual enhancement factor should be determined to obtain a more reliable dose assessment. PMID:27115221

  9. A new approach to quantification of DTPA incorporation into monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled by the cyclic anhydride DTPA method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Alsedairy, S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-05-01

    A method for determining the ratio of DTPA molecules attached per molecule of Ab was developed and used to examine the immunoreactivity of different Abs as a function of the amount of incorporated DTPA. The bicyclic anhydride of DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (BADTPA-C-14) was synthesized by reacting DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (1mCi/mmo1) and acetic anhydride. BADTPA-C-14 then was reacted with a MoAb to a melanoma associated antigen (MA) and to a MoAb to human HLA class II antigen (HLA) at 2mg/m1 of MoAb concentration, at MoAb to BADTPA-C-14 ratios (mmo1/mmo1) of l:1, 1:10, 1:00, l:200. The conjugate was dialyzed exhaustively against HEPES at pH 7.0. The MoAb concentration was measured at 280mm of uv; the DTPA/MoAb ratio was calculated based on the specific activity of BADTPA-C-14, and the immunoreactivity was assessed by direct cell-binding to melanoma, the HLA antigen and control (lymphoma) cells. Percent binding to the lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. The authors' results demonstrated a method for directly determining the number of DTPA molecules attached to a MOAb, and demonstrated variations in immunoreactivity as the number of DTPA groups per MoAb is altered.

  10. Bifunctional DTPA-type ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Gansow, O.A.; Brechbiel, M.W.

    1990-03-26

    The subject matter of the invention relates to bifunctional cyclohexyl DTPA ligands and methods of using these compounds. Specifically, such ligands are useful for radiolabeling proteins with radioactive metals, and can consequently be utilized with respect to radioimmunoimaging and/or radioimmunotherapy.

  11. Tc-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal function reserve estimation: is it a reliable predictive tool for assessment of preclinical renal involvement in scleroderma patients?

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; El-Sayed, S; Taher, N; Sedki, M; Nasr, H

    2012-06-01

    Prognosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) depends on internal organ involvement. We assessed the value of renal function reserve (RFR) for the detection of preclinical nephropathy in scleroderma. Thirty SSc patients with normal serum creatinine and 30 healthy controls were included. Medsger disease severity score, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and microalbuminuria were measured. Tc-99m DTPA was utilized for GFR measurement at baseline and after oral protein overload (stimulated GFR). RFR was calculated as the percentile increase of stimulated GFR. SSc patients had lower means of baseline GFR (P=0.001), stimulated GFR (P=0.004), RFR (P=0.046), and higher microalbuminuria (P=0.009) than controls. According to baseline GFR, SSc patients showed three categories-normal baseline GFR (n=12), hyperfiltration GFR (n=3), and reduced baseline GFR (n=15). In the former category, RFR was normal in 6/12 patients and abnormal in the remainders (50%). Hyperfiltration patients and those with reduced baseline GFR showed abnormal RFR. A statistically significant negative association was found between microalbuminuria versus stimulated GFR and RFR (r= -0.5, P=0.007 and r= -0.45, P=0.013, respectively). The majority of SSc patients with abnormal RFR had disease duration of ≥48 months (60% vs. 20%, P=0.008). All SSc patients with pulmonary hypertension had abnormal RFR, while reduced baseline GFR was noted in only 60%. A significant negative correlation was found between reduced baseline GFR and cumulative dose of corticosteroids in SSc patients (r= -0.4, P=0.022). RFR estimation could be a useful predictive marker for preclinical renal involvement in SSc patients so that early prophylactic measures and therapy modifications could be considered. PMID:22362258

  12. Focal liver lesions detection and characterization: The advantages of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI

    PubMed Central

    Palmucci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Since its clinical introduction, several studies in literature have investigated gadolinium ethoxybenzhyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid or gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) properties. Following contrast injection, it provides dynamic vascular phases (arterial, portal and equilibrium phases) and hepatobiliary phase, the latter due to its uptake by functional hepatocytes. The main advantages of Gd-EOB-DTPA of focal liver lesion detection and characterization are discussed in this paper. Namely, we focus on the possibility of distinguishing focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatic adenoma (HA), the identification of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the pre-operative assessment of metastasis in liver parenchyma. Regarding the differentiation between FNH and HA, adenoma typically appears hypointense in hepatobiliary phase, whereas FNH is isointense or hyperintense to the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. As for the identification of early HCCs, many papers recently published in literature have emphasized the contribution of hepatobiliary phase in the characterization of nodules without a typical hallmark of HCC. Atypical nodules (no hypervascularizaton observed on arterial phase and/or no hypovascular appearance on portal phase) with low signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase, have a high probability of malignancy. Finally, regarding the evaluation of focal hepatic metastases, magnetic resonance pre-operative assessment using gadoxetic acid allows for more accurate diagnosis. PMID:25067999

  13. Optimization of time-resolved fluorescence assay for detection of europium-tetraazacyclododecyltetraacetic acid-labeled ligand-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Channa R; Vagner, Josef; Lynch, Ronald; Gillies, Robert J; Hruby, Victor J

    2010-03-01

    Lanthanide-based luminescent ligand binding assays are superior to traditional radiolabel assays due to improving sensitivity and affordability in high-throughput screening while eliminating the use of radioactivity. Despite significant progress using lanthanide(III)-coordinated chelators such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivatives, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassays (DELFIAs) have not yet been successfully used with more stable chelators (e.g., tetraazacyclododecyltetraacetic acid [DOTA] derivatives) due to the incomplete release of lanthanide(III) ions from the complex. Here a modified and optimized DELFIA procedure incorporating an acid treatment protocol is introduced for use with Eu(III)-DOTA-labeled peptides. Complete release of Eu(III) ions from DOTA-labeled ligands was observed using hydrochloric acid (2.0M) prior to the luminescent enhancement step. [Nle(4),d-Phe(7)]-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-alpha-MSH) labeled with Eu(III)-DOTA was synthesized, and the binding affinity to cells overexpressing the human melanocortin-4 (hMC4) receptor was evaluated using the modified protocol. Binding data indicate that the Eu(III)-DOTA-linked peptide bound to these cells with an affinity similar to its DTPA analogue. The modified DELFIA procedure was further used to monitor the binding of an Eu(III)-DOTA-labeled heterobivalent peptide to the cells expressing both hMC4 and cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptors. The modified assay provides superior results and is appropriate for high-throughput screening of ligand libraries. PMID:19852924

  14. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

  15. Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in transgenic mice by Gd-DTPA- and rhodamine 123-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles in T1 magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Watcharin, Waralee; Schmithals, Christian; Pleli, Thomas; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Hübner, Frank; Waidmann, Oliver; Zeuzem, Stefan; Korf, Horst-Werner; Terfort, Andreas; Gelperina, Svetlana; Vogl, Thomas J; Kreuter, Jörg; Piiper, Albrecht

    2015-02-10

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based contrast agents that enable high resolution anatomic T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offer the prospect of improving differential diagnosis of liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we investigated the possibility of employing novel non-toxic human serum albumin nanoparticles conjugated with Gd-DTPA and rhodamine 123 (Gd-Rho-HSA-NPs) for the detection of HCC by T1-weighted MRI. In addition, the influence of surface coating of the NPs with poloxamine 908, which alters the absorptive behavior of NPs and changes their distribution between the liver and tumor was examined. MRI of transgenic mice with endogenously formed HCCs following intravenous injection of Gd-Rho-HSA-NPs revealed a strong negative contrast of the tumors. Contrasting of the HCCs by NP-enhanced MRI required less Gd as compared to gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI, which currently provides the most sensitive detection of HCC in patients. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the Gd-Rho-HSA-NPs were localized to macrophages, which were - similar to HCC in patients - fewer in number in HCC as compared to the liver tissue, which is in agreement with the negative contrasting of HCC in Gd-Rho-HSA-NP-enhanced MRI. Poloxamine-coated NPs showed lower accumulation in the tumor macrophages and caused a longer lasting enhancement of the MRI signal. These data indicate that Gd-Rho-HSA-NPs enable sensitive detection of HCC by T1-weighted MRI in mice with endogenous HCC through their uptake by macrophages. Poloxamine coating of the NPs delayed the tumor localization of the NPs. PMID:25499552

  16. Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants for recovering transuranic elements from irradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2009-10-14

    Advanced concepts for closing the nuclear fuel cycle include separating Am and Cm from other fuel components. Separating these elements from the lanthanide elements at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge. We describe here a chemical system in which a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO)--is combined with an acidic extractant--bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent (with dodecane as the diluent) for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. Continuous variation experiments in which the relative CMPO and HDEHP concentrations are varied indicate a synergistic relationship between the two extractants in the extraction of Am from buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solutions. A solvent mixture consisting or 0.1 M CMPO + 1 M HDEHP in dodecane offers acceptable extraction efficiency for the trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 1 M HNO3 while maintaining good lanthanide/actinide separation factors in the stripping regime (buffered DTPA solutions with pH 3.5 to 4). Using citrate buffer instead of lactate buffer results in improved lanthanide/actinide separation factors.

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF LANTHANIDE AND ACTINIDE ELEMENTS BETWEEN BIS-(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHOSPHORIC ACID AND BUFFERED LACTATE SOLUTIONS CONTAINING SELECTED COMPLEXANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, Tracy S.; Diprete, David P.; Thompson, Major C.

    2013-04-15

    With the renewed interest in the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, the TALSPEAK process is being considered for the separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanide fission products in a next generation reprocessing plant. However, an efficient separation requires tight control of the pH which likely will be difficult to achieve on a large scale. To address this issue, we measured the distribution of lanthanide and actinide elements between aqueous and organic phases in the presence of complexants which were potentially less sensitive to pH control than the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA) used in the process. To perform the extractions, a rapid and accurate method was developed for measuring distribution coefficients based on the preparation of lanthanide tracers in the Savannah River National Laboratory neutron activation analysis facility. The complexants tested included aceto-, benzo-, and salicylhydroxamic acids, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN). The hydroxamic acids were the least effective of the complexants tested. The separation factors for TPEN and NH{sub 4}SCN were higher, especially for the heaviest lanthanides in the series; however, no conditions were identified which resulted in separations factors which consistently approached those measured for the use of DTPA.

  18. Comparison of the biodistribution of manganese-54 DTPA and gadolinium-153 DTPA in dogs.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, R J; Burbidge, S; Sirr, S; Loken, M K

    1987-03-01

    The biodistribution of [54Mn]DTPA and [153Gd]DTPA dimeglumine were investigated and compared following i.v. administration to fasting anesthetized dogs. Unlike most previously reported metal ion-DTPA complexes, [54Mn]DTPA showed high uptakes in several organs including the liver, bile, pancreas, bowel, and kidney. This uptake was independent of the pH of the injected solution. Accumulation in these organs suggests a potential role for [Mn]DTPA as a paramagnetic contrast agent for NMR imaging. With the exception of the kidneys, [153Gd]DTPA showed no evidence of tissue specific uptake over the course of 4 hr, consistent with it being an extracellular ion that is cleared by glomerular filtration. PMID:3819851

  19. Comparison of the biodistribution of manganese-54 DTPA and gadolinium-153 DTPA in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, R.J.; Burbidge, S.; Sirr, S.; Loken, M.K.

    1987-03-01

    The biodistribution of (/sup 54/Mn)DTPA and (/sup 153/Gd)DTPA dimeglumine were investigated and compared following i.v. administration to fasting anesthetized dogs. Unlike most previously reported metal ion-DTPA complexes, (/sup 54/Mn)DTPA showed high uptakes in several organs including the liver, bile, pancreas, bowel, and kidney. This uptake was independent of the pH of the injected solution. Accumulation in these organs suggests a potential role for (Mn)DTPA as a paramagnetic contrast agent for NMR imaging. With the exception of the kidneys, (/sup 153/Gd)DTPA showed no evidence of tissue specific uptake over the course of 4 hr, consistent with it being an extracellular ion that is cleared by glomerular filtration.

  20. An Evaluation of the Chelating Agent EDDS for Marigold Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) ligands (chelating agents) like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to plants. The offsite runoff and contamina...

  1. Diglycolamic acid modified silica gel for the separation of hazardous trivalent metal ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Suneesh, A S; Syamala, K V; Venkatesan, K A; Antony, M P; Vasudeva Rao, P R

    2015-01-15

    The surface of the silica gel was modified with diglycolamic acid moieties and the product (Si-DGAH) was characterized by elemental analysis, TG-DTA, (1)H and (29)Si NMR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption behavior of hazardous americium (III) and europium (III) in Si-DGAH was studied from aqueous nitric acid medium to examine the feasibility using the modified silica for the separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) from aqueous wastes. In this context, the effect of various parameters such as the duration of equilibration, and concentrations of europium, nitric acid, sodium nitrate and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in aqueous phase, on the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of Am(III) and Eu(III) was investigated. The distribution coefficient of ∼10(3) mL/g (>99.9% extraction) was obtained for both Am(III) and Eu(III) at pH 3, and the K(d) values decreased with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. Rapid kinetics of extraction in the initial stages of equilibration, followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurred within 30 min. The extraction data were fitted into Langmuir adsorption model and the apparent europium extraction capacity was determined. Europium loading capacity of the sorbent was determined at various feed pH by column method. The study indicated the possibility of using diglycolamic acid-modified silica for the separation of Eu(III) and Am(III) from aqueous wastes. PMID:25454425

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of novel polysaccharide-Gd-DTPA compounds as contrast agent for MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Jing, Fengying; Pei, Fengkui; Liu, Maili

    2003-09-01

    Macromolecular conjugates of two kinds of natural polysaccharides, that from Panax quinquefolium linn (PQPS) and Ganoderma applanatum pat (GAPS), with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) have been synthesized and characterized by means of FTIR, elementary analysis and ICP-AES. Their stability was investigated by competition study with Ca 2+, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and DTPA. Polysaccharide-bound complexes exhibit T1 relaxivities of 1.5-1.7 times that of Gd-DTPA in D 2O at 25°C and 9.4 T. MR imaging of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver and kidney after i.v. injection of these two complexes: liver parenchyma 60.9±5.6%, 57.8±7.4% at 65-85 min; kidney 144.9±14.5%, 199.9±25.4% at 10-30 min for PQPS-Gd-DTPA, GAPS-Gd-DTPA at gadolinium dose of 0.083 and 0.082 mmol/kg, respectively. Our preliminary in vivo and in vitro study indicates that the two kinds of polysaccharide-bound complexes are potential tissue-specific contrast agents for MRI.

  3. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for bile duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi-Hong; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). METHODS: The imaging findings of five cases of IPMN-B which were pathologically confirmed at our hospital between March 2012 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Three of these cases were diagnosed by duodenal endoscopy and biopsy pathology, and two cases were diagnosed by surgical pathology. All five patients underwent enhanced and non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI; one case underwent both Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and positron emission tomography-CT. The clinical data and imaging results for these cases were compared and are presented. RESULTS: Conventional imaging showed diffuse dilatation of bile ducts and multiple intraductal polypoid and papillary neoplasms or serrated changes along the bile ducts. In two cases, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed dilated biliary ducts and intraductal tumors, as well as filling defects caused by mucin in the dilated bile ducts in the hepatobiliary phase. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in one case clearly showed a low-signal tumor in the hepatobiliary phase, similar to what was seen by positron emission tomography-CT. In two patients, routine inspection was unable to discern whether the lesions were inflammation or tumors. However, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed a pattern of gradual enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, and the signal intensity of the lesions was lower than the surrounding liver parenchyma, suggesting tissue inflammation in both cases, which were confirmed by surgical pathology. CONCLUSION: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI reveals the intraductal mucin component of IPMN-B in some cases and the extent of tumor infiltration beyond the bile ducts in invasive cases. PMID:26167082

  4. Neurofibromas: location by scanning with Tc-99m DTPA. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-12-01

    The accumulation of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) in benign soft-tissue neurofibromatosis tumors is reported. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, 28 sites of abnormal soft-tissue localization of the isotope observed scintigraphically were documented to be sites of soft-tissue tumor by clinical and/or radiographic (predominantly computed tomographic) correlations. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-cm subcutaneous neurofibroma. Normal physiologic nonrenal distribution of the Tc-99m DTPA was established by scintigraphic imaging of a control population.

  5. COMBINING NEUTRAL AND ACIDIC EXTRACTANTS FOR RECOVERING TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Neiner, Doinita; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Latesky, Stanley; Gelis, Artem V.; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2011-10-03

    We have been investigating a solvent extraction system that combines a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO)--with an acidic extractant--bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. It was originally hypothesized that the extraction chemistry of CMPO would dominate under conditions of high acidity (> 1 M HNO3), resulting in co-extraction of the transuranic and lanthanide elements into the organic phase. Contacting the loaded solvent with a solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) buffered with lactic or citric acid at pH {approx}3 to 4 would result in a condition in which the HDEHP chemistry dominates. Although the data somewhat support this hypothesis, it is clear that there are interactions between the two extractants such that they do not act independently in the extraction and stripping regimes. We report here studies directed at determining the nature and extent of interaction between CMPO and HDEHP, the synergistic behavior of CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of americium and neodymium, and progress towards determining the thermodynamics of this extraction system. Neodymium and americium behave similarly in the combined solvent system, with a significant synergy between CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of both of these trivalent elements from lactate-buffered DTPA solutions. In contrast, a much weaker synergistic behaviour is observed for europium. Thus, investigations into the fundamental chemistry involved in this system have focused on the neodymium extraction. The extraction of neodymium has been systematically investigated, individually varying the HDEHP concentration, the CMPO concentration, or the aqueous phase composition. Thermodynamic modeling of the neodymium extraction system has been initiated. Interactions between CMPO and HDEHP in the organic phase must be taken into account in

  6. ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide, a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors: Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vitro validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Albert, R.; Bruns, C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Hofland, L.J.; Marbach, P.; Pless, J.; Pralet, D.; Stolz, B.; Koper, J.W.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P. Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    As starting material for a potentially convenient radiopharmaceutical, a diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated derivative of octreotide (SMS 201-995) was prepared. This peptide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide (SDZ 215-811) binds more than 95% of added {sup 111}In in an easy, single-step labeling procedure without necessity of further purification. The specific somatostatin-like biologic effect of these analogues was proven by the inhibition of growth hormone secretion by cultured rat pituitary cells in a dose-dependent fashion by octreotide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide and non-radioactive ({sup 115}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide. The binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to rat brain cortex membranes proved to be displaced similarly by natural somatosatin as well as by octreotide, suggesting specific binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to somatostatin receptors. The binding of the indium-labeled compound showed a somewhat lower affinity when compared with the iodinated (Tyr{sup 3})-octreotide, but indium-labeled (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide still binds with nanomolar affinity. In conjunction with in vivo studies, these results suggest that ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a promising radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.

  7. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin. [Diagnostic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P; Oster, Z H; Fairchild, R G; Atkins, H L; Brill, A B; Gil, M C; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E; Goldman, A G; Richards, P

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image. (ERB)

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Reperfused Myocardial Infarction: Intraindividual Comparison of ECIII-60 and Gd-DTPA in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiyang; Teng Gaojun; Feng Yi; Wu Yanping; Jin Qindi; Wang Yu; Wang Zhen; Lu Qin; Jiang Yibo; Wang Shengqi; Chen Feng; Marchal, Guy; Ni Yicheng

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To compare a necrosis-avid contrast agent (NACA) bis-Gd-DTPA-pamoic acid derivative (ECIII-60) after intracoronary delivery with an extracellular agent Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a swine model of acute reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. Eight pigs underwent 90 min of transcatheter coronary balloon occlusion and 60 min of reperfusion. After intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA at a dose of 0.2 mmol/kg, all pigs were scanned with T1-weighted MRI until the delayed enhancement of MI disappeared. Then they were intracoronarily infused with ECIII-60 at 0.0025 mmol/kg and imaged for 5 hr. Signal intensity, infarct-over-normal contrast ratio and relative infarct size were quantified, compared, and correlated with the results of postmortem MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining. Results. A contrast ratio over 3.0 was induced by both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60. However, while the delayed enhancement with Gd-DTPA virtually vanished in 1 hr, ECIII-60 at an 80x smaller dose depicted the MI accurately over 5 hr as proven by ex vivo MRI and TTC staining. Conclusion. Both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60 strongly enhanced acute MI. Comparing with fading contrast in a narrow time window with intravenous Gd-DTPA, intracoronary ECIII-60 persistently demarcated the acute MI, indicating a potential method for postprocedural assessment of myocardial viability after coronary interventions.

  9. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Mroue, Kamal H; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H; Morris, Michael D; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA=Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the (1)H T1 values were calculated from data collected by (1)H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the (1)H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the (13)C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from (13)C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using (1)H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. PMID:24881032

  10. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans.

  11. Acceleration of Natural-Abundance Solid-State MAS NMR Measurements on Bone by Paramagnetic Relaxation from Gadolinium-DTPA

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. PMID:24881032

  12. Self-assembly of SiO2/Gd-DTPA-polyethylenimine nanocomposites as magnetic resonance imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kui; Tian, Jing; Liu, Gang; Sun, Jiayu; Xia, Chunchao; Tang, Hehan; Lin, Ling; Miao, Tianxin; Zhao, Xuna; Gao, Fabao; Gong, Qiyong; Song, Bin; Shuai, Xintao; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2010-01-01

    Controlled self-assembly of organic/inorganic magnetic hybrid materials have important applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, a widely used polycation polyethylenimine was conjugated with gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a gadolinium bearing polyelectrolyte (Gd-DTPA-PEI). Next, multilayers of Gd-DTPA-PEI were coated on silica nanoparticles through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly with polyanions as monitored by dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential, and scanning electron microscopy. The thickness of the multilayer film was estimated from quartz crystal microbalance based on counting frequency change of each adsorbed layer. The magnetic relaxation of SiO2/(Gd-DTPA-PEl/polyanion), core-shell nanocomposite was tested at 1.5 T magnetic field in a clinical MRI scanner, and a 3-fold increase in T1 relaxivity to 15.1 Gd mM(-1)s(-1) was noticed comparing to Gd-DTPA small molecules. Dextran sulfate was coated as the outermost layer on the nanocomposite for better biocompatibility as verified by in vitro cytotoxicity studies. This formulation provides good signal intensity enhancement of mouse liver in vivo with only 1/25 dose of clinical standard at 30 and 60 minutes after intravenous injection. This sensitive imaging probe with unique core-shell structures may find broad applications in cellular and molecular imaging. PMID:20352889

  13. Detection of Superior Vena Cava Obstruction on Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA Renal Transplant Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Hashemifard, Hamidreza; Assadi, Majid

    2016-02-01

    We present an asymptomatic patient with a history of prolonged hemodialysis through a right internal jugular vein catheter who was diagnosed with superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction on 99mTechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal transplant scintigraphy. During the angiographic phase, an unusual vascular filling pattern was detected on the anterior view of the abdomen. Angioscintigraphic imaging of the chest wall was suggestive of SVC obstruction. The SVC obstruction in our patient was related to the long-term use of an indwelling catheter in the central venous system, which is a well-known complication of such a procedure. There is also evidence of a hypercoagulable state in dialyzed uremic cases; therefore, our patient may have been more susceptible to an SVC thrombosis. Acquired compensatory dilatation of the azygos vein is rather a rare finding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing an asymptomatic patient with SVC obstruction who was diagnosed by renal scintigraphy. PMID:27299287

  14. [3D-MR-angiography using Gd-DTPA].

    PubMed

    Seiderer, M; Bauer, W M; Villringer, A; Einhäupl, K

    1990-03-01

    Projection angiograms similar to DSA can be obtained via 3D-gradient echo techniques by subtraction of data sets acquired before and after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1-0.2 mmol/kg body weight). As Gd-DTPA does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, image subtraction results in complete cancellation of non vascular tissue. In organs without blood-brain barrier Gd-DTPA induced signal enhancement results in modest background superposition of vascular anatomy. With Gd-DTPA angiography vessels are imaged favouring the venous system because of the more constant flow velocity and the lack of ECG synchronization. Gd-DTPA angiography results in high signal-to-noise angiograms and can even be performed with MR imagers which do not meet the hardware requirements for angiography based on flow compensated gradients. PMID:2157258

  15. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake. PMID:26606066

  16. Coupling Gd-DTPA with a bispecific, recombinant protein anti-EGFR-iRGD complex improves tumor targeting in MRI

    PubMed Central

    XIN, XIAOYAN; SHA, HUIZI; SHEN, JINGTAO; ZHANG, BING; ZHU, BIN; LIU, BAORUI

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (anti-EGFR single-domain antibody fused with iRGD peptide) protein efficiently targets the EGFR extracellular domain and integrin αvβ/β5, and shows a high penetration into cells. Thus, this protein may improve penetration of conjugated drugs into the deep zone of gastric cancer multicellular 3D spheroids. In the present study, a novel tumor-targeting contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed, by coupling gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) with the bispecific recombinant anti-EGFR-iRGD protein. The anti-EGFR-iRGD protein was extracted from Escherichia coli and Gd was loaded onto the recombinant protein by chelation using DTPA anhydride. Single-targeting agent anti-EGFR-DTPA-Gd, which served as the control, was also prepared. The results of the present study showed that anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd exhibited no significant cyto toxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC-823) under the experimental conditions used. Compared with a conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd showed higher T1 relaxivity (10.157/mM/sec at 3T) and better tumor-targeting ability. In addition, the signal intensity and the area under curve for the enhanced signal time in tumor, in vivo, were stronger than Gd-DTPA alone or the anti-EGFR-Gd control. Thus, Gd-labelled anti-EGFR-iRGD has potential as a tumor-targeting contrast agent for improved MRI. PMID:27035336

  17. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA biokinetic model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern, where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day treatment series of DTPA treatments for wounds.more » Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. Furthermore, the Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides, and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.« less

  18. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA biokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern, where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day treatment series of DTPA treatments for wounds. Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. Furthermore, the Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides, and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.

  19. Radiation absorbed dose from technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.; Zanelli, G.D.; Veall, N.

    1987-02-01

    The whole-body retention of intravenously administered (99mTc)DTPA was measured by urine analysis and whole-body counting in eight normal subjects. On average, the elimination of (99mTc)DTPA was faster in these subjects than in 11 patients under study for hypertension whose whole-body retention data were used in MIRD Dose Estimate Report No. 12. The average residence time for (99mTc)DTPA in total body, less bladder contents, was only 65% of the MIRD value. However, despite this difference, the dosimetry is similar in both cases largely owing to the influence of radioactivity in bladder contents. Approximately 2-3% of the administered radioactivity was retained in the body for a time that was long relative to the physical half-life of 99mTc, and probably reflects a small amount of protein binding of the DTPA preparation.

  20. Nile Red Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Surface Modified with Gd-DTPA for Potential Dual-Modal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinqin; Li, Chenglin; Tong, Weijun

    2016-06-01

    Here, a novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging was developed for cell imaging. PLGA NPs loaded with fluorescent dye Nile red (NR) and surface-coated with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) were produced in a single step nanoprecipitation process. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic dianhydride (DTPA) was conjugated to PLGA/NR@PEI NPs through amidation reaction between -COOH of DTPA and -NH2 of PEI, which can chelate gadolinium (Gd3+) as an MR imaging contrast agent. The PLGA/NR@PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs exhibited a uniform particle size of -200 nm and were stable in culture medium. These NPs had a high T relaxivity (R1) of 28.36 mM(-1)S(-1). They did not introduce serious cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, fluorescence and MR imaging studies on A549 lung cancer cells in vitro revealed that PLGA/NR@PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs can serve as an efficient fluorescence/MR dual-modality imaging nanoprobe. PMID:27427598

  1. Leaching and efficiency of six organic zinc fertilizers applied to navy bean crop grown in a weakly acidic soil of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, D; Novillo, J; Rico, M I; Alvarez, J M

    2008-05-14

    Zinc contamination of groundwater from fertilizers applied to pulse crops is a potential problem, but the use of different types of organic chelates can minimize the contamination potential while still adequately feeding the crops. The objective of this study was to compare the leaching, distribution in fractions and availability, and relative effectiveness of Zn from six organic Zn fertilizers (zinc-ethylenediaminetetraacetate- N-2-hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetate (Zn-EDTA-HEDTA), Zn-HEDTA, zinc- S, S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinate (Zn- S, S-EDDS), zinc-polyhydroxyphenylcarboxylate, Zn-EDTA, and zinc-ethylenediaminedi(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate) (Zn-EDDHSA)) applied to a navy bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crop cultivated by applying different Zn levels, in a weakly acidic soil under greenhouse conditions. Zinc soil behavior was evaluated by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-triethanolamine (DTPA-TEA), DTPA-ammonium bicarbonate (DTPA-AB), Mehlich-3, and BaCl 2 extractions and sequential fractionation. In all the fertilizer treatments, the percentage of labile Zn that remained in the soil was high with respect to the quantity of Zn applied, with values respectively ranging from 42 to 80% for Zn-EDDHSA and Zn-EDTA sources. A positive correlation with a high level of significance existed between the micronutrient concentration in the navy bean crop (total and soluble) and labile Zn fractions, available Zn, and easily leachable Zn ( r ranged from 0.89 to 0.95, P < 0.0001). The relatively high quantity of total Zn leached by applying Zn-EDTA and Zn-S,S-EDDS sources (11.9 and 6.0%, respectively, for the rate 10 mg of Zn kg(-1) of soil) poses a potential pollution risk for neighboring waters. It would seem recommendable to apply Zn-HEDTA or Zn-EDDHSA sources, even applied at the low rate (5 mg of Zn kg(-1) of soil), because they produced available Zn concentrations in the soil that were above the critical concentration and also produced high Zn concentrations in

  2. Improved labelling of DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated peptides and antibodies with 111In in HEPES and MES buffer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], high specific activity of 111In-labelled tracers will allow administration of low amounts of tracer to prevent receptor saturation and/or side effects. To increase the specific activity, we studied the effect of the buffer used during the labelling procedure: NaAc, NH4Ac, HEPES and MES buffer. The effect of the ageing of the 111InCl3 stock and cadmium contamination, the decay product of 111In, was also examined in these buffers. Methods Escalating amounts of 111InCl3 were added to 1 μg of the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [DTPA]- and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA]-conjugated compounds (exendin-3, octreotide and anti-carbonic anhydrase IX [CAIX] antibody). Five volumes of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid [MES], 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid [HEPES], NH4Ac or NaAc (0.1 M, pH 5.5) were added. After 20 min at 20°C (DTPA-conjugated compounds), at 95°C (DOTA-exendin-3 and DOTA-octreotide) or at 45°C (DOTA-anti-CAIX antibody), the labelling efficiency was determined by instant thin layer chromatography. The effect of the ageing of the 111InCl3 stock on the labelling efficiency of DTPA-exendin-3 as well as the effect of increasing concentrations of Cd2+ (the decay product of 111In) were also examined. Results Specific activities obtained for DTPA-octreotide and DOTA-anti-CAIX antibody were five times higher in MES and HEPES buffer. Radiolabelling of DTPA-exendin-3, DOTA-exendin-3 and DTPA-anti-CAIX antibody in MES and HEPES buffer resulted in twofold higher specific activities than that in NaAc and NH4Ac. Labelling of DTPA-exendin-3 decreased with 66% and 73% for NaAc and NH4Ac, respectively, at day 11 after the production date of 111InCl3, while for MES and HEPES, the maximal decrease in the specific activity was 10% and 4% at day 11, respectively. The presence of 1 pM Cd2+ in the labelling mixture of DTPA-exendin-3 in NaAc and NH4Ac

  3. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD.

  4. Comparison of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA aerosol clearances in humans. Effects of smoking, hyperinflation, and in vitro oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nolop, K.B.; Maxwell, D.L.; Fleming, J.S.; Braude, S.; Hughes, J.M.; Royston, D.

    1987-11-01

    As an index of permeability of the alveolar epithelium, the clearance of an inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is increased in several disease states. However, the usefulness of the test to assess the severity of disease is limited because healthy smokers also have abnormally rapid rates of clearance. Because the stability of the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA bond might be a contributory factor, we tested the affinity of /sup 99m/Tc for DTPA in vitro, and in groups of healthy smokers (n = 13) and nonsmokers (n = 7) we measured the clearances of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA, which have a similar molecular shape and charge. In vitro, sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide released as much as 98% of free /sup 99m/Tc from the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA complex. When incubated with human neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, between 4 and 7% of free /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was released after 30 min, and 12% was released after 60 min. In vivo, the clearances of both /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA in the smokers (n = 13) were faster than in the nonsmokers (n = 7) (p less than 0.05). Within the smokers, the mean /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance (T1/2 25 +/- 4 min) was faster than the mean /sup 113m/In-DTPA clearance (34 +/- 6 min), (p less than 0.05). For nonsmokers, the difference was smaller (T1/2 /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA, 56 +/- 6; T1/2 /sup 113m/In-DTPA, 62 +/- 6) and not significant. During hyperinflation, smokers (n = 8) and nonsmokers (n = 8) both demonstrated an increase in /sup 113m/In-DTPA clearance.

  5. The MRI-measured arterial input function resulting from a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA in a rat model of stroke slightly underestimates that of Gd-[14C]DTPA and marginally overestimates the blood-to-brain influx rate constant determined by Patlak plots.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Karki, Kishor; Ewing, James R; Divine, George W; Fenstermacher, Joseph D; Patlak, Clifford S; Knight, Robert A

    2010-06-01

    The hypothesis that the arterial input function (AIF) of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid injected by intravenous bolus and measured by the change in the T(1)-relaxation rate (Delta R(1); R(1) = 1/T(1)) of superior sagittal sinus blood (AIF-I) approximates the AIF of (14)C-labeled gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid measured in arterial blood (reference AIF) was tested in a rat stroke model (n = 13). Contrary to the hypothesis, the initial part of the Delta R(1)-time curve was underestimated, and the area under the normalized curve for AIF-I was about 15% lower than that for the reference AIF. Hypothetical AIFs for gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid were derived from the reference AIF values and averaged to obtain a cohort-averaged AIF. Influx rate constants (K(i)) and proton distribution volumes at zero time (V(p) + V(o)) were estimated with Patlak plots of AIF-I, hypothetical AIFs, and cohort-averaged AIFs and tissue Delta R(1) data. For the regions of interest, the K(i)s estimated with AIF-I were slightly but not significantly higher than those obtained with hypothetical AIFs and cohort-averaged AIF. In contrast, V(p) + V(o) was significantly higher when calculated with AIF-I. Similar estimates of K(i) and V(p) + V(o) were obtained with hypothetical AIFs and cohort-averaged AIF. In summary, AIF-I underestimated the reference AIF; this shortcoming had little effect on the K(i) calculated by Patlak plot but produced a significant overestimation of V(p) + V(o). PMID:20512853

  6. Synthesis of a novel antiestrogen radioligand (99mTc-TOR-DTPA).

    PubMed

    Yurt, Ayfer; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut B; Unak, Perihan; Yolcular, Seniha; Acar, Cigdem; Enginar, Huseyin

    2009-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing a hydrophilic radioligand as an antiestrogen drug derivative to be used for imaging breast tumors. Toremifene [TOR; 4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-(4-(2-(N,N-di-methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-1-butene, as citrate salt] was selected as the starting material to be derived, since it has been used extensively as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. An antiestrogen drug derivative, TOR attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), was synthesized by two experimental treatments, including a purification and a reaction step. We described the synthesis of this TOR derivative, (3Z)-4-{4-[2-(dimethylamino) ethoxy] phenyl}-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ylN,N-bis[2-(2,6-dioxomorpholin-4-yl)ethyl]glycinate (TOR-DTPA), in detail. Mass spectroscopy confirmed the expected structures. TOR-DTPA was labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), using stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) as the reducing agent. Biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. Quality controls, radiochemical yield, and stability studies were done utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, radioelectrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, and thin-layer radiochromatography methods. The synthesized compound was found to be hydrophilic and anionic, with high stability for the duration of the testing period in vitro. The results indicated that the radiolabeled compound has estrogen-receptor specificity, especially for the breast tissue. It is highly possible that this compound could be used for imaging breast tumors as a novel technetium-labeled hydrophilic estrogen derivative radioligand. PMID:20025551

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.

  8. Induction of Bordetella pertussis-specific immune memory by DTPa vaccines.

    PubMed

    Morel, Sandra; Denoël, Philippe; Godfroid, Fabrice; Cortvrindt, Caroline; Vanderheyde, Nathalie; Poolman, Jan

    2011-04-18

    Several vaccines are available against pertussis, differing by the number of Bordetella pertussis antigens that they contain as well as their formulation. The GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK Bio) tricomponent DTPa vaccine (DTPa3, Infanrix™), and the Sanofi-Pasteur (SP) five-component formulation (DTPa5, Pediacel™) were shown to have comparable short-term efficacy in clinical trials. However, potential differences in long-term protection were recently suggested, which might reflect the elicitation of different specific immune memory by the two vaccines. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate in mice the immune responses against B. pertussis, and particularly the establishment of specific B cell memory after immunization with DTPa3 and DTPa5 vaccines. Whereas intranasal challenge experiments showed similar protection with both vaccines, DTPa3 induced higher antibody levels to FHA and PRN than DTPa5. Further, the frequency of memory B cells was investigated by B cell ELISPOT. Higher frequencies of PT- and PRN-specific memory B cells were evidenced after vaccination with DTPa3, compared with DTPa5. Although the origin of such difference is unclear, the use of two different adjuvants (aluminum phosphate versus hydroxide) is proposed as a possible explanation. In conclusion, this study proposes that the induction of higher levels of B. pertussis antigen-specific memory B cells with DTPa3 participate to the suggested longer persistence of protection observed with this vaccine, as compared with DTPa5. PMID:21382483

  9. Synthesis, DTPA coupling and radio labeling of cationic aminodextran

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Schneider, R.F.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.; Lyons, B.J.; Roskopf, M.

    1984-01-01

    In glomerular diseases, the normal anionic charge of the basement membrane is lost at an early stage. Glomerular damage in rats has been detected more readily with cationic dextrans than with inulin. Hence, the authors attempted to demonstrate this phenomenon in vivo in rats with labeled cationic dextran. Aminated Dextran (AMDEX) was prepared by treating Dextran(mol. wt approx. = 15k) with sodium methoxide followed by a bromethylamine HBr in DMSO resulting in 10-25 aminogroups per mole. DTPA cyclic dianhydride was coupled to AMDEX using a weight ratio of 1:10 in 0.2 - 1.0 ml 0.42 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4. Free DTPA was removed by gel filtration (Sephadex P6DG) or by using Centricon-10 (AMICON) centrifugal microconcentrators. AMDEX coupled with DTPA was labeled with Indium-111 in 0.25 M acetate buffer. Labeling yields were >90% by gel chromatography and electrophoresis (pH8.2 Barbitol buffer). AMEXDTPA was labeled also by ligand exchange with Tc-99m-Sn-citrate at neutral pH with a labeling yield of 30%. On electrophoresis, all the labeled samples retained their cationic character. The distribution of purified In-111 AMDEX, was compared with simultaneously IV injected Tc-99m DTPA in rats. The 2 hour urinary excretion, and renal clearance (calculated from the biexponential plasma clearance) were slower (70 to 80%) than those of DTPA, due to the larger molecular size of AMDEX. By 1 hr., 5% of the administered activity was retained in each kidney, probably due to adherence to anionic binding sites.

  10. The preliminary evaluation of Mn DTPA as a potential contrast agent for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, R J; Frick, M P; Levey, R M; Lund, G; Sirr, S A; Loken, M K

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 54Mn administered as Mn-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) are being investigated to determine if tissue-specific uptake of manganese could be observed while increasing urinary excretion. This chelation and increased excretion should reduce toxicity. In order to obviate the need for repetitive quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) we have substituted tracer amounts of a radioisotope of manganese, Mn-54, for the stable ion. By 6 hours, 58 +/- 7% of the injected dose had been excreted in the urine. Peak liver accumulation occurred within 30 minutes (0.50 +/- 0.14% injected dose/g X kg body weight). The pancreas also showed a relatively high accumulation of tracer (0.25 +/- 0.04%/g X kg body weight), reaching a peak at 4 hours. The pancreas to liver ratios were highest at 6 hours (0.7). There was also a substantial accumulation of the manganese in bile. The blood concentration fell very rapidly with little tracer remaining in the blood at 1 hour. Based on these pharmacokinetics, imaging experiments were conducted before, immediately after, and 9 or 24 hours postinjection. These images showed enhanced kidneys and, later (at 9 hours), an excellent parenchymal-collecting system differentiation. The gallbladder was negatively enhanced. The liver showed either increased or decreased signal strength relative to skeletal muscle depending on the pulse sequence used. We conclude that Mn++, administered as Mn-DTPA, merits further investigation as an NMR contrast agent. PMID:3451753

  11. On the use of speciation techniques and ab initio modelling to understand tetravalent actinide behavior in a biological medium: An(IV)DTPA case.

    PubMed

    Aupiais, J; Bonin, L; Den Auwer, C; Moisy, P; Siberchicot, B; Topin, S

    2016-03-01

    In the case of an accidental nuclear event, contamination of human bodies by actinide elements may occur. Such elements have the particularity to exhibit both radiological and chemical toxicities that may induce severe damages at several levels, depending on the biokinetics of the element. In order to eliminate the actinide elements before they are stored in target organs (liver, kidneys, or bone, depending on the element), sequestering agents must be quickly injected. However, to date, there is still no ideal sequestering agent, despite the recent interest in this topic due to contamination concerns. DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) is currently generating interest for the development of oral or alternative self-administrable forms. Although biokinetics data are mostly available, molecular scale characterization of actinide-DTPA complexes is still scarce. Nevertheless, strong interest is growing in the characterization of An(IV)DTPA(-) complexes at the molecular level because this opens the way for predicting the stability constants of unknown systems or even for developing new analytical strategies aimed at better and more selective decorporation. For this purpose, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) investigations were undertaken and compared with capillary electrophoresis (CE) used in a very unusual way. Indeed, it is commonly believed that CE is incapable of extracting structural information. In capillary electrophoresis, the electrophoretic mobility of an ion is a function of its charge and size. Despite very similar ratios, partial separations between An(IV)DTPA(-) species (An(IV) = Th, U, Np, Pu) were obtained. A linear relationship between the electrophoretic mobility and the actinide--oxygen distance calculated by AIMD was evidenced. As an example, the interpolated U-O distances in U(IV)DTPA(-) from CE-ICPMS experiments, EXAFS, AIMD, and the relationship between the stability constants and

  12. Effect of DTPA on Cd solubility in soil--accumulation and subsequent toxicity to lettuce.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Faisal; Rashid, Audil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2013-02-01

    In a controlled environment experiment, using Cd spiked soil, lettuce plants were grown under a range of DTPA levels and were subsequently harvested to determine levels of phytoaccumulation. Cadmium phytoaccumulation significantly increased with increasing soil Cd level (P<0.05) but unexpectedly decreased with increasing DTPA levels, despite the fact that solubility of Cd was increased in the soil. Cadmium translocation (from root to shoot) increased after DTPA application. Lettuce growth was inhibited by both Cd and DTPA (at and above 10 and 500 mg kg(-1) respectively), as a result of higher Cd mobility and subsequent toxicity which was caused by DTPA higher dosages. Metal solubility in the soil (ranged between 2.8 and 26.5 mg kg(-1)) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.01) as compared to control with increasing DTPA levels even after 3 months of DTPA application. Cadmium tissue concentration in all DTPA treatments was less than in the corresponding control treatment, indicating a negative effect of DTPA application on Cd uptake. In conclusion, lettuce was an unsuitable plant species for Cd accumulation, at least when associated with a DTPA chelator. PMID:23040648

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and relaxivity of two linear Gd(DTPA)-polymer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Duarte, M G; Gil, M H; Peters, J A; Colet, J M; Elst, L V; Muller, R N; Geraldes, C F

    2001-01-01

    Two linear polyamide conjugates of Gd(DTPA)2- were synthesized and characterized by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). DTPA was copolymerized with two different diamines, 1,6-hexanediamine and trans-1,4-cyclohexanediamine, yielding the polymers DTPA-HMD and DTPA-CHD, with low polydispersity. Their molecular flexibility in solution was studied using 13C spin-lattice relaxation time measurements, indicating that the cyclohexanediamine linking moiety of the DTPA-HMD polymer is more rigid than that of DTPA-CHD. The influence of the flexibility of the linking functionalities on the relaxivity of the Gd3+-DTPA-polymer conjugates was studied by water nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD). The relaxivity of the Gd(DTPA-CHD) polymer was only slightly higher than that of the Gd(DTPA-HMD) polymer, and only two times higher than the usual values for small Gd-DTPA-like chelates. The low relaxivities obtained for both polymers, much lower than expected from the polymer apparent molecular weights, result from their substantial residual flexibility, and also from a too long, nonoptimal, value of the inner-sphere water exchange rate. These polymeric compounds are also cleared very quickly from the blood of rats, indicating that they are of limited value as blood pool contrast agents for MRA. PMID:11312677

  14. Gd-DTPA Adsorption on Chitosan/Magnetite Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pylypchuk, Ie V; Kołodyńska, D; Kozioł, M; Gorbyk, P P

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of the chitosan/magnetite nanocomposites is presented. Composites were prepared by co-precipitation of iron(II) and iron(III) salts by aqueous ammonia in the 0.1 % chitosan solution. It was shown that magnetite synthesis in the chitosan medium does not affect the magnetite crystal structure. The thermal analysis data showed 4.6 % of mass concentration of chitosan in the hybrid chitosan/magnetite composite. In the concentration range of initial Gd-DTPA solution up to 0.4 mmol/L, addition of chitosan to magnetite increases the adsorption capacity and affinity to Gd-DTPA complex. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe adsorption processes. Nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific surface area determination (ASAP) methods. PMID:27030468

  15. Gd-DTPA Adsorption on Chitosan/Magnetite Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylypchuk, Ie. V.; Kołodyńska, D.; Kozioł, M.; Gorbyk, P. P.

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis of the chitosan/magnetite nanocomposites is presented. Composites were prepared by co-precipitation of iron(II) and iron(III) salts by aqueous ammonia in the 0.1 % chitosan solution. It was shown that magnetite synthesis in the chitosan medium does not affect the magnetite crystal structure. The thermal analysis data showed 4.6 % of mass concentration of chitosan in the hybrid chitosan/magnetite composite. In the concentration range of initial Gd-DTPA solution up to 0.4 mmol/L, addition of chitosan to magnetite increases the adsorption capacity and affinity to Gd-DTPA complex. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe adsorption processes. Nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific surface area determination (ASAP) methods.

  16. Iron-[S,S']-EDDS (FeEDDS) Chelate as an Iron Source for Horticultural Crop Production: Marigold Growth and Nutrition, Spectral Properties, and Photodegradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones, commonly referred to as ligands or chelating agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to p...

  17. An Evaluation of the Chelating Agent EDDS for Floriculture Crop Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) ligands (chelating agents) like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to plants. When complexed with Fe, EDTA and...

  18. Analysis of pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Saeid; Shah, N Jon; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23-85years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PKs of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28-80years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3±6.6min, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025mmol/kg was 3.37±0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enabled us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA]. PMID:27109487

  19. Analysis of Pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Saeid; Jon Shah, N.; Rosenberg, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23–85 years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05 mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125 mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PK of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28–80 years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025 mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025 mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3 ± 6.6 mins, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1 mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025 mmol/kg was 3.37± 0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1 mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enable us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA]. PMID:27109487

  20. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  1. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  2. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood distribution of intravenously administered sup 153 Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- and sup 99m Tc(DTPA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeking, P.; Eaton, S.; Covell, D.G.; Nair, S.; Tweedle, M.F.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Rat plasma distribution data obtained following IV administration of {sup 99m}Tc(DTPA) alone or after co-administration of {sup 99m}Tc(DTPA) and {sup 153}Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- at 0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mmol Gd/kg were evaluated using compartmental modeling techniques. A three-compartment open model was found to fit the data significantly better (P less than 0.01) than a two- or four-compartment open model. This model incorporates and links the plasma and urine data and includes a delay to account for the transit time through the kidneys/ureters. The two nonplasma compartments of the model were assumed to be related to rapidly and slowly equilibrating tissues. Tc(DTPA) and Gd(DTPA)2- had nearly identical pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and the rate constants were essentially the same. No significant dose dependent pharmacokinetic differences were found for the range of Gd(DTPA)2- doses tested. Simulations of the proposed three-compartment model were used to generate concentration-time curves for each of the three compartments.

  3. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood distribution of intravenously administered 153Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- and 99mTc(DTPA) in rats.

    PubMed

    Wedeking, P; Eaton, S; Covell, D G; Nair, S; Tweedle, M F; Eckelman, W C

    1990-01-01

    Rat plasma distribution data obtained following IV administration of 99mTc(DTPA) alone or after co-administration of 99mTc(DTPA) and 153Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- at 0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mmol Gd/kg were evaluated using compartmental modeling techniques. A three-compartment open model was found to fit the data significantly better (P less than 0.01) than a two- or four-compartment open model. This model incorporates and links the plasma and urine data and includes a delay to account for the transit time through the kidneys/ureters. The two nonplasma compartments of the model were assumed to be related to rapidly and slowly equilibrating tissues. Tc(DTPA) and Gd(DTPA)2- had nearly identical pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and the rate constants were essentially the same. No significant dose dependent pharmacokinetic differences were found for the range of Gd(DTPA)2- doses tested. Simulations of the proposed three-compartment model were used to generate concentration-time curves for each of the three compartments. PMID:2082126

  4. Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Coupling Gd‑DTPA with a bispecific, recombinant protein anti‑EGFR‑iRGD complex improves tumor targeting in MRI.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaoyan; Sha, Huizi; Shen, Jingtao; Zhang, Bing; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Baorui

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant anti‑epidermal growth factor receptor‑internalizing arginine‑glycine‑aspartic acid (anti‑EGFR single‑domain antibody fused with iRGD peptide) protein efficiently targets the EGFR extracellular domain and integrin αvβ/β5, and shows a high penetration into cells. Thus, this protein may improve penetration of conjugated drugs into the deep zone of gastric cancer multicellular 3D spheroids. In the present study, a novel tumor‑targeting contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed, by coupling gadolinium‑diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd‑DTPA) with the bispecific recombinant anti‑EGFR‑iRGD protein. The anti‑EGFR‑iRGD protein was extracted from Escherichia coli and Gd was loaded onto the recombinant protein by chelation using DTPA anhydride. Single‑targeting agent anti‑EGFR‑DTPA‑Gd, which served as the control, was also prepared. The results of the present study showed that anti‑EGFR‑iRGD‑DTPA‑Gd exhibited no significant cyto-toxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC‑823) under the experimental conditions used. Compared with a conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), anti‑EGFR‑iRGD‑DTPA‑Gd showed higher T1 relaxivity (10.157/mM/sec at 3T) and better tumor‑targeting ability. In addition, the signal intensity and the area under curve for the enhanced signal time in tumor, in vivo, were stronger than Gd‑DTPA alone or the anti‑EGFR‑Gd control. Thus, Gd‑labelled anti‑EGFR‑iRGD has potential as a tumor‑targeting contrast agent for improved MRI. PMID:27035336

  6. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for the assessment of liver function and volume in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Blomqvist, L; Douglas, L; Nordell, A; Janczewska, I; Näslund, E; Jonas, E

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to use dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI to evaluate liver volume and function in liver cirrhosis, correlate the results with standard scoring models and explore the inhomogeneous distribution of liver function in cirrhotic livers. Methods: 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and 20 healthy volunteers, serving as controls, were included. Hepatic extraction fraction (HEF), input relative blood flow and mean transit time were calculated on a voxel-by-voxel basis using deconvolutional analysis. Segmental and total liver volumes as well as segmental and total hepatic extraction capacity, expressed in HEFml, were calculated. An incongruence score (IS) was constructed to reflect the uneven distribution of liver function. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used for group comparison of the quantitative liver function parameters, liver volumes and ISs. Correlations between liver function parameters and clinical scores were assessed using Spearman rank correlation. Results: Patients had larger parenchymal liver volume, lower hepatocyte function and more inhomogeneous distribution of function compared with healthy controls. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the non-homogeneous nature of liver cirrhosis and underlines the necessity of a liver function test able to compensate for the heterogeneous distribution of liver function in patients with diseased liver parenchyma. Advances in knowledge: The study describes a new way to quantitatively assess the hepatic uptake of gadoxetate or gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in the liver as a whole as well as on a segmental level. PMID:23403453

  7. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid derivative of toremifene and in vitro evaluation in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Biber Muftuler, F Zumrut; Unak, Perihan; Avci, Cigir Biray; Gunduz, Cumhur

    2011-02-01

    Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of toremifene-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (TOR-DTPA), formed by conjugation of TOR and DTPA, on the MCF-7 cell line were evaluated. TOR-DTPA was synthesized and qualified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system, thin layer chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography methods. To screen the biological properties of TOR-DTPA at determined concentrations, our ongoing effort was to evaluate apoptotic and cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 cell line. Trypan blue dye exclusion test, XTT, ELISA, and TUNEL assays were utilized to evaluate cytotoxicity and apoptosis. TOR-DTPA has no cytotoxic and limited apoptotic effect on the MCF-7 cell line according to the results of in vitro studies. It is concluded that the lack of obvious apoptotic and cytotoxic effects allows the already proposed ligand, TOR-DTPA, to be improved as a novel hydrophilic ligand for breast imaging. PMID:21355781

  8. Structure of a single model to describe plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a single modeling structure to describe both plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA, which is based on hypotheses mostly validated by experimental data. Decorporation efficacy of extracellular retention depends on the concentration ratio of DTPA vs. actinides and varies in each compartment according to the amount of biological ligands and their affinity for actinides. By contrast, because the relatively long residence time of DTPA after its cell internalization and the stability of actinide-DTPA complexes, intracellular decorporation efficacy is mainly controlled by a DTPA/actinide ratio, which is specific to each retention compartment. Although the affinity of DTPA is much lower for americium than for plutonium, a larger decorporation of americium can be obtained, which is explained by different biological ligands and/or their affinity for the actinide. Altogether, these results show that the relative contribution of intra vs. extracellular decorporation varies depending on the actinide, the chemical form of radionuclides, the galenic formulation of DTPA, and the treatment schedule. PMID:20838098

  9. Comparison of MRI properties between derivatized DTPA and DOTA gadolinium-dendrimer conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Nwe, K.; Bernardo, M; Regino, C. A. S.; Williams, M; Brechbiel, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we directly compare the in vivo and in vitro MRI properties of gadolinium-dendrimer conjugates of derivatized acyclic diethylenetriamine-N,N’,N’,N’’, N’’-pentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA) and macrocyclic 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N’’,N’’’-tetraacetic acid (C-DOTA). The metal-ligand chelates were pre-formed in alcohol prior to conjugation to the generation 4 PAMAM dendrimer (G4D), and the dendrimer-based agents were purified by Sephadex® G-25 column. The analysis and SE-HPLC data indicated chelate to dendrimer ratios of 30:1 and 28:1 respectively. Molar relaxivity measured at pH 7.4, 22°C, and 3T are comparable (29.5 vs. 26.9 mM−1s−1), and both conjugates are equally viable as MRI contrast agents based on the images obtained. The macrocyclic agent however exhibits a faster rate of clearance in vivo (t1/2 = 16 vs. 29 min.). Our conclusion is that the macrocyclic-based agent is the more suitable agent for in vivo use for these reasons combined with kinetic inertness associated with the Gd(III) DOTA complex stability properties. PMID:20663676

  10. Investigations on the Ga(III) Complex of EOB-DTPA and Its 68Ga Radiolabeled Analogue.

    PubMed

    Greiser, Julia; Niksch, Tobias; Weigand, Wolfgang; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for the isolation of EOB-DTPA (3,6,9-triaza-3,6,9-tris(carboxymethyl)-4-(ethoxybenzyl)-undecanedioic acid) from its Gd(III) complex and protocols for the preparation of its novel non-radioactive, i.e., natural Ga(III) as well as radioactive (68)Ga complex. The ligand as well as the Ga(III) complex were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. (68)Ga was obtained by a standard elution method from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. Experiments to evaluate the (68)Ga-labeling efficiency of EOB-DTPA at pH 3.8-4.0 were performed. Established analysis techniques radio TLC (thin layer chromatography) and radio HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) were used to determine the radiochemical purity of the tracer. As a first investigation of the (68)Ga tracers' lipophilicity the n-octanol/water distribution coefficient of (68)Ga species present in a pH 7.4 solution was determined by an extraction method. In vitro stability measurements of the tracer in various media at physiological pH were performed, revealing different rates of decomposition. PMID:27584545

  11. Palliation of bone pain with Sn-117m(4+)DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, L.F.; Mausner, L.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1994-05-01

    Sn-117m(4+)DTPA prepared at Brookhaven National Laboratory has favorable physical and biological characteristics for use as a palliative agent to relieve pain from osseous metastases. The short range of the emitted conversion electrons permits large bone radiation doses without excessive radiation to the bone marrow. An accompanying 158.6 keV gamma is useful for monitoring the distribution. The T1/2 of 13.6 days provides an adequate shelf life. A previous study in humans has demonstrated favorable dosimetry with a bone surface dose of approximately 57.9 mGy/MBq and a bone surface to marrow ratio of 10:1. This study was instituted to find a dose level which was effective and to monitor effects on bone marrow. Sn-117m was administered to 14 patients. Administered activity ranged between 66 and 573 MBq or 1.2-5.8 MBq/kg body weight. At the lower dose levels (<3.1 MBq/kg, n=7), 1 obtained good relief of pain, 1 partial relief, and 1 no relief. The remaining 4 were not evaluated because of the need for further treatment of soft tissue disease or because of intervening death. The 7 patients treated at the higher dose level (4.8-5.8 MBq/kg) included patients with prostate (3), breast (3) and unknown (1) primary cancers. All patients experienced relief of pain, 5 excellent and 2 partial. No marrow suppression was observed as a result of Sn-117m therapy. Initial observations indicate that Sn-117m DTPA is effective in palliation of pain from osseous metastases without producing bone marrow suppression. Further studies at a higher dose level are planned.

  12. Detection of urinary extravasation by delayed technetium-99m DTPA renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Aburano, T.; Hisada, K.

    1986-08-01

    Delayed imaging with Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy demonstrated urinary extravasation in a patient with acute anuria in whom early sequential imaging showed no abnormal extrarenal radionuclide accumulation.

  13. Decorporation of inhaled americium-241 dioxide and nitrate from hamsters using ZnDTPA and Puchel.

    PubMed

    Stradling, G N; Stather, J W; Sumner, S A; Moody, J C; Strong, J C

    1984-06-01

    Accidental intakes of 241AmO2 and 241Am(NO3)3 can be treated with some success by inhalation of ZnDTPA . The main advantage of this method of treatment is that it can be self-administered very soon after an accidental intake, and it is effective for reducing the lung content of Am at doses about 10 times less than those usually used intravenously. Otherwise the efficacy of injected ZnDTPA is superior since in addition to removing 241Am from the lungs it can deplete appreciably the systemic deposit of the nuclide. There appears to be no advantage in using the lipophilic form of DTPA code-named Puchel , since following the inhalation or injection of the compound decorporation is not significantly increased relative to ZnDTPA . PMID:6724941

  14. An efficient optical-electrochemical dual probe for highly sensitive recognition of dopamine based on terbium complex functionalized reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhan; Wang, Qianming

    2014-05-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid sensor based on diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) modified reduced graphene oxide (RGO-DTPA) chelated with terbium ions allows detection of dopamine (DA) through an emission enhancement effect. Its luminescence, peaking at 545 nm, has been improved by a factor of 25 in the presence of DA (detection limit = 80 nM). In addition, this covalently bonded terbium complex functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO-DTPA-Tb) can be successfully assembled on a glassy carbon electrode. The assay performed through differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) yielded obvious peak separation between DA and excessive amounts of the interfering ascorbic acid (AA). PMID:24622695

  15. Insight into the dynamics of lanthanide-DTPA complexes as revealed by oxygen-17 NMR.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Luca; Mocci, Francesca; Muller, Robert N; Luhmer, Michel

    2012-08-01

    DTPA chelates of various diamagnetic and paramagnetic lanthanide(III) metal ions, as well as the chemically similar DTPA chelate of Y(3+), were studied in aqueous solution by variable temperature (17)O NMR with the aim of characterizing their internal dynamics. As a consequence of poor chemical shift dispersion and fast quadrupole relaxation, no dynamic exchange process could be detected for the diamagnetic complexes nor for the Sm-DTPA complex. In contrast, the spectra recorded for the Eu-DTPA complex show chemical exchange due to the well-known racemization process and, at high temperature, feature signal broadening that reveals a fluxional process involving the interchange of the coordinated and noncoordinated oxygen atoms of the carboxylate groups. The spectra recorded for the Pr-DTPA complex feature coalescence events due to such a fluxional process, which is ascribable to the rotation of the carboxylate groups. The activation free energy barriers determined experimentally are remarkably lower than the calculated activation barriers recently reported for the rotation of the carboxylate groups of various Ln-DOTA complexes. Furthermore, the smallest activation free energy measured for the Pr-DTPA complex, about 45 kJ mol(-1), is significantly lower than the activation free energy characterizing the racemization process. The fluxional behavior of the carboxylate groups is, however, not expected to significantly affect the residence time of the water molecule coordinated to the metal ion. PMID:22817329

  16. Design and functionalities of the MADOR® software suite for dose-reduction management after DTPA therapy.

    PubMed

    Leprince, B; Fritsch, P; Bérard, P; Roméo, P-H

    2016-03-01

    A software suite on biokinetics of radionuclides and internal dosimetry intended for the occupational health practitioners of nuclear industry and for expert opinions has been developed under Borland C++ Builder™. These computing tools allow physicians to improve the dosimetric follow-up of workers in agreement with the French regulations and to manage new internal contaminations by radionuclides such as Pu and/or Am after diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid treatments. In this paper, the concept and functionalities of the first two computing tools of this MADOR(®) suite are described. The release 0.0 is the forensic application, which allows calculating the derived recording levels for intake by inhalation or ingestion of the main radioisotopes encountered in occupational environment. Indeed, these reference values of activity are convenient to interpret rapidly the bioassay measurements and make decisions as part of medical monitoring. The release 1.0 addresses the effect of DTPA treatments on Pu/Am biokinetics and the dose benefit. The forensic results of the MADOR(®) suite were validated by comparison with reference data. PMID:25999333

  17. A Drug-Repositioning Screening Identifies Pentetic Acid as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Suppressing the Elastase-Mediated Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gi, Mia; Jeong, Junhui; Lee, Keehoon; Lee, Kang-Mu; Toyofuku, Masanori; Yong, Dong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance, produces elastase as a predominant exoprotease. Here, we screened a library of chemical compounds currently used for human medication and identified diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA, pentetic acid) as an agent that suppresses the production of elastase. Elastase activity found in the prototype P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 was significantly decreased when grown with a concentration as low as 20 μM DTPA. Supplementation with Zn2+ or Mn2+ ions restored the suppressive effect of DTPA, suggesting that the DTPA-mediated decrease in elastase activity is associated with ion-chelating activity. In DTPA-treated PAO1 cells, transcription of the elastase-encoding lasB gene and levels of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a molecule that mediates P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS), were significantly downregulated, reflecting the potential involvement of the PQS QS system in DTPA-mediated elastase suppression. Biofilm formation was also decreased by DTPA treatment. When A549 alveolar type II-like adenocarcinoma cells were infected with PAO1 cells in the presence of DTPA, A549 cell viability was substantially increased. Furthermore, the intranasal delivery of DTPA to PAO1-infected mice alleviated the pathogenic effects of PAO1 cells in the animals. Together, our results revealed a novel function for a known molecule that may help treat P. aeruginosa airway infection. PMID:25246397

  18. Use of ammonium bicarbonate DTPA soil test to evaluate elemental availability and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Soltanpour, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The literature published on the use of the Soltanpour and Schwab Ammonium Bicarbonate-DTPA (AB-DTPA) soil test shows that it can be used to determine availability and toxicity indices for many elements. It has been shown to be an effective test for measuring the availability indices of P, K, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Ni, Cd and Se. Theoretically, it can also be used to determine the availability indices for S, Cu and As. The AB-DTPA test can predict toxicity of B as well as the standard hot water test, although within the non-toxic range of B, it is not as effective as the hot water test. The hot water test alone predicts B availability well, but the AB-DTPA B test result requires inclusion of soil water pH, organic matter and clay contents in a regression equation for predicting B availability. This test is not suitable for determination of exchangeable plus soluble Ca and Mg (high levels), as these precipitate as carbonates during extraction. The AB-DTPA test procedure with analysis by an inductively-coupled plasma spectrometer for simultaneous determination of elements, makes soil and overburden testing very efficient.

  19. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

  20. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3.0-Tesla MRI findings for the preoperative detection of focal liver lesions: Comparison with iodine-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyong-Hu; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Im, In-Chul; Lee, Jae-Seung; Kim, Moon-Jib; Kwak, Byung-Joon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Dong, Kyung-Rae

    2012-12-01

    The safety of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic-acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) has been confirmed, but more study is needed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for whom surgical treatment is considered or with a metastatic hepatoma. Research is also needed to examine the rate of detection of hepatic lesions compared to multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which is used most frequently to localize and characterize a HCC. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and iodine-enhanced MDCT imaging were compared for the preoperative detection of focal liver lesions. The clinical usefulness of each method was examined. The current study enrolled 79 patients with focal liver lesions who preoperatively underwent MRI and MDCT. In these patients, there was less than one month between the two diagnostic modalities. Imaging data were taken before and after contrast enhancement in both methods. To evaluate the images, we analyzed the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lesions and the liver parenchyma. To compare the sensitivity of the two methods, we performed a quantitative analysis of the percentage signal intensity of the liver (PSIL) on a high resolution picture archiving and communication system (PACS) monitor (paired-samples t-test, p < 0.05). The enhancement was evaluated based on a consensus of four observers. The enhancement pattern and the morphological features during the arterial and the delayed phases were correlated between the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI findings and the iodine-enhanced MDCT by using an adjusted x2 test. The SNRs, CNRs, and PSIL all had a greater detection rate in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI than in iodine-enhanced MDCT. Hepatocyte-selective uptake was observed 20 minutes after the injection in the focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, 9/9), adenoma (9/10), and highly-differentiated HCC (grade G1, 27/30). Rim

  1. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  2. Description of focal liver lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    CARAIANI, COSMIN-NICOLAE; DAN, MARIAN; FENESAN, DIANA-IOANA; BADEA, RADU

    2015-01-01

    Imaging procedures play a fundamental role in the therapeutic management of focal liver lesions. The goals of imaging are to detect and correctly characterize focal liver lesions. This review highlights the performances of newer, liver-specific, contrast media in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, particularly Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist), the most frequently used liver specific contrast media. It has been shown, in different papers, that Gd-EOB-DTPA has better performances compared to either triphasic contrast enhanced computed tomography or dynamic MRI in both detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma on the cirrhotic liver. Therefore liver MRI with Primovist is considered, in many centers, the “state-of-the-art” imaging examination of the liver before surgery or liver transplantation. Gd-EOB-DTPA is also useful in the differential diagnosis of benign hypervascular focal liver lesions such as adenomas or focal nodular hyperplasias. PMID:26733231

  3. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bone cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, F M; Algra, P R; Maas, M; Dijkstra, P F; Falke, T H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the contents of intraosseous cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the signal intensity characteristics on gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS--The hand or foot joints of nine patients with the cystic form of RA (where the initial radiological abnormality consisted of intraosseous cysts without erosions) were imaged before and after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. A 0.6 unit, T1 weighted spin echo and T2* weighted gradient echo were used to obtain images in at least two perpendicular planes. RESULTS--Most cysts showed a low signal intensity on the non-enhanced T1 weighted (spin echo) images and a high signal intensity on the T2* weighted (gradient echo) images, consistent with a fluid content. No cyst showed an enhancement of signal intensity on the T1 weighted images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA, whereas synovium hyperplasia at the site of bony erosions did show an increased signal intensity after Gd-DTPA. Magnetic resonance imaging detected more cysts (as small as 2 mm) than plain films, and the cysts were located truly intraosseously. In six patients no other joint abnormalities were identified by magnetic resonance imaging; the three other patients also showed, after Gd-DTPA administration, an enhanced synovium at the site of bony erosions. CONCLUSIONS--It is suggested that intraosseous bone cysts in patients with RA do not contain hyperaemic synovial proliferation. The bone cysts in patients with the cystic form of RA may be the only joint abnormality. Images PMID:8257207

  4. Self-Assembled Monolayers of Dithiophosphinic Acids on Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Juan, Ronan Roca

    This dissertation reports the synthesis of derivatives of dithiophosphinic acids (R1R2DTPAs), and the formation and characterization of DTPA SAMs on gold to build a knowledge base on their nature of binding, organization of the alkyl chains and electrochemical barrier properties. The binding of DTPA molecules on gold depends on the morphology of the gold film: They bind in a mixed monodentate and bidentate modes on standard as-deposited (As-Dep) gold, while they fully chelate on smoother template-stripped (TS) gold. Chapter 2 focuses on van der Waals interactions of various alkyl chain lengths of symmetrical R2DTPA SAMs, which increase with increasing chain lengths similar to those of the analogous n-alkanethiol SAMs, but with alkyl chains that are generally less dense than those of n-alkanethiol SAMs. Chapter 3 addresses why the DTPA compounds do not chelate on the standard As-Dep gold by comparing (C16)2DTPA SAM to (C16 )2DDP SAM. Here, side chain crystallinity stabilizes DTPA SAM structure at the expense of chelation of the DTPA molecules, which leads to a mixture of bidentate and monodentate DTPA molecules, whereas the increased flexibility of the chains in DDP due to the oxygen atoms retains chelation of the DDP molecules. Chapter 4 focuses on the SAMs formed from RlongRshort DTPAs, which shows that the length of the short chain spacer affects SAM packing density and thickness. The SAMs of these molecules also show homogeneous mixing of Rlong and Rshort chains. Chapter 5 investigates PhRDTPA SAMs in preparation for molecular junction studies. The chelation of PhRDTPA molecules on TS gold allows the PhRDTPAs to act as molecular alligator clips. The length of the alkyl chains controls the density of the phenyl group and they fill in the voids between adsorbates to prevent electrical shorting. Finally, Chapter 6 incorporates OH tail group(s) to control the wettability of DTPA SAMs. The presence of OH groups in DTPAs forms hydrophilic SAMs. The symmetrical OH

  5. Double labelling of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells with Gd-DTPA and PKH26 and the influence on biological characteristics of hUCMSCs.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Hanlin; Shi, Changzheng; Lan, Jifa; Chen, Danliang; Luo, Xin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether double labelling of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) with gadolinium-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and PKH26 influences their biological characteristics. A tissue adherence technique was used to separate and purify the hUCMSCs and flow cytometry was performed to detect the surface markers expressed on them. Gd-DTPA and PKH26 were used to label the stem cells and MRI and fluorescence microscopy were used to detect the double-labelled hUCMSCs. A MTT assay was used to delineate the growth curve. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy were used to demonstrate the ultrastructural features of the hUCMSCs. Flow cytometry showed that hUCMSCs highly expressed CD29, CD90, CD44 and CD105. No expression of CD31, CD34 and CD45 was detected. Very low expression of HLA-DR and CD40 was detected. Atomic force microscopy showed these cells were long, spindle shaped, and the cytoplasm and nucleus had clear boundaries. After double labelling, TEM showed Gd particles aggregated in the cytoplasm in a cluster pattern. The proliferation activity, cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation of the stem cells were not influenced by double labelling. Thus a tissue adherence technique is helpful to separate and purify hUCMSCs effectively; and Gd-DTPA and PKH26 are promising tracers in the investigation of migration and distribution of hUCMSCs in vivo. PMID:25649907

  6. Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MR Imaging of the Liver: The Effect on T2 Relaxation Times and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

    PubMed Central

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Podgórska, Joanna; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Maj, Edyta; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Milczarek, Krzysztof; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To investigate the effect of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on T2 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the liver and focal liver lesions on a 1.5-T system. Material/Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 50 patients with 35 liver lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at 1.5T and included T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) images acquired before and after intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. To assess the effect of this hepatobiliary contrast agent on T2-weighted TSE images and DW images T2 relaxation times and ADC values of the liver and FLLs were calculated and compared pre- and post-injection. Results The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal hepatic lesions were lower on enhanced than on unenhanced T2-weighted TSE images (decrease of 2.7% and 3.6% respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. The mean ADC values of the liver showed statistically significant decrease (of 4.6%) on contrast-enhanced DW images, compared to unenhanced images (P>0.05). The mean ADC value of liver lesions was lower on enhanced than on unenhanced DW images, but this difference (of 2.9%) did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal liver lesions as well as the mean ADC values of liver lesions were not significantly different before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Therefore, acquisition of T2-weighted and DW images between the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination and hepatobiliary phase is feasible and time-saving. PMID:27026795

  7. Explorations of TALSPEAK chemistry in extraction chromatography: Comparisons of TTHA with DTPA and HDEHP with HEH[EHP

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, Jenifer C.; McAlister, Daniel; Horwitz, E. P.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2013-03-01

    An advanced nuclear fuel cycle includes a reprocessing stage for the group separation of the lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. The TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) solvent extraction process provides the An3+/Ln3+ separation through the use of an organic lanthanide extractant (bis-2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphoric acid, HDEHP) and an aqueous actinide-selective holdback reagent (diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N’’,N’’-pentaacetic acid, DTPA). Organic phase interactions in TALSPEAK have proven sufficiently complex that, even with substantial research effort, a descriptive thermodynamic model has yet to be developed. If one were to consider an extraction chromatographic (EXC) version of TALSPEAK, the presence of concentrated extractant on the resin surface should augment the multifaceted organic phase chemistry. This study examines the previously unexplored impact of each aqueous phase TALSPEAK component (holdback reagent, carboxylic acid buffer, and pH) on the chemistry of the EXC system. The presence of alternative reagents, 2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethyl(hexyl) ester acid (HEH[EHP]) and triethylenetetramine-N,N,N’,N’’,N’’’,N’’’-hexaacetic acid (TTHA) are also considered. Results indicate the concentrated extractant appears to enhance solid-phase reactions that most likely involve water, lactate and sodium. The presumed water, lactate and sodium partitioning consumes resin capacity sufficiently that the weaker hold-back reagent under TALSPEAK aqueous conditions (pH ~ 3.6), TTHA, provides preferential Am3+/Ln3+ separations performance. If a TALSPEAK-EXC process were to be developed, a resin with solvent diluted extractant or covalently bound functional groups may be preferential to reduce the complexity of the solid-phase chemistry.

  8. Treatment of actinide exposures: a review of Ca-DTPA injections inside CEA-COGEMA plants.

    PubMed

    Grappin, Louise; Berard, Philippe; Menetrier, Florence; Carbone, Lise; Courtay, Catherine; Castagnet, Xavier; Le Goff, Jean-Pierre; Neron, Marie-Odile; Piechowski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Calcium diethylenetriamine pentacetate (Ca-DTPA) has been used for medical treatment of plutonium and americium contaminations in the CEA and COGEMA plants from 1970 to 2003. This paper is a survey of the injections Ca-DTPA administered as a chelating molecule and it will be a part of the authorisation process for Ca-DTPA by intravenous administration. Out of 1158 injections administered to 469 persons, 548 events of possible or confirmed contamination were reported. These employees were followed by occupational physicians according to the current French regulations. These incidents took place at work, were most often minor, not requiring follow-up treatment. The authors present (1) a synthesis of the most recent findings. Due to its short biological half-time and its limited action in the blood, Ca-DTPA does not chelate with plutonium and americium as soon as these elements are deposited in the target organs. It justifies an early treatment, even in cases of suspected contamination followed by additional injections if necessary (2) data concerning these 1158 injections (route of contamination, dosage, adverse effects, etc.) The authors also investigated a study on the efficacy of the product on a group of persons having received five or more injections. These results were compared with the efficacy estimated theoretically. Dosages and therapeutic schemes were proposed based on these observations. This synthesis is the result of a collective work having mobilised the occupational medicine departments, the medical laboratories inside a working group CEA-COGEMA-SPRA. PMID:17940101

  9. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  10. Measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.

    1986-10-01

    The rate at which inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) leaves the lung by diffusion into the vascular space can be measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. In normal humans, /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clears from the lung with a half time of about 80 minutes. Many acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium cause an increased clearance rate. Thus cigarette smoking, alveolitis from a variety of causes, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in the infant have all been shown to be associated with rapid pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Rapid clearance is also promoted by increased lung volume and decreased surfactant activity. Although the mechanism of increased clearance in pathological states is not known, the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA lung-clearance technique has great potential clinically, particularly in patients at risk from ARDS and HMD and in the diagnosis and follow-up of alveolitis. 58 references.

  11. Water permeability of capillaries in the subfornical organ of rats determined by Gd-DTPA2- enhanced 1H magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yoshiteru; Takamata, Akira; Ogino, Takashi; Morita, Hironobu; Nakamura, Shun; Murakami, Masataka

    2002-01-01

    The water permeability of capillaries in the subfornical organ (SFO) of rat was measured by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance method in combination with a venous injection of a relaxation reagent, gadolinium-diethylene triamine-N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA2-), which could not pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Judging from results of Gd-DTPA2- dose dependency in the intact brain and the BBB-permeabilized brain, Gd-DTPA2- could not have leaked out from the capillaries in the cortex, thalamus or SFO, but it could have been extravasated in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The longitudinal (T1) relaxation time of water in the SFO region was measured by inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging at 4.7 T. The T1 relaxation rates (1/T1) before and after Gd-DTPA2- infusion were 0.70 ± 0.02 s−1 (mean ± s.e.m., n = 9) and 1.53 ± 0.11 s−1 (n = 9), respectively. The rate constant for water influx to the capillaries was estimated to be 0.84 ± 0.11 s−1 (n = 9) which corresponds with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of 3.7 × 10−3 cm s−1. Compared with values found in the literature available on this subject, this Pd value for the capillaries in the SFO was the same order of magnitude as that for transmembrane permeability of water for the vasa recta, and it may be 10–100 times larger than that of the blood-brain barrier in the cortex. Areas of the cortex and thalamus showed minimal changes in the T1 relaxation rate (ca 0.09 s−1), but these values were not statistically significant and they corresponded to Pd values much smaller than those found in the SFO. From these results, we conclude that the capillaries in the SFO have one of the highest water permeability values among all of the capillaries in the brain. It is also suggested that this magnetic resonance imaging, based on T1 relaxation rate, is a useful method to detect local water permeability in situ. PMID:12433962

  12. Factors in myocardial "perfusion" imaging with ultrafast MRI and Gd-DTPA administration.

    PubMed

    Burstein, D; Taratuta, E; Manning, W J

    1991-08-01

    Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and first pass observation of an interstitial contrast agent are currently being used to study myocardial perfusion. Image intensity, however, is a function of several parameters, including the delivery of the contrast agent to the interstitium (coronary flow rate and diffusion into the interstitium) and the relaxation properties of the tissue (contrast agent concentration, proton exchange rates, and relative intra- and extracellular volume fractions). In this study, image intensity during gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) administration with T1-weighted ultrafast MR imaging was assessed in an isolated heart preparation. With increasing Gd-DTPA concentration, the steady-state myocardial image intensity increased but the time to reach steady state remained unchanged, resulting in an increased slope of image intensity change. A range of physiologic perfusion pressures (and resulting coronary flow rates) had insignificant effects on kinetics of Gd-DTPA wash-in or steady-state image intensity, suggesting that diffusion of Gd-DTPA into the interstitium is the rate limiting step in image intensity change with this preparation. Following global ischemia and reperfusion, transmural differences in the slope of image intensity change were apparent. However, the altered steady-state image intensity (due to postischemic edema) makes interpretation of this finding difficult. The studies described here demonstrate that although Gd-DTPA administration combined with ultrafast imaging may be a sensitive indicator of perfusion abnormalities, factors other than perfusion will affect image intensity. Extensive studies will be required before image intensity with this protocol is fully understood. PMID:1775055

  13. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with 99mTc-DTPA in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Galli, G; Rufini, V; Meduri, G; Piraccini, R; D'Andrea, G

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the practical reliability of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination with 99mTc-DTPA and plasma sampling, the authors compared the results obtained with 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA in 50 patients using five easily applied methods (two double-plasma-sample methods and three single-plasma-sample methods), and two kits with different compositions. It was observed that: 1) there is no difference between the results obtained with the two different kits. 2) Compared with 51Cr-EDTA the 99mTc-DTPA overestimates the result by about 2 mL/min: precision is slightly lower with 99mTc-DTPA than with 51Cr-EDTA but is sufficient for practical use. 3) The method recommended by the authors on the basis of this experience is the Russell's method with two samples. 4) The simplified methods with one sample give comparable results to the Russell's method for GFR levels between 50 and 115 mL/min, while the results are unsatisfactory below 50 mL/min. 5) Among the single-sample methods, the authors suggest that of Christensen and Groth. 6) A preliminary estimate of GFR (from the serum creatinine level, for instance) is useful for the choice between double-plasma-sample methods and simplified methods. In conclusion, the authors consider that the estimation of GFR with 99mTc-DTPA can be performed efficiently in clinical practice even when operating in absolutely routine conditions. PMID:7786917

  14. Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of new low-molecular-weight lysine-conjugated Gd-DTPA contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Sophie; Burtea, Carmen; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    Various blood pool contrast agents (CAs), characterized by intravascular distribution, have been developed to assist contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Among these CAs, the DTPA derivatives conjugated to synthetic polypeptides, such as polylysine, represent attractive candidates for blood pool imaging. However, due to the presence of charged residues located on their backbone, these agents are retained in the kidneys and this compromises their long blood half-life. In order to overcome this major drawback of the polylysine compounds, two new low-molecular-weight CAs were synthesized in the present work by conjugating four or six 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-DTPA moieties to tri- or penta-Lys peptides [(Gd-DTPA)(4) Lys(3) and (Gd-DTPA)(6) Lys(5)], respectively. All the -NH(2) groups of Lys were thus blocked by covalent conjugation to DTPA. The stability and relaxometric properties of these compounds, as well as their pharmacokinetic and biodistribution characteristics, were then evaluated. The half-life in blood of these new polylysine derivatives, as determined in rats, is twofold longer than that of Gd-DTPA. The compounds could thus be optimal blood pool markers for MRA, which typically uses fast acquisition times. The absence of positive molecular charge did not limit their retention in kidneys 2 h after administration. On the other hand, (Gd-DTPA)(4) Lys(3) is retained in kidneys to a lesser extent than (Gd-DTPA)(6) Lys(5) . Their moderate retention in blood and their higher stability and relaxivity in comparison with Gd-DTPA highlight these polylysine derivatives as optimal compared with previously developed polylysine compounds. PMID:21861283

  16. Gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid-loaded chitosan microspheres for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tapan Kumar; Ichikawa, Hideki; Fukumori, Yoshinobu

    2006-12-11

    In order to provide a suitable device that would contain water-soluble drugs, highly water-soluble gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid-loaded chitosan microspheres (CMS-Gd-DTPA) were prepared by the emulsion method using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker and Span 80 as a surfactant for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy of cancer. The gadolinium content and the mass median diameter of CMS-Gd-DTPA were estimated. The size and morphology of the CMS-Gd-DTPA were strongly influenced by the initial applied weight ratio of Gd-DTPA:chitosan. FTIR spectra showed that the electrostatic interaction between chitosan and Gd-DTPA accelerated the formation of gadolinium-enriched chitosan microspheres. Sufficient amounts of glutaraldehyde and Span 80 were necessary for producing discrete CMS-Gd-DTPA. The CMS-Gd-DTPA having a mass median diameter 11.7microm and 11.6% of gadolinium could be used in Gd-NCT following intratumoral injection. PMID:17045253

  17. Angiogenic response of MCF7 human breast cancer to hormonal treatment: assessment by dynamic GdDTPA-enhanced MRI at high spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Furman-Haran, E; Margalit, R; Maretzek, A F; Degani, H

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced MRI was followed during growth and regression of MCF7 human breast tumors implanted in nude mice in the presence of estrogen and tamoxifen, respectively. Gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences were applied at a temporal resolution of 12 and 100 seconds, respectively, and a spatial resolution of 195 x 390 x 1000 microns. Maps of initial rates of contrast enhancement demonstrated stimulation of local growth of permeable microcapillaries at regions bordering necrotic areas, resulting from tamoxifen treatment. This localized angiogenic stimulation was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of endothelial cells. After 1 week of tamoxifen treatment, the fraction of tumor pixels exhibiting rapid initial rate of contrast enhancement increased significantly from .28 +/- .05 to .46 +/- .06. In parallel, the fraction of tumor area showing contrast enhancement 3 minutes after Gd-DTPA injection also increased significantly, from .42 +/- .06 to .58 +/- .06. On the basis of these changes, it was possible to assess the response to tamoxifen therapy at an early stage. PMID:8851428

  18. Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer. PMID:24982817

  19. Influence of phosphorus sources and rates on soil pH, extractable phosphorus, and DTPA-extractable micronutrients

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Showk, A.M.; Westerman, R.L.; Weeks, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Two soils (McLain sicl-fine, mixed, thermic, Pachic Argiustoll and Quinlan cl-loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow Typic Ustocrept) that differed in micronutrient content and chemical characteristics were collected from western Oklahoma. Soils were passed through a 2-mm screen and placed in plastic Petri dishes, and five P levels (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg ha/sup -1/) were applied using monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP); the soils were then mixed uniformly. Soils were moistened to approximately 0.33 MPa and incubated for 2 mo at room temperature. Application of P decreased soil pH in both soils, and MAP and APP had a greater effect than MCP, which was attributed to the nitrification of the added ammonium. Bray and Kurtz no. 1 P increased with P application in both soils. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu in McLain soil. However, high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn in McLain soil. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Mn in the Quinlan soil; however; high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn and -Cu in Quinlan soil.

  20. Mn-54 DTPA distribution in dogs: Evaluation as a potential NMR contrast agent

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, R.J.; Frick, M.P.; Levy, R.M.; Sirr, S.A.; Lund, G.; Loken, M.K.

    1985-05-01

    Several paramagnetic ions are currently being evaluated as potential contrast agents for NMR imaging. To date the most successful of these appears to be Gd-DTPA. The authors recently undertook an investigation into the kinetics of biodistribution of Mn-DTPA to determine if this agent showed any tissue specific uptake, and if so, to optimize the time for imaging. In order to obviate the need for repetitive quantitative NMR imaging they have substituted tracer amounts of Mn-54 for the stable ion. Following intravenous injection into three mongrel dogs, samples of blood, bowel, liver, and pancreas were obtained at 3, 15, 30 and 60 minutes and 2, 4 and 6 hours post-injection. Radioactivity, and thus tissue concentration, was then determined in a gamma counter. Urine was also collected throughout the study. At six hours 58.4 +- 7.1% of the injected dose had been excreted in the urine. Peak liver accumulation occurred within 30 minutes (0.503 +- 0.144% injected dose/gm x kg body weight). The pancreas also showed a relatively high accumulation of tracer (0.247 +- 0.039%/gram x kg body weight) by four hours. The pancreas to liver ratios were highest at six hours (.73). The blood concentration fell very rapidly with little tracer remaining in the blood at one hour. The results of these experiments indicate that a significant portion of the injected material was concentrated by liver and pancreas. Unlike MnCl/sub 2/, most of the Mn-DTPA is excreted in the urine. This excretion is expected to reduce the toxicity of the injected material. These results are being used to establish the optimal protocols for NMR imaging with Mn-DTPA.

  1. Permeability of the bronchial mucosa to /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ilowite, J.S.; Bennett, W.D.; Sheetz, M.S.; Groth, M.L.; Nierman, D.M.

    1989-05-01

    Previous investigators, using 99mTc-DTPA aerosol as a marker to assess epithelial permeability in asthma, did not find an increased permeability in this group. However, they either failed to deliver the aerosol to the optimal site (bronchial mucosa, not alveoli) or failed to account for mucociliary clearance in analyzing their results. We studied 10 asthmatics and eight age-matched control subjects using a dosimeter (Spira-Elektra 2) and a carefully controlled breathing pattern to deliver aerosol to the subjects' airways. Two aerosols were delivered on separate days in each patient; 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and 99mTc-HSA (human serum albumin), using similar breathing patterns to ensure reproducibility of the deposition pattern with the two aerosols. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, rate constants Ktot and Km were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modelling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. There was no significant difference between Ktot in normal subjects and asthmatics; however, because of the slower mucociliary clearance in the asthmatic group, and the relative importance of mucociliary clearance in determining the washout of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, there was a significant difference in airway permeability between the normal subjects and the asthmatics (t1/2 = 296 min +/- 141 SD and 126 min +/- 58, p less than 0.01, in normal subjects and asthmatics, respectively).

  2. Clinical diagnostic application of 111In-DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vaccarili, M; Lococo, A; Fabiani, F; Staffilano, A

    2000-01-01

    Some years ago it was proved that a good percentage of small cell lung cancers, classified among cancers of the APUD system, produces somatostatin receptors that can be detected in vivo by scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA-octreotide. With the method in the whole body it is possible to identify the principal neoformation and the probable metastases. The authors present a study of 21 patients afflicted with small cell lung cancer diagnosed histologically. The study, carried out between January 1995 and December 1997, compared the radiologic iconography of the CT scan with the scintigraphic map obtained by a planar scintigraphy and in SPECT 1, 4 and 24-hr after iv injection of 110 MBq of 111In-DTPA-octreotide. The comparison was made with reference to the principal neoplasm and probable metastases. A scintigraphic study, a CT of restaging and a follow-up, done after 3 and 6 months of chemotherapy, on 15 patients with cancer that produces somatostatin receptors proved that the neoplasm sometimes regresses and sometimes progresses. In the latter case, it is possible to identify cerebral, mediastinal and hepatic metastases with the administration of 200 microg of octreotide 3 times a day for 7 days before the scintigraphy. In fact, the administration lowers background activity. The authors concluded that scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA-octreotide plays an important part in the study of patients afflicted with small cell lung cancer. Scintigraphy identifies the subgroups of patients who can be cured with somatostatin analogues together with chemotherapy. Scintigraphy presents a good sensibility in the re-staging and in the follow-up of patients who are treated, even though it is difficult to identify subdiaphragmatic metastases where liver, spleen and kidney show an increase in 111In-DTPA-octreotide. PMID:10939603

  3. Effect of increased surface tension and assisted ventilation on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, A.L.; Kawano, T.; Mori, S.; Burger, R.

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from lungs with altered surface tension properties. A submicronic aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized, tracheotomized rabbits before and 1 h after the administration of the aerosolized detergent dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (OT). Rabbits were ventilated by one of four methods: 1) spontaneous breathing; 2) CMV at 12 cmH2O mean airway pressure (MAP); 3) HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP; 4) HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP. Administration of OT resulted in decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2), increased lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and abnormal lung pressure-volume relationships, compatible with increased surface tension. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance was accelerated after OT in all groups. The post-OT rate of clearance (k) was significantly faster (P less than 0.05) in the CMV at 12 cmH2O MAP (k = 7.57 +/- 0.71%/min (SE)) and HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP (k = 6.92 +/- 0.61%/min) groups than in the spontaneously breathing (k = 4.32 +/- 0.55%/min) and HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP (4.68 +/- 0.63%/min) groups. The clearance curves were biexponential in the former two groups. We conclude that pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is accelerated in high surface tension pulmonary edema, and this effect is enhanced by both conventional ventilation and HFO at high mean airway pressure.

  4. [DTPA-99mTc in pediatric renal disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Abós Olivares, M D; Banzo Marraco, J; Teijeiro Vidal, J; Mateo Navarro, A; Carreras Delgado, J L; García López, F

    1980-01-01

    99MTc is an ideal nuclide for Pediatric use. Combined with DTPA is an adequate agent for renal studies. 15 patients with ages ranging from eight days to eleven years were studied (10 patients with congenital malformation and five with renal tumour). The dosimetric advantages, the obtention with a single nuclide dose of multiple images and the diagnostic usefulness in congenital malformation and renal tumour suggest their use. PMID:7369638

  5. Use of paramagnetic chelated metal derivatives of polysaccharides and spin-labeled polysaccharides as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bligh, S.W.; Harding, C.T.; Sadler, P.J.; Bulman, R.A.; Bydder, G.M.; Pennock, J.M.; Kelly, J.D.; Latham, I.A.; Marriott, J.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Soluble and insoluble polysaccharides were derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and/or spin-labeled with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO). Polysaccharides derivatized with DTPA were prepared via cyanogen bromide activation, coupling to a diamine linker, and to DTPA anhydride. Spin-labeled polysaccharides were also prepared via cyanogen bromide activation. The extent of derivatization for dextran (18 kDa) was about 120 glucose units per DTPA, and for cellulose and starch about 15-30 units per DTPA. For spin-labeled polysaccharides, the average loading ranged from 1 nitroxide per 16 glucose units for starch to 181 for dextran (82 kDa). These derivatized paramagnetic polysaccharides were shown to be more effective relaxants than the small paramagnetic molecules alone. Both soluble and insoluble polysaccharide-linker-DTPA-Gd(3) complexes were effectively cleared from the body (rats) after oral administration. After intravenous administration, the biodistribution of dextran-linker-DTPA-Gd(3) complexes differed significantly from that of GdDTPA. Reduction of the nitroxide by ascorbic acid was retarded in the polysaccharide derivatives, particularly in starch derivatized with both nitroxide and linker-DTPA-Cu(2). These agents showed contrast enhancement in the gastrointestinal tract of rabbits.

  6. Indications for /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan in children

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I.

    1987-03-01

    The /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan provides an image of functional renal parenchyma. This static scan has specific indications and cannot be used simply in place of a /sup 99m/technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scan. The major clinical indications for this investigation are the detection and/or evaluation of a renal scar, the small or absent kidney, an occult duplex system, certain renal masses, systemic hypertension or suspected vasculitis. The physiology of the /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan is reviewed briefly.

  7. Evaluation of the viability of /sup 111/In-abeled DTPA coupled to fibrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, W.W.; Hnatowich, D.J.; Doherty, P.W.; Childs, R.L.; Lanteigne, D.; Ansell, J.

    1982-07-01

    In earlier work, DTPA has been covalently coupled to albumin via the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Using fibrinogen, we have studied the effect of such coupling on protein viability by both an in vitro and an in vivo assay. Clotting time remained identical to that of the native protein whether the anhydride-to-protein molar ratio was 1:1 or 5:1. In vivo studies were done in dogs, with human fibrinogen labeled with /sup 125/I and /sup 111/In. Throughout 130 hr, blood clearances for the two tracers agreed whether with 1:1 or 5:1 coupling. In a dog model with a thrombogenic catheter, the clot-to-blood ratios for the two radiotracers agreed within experimental error. Finally, 1:1-coupled canine fibrinogen, labeled with /sup 111/In, was administered to dogs with a catheter in a jugular vein, and scintigrams at 24 hr clearly showed clotting along the length of the catheter. We conclude that fibrinogen, coupled to DTPA, retains its viability, behaving like radioiodinated fibrinogen in vivo, and /sup 111/In labeled fibrinogen looks promising as a clinical diagnostic agent.

  8. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-11-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

  10. Evaluation of liver function using gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akira; Hara, Takeshi; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio

    2010-03-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used for its clearance test in the evaluation of liver function. Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a targeted MR contrast agent partially taken up by hepatocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an estimation of the liver function corresponding to plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG-PDR) by use of the signal intensity of the liver alone in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR imaging (EOB-MRI). We evaluated fourteen patients who had EOB-MRI and ICG clearance test within 1 month. 2D-GRE T1 weighted images were obtained at pre contrast, 3 min (equilibrium phase) and 20 min (hepatobiliary phase) after the intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA, and the mean signal intensity of the liver was measured. The correlation between ICG-PDR and many parameters derived from the signal intensity of the liver in EOB-MRI was evaluated. The correlation coefficient between ICG-PDR and many parameters derived from the signal intensity of the liver in EOBMRI was low and not significant. The estimation of the liver function corresponding to ICG-PDR by use of the signal intensity of the liver alone in EOB-MRI would not be reliable.

  11. Design and preparation of gadolinium-reservoir microcapsules for neutron-capture therapy by means of the Wurster process.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, M; Ichikawa, H; Fukumori, Y; Akine, Y; Tokuuye, K

    1997-12-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-containing microcapsules designed for neutron-capture therapy (NCT) were prepared by a spouted bed coating process. Microcapsules were designed as a Gd-reservoir. They were prepared with the following properties: particle size was smaller than 50 microns, Gd-content was as high as possible, and release of Gd was suppressed as long as possible. Calcium carbonate (20-32 microns) was selected as a speed particle. As a Gd-source, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) or a synthesized water-insoluble Gd-DTPA derivative, Gd-DTPA-distearylamide (Gd-DTPA-SA), was layered onto the seed particles. The release-suppressing layer was composed of aqueous acrylic latex of 9:9:4 poly(ethyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). In preliminary studies, Gd-DTPA microcapsules with 41-45 microns (mass median diameter) were prepared; they released Gd with a short lag-time and 3h-prolongation. Complete release suppression was, however, difficult to achieve because of high water-solubility of Gd-DTPA. Hence, a hydrophobic derivative, Gd-DTPA-SA, was next used as a Gd source. Gd-DTPA-SA microcapsules could be prepared with a mass median diameter of 52 microns. Gd-DTPA-SA content of the microcapsules was 38% and release of Gd was suppressed to less than 0.2% over 60 d. PMID:9433776

  12. Effect of background region of interest and time-interval selection on glomerular filtration ratio estimation by percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA in comparison with (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Katrien; Vandermeulen, Eva; Saunders, Jimmy H; Dobbeleir, André A; Ham, Hamphrey R; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of glomerular function is a useful part of the diagnostic approach in animals suspected of having renal disease. Time-interval and background region of interest (bg ROI) selection are determining factors when calculating the glomerular filtration ratio (GFR) based on percentage uptake of (99m)technetium-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA). Therefore, three different time intervals (60-120 s, 120-180 s, 60-180 s) and three different bg ROIs (C-shape, caudolateral, cranial + caudal) were investigated. In addition, global GFRs based on percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA for the different time-intervals and bg ROIs were compared with the global GFR based on (51)chromium-ethylene diaminic tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) plasma clearance in nine healthy European domestic shorthair cats. Paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Different time intervals seemed to cause significant variation (P <0.01) in absolute GFR values, regardless of the choice of bg ROI. Significant differences (P <0.01) between bg ROIs were only observed in the 120-180s time interval between the C-shape and cranial + caudal bg ROI, and between the caudolateral and cranial + caudal bg ROI. The caudolateral bg ROI in the 60-180 s time interval showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.882) between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (51)Cr-EDTA, although a significant difference (P <0.05) was present between both techniques. PMID:23349527

  13. Use of gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid, as measured by ELISA, in the determination of glomerular filtration rates in cats.

    PubMed

    Sox, Erika M; Chiotti, Ruthanne; Goldstein, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a commercially available assay for gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for use in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats (Gd-DTPA GFR) with a wide range of GFRs. Eighteen adult cats (11 healthy and seven with chronic kidney disease) were included. Plasma concentrations of Gd-DTPA following intravenous injection were measured with an ELISA kit (FIT-GFR). Results for Gd-DTPA GFR were compared with simultaneously obtained values for plasma clearance of iohexol (iohexol GFR), plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations. A negative correlation existed between iohexol GFR and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. A positive correlation existed between Gd-DTPA GFR and iohexol GFR. There was no correlation between Gd-DTPA GFR and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. In this study plasma clearance of Gd-DTPA assayed by FIT-GFR did not appear to provide a sufficiently accurate estimation of GFR in cats when compared with plasma clearance of iohexol, and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. PMID:20724186

  14. Extrarenal abnormalities in Tc-99m-DTPA renal blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors observed extrarenal abnormalities during renal flow scintigraphy and retrospectively reviewed 90 patient studies to determine the types and frequencies of such abnormal findings. For each routine Tc-99m-DTPA renal flow study, they obtained nine 2-second sequential images, which included the heart, abdominal aorta, spleen and kidneys. Eighty abnormalities, observed in 62 patients, were divided into three categories: aortic, 37 cases; splenic, 40 cases; and miscellaneous, 3 cases. Other correlative studies including Tc-99m sulfur colloid-spleen scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), CT, aortography, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were available for corroboration in 56 of 80 lesions.

  15. Additive effect of BPA and Gd-DTPA for application in accelerator-based neutron source.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, F; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Zaboronok, A; Matsumura, A

    2015-12-01

    Because of its fast metabolism gadolinium as a commercial drug was not considered to be suitable for neutron capture therapy. We studied additive effect of gadolinium and boron co-administration using colony forming assay. As a result, the survival of tumor cells with additional 5 ppm of Gd-DTPA decreased to 1/10 compared to the cells with boron only. Using gadolinium to increase the effect of BNCT instead of additional X-ray irradiation might be beneficial, as such combination complies with the short-time irradiation regimen at the accelerator-based neutron source. PMID:26242560

  16. Functional fecal retention visualized by (111)In-DTPA colon transit scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jose Rafael; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Garcia, Lucia; Moreno, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Constipation is an extremely common problem in children, varying from mild and short-lived to severe and chronic. Chronic constipation is a serious childhood condition and requires further investigation, including blood test, colonoscopy, radio-opaque marker study, and/or scintigraphy. We present small bowel and colon transit scintigraphy of a 14-year-old girl with history of chronic constipation, abdominal pain, weight loss, and poor response to medical treatment. After oral administration of In-DTPA in water, planar and SPECT/CT images showed normal small bowel transit time and functional fecal retention in colon transit study. PMID:25706788

  17. Effect of ethanol on droplet size, efficiency of delivery, and clearance characteristics of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol.

    PubMed

    Sirr, S A; Juenemann, P J; Tom, H; Boudreau, R J; Chandler, R P; Loken, M K

    1985-06-01

    With recent technical advances in aerosol technology, the study of regional ventilation using [99mTc]DTPA aerosol has become increasingly popular. Using a cascade impactor, we have assessed droplet size distribution from a newly designed nebulizer. Delivery efficiency of [99mTc]DTPA aerosol to normal subjects was improved 70% with a 10% concentration of ethanol in the nebulizer. Using filter paper fixed to the delivery end of the aerosol device, and varying ethanol concentrations from 0-10%, an 87% increase of deposited radioactivity is measured. Use of higher concentration of ethanol to the nebulizer solution did not further improve delivery efficiency. The addition of ethanol did not alter clearance characteristics of [99mTc]DTPA from the lung nor did it affect droplet size distribution. PMID:3889235

  18. Effect of ethanol on droplet size, efficiency of delivery, and clearance characteristics of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Sirr, S.A.; Juenemann, P.J.; Tom, H.; Boudreau, R.J.; Chandler, R.P.; Loken, M.K.

    1985-06-01

    With recent technical advances in aerosol technology, the study of regional ventilation using (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol has become increasingly popular. Using a cascade impactor, the authors have assessed droplet size distribution from a newly designed nebulizer. Delivery efficiency of (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol to normal subjects was improved 70% with a 10% concentration of ethanol in the nebulizer. Using filter paper fixed to the delivery end of the aerosol device, and varying ethanol concentrations from 0-10%, an 87% increase of deposited radioactivity is measured. The addition of ethanol did not alter clearance characteristics of (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA from the lung nor did it affect droplet size distribution.

  19. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  20. Evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab as a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting VEGF expressing cancers.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Vimalnath, K V; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at the preparation and evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab for targeting VEGF over-expressing cancers. Bevacizumab conjugated to p-NCS-Bn-CHX-A''-DTPA was radiolabeled with (177)Lu. The radioimmunoconjugate characterized by SE-HPLC exhibited radiochemical purity of 98.0±0.6%. In vitro stability was retained upto 4 days at 37°C. In vitro cell binding studies showed good uptake by VEGF expressing U937 tumor cells. Biodistribution studies in melanoma model showed significant uptake and retention of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab in tumor with reduction in uptake in presence of cold Bevacizumab confirming its specificity to VEGF. PMID:27258216

  1. Biotransformation Capacity of Carboxylesterase in Skin and Keratinocytes for the Penta-Ethyl Ester Prodrug of DTPA.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Sadgrove, Matthew; Marson, Lesley; Jay, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), referred to as C2E5, effectively accelerated clearance of americium after transdermal delivery. Carboxylesterases (CESs) play important roles in facilitating C2E5 hydrolysis. However, whether CESs in human skin hydrolyze C2E5 remains unknown. We evaluated the gene and protein expression of CESs in distinctive human epidermal cell lines: HEKa, HEKn, HaCaT, and A431. The substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) and 4-nitrophenyl valerate (4-NPV) were used to access esterase and CES activity. C2E5 hydrolysis was measured by radiometric high-performance liquid chromatography after incubation of [(14)C]C2E5 with supernatant fractions after centrifugation at 9000g (S9) prepared from skin cell lines. CES-specific inhibitors were used to access metabolism in human skin S9 fractions with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified the human carboxylesterase 1 and 2 (CES1 and CES2) bands in a Western blot. The gene expression of these enzymes was supported by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). pNPA and 4-NPV assays demonstrated esterase and CES activity in all the cell lines that were comparable to human skin S9 fractions. The prodrug C2E5 was hydrolyzed by skin S9 fractions, resulting in a primary metabolite, C2E4. In human skin S9 fractions, inhibition of C2E5 hydrolysis was greatest with a pan-CES inhibitor (benzil). CES1 inhibition (troglitazone) was greater than CES2 (loperamide), suggesting a primary metabolic role for CES1. These results indicate that human keratinocyte cell lines are useful for the evaluation of human cutaneous metabolism and absorption of ester-based prodrugs. However, keratinocytes from skin provide a small contribution to the overall metabolism of C2E5. PMID:27130352

  2. Preparation and immunoreactivity of high specific activity indium-111-DTPA labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) using ultrapure indium-111

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Neumann, R.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of high-specific activity /sup 111/In-DTPA-MoAb without increasing the number of DTPA molecules per Ab was investigated. Instant thin layer chromatography was used to assay the relationship between labeling efficiencies and specific activities. With ultrapurified /sup 111/In, the specific activity of the radiolabeled MoAb approached the expected theoretic maximum of 100 muCi/microgram. The bioactivity of such high-specific activity preparation showed no degradation as measured by in vitro cell binding assay.

  3. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  4. Investigation of the solution properties of the transuranium elements. Progress report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1982. [Nitriloacetate, iminodiacetate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ensor, D.D.; Shah, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of our program for the period July 1, 1980 to June 30, 1982 in determining the fundamental solution properties of the transuranium elements. The use of LaF/sub 3/ as the precipitating matrix for the determination of Tb(III) by selective laser excitation has been demonstrated. This technique has been applied to the determination of Cm(III) in aqueous solutions with a detection limit of at least 1 x 10/sup -12/ mole %. The modification of the extraction characteristics of HDNNS by the addition of hydrophobic carboxylic acids has been investigated. Results indicate the inclusion of these compounds in the micelle formed by HDNNS will alter the distribution of trivalent metal ions. The thermodynamic parameters (..delta..G, ..delta..H, and ..delta..S) for the complexation of a series of aminopolycarboxylates with trivalent actinides have been measured. Comparison of ..delta..G values for the trivalent actinides with data for the trivalent lanthanides shows little difference; however, the measured ..delta..H and ..delta..S values for the two families is quite different. The data for the aminopolycarboxylate system have been interpreted as indicating the loss of one additional water molecule per carboxylate group from the actinide ions during complexation when compared with the lanthanide ions.

  5. Clinical experience with technetium-99m DTPA aerosol with perfusion scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.B.; Gardner, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of radioaerosol imaging, 156 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) were studied. In 25 patients, a preperfusion xenon-133 (Xe-133) study was compared with a postperfusion study using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. It was found that they were of equal value most of the time (56%), but that the aerosol study was more often helpful. Because of this, and the technical ease of using six standard views with radioaerosol, the series was completed using perfusion scintigraphy followed by radioaerosol images. In 19 patients the perfusion scintigraphy with Tc-99 macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) was normal or nearly normal and no aerosol study was required. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol images were satisfactory when the count rate was at least twice and preferably three times that of the previous perfusion study. There were 17 studies (11%) classified as intermediate. There were 26 patients classified as high probability for PE, and angiographic or autopsy correlation was available in 14. All of the 14 proved to have PE. In the 113 patients classified as low probability, there were ten with angiographic or autopsy correlation. In the ten, there was one patient with a small pulmonary embolus found at autopsy. Clinical follow-up for over two months confirmed the absence of PE in the remainder of this group. Aerosol studies have proven technically easier to perform and a satisfactory substitute for xenon imaging in suspected PE.

  6. Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Silfverdal, Sven A; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis. PMID:25483640

  7. 99m T c-DTPA Study to Validate an Experimental Model of Ureteral Obstruction in Rabbits: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Bertti, Rodolfo; Moro, Juliano César; Coltro Neto, Fábio; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Fregonesi, Adriano; de Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes; Ramos, Celso Darío

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To create a ureteral obstruction experimental model that can be proved through 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological studies, without causing total renal function loss. Materials and Methods. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were submitted to a surgical experiment to create a model of unilateral obstruction to urinary flow. Surgery procedure provided unilateral ureteral obstruction (left kidney) to urinary flow and posteriorly was evaluated by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological study. 99mTc-DTPA renal study was performed to detect and quantify signs of obstruction and to evaluate renal function. Statistical analysis was performed through the Student t-test with a significance level of P<0.05. Results. Nine of the ten rabbits presented left renal unit obstruction and one nonobstructive on the 99mTc-DTPA and histopathological studies. All the right renal units, which were not submitted to surgical procedure, were nonobstructed by the studies. There was a general agreement between scintigraphy and histopathological results in both groups. Conclusion. The experimental model promoted the creation of ureteral obstruction in rabbits, confirmed by nuclear medicine scintigraphy and histopathology, and could be used in further studies to better understand urinary obstruction. PMID:24489538

  8. Pneumocystis pneumonia increases the clearance rate of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.K.; Higenbottam, T.W.

    1985-10-01

    Despite no radiographic change, a patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia showed increased clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood. Gas transfer for carbon monoxide was also reduced, but improved with treatment. This was paralleled by serial increase in the t1/2 LB.

  9. P16.33AN IN SILICO ESTIMATION OF THE PHARMACOKINETIC PROFILE AND THE DISPOSITION OF GD-DTPA IN BRAIN TUMOR LESIONS OF DIFFERENT VASCULATURE THROUGH PBPK MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Spanakis, M.; Oraiopoulou, M.E.; Tzamali, E.; Sakkalis, V.; Maris, T.G.; Papadaki, E.; Karantanas, A.; Marias, K.

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumor lesions (BTL), i.e. high grade gliomas, are known to have a prominence of vasculature, which is promoted through hypoxia mechanisms and differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with intra-venous (i.v.) administration of a Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA) are successfully used for the diagnosis and characterization of the BTLs. Tracer kinetics plays an important role in DCE-MRI by assessing the vessel leakage through estimation of the transfer and disposition of GBCAs in a lesion. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) represents a well-documented approach to estimate in silico the disposition of pharmacologic agents in the body. In this work, we sought to i)present a whole-body PBPK approach in order to estimate the PK profile of Gd-DTPA (Gadopentetic acid, Magnevist®) and ii)evaluate the impact of vascular fraction of tracer's extravascular-extracellular disposition in a simulated BTL. PK profile was assessed through the application of Simcyp® simulator platform and the generation of whole-body PBPK model. BTL was introduced as an additional compartment (∼5% of total brain weight) with tissue characteristics matching those of a brain tumor. In silico clinical trials (ISCTs) were designed by integrating literature data for a virtual population of patients with cancer for Simcyp® and Gd-DTPA properties. The ISCTs were generated for a representative individual and concentrations were estimated for 15 minutes following i.v. bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Given the simulated BTL's size, all parameters were kept constant except for capillary fraction in order to evaluate the impact of vasculature. RESULTS: from the whole-body PBPK simulations estimate the maximum plasma concentration of Gd-DTPA to be 3.0 mM whereas the intracranial blood concentration to be 1.7 mM. Regarding the simulated BTL, concentrations

  10. Preliminary study of the metal binding site of an anti-DTPA-indium antibody by equilibrium binding immunoassays and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boden, V; Colin, C; Barbet, J; Le Doussal, J M; Vijayalakshmi, M

    1995-01-01

    Creating metal coordination sites by modifying an existing enzyme or by eliciting antibodies against metal chelate haptens is of great interest in biotechnology to create enzyme catalysts with novel specificities. Here, we investigate the metal binding potential of a monoclonal antibody raised against a DTPA-In(III) hapten (mAb 734). We study its relative binding efficiency to metals of biological relevance by equilibrium binding immunoassays and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, two approaches which can give complementary information regarding composition and/or structure of the metal binding site(s). Fe(III), Fe(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Ca(II), and Zn(II) binding was compared to In(III). All of them were shown to displace indium, but their affinity for mAb 734 decreased by 100-fold compared to indium. Competitive metal binding immunoassays between Zn(II) and In(III) revealed an unusual behavior by Zn(II) which remains to be explained. Moreover, IMAC allowed us to predict the metal binding amino acids involved in the antibody paratope. The antibody metal binding site was shown to contain at least two histidine residues in a cluster, and the presence of aspartic and glutamic acid as well as cysteine residues could not be excluded. Thus, simple competition studies allows us to obtain some partial information on the metal binding structural features of this anti-metal chelate antibody and to guide our screening of its catalytic potential. PMID:7578356

  11. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×109 MBs ml-1 using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C3F8) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd3+ ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T2*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. The r1 and r2 relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s-1mM-1, respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T1-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual-modality contrast agent for

  12. Stability constants of the ternary complexes of CuDTPA, NiDCTA, CrEDTA, CoHEEDTA, NiHEEDTA and CuHEEEDT Aheedta with OH-.

    PubMed

    Korsse, J; Leurs, G A; Louwrier, P W

    1985-06-01

    The acid dissociation constants of the metal chelates H(3)CuDTPA, H(2) NiDCTA, HCrEDTA, HCoHEEDTA, HNiHEEDTA and HCuHEEDTA were determined by potentiometric titration. The constants determined at an ionic strength of 0.1 were pK(a,1) = 2.1; pK(a,2) = 2.8 and pK(a,3) = 4.75 for H(3) CuDTPA (296 K), pK(a,1) = 2.16 for HCrEDTA (298 K); pK(a,1) = 1.6 and pK(a,2) = 2.0 for H(2) NiDCTA (298 K); pK(a,1) = 2.24 for HCoHEEDTA, pK(a,1) = 2.47 for HCuHEEDTA and pK(a,1) = 1.73 for HNi-HEEDTA. At high pH the formation of ternary hydroxo-complexes was observed for the chelates CrEDTA(-) (pK(a,1) = 7.35; pK(a,1) = 12.35), CoHEEDTA(-) (pK(a,1) = 11.74), NiHEEDTA(-) (pK(a,2) = 12,44) and CuHEEDTA(-) (pK(a,2) = 10.45). PMID:18963877

  13. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA for palliation of pain from osseous metastases: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C. ||

    1995-05-01

    The physical and biological attributes of {sup 117m}Sn(4+)-DTPA indicate that it should be an effective agent for palliative therapy of painful bony metastatic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not this agent could effectively reduce pain while sparing the hemopoietic marrow from adverse effects. Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females) with painful bony metastases from various primary cancers were included in the study. Seven patients received 1.22 to 3.11 MBq/kg of {sub 117m}Sn intravenously (Group 1) and eight patients received 4.85 to 5.77 MBq/kg (Group 2). All but one were treated as outpatients and followed for a minimum of 2 mo. In the first group, pain relief was nonassessable in four patients because of death or additional treatment of soft-tissue disease by another modality. One patient had no relief of pain, one had complete relief of pain and one had transient relief of pain. No myelotoxicity was observed. For Group 2, three patients achieved complete relief of pain, two good relief, two partial relief and one began to experience pain relief when he suffered a pathological fracture 2 mo most-treatment. None of these patients had myelotoxicity. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA can reduce pain from metastatic disease to bone without inducing adverse reactions related to bone marrow. Further studies are needed to assess tolerance levels for the bone marrow and to evaluate response rates and duration of effect. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. [Clinical application of 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin in hepatobiliary disease].

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Itoh, K; Nagao, K; Katoh, H; Okushiba, T; Satoh, M; Tomiyama, M; Hiraguchi, E; Tanabe, T

    1993-02-01

    A clinical study with 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) was performed in 10 patients with hepatobiliary disease. In this study, scintigraphic data and images with 99mTc-GSA were compared with several serological liver function tests, the hepatic blood perfusion index and image quality using 99mTc-DTPA-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA). Dynamic and serial hepatic images were obtained over a 20 min period after 99mTc-GSA injection, and time activity curves from the heart and liver were generated. The blood clearance index (HH15), and the hepatic uptake index (LHL15) were calculated from each curve of the heart and liver, respectively. In addition, using two compartment fitting, the blood clearance (KH1, KH2) index was calculated, and using exponential fitting, the hepatic uptake index (KL) was calculated. The mean HH15 in LC group and non-LC group was 0.81 +/- 0.05, 0.64 +/- 0.10, respectively. The mean LHL15 in LC group and non-LC group was 0.79 +/- 0.04, 0.91 +/- 0.06, respectively. There were significant differences between non-LC group and LC group in HH15, and LHL15, KH1 and KL. There were also significant correlations of KH1 with HH15, and KL with LHL15. Parameters of 99mTc-GSA showed significant correlations with various liver functions. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy showed clearer liver images in hepatobiliary diseases than 99mTc-HSA. These results suggest that 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy is useful in estimating preserved liver function and hepatic morphology. PMID:8468807

  15. Primed Infusion with Delayed Equilibrium of Gd.DTPA for Enhanced Imaging of Small Pulmonary Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kalber, Tammy L.; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E.; Siow, Bernard M.; Sage, Elizabeth; Price, Anthony N.; Ordidge, Katherine L.; Walker-Samuel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To use primed infusions of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Gd.DTPA (Magnevist), to achieve an equilibrium between blood and tissue (eqMRI). This may increase tumor Gd concentrations as a novel cancer imaging methodology for the enhancement of small tumor nodules within the low signal-to-noise background of the lung. Methods A primed infusion with a delay before equilibrium (eqMRI) of the Gd(III) chelator Gd.DTPA, via the intraperitoneal route, was used to evaluate gadolinium tumor enhancement as a function of a bolus injection, which is applied routinely in the clinic, compared to gadolinium maintained at equilibrium. A double gated (respiration and cardiac) spin-echo sequence at 9.4T was used to evaluate whole lungs pre contrast and then at 15 (representative of bolus enhancement), 25 and 35 minutes (representative of eqMRI). This was carried out in two lung metastasis models representative of high and low tumor cell seeding. Lungs containing discrete tumor nodes where inflation fixed and taken for haematoxylin and eosin staining as well as CD34 staining for correlation to MRI. Results We demonstrate that sustained Gd enhancement, afforded by Gd equilibrium, increases the detection of pulmonary metastases compared to bolus enhancement and those tumors which enhance at equilibrium are sub-millimetre in size (<0.7 mm2) with a similar morphology to early bronchoalveolar cell carcinomas. Conclusion As Gd-chelates are routinely used in the clinic for detecting tumors by MRI, this methodology is readily transferable to the clinic and advances MRI as a methodology for the detection of small pulmonary tumors. PMID:23382996

  16. Initial clinical evaluation of radiolabeled MX-DTPA humanized BrE-3 antibody in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, E L; Liebes, L; Wasserheit, C; Noz, M E; Blank, E W; Zabalegui, A; Melamed, J; Furmanski, P; Peterson, J A; Ceriani, R L

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate radiometal-labeled humanized BrE-3 (huBrE-3) monoclonal antibody as a radioimmunolocalization and therapeutic agent in breast cancer patients, tumor localization, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, and immunogenicity of (111)In-labeled combined 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 3-methyl- and 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 4-methyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (MX-DTPA) huBrE-3 were studied. Seven women with BrE-3 antigen-positive, metastatic breast carcinoma underwent (111)In huBrE-3 infusion (5 mCi; 50 mg), followed by serial gamma camera imaging and plasma sampling. Region of interest analysis of images was used to make radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3. Data were extrapolated to 90Y huBrE-3. Human anti-human antibody (HAHA) response was measured in serum samples obtained up to 3 months after infusion. Patients tolerated infusions well. Seventy-six percent of 105 known sites of disease were identified on planar and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. For six of seven patients, a biexponential model fit the plasma time-activity curve best with an average T1/2alpha=10.6+/-8.5 (SD) h and average T1/2beta=114.2+/-39.2 h. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3 for whole body averaged 0.53+/-.08 rads/mCi. Dose estimates for 90Y huBrE-3 for marrow averaged 8.4+/-11.9 rads/mCi, and for tumors, 70+/-31.5 rads/mCi. Liver radioactivity uptake averaged 19.7+/-8.8% injected dose at 24 h after infusion, translating into an average radiation absorbed dose 21.1+/-12 rads/90Y mCi administered. Only one of seven patients demonstrated a low level of HAHA response. Although the plasma half-lives are longer and marrow dose higher for radiolabeled huBrE-3 compared with the murine construct, the excellent tumor localization, good tumor dosimetry, and low immunogenicity support the use of 90Y-huBrE-3 antibody for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:9676842

  17. The Impact of Gd-Eob-Dtpa-Enhanced MR Cholangiography in Biliary Diseases: Comparison with T2-Weighted MR Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Özmen, Evrim; Algın, Oktay; Evrimler, Şehnaz; Arslan, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography is a novel technique and promising method in demonstrating biliary tree anatomy and evaluating biliary disorders. However, to date, there are a limited number of studies that have focused on the impact of this technique. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the additional role of contrast enhanced MR cholangiography (MRC) and compare contrast enhanced MRC with T2-weighted (w) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the diagnosis of biliary disorders. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: The T2w-MRCP and contrast enhanced MRC sequences of 31 patients whose gold standard test results were available were scored visually for the existence of pathological findings with regard to any of the biliary diseases. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) was used as the contrast agent. The correlation values were determined according to the statistical analysis made from those scores and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of each sequence were detected as well. Results: We detected that the correlation values with gold standard methods of contrast enhanced MRC sequences were significantly higher than the ones of T2w-MRCP sequences. The correlation ratios of T2w-MRCP sequences were between 26 and 34%, while those for contrast enhanced MRC sequences were between 81 and 83% for the first reader and the correlation ratios of T2w-MRCP sequences were between 10 and 61%, whereas those of contrast enhanced MRC were between 79 and 81% for the second reader The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of T2w-MRCP sequences were 14.3–42.5%, 85–89.2% and 59.3–72.5%, respectively, while the mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of contrast enhanced MRC sequences were 100%, 86.7% and 93.2–93.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We suggest that obtaining of contrast enhanced MRC sequences in addition to the T2w-MRCP can be useful in the

  18. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal. PMID:22738207

  19. Assessment of effective absorbed dose of (111)In-DTPA-Buserelin in human on the basis of biodistribution rat data.

    PubMed

    Lahooti, Afsaneh; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effective absorbed dose to human organs was estimated, following intra vascular administration of (111)In-DTPA-Buserelin using biodistribution data from rats. Rats were sacrificed at exact time intervals of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h post injections. The Medical Internal Radiation Dose formulation was applied to extrapolate from rats to humans and to project the absorbed radiation dose for various human organs. From rat data, it was estimated that a 185-MBq injection of (111)In-DTPA-Buserelin into the human might result in an estimated absorbed dose of 24.27 mGy to the total body and the highest effective absorbed dose was in kidneys, 28.39 mSv. The promising results of this study emphasises the importance of absorbed doses in humans estimated from data on rats. PMID:22874898

  20. A novel contrast agent with rare earth-doped up-conversion luminescence and Gd-DTPA magnetic resonance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qing; Wei, Daixu; Cheng, Jiejun; Xu, Jianrong; Zhu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    The magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF4:Yb, Er were successfully synthesized by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The room-temperature upconversion luminescent spectra and T1-weighted maps of the obtained nanoparticles were carried out by 980 nm NIR light excitation and a 3T MR imaging scanner, respectively. The results indicated that the as-synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles with small size, highly solubility in water, and both high MR relaxivities and upconversion luminescence may have potential usage for MR imaging in future.

  1. Regional evaluation of renal dynamics in post transplant kidneys with Tc-99m DTPA and scinti-camera

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Akuta, K.; Aoki, S.; Furunishi, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nakane, Y.; Pak, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the regional renal dynamic process (renal perfusion, accumulation and clearance) using Tc-99m DTPA and assess for the regional renal indices from this analysis early to detect acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection of post transplant kidneys. The subjects were 6 normal donors and 10 post renal transplant patients. Tc-99m DTPA (20 mCi) was injected into the vein by a bolus, and its activity change in the kidney was measured by a scintillation camera, and stored each 1 sec. for 20 sec. following each 15 sec. for 20 min. in the computer, to calculate the renal functional indices: the perfusion index, the blood flow mean transit time, the accumulation rate and the clearance rate in the cortex, medulla and pelvis, whose R.O.I. regions were separated in the early and late scinti-images. The accumulation ratio, a new parameter, which is the second upslope part of Tc-99m DTPA renogram, and the clearance rate were calculated from H/A method. The authors made the functional images of these indices to estimate their regional distribution. The accumulation rate and the clearance rate only in the cortex were markedly decreased in the acute tubular necrosis and the rejection, which functional images showed irregular distributions. It was possible to evaluate the renal perfusion with Tc-99m DTPA, separated from the renal accumulation and clearance process. The authors' method gave the assessment of the regional renal disorders with the functional images; the renal disorders in acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection exist mainly in the cortex.

  2. A novel contrast agent with rare earth-doped up-conversion luminescence and Gd-DTPA magnetic resonance properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Qing; Wei Daixu; Cheng Jiejun; Xu Jianrong; Zhu Jun

    2012-08-15

    The magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er were successfully synthesized by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The room-temperature upconversion luminescent spectra and T{sub 1}-weighted maps of the obtained nanoparticles were carried out by 980 nm NIR light excitation and a 3T MR imaging scanner, respectively. The results indicated that the as-synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles with small size, highly solubility in water, and both high MR relaxivities and upconversion luminescence may have potential usage for MR imaging in future. - Graphical abstract: We have synthesized magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF4:Yb, Er by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles are highly efficient for luminescence and T{sub 1}-weighted MR imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles are small in size and highly solubility in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles hold great potential usage for future biomedical engineering.

  3. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate-Polymeric Micelles Incorporating Gadolinium Chelates for Imaging-Guided Gadolinium Neutron Capture Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Li, Yanmin; Aoki, Ichio; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-23

    Gadolinium (Gd) chelates-loaded nanocarriers have high potential for achieving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Gd neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) of tumors. Herein, we developed calcium phosphate micelles hybridized with PEG-polyanion block copolymers, and incorporated with the clinical MRI contrast agent Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA/CaP). The Gd-DTPA/CaP were nontoxic to cancer cells at the concentration of 100 μM based on Gd-DTPA, while over 50% of the cancer cells were killed by thermal neutron irradiation at this concentration. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA/CaP showed a dramatically increased accumulation of Gd-DTPA in tumors, leading to the selective contrast enhancement of tumor tissues for precise tumor location by MRI. The enhanced tumor-to-blood distribution ratio of Gd-DTPA/CaP resulted in the effective suppression of tumor growth without loss of body weight, indicating the potential of Gd-DTPA/CaP for safe cancer treatment. PMID:26033034

  4. Long-circulating gadolinium-encapsulated liposomes for potential application in tumor neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Le, Uyen M; Cui, Zhengrong

    2006-04-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is a promising cancer therapy modality. One of the key factors for a successful Gd-NCT is to deliver and maintain a sufficient amount of Gd in tumor tissues during neutron irradiation. We proposed to prepare a Gd delivery system by complexing a Gd-containing compound, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), with a polycationic peptide, poly-L-lysine (pLL), and then encapsulate the complexed Gd-DTPA into PEGylated liposomes. Complexation of Gd-DTPA with pLL not only enhanced the encapsulation efficiency of Gd-DTPA in liposomes, but also significantly limited the release of Gd-DTPA from the liposomes. A Gd-DTPA-encapsulated liposome formulation that contained 6.8+/-0.3 mg/mL of pure encapsulated Gd was prepared. The blood half-life of the Gd encapsulated into the liposome formulation was estimated to be about 24 h in healthy tumor-free mice. About 12 h after the Gd-encapsulated liposomes were intravenously injected into mice with pre-established model tumors, the Gd content in the tumors reached an average of 159 microg/g of wet tumor tissue. This Gd-DTPA encapsulated liposome may be used to deliver Gd into solid tumors for NCT and tumor imaging. PMID:16457973

  5. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  6. Influence of tyramine-induced neurotoxicity on kinetics of first-pass brain TC-99m-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Malveaux, E.; Schmidt, F.; Sarper, R.; Camp, V.; Faraj, B.A.

    1986-03-05

    Tyramine (T) induces coma in phenelzine-treated dogs. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the influence of T in MAO-inhibited dogs on the kinetics of Tc-99m-DTPA during its first passage through the brain by nuclear imaging. The study began with anesthetized dogs (n=10) in a supine position over the camera detector. Data acquisition was started simultaneously following the rapid intracarotid injection of Tc-99m-DTPA (30 mCi) and 60 0.5 second images of the brain were taken. T induced increased uptake with a concomittant impairment in the elimination of Tc-99m-DPTA from the brain of these treated animals as compared to controls. This was accompanied by an appreciable reduction in hemispheric cerebral blood flow (CBF) (56 +/- 19 vs 110 +/- 16 ml/100g/min). Increased cerebrovascular permeability of Tc-99m-DTPA and decreased CBF correlated significantly with development of intracranial hypertension and elevation in CSF catecholamines in these animals. T may have implication in the development of cerebral edema of Reye's syndrome.

  7. The effect of x rays, DTPA, and aspirin on the absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Miller, B.M.

    1983-04-01

    To measure the effect of radiation on plutonium transport, rats that were exposed to 250-kVp X rays were given /sup 238/Pu 3 days afterwards by either gavage or injection into a ligated segment of the duodenum. In a second group of experiments, rats were either injected intraduodenally with /sup 238/Pu-DTPA or administered the chelate intravenously and the /sup 238/Pu by gavage. In a third experiment, rats that had been gavaged with 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of aspirin for 2 days were injected intragastrically with /sup 238/Pu nitrate. Results of the first experiment showed a dose-dependent increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption between 800 and 1500 rad of lower-body X irradiation. Intravenous or intraduodenal injections of DTPA caused a marked increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption but resulted in decreased plutonium deposition in the skeleton and liver. Retention of /sup 238/Pu in the skeleton of rats given aspirin was double that of controls, but the effect on plutonium absorption was less marked than that of DTPA.

  8. (153)Sm(3+) and (111)In(3+) DTPA derivatives with high hepatic specificity: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Prata, M I M; Santos, A C; Neves, M; Geraldes, C F G C; de Lima, J J P

    2002-07-25

    Two DTPA derivatives, a mono-amide derivative containing an iodinated synthon, DTPA-IOPsp (L(1)) and the ligand DTPA(BOM)(3) (BOM=benzyloxymethyl) (L(2)), radiolabelled with (153)Sm(3+) and (111)In(3+), were studied as potential hepatospecific gamma scintigraphic agents. In vivo studies with Wistar rats show that the main excretory pathway for all the chelates studied is the hepatobiliary system. The complexes of L(2) show even greater hepatobiliary specificity than L(1), perhaps as a consequence of longer blood circulation times due to their strong affinity towards HSA. The (153)Sm(3+) chelates are also more hepatospecific than the corresponding (111)In(3+) chelates. The La(3+) and In(3+) chelates of L(1) and L(2) show some structural and dynamic differences in aqueous solution, as studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. While only two nona-coordinated isomers were observed for the La(3+) complexes with both ligands, its number is much larger in the In(3+) complexes, with both octa- and hepta-coordinated species (with unbound side arms), as well as structural isomers for each coordination number. PMID:12121790

  9. Chromium-51-EDTA and technetium-99m-DTPA excretion for assessment of small bowel Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    O'Morain, C.; Chervu, L.; Milstein, D.M.; Das, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, 4 patients with radiologically documented Crohn's disease were given 100 ..mu..Ci of Cr-51-EDTA and 5 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA together orally in 10ml of water, and urine was collected during the following 24 hr period. Sequential imaging of the stomach and the GI tract was done with a LFOV gamma camera at 10 min intervals until the activity cleared the small bowel. The images failed to show any localization of the activity in any disease process and no extraintestinal accumulation site was observed scintigraphically. Mean 24 hr urinary excretion for Tc-99m-DTPA was 4.8 +- 2.6% comparable to that of Cr-51-EDTA in these patients. This study suggests that a comparable oral dose of Tc-99m-DTPA could be substituted for Cr-51-EDTA as a far more readily available agent for documenting small bowel Crohn's disease by quantitative assessment of its urinary excretion.

  10. Case Study: Three Acute 241Am Inhalation Exposures with DTPA Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Cannon, Curt; Lewis, Loren L.

    2010-10-01

    Three workers incurred inhalation exposures to 241Am oxide as a result of waste sorting and compaction activities. The magnitudes of the exposures were not fully recognized until the following day when an in vivo chest count identified a significant lung deposition of 241Am in a male worker, and DTPA chelation therapy was initiated. Two additional workers (one female and one male) were then identified as sufficiently exposed to also warrant therapy. In vivo bioassay measurements were performed over the ensuing 6 months to quantify the 241Am activity in the lungs, liver, and skeleton. Urine and fecal samples were collected and showed readily detectable 241Am. Clinical lab tests and medical evaluations all showed normal results. There were no significant adverse clinical health effects from the therapy. The estimated 241Am inhalation intakes for the three workers were 1800 Bq, 630 Bq, and 150 Bq. Lung retention showed somewhat longer pulmonary clearance half-times than standard inhalation class W or absorption Type M assumptions. The three underwent slightly different therapy regimes, with therapy effectiveness factors (defined as the ratio of the reference doses without therapy relative to the final assessed doses) of 4.65, 1.93, and 1.67, respectively.

  11. Potential dose to nuclear medicine technologists from 99mTc-DTPA aerosol lung studies.

    PubMed

    Achey, Bryan; Miller, Ken; Erdman, Mike; King, Steve

    2004-05-01

    Air sampling performed during 190 Tc-labeled DTPA aerosol lung ventilation studies indicated that the maximum airborne concentration to which the nuclear medicine technologists might be exposed was 7.1 x 10(-1) Bq mL(-1) (1.9 x 10(-5) microCi mL(-1)). If a single technologist performed ALL the aerosol studies, at this maximum airborne concentration, based on the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), the resulting dose equivalents could be either 1 mSv (100 mrem) to the lungs or 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) to the total body. However, the procedures are shared by the technical staff, the times of exposure are represented by only a fraction of the overall procedure time, and the average airborne concentrations were found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the maximum. This resulted in a projected average annual dose equivalent of 7.0 x 10(-3) mSv (0.7 mrem) to the lungs or 7.0 x 10(-4) mSv (0.07 mrem) to the whole body from the performance of these procedures. PMID:15069295

  12. Gadolinium in human glioblastoma cells for gadolinium neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    De Stasio, G; Casalbore, P; Pallini, R; Gilbert, B; Sanità, F; Ciotti, M T; Rosi, G; Festinesi, A; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Perret, D; Mogk, D W; Perfetti, P; Mehta, M P; Mercanti, D

    2001-05-15

    157Gd is a potential agent for neutron capture cancer therapy (GdNCT). We directly observed the microdistribution of Gd in cultured human glioblastoma cells exposed to Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). We demonstrated, with three independent techniques, that Gd-DTPA penetrates the plasma membrane, and we observed no deleterious effect on cell survival. A systematic microchemical analysis revealed a higher Gd accumulation in cell nuclei compared with cytoplasm. This is significant for prospective GdNCT because the proximity of Gd to DNA increases the cell-killing potential of the short-range, high-energy electrons emitted during the neutron capture reaction. We also exposed Gd-containing cells to thermal neutrons and demonstrated the GdNC reaction effectiveness in inducing cell death. These results in vitro stimulated in vivo Gd-DTPA uptake studies, currently underway, in human glioblastoma patients. PMID:11358855

  13. Dyke Award. Evaluation of contrast-enhanced MR imaging in a brain-abscess model.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Clanton, J A; Price, A C; Herzer, W A; Allen, J H; Partain, C L; James, A E

    1985-01-01

    An alpha-streptococcus brain abscess was produced in five dogs and studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (0.5 T) and computed tomography (CT). Non-contrast- and contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained using gadolinium diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd DTPA) for MR imaging and meglumine iothalamate for CT scanning. Each animal was evaluated in the early and later cerebritis stages of abscess evolution. On MR, the area of cerebritis enhanced after administration of Gd DTPA in a manner similar to that observed with contrast-enhanced CT. However, contrast enhancement was greater on the MR examination. Early lesions in two animals were detected only with contrast-enhanced MR imaging. This experience suggests that intravenously administered agents such as Gd DTPA should increase the diagnostic potential of MR imaging in neurologic diseases, especially those altering the blood-brain barrier. PMID:3920873

  14. Functional Hyperbranched Polylysine as Potential Contrast Agent Probes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zu, Guangyue; Liu, Min; Zhang, Kunchi; Hong, Shanni; Dong, Jingjin; Cao, Yi; Jiang, Bin; Luo, Liqiang; Pei, Renjun

    2016-06-13

    Researchers have never stopped questing contrast agents with high resolution and safety to overcome the drawbacks of small-molecule contrast agents in clinic. Herein, we reported the synthesis of gadolinium-based hyperbranched polylysine (HBPLL-DTPA-Gd), which was prepared by thermal polymerization of l-lysine via one-step polycondensation. After conjugating with folic acid, its potential application as MRI contrast agent was then evaluated. This contrast agent had no obvious cytotoxicity as verified by WST assay and H&E analysis. Compared to Gd(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (r1 = 4.3 mM(-1) s(-1)), the FA-HBPLL-DTPA-Gd exhibited much higher longitudinal relaxivity value (r1 = 13.44 mM(-1) s(-1)), up to 3 times higher than Gd-DTPA. The FA-HBPLL-DTPA-Gd showed significant signal intensity enhancement in the tumor region at various time points and provided a long time window for MR examination. The results illustrate that FA-HBPLL-DTPA-Gd will be a potential candidate for tumor-targeted MRI. PMID:27187578

  15. The effects of repeated parenteral administration of chelating agents on the distribution and excretion of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Paternain, J.L.; Corbella, J.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of repeated ip administration of gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) on the distribution and excretion of uranium were assessed in male Swiss mice. Only Tiron significantly increased the amount of uranium excreted into urine and feces. A significant decrease in the concentration of uranium in liver, spleen and bone was observed after administration of Tiron, whereas injection of gallic acid or DTPA resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of the metal in the liver. The results show that Tiron was consistently the most effective chelator of those tested in the treatment of uranium poisoning after repeated daily administration of the metal.

  16. Real-time tracking of dissociation of hyperpolarized 89Y-DTPA: a model for degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Gadolinium (Gd) complexes are widely used relaxation-based clinical contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-based MRI contrast agents with open-chain ligand such as Gd-DTPA, commercially known as magnevist, are less stable compared to Gd complexes with macrocyclic ligands such as GdDOTA (Dotarem). The dissociation of Gd-DPTA into Gd ion and DTPA ligand under certain biological conditions such as high zinc levels can potentially cause kidney damage. Since Gd is paramagnetic, direct NMR detection of the Gd-DTPA dissociation is quite challenging due to ultra-short relaxation times. In this work, we have investigated Y-DTPA as a model for Gd-DPTA dissociation under high zinc content solutions. Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the 89Y NMR signal is amplified by several thousand-fold. Due to the the relatively long T1 relaxation time of 89Y which translates to hyperpolarization lifetime of several minutes, the dissociation of Y-DTPA can be tracked in real-time by hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation kinetic rates and implications on the degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Award Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation research Grant Number AT-1877.

  17. The DyP-type peroxidase DtpA is a Tat-substrate required for GlxA maturation and morphogenesis in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Marloes L C; Vijgenboom, Erik; Chaplin, Amanda K; Worrall, Jonathan A R; van Wezel, Gilles P; Claessen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces lividans depends on the radical copper oxidase GlxA for the formation of reproductive aerial structures and, in liquid environments, for the formation of pellets. Incorporation of copper into the active site is essential for the formation of a cross-linked tyrosyl-cysteine cofactor, which is needed for enzymatic activity. In this study, we show a crucial link between GlxA maturation and a group of copper-related proteins including the chaperone Sco and a novel DyP-type peroxidase hereinafter called DtpA. Under copper-limiting conditions, the sco and dtpA deletion mutants are blocked in aerial growth and pellet formation, similarly to a glxA mutant. Western blot analysis showed that GlxA maturation is perturbed in the sco and dtpA mutants, but both maturation and morphology can by rescued by increasing the bioavailability of copper. DtpA acts as a peroxidase in the presence of GlxA and is a substrate for the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) translocation pathway. In agreement, the maturation status of GlxA is also perturbed in tat mutants, which can be compensated for by the addition of copper, thereby partially restoring their morphological defects. Our data support a model wherein a copper-trafficking pathway and Tat-dependent secretion of DtpA link to the GlxA-dependent morphogenesis pathway. PMID:26740586

  18. The DyP-type peroxidase DtpA is a Tat-substrate required for GlxA maturation and morphogenesis in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Marloes L. C.; Chaplin, Amanda K.; Worrall, Jonathan A. R.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces lividans depends on the radical copper oxidase GlxA for the formation of reproductive aerial structures and, in liquid environments, for the formation of pellets. Incorporation of copper into the active site is essential for the formation of a cross-linked tyrosyl-cysteine cofactor, which is needed for enzymatic activity. In this study, we show a crucial link between GlxA maturation and a group of copper-related proteins including the chaperone Sco and a novel DyP-type peroxidase hereinafter called DtpA. Under copper-limiting conditions, the sco and dtpA deletion mutants are blocked in aerial growth and pellet formation, similarly to a glxA mutant. Western blot analysis showed that GlxA maturation is perturbed in the sco and dtpA mutants, but both maturation and morphology can by rescued by increasing the bioavailability of copper. DtpA acts as a peroxidase in the presence of GlxA and is a substrate for the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) translocation pathway. In agreement, the maturation status of GlxA is also perturbed in tat mutants, which can be compensated for by the addition of copper, thereby partially restoring their morphological defects. Our data support a model wherein a copper-trafficking pathway and Tat-dependent secretion of DtpA link to the GlxA-dependent morphogenesis pathway. PMID:26740586

  19. Consensus Report of the 4th International Forum for Gadolinium-Ethoxybenzyl-Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Christoph J; Bolondi, Luigi; Jonas, Eduard; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Matsui, Osamu; Merkle, Elmar M.; Sakamoto, Michiie; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on issues relating to the optimal use of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA MR imaging) together with the generation of consensus statements from a working group meeting, which was held in Seoul, Korea (2010). Gd-EOB-DTPA has been shown to improve the detection and characterization of liver lesions, and the information provided by the hepatobiliary phase is proving particularly useful in differential diagnoses and in the characterization of small lesions (around 1-1.5 cm). Discussion also focused on advances in the role of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) transporters. Gd-EOB-DTPA is also emerging as a promising tool for functional analysis, enabling the calculation of post-surgical liver function in the remaining segments. Updates to current algorithms were also discussed. PMID:21852900

  20. A feasibility study evaluating the relationship between dose and focal liver reaction in stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for liver cancer based on intensity change of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Yu, Jeong Il; Lim, Do Hoon; Han, Youngyih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In order to evaluate the relationship between the dose to the liver parenchyma and focal liver reaction (FLR) after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), we suggest a novel method using a three-dimensional dose distribution and change in signal intensity of gadoxetate disodium-gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hepatobiliary phase images. Materials and Methods In our method, change of the signal intensity between the pretreatment and follow-up hepatobiliary phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was calculated and then threshold dose (TD) for developing FLR was obtained from correlation of dose with the change of the signal intensity. For validation of the method, TDs for six patients, who had been treated for liver cancer with SABR with 45–60 Gy in 3 fractions, were calculated using the method, and we evaluated concordance between volume enclosed by isodose of TD by the method and volume identified as FLR by a physician. Results The dose to normal liver was correlated with change in signal intensity between pretreatment and follow-up MRI with a median R2 of 0.935 (range, 0.748 to 0.985). The median TD by the method was 23.5 Gy (range, 18.3 to 39.4 Gy). The median value of concordance was 84.5% (range, 44.7% to 95.9%). Conclusion Our method is capable of providing a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between dose and intensity changes on follow-up MRI, as well as determining individual TD for developing FLR. We expect our method to provide better information about the individual relationship between dose and FLR in radiotherapy for liver cancer. PMID:27104169

  1. Effect of metal chelators on excretion and tissue levels of essential trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Jain, V.K.; Mathur, A.K.

    1984-10-01

    The influence of one, three, and six doses of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and triethylenetetramine (TETA) on the urinary excretion of Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn, and on their levels in liver, kidneys, heart, and serum in rats, was investigated to ascertain their suitability in amelioration of metal intoxication. While excretion of all the essential trace metals examined was enhanced significantly, the tissue and serum levels of some of them either increased or decreased after administration of the chelators. The results suggest depletion of some of the endogenous trace metals from the body and their intertissue redistribution following treatment with these chelating agents.

  2. Effect of Temperature on the Protonation of the TALSPEAK Ligands: Lactic and Diethylenetrinitropentaacetic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-10-20

    The protonation reactions of two ligands that play important roles in the TALSPEAK process for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides, lactic acid and diethylenetrinitropentaacetic acid (DTPA), have been studied at variable temperatures. The protonation constants at 10-70 C were determined by titration potentiometry and the protonation enthalpies were determined at 25 C by titration microcalorimetry. The protonation constants remain essentially unchanged (25-70 C) within the experimental uncertainties, indicating that the effect of temperature on the protonation of lactate is insignificant. In contrast, the protonation constants of DTPA (log {beta}H's) generally decrease as the temperature is increased. Results from this study indicate that the effect of temperature on the protonation of DTPA could alter the speciation of metal ions (actinides and lanthanides) in the TALSPEAK system, since lower values of log{beta}H at higher temperatures suggest that the hydrogen ions would compete less strongly with the metal ions for the complexation of DTPA at higher temperatures.

  3. Discordant uptake of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin and Tc-99m Sn colloid in a patient with severe acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, C; Matsunaga, T; Kubo, K

    1994-08-01

    A patient with recently diagnosed severe acute hepatitis underwent serial liver scintigraphy with Tc-99m Sn colloid and Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin. In initial studies, radionuclide distribution on Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin scintigraphy was completely discrepant to that on Tc-99m Sn colloid scintigraphy. In a follow-up study 1 month later, the distribution of both radionuclides in the liver appeared relatively homogeneous. The uptake of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin and Tc-99m Sn colloid reflects the function of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, respectively. Both kinds of scintigraphic study may be helpful to assess histopathologic change of different hepatic tissue architectures. PMID:7955747

  4. Tracking of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid by 7T magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    GENG, KUAN; YANG, ZHONG XIAN; HUANG, DEXIAO; YI, MEIZI; JIA, YANLONG; YAN, GEN; CHENG, XIAOFANG; WU, RENHUA

    2015-01-01

    Progress in the development of stem cell and gene therapy requires repeatable and non-invasive techniques to monitor the survival and integration of stem cells in vivo with a high temporal and spatial resolution. The purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility of using the standard contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) to label rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for stem cell tracking. MSCs, obtained from the bilateral femora of rats, were cultured and propagated. The non-liposomal lipid transfection reagent effectene was then used to induce the intracellular uptake of Gd-DTPA. Electron microscopy was used to detect the distribution of Gd-DTPA particles in the MSCs. The labeling efficiency of the Gd-DTPA particles in the MSCs was determined using spectrophotometry, and MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to evaluate the viability and proliferation of the labeled MSCs. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to observe the labeled cells in vitro and in the rat brain. Gd-DTPA particles were detected inside the MSCs using transmission electron microscopy and a high labeling efficiency was observed. No difference was observed in cell viability or proliferation between the labeled and unlabeled MSCs (P>0.05). In the in vitro T1-weighted MRI and in the rat brain, a high signal intensity was observed in the labeled MSCs. The T1-weighted imaging of the labeled cells revealed a significantly higher signal intensity compared with that of the unlabeled cells (P<0.05) and the T1 values were significantly lower. The function of the labeled MSCs demonstrated no change following Gd-DTPA labeling, with no evident adverse effect on cell viability or proliferation. Therefore, a change in MR signal intensity was detected in vitro and in vivo, suggesting Gd-DTPA can be used to label MSCs for MRI tracking. PMID:25352164

  5. Cigarette smoke induced changes in rat pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/TcDTPA. A comparison of particulate and gas phases

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, B.D.; Royston, D.

    1985-12-01

    The rat model was developed to study the effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary clearance of 99mTcDTPA. The method developed was sufficiently noninvasive to allow frequent repeat measurements to be made with a high degree of reproducibility. Animals exposed twice daily to 90 puffs of dilute whole cigarette smoke for 7 days showed an increase in /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance from the lung which returned to normal within 3 wk of stopping exposure. Filtration of the smoke to remove all the particulate matter abolished the changes.

  6. Comparative biodistributions of indium-111-labelled macrocycle chimeric B72.3 antibody conjugates in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, A.; King, D. J.; Farnsworth, A. P.; Rhind, S. K.; Pedley, R. B.; Boden, J.; Boden, R.; Millican, T. A.; Millar, K.; Boyce, B.

    1994-01-01

    A novel 111In ligand (a C-functionalised derivative of 1,4,7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid), termed 9N3, was covalently attached to chimeric B72.3, labelled with 111In and compared with 111In-labelled chimeric B72.3 diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) cyclic anhydride conjugate (cDTPA) and a C-linked derivative of DTPA (CT-DTPA) in athymic mice bearing human colon carcinoma xenografts. Significant differences in biodistribution were observed between 9N3 and cDTPA conjugates especially in the tumour uptake and blood, liver, femur and colon levels at 24, 48 and 144 h. Significantly higher tumour uptake was observed for 111In-cB72.3-9N3 compared with 111In-cB72.3-cDTPA at all time points. Radiolocalisation (RI) indices increased with time for the 9N3 conjugate but remained constant for the cDTPA conjugate. The biodistribution of 111In-labelled cB72.3-CT-DTPA was similar to that of 111In-labelled cB72.3-9N3 except for elevated kidney levels. A 12N4 macrocycle (a C-functionalised derivative of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid) was also tested for its ability to chelate 111In and its biodistribution examined. Labelled conjugates with this macrocycle were more difficult to prepare in a stable form but gave a very similar biodistribution to the 9N3 macrocycle conjugate. Macrocycle-antibody conjugates of this type offer considerable promise for tumour imaging in patients. PMID:8018538

  7. Estimating blood-brain barrier opening in a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation with Patlak plots of Gd-DTPA contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Fenstermacher, J D; Knight, R A; Ewing, J R; Nagaraja, T; Nagesh, V; Yee, J S; Arniego, P A

    2003-01-01

    Patlak plot processing of Gd-shifted T1 relaxation-time images from a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation yielded estimates and maps of the blood-to-brain influx rate constant of Gd-DTPA (K1). The Patlak plots also produced a heretofore unrecognized parameter, the distribution space of the intravascular-Gd-shifted protons (Vp), an index of blood-to-tissue transfer of water. The K1 values for Gd-DTPA were very high for the regions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and were similar to those of 14C-sucrose concurrently obtained by quantitative autoradiographic (QAR) analysis. In these same ROI's, Vp was five-fold greater than normal, which suggests that the permeability of the BBB to water was also increased. The 14C-sucrose space of distribution in the ischemic ROI's was around 8%, thus indicating a sizable interstitial space. The spatial resolving power of Gd-DTPA-deltaT1 imaging was rather good, although no match for 14C-sucrose-QAR. This study shows that quantitative deltaT1-MRI estimates of regional blood-brain transfer constants of Gd-DTPA and water distribution are possible when Patlak plots are employed to process the data. This approach may be useful for tracking the time-course of BBB barrier function in both animals and humans. PMID:14753399

  8. The correlation between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with renal scintigraphy 99mTc-DTPA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Nazir, F.; Toresano, L. O. H. Z.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal diseases in Indonesia has an increasing annual trend, because it is frequently unrecognized and often co-exists with other disease. GFR and ERPF are parameters currently utilized to estimate renal function at routine renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. This study used 99m-Tc DTPA to measure GFR and ERPF. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between ERPF and GFR, for ERPF analysis with Schlegel's method, and GFR analysis with Gate's method, as well as to find correction factor between both variables. Analysis of renal scintigraphy has been performed at Department of Nuclear Medicine Pertamina Center Hospital to thirty patient images acquired from 2014 to 2015 which were analyzed retrospectively data, using gamma camera dual head with counting method from renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. The calculation was executed by means of both display and manual calculation. Pearson's statistical analysis resulted on Positive Correlation for all data, with ERPF and GFR (display) showing Strongly Positive Correlation (r = 0.82; p- value < 0.05). Standard deviation was found to be 27.58 and 107.64 for GFR and ERPF (display), respectively. Our result indicated that the use of 99mTc-DTPA measure ERPF was not recommended.

  9. Alteration of tissue disposition of cadmium by chelating agents. [Mice; rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, C.D.; Waalkes, M.P.; Cantilena, L.R. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of several chelating agents (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, DDC; nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA; 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, BAL; d,l-penicillamine, PEN; 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA) on the toxicity, distribution and excretion of cadmium (Cd) was determined in mice. When chelators were administered immediately after Cd, significant increases in survival were noted after treatment with DMSA, EDTA, and DTPA. DTPA, followed by EDTA and then DMSA, were consistently the most effective in decreasing the tissue concentrations of Cd and increasing the excretion of Cd. NTA, BAL, DDC and PEN had no beneficial effects. To determine the role of MT in the acute decrease in chelator efficacy following Cd poisoning, rats were injected IV with Cd followed by DTPA at various times after Cd. Although DTPA reduced Cd content in the various organs when given immediately after Cd, the chelator was ineffective at all later times. Increases in hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT) did not occur until 2 hr after Cd, and did not coincide with the earlier drop in chelator efficacy. Blockade of MT synthesis by actinomycin D failed to eliminate this decreased DTPA effectiveness. Therefore, it appears that MT does not play an important role in the acute decrease in efficacy of chelation therapy for Cd poisoning. The effect of repeated daily administration of chelators on the distribution and excretion of Cd was studied by administering chelators daily for 5 days starting 48 hr after Cd. DTPA, EDTA, DMSA and BAL significantly increased the urinary elimination of Cd. Thus, mobilization of Cd into urine occurs with repeated chelation therapy, which may decrease tissue concentrations of Cd and reduce the toxicity of the metal. 4 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Dubovsky, E.V.; Russell, C.D.

    1988-07-01

    In this review article, the following topics are treated: the radiopharmaceuticals /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), /sup 131/I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH), /sup 99m/Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), /sup 67/Ga-citrate, radioiodinated fibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid, 111In-labelled white cells and platelets; gamma camera methods based on images, on first pass and on tubular transit; blood clearance methods; and the diagnosis of surgical complications, acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN), chronic rejection (CR), and cyclosporine-A (CYA) toxicity. 94 references.

  11. Unexpected side products in the conjugation of an amine-derivatized morpholino oligomer with p-isothiocyanate benzyl DTPA and their removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Liu, Yuxia; Liang, Minmin; Chen, Ling; Cheng, Dengfeng; Greiner, Dale; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2011-02-01

    In connection with pretargeting, an amine-derivatized morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (NH(2)-cMORF) was conjugated conventionally with p-isothiocyanate benzyl-DTPA (p-SCN-Bn-DTPA). However, after (111)In radiolabeling, unexpected label instability was observed. To understand this instability, the NH(2)-cMORF and, as control, the native cMORF without the amine were conjugated in the conventional manner. Surprisingly, the (111)In labeling of the native cMORF conjugate was equally effective as that of the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate (>95%) despite the absence of the amine group. Furthermore, heating the radiolabeled NH(2)-cMORF and native cMORF conjugates resulted in a 35% loss and a complete loss of the label, respectively. Since the (111)In labeled DTPA is known to be stable, the instability in both cases must be due to some unstable association of DTPA to the cMORF, presumably unstable association to some endogenous sites in cMORF. Based on this assumption, a postconjugation-prepurification heating step was introduced, and labeling efficiency and stability were again investigated. By introducing the heating step, the side products were dissociated, and after purification and labeling, the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate provided a stable label and high labeling efficiency with no need for postlabeling purification. The biodistribution of this radiolabeled conjugate in normal mice showed significantly lower backgrounds compared with the labeled unstable native cMORF conjugate. In conclusion, the conventional conjugation procedure to attach the p-SCN-Bn-DTPA to NH(2)-cMORF resulted in side product(s) that were responsible for the (111)In label instability. Adding a postconjugation-prepurification heating step dissociated the side products, improved the label stability and lowered tissue backgrounds in mice. PMID:21315270

  12. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in a human tumour xenograft model: implications for novel targeting strategies

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, K J; Rowlinson-Busza, G; Syrigos, K N; Uster, P S; Abra, R M; Stewart, J S W

    2000-01-01

    The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in tumour-bearing nude mice was studied to examine possible applications of pegylated liposome-targeted anti-cancer therapies. Nude mice received an intravenous injection of 100 μl of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes, containing 0.37–0.74 MBq of activity. The t 1/2α and t 1/2β of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes were 1.1 and 10.3 h, respectively. Tumour uptake was maximal at 24 h at 5.5 ± 3.0% ID g–1. Significant reticuloendothelial system uptake was demonstrated with 19.3 ± 2.8 and 18.8 ± 4.2% ID g–1at 24 h in the liver and spleen, respectively. Other sites of appreciable deposition were the kidney, skin, female reproductive tract and to a lesser extent the gastrointestinal tract. There was no indication of cumulative deposition of pegylated liposomes in the lung, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, heart or adrenal glands. In contrast, the t 1/2α and t 1/2β of unencapsulated111In-DTPA were 5 min and 1.1 h, respectively, with no evidence of accumulation in tumour or normal tissues. Incubation of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in human serum for up to 10 days confirmed that they are very stable, with only minor leakage of their contents. The potential applications of pegylated liposomes in the arena of targeted therapy of solid cancers are discussed. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901376

  13. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.

  14. Bilateral photon deficient area along lateral abdominal wall in a Tc-99m DTPA renogram. A sign of massive ascites.

    PubMed

    Shih, W J; Marsano, L S

    1993-07-01

    A patient with congestive heart failure and hepatic and renal dysfunction underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphic studies in which persistent cardiac blood pool activity, hepatic arterialization, and a longitudinal photon deficient area in each side of the abdominal wall were observed. The increase in hepatic artery inflow was believed to be due to a decrease in portal inflow of the liver. The elevation of portal pressure secondary to heart failure is attributable to the decrease in portal inflow of the liver; this phenomenon could account for the hepatic arterialization. Progressive renal dysfunction with high body background resulted in demonstrable ascites as photon deficient areas. Scintigraphic findings of hepatic arterialization plus an abdominal photon deficient area reflect severe heart failure and renal dysfunction. PMID:8344036

  15. Gd-Complexes of New Arylpiperazinyl Conjugates of DTPA-Bis(amides): Synthesis, Characterization and Magnetic Relaxation Properties.

    PubMed

    Ba-Salem, Abdullah O; Ullah, Nisar; Shaikh, M Nasiruzzaman; Faiz, Mohamed; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Two new DTPA-bis(amide) based ligands conjugated with the arylpiperazinyl moiety were synthesized and subsequently transformed into their corresponding Gd(III) complexes 1 and 2 of the type [Gd(L)H2O]·nH2O. The relaxivity (R1) of these complexes was measured, which turned out to be comparable with that of Omniscan®, a commercially available MRI contrast agent. The cytotoxicity studies of these complexes indicated that they are non-toxic, which reveals their potential and physiological suitability as MRI contrast agents. All the synthesized ligands and complexes were characterized with the aid of analytical and spectroscopic methods, including elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, XPS and fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry. PMID:25939069

  16. Comparison of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol with radioactive gas ventilation imaging in patients (pts) with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Alderson, P.O.; Kroop, S.A.; Biello, D.R.; Siegel, B.A.; Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Tc-99m labeled DTPA aerosol (A) as a ventilation agent was compared to that of Xe-133 (Xe) or Kr-81m (Kr) gases in a series of 100 pts (age range 20-83, 53% women) undergoing ventilation-perfusion (V-P) imaging for suspected PE. The majority of pts had A and Xe studies in conjunction with P scans; 26 had A and Kr studies. All A studies were comprised of multiple 100K ct views performed prior to P scanning. Conventional Xe or Kr studies were then performed in conjunction with a multiview P scan. The studies were later reviewed by four independent readers who evaluated 100 V-P studies (100 A-P pairs, 100 gas-P pairs) and the accompanying chest radiographs and determined the probability of PE as none, low, high, or nondiagnostic (NDX). The A scans showed central hot spots in 27% of pts, but poor peripheral penetration in only 5%. Prominent lower lobe deposition was seen in 19 of the 66 pts who inhaled A upright, but in none who inhaled in the supine position. The A-P and gas-P scans were either both diagnostic or both NDX 82% of the time. There were 77% agreement between probability categories for A-P and Kr-P studies, and 74% agreement with Xe-P. These results were better than the inter-observer agreement for gas-P studies alone. Angiography revealed that 3 A-P studies were true negatives, 3 were true positives (pos), and one was a false pos (also pos by gas-P). The results suggest that commercially available DTPA aerosols provide comparable results to gas-P studies in pts with suspected PE.

  17. Distribution of pancreatic B cell imaging agent 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 in the body and animal experimental research on pancreatic B cell functional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Xie, Ying; Tang, Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of the application of 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide as a nuclear medicine imaging agent for evaluating pancreatic B cell function. Methods: (1) Distribution of the experiment: Forty-two mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each mice was injected with 3.7 MBq (100 μCi) of 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and was sacrificed by bloodletting at five minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, two hours, four hours and six hours, respectively. Then, their tissues and organs such as the heart, liver, spleen, brain, kidneys, bones, small bowels, stomach and pancreas,and blood were collected, weighted, and their radioactivity was tested. Subsequently, the percentage injection dose rate (%ID/g) per gram of tissue was calculated. (2) Imaging experiment: Thirty-five mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each was injected with 18.5 MBq (100 μCi) of 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and imaging were conducted at the same time as above. (3) Forty-eight Wistar rats were attained and randomly divided into four groups. The first group served as the healthy control group, while the second, third and fourth groups were diabetic model groups induced by intraperitoneally injecting STZ at different doses. Each group was injected with 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide from the vena caudalis, and radiological evaluations were conducted at 30 minutes, one hour, 1.5 hours and two hours, respectively. The data obtained were estimated using a correlation comparison with the levels of insulin and immunohistochemical count of beta cells. Results: The 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide demonstrated good imaging in the pancreases of mice and rats, and was positively correlated to the level of insulin and the number of pancreatic beta cells. Conclusion: Pancreatic beta cell imaging using 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide may be a method to evaluate pancreatic beta cell function. PMID:27186309

  18. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: A potential utility for the evaluation of regional liver function impairment following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, YU-DONG; PAUDEL, RAMCHANDRA; LIU, HUAN; ZHANG, BIN; MA, CONG; ZHOU, SHUN-KE

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate regional liver function impairment following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced by gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). Additionally, this study evaluated the associations between signal intensity and various clinical factors. A prospective study was conducted between March 2012 and May 2013 with a total of 35 patients. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was performed 3–5 days after TACE therapy. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was subsequently calculated for healthy liver tissue regions and peritumoral regions, prior to and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. The correlation between clinical factors and relative SNR was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient or Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Prior to Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, the SNR values showed no significant difference (t=1.341, P=0.191) in healthy liver tissue regions (50.53±15.99; range, 11.25–83.46) compared with peritumoral regions (49.81±15.85; range, 12.34–81.53). On measuring at 20 min following Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, the SNR in healthy liver tissue regions (82.55±33.33; range, 31.45–153.02) was significantly higher (t=3.732, P<0.001) compared with that in peritumoral regions (75.77±27.41; range, 31.42–144.49). The relative SNR in peritumoral regions correlated only with the quantity of iodized oil used during TACE therapy (r=0.528, P=0.003); the age, gender, diameter and blood supply of the tumor, or Child-Pugh class of the patient did not correlate with relative SNR. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may be an effective way to evaluate regional liver function impairment following TACE therapy. PMID:25663880

  19. Threshold Doses for Focal Liver Reaction After Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Depend on Liver Function: Evaluation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gd-EOB-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanuki, Naoko; Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei; Eriguchi, Takahisa; Nishimura, Shuichi; Aoki, Yosuke; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Iwabuchi, Shogo; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Focal liver reaction (FLR) appears on radiographic images after stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. We investigated the threshold dose (TD) of FLR and possible factors affecting the TD on gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: In 50 patients who were treated with SABR for small HCC and followed up by MRI for >6 months, FLR, seen as a hypointense area, was evaluated on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. The follow-up MRI with the largest extent of FLR was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) image, and patients with good image fusion concordance were eligible. After delineating the border of the FLR manually, a dose–volume histogram was used to identify the TD for the FLR. Clinical and volumetric factors were analyzed for correlation with the TD. Results: A total of 45 patients were eligible for analysis with a median image fusion concordance of 84.9% (range, 71.6-95.4%). The median duration between SABR and subsequent hepatobiliary phase MRI with the largest extent of FLR was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). The median TD for FLR was 28.0 Gy (range, 22.3-36.4 Gy). On univariate analysis, pre-treatment Child-Pugh (CP) score and platelet count were significantly correlated with the TD. On multiple linear regression analysis, CP score was the only parameter that predicted TD. Median TDs were 30.5 Gy (range, 26.2.3-36.4 Gy) and 25.2 Gy (range, 22.3-27.5 Gy) for patients with CP-A and CP-B disease, respectively. Conclusion: The TD was significantly correlated with baseline liver function. We propose 30 Gy for CP-A disease and 25 Gy for CP-B disease in 5 fractions as TDs for FLR after SABR for patients with HCC and chronic liver disease. Use of these TDs will help to predict potential loss of liver tissue after SABR.

  20. Renal scans in pregnant transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1988-08-01

    This study demonstrates the normal technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) renal scan in pregnant patients with transplanted kidneys. Five pregnant renal transplant patients had seven (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renal studies to assess allograft perfusion and function. All scans showed the uteroplacental complex. The bladder was always compressed and distorted. The transplanted kidney was frequently rotated to a more vertical position. In all patients allograft flow and function were maintained. There was calyceal retention on all studies and ureteral retention activity in three of five patients. Using the MIRD formalism, the total radiation absorbed dose to the fetus was calculated to be 271 mrad. This radiation exposure is well within NRCP limits for the fetus of radiation workers and an acceptable low risk in the management of these high risk obstetric patients.

  1. The effect of earthworms on copper fractionation of freshly and long-term polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshikazu; Kaneko, Nobuhiro

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effects of earthworm activity on the bioavailability of Cu in soil. The bioavailable fraction was estimated using sequential extraction, and the results of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction were analyzed for comparison. Changes in the Cu fraction were compared in Cu-spiked soil (high bioavailability) and long-term polluted field soil (low bioavailability) with approximately equivalent total Cu concentrations. Earthworm activity decreased the bioavailable fraction in the Cu-spiked soil, where earthworm body Cu concentrations did not affect the bioavailable fraction. Soil pH was not a factor in the bioavailability differences between soils with and without earthworms in this study. The bioavailable fraction appears to be more heavily affected by biological and physical mechanisms than by soil pH. The two extraction methods showed different trends; the bioavailable fraction method was better than DTPA extraction, because the former gives clear insight into the aging process of Cu in soil. PMID:19477521

  2. Early diagnosis and regional evaluation of radiation mucositis by newly developed TC-99M DTPA labelled agent

    SciTech Connect

    Tamamura, H.; Ohguchi, M.; Higashi, K.

    1994-05-01

    We have developed a new drug for treating acute radiation mucositis which consists of a steroid with potent localized anti-inflammatory effect, and sodium alginate with strong adherence to mucosal surface, and since then we have treated many patients with success. In the present study, we labelled this agent with Tc-99m DTPA, and administered to 10 healthy volunteers and 35 patients with acute radiation mucositis, and determined the values of mean transit time (MTT) and T1/2 from the dynamic phase and the time taken for the mixture to reach to cardia according to Talliefer`s method. Abnormal radionuclide (RN) accumulation in the esophagus was evaluated at 10 minutes after the administration and, the ratio of abnormal RN accumulation count were calculated. In the healthy volunteers, the MTT was 2.67 seconds, T1/2 14.0 seconds, and the time for the drug to reach the stomach 5.25 seconds. Even in the patients with acute radiation mucositis, these values were not significantly different from the healthy controls. However, the images taken at 10 minutes after the administration revealed abnormal RN accumulation corresponding to the irradiated region in all patients. The ratio of this abnormal RN accumulation to the total RN count in the esophagus was 52.48%, the pre-administration RN ratio was 6.45%. None of the healthy volunteers produced abnormal RN accumulation. The ratio of total RN count in the esophagus to pre-administration RN count was only 1.87% in the healthy volunteers, whereas 11.39% in the radiation mucositis group. When Tc-99m DTPA-labelled water was used similarly, the region of radiation esophagitis was not identified on scintigraphy. It was thus suggested that diagnosis of radiation mucositis could be made only with this new agent of high viscosity and very strong mucous adhesive property. Owing to its repeatability and simplicity, this new agent seemed to be useful to make the early diagnosis and regional evaluation of radiation mucositis possible.

  3. Non-invasive evaluation of antiangiogenic effect in a mouse tumor model by DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA cystamine copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xueming; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Emerson, Lyska; Hoffman, John; Parker, Dennis L.; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of polydisulfide-based biodegradable macromolecular Gd(III) complexes, Gd-DTPA cystamine copolymers (GDCC), for assessing tumor microvascular characteristics and monitoring antiangiogenesis therapy was investigated in a mouse model using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). The mice bearing human colon tumor xenografts were intraperitoneally injected with an antiangiogenesis agent Avastin® three times in a week at a dose of 200 µg/mouse. DCE-MRI with GDCC of 40 KDa (GDCC-40) was performed before and at 36 hours after the first treatment with Avastin® and at the end of treatment (7 days). Gd(DTPA-BMA) was used as a low molecular weight control. The tumor vascular parameters, endothelial transfer coefficient Ktrans and factional plasma volume fPV, were calculated from the DCE-MRI data with a two-compartment model. The Ktrans and fPV in tumor periphery estimated by DCE-MRI with GDCC-40 before and after the antiangiogenesis treatment correlated well to tumor growth before and after the treatment in the tumor model. In contrast, the parameters estimated by Gd(DTPA-BMA) did not show significant correlation to the therapeutic efficacy. This study demonstrates that DCE-MRI with the biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent can provide effective assessment of the antiangiogenic efficacy of Avastin® in the animal tumor model based on measured vascular parameters in tumor periphery. PMID:19958031

  4. Quantitative imaging of the tissue contrast agent [Gd(DTPA)]²⁻ in articular cartilage by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Wiener, Edzard; Marnitz, Tim; Wu, Bei; Müller, Berit; Hamm, Bernd; Sabine Becker, J

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is an emerging analytical technique in the generation of quantitative images of MR contrast agent distribution in thin tissue sections of articular cartilage. An analytical protocol is described that includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of tissue sections, mass spectrometric measurements by LA-ICP-MS and quantification of gadolinium images by one-point calibration, standard addition method (employing matrix-matched laboratory standards) and isotope dilution analysis using highly enriched stable Gd-155 isotope (abundance 92 vs 14.8% in the [Gd(DTPA)]²⁻ contrast agent). The tissue contrast agent concentrations of [Gd(DTPA)]²⁻ in cartilage measured in this work are in agreement with findings obtained by magnetic resonance imaging and other analytical methodologies. The LA-ICP-MS imaging data also confirm the observation that the spatial distribution of [Gd(DTPA)]²⁻ in the near-equilibrium state is highly inhomogeneous across cartilage thickness with the highest concentration measured in superficial cartilage and a strong decrease toward the subchondral bone. In the present work, it is shown for the first time that LA-ICP-MS can be applied to validate the results from quantitative gadolinium-enhanced MRI technique of articular cartilage. PMID:23281293

  5. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Atkins, H.

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consisted of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.

  6. 99mTc-DTPA and /sup 131/I-hippuran findings in liver transplant recipients treated with cyclosporin A

    SciTech Connect

    Klintmalm, G.B.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Iwatsuki, S.; Schroeter, G.P.; Starzl, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of cyclosporin A (CyA), an immunosuppressive agent that is potentially nephrotoxic, on the kidneys of 9 liver transplant recipients were studied with serial 99mTc-DTPA and 131I-hippuran scans. In addition, renal function was determined by measuring serum creatinine levels during the second postoperative week in the 9 unselected CyA-treated patients and, retrospectively, in a control group of 29 liver transplant recipients who had not been treated with CyA and who were selected because they had survived for at least 3 months postoperatively. The early postoperative creatinine level was significantly greater in the CyA group. Eight of the 9 CyA patients showed imaging abnormalities in all preoperative and postoperative studies. Five of the 8 patients showed a pattern similar to that of acute tubular necrosis (relatively preserved perfusion) in at least one study. Lowering the dosage of CyA permitted the continuation of therapy, and all 9 patients are alive after 8 to 14 months.

  7. Localization of neuroendocrine tumours with [111In] DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy (Octreoscan): a comparative study with CT and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Johnston, C F; Buchanan, K D; Ferguson, W R; Laird, J D; Crothers, J G; McIlrath, E M

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of neuroendocrine tumours express somatostatin receptors, and can be visualized by radiolabelled somatostatin analogue scintigraphy. To investigate the value of [111In]-octreotide scintigraphy (Octreoscan), 48 patients (37 with proven carcinoid, pancreatic endocrine and medullary carcinoma of thyroid tumours, 11 with neuroendocrine syndromes multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-I) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) were examined with 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide. Scintigrams were obtained at 24 and 48 h, and the results were compared with CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-five of 48 patients had positive [111In]-octreotide scintigraphy (23/25 (92%) carcinoids, 8/9 (89%) PETs, 4/11 (36%) MEN-I & ZES). Of the 42 lesions located by conventional imaging techniques, 37 (88%) were also identified by Octreoscan. Unexpected lesions (40 sites), not detected by CT or MR imaging were found in 24/48 (50%) patients. [111In]-octreotide scintigraphy has a higher sensitivity for tumour detection, and is superior to MR imaging and CT scanning in the identification of previously unsuspected extraliver and lymph node metastases. It may also be helpful for the localization of clinically suspected tumours in patients with MEN-I and ZES. PMID:9666953

  8. Intraoperative detection of somatostatin-receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumours using indium-111-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide.

    PubMed Central

    Wangberg, B.; Forssell-Aronsson, E.; Tisell, L. E.; Nilsson, O.; Fjalling, M.; Ahlman, H.

    1996-01-01

    After injection of 111In-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, intraoperative tumour localisation was performed using a scintillation detector in 23 patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Count rates from suspect tumour lesions and adjacent normal tissue were expressed as a ratio before (Rin situ) and after (Rex vivo) excision. 111In activity concentration ratios of tumour tissue to blood (T/B) were determined in a gamma counter. In patients with midgut carcinoids, (all scintigraphy positive), false Rin situ recordings were found in 4/29 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were all high (27-650). In patients with medullary thyroid carcinomas (eight out of ten scintigraphy positive), misleading Rin situ results were found in 4/37 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were lower (3-39) than those seen in midgut carcinoids. Two out of four patients with endocrine pancreatic tumours had positive scintigraphy, reliable intraoperative measurements and very high T/B ratios (910-1500). One patient with a gastric carcinoid had correct measurements in situ and ex vivo with high T/B ratios (71-210). In situ measurements added little information to preoperative scintigraphy and surgical findings using the present detection system. Rex vivo measurements were more reliable. The very high T/B ratios seen in midgut carcinoids and some endocrine pancreatic tumours would be favourable for future radiation therapy via somatostatin receptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8611378

  9. Patlak plots of Gd-DTPA MRI data yield blood-brain transfer constants concordant with those of 14C-sucrose in areas of blood-brain opening.

    PubMed

    Ewing, James R; Knight, Robert A; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Yee, John S; Nagesh, Vijaya; Whitton, Polly A; Li, Lian; Fenstermacher, Joseph D

    2003-08-01

    The blood-to-brain transfer rate constant (K(i)) of Gd-DTPA was determined in MRI studies of a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. The longitudinal relaxation rate, R(1), was estimated using repeated Look-Locker measurements. A model-independent analysis of deltaR(1), the Patlak plot, produced maps of K(i) for Gd-DTPA and the distribution volume of the mobile protons (V(p)) with intravascular-Gd changed R(1)'s. The K(i)'s of Gd-DTPA were estimated in regions of interest with blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening (regions of interest, ROIs) and compared to those of (14)C-sucrose determined shortly thereafter by quantitative autoradiography. The K(i)'s for both Gd-DTPA and sucrose were much higher than normal within the ROIs (n = 7); linear regression of K(i) for Gd-DTPA vs. K(i) for sucrose yielded a slope of 0.43 +/- 0.11 and r(2) = 0.72 (P = 0.01). Thus, K(i) for Gd-DTPA varied in parallel with, but was less than, K(i) for sucrose. In the ROIs, mean V(p) was 0.071 ml g(-1) and much higher than mean vascular volume estimated by dynamic-contrast-enhancement (0.013 ml g(-1)) or mean V(p) in contralateral brain (0.015 ml g(-1)). This elevated V(p) may reflect increased capillary permeability to water. In conclusion, K(i) can be reliably calculated from Gd-DTPA-MRI data by Patlak plots. PMID:12876704

  10. Treatment of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis by Targeted Delivery of the Radio-Labeled Tumor Homing Peptide 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2 into the Nucleus of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miederer, Matthias; Blechert, Birgit; Vallon, Mario; Müller, Jan M.; Alke, Andrea; Seidl, Christof; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Essler, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Background α-particle emitting isotopes are effective novel tools in cancer therapy, but targeted delivery into tumors is a prerequisite of their application to avoid toxic side effects. Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a widespread dissemination of tumors throughout the peritoneal cavity. As peritoneal carcinomatosis is fatal in most cases, novel therapies are needed. F3 is a tumor homing peptide which is internalized into the nucleus of tumor cells upon binding to nucleolin on the cell surface. Therefore, F3 may be an appropriate carrier for α-particle emitting isotopes facilitating selective tumor therapies. Principal Findings A dimer of the vascular tumor homing peptide F3 was chemically coupled to the α-emitter 213Bi (213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2). We found 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2 to accumulate in the nucleus of tumor cells in vitro and in intraperitoneally growing tumors in vivo. To study the anti-tumor activity of 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2 we treated mice bearing intraperitoneally growing xenograft tumors with 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2. In a tumor prevention study between the days 4–14 after inoculation of tumor cells 6×1.85 MBq (50 µCi) of 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2 were injected. In a tumor reduction study between the days 16–26 after inoculation of tumor cells 6×1.85 MBq of 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2 were injected. The survival time of the animals was increased from 51 to 93.5 days in the prevention study and from 57 days to 78 days in the tumor reduction study. No toxicity of the treatment was observed. In bio-distribution studies we found 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2 to accumulate in tumors but only low activities were found in control organs except for the kidneys, where 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2 is found due to renal excretion. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion we report that 213Bi-DTPA-[F3]2 is a novel tool for the targeted delivery of α-emitters into the nucleus of tumor cells that effectively controls peritoneal carcinomatosis in preclinical models and may also be useful in oncology. PMID:19479088

  11. Accurate and precise plasma clearance measurement using four 99mTc-DTPA plasma samples over 4 h

    PubMed Central

    Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Barnfield, Mark C.; Waller, Michael L.; Murray, Anthony W.; Burniston, Maria T.; Babyn, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Glomerular filtration rate can be measured as the plasma clearance (CL) of a glomerular filtration rate marker despite body fluid disturbances using numerous, prolonged time samples. We desire a simplified technique without compromised accuracy and precision. Materials and methods We compared CL values derived from two plasma concentration curve area methods – (a) biexponential fitting [CL (E2)] and (b) Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting [CL (Tk-GV)] – for 4 versus 8 h time samplings from 412 99mTc-DTPA studies in 142 patients, mostly paediatric patients, with suspected fluid disturbances. Results CL (Tk-GV) from four samples/4 h and from nine samples/8 h, both accurately and precisely agreed with the standard, which was taken to be nine samples/8 h CL from (noncompartmental) numerical integration [CL (NI)]. The E2 method, four samples/4 h, and nine samples/8 h median CL values significantly overestimated the CL (NI) values by 4.9 and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusion Compared with the standard, CL (E2) from four samples/4 h and from nine samples/8 h proved to be the most inaccurate and imprecise method examined, and can be replaced by better methods for calculating CL. The CL (Tk-GV) can be used to reduce sampling time in half from 8 to 4 h and from nine to four samples for a precise and accurate, yet more easily tolerated and simplified test. PMID:26465802

  12. Semi-automatic detection of Gd-DTPA-saline filled capsules for colonic transit time assessment in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Christian; Kirchhoff, Sonja; Keil, Andreas; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Mussack, Thomas; Lienemann, Andreas; Reiser, Maximilian; Navab, Nassir

    2008-03-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders result in a significant number of consultations in primary care facilities. Chronic constipation and diarrhea are regarded as two of the most common diseases affecting between 2% and 27% of the population in western countries 1-3. Defecatory disorders are most commonly due to dysfunction of the pelvic floor or the anal sphincter. Although an exact differentiation of these pathologies is essential for adequate therapy, diagnosis is still only based on a clinical evaluation1. Regarding quantification of constipation only the ingestion of radio-opaque markers or radioactive isotopes and the consecutive assessment of colonic transit time using X-ray or scintigraphy, respectively, has been feasible in clinical settings 4-8. However, these approaches have several drawbacks such as involving rather inconvenient, time consuming examinations and exposing the patient to ionizing radiation. Therefore, conventional assessment of colonic transit time has not been widely used. Most recently a new technique for the assessment of colonic transit time using MRI and MR-contrast media filled capsules has been introduced 9. However, due to numerous examination dates per patient and corresponding datasets with many images, the evaluation of the image data is relatively time-consuming. The aim of our study was to develop a computer tool to facilitate the detection of the capsules in MRI datasets and thus to shorten the evaluation time. We present a semi-automatic tool which provides an intensity, size 10, and shape-based 11,12 detection of ingested Gd-DTPA-saline filled capsules. After an automatic pre-classification, radiologists may easily correct the results using the application-specific user interface, therefore decreasing the evaluation time significantly.

  13. Evaluation of in vivo targeting of andenocarcinomas with In-111-DTPA-B72.3-antibody under treatment with interferon gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Becherer, A.; Raderer, M.; Scheithauer, W.

    1994-05-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb) In-111-DTPA-B72.3 directed against the tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 has successfully been used for tumor diagnosis and staging, however, for evaluation of liver metastases the sensitivity is poor. Interferon gamma (IFNg) has been reported to increase TAG-72 expression on ascites tumor cells in patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. This study was undertaken to show a possible influence of IFNg on the diagnostic abilities of imunnoscintigraphy with In-111-DTPA-B72.3. We compared the in vivo targeting in 12 patients (9 males, 3 females, 59{plus_minus}16 years) under IFNg treatment (250 g daily s.c.) with a control group of 17 patients (10 males, 7 females, 66{plus_minus}10 years). In 5 patients (3 males, 2 females, 65{plus_minus}13 years) repeated scanning was performed before and during IFNg treatment. The patients suffered from advanced colorectal, pancreatic or gastric adenocarcinomas and underwent surgery and chemotherapy prior to scintigraphic investigations. In patients without IFNg, primary resp. residual tumors were imaged in 1 of 5 and liver metastases in 9 of 14 patients. In the IFNg-treated patients primary resp. residual tumors were visualized in 1 of 3 and Ever metastases in 8 of 9 patients (89%, vs 64% control group). Contrast of imaging for liver metastases was improved in 2 of 5 patients under treatment with IFNg while no difference in the visualization of primary resp. residual tumors could be realized under IFNg treatment. We conclude that in vivo targeting of TAG-72 with In-111-DTPA-B72.3 mAb may be increased in tumor patients under therapy with IFNg.

  14. Influence of posture and positive end-tidal expiratory pressure (PEEP) on clearance of Tc99m-DTPA from the lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.R.; Maublant, J.; Sietsema, K.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.

    1984-01-01

    The clearance of Tc99m-DTPA aerosols from the lung has been used to detect and quantitate alterations in the permeability of the pulmonary epithelium. Clearance of the radionuclide is accelerated by both chronic and acute injuries to the lung and by smoking. Several laboratories have reported that Tc99m-DTPA clearance from upper lobes exceeded that from lower lobes in upright subjects. To investigate this phenomenon further the authors studied subjects with simultaneous anterior and posterior cameras in upright and supine positions. In the upright position, clearance from both the anterior and posterior upper regions of interest (ROI's) exceeded the lower regions (-1.64 +- .42 S.D. vs. -0.75 +- .41, anterior, p < .05, n=6), -1.04 +- .23 vs. -0.50 +- .36, posterior. All units = %/min. This difference was not observed in the supine subjects. Clearance from the anterior chest exceeded that from the posterior chest in the supine subjects (-1.28 +- .45 vs. -0.05 +- 1.08) and a small increase in radio-activity was observed in at least one ROI of 5 of 6 subjects from the posterior camera. An increase in activity is likely to be secondary to labeling of blood pool, which would have greatest affect where pulmonary blood volume is largest. Computer processing of the entire lung without observer bias in ROI placement showed similar effects of posture over non-peripheral ROI's. Five subjects breathed on PEEP to cause airspace distention, causing clearance to double. Both dependency and airspace distention appear to influence clearance of aerosolized DTPA, the latter may occur by stretching of epithelial pores.

  15. In vivo transport of Gd-DTPA2- into human meniscus and cartilage assessed with delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired stability is a risk factor in knee osteoarthritis (OA), where the whole joint and not only the joint cartilage is affected. The meniscus provides joint stability and is involved in the early pathological progress of OA. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) has been used to identify pre-radiographic changes in the cartilage in OA, but has been used less commonly to examine the meniscus, and then using only a double dose of the contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to enable improved early OA diagnosis by investigate the temporal contrast agent distribution in the meniscus and femoral cartilage simultaneously, in healthy volunteers, using 3D dGEMRIC at two different doses of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA2-. Methods The right knee in 12 asymptomatic volunteers was examined using a 3D Look-Locker sequence on two occasions after an intravenous injection of a double or triple dose of Gd-DTPA2- (0.2 or 0.3 mmol/kg body weight). The relaxation time (T1) and relaxation rate (R1 = 1/T1) were measured in the meniscus and femoral cartilage before, and 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes after injection, and the change in relaxation rate (ΔR1) was calculated. Paired t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical evaluation. Results The triple dose yielded higher concentrations of Gd-DTPA2- in the meniscus and cartilage than the double dose, but provided no additional information. The observed patterns of ΔR1 were similar for double and triple doses of the contrast agent. ΔR1 was higher in the meniscus than in femoral cartilage in the corresponding compartments at all time points after injection. ΔR1 increased until 90-180 minutes in both the cartilage and the meniscus (p < 0.05), and was lower in the medial than in the lateral meniscus at all time points (p < 0.05). A faster increase in ΔR1 was observed in the vascularized peripheral region of the posterior medial meniscus, than in the avascular central

  16. Evaluation and comparison of a new DOTA and DTPA-bombesin agonist in vitro and in vivo in low and high GRPR expressing prostate and breast tumor models.

    PubMed

    Pujatti, Priscilla B; Foster, Julie M; Finucane, Ciara; Hudson, Chantelle D; Burnet, Jerome C; Pasqualoto, Kerly F M; Mengatti, Jair; Mather, Stephen J; de Araújo, Elaine B; Sosabowski, Jane K

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated and compared a new bombesin analog [Tyr-Gly5, Nle(14)]-BBN(6-14) conjugated to DOTA or DTPA and radiolabeled with In-111 in low and high GRPR expressing tumor models. Both peptides were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity and specific activity. In vitro assays on T-47D, LNCaP and PC-3 cells showed that the affinity of peptides is similar and a higher binding and internalization of DOTA-peptide to PC-3 cells was observed. Both peptides could target PC-3 and LNCaP tumors in vivo and both tumor types could be visualized by microSPECT/CT. PMID:25479439

  17. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y.; Romero-Piña, Mario E.; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V.; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%–78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA2 activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with 67Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming. PMID:27023607

  18. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y; Romero-Piña, Mario E; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%-78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA₂ activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with (67)Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming. PMID:27023607

  19. Selective Extraction of Heavy and Light Lanthanides from Aqueous Solution by Advanced Magnetic Nanosorbents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijin; McDowell, Rocklan G; Martin, Leigh R; Qiang, You

    2016-04-13

    Rare earth elements (REEs) make unique and vital contributions to our current world of technology. Separating and recycling REEs is of great importance to diversify the sources of REEs and advance the efficient use of REE resources when the supply is limited. In light of separation nanotechnology, diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) functionalized magnetic nanosorbents have been synthesized and investigated for the highly selective extraction of heavy (Sm-Ho) and light (La-Nd) lanthanides (Ln) from aqueous solutions. The results demonstrated that the separation factor (SF) between heavy-Ln and light-Ln groups reached the maximal value of 11.5 at low pH value of 2.0 in 30 min. For example, the SFs of Gd/La and Dy/La pairs were up to 10 times higher than that reported by other studies. Besides the excellent selectivity, our double-coated magnetic nanoparticles coupled with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (dMNP-DTPA) nanosorbents are more advantageous in that the Ln(III) sorption was effectively and quickly (in 30 min) achieved in acid solutions with pH values as low as 2.0. Such attributes ensure a stronger adaptability to the harsh environments of REE recycling processes. Displacement phenomena were subsequently observed between the heavy-Ln and light-Ln ions that were coexisting in solution and competing for the same sorption sites, causing the increase in sorption capacity of heavy Ln on the surface of nanosorbents with time. The order of affinity of Ln(III) to DTPA-functionalized magnetic nanosorbents perfectly followed the corresponding stability constants between Ln(III) and nonimmobilized DTPA. Displacement phenomena and lanthanide contraction, as well as the surface nanostructures of DTPA-functionalized nanosorbents, significantly improved the separation factors of heavy-Ln/light-Ln pairs. The Ln(III) interaction with DTPA-functionalized magnetic nanosorbents followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient extremely high and

  20. Percent Infarct Mapping for Delayed Contrast Enhancement MR Imaging to Quantify Myocardial Viability by Gd(DTPA)

    PubMed Central

    Simor, Tamás; Surányi, Pál; Ruzsics, Balázs; Tóth, Attila; Tóth, Levente; Kiss, Pál; Brott, Brigitta C.; Varga-Szemes, Ákos; Elgavish, Ada; Elgavish, Gabriel A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the advantages of Signal Intensity Percent-Infarct-Mapping (SI-PIM) using the standard delayed enhancement (DE) acquisition in assessing viability following myocardial infarction (MI). SI-PIM quantifies MI density with a voxel-by-voxel resolution in clinically used DE images. Materials and Methods In canines (n=6), 96h after reperfused MI and administration of 0.2mmol/kg Gd(DTPA), ex-vivo DE images were acquired and SI-PIMs calculated. SI-PIM data were compared with data from DE images analyzed with several thresholding levels using SIremote+2SD, SIremote+6SD, SI full width half maximum (SIFWHM), and with triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride (TTC) staining. SI-PIM was also compared to R1 percent infarct mapping (R1-PIM). Results Left ventricular infarct volumes (IV) in DE images, IVSIremote+2SD and IVSIremote+6SD overestimated (p<0.05) TTC by medians of 13.21ml [10.2; 15.2] and 6.2ml [3.79; 8.23], respectively. SIFWHM, SI-PIM and R1-PIM, however, only non-significantly underestimated TTC, by medians of −0.10ml [−0.12, −0.06], −0.86ml [−1.04; 1.54] and −1.30ml [−4.99; −0.29], respectively. The Infarct-Involved Voxel Volume (IIVV) of SI-PIM, 32.4ml [21.2, 46.3] is higher (p<0.01) than IIVVs of SIFWHM 8.3ml [3.79, 19.0]. SI-PIMFWHM, however, underestimates TTC (−5.74ml [−11.89; −2.52] (p<0.01)). Thus SI-PIM outperforms SIFWHM because larger IIVVs are obtained, and thus PIs both in the rim and the core of the infarcted tissue are characterized, in contradistinction from DE-SIFWHM which shows mainly the infarct core. Conclusion We have shown here, ex vivo, that SI-PIM has the same advantages as R1-PIM, but it is based on the scanning sequences of DE imaging, and thus it is obtainable within the same short scanning time as DE. This makes it a practical method for clinical studies. PMID:20882616

  1. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children. PMID:27435387

  2. Hepatobiliary handling of iodine-125-Tyr3-octreotide and indium-111-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide by isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    de Jong, M; Bakker, W H; Breeman, W A; van der Pluijm, M E; Kooij, P P; Visser, T J; Docter, R; Krenning, E P

    1993-11-01

    Radiolabeled bioactive peptides may show receptor-mediated binding to tumors, making them suitable for scintigraphic imaging. The liver is an important organ for peptide clearance. To gain insight into the uptake and intracellular processing of somatostatin analogs, we compared the hepatobiliary handling of 125I-Tyr3-octreotide and 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, which are successfully used to image somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in vivo in isolated recirculating perfused rat livers. Sixty minutes following administration of the radiolabeled peptides, perfusion medium and biliary radioactivity were analyzed. Radioiodinated Tyr3-octreotide was rapidly cleared by the liver and 60% of the dose was excreted intact into the bile after 60 min. In contrast, 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide was not cleared by the liver; medium radioactivity levels remained about constant and only 2% of the dose was found in the bile. These results are in agreement with in vivo findings in rats and humans. We concluded that isolated rat liver perfusion is a good system to rapidly gain insight into the hepatic handling of radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:8229254

  3. DTPA (Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  4. Searching for primaries in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of unknown primary and clinically suspected NET: Evaluation of Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT and In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Schreiter, Nils Friedemann; Bartels, Ann-Mirja; Froeling, Vera; Steffen, Ingo; Pape, Ulrich-Frank; Beck, Alexander; Hamm, Bernd; Brenner, Winfried; Röttgen, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the clinical efficacy of In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT and Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT for detection of primary tumors in patients with either neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary (NETUP) or clinically suspected primary NET (SNET). Patients and methods. A total of 123 patients were included from 2006 to 2009, 52 received Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT (NETUP, 33; SNET, 19) and 71 underwent In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT (50; 21). The standard of reference included histopathology or clinical verification based on follow-up examinations. Results In the NETUP group Ga-68 DOTATOC detected primaries in 15 patients (45.5%) and In-111 DTPA octreotide in 4 patients (8%) (p < 0.001); in the SNET group, only 2 primaries could be detected, all by Ga-68 DOTATOC. In patients with NETUP, primary tumors could be found significantly more often than in patients with SNET (p = 0.01). Out of these 21 patients 14 patients were operated. Conclusion Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT is preferable to In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT when searching for primary NETs in patients with NETUP but should be used with caution in patients with SNET. PMID:25435846

  5. Azomethine H colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.R.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An automated colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water is described. The boron is complexed with azomethine H, which is readily available as the condensation product of H acid (8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid) and salicylaldehyde. The absorbance of the yellow complex formed is then measured colorimetrically at 410 nm. Interference effects from other dissolved species are minimized by the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); however, iron, zinc, and bicarbonate interfere at concentrations above 400 ??g/L, 2000 ??g/L, and 200 mg/L, respectively. The bicarbonate interference can be eliminated by careful acidification of the sample with concentrated HCl to a pH between 5 and 6. Thirty samples per hour can be routinely analyzed over the range of from 10 to 400 ??g/L, boron.

  6. The Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-02-21

    The Actinide-Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) process is described. The process uses an extractant phase consisting of either N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). The neutral TODGA or T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid media. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus resulting in separation of these two groups of elements.

  7. Unilateral temporary functional stasis in the upper urinary tract caused by "a filled bladder" on Tc-99m DTPA diuresis renography: a teaching case.

    PubMed

    Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Arslan, Nuri; Emer, Ozdes; Ozguven, Mehmet

    2005-09-01

    A 2-year-old girl with recurrent urinary tract infection having slight left pelvicaliceal dilatation on her renal ultrasound underwent a Tc-99m DTPA diuresis renography. During the excretion phase, a prominent and persisting left pelvicaliceal stasis was noticed even after the diuretic injection. However, it disappeared simultaneously with an uncontrolled micturition. This patient is presented to show the effect of filled bladder on the physiological drainage of urine. Since urine flow in the urinary system is more complicated than simple drainage, a thorough understanding of the physiological basis for diuresis renography and the pitfalls of the technique is required for its appropriate use in the management of patients suspected of urinary tract obstruction. PMID:16248389

  8. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  9. Combined Application of Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) in the Diagnosis of Chronic Liver Disease-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Li, Chenxia; Wang, Rong; Ren, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent to target the liver cells with normal function. In clinical practice, the Gd-EOB-DTPA produces high quality hepatocyte specific image 20 minutes after intravenous injection, so DWI sequence is often performed after the conventional dynamic scanning. However, there are still some disputes about whether DWI sequence will provide more effective diagnostic information in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of combining Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane library database up to March 2015. The quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) was used to evaluate the quality of studies. Heterogeneous test on the included literature was performed by using the software Review Manager 5.3. The MetaDiSc 1.4 software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio; meanwhile the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) curve was drawn to compare the diagnostic performance. Results A total of 13 literatures were included in this study. In 8 literatures regarding HCC diagnosis based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, the pooled sensitivity: 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.93); specificity: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85–0.92); positive likelihood ratio: 8.60 (95% CI: 6.20–11.92); negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08–0.14) were obtained. The area under curve (AUC) and Q values were 0.96 and 0.90, respectively. In 5 literatures relating to HCC diagnosis by combination of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI sequence, the pooled sensitivity: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85–0.91), specificity: 0.96 (0.94–0.97), positive likelihood ratio: 19.63 (12.77–30.16), negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (0.07–0

  10. Ga-67 vs In-111-DTPA-anti-p97 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) for scintigraphic detection of metastatic melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.D.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Zoghbi, S.S.; Ernstoff, M.S.; Cornelius, E.A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Gottschalk, A.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have initiated a prospective comparative evaluation of tomographic (Pho/Con) Ga-67 (10 mCi) scintigraphy versus computerized gamma camera radioimmunoscintigraphy using anti-p97 murine MoAb (5 mCi In-111-DTPA conjugated to 1 mg MoAb + 19 mgs ''cold'' MoAb) for detection of metastatic melanoma. To date 9 patients have had both a Ga-67 scan and an anti-p97 MoAb study within a 1 month interval. The 9 patients had 45 known sites of disease greater than 1 cm minimum diameter, located in skin, soft tissue, and/or viscea. In-111-anti-p97 scans were done 72 hrs after i.v. administration of the radiolabeled MoAb mixed together with the ''cold'' carrier MoAb. Ga-67 scans were done 48-72 hrs after injection. MoAb scans detected 30/45 known sites (sensitivity=67%) while the Ga-67 scans found 29/45 of these known sites (sensitivity=64%). Heterogeneity of metastases was evident with the detection of partly overlapping subsets of metastases by the two techniques, i.e. some mets were localized with both techniques while other mets were detected by only one of the two methods. Combined detection with both techniques improved sensitivity from 64-67% to 91%. These preliminary data suggest: 1) comparable sensitivities for Ga-67 and In-111-DTPA anti-p97 scans, 2) heterogeneity of metastases with regard to the localization of these two agents, and 3) improved sensitivity by combining both techniques.

  11. Improved target volume definition for precision radiotherapy planning of meningiomas by correlation of CT and dynamic, Gd-DTPA-enhanced FLASH MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Schad, L R; Blüml, S; Debus, J; Scharf, J; Lorenz, W J

    1994-10-01

    In this methodological paper the authors report a fast, T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence (FLASH) for dynamic, Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of meningiomas and its application in precision radiotherapy planning. Indications for radiotherapy included unresected tumors, tumor remaining after surgery, and recurrences. The patient's head was fixed in a stereotactic localization system which is usable at the CT, MR and the linear accelerator installations. By phantom measurements different materials (steel, aluminum, titanium, plastic, wood, ceramics) used for the stereotactic system were tested for mechanical stability and geometric MR image distortion. All metallic stereotactic rings (closed rings made of massive metal) led to a more or less dramatic geometric distortion and signal cancellation in the MR images. The best properties--nearly no distortion and high mechanic stability--are provided by a ceramic ring. If necessary, the remaining geometric MR image distortion can be 'corrected' (reducing displacements to the size of a pixel) by calculations based on modeling the distortion as a fourth order two-dimensional polynomial. The target volume was defined in dynamic, T1-weighted FLASH MR images, which were measured before, during, and after the controlled intravenous infusion of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight Gd-DTPA. The stereotactic localization technique allows the precise transfer of the target volume information from MR onto CT data to provide a map of the radiation attenuation coefficient for dose calculation. In genera, the superior soft tissue contrast of MR showed an excellent tumor delineation, especially in regions, such as the base of the skull, where the target often was obscured in CT images.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7878213

  12. PEG-g-poly(GdDTPA-co-L-cystine): effect of PEG chain length on in vivo contrast enhancement in MRI.

    PubMed

    Mohs, Aaron M; Zong, Yuda; Guo, Junyu; Parker, Dennis L; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2005-01-01

    Biodegradable macromolecular Gd(III) complexes, Gd-DTPA cystine copolymers (GDCP), were grafted with PEG of different sizes to modify the physicochemical properties and in vivo MRI contrast enhancement of the agents and to study the effect of PEG chain length on these properties. Three new PEG-grafted biodegradable macromolecular gadolinium(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized as blood pool MRI contrast agents. One of three different lengths of MPEG-NH(2) (MW = 550, 1000, and 2000) was grafted to the backbone of GDCP to yield PEG(n)()-g-poly(GdDTPA-co-l-cystine), PEG(n)()-GDCP. The PEG chain length did not dramatically alter the T(1) relaxivity, r(1), of the modified agents. The MRI enhancement profile of PEG(n)()-GDCP with different PEG sizes was significantly different in mice with respect to both signal intensity and clearance profiles. PEG(2000)-GDCP showed more prominent enhancement in the blood pool for a longer period of time than either PEG(1000)-GDCP or PEG(550)-GDCP. In the kidney, PEG(2000)-GDCP had less enhancement at 2 min than PEG(1000)-GDCP, but both PEG(550)-GDCP and PEG(1000)-GDCP showed a more pronounced signal decay thereafter. The three agents behaved similarly in the liver, as compared to that in the heart. All three agents showed little enhancement in the muscle. Chemical grafting with PEG of different chain lengths is an effective approach to modify the physiochemistry and in vivo contrast enhancement dynamics of the biodegradable macromolecular contrast agents. The novel agents are promising for further clinical development for cardiovascular and cancer MR imaging. PMID:16004476

  13. Mutagenesis induced by targeted alpha therapy using 213Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 in lacZ transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Barry J; So, Trina; Abbas Rizvi, Syed M; Song, Emma Y; Fernandez, Harvey R; Lutz-Mann, Louise

    2009-05-01

    Targeted alpha therapy utilizes alpha-emitting radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies to allow specific irradiation of cancer cells whilst sparing normal, healthy tissues. The mutagenic potential of (213)Bi conjugated to a human melanoma antigen-specific antibody (9.2.27) was examined using an in vivo transgenic mouse model containing multiple copies of a lacZ target gene in every cell, allowing the quantification and comparison of mutagenesis in different organs. Mice received an ip injection of 16.65 MBq of (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27, and were sacrificed at 24 h, 1 w and 4 w post-injection. Pharmacokinetic studies gave the absorbed and effective doses for each organ. The mutant frequency and mutant spectra were analysed for the brain, spleen and kidneys. The brain and spleen did not show significant increases in induced mutation frequencies compared to spontaneous background levels or changes in mutant spectra, these results being independent of p53 status. However, elevated mutation frequencies and persistent size change mutations were observed in the kidneys, but are not significant at the p = 0.05 level. The effect of p53 status was also evident, as p53 heterozygotes displayed higher mutation frequencies than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting a reduction in the p53 gene may lead to an increased susceptibility to mutagenesis. These effects were time dependent and levels returned to those of the controls at 4 w post-irradiation, albeit with a predominant residue of size mutations. These effects were observed at activities very much higher than those expected for the therapy of human patients. As such, the induction of secondary cancer with the (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 alpha immunoconjugate is not expected to be a significant problem in the clinic. PMID:19337032

  14. Potential of Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash for phytoremediation of plutonium ((239)Pu): Chelate assisted uptake and translocation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D P; Kaushik, C P

    2016-10-01

    Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited. Remediation of (239)Pu from soil was increased with the addition of chelating agents citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Accumulation of (239)Pu was recorded higher in roots than shoots, however its translocation from roots to shoots increased in the presence of chelators in hydroponic as well as soil conditions. DTPA was found more effective than CA showing higher translocation index (TI). Increase in TI was observed 8 and 6 times in the solution and soil respectively when plants were exposed to (239)Pu-DTPA in comparison to only (239)Pu. The present study demonstrates that V. zizanoides plant is a potential plant for phytoremediation of (239)Pu. PMID:27318195

  15. Phase I trial to evaluate the tumor and normal tissue uptake, radiation dosimetry and safety of 111In-DTPA-human epidermal growth factor in patients with metastatic EGFR-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vallis, Katherine A; Reilly, Raymond M; Scollard, Deborah; Merante, Pat; Brade, Anthony; Velauthapillai, Sobi; Caldwell, Curtis; Chan, Ida; Freeman, Marc; Lockwood, Gina; Miller, Naomi A; Cornelissen, Bart; Petronis, Jennifer; Sabate, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The safety, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 111In-DTPA-hEGF, an Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceutical, were evaluated in a first-in-human trial. Dose escalation was performed in patients with EGFR-positive metastatic breast cancer who had received ≥2 prior courses of systemic treatment. 111In-DTPA-hEGF (0.25 mg) was administered once intravenously (i.v.). Blood was collected for biochemistry/hematology testing and pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity analyses at selected times post injection (p.i.). Whole body planar images were acquired at 1, 4-6, 24 and 72 h p.i. and SPECT images at 24 and/or 72 h p.i. Macrodosimetry (MIRD) for the whole body and organs was estimated using OLINDA. Correlative radiological imaging was obtained at baseline, 1 and 3 months and then 6 monthly. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE)v2.0. Sixteen patients, median age 47 yr (range, 35-59), received 111In-DTPA-hEGF as follows: 357-434 MBq (7), 754-805 MBq (3), 1,241-1,527 MBq (3) and 2,030-2,290 MBq (3). Fifteen were evaluable for toxicity. The commonest adverse events (AE) were flushing, chills, nausea, and vomiting occurring during or immediately p.i. One patient experienced Grade 3 thrombocytopenia (attributed to bone marrow infiltration by cancer). There were no other Grade 3 or 4 AEs. Maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Clear accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in at least one known site of disease was observed in 47% of patients. 111In-DTPA-hEGF was cleared biexponentially from the blood with α-phase T½ of 0.16 ± 0.03 h and β-phase T½ of 9.41 ± 1.93 h. 111In-DTPA-hEGF was not immunogenic. The mean radiation dose estimates in mGy/MBq for whole body, liver, kidneys, spleen and thyroid were 0.08, 0.86, 0.74, 0.37 and 0.30, respectively. No objective antitumor responses were observed at the doses studied. In summary, administered amounts of up to 2,290 MBq (0.25 mg) of 111In-DTPA-hEGF were well

  16. Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation of Protein Methionine Residues in Human Parathyroid Hormone (1-34): Formation of Homocysteine and a Novel Methionine-Dependent Hydrolysis Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mozziconacci, Olivier; Ji, Junyan A.; Wang, Y. John; Schöneich, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of PTH(1-34) catalyzed by ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is site-specific. The oxidation of PTH(1-34) is localized primarily to the residues Met[8] and His[9]. Beyond the transformation of Met[8] and His[9] into methionine sulfoxide and 2-oxo-histidine, respectively, we observed a hydrolytic cleavage between Met[8] and His[9]. This hydrolysis requires the presence of FeII and oxygen and can be prevented by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and phosphate buffer. Conditions leading to this site-specific hydrolysis also promote the transformation of Met[8] into homocysteine, indicating that the hydrolysis and transformation of homocysteine may proceed through a common intermediate. PMID:23289936

  17. Optical detection of DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Apostol, A.; Cembrano, J.

    1999-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for oxidative damage to calf thymus DNA is reported. A decrease in the transition temperature for strand separation resulted from exposure of the DNA to the reactive decomposition products of 3- morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (i.e., nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals). A decrease in melting temperature of 12 degrees Celsius was indicative of oxidative damage including single strand chain breaks. Double stranded (ds) and single stranded (ss) forms of DNA were determined using the indicator dyes ethidium bromide and PicoGreen. The change in DNA 'melting' curves was dependant on the concentration of SIN-1 and was most pronounced at 75 degrees Celsius. This chemically induced damage was significantly inhibited by sodium citrate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), but was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ethylenediamine tetraacietic acid (EDTA), or deferoxamine. Lowest observable effect level for SIN-1-induced damage was 200 (mu) M.

  18. The role of carboxylic acids in TALSQueak separations

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nash, Ken L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2012-04-13

    Recent reports have indicated TALSPEAK-type separations chemistry can be improved through the replacement of bis-2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N,N,N-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) with the weaker reagents 2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), respectively. This modified TALSPEAK has been provided with an adjusted acronym of TALSQueak (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separation using Quicker Extractants and Aqueous Komplexes). Among several benefits, TALSQueak chemistry provides more rapid phase transfer kinetics, is less reliant on carboxylic acids to mediate lanthanide extraction and allows a simplified thermodynamic description of the separations process that generally requires only parameters available in the literature to describe metal transfer. This manuscript focuses on the role of carboxylic acids in aqueous ternary (M-HEDTA-carboxylate) complexes, americium/lanthanide separations, and extraction kinetics. Spectrophotometry (UV-vis) of the Nd hypersensitive band indicates the presence of aqueous ternary species (K111 = 1.83 {+-} 0.01 at 1.0 M ionic strength, Nd(HEDTA) + Lac <-> Nd(HEDTA)Lac). Varying the carboxylic acid does not have a significant impact on Ln/Am separations or extraction kinetics. TALSqueak separations come to equilibrium in five minutes at the conventional operational pH of 3.6 using only 0.1 M total lactate or citrate.

  19. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-01-01

    abstract The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years. PMID:26337197

  20. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years. PMID:26337197

  1. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  2. Path Analyses of Grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in a Biosolids-Amended Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barbarick, Kenneth A; Ippolito, James A; McDaniel, Jacob P

    2016-07-01

    Land application of biosolids is an effective means of recycling plant nutrients and is the primary method of biosolids reuse endorsed by the USEPA. One issue concerning biosolids application is the extent of the contribution of biosolids-borne plant nutrients to the overall crop concentration and uptake or removal of these nutrients. We studied the effects of biosolids application on wheat ( L.) grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni concentrations and uptake (removal) at two dryland agroecosystem sites from 1993 to 2014. We hypothesized that biosolids would have the greatest impact on wheat grain and uptake compared with ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable nutrient levels, soil pH, or soil organic C concentrations. We used path analyses in combination with multiple linear regression to differentiate the direct, indirect, and total effects of cumulative biosolids applications, soil AB-DTPA, soil pH, and organic C. Biosolids rates, applied biennially from 1993 to 2014 at the beginning of a wheat-fallow rotation, were 0, 2.24, 4.48, 6.72, 8.96, and 11.2 Mg ha. None of the parameters had significant direct, indirect, or total effects on grain concentrations. Biosolids applications had the greatest positive direct impact compared with AB-DTPA levels, soil pH, or soil organic C on P, Zn, Fe, and Ni uptake (removal), whereas AB-DTPA had the greatest positive direct impact on Cu uptake. Soil AB-DTPA, pH, and organic C directly affected some grain concentrations and cumulative uptake, but no consistent trends were noted. This pathway approach allowed differentiation between causation and simple correlation for the effects of cumulative biosolids applications on wheat P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni cumulative uptake but did not provide these same results for grain concentrations. PMID:27380090

  3. Nuclear, chemical, and mechanistic considerations in the use of {sup 117m}Sn(4+)-DTPA relative to {sup 186}Re-HEDP and other agents for bone pain therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Mausner, L.F.; Atkins, H.L.; Cutler, C.; Deutsch, E.

    1994-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of our mechanistic studies on {sup 117m}Sn(4+){minus} DTPA to determine (i) the effect of oxidation state and specific activity of {sup 117m}Sn, (ii) effect of the addition of calcium, (iii) the nature of chemical species of tin in blood and urine, and (iv) kinetics of uptake and washout of radioactivity from bone relative to technetium, rhenium, and samarium bone agents.

  4. Imaging of Bioreduced Sediment: Tc(IV/VII) and Fe(II/III) redox kinetics and DTPA as a conservative tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J. P.; Buchko, R.; Druhan, J. L.; Moses, W. W.; Nico, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially mediated reduction of sediment bound iron from Fe(III) to Fe(II) following electron donor augmentation holds great promise for the sequestration of environmental contaminants including technetium, uranium, and chromium. We have used gamma camera imaging to measure soluble 99mTc concentrations in microcosm experiments; tracking the rate of reduction of 99mTc(IV)-pertechnetate, evaluating 99mTc-DTPA as a conservative hydrologic flow tracer, and examining the dynamics of redox cycling of both Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Tc(IV)/Tc(VII) in sediment from the DOE-IRFC site at Rifle, CO. Eleven experiments were performed on 4 water/sediment microcosms over 4 weeks, before and after microcosms were augmented with 6mM acetate to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). A summary of the experiments' data is given in the Figure 1. Data analysis methods of fitting concentration curves of 99mTc(VII) in solution to a dual exponential function gives a quantitative index Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) reduction rate in the presence of Fe(II). Following acetate amendment, the rate of Tc(VII) reduction progressively increased with time. A reoxidation experiment showed that oxygenating the microcosms oxidized Fe(II) to Fe(III), subsequently preventing Tc(VII) reduction, but with a return to anoxic conditions, bioreduction of Fe(III) occurred faster than before oxygenation, an observation that is particularly relevant to field-scale work. Another reoxygenation experiment showed that when in reducing conditions, sediment-bound Tc(IV) is rapidly resolublized to Tc(VII) with an increase in dissolved oxygen. 99mTc-DTPA proves to be a conservative tracer, showing little interaction with sediment in both Fe(III)-reducing and non-reducing conditions. These experiments show the utility of nuclear medicine tools and readily available radiotracers for non-invasive monitoring of sediment geochemistry and hydrologic properties during reactive transport.

  5. Biotinylated polyacrylamide-based metal-chelating polymers and their influence on antigen recognition following conjugation to a trastuzumab Fab fragment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2012-09-10

    We report the synthesis and characterization of metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) with a terminal biotin and a polyacrylamide backbone harboring multiple diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelating sites. These polymers are conjugated to a streptavidin (SAv)-modified Fab fragment of trastuzumab (tmFab) and subsequently complexed with (111)In through DTPA. Trastuzumab has specific targeting ability toward human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), which is overexpressed on some types of breast cancer cells and ovarian cancer cells. (111)In can generate Auger electrons which cause lethal DNA double strand breaks. The radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) were designed to target HER2 overexpressing cancer cells and carry multiple copies of (111)In to these cells. The mole maximum specific activities of these polymers were investigated by loading the polymers with (111)In at an increasing (111)In to polymer ratio. The polymers show 55-fold to 138-fold higher maximum specific activity than DTPA modified tmFab-SAv. Moreover, the HER2 immunoreactivities of these RICs were evaluated by measuring their specific binding ability toward HER2 overexpressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. The results demonstrate that although in the presence of polymer there is increased nonspecific binding, HER2 targeting ability was retained, ensuring the radionuclide delivery ability of these RICs. PMID:22871127

  6. Evaluation of intakes of transuranics influenced by chelation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1994-02-01

    Once an intake of transuranics occurs, there are only three therapeutic procedures available to the physician for reducing the intake and mitigating the dose: excision of material from wounds, removal of material from the lungs with lavage, and chelation therapy. The only chelation agents approved in the United States for the treatment of occupational intakes of transuranics are the zinc and calcium salts of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid, better known as Zn-DTPA and Ca-DTPA. In the past 35 years, approximately 3000 doses of DTPA have been administrated to over 500 individuals who had intakes of transuranics. The drug is considered to be quiet safe and has few side effects. For the internal dosimetrist, perhaps the most important aspects of chelation therapy is that if enhances the excretion rate of a transuranic and perturbs the shape of the urinary excretion curve. These perturbations last for months and are so great that standard urinary excretion models cannot be used to evaluate the intake. We review here a method for evaluating intakes of transuranics influenced by chelation therapy that has been used with some degree of success at the Savannah River Site for over 20 years.

  7. Phytotreatment of sewage sludge contaminated by heavy metals and PAHs by co-planting Sedum alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J R; Guo, X F; Cai, Q Y; Liu, W; Zhang, M W; Wei, Z B; Wu, Q T

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants in municipal sewage sludge are key factors limiting its use in agriculture. The objectives of this study were to decrease the heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sewage sludge by phytotreatment and to determine, in a field experiment, whether co-planting is more effective than using a mono-crop of Sedum alfredii. Four treatments were used in the plot experiment: no sludge, no plants, S. alfredii and co-planting S. alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza. The results showed that co-planting produced tubers and shoots of A. marorrhiza that were suitable as a safe animal feed and good organic K fertilizer, respectively. Co-planting was more effective than mono-planting at reducing concentrations of total Zn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn, Cd, and Cu in the sludge. Co-planting decreased the concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the sludge significantly compared with the unplanted sludge. Decreases of 87, 75, 85, 31, and 64% were obtained for B[a]P and DTPA-extractable Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively, compared with the fresh sludge. These results indicate that co-planting can reduce significantly the environmental risks associated with heavy metals and B[a]P in sewage sludge for further disposal. PMID:24912211

  8. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. {sup 125}I- and/or {sup 131}I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled DTPA and {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h.

  9. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of Gd-C4-thyroxin-DTPA, a potential MRI contrast agent. Evaluation of its affinity for human serum albumin by proton relaxometry, NMR diffusometry, and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Henoumont, C; Vander Elst, L; Laurent, S; Muller, R N

    2010-03-18

    Gd-C(4)-thyroxin-DTPA, a potential MRI contrast agent, was synthesized from Gd-DTPA and thyroxine, which interacts strongly with human serum albumin (HSA). It was characterized in water by its relaxometric properties and its stability versus zinc transmetalation. The affinity of the complex for HSA was studied by using three different methods: proton relaxometry, NMR diffusometry, and electrospray mass spectrometry. From the results, it appears that Gd-C(4)-thyroxin-DTPA exhibits a relatively high relaxivity (r(1) = 9.01 s(-1) mM(-1) at 1.5 T and 310 K), a good stability versus zinc transmetalation, and a strong interaction with HSA (K(a) approximately 10,000 M(-1) with two binding sites). The kinetics of the exchange between the bound and the free form of the complex was evaluated by the NMR diffusometry technique. Competition experiments have allowed the assignment of the chelate's binding site on HSA. PMID:20175550

  10. Complexation of Am(III) and Nd(III) by 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-Dicarboxylic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nilsson, Mikael; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Hancock, Robert D.; Nash, Ken L.

    2013-01-01

    The complexant 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) is a planar tetradentate ligand that is more preorganized for metal complexation than its unconstrained analogue ethylendiiminodiacetic acid (EDDA). Furthermore, the backbone nitrogen atoms of PDA are aromatic, hence are softer than the aliphatic amines of EDDA. It has been hypothesized that PDA will selectively bond to trivalent actinides over lanthanides. In this report, the results of spectrophotometric studies of the complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) by PDA are reported. Because the complexes are moderately stable, it was necessary to conduct these titrations using competitive equilibrium methods, competitive cation omplexing between PDA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and competition between ligand protonation and complex formation. Stability constants and ligand protonation constants were determined at 0.1 mol/L ionic strength and at 0.5 mol/L ionic strength nitrate media at 21 ± 1 C. The stability constants are lower than those predicted from first principles and speciation calculations indicate that Am(III) selectivity over Nd(III) is less than that exhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline.

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORALLY AVAILABLE, AMPHIPATHIC POLYAMINOCARBOXYLIC ACID CHELATORS FOR ACTINIDE DECORPORATION

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott C.; Wang, Xuli; Bowman, Beth M.

    2010-01-01

    Commonly used water-soluble polyaminocarboxylic acid (PACA) chelators, such as (EDTA) and DTPA, require intravenous or subcutaneous administration due to their poor bioavailability. The bioavailability of PACAs can be improved by the addition of differing lengths of alkyl side chains that alter amphipathic properties. Orally administered amphipathic triethylenetetramine pentaacetic acid (TT) compounds are efficacious for decorporation of Pu and Am. The synthesis, efficacy, binding affinities, and some initial pharmacokinetics properties of amphipathic TT chelators are reviewed. 14C-Labeled C12TT and C22TT chelators are reasonably well absorbed from the intestine and have a substantial biliary/fecal excretion pathway, unlike DTPA, which is mostly excreted in the urine. Whole body retention times are increased as a function of increasing lipophilicity. Neutron-induced autoradiography studies demonstrate that the oral administration of the chelators can substantially inhibit the redistribution of 239Pu in skeletal tissues. In summary, amphipathic TT-based chelators have favorable bioavailability, have a significant biliary excretion pathway, have demonstrated efficacy for americium and plutonium and are thus good candidates for further development. Furthermore, some of the pharmacological properties can be manipulated by changing the lengths of the alkyl side chains and this may have some advantage for decorporation of certain metals and radionuclides. PMID:20699705

  12. In vivo application of ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide for detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Setyono-Han, B.; de Jong, M.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Bruns, C.; van Hagen, P.M.; Marbach, P.; Visser, T.J.; Pless, J.; Lamberts, S.W.J. Sandoz Research Inst., Berne Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated its in vivo application in the visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats. The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical was investigated after intravenous injection in normal rats and in rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic carcinoma CA 20948. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies showed that specific accumulation of radioactivity occurred in somatostatin receptor-containing tissue (anterior pituitary gland). However, in contrast to the adrenals and pituitary, the tracer accumulation in the kidneys was not mediated by somatostatin receptors. Increasing radioactivity over the somatostatin receptor-positive tumors was measured rapidly after injection and the tumors were clearly visualized by gamma camera scintigraphy. In rats pretreated with 1 mg octreotide accumulation of ({sup 111}In-DPTA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide in the tumors was prevented. Because of its relatively long effective half-life, ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogue which can be used to visualize somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors efficiently after 24 hr, when interfering background radioactivity is minimized by renal clearance.

  13. Circulatory kinetics of intravenously injected {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in mice: Comparison with rat, dog, and Reference Man

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.W.; Kullgren, B.; Schmidt, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    New ligands for in vivo chelation of Pu(IV) are being synthesized and evaluated in mice for efficacy and toxicity. Biokinetic studies of the new ligands, CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, and Pu(IV) are major components of those investigations. Young adult female mice were injected intravenously (iv) with {sup 3}H-inulin, {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, or {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate to provide base- line data for plasma clearance, tissue uptake, and excretion rates and to determine the dilution volume (VOD) and renal clearance rate (RC) of filterable substances. Published plasma clearance data in Reference Man, dog, and rat were collected. Based on combined data for {sup 3}H-inulin and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, VOD = 17% of body weight and RC = 18 mL kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} for mice. Retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in the four species is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to RC: Integrals of the retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA from R(t) = 1.0 to R(t) = 0.05 are 108, 43, 28, and 10 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. Clearances of iv-injected Pu(IV) citrate from plasma are in the same order: The plasma curve integrals from injection to 1440 min are 840, 640, 280, and 67 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. In mice, a large fraction of newly injected Pu(IV) is rapidly transferred to the interstitial water of bulk soft tissue (excluding liver and kidneys), from which it is cleared at the same rate as from the plasma. Rapid plasma clearance, escape into interstitial water (22%ID at 20 min), significant early urinary excretion (8%ID in 12 h), and prompt deposition in liver and skeleton (complete in 12 h) are evidence of inefficient binding to plasma protein of newly injected Pu(IV) in mice. Slow plasma clearance, little early urinary excretion, and delayed deposition in liver and skeleton reflect more efficient binding of newly injected Pu(IV) in Reference Man and dog. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3–4–5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17–19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children. PMID:25830489

  15. Effects of land use on of soil micronutrients at the plot scale in an acid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz González, A.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; de Abreu, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on the heavy metal extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study is to analyze long-term effects of land use on the supply, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which was undertaken by comparison of a forest and a cultivated stand, rich in organic matter content. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg/Kg), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg/Kg), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg/Kg), Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg/Kg). In forest land, the limits for these concentration were: Fe (62 and 309 mg/Kg), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg/Kg), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg/Kg), Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg/Kg), Microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand, being Fe-DTPA the exception. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the study scale, nutrient management is the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions are probably driving the higher variation within the forest site. Results are discussed in the frame of organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use.

  16. New cross-linking quinoline- and quinolone-based luminescent lanthanide probes for sensitive labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Shyamala; Wirpsza, Laura; Kozlov, Maxim; Marras, Salvatore A. E.; Krasnoperov, Lev N.; Mustaev, Arkady

    2012-03-01

    New luminescent lanthanide chelates containing thiol-, amine-, and click-reactive groups in antenna-fluorophore moieties were synthesized. The chelates include diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) coupled to two types of chromophores: 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2(1H) quinolinone, and 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2-alkoxyquinoline. The synthesized compounds were characterized using NMR, light absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescent spectroscopy. Some of the compounds displayed high brightness with Tb3+, Eu3+, and Dy3+. Obtained reactive lanthanide chelates can be easily attached to biological molecules. The probes demonstrated high performance in molecular beaconbased DNA hybridization assays (sub-pico molar detection limit), in bacterial proteome labeling, and in live cell imaging.

  17. Kit for the preparation of (111)In-labeled pertuzumab injection for imaging response of HER2-positive breast cancer to trastuzumab (Herceptin).

    PubMed

    Lam, Karen; Scollard, Deborah A; Chan, Conrad; Levine, Mark N; Reilly, Raymond M

    2014-10-23

    We previously reported that (111)In-labeled pertuzumab imaged trastuzumab (Herceptin)-mediated changes in HER2 expression preclinically in breast cancer tumors. To advance (111)In-labeled pertuzumab to a Phase I/II clinical trial, a kit was designed for preparing this agent in a form suitable for human administration. Unit-dose kits containing pertuzumab modified with 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BzDTPA) were prepared that labeled to high efficiency (>90%) with (111)In and met specifications for pharmaceutical quality. The kits were stable for 4 months and the final radiopharmaceutical was stable for 24h. Imaging studies demonstrated high and specific uptake in HER2-positive tumors in mice using this clinical kit formulation. PMID:25464190

  18. Gd3+-DTPA-Meglumine-Anionic Linear Globular Dendrimer G1: Novel Nanosized Low Toxic Tumor Molecular MR Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Darvish Mohamadi, Tahmineh; Ghalandarlaki, Negar; Mehravi, Bita; Shafiee Ardestani, Mehdi; Yaghmaei, Parichehr

    2013-01-01

    Despite the great efforts in the areas of early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, this disease continues to grow and is still a global killer. Cancer treatment efficiency is relatively high in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, early diagnosis is a key factor in cancer treatment. Among the various diagnostic methods, molecular imaging is one of the fastest and safest ones. Because of its unique characteristics, magnetic resonance imaging has a special position in most researches. To increase the contrast of MR images, many pharmaceuticals have been known and used so far. Gadopentetate (with commercial name Magnevist) is the first magnetic resonance imaging contrast media that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this study, gadopentetate was first synthesized and then attached to a tree-like polymer called dendrimer which is formed by polyethylene glycol core and surrounding citric acid groups. Stability studies of the drug were carried out to ensure proper synthesis. Then, the uptake of the drug into liver hepatocellular cell line and the drug cytotoxicity were evaluated. Finally, in vitro and in vivo MR imaging were performed with the new synthetic drug. Based on the findings of this research, connecting gadopentetate to dendrimer surface produces a stronger, safer, and more efficient contrast media. Gd(III)-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate-meglumine-dendrimer drug has the ability to enter cells and does not produce significant cytotoxicity. It also increases the relaxivity of tissue and enhances the MR images contrast. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis that the binding of gadopentetate to citric acid dendrimer produces a new, biodegradable, stable, and strong version of the old contrast media. PMID:23533819

  19. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  20. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  1. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  2. Role of antioxidant enzymes in bacterial resistance to organic acids.

    PubMed

    Bruno-Bárcena, Jose M; Azcárate-Peril, M Andrea; Hassan, Hosni M

    2010-05-01

    Growth in aerobic environments has been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to cause oxidative stress in most organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutases and hydroperoxidases) and DNA repair mechanisms provide protection against ROS. Acid stress has been shown to be associated with the induction of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in Lactococcus lactis and Staphylococcus aureus. However, the relationship between acid stress and oxidative stress is not well understood. In the present study, we showed that mutations in the gene coding for MnSOD (sodA) increased the toxicity of lactic acid at pH 3.5 in Streptococcus thermophilus. The inclusion of the iron chelators 2,2'-dipyridyl (DIP), diethienetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and O-phenanthroline (O-Phe) provided partial protection against 330 mM lactic acid at pH 3.5. The results suggested that acid stress triggers an iron-mediated oxidative stress that can be ameliorated by MnSOD and iron chelators. These findings were further validated in Escherichia coli strains lacking both MnSOD and iron SOD (FeSOD) but expressing a heterologous MnSOD from S. thermophilus. We also found that, in E. coli, FeSOD did not provide the same protection afforded by MnSOD and that hydroperoxidases are equally important in protecting the cells against acid stress. These findings may explain the ability of some microorganisms to survive better in acidified environments, as in acid foods, during fermentation and accumulation of lactic acid or during passage through the low pH of the stomach. PMID:20305033

  3. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  4. Exploitation of the size-exclusion effect of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography for the direct analysis of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid in therapeutic monoclonal antibody formulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jason Z; Liao, Karen; Wang, George; Haby, Thomas; Bolgar, Mark S

    2016-07-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are being widely studied for the treatment of cancers and other diseases. The mAb is typically in a solution formulation and administered as an intravenous infusion. Ready-to-use solutions are favored for their clinical convenience but they can potentially suffer from a shorter shelf life due to accelerated rates of some forms of degradation such as oxidation, relative to lyophilized formulations. To improve stability, the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is often used at very low concentrations in biologics formulations to prevent oxidation induced by metal ions. Because of its low concentration and susceptibility to changes in concentration during stability study or processing, the measurement of DTPA levels during formulation and process development is critical. In response to this need we developed a platform reversed-phase HPLC method that allows for the rapid and direct determination of DPTA concentrations which does not require the prior removal of mAbs in formulation samples. The method exploits the "size exclusion effect" of C18 columns with narrow pore sizes (90-120Å) to elute large mAb at the void volume, enabling direct injections of mAb samples for quantitation of DTPA. The method was found to be suitable for the analysis of DTPA in the range of 2-20μg/mL across multiple drug formulations containing different therapeutic mAb and antibody drug conjugates. The method was successfully validated for specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, and robustness. PMID:27295965

  5. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  6. Evaluation of pulmonary alveolar epithelial integrity by the detection of restriction to diffusion of hydrophilic solutes of different molecular sizes.

    PubMed

    Mason, G R; Peters, A M; Bagdades, E; Myers, M J; Snook, D; Hughes, J M

    2001-03-01

    The rate of transfer of a hydrophilic solute from the alveoli to pulmonary blood following inhalation as an aerosol depends on the molecular size of the solute and the permeability of the alveolar epithelium. The value of this measurement for assessing damage to the epithelium in lung disease is compromised by cigarette smoking, which accelerates clearance by unknown mechanisms. The rates of clearance of (99m)Tc-labelled diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) (molecular mass 492 Da) and (113m)In-labelled biotinylated DTPA (B-DTPA) (molecular mass 1215 Da) were monitored simultaneously by dynamic gamma-radiation camera imaging following simultaneous inhalation, and compared between eight normal non-smoking subjects and nine habitual cigarette smokers. The clearance rates of DTPA were 0.95 (S.D. 0.39)%/min in non-smokers and 4.13 (1.06) %/min in smokers. These were about twice the clearance rates of B-DTPA, which in the corresponding groups were 0.41 (0.26) and 2.12 (0.72)%/min respectively. The ratio of the B-DTPA/DTPA clearance rates was, in all subjects, less than the ratio (0.74) of the cube roots of the molecular masses of the solutes, assumed to correspond to the ratio of their free diffusion coefficients in water, and was not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers. As alveolar permeability increased, the ratio of clearance rates in the entire population showed a significant trend to increase in a non-linear fashion towards the value corresponding to the ratio of the free diffusion coefficients. We conclude that the diffusion of at least the larger of these two solutes through the pulmonary alveolar epithelium is restricted (i.e. associated with a reflection coefficient greater than zero). Cigarette smoking, however, does not appear to cause a loss of this restriction, and may increase solute clearance by other mechanisms, such as reducing fluid volume within the alveolus, thereby raising the local radiotracer concentration, or increasing

  7. [Functionalized Metal Chelates Based on Diethylenetriaminetetraacetic Acids for Chemical Modification of Proteins and Small Biomolecules].

    PubMed

    Kuprienko, O S; Dubovskaya, L V; Shabunya, P S; Fatykhava, S A; Sviridov, O V

    2015-01-01

    Bifunctional reagents based on diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid containing a bound metal ion and a reactive functional group for the interaction with proteins and low-molecular-weight substances have been synthesized. An Amino-derivative of a complexonate was obtained by acylation of monosubstituted diamine with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dianhydride followed by deprotection ofthe amino group, purification by anion exchange chromatography and chelation of Eu3+. This metal chelate derivative was used for labeling 17α-hydroxyprogesterone 3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime and horseradish peroxidase. The enzyme modified with the Eu3+ complexonate at the carbohydrate component and with a cortisol derivative at the polypeptide chain was used in a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) as well as in an enzyme immunoassay of the steroid hormone. DELFIA showed that labeled 17α-hydroxyprogesterone retained the affinity for corresponding antibodies. A Eu(3+)-complexonate carboxy-derivative N-succinimide ester was obtained by acylation of the aminochelate with p-phthalic acid di-N-succinimide ester. It was used for modification of amino groups of lysine residues in polypeptide chains of human serum albumin and some immunoglobulins G. Purification of Eu3+ complexonate-protein conjugates by gel-chromatography on a Superose- 12 column allowed to separate the modified proteins from unreacted low molecular weight Eu(3+)-derivatives and to determine a degree of lanthanide inclusion into a protein. The amount of Eu3+ covalently attached to a protein was determined by measuring the fluorescence of a conjugate in the dissociative-enhancement solution. The obtained values correlated well with the results of ICP-MS determination of Eu3+ concentration in a conjugate solution. It was shown that conjugates of monoclonal antibodies obtained by the proposed method possessed the required characteristics of fluorescence intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity

  8. A dissociative fluorescence enhancement technique for one-step time-resolved immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Mukkala, Veli-Matti; Hakala, Harri H. O.; Mäkinen, Pauliina H.; Suonpää, Mikko U.; Hemmilä, Ilkka A.

    2010-01-01

    The limitation of current dissociative fluorescence enhancement techniques is that the lanthanide chelate structures used as molecular probes are not stable enough in one-step assays with high concentrations of complexones or metal ions in the reaction mixture since these substances interfere with lanthanide chelate conjugated to the detector molecule. Lanthanide chelates of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are extremely stable, and we used EuDTPA derivatives conjugated to antibodies as tracers in one-step immunoassays containing high concentrations of complexones or metal ions. Enhancement solutions based on different β-diketones were developed and tested for their fluorescence-enhancing capability in immunoassays with EuDTPA-labelled antibodies. Characteristics tested were fluorescence intensity, analytical sensitivity, kinetics of complex formation and signal stability. Formation of fluorescent complexes is fast (5 min) in the presented enhancement solution with EuDTPA probes withstanding strong complexones (ethylenediaminetetra acetate (EDTA) up to 100 mM) or metal ions (up to 200 μM) in the reaction mixture, the signal is intensive, stable for 4 h and the analytical sensitivity with Eu is 40 fmol/L, Tb 130 fmol/L, Sm 2.1 pmol/L and Dy 8.5 pmol/L. With the improved fluorescence enhancement technique, EDTA and citrate plasma samples as well as samples containing relatively high concentrations of metal ions can be analysed using a one-step immunoassay format also at elevated temperatures. It facilitates four-plexing, is based on one chelate structure for detector molecule labelling and is suitable for immunoassays due to the wide dynamic range and the analytical sensitivity. Figure   PMID:21161513

  9. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  10. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  11. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  12. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  13. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  14. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  15. Cyclohexyl-triethylenetetraamine hexacetic acid

    DOEpatents

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Gestin, Jean-Francois

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  16. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  17. Diagnostic use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in radioisotope evaluation of unilateral renal artery stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; de Jong, P.E.; Piers, D.A.; Beekhuis, H.; van der Hem, G.K.; de Zeeuw, D.

    1989-05-01

    Iodine-123 hippurate renography, (/sup 99m/Tc)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renography, and (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercapto succinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy were performed before and during angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in a group of 15 hypertensive patients with angiographically ''significant'' unilateral renal artery stenosis. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the three radioisotope methods before ACE inhibition already disclosed abnormalities suggestive of renal artery stenosis in a high percentage (87%, 60%, and 60%, respectively) in this group of patients, but ACE inhibition further improved the diagnostic yield in all three methods (93%, 86%, and 80%). Iodine-123 hippurate renography was at least as useful as (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renography in this respect, while (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scintigraphy can be used particularly in segmental stenosis. Despite a large drop in blood pressure after ACE inhibition little adverse reactions were seen and overall renal function was fairly well maintained, the exceptions noted in patients with initially a more impaired renal function.

  18. Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils from the surroundings of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edna Santos; Fernandes, Antonio Rodrigues; de Souza Braz, Anderson Martins; Sabino, Lorena Lira Leite; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Amazonian Highway (TAH) is located in the northern region of Brazil, comprising a border region where agricultural, mining, and logging activities are the main activities responsible for fostering economic development, in addition to large hydroelectric plants. Such activities lead to environmental contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Environmental monitoring is only possible through the determination of element contents under natural conditions. Many extraction methods have been proposed to determine PTEs' bioavailability in the soil; however, there is no consensus about which extractor is most suitable. In this study, we determined the contents of PTEs in soils in the surroundings of TAH after mineral extraction with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-triethanolamine (DTPA-TEA), Mehlich I, and Mehlich III solutions. Soil samples were collected in areas of natural vegetation in the vicinity of TAH in the state of Pará, Brazil. Chemical attributes and particle size were determined, besides concentrations of Fe, Al, Mn, and Ti by sulfuric acid digestion, Si after alkaline solution attack, and poorly crystalline Fe, Al, and "free" Fe oxides. Mehlich III solution extracted greater contents from Fe, Al, and Pb as compared to Mehlich I and DTPA-TEA and similar contents from Cd, Mn, Zn, and Cu. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of PTEs and the contents of Fe and Mn oxides as well as organic carbon and soil cation exchange capacity. Contents of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn by the three methods were positively correlated. PMID:25391461

  19. Increased Uptake of Chelated Copper Ions by Lolium perenne Attributed to Amplified Membrane and Endodermal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anthea; Singhal, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of mechanisms by which chelators influence metal translocation to plant shoot tissues are analyzed using a combination of numerical modelling and physical experiments. The model distinguishes between apoplastic and symplastic pathways of water and solute movement. It also includes the barrier effects of the endodermis and plasma membrane. Simulations are used to assess transport pathways for free and chelated metals, identifying mechanisms involved in chelate-enhanced phytoextraction. Hypothesized transport mechanisms and parameters specific to amendment treatments are estimated, with simulated results compared to experimental data. Parameter values for each amendment treatment are estimated based on literature and experimental values, and used for model calibration and simulation of amendment influences on solute transport pathways and mechanisms. Modeling indicates that chelation alters the pathways for Cu transport. For free ions, Cu transport to leaf tissue can be described using purely apoplastic or transcellular pathways. For strong chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)), transport by the purely apoplastic pathway is insufficient to represent measured Cu transport to leaf tissue. Consistent with experimental observations, increased membrane permeability is required for simulating translocation in EDTA and DTPA treatments. Increasing the membrane permeability is key to enhancing phytoextraction efficiency. PMID:26512647

  20. Influence of soil type on the mobility and bioavailability of chelated zinc.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose M

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the distribution, mobility, and relative effectiveness of Zn from Zn-amino acids (Zn-AA) and Zn-DTPA-HEDTA-EDTA (Zn-CH) (DTPA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate; HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenedinitrilotriacetate; and EDTA, ethylenedinitrilotetraacetate) sources by applying different Zn levels to weakly acidic and neutral soils in laboratory (incubation and soil column studies) and greenhouse conditions. The experiments were carried out for 60 days in incubation and column experiments and for 45 days in a greenhouse experiment. The zinc soil behavior was evaluated by DTPA-TEA and Mehlich-3 extractions and sequential speciation. The incubation experiment showed that the highest concentrations of available Zn in weakly acidic soil occurred with Zn-AA treatments, whereas in the neutral soil Zn-CH treatments produced the highest quantities of available Zn. The column experiment showed that in neutral soil, with slow to moderate permeability in the Ap and Bt horizons, only Zn-CH significantly increased the mobility of Zn through the column with respect to the control and the Zn-AA source: 31% of the Zn applied as synthetic chelate was leached from the column. The greenhouse experiment showed that, at different rates of Zn application, the Zn carriers increased Zn uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). The use of applied Zn by maize, or Zn utilization, was greatest when the Zn treatments were Zn-CH (3.3%) at 20 mg kg-1 and Zn-CH (4.9%) at 10 mg kg-1, in weakly acidic and neutral soils, respectively. PMID:17407310

  1. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  2. Chicken manure biochar as liming and nutrient source for acid Appalachian soil.

    PubMed

    Hass, Amir; Gonzalez, Javier M; Lima, Isabel M; Godwin, Harry W; Halvorson, Jonathan J; Boyer, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Acid weathered soils often require lime and fertilizer application to overcome nutrient deficiencies and metal toxicity to increase soil productivity. Slow-pyrolysis chicken manure biochars, produced at 350 and 700°C with and without subsequent steam activation, were evaluated in an incubation study as soil amendments for a representative acid and highly weathered soil from Appalachia. Biochars were mixed at 5, 10, 20, and 40 g kg into a Gilpin soil (fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludult) and incubated in a climate-controlled chamber for 8 wk, along with a nonamended control and soil amended with agronomic dolomitic lime (AgLime). At the end of the incubation, soil pH, nutrient availability (by Mehlich-3 and ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [AB-DTPA] extractions), and soil leachate composition were evaluated. Biochar effect on soil pH was process- and rate-dependent. Biochar increased soil pH from 4.8 to 6.6 at the high application rate (40 g kg), but was less effective than AgLime. Biochar produced at 350°C without activation had the least effect on soil pH. Biochar increased soil Mehlich-3 extractable micro- and macronutrients. On the basis of unit element applied, increase in pyrolysis temperature and biochar activation decreased availability of K, P, and S compared to nonactivated biochar produced at 350°C. Activated biochars reduced AB-DTPA extractable Al and Cd more than AgLime. Biochar did not increase NO in leachate, but increased dissolved organic carbon, total N and P, PO, SO, and K at high application rate (40 g kg). Risks of elevated levels of dissolved P may limit chicken manure biochar application rate. Applied at low rates, these biochars provide added nutritional value with low adverse impact on leachate composition. PMID:22751051

  3. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  5. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  6. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  7. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  8. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  9. Trace determination of gadolinium in biomedical samples by diode laser-based multi-step resonance ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Blaum, K; Geppert, C; Schreiber, W G; Hengstler, J G; Müller, P; Nörtershäuser, W; Wendt, K; Bushaw, B A

    2002-04-01

    The application of high-resolution multi-step resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) to the trace determination of the rare earth element gadolinium is described. Utilizing three-step resonant excitation into an autoionizing level, both isobaric and isotopic selectivity of >10(7) were attained. An overall detection efficiency of approximately 10(-7) and an isotope specific detection limit of 1.5 x 10(9) atoms have been demonstrated. When targeting the major isotope (158)Gd, this corresponds to a total Gd detection limit of 1.6 pg. Additionally, linear response has been demonstrated over a dynamic range of six orders of magnitude. The method has been used to determine the Gd content in various normal and tumor tissue samples, taken from a laboratory mouse shortly after injection of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), which is used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The RIMS results show Gd concentrations that vary by more than two orders of magnitude (0.07-11.5 microg mL(-1)) depending on the tissue type. This variability is similar to that observed in MRI scans that depict Gd-DTPA content in the mouse prior to dissection, and illustrates the potential for quantitative trace analysis in microsamples of biomedical materials. PMID:12012186

  10. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms. PMID:24201986

  11. Intestinal transit of solid and liquid components of a meal in health.

    PubMed

    Malagelada, J R; Robertson, J S; Brown, M L; Remington, M; Duenes, J A; Thomforde, G M; Carryer, P W

    1984-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, under physiologic conditions, the human small bowel discriminates between the solid and aqueous components of chyme, that is, that in a fashion analogous to the stomach, the intestine would allow the liquid fraction to progress at a faster rate than solid particles. To evaluate this hypothesis, we took advantage of a gamma-emitting solid marker, 131I-fiber, previously developed in our laboratory, that is recognized by the stomach as a solid and that is emptied at a slower rate than liquid markers. Thus, 131I-fiber enters the intestine during feeding at a slower rate than a liquid marker, being eventually excreted in the feces physically and chemically unchanged. We also developed a mathematical method to calculate the intestinal transit spectrum based on scintigraphic data obtained from 6 healthy individuals who ingested 131I-fiber and technetium 99m (99mTc)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-water with a meal. The results disprove the hypothesis by showing that whereas 131I-fiber, as expected, leaves the stomach at a much slower rate than 99mTc-DTPA-water, both markers progress along the small bowel separately but at similar speeds. Our method for measuring intestinal transit provides a more comprehensive quantification of chyme transit in the human small bowel than earlier methods and should prove a useful technique for further noninvasive studies of transit after feeding. PMID:6092195

  12. Reduction of bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during vermicomposting of water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2013-12-01

    Vermicomposting of water hyacinth is a good alternative for the treatment of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and subsequentially, beneficial for agriculture purposes. The bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) were evaluated during vermicomposting of E. crassipes employing Eisenia fetida earthworm. Five different proportions (trials 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of cattle manure, water hyacinth, and sawdust were prepared for the vermicomposting process. Results show that very poor biomass growth of earthworms was observed in the highest proportion of water hyacinth (trial 1). The water soluble, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable, and leachable heavy metals concentration (percentage of total heavy metals) were reduced significantly in all trials except trial 1. The total concentration of some metals was low but its water soluble and DTPA extractable fractions were similar or more than other metals which were present in higher concentration. This study revealed that the toxicity of metals depends on bioavailable fraction rather than total metal concentration. Bioavailable fraction of metals may be toxic for plants and soil microorganisms. The vermicomposting of water hyacinth by E. fetida was very effective for reduction of bioavailability and leachability of selected heavy metals. Leachability test confirmed that prepared vermicompost is not hazardous for soil, plants, and human health. The feasibility of earthworms to mitigate the metal toxicity and to enhance the nutrient profile in water hyacinth vermicompost might be useful in sustainable land renovation practices at low-input basis. PMID:23757026

  13. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme. PMID:20580409

  14. Experimental pretargeting studies of cancer with a humanized anti-CEA x murine anti-[In-DTPA] bispecific antibody construct and a (99m)Tc-/(188)Re-labeled peptide.

    PubMed

    Karacay, H; McBride, W J; Griffiths, G L; Sharkey, R M; Barbet, J; Hansen, H J; Goldenberg, D M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to localize (99m)Tc and (188)Re radionuclides to tumors, using a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) in a two-step approach where the radionuclides are attached to novel peptides incorporating moieties recognized by one arm of the bsMAb. A chemically cross-linked human/murine bsMAb, hMN-14 x 734 (Fab' x Fab'), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] x anti-indium-DTPA was prepared as a prelude to constructing a fully humanized bsMAb for future clinical application. N,N'-o-Phenylenedimaleimide was used to cross-link the Fab' fragments of the two antibodies at their hinge regions. This construct was shown to be >92% pure and fully reactive with CEA and a divalent (indium)DTPA-peptide. For pretargeting purposes, a peptide, IMP-192 [Ac-Lys(In-DTPA)-Tyr-Lys(In-DTPA)-Lys(TscG-Cys-)-NH(2) ¿TscG = 3-thiosemicarbazonylglyoxyl¿], with two indium-DTPAs and a chelate for selectively binding (99m)Tc or (188)Re, was synthesized. IMP-192 was formulated in a "single dose" kit and later radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (94-99%) at up to 1836 Ci/mmol and with (188)Re (97%) at 459-945 Ci/mmol of peptide. [(99m)Tc]IMP-192 was shown to be stable by extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and had no specific uptake in the tumor with minimal renal uptake. The biodistribution of the hMN-14 x murine 734 bsMAb was compared alone and in a pretargeting setting to a fully murine anti-CEA (F6) x 734 bsMAb that was reported previously [Gautherot, E., Bouhou, J., LeDoussal, J.-M., Manetti, C., Martin, M., Rouvier, E., and Barbet, J. (1997) Therapy for colon carcinoma xenografts with bispecific antibody-targeted, iodine-131-labeled bivalent hapten. Cancer 80 (Suppl.), 2618-2623]. Both bsMAbs maintained their integrity and dual binding specificity in vivo, but the hMN-14 x m734 was cleared more rapidly from the blood. This coincided with an increased uptake of the hMN-14 x m734 bsMAb in the liver and spleen, suggesting an active reticuloendothelial cell recognition mechanism of this mixed

  15. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  16. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: the quest for therapeutic actinide chelators.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Patricia W

    2008-11-01

    All of the actinides are radioactive. Taken into the body, they damage and induce cancer in bone and liver, and in the lungs if inhaled, and U(VI) is a chemical kidney poison. Containment of radionuclides is fundamental to radiation protection, but if it is breached accidentally or deliberately, decontamination of exposed persons is needed to reduce the consequences of radionuclide intake. The only known way to reduce the health risks of internally deposited actinides is to accelerate their excretion with chelating agents. Ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were introduced in the 1950's. DTPA is now clinically accepted, but its oral activity is low, it must be injected as a Ca(II) or Zn(II) chelate to avoid toxicity, and it is structurally unsuitable for chelating U(VI) or Np(V). Actinide penetration into the mammalian iron transport and storage systems suggested that actinide ions would form stable complexes with the Fe(III)-binding units found in potent selective natural iron chelators (siderophores). Testing of that biomimetic approach began in the late 1970's with the design, production, and assessment for in vivo Pu(IV) chelation of synthetic multidentate ligands based on the backbone structures and Fe(III)-binding groups of siderophores. New efficacious actinide chelators have emerged from that program, in particular, octadentate 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and tetradentate 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) have potential for clinical acceptance. Both are much more effective than CaNa3-DTPA for decorporation of Pu(IV), Am(III), U(VI), and Np(IV,V), they are orally active, and toxicity is acceptably low at effective dosage. PMID:18849679

  17. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood vessel to keep it open. Bipolar disorder. Taking folic acid does not appear to improve the antidepressant effects of lithium in people with bipolar disorder. However, taking folate with the medication valproate improves ...

  18. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  19. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  20. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  1. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  2. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Amicar® Oral Solution ... Aminocaproic acid comes as a tablet and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  3. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  4. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  5. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy.

  6. Binding constants of divalent mercury (Hg2+) in soil humic acids and soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Abdul R; Bloom, Paul R; Brezonik, Patrick L

    2006-02-01

    Distribution coefficients (K(OC)) for Hg2+ binding by IHSS Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA) and humic acids separated from O-horizons and peats in a northern temperate forest were determined using a competitive ligand-exchange method. All measurements were made at low ratios of added Hg2+ to reduced S. The commonly used chelating agents, EGTA and DTPA, were found to be ineffective competitive ligands; thus, we used DL-penicillamine, a synthetic amino acid with a thiol group. Calculated free [Hg2+] at equilibrium is very low, ranging from 10(-26.4) at pH 1.9 to 10(-36.9) at pH 5.8. Corresponding log Koc values ranged from 22.6 to 32.8. The slope of the plot of pH versus log K(OC) was 2.68, suggesting that two or more protons are released when each Hg2+ is bound. This is consistent with binding of Hg2+ to bidentate thiol sites with some participation of a third weak-acid group, presumably a thiol. The 1:2 stoichiometry is consistent with X-ray spectroscopy data for Hg2+ bound to HA and with other pH-dependency results showing release of two protons with the binding of each Hg2+. Our K(OC) values are much greater than indicated by the data from most previous studies. PMID:16509327

  7. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  8. Effect of Hydroxyurea Treatment on Renal Function Parameters: Results from the Multi-Center Placebo-Controlled BABY HUG Clinical Trial for Infants with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ofelia; Miller, Scott T.; Wang, Winfred C.; Luo, Zhaoyu; McCarville, M. Beth; Schwartz, George J.; Thompson, Bruce; Howard, Thomas; Iyer, Rathi V.; Rana, Sohail R.; Rogers, Zora R.; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Thornburg, Courtney D.; Ware, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) often develop hyposthenuria and renal hyperfiltration at an early age, possibly contributing to the glomerular injury and renal insufficiency commonly seen later in life. The Phase III randomized double-blinded Clinical Trial of Hydroxyurea in Infants with SCA (BABY HUG) tested the hypothesis that hydroxyurea can prevent kidney dysfunction by reducing hyperfiltration. Procedure 193 infants with SCA (mean age 13.8 months) received hydroxyurea 20 mg/kg/day or placebo for 24 months. 99mTc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance, serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, urinalysis, serum and urine osmolality after parent-supervised fluid deprivation, and renal ultrasonography were obtained at baseline and at exit to measure treatment effects on renal function. Results At exit children treated with hydroxyurea had significantly higher urine osmolality (mean 495 mOsm/kg H2O compared to 452 in the placebo group, p=0.007) and a larger percentage of subjects taking hydroxyurea achieved urine osmolality >500 mOsm/kg H2O. Moreover, children treated with hydroxyurea had smaller renal volumes (p=0.007). DTPA-derived glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not significantly different between the two treatment groups, but was significantly higher than published norms. GFR estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Schwartz formula was the best non-invasive method to estimate GFR in these children, as it was the closest to the DTPA-derived GFR. Conclusion Treatment with hydroxyurea for 24 months did not influence GFR in young children with SCA. However, hydroxyurea was associated with better urine concentrating ability and less renal enlargement, suggesting some benefit to renal function. PMID:22294512

  9. Influence of chelator and near-infrared dye labeling on biocharacteristics of dual-labeled trastuzumab-based imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Melissa B; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Nina; Xie, Qing; Liu, Chen; Sevick-Muraca, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of fluorescent dye labeling on the targeting capabilities of 111In- (DTPA)n-trastuzumab-(IRDye 800)m. Methods Trastuzumab-based conjugates were synthesized and conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at molar ratios of 1, 2, 3 and 5 and with a fluorescent dye (IRDye 800CW) at molar ratios of 1, 3 and 5. Immunoreactivity and internalization were assessed on SKBR-3 cells, overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. The stability in human serum and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was evaluated. The biodistribution of dual-labeled conjugates was compared with that of 111In-(DTPA)2-trastuzumab in a SKBR-3 xenograft model to evaluate the effect of dye-to-protein ratio. Results All trastuzumab-based conjugates exhibited a high level of chemical and optical purity. Flow cytometry results showed that increasing dye-to-protein ratios were associated with decreased immunoreactivity. Stability studies revealed that the conjugate was stable in PBS, while in human serum, increased degradation and protein precipitation were observed with increasing dye-to-protein ratios. At 4 h, the percentages of internalization of dual-labeled conjugates normalized by dye-to-protein ratio (m) were 24.88%±2.10%, 19.99%±0.59%, and 17.47%±1.26% for "m" equal to 1, 3, and 5, respectively. A biodistribution study revealed a progressive decrease in tumor uptake with an increase in the dye-to-protein ratios. The liver, spleen and kidney showed a marked uptake with increased dye-to-protein ratios, particularly in the latter. Conclusions With non-specific-site conjugation of the fluorescent dye with a protein based on imaging agent, the increase in dye-to-protein ratios negatively impacted the immunoreactivity and stability, indicating a reduced tumor uptake. PMID:27478322

  10. [Detoxication effect of water-soluble imprinted cross-linked chitosan on depleted uranium induced toxicity to renal cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-fei; Li, Chao; Zhao, Chang-qi; Liu, Li-hong

    2011-05-01

    To investigate whether a series of water-soluble cross-linked chitosan derivates synthesized in the guide of imprinting technology could be used as a uranium chelating agent to protect cells exposed to depleted uranium (DU), the imprinted chitosan derivates with high UO2(2+) chelating ability were screened, and cell model of human renal proximal tubule epithelium cells (HK-2) exposed to DU (500 micromol.L-1) was built, chitosan derivates (400 mg.L-1 ) was added to test group and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 50 mg.L-1) was added to positive control group. The results showed that three Cu2+ imprinted chitosan derivates had higher uranium chelating ability (>49 microg.mg-1) than chitosan and non-imprinted chitosan derivates. Compared to the cells exposed to DU only, survival of cells in group added chitosan derivates rose up significantly (increased from 57.3% to 88.7%, and DTPA to 72.6%), and DU intracellular accumulation decreased, membrane damage and DNA damage also eased. Among the imprinted chitosan derivates, Cu2+ imprinted penta dialdehyde cross-linked carboxymethyl chitosan (Cu-P-CMC) was the best, and better than DTPA. From ultrastructure observation, the DU precipitates of test group added Cu-P-CMC were most grouped in a big hairy clusters in a string together outside cells. It is possible that the DU-chitosan derivates precipitates are too big to enter into cells, and from this way, the DU uptake by cells decreased so as to detoxication. PMID:21800537

  11. Biodegradable gadolinium-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers for gene transfection and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Gangmin; Shi, Ting; Shao, Zhihong; Zhao, Peng; Shi, Donglu; Ren, Jie; Lin, Chao; Wang, Peijun

    2016-08-01

    Theranostic nano-polyplexes containing gene and imaging agents hold a great promise for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we develop a group of new gadolinium (Gd)-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide)s for gene delivery and T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cationic poly(urethane amide)s (denoted as CPUAs) having multiple disulfide bonds, urethane and amide linkages were synthesized by stepwise polycondensation reaction between 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and a mixture of di(4-nitrophenyl)-2, 2'-dithiodiethanocarbonate (DTDE-PNC) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride at varied molar ratios. Then, Gd-chelated CPUAs (denoted as GdCPUAs) were produced by chelating Gd(III) ions with DTPA residues of CPUAs. These GdCPUAs could condense gene into nanosized and positively-charged polyplexes in a physiological condition and, however, liberated gene in an intracellular reductive environment. In vitro transfection experiments revealed that the GdCPUA at a DTDE-PNC/DTPA residue molar ratio of 85/15 induced the highest transfection efficiency in different cancer cells. This efficiency was higher than that yielded with 25kDa branched polyethylenimine as a positive control. GdCPUAs and their polyplexes exhibited low cytotoxicity when an optimal transfection activity was detected. Moreover, GdCPUAs may serve as contrast agents for T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The results of this work indicate that biodegradable Gd-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers have high potential for tumor theranostics. PMID:27157741

  12. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease called vitiligo, and an inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome. It is also used for reducing harmful side ... to blood clots (ischemic stroke). Inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome.Taking folic acid by mouth does not improve ...

  13. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  14. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  15. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  16. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  17. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  18. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  19. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  20. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  2. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  3. Pulmonary clearance of radiotracers after positive end-expiratory pressure or acute lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Barrowcliffe, M.P.; Zanelli, G.D.; Jones, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    In anesthetized rabbits we measured clearance from lung to blood of eight aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled compounds: diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA); cytochrome c; myoglobin; a myoglobin polymer; albumin; and anionic, cationic, and neutral dextrans of equivalent molecular size. We investigated the effect of applying positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and, on a subsequent occasion, of injecting oleic acid intravenously to produce acute lung injury on the pulmonary clearance rate. Base-line clearance rates were monoexponential and varied with the molecular weights of the radiotracers. For each tracer the rate of clearance was increased a similar degree by either PEEP or oleic acid. However, with PEEP, clearance remained monoexponential, whereas after oleic acid, smaller molecular-weight radiotracers had multiexponential clearance curves. This suggests that after oleic acid the alveolar epithelium breaks down in a nonuniform fashion. We conclude that differentiation of the effect of PEEP from that of severe lung injury caused by oleic acid is not readily accomplished by either increasing the size of the tracer molecule or by varying the molecular charge.

  4. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  5. The Utility of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MR Imaging to Characterize Atypical Cirrhotic Nodules Detected on Dynamic CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Te; Wu, Wen-Pei; Chen, Chia-Bang; Su, Wei-Wen; Chen, Ran-Chou; Chen, Yao-Li

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MR images of tumors taken during the hepatocyte-specific phase can aid in the differentiation between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dysplastic nodules (DNs) in patients with atypical cirrhotic nodules detected on dynamic CT images. Materials and Methods Seventy-one patients with 112 nodules showing atypical dynamic enhancement on CT images underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging (MRI) studies. Using a reference standard, we determined that 33 of the nodules were DNs and that 79 were true HCCs. Tumor size, signal intensity on precontrast T1-weighted images (T1WI) and T2WI, and the pattern of dynamic enhancement on MR images taken in the hepatocyte-phase were determined. Results There were significant differences in tumor size, hyperintensity on T2WI, hypointensity on T1WI, typical HCC enhancement pattern on dynamic MR images, or hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase images between DNs and HCC. The sensitivity and specificity were 60.8% and 87.9% for T2WI, 38.0% and 87.9% for T1WI, 17.7% and 100% for dynamic MR imaging, 83.5% and 84.9% for hepatocyte-phase imaging, and 60.8% and 87.9% for tumor size (threshold of 1.7 cm). Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced hepatocyte-phase imaging is recommended for patients at high risk of HCC who present with atypical lesions on dynamic CT images. PMID:25310817

  6. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids at ultra-trace levels by means of online coupling ion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with indirect detection via their Pd²⁺-complexes.

    PubMed

    Nette, David; Seubert, Andreas

    2015-07-16

    A new indirect IC-ICP-MS method for the determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in water samples is described. It is based on the addition of an excess of Pd(II) to water samples. The analytes are forced into very strong and negatively charged palladium complexes, separated by ion exchange chromatography and detected by their palladium content, utilizing an on-line coupled ICP-MS. This method is suitable to determine the concentration of 8 aminopolycarboxylic acids (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), (2-carboxyethyl) iminodiacetic acid (β-ADA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), 2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,3-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,3-PDTA) and 1,2-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,2-PDTA) at the ng kg(-1) level. The method is faster and easier than the established gas chromatography (GC)-method ISO 16588:2002 and up to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ion pair chromatography based method of DIN 38413-8. Analytic performance is superior to ISO 16588:2002 and the comparability is good. PMID:26073818

  7. 76 FR 51991 - Determination That PENTETATE CALCIUM TRISODIUM (Trisodium Calcium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... to 1 Gram Base/5 Milliliters (Equivalent to 200 Milligrams Base/Milliliter), Was Not Withdrawn From..., equivalent to (EQ) 1 gram (g) base/5 milliliters (mL) (EQ 200 milligrams (mg) base/mL) was not withdrawn from... inhalation administration (EQ 1 g base/5 mL (EQ 200 mg base/mL)), if all other legal and...

  8. Initial clinical experience evaluating Yttrium-90-chimeric T84.66 anticarcinoembryonic antigen antibody and autologous hematopoietic stem cell support in patients with carcinoembryonic antigen-producing metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Y; Somlo, G; Odom-Maryon, T; Williams, L E; Liu, A; Yamauchi, D; Wu, A M; Yazaki, P; Wilczynski, S; Shively, J E; Forman, S; Doroshow, J H; Raubitschek, A A

    1999-10-01

    cT84.66 is a human/murine IgG1 with high affinity and specificity for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). An earlier Phase I trial defined the maximum tolerated dose for 90Y-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-cT84.66 at 22 mCi/m2. Dose-limiting toxicities were reversible leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The purpose of this Phase I trial was to evaluate the feasibility and toxicities of administering higher activities of 90Y-DTPA-cT84.66 with stem cell support in patients with CEA-producing breast cancer. Patients with CEA-producing breast cancer refractory to standard therapies underwent peripheral stem cell collection followed by infusion of 111indium-DTPA-cT84.66. Those patients demonstrating tumor targeting received a single therapy dose of 90Y-DTPA-cT84.66, followed by Ca-DTPA infusion for 72 h posttherapy. Stem cells were reinfused following a divided schedule. To date, seven patients have been accrued to this trial. Each patient received an imaging dose of (111)In-cT84.66. Six patients demonstrated tumor imaging and received a single cycle of 90Y-cT84.66 at 15 mCi/m2 (three patients) and 22.5 mCi/m2 (three patients). One patient did not demonstrate tumor imaging and was not treated. At these administered activities, 90Y-cT84.66 was well tolerated. No dose-limiting toxicities have been observed. All patients demonstrated hematopoietic recovery after stem cell infusion. One patient demonstrated stable disease for 4 months; one patient had stable disease and reduction of bone pain for 3 months; and a third patient experienced >50% reduction of an ovarian metastasis, resolution of malignant pleural effusion, stable pleural metastases, and stable bone scan for 14 months. Preliminary results from this ongoing Phase I trial are promising and demonstrate the feasibility and potential for antitumor effects of stem cell supported 90Y-cT84.66 therapy in patients with CEA-producing breast cancers. PMID:10541368

  9. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  10. A comparative study of indium-111 DTPA radionuclide and iothalamate meglumine roentgenographic arthrography in the evaluation of painful total hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Maxon, H.R.; Schneider, H.J.; Hopson, C.N.; Miller, E.H.; Von Stein, D.E.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Cummings, D.D.; McDevitt, R.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Fifteen patients with painful total hip prostheses were referred for nuclear medicine and roentgenographic arthrography studies to exclude loosening of the acetabular and/or the femoral component. A new radioisotopic technique suitable for the evaluation of both components was developed using dual-isotope single-photon tomography with {sup 99m}technetium methylene diphosphonate bone imaging and indium-111 diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid arthrography. Thirteen of the 15 subjects were subsequently treated with additional surgery. The surgical findings were compared with the nuclear medicine and roentgenographic results. The overall diagnostic accuracy of both arthrographic procedures was approximately 80%, but the roentgenographic arthrogram was more sensitive and the radionuclide arthrogram was more specific.

  11. Additional Value of Diffusion-weighted MRI to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Hepatic MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastasis: the Difference Depending on the Experience of the Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Higaki, Toru; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Iida, Makoto; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study was to investigate whether adding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) improved the detection of liver metastasis in radiology resident and board-certified radiologist groups. It was approved by our institutional review board. We selected 18 patients with 35 liver metastases and 12 patients without liver tumors. Five board-certified radiologists and 5 radiology residents participated in the observer performance study. Each observer first interpreted T1- and T2-weighted-, plain-, arterial phase-, and hepatobiliary phase images and specified the location of the liver metastases. The software subsequently displayed the DWI images simultaneously and all participants repeated the reading. We used Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis to compare the observer performance in detecting liver metastases. The mean values for the area under the curve (AUC) for EOB-MRI without and with DWI were 0.78 ± 0.13 [standard deviation: SD] and 0.87 ± 0.09, respectively, for the radiology residents, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.045). For the board- certified radiologists these values were 0.92 ± 0.02 and 0.96 ± 0.01, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.092). EOB-MRI with DWI significantly improved the performance of radiology residents in the identification of liver metastases. PMID:26211220

  12. Absorption of nitric oxide into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates accompanied by instantaneous reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Demmink, J.F.; Gils, I.C.F. van; Beenackers, A.A.C.M.

    1997-11-01

    The absorption of nitric oxide (NO) into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied in a stirred cell reactor. The absorption leads to stable ferrous NO chelates. Due to the high reaction rate, in combination with the relatively high P{sub NO} applied, the absorption rate is strongly affected by mass transfer limitation only. By applying penetration theory, the ratio of the diffusion coefficients of ferrous chelates and NO was determined. At elevated T, (D{sub Fe(II)chelate}/D{sub NO}){sup 1/2} decreases due to the unusual T-dependency of D{sub NO}. For ferrous NTA, the formation of the ferrous NO chelate is accompanied by pH effects that can be understood from iron chelate chemistry. In the case of ferrous NTA, pH < 5, or an excess of ligand, these effects lead to local pH gradients at the gas-liquid interface, that substantially affect the NO absorption rates. Kinetic data from the literature on the absorption of NO into ferrous chelates were evaluated using the mass transfer parameters determined. These kinetic data are often unreliable.

  13. Effect of chelating agents and solubility of cadmium complexes on uptake from soil by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Van Engelen, Debra L; Sharpe-Pedler, Rachel C; Moorhead, Kevin K

    2007-06-01

    Brassica juncea, or Indian mustard, was grown in soil artificially contaminated with either a soluble salt, CdCl(2), at 186mg Cdkg(-1), or alternately an insoluble, basic salt, CdCO(3), at 90mg Cdkg(-1). These experiments study the range of Cd uptake by Indian mustard from conditions of very high Cd concentration in a soluble form to the other extreme with an insoluble Cd salt. After plants were established, four different chelating agents were applied. Chelating agents increased plant uptake of Cd from the CdCl(2) soil but did not significantly increase plant uptake of Cd from the CdCO(3) contaminated soil. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased the plant concentration of Cd by almost 10-fold in soils contaminated with CdCl(2), with a concentration of 1283mg Cdkg(-1) in the dried EDTA-treated plants over a concentration of 131mg Cdkg(-1) in plants without added chelate. However, EDTA increased the aqueous solubility of Cd by 36 times over the soil matrix without added chelator, and thereby, increased the possibility of leaching. Other chelators used in both experiments were ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid, trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) increasing Cd in plants to 1240, 962, and 437mg Cdkg(-1), respectively. The other chelating agents increased the solubility of Cd in the leachate but not to the extent of EDTA. Comparing all chelating agents studied, DTPA increased plant uptake in terms of Cd in dried plant concentration most relative to the solubility of complexed Cd in runoff water. PMID:17320931

  14. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  15. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  16. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  17. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the blood. ... Methylmalonic acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ...

  18. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  19. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  20. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  1. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  2. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Giannis, Apostolos; Pentari, Despina; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-12-15

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type. PMID:20833468

  3. Quantitative imaging of cell-permeable magnetic resonance contrast agents using x-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Endres, Paul J; Macrenaris, Keith W; Vogt, Stefan; Allen, Matthew J; Meade, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The inability to transduce cellular membranes is a limitation of current magnetic resonance imaging probes used in biologic and clinical settings. This constraint confines contrast agents to extracellular and vascular regions of the body, drastically reducing their viability for investigating processes and cycles in developmental biology. Conversely, a contrast agent with the ability to permeate cell membranes could be used in visualizing cell patterning, cell fate mapping, gene therapy, and, eventually, noninvasive cancer diagnosis. Therefore, we describe the synthesis and quantitative imaging of four contrast agents with the capability to cross cell membranes in sufficient quantity for detection. Each agent is based on the conjugation of a Gd(III) chelator with a cellular transduction moiety. Specifically, we coupled Gd(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid DTPA and Gd(III)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid with an 8-amino acid polyarginine oligomer and an amphipathic stilbene molecule, 4-amino-4'-(N,N-dimethylamino)stilbene. The imaging modality that provided the best sensitivity and spatial resolution for direct detection of the contrast agents is synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). Unlike optical microscopy, SR-XRF provides two-dimensional images with resolution 10(3) better than (153)Gd gamma counting, without altering the agent by organic fluorophore conjugation. The transduction efficiency of the intracellular agents was evaluated by T(1) analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the efficacy of each chelate-transporter combination. PMID:17150161

  4. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil. PMID:23947715

  5. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  6. Determination of alternative and conventional chelating agents as copper(II) complexes by capillary zone electrophoresis--the first use of didecyldimethylammonium bromide as a flow reversal reagent.

    PubMed

    Laamanen, Pirkko-Leena; Matilainen, Rose

    2007-02-12

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for analyzing 11 chelating agents [beta-alaninediacetic acid (beta-ADA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,3-diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) and triethylenetetraaminehexaacetic acid (TTHA)] as negatively charged copper(II) complexes has been established. Both conventional and alternative chelating agents were included in this study, because they are used side by side in industrial applications. In this study, didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMDDAB) was successfully used as a flow reversal reagent for the first time in an aqueous CZE method based on phosphate BGE with UV spectrophotometric detection. In addition this new flow modifier was compared to common TTAB. Method development was done using a fused silica capillary (61 cm x 50 microm i.d.). The optimized BGE was a 105 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer with TTAB or DMDDAB in the concentration 0.5 mmol L(-1) at pH 7.1. The measurements were done with -20 kV voltage using direct UV detection at 254 nm. In both CZE methods all 11 analyte zones were properly separated (resolutions > or =2.4), and the calibrations gave excellent correlation coefficients (> or =0.998; linear range tested 0.5-2.0 mmol L(-1)). The limits of detection were < or =34 and < or =49 micromol L(-1) with the method of DMDDAB and TTAB, respectively. A clear benefit of both methods was the short analysis time; all 11 complexes were detected in less than 6 and 5.5 min with the methods of TTAB and DMDDAB, respectively. The two methods were tested with dishwashing detergents and paper mill wastewater samples and proved to be suitable for practical use. PMID:17386596

  7. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  8. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  9. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  10. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  11. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  12. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  13. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  14. Dissolution kinetics of iron-, manganese-, and copper-containing synthetic hydroxyapatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    Micronutrient-substituted synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is being evaluated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program for crop production on long-duration human missions to the International Space Station or for future Lunar or Martian outposts. The stirred-flow technique was utilized to characterize Ca, P, Fe, Mn, and Cu release characteristics from Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-containing SHA in deionized (DI) water, citric acid, and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA). Initially, Ca and P release rates decreased rapidly with time and were controlled by a non-SHA calcium phosphate phase(s) with low Ca/P solution molar ratios (0.91-1.51) relative to solid SHA ratios (1.56-1.64). At later times, Ca/P solution molar ratios (1.47-1.79) were near solid SHA ratios and release rates decreased slowly indicating that SHA controlled Ca and P release. Substituted SHA materials had faster dissolution rates relative to unsubstituted SHA. The initial metal release rate order was Mn >> Cu > Fe which followed metal-oxide/phosphate solubility suggesting that poorly crystalline metal-oxides/phosphates were dominating metal release. Similar metal release rates for all substituted SHA (approximately 0.01 cmol kg-1 min-1) at the end of the DTPA experiment indicated that SHA dissolution was supplying the metals into solution and that poorly crystalline metal-oxide/phosphates were not controlling metal release. Results indicate that non-SHA Ca-phosphate phases and poorly crystalline metal-oxide/phosphates will contribute Ca, P, and metals. After these phases have dissolved, substituted SHA will be the source of Ca, P, and metals for plants.

  15. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid measurements include: Alcohol Aminosalicylic acid Birth control pills Estrogens Tetracyclines Ampicillin Chloramphenicol Erythromycin Methotrexate Penicillin Aminopterin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Drugs to treat malaria

  16. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of oxalic acid poisoning include: Abdominal pain Burns and blisters where the acid contacted the skin Collapse Convulsions Mouth pain Shock Throat pain Tremors (unintentional trembling) Vomiting

  17. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  18. XAS studies of the effectiveness of iron chelating treatments of Mary Rose timbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berko, A.; Smith, A. D.; Jones, A. M.; Schofield, E. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Chadwick, A. V.

    2009-11-01

    The oxidation of sulfur in marine archaeological timbers under museum storage conditions is a recently identified problem, particularly for major artefacts such as historic ships excavated from the seabed. Recent work on the Vasa has stressed the role of iron in catalysing the oxidative degradation of the wood cellulose and the polyethylene glycols used to restore mechanical integrity to the timbers. In developing new treatment protocols for the long term preservation of Henry VIII of England's flagship, the Mary Rose, we are investigating the potential of chelating agents to neutralise and remove the iron products from the ships timbers. We have explored the use of aqueous solutions of chelating agents of calcium phytate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ammonium citrate to extract the iron compounds. All of these solutions exhibit some level of iron removal; however the key is to find the most effective concentration at pH of around 7 of the reagent solution, to minimise the treatment time and find the most cost-effective treatment for the whole of the Mary Rose hull. Fe K-edge XAFS data from samples of Mary Rose timbers, before and after treatment by the chelating agents mentioned has been collected. The data collected provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of the treatment solutions.

  19. Riparian plants on mine runoff in Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico: Useful for phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Carmona-Chit, Eréndira; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Vibrans, Heike; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Dispersion and runoff of mine tailings have serious implications for human and ecosystem health in the surroundings of mines. Water, soils and plants were sampled in transects perpendicular to the Santiago stream in Zimapan, Hidalgo, which receives runoff sediments from two acidic and one alkaline mine tailing. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) were measured in water, soils (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere) and plants. Using diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb in rhizosphere soil, the bioconcentration and translocation factors were calculated. Ruderal annuals formed the principal element of the herbaceous vegetation. Accumulation was the most frequent strategy to deal with high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. The order of concentration in plant tissue was Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd. Most plants contained concentrations of PTE considered as phytotoxic and behaved as metal tolerant species. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum accumulated particularly high concentrations of Cu. Parietaria pensylvanica and Commelina diffusa, common tropical weeds, behaved as Zn hyperaccumulators and should be studied further. PMID:26939994

  20. Effect of metals and their antagonists on the radical intensity and cytotoxicity of ascorbates.

    PubMed

    Satoh, K; Ida, Y; Kochi, M; Tajima, M; Kashimata, M; Sakagami, H

    1997-01-01

    Five heavy metal antagonists were compared for their specificity of chelating action against copper (CuCl, CuCl2) and iron (FeCl2, FeCl3). ESR spectroscopy showed that both copper and iron significantly enhanced the radical intensity of ascorbate and sodium 5,6-benzylidene-L-ascorbate (SBA). Equimolar concentrations of dimercaprol efficiently chelated all these metals, thus significantly reducing their stimulation effects. On the other hand, the chelating action of penicillamine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was limited to CuCl and CuCl2 whereas deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) was a specific iron chelator. The cytotoxic activity of sodium ascorbate was augmented by DFO, but diminished by FeCl3. The simultaneous addition of DFO and FeCl3 counteracted each other, thus neutralizing their individual effects. The cytotoxic activity of both sodium ascorbate and SBA was significantly enhanced by CuCl2 and this stimulation effect of CuCl2 was effectively chelated by DTPA. The present study demonstrates the specificity of the chelating action of these five antagonists, suggesting the possible application of these different types of antagonists for the prevention of the pathogenic diseases catalyzed by the corresponding metals. PMID:9413172

  1. The effects of soil amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in two contaminated Mediterranean soils.

    PubMed

    Walker, David J; Clemente, Rafael; Roig, Asuncion; Bernal, M Pilar

    2003-01-01

    Two heavy metal contaminated calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Spain were studied. One soil, from the province of Murcia, was characterised by very high total levels of Pb (1572 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (2602 mg kg(-1)), whilst the second, from Valencia, had elevated concentrations of Cu (72 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (190 mg kg(-1)). The effects of two contrasting organic amendments (fresh manure and mature compost) and the chelate ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on soil fractionation of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, their uptake by plants and plant growth were determined. For Murcia soil, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. was grown first, followed by radish (Raphanus sativus L.). For Valencia soil, Beta maritima L. was followed by radish. Bioavailability of metals was expressed in terms of concentrations extractable with 0.1 M CaCl2 or diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). In the Murcia soil, heavy metal bioavailability was decreased more greatly by manure than by the highly-humified compost. EDTA (2 mmol kg(-1) soil) had only a limited effect on metal uptake by plants. The metal-solubilising effect of EDTA was shorter-lived in the less contaminated, more highly calcareous Valencia soil. When correlation coefficients were calculated for plant tissue and bioavailable metals, the clearest relationships were for Beta maritima and radish. PMID:12531318

  2. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced MR Imaging Helps Subtype Hepatocellular Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Tse, Justin R; Naini, Bita V; Lu, David S K; Raman, Steven S

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To determine which clinical variables and gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features are associated with histologically proved hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) genotypic subtypes. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, clinical information and MR images of 49 histologically proved HCAs from January 2002 to December 2013 (21 patients; mean age, 39 years; age range, 15-59 years) were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. Qualitative and quantitative imaging features, including the signal intensity ratio relative to liver in each phase, were studied. HCA tissues were stained with subtype-specific markers and subclassified by a pathologist. Clinical and imaging data were correlated with pathologic findings and compared by using Fisher exact or t test, with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results Forty-nine HCAs were subclassified into 14 inflammatory, 20 hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α-mutated, one β-catenin-activated, and 14 unclassified lesions. Intralesional steatosis was exclusively seen in HNF-1α-mutated lesions. Marked hyperintensity on T2-weighted images was seen in 12 of 14 (86%) inflammatory lesions compared with four of 21 (19%) HNF-1α-mutated, seven of 14 (50%) unclassified, and zero of one (0%) β-catenin-activated lesion. Two large lesions (one β-catenin-activated and one unclassified) transformed into hepatocellular carcinomas and were the only lesions to enhance with marked heterogeneity. In the hepatobiliary phase, all HCA subtypes were hypoenhancing compared with surrounding liver parenchyma, and they reached their nadir signal intensity by 10 minutes after the administration of contrast material before plateauing. HNF-1α-mutated lesions had the lowest lesion signal intensity ratio of 0.47 ± 0.09, compared with 0.73 ± 0.18 for inflammatory lesions (P = .0004), 0.82 for

  4. Modified Differential Renal Function Measurement Revised by Renal Cross Sectional Area in Children with Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jong Kil; Chung, Moon Kee

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Diuretic 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) renal scans may show false-negative or false-positive results in children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). We evaluated whether modified differential renal function (DRF) revised by the renal cross-sectional area on imaging study may be a more valuable predictor than conventional DRF on a renal scan for deciding on a proper interventional time. Materials and Methods Between September 2001 and January 2008, we reviewed the diuretic renal scan results of 29 pediatric patients who underwent pyeloplasty due to unilateral UPJO. Diuretic renal scans using the standard 99mTc-DTPA protocol and imaging studies for renal unit measurement area were done. Conventional DRF measurement and modified calculation of DRF per unit area were done. Conventional DRF was classified into group I (below 40%) and group II (above 40%). Results The mean age of all patients was 42.6±52.6 months (range, 3-198 months). The mean cross-sectional areas of the UPJO kidney and of the normal contralateral kidney were 62.1±29.2 cm2 and 41.3±22.5 cm2, respectively (p<0.01). The conventional and modified DRF of the UPJO kidney were 45.2±9.2% and 35.2±9.5%, respectively (p<0.01). Thirteen children (62%) in group II (n=21) were classified in group I by the modified DRF measurement. Conclusions The modified DRF measurement calculated according to cross-sectional area showed fewer false-negative results and may be a valuable method for deciding on pyeloplasty under equivocal circumstances. PMID:20428431

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants--A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems. PMID:26761602

  6. Renal scintigraphy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Early glomerular and urologic dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, J.Y.; Moisan, A.; Le Cloirec, J.; Siemen, C.; Yaouanq, J.; Edan, G.; Herry, J.Y. )

    1990-07-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous injection of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 131I-Hippuran in 115 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with albumin excretion rates (AER) less than 200 micrograms/min, and in 45 normal subjects. Separate kidney function and urinary elimination were estimated by renography. GFR was increased in the diabetic patients (152 +/- 24 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. 128 +/- 15) and correlated significantly with RPF (r = 0.5; p less than 10(-9)). No relationship was found between GFR and the duration of diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, or AER. Fifty patients were hyperfiltering with RPF and filtration fraction higher than those in the normofiltering group. Slow intrarenal or pyeloureteral elimination, either unilateral or bilateral, was observed in 3 controls and 60 diabetic subjects (24 hyperfiltering; 36 normofiltering) and did not disappear with the patient in the standing position. In these 60 patients, mean age, duration of diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, 24 h albumin excretion rate, and frequency of peripheral or autonomic neuropathy did not differ from patients with normal scintigraphy; GFR was lower in the group with slow elimination, but not significantly so. 99mTc-DTPA renal uptake was symmetric in all the controls; asymmetric renal uptake with asymmetric GFR was observed in 13 patients (7 hyperfiltering; 6 normofiltering) and often associated with slower elimination. No evidence for renal stenotic atheroma or parenchymatous disease was found on the angiopyleoureterography. The results suggest that incipient uropathy is a very common phenomenon that occurs irrespective of glomerular dysfunction.

  7. Early impact of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy on renal function as assessed by renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Lorenzo G; Chiodini, Stefano; Donner, Davide; Cai, Tommaso; Vattovani, Valentino; Tiscione, Daniele; Giusti, Guido; Proietti, Silvia; Chierichetti, Franca; Malossini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    To measure the early impact of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) on renal function as assessed by renal scan (Tc 99m-DTPA), addressing the issue of risk factors for ischemic damage to the kidney. All patients undergoing RAPN for cT1 renal masses between June 2013 and May 2014 were included in this prospective study. Renal function as expressed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed by Technetium 99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc 99m-DTPA) renal scan preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 month in every patient. A multivariable analysis was used for the determination of independent factors predictive of GFR decrease of the operated kidney. Overall, 32 patients underwent RAPN in the time interval. Median tumor size, blood loss, and ischemia time were 4 cm, 200 mL, and 24 min, respectively. Two grade III complications occurred (postoperative bleeding in the renal fossa, urinoma). The GFR of the operated kidney decreased significantly from 51.7 ± 15.1 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) preoperatively to 40, 12 ± 12.4 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) 1 month postoperatively (p = 0.001) with a decrease of 22.4 %. On multivariable analysis, only tumor size (p = 0.05) was a predictor of GFR decrease of the operated kidney. Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy had a detectable impact on early renal function in a series of relatively large tumors and prevailing intermediate nephrometric risk. A mean decrease of 22 % of GFR as assessed by renal scan in the operated kidney was found at 1 month postoperatively. In multivariable analysis, tumor size only was a significant predictor of renal function loss. PMID:26994776

  8. In Vivo Immunotoxicity of SiO2@(Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 as Dual-Modality Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiumei; Li, Ermao; Yang, Fanwen; Peng, Ye; Zhu, Jixiang; He, Fupo; Chen, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized SiO2@(Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 nanocomposites as a potential dual-modality nanoprobe for molecular imaging in vitro. However, their immunotoxicity assessment in vivo remains unknown. In this article, the in vitro biocompatibility of our dual-modality nanoprobes was assayed in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo immunotoxicity was investigated by monitoring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and cytokines in Balb/c mice. The data show that the in vitro biocompatibility was satisfactory. In addition, the immunotoxicity data revealed there are no significant changes in the expression levels of CD11b and CD71 between the nanoprobe group and the Gd in a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelator (Gd-DTPA) group 24 h after injection in Balb/c mice (p > 0.05). Importantly, there are significant differences in the expression levels of CD206 and CD25 as well as the secretion of IL-4 and the generation of ROS 24 h after injection (p < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that few nanoprobes were localized in the phagosomes of liver and lung. In conclusion, the toxic effects of our nanoprobes may mainly result from the aggregation of particles in phagosomes. This accumulation may damage the microstructure of the cells and generate oxidative stress reactions that further stimulate the immune response. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the in vivo immunotoxicity of these rare earth-based biomaterials at the molecular level before molecular imaging in vivo. PMID:25105724

  9. Convection enhanced delivery of different molecular weight tracers of gadolinium-tagged polylysine.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Peter A; Keeley, Dan; Schorn, Greg; Forman, Eric; Ai, Yi; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Zhang, Zhiming; Bradley, Luke H

    2013-09-30

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a powerful method of circumventing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to deliver therapeutic compounds directly to the CNS. While inferring the CED distribution of a therapeutic compound by imaging a magnetic resonance (MR)-sensitive tracer has many advantages, however how the compound distribution is affected by the features of the delivery system, its target tissue, and its molecular properties, such as its binding characteristics, charge, and molecular weight (MW) are not fully understood. We used MR imaging of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-tagged polylysine compounds of various MW, in vitro and in vivo, to measure the dependence of compounds MW on CED distribution. For the in vitro studies, the correlation between volume of distribution (Vd) as a function of MW was determined by measuring the T1 of the infused tracers, into 0.6% agarose gels through a multiport catheter. The compounds distributed in the gels inversely proportional to their MW, consistent with convection and unobstructed diffusion through a porous media. For the in vivo studies, Gd-DTPA tagged compounds were infused into the non-human primate putamen, via an implanted multiport catheter connected to a MedStream™ pump, programmed to deliver a predetermined volume with alternating on-off periods to take advantage of the convective and diffusive contributions to Vd. Unlike the gel studies, the higher MW polylysine-tracer infusions did not freely distribute from the multiport catheter in the putamen, suggesting that distribution was impeded by other properties that should also be considered in future tracer design and CED infusion protocols. PMID:23912025

  10. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests. PMID:12024802

  11. Metal-Chelating Polymers (MCPs) with Zwitterionic Pendant Groups Complexed to Trastuzumab Exhibit Decreased Liver Accumulation Compared to Polyanionic MCP Immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Adams, Jarrett; Chi, Yuechuan; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-01

    Metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) can amplify the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by monoclonal antibodies or their Fab fragments. We focus on trastuzumab (tmAb), which is used to target cancer cells that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We report the synthesis and characterization of a biotin (Bi) end-capped MCP, Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36, a polyacrylamide with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) groups attached as monoamides to the polymer backbone by diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups. We compared its behavior in vivo and in vitro to a similar MCP with ethylenediamine (EDA) pendant groups (Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40). These polymers were complexed to a streptavidin-modified Fab fragment of tmAb, then labeled with (111)In to specifically deliver multiple copies of (111)In to HER2+ cancer cells. Upon decay, (111)In emits γ-rays that can be used in single-photon emission computed tomography radioimaging, as well as Auger electrons that cause lethal double strand breakage of DNA. Our previous studies in Balb/c mice showed that radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) containing the Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 polymer had extremely short blood circulation time and high liver uptake and were, thus, unsuitable for in vivo studies. The polymer Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 carries negative charges on each pendant group at neutral pH and a net charge of (-1) on each pendant group when saturated with stable In(3+). To test our hypothesis that charge associated with the polymer repeat unit is a key factor affecting its biodistribution profile, we examined the biodistribution of RICs containing Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36. While this polymer is also negatively charged at neutral pH, it becomes a zwitterionic MCP upon saturation of the DTPA groups with stable In(3+) ions. In both nontumor bearing Balb/c mice and athymic mice implanted with HER2+ SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer tumors, we show that the zwitterionic MCP has improved biodistribution, higher blood levels of radioactivity

  12. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  13. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  14. [Amino acids in saliva].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Gruhn, K

    1984-01-01

    Total amino acids in saliva and free and peptide-bound amino acids from 21 saliva samples were determined. The contents of amino acids was 25 mmol/1; total nitrogen content was 78-80 mmol/1. Amino acids consist of Prolin in 25%. Some patients were examined before and after application of the depot estrogen ethinyl estradiosulfonat, which stimulates the assimilation of protein. After application, amino acids increased and the authors found a shift between the single amino acids. Estrogen medication induced an increase in proteins with the character of collagens. Clinical effects are discussed. (author's modified) PMID:6240853

  15. An evaluation of the effectiveness of novel industrial by-products and organic wastes on heavy metal immobilization in Pb-Zn mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengxiang; Cao, Jianbing; Hu, Wenyong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Duan, Chun

    2013-10-01

    The in situ immobilization of heavy metals using various easily obtainable amendments is a cost-effective and practical method in the remediation of contaminated sites. In this study, two novel industrial waste materials (sweet sorghum vinasse and medicinal herb residues), spent mushroom compost and municipal solid wastes were used as amendments to assess their potential value for the in situ immobilization of heavy metals in tailings from a Pb-Zn mine in South China. Our results demonstrate that all three freely-available organic wastes decrease the deionized water (DW)- and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metal concentrations, enhance the enzyme activity, reduce the metal concentration in plant tissues, and could be used for the remediation of these Pb-Zn mine tailings metals by immobilization. The municipal solid waste failed to reduce the metal concentration in tailings and plant tissues and therefore would not be a suitable immobilizing agent. The potential value of these materials as immobilizers of heavy metals and their remediation efficacy deserve further studies in large-scale field trials. PMID:24056870

  16. Human tumor antigens identified with monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    AlSedairy, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    MoAbLc1 (IgM) and MoAbLc2 (IgG/sub 2a/) were produced against human lung carcinoma cell line (ChaGo). Lc1 recognizes a approx. = 330-kd/approx. = 310-kd glycoprotein complexes, and Lc2 recognizes a approx. = 60-kd/approx. = 47-kd protein complex. With a panel of cell lines of different tissue origin, Lc1 showed a more restricted reactivity to ChaGo; it cross-reacted with another lung carcinoma cell line (SK-Lc-2) and two breast carcinoma cell lines, but failed to react with cell lines of fetal lung, of colon, esophageal, prostate, stomach, and ovarian carcinomas, of B and T lymphoblastoid cells, neuroblastomas, glioblastoma, astrocytoma, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. New and improved methods were developed for the production of indium-111-labeled MoAbs for tumor imaging. To facilitate the application of bicyclic anhydride diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BADTPA) to In-111 labeling of antibodies, we have modified the original method by using C-14-labeled BADTPA, which allows precise quantitation of DTPA molecules incorporated. A new heterobifunctional reagent, 2,6-dioxo-N-(carboxyl)morpholine (DCM) was synthesized for chelating In-111 to MoAbs, and demonstrated higher retention of immunoreactivity of the labeled antibody.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Polyglycerol-Functionalized Detonation Nanodiamond Conjugated with Gadolinium(III) Complex.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Shiino, Akihiko; Qin, Hongmei; Kimura, Takahide; Komatsu, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    A nanodiamond-polyglycerol-gadolinium(ll) conjugate has been designed and prepared as novel nanodiamond-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent dispersible in physiological media. Detonation nanodiamond (dND) was first grafted with polyglycerol (PG) through ring-opening polymerization of glycidol to impart dispersibility to dND in physiological media. Since the hydroxyl group in PG serves as a scaffold for further surface functionalization, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was immobilized on the surface of dND-PG through multistep organic transformations and Gd(III) ion was complexed in the last step. The resulting dND-PG-Gd(III) exhibited good dispersibility (> 4.5 mg/mL) and stability (> 3 months) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In vitro MR evaluation indicates that water proton T1 relaxivity or r1 of dND-PG-Gd(III) in aqueous solutions is larger than that of Magnevist® and the difference in the relaxivity becomes larger under weaker magnetic fields. The good dispersibility together with relatively high T1 relaxivity makes dND-PG-Gd(III) a promising contrast agent for in vivo MR imaging. PMID:26353615

  18. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment. PMID:25318656

  19. Extracellular space diffusion analysis in the infant and adult rat striatum using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuangfeng; Wang, Yan; Li, Kai; Tang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Kuo; Shi, Chunyan; Han, Hongbin; Peng, Yun

    2016-10-01

    The extracellular space (ECS) in the brain provides an extrasynaptic transfer channel among neurons, axons and glial cells. It is particularly important in the early stage after birth, when angiogenesis is not yet complete and the ECS may provide the main pathway for metabolite transport. However, the characteristics of extracellular transport remain unclear. In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was used to perform real-time visualization and quantification of diffusion in the brain ECS of infant (postnatal day 10 (P10)) and adult rats. Using a modified diffusion equation and the linear relationship between the signal intensity and the gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) concentration, diffusion parameters were obtained; these parameters include the effective diffusion coefficient (D*), clearance rate (k'), tortuosity (λ) and the volume fraction of distribution (Vd%). There were significant differences in the diffusion parameters between P10 and adult rats. This finding provides a reference for future treatment of brain diseases using drugs administered via interstitial pathways. PMID:27296518

  20. Rate and extent of leakage of a magnetic resonance contrast agent tend to be lower under isoflurane anesthesia in comparison to halothane in a rat model of embolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Francisco J; Brown, Morris; Alarcon, William; Karki, Kishor; Knight, Robert A; Keenan, Kelly A; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N

    2014-09-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability by arterial spin labeling (ASL)- and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively were repeatedly measured under either halothane (N  =  5) or isoflurane (N  =  5) anesthesia in a rat stroke model of embolic occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA). Cerebral blood flow measurements were made after MCA embolization, following intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) treatment at 3 hours post-ictus and again at 48 hours. Blood-brain barrier opening was examined after rtPA infusion and again at 48 hours. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests and significance considered at P < 0·05. The extent and magnitude of CBF reduction due to stroke did not differ between the two groups. Blood-to-brain forward rate constant, K(trans), a measure of BBB permeability, for an MRI contrast agent gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), was elevated in the ipsilateral hemisphere in both cohorts. However, isoflurane-anesthetized rats exhibited a trend of lower K(trans) values at 48 hours (P  =  0·06) indicating reduced BBB damage in the ipsilateral hemisphere. The area of BBB opening followed a similar trend with the isoflurane-anesthetized group exhibiting a smaller area of BBB damage acutely and at 48 hours compared to the halothane-anesthetized group. PMID:24601723

  1. A caged lanthanide complex as a paramagnetic shift agent for protein NMR.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Miguel; Rohovec, Jan; Peters, Joop A; Tocheva, Elitza; Boulanger, Martin J; Murphy, Michael E P; Hupkes, Hermen-Jan; Kosters, Walter; Impagliazzo, Antonietta; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2004-07-01

    A lanthanide complex, named CLaNP (caged lanthanide NMR probe) has been developed for the characterisation of proteins by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy. The probe consists of a lanthanide chelated by a derivative of DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) with two thiol reactive functional groups. The CLaNP molecule is attached to a protein by two engineered, surface-exposed, Cys residues in a bidentate manner. This drastically limits the dynamics of the metal relative to the protein and enables measurements of pseudocontact shifts. NMR spectroscopy experiments on a diamagnetic control and the crystal structure of the probe-protein complex demonstrate that the protein structure is not affected by probe attachment. The probe is able to induce pseudocontact shifts to at least 40 A from the metal and causes residual dipolar couplings due to alignment at a high magnetic field. The molecule exists in several isomeric forms with different paramagnetic tensors; this provides a fast way to obtain long-range distance restraints. PMID:15224334

  2. Cleavage of supercoiled circular double-stranded DNA induced by a eukaryotic cambialistic superoxide dismutase from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Zhong; Wei, Xu-Bin; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2004-09-01

    A eukaryotic cambialistic superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been purified to homogeneity from mature seeds of the disease- and insect-resistant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). Besides the known role of this SOD in protecting cells against oxidative stress, it can induce the cleavage of supercoiled double-stranded DNA into nicked and linear DNA. It can not cleave linear DNA or RNA, demonstrating there is no DNase or RNase in the purified cambialistic SOD. Furthermore, the SOD can linearize circular pGEM-4Z DNA that is relaxed by topoisomerase I. This result indicates that the DNA-cleaving activity requires substrates being topologically constrained. The supercoiled DNA-cleaving activity of the cambialistic SOD can be inhibited by either SOD inhibitor (azide) or catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers (ethanol and mannitol). The chelator of iron, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), also inhibits the supercoiled DNA-cleaving activity. These results show that the dismutation activity is crucial for the supercoiled DNA cleavage. The modification of tryptophan residue of the cambialistic SOD with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) shows that these two activities are structurally correlative. The reaction mechanism is proposed that the hydroxyl radical formed in a transition-metal-catalyzing Fenton-type reaction contributes to the DNA-cleaving activity. In addition, the cleavage sites in supercoiled pGEM-4Z DNA are random. PMID:15346198

  3. Stable and high-yielding intrinsic (59) Fe-radiolabeling of the intravenous iron preparations Monofer and Cosmofer.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Andreas I; Severin, Gregory W; Andreasen, Hans B; Rasmussen, Palle H

    2016-07-01

    Commercial iron supplements Monofer(®) and Cosmofer(®) were intrinsically radiolabeled with (59) Fe for the purpose of tracing iron absorption in vivo. Optimized procedures aimed at introducing (59) Fe into the macromolecular construct in a form that was as chemically equivalent to the matrix iron as possible. This was determined by challenging the labeled constructs with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) followed by separation by size-exclusion and measurements of radioactivity and iron in the eluted fractions. The final procedures were simple and involved heating aqueous dispersions of the supplements in the presence of [(59) Fe]FeCl3 for 24 h at 95 °C for Monofer, and 85 °C for Cosmofer, resulting in radiochemical yields greater than 94%. High performance size exclusion chromatography, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering were used to show that the supplements remained unchanged after radiolabeling, underscoring the applicability of the methodology for radiolabeling commercial iron preparations. PMID:27311359

  4. Use of galactosylated-streptavidin as a clearing agent with 111In-labeled, biotinylated antibodies to enhance tumor/non-tumor localization ratios.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Serengulam V; Griffiths, Gary L; Michel, Rosana B; Andrews, Philip M; Goldenberg, David M; Mattes, M Jules

    2002-06-01

    Optimal tumor imaging using radiolabeled antibodies (Abs) depends on obtaining the highest possible tumor/non-tumor localization ratios. To increase this ratio, in a mouse xenograft model system, we induced rapid blood clearance of the Ab after extensive penetration of a solid tumor, at 24 hr after Ab injection. By using galactosylated streptavidin (gal-SA) as a clearing agent for biotinylated Abs, and by using an 111In-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) label, clearance was directed to hepatocytes (as opposed to Kupffer cells), and the radiolabel was excreted by the hepatocytes into bile, thereby reducing accumulation in the liver. In this study, we directly compared this approach with the use of 99mTc-F(ab)2 fragments, using the same Ab to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with a colon carcinoma xenograft. The gal-SA clearance method produced substantially higher tumor/non-tumor localization ratios for all tissues except the liver, and even for the liver the disadvantage of the gal-SA clearance method was small. We also tested the gal-SA clearance method with a xenograft model of human B-cell lymphoma, using anti-CD22. High tumor/non-tumor ratios were obtained, as previously described with carcinomas of the lung and colon. Therefore, this approach appears to be a generally applicable strategy to obtain relatively high tumor/non-tumor ratios. PMID:12136523

  5. Cross-linkable liposomes stabilize a magnetic resonance contrast-enhancing polymeric fastener.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cartney E; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2014-04-01

    Liposomes are commonly used to deliver drugs and contrast agents to their target site in a controlled manner. One of the greatest obstacles in the performance of such delivery vehicles is their stability in the presence of serum. Here, we demonstrate a method to stabilize a class of liposomes that load gadolinium, a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, as a model cargo on their surfaces. We hypothesized that the sequential adsorption of a gadolinium-binding chitosan fastener on the liposome surface followed by covalent cross-linking of the lipid bilayer would provide enhanced stability and improved MR signal in the presence of human serum. To investigate this hypothesis, liposomes composed of diyne-containing lipids were assembled and functionalized via chitosan conjugated with a hydrophobic anchor and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This postadsorption cross-linking strategy served to stabilize the thermodynamically favorable association between liposome and polymeric fastener. Furthermore, the chitosan-coated, cross-linked liposomes proved more effective as delivery vehicles of gadolinium than uncross-linked liposomes due to the reduced liposome degradation and chitosan desorption. Overall, this study demonstrates a useful method to stabilize a broad class of particles used for systemic delivery of various molecular payloads. PMID:24635565

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes. PMID:26249579

  7. Biochar Amendment for Reducing Leachability of Nitro Explosives and Metals from Contaminated Soils and Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Su

    2016-05-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of nitro explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene [DNT], 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT], and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX]) in biochar-amended soils and toxic metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in biochar-amended mine tailings were investigated via various types of leaching procedures in laboratory-scale batch experiments. The results from the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction showed that approximately 55 to 95% of the explosives were released from the contaminated soils and would thus be considered as mobile. With the addition of biochar, the extracted concentrations of explosives were reduced to less than 10% of the initial concentrations after 10 d. According to the results from a Korean waste leaching method, the TCLP method, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, adding biochar to mine tailings reduced the extractability and bioavailability of metals. The chemical forms of the metals, types of extractants, pH, and curing period strongly affected the extractability of metals from mine tailings. The results suggest that biochar is a promising immobilizer of explosives and metals in contaminated soils and mine tailings under limited conditions. PMID:27136167

  8. Scintigraphic determination of the effect of metoclopramide and morphine on small intestinal transit time

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; Winchenbach, K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    To determine if a scintigraphic method could detect pharmacologic changes in small intestinal transit time (SITT), 10 male volunteers were studied at baseline and after intravenously administered metoclopramide (10 mg) and morphine (8 mg). Five of these volunteers were studied with the hydrogen breath test method for comparison. For each of the scintigraphic studies, the volunteers were positioned supine under a large-field-of-view gamma camera after ingesting an isosmotic lactulose solution containing 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Data were collected and stored in a computer. Both gastric emptying and SITT were determined. SITT was 81 +/- 11 min (mean +/- S.E.M.; N = 10) during baseline studies, was decreased significantly to 50 +/- 6 min (N = 10; P less than 0.01) after metoclopramide, and was increased significantly to 161 +/- 15 min (N = 8; P less than 0.01) after morphine. Baseline mean values were 86.3 +/- 15 min (N = 15) for the hydrogen breath tests, 47 +/- 8 min (N = 5) for metoclopramide, and 183 +/- 16 min (N = 5) for morphine. For gastric emptying, there was no significant difference in percentage emptying at 1 hr for baseline and metochopramide (82 +/- 5% vs. 88 +/- 4%). Morphine prolonged gastric emptying at 1 hr to 63 +/- 8%. We conclude that the scintigraphic method for measuring SITT permits accurate investigation of the pharmacologic effects on intestinal motility and, in addition, may be a useful research and clinical method for SITT determination.

  9. Biodegradable human serum albumin nanoparticles as contrast agents for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Watcharin, Waralee; Schmithals, Christian; Pleli, Thomas; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Huebner, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Korf, Hans W; Vogl, Thomas J; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Terfort, Andreas; Piiper, Albrecht; Gelperina, Svetlana; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Tumor visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nanoparticle-based contrast agents may improve the imaging of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles appear to be a suitable carrier due to their safety and feasibility of functionalization. In the present study HSA nanoparticles were conjugated with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) using carbodiimide chemistry. The nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a diameter of 235±19nm. For better optical visualization in vitro and in vivo, the HSA-Gd nanoparticles were additionally labeled with rhodamine 123. As shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, the fluorescent nanoparticles were readily taken up by Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. After 24h incubation in blood serum, less than 5% of the Gd(III) was released from the particles, which suggests that this nanoparticulate system may be stable in vivo and, therefore, may serve as potentially safe T1 MRI contrast agent for MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24365328

  10. Influence of FeEDDS, FeEDTA, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, and FeSO4 on Marigold Growth and Nutrition, and Substrate and Runoff Chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of the study were to determine effects of Fe source on plant growth, plant nutrition, substrate chemistry and runoff chemistry. Iron source (FS) treatments consisted of Fe-aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA), iron [S, S']-ethylenediam...

  11. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  13. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  14. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  15. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  16. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  17. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

  18. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  19. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  20. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  1. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  2. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  3. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  5. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  6. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... boric acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic ... vein (IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Note: Activated charcoal does not effectively treat (absorb) boric acid. For ...

  7. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  8. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  9. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  10. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  11. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  12. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  13. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  14. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  15. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  17. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  18. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  19. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  20. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  3. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  4. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The well-known fatty acids with a Δ5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the Δ5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between Δ5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

  5. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  6. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  7. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF ACTINIDES BETWEEN THE AQUEOUS AND ORGANIC PHASES IN THE TALSPEAK PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Kyser, E.

    2010-09-02

    the actinide's valence. Since our plans included the measurement of Pu(III) distribution coefficients using a Np(V) solution containing small amounts of {sup 238}Pu, it was necessary to demonstrate that the desired oxidation states of Np and Pu are produced and could be stabilized in a buffered lactate solution containing diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA). The stability of Np(V) and Pu(III) in lactic acid/DTPA solutions was evaluated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. To perform the evaluation, Np and Pu were added to solutions containing either hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) or ferrous sulfamate (FS) as the reductant and nominally 1.5 M lactic acid/0.05 M DTPA. The pH of the solution was subsequently adjusted to nominally 2.8 as would be performed in the TALSPEAK process. In the valence adjustment study, we found that it was necessary to reduce Pu to Pu(III) prior to combining with the lactic acid and DTPA. The Pu reduction was performed using either HAN or FS. When FS was used, Np was reduced to Np(IV). The spectroscopic studies showed that Np(V) and Pu(III) are not stable in lactic acid/DTPA solutions. The stability of Np(IV)- and Pu(IV)-DTPA complexes are much greater than the stability of the Np(V)- and Pu(III)-DTPA complexes, and as a result, Np is slowly reduced to Np(IV) and Pu is slowly oxidized to Pu(IV) due to the reduced activity of the more stable complexes. When Np(V) was added to a solution containing a 1.5 M lactic acid/ammonium lactate buffer and 0.05 M DTPA, approximately 50% of the Np was reduced to Np(IV) in the first day. The fraction of Np(V) in the solution continued to diminish with time and was essentially reduced to Np(IV) after one week. When Pu(III) was added to a lactic acid/DTPA solution of the same composition, the spectrum recorded following at least two days after preparation of the solution continued to show some sign of Pu(III). The Pu(III) was completely oxidized to Pu(IV) after 3-4 days. The UV-vis spectroscopy

  9. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  10. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  11. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  12. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  13. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  14. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  15. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  16. Lead-acid cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

    1980-12-09

    A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

  17. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  18. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  19. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  20. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  1. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  2. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  3. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  5. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  6. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  7. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  8. Selective Permeabilization of the Blood–Brain Barrier at Sites of Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Connell, John J.; Chatain, Grégoire; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.; Hamilton, Alastair; Seymour, Len; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective chemotherapeutics for primary systemic tumors have limited access to brain metastases because of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to develop a strategy for specifically permeabilizing the BBB at sites of cerebral metastases. Methods BALB/c mice were injected intracardially to induce brain metastases. After metastasis induction, either tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lymphotoxin (LT) was administered intravenously, and 2 to 24 hours later gadolinium- diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, horseradish peroxidase, or radiolabeled trastuzumab (111In-BnDTPA-Tz) was injected intravenously. BBB permeability was assessed in vivo using gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed histochemically. Brain uptake of 111In-BnDTPA-Tz was determined using in vivo single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Endothelial expression of TNF receptors was determined immunohistochemically in both mouse and human brain tissue containing metastases. Group differences were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc tests, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal–Wallis with Dunn’s multiple comparison test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Localized expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) was evident on the vascular endothelium associated with brain metastases. Administration of TNF or LT permeabilized the BBB to exogenous tracers selectively at sites of brain metastasis, with peak effect at 6 hours. Metastasis-specific uptake ratio of 111In-BnDTPA-Tz was also demonstrated after systemic TNF administration vs control (0.147±0.066 vs 0.001±0.001). Human brain metastases displayed a similar TNF receptor profile compared with the mouse model, with predominantly vascular TNFR1 expression. Conclusions These findings describe a new approach to selectively permeabilize the BBB at sites of brain metastases to aid in detection of micrometastases and facilitate tumor

  9. Assessment of the use of industrial by-products for induced reduction of As, and Se potential leachability in an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jordá, M P; Garrido, F; García-González, M T

    2010-03-15

    Four industrial by-products (phosphogypsum, PG; red gypsum, RG; sugar foam, SF and ashes from the combustion of biomass, ACB) were evaluated as possible amendments for reducing the leachability and bioavailability of As and Se in a metalloid-spiked acidic soil. The treatments were applied as single, double and triple amendments and at two different rates. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated after a series of leaching experiments using a chelating agent (DTPA solution) or a weak acidification (acetic acid at pH 4.93). The most effective treatments (ACB and RG, both applied at high rate) were identified by means of Cluster Analysis using the leachability indexes. Different sorption mechanisms involved in the overall reduction of metalloid leachability were identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-BSE and SEM-EDS). In the ACB-treated samples, Se was found associated to organic matter aggregates and to Fe compounds. In the RG-treated samples, EDS analyses showed that As and Se were associated to Fe/Ti (hydr)oxides phases which are present not only in the by-product as maghemite and rutile, but also in the soil as hematite and goethite. In addition, the application of RG induced the formation of non-crystalline Al-hydroxy polymers with As and Se in their composition. PMID:19883978

  10. [Determination of seven biothiols in rice by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong; Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Li, Zhengxiang; Chen, Mingxue

    2015-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization (HPLC-FLD) has been developed for the determination of seven biothiols including Cys, GSH, and phytochelatins (PCs: PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6) in rice. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) containing 6. 3 mmol/L diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and then the seven biothiols were derivatized with monobromobimane (mBrB) as derivatization agent in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine propanesulfonic acid (HEPPS) buffer solution (pH 8.0). The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with gradient elution of 0.1% TFA solution (the pH value was adjusted to 2.5 with hydrochloric acid) and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection was performed at 380 nm for excitation and 470 nm for emission. The calibration curves of the seven biothiols showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.7-100.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) > or = 0.9991. The limits of detection were 0.03-0.20 mg/L. The recoveries of standard addition were in the range of 89.26%-99.42% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 2.05%-5.87%. The method is sensitive, accurate, reproducible and suitable for the simultaneous determination of Cys, GSH, PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6 in rice. PMID:25958665

  11. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  12. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  13. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  14. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  15. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  16. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  17. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  18. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  19. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  20. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to filter fluids and waste normally (chronic glomerulonephritis ) Lead poisoning Long-term (chronic) alcohol use Risks There are ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 28. Read More Gout Lead poisoning Liver disease Polycythemia vera Uric acid - blood Update ...