A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Zhong-Ping; Du, Ke-Ping; Arnone, Robert
2005-02-01
The diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance (Kd) is an important parameter for ocean studies. For the vast ocean the only feasible means to get fine-scale measurements of Kd is by ocean color remote sensing. At present, values of Kd from remote sensing are estimated using empirical algorithms. Such an approach is insufficient to provide an understanding regarding the variation of Kd and contains large uncertainties in the derived values. In this study a semianalytical model for Kd is developed based on the radiative transfer equation, with values of the model parameters derived from Hydrolight simulations using the averaged particle phase function. The model is further tested with data simulated using significantly different particle phase functions, and the modeled Kd are found matching Hydrolight Kd very well (˜2% average error and ˜12% maximum error). Such a model provides an improved interpretation about the variation of Kd and a basis to more accurately determine Kd (especially using data from remote sensing).
Zheng, Xiaobing; Dickey, Tommy; Chang, Grace
2002-10-20
In situ time-series measurements of spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring are presented. Averaged diffuse attenuation coefficients of downwelling irradiance, Kd,and their elastic and inelastic components are investigated at seven wavelengths. At shorter wavelengths (<510 nm), Kd is weakly dependent on the solar zenith angle owing to the prevailing scattering effect and therefore can be considered a quasi-inherent optical property. At longer wavelengths (>510 nm), Kd shows a strong dependence on the solar zenith angle. As depth increases, inelastic scattering plays a greater role for the underwater light field at red wavelengths. PMID:12396201
Results of a monte carlo investigation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient.
Concannon, B M; Davis, J P
1999-08-20
There has been a large effort to relate the apparent optical properties of ocean water to the inherent optical properties, which are the absorption coefficient a, the scattering coefficient b, and the scattering phase function rho(theta). The diffuse attenuation coefficient kdiff' has most often been considered an apparent optical property. However, kdiff' can be considered a quasi-inherent property kdiff' when defined as a steady-state light distribution attenuation coefficient. The Honey-Wilson research empirically relates kdiff' to a and b. The Honey-Wilson relation most likely applies to a limited range of water types because it does not include dependence on rho(theta). A series of Monte Carlo simulations were initiated to calculate kdiff' in an unstratified water column. The calculations, which reflected open ocean water types, used ranges of the single-scattering albedo omega(0) and the mean forward-scattering angle theta(m) for two analytic phase functions with different shapes. It was found that kdiff' is nearly independent of the shape of rho(theta) and can be easily parameterized in terms of a, b, and theta(m) for 0.11
Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the China seas from surface reflectance.
Qiu, Zhongfeng; Wu, Tingting; Su, Yuanyuan
2013-07-01
Accurate estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is important for our understanding the availability of light to underwater communities, which provide critical information for the China seas ecosystem. However, algorithm developments and validations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in the China seas have been seldom performed before and therefore our knowledge on the quality of retrieval of the diffuse attenuate coefficient is poor. In this paper optical data at 306 sites collected in coastal waters of the China seas between July 2000 and February 2004 are used to evaluate three typical existing Kd(490) models. The in situ Kd(490) varied greatly among different sites from 0.029 m(-1) to 10.3 m(-1), with a mean of 0.92 ± 1.59 m(-1). Results show that the empirical model and the semi-analytical model significantly underestimate the Kd(490) value, with estimated mean values of 0.24 m(-1) and 0.5 m(-1), respectively. The combined model also shows significant differences when the in situ Kd(490) range from 0.2 m(-1) to 1 m(-1). Thus, the present study proposes that the three algorithms cannot be directly used to appropriately estimate Kd(490) in the turbid coastal waters of the China seas without a fine tuning for regional applications. In this paper, new Kd(490) algorithms are developed based on the semi-analytical retrieval of the absorption coefficient a(m(-1)) and the backscattering coefficient bb(m(-1)) from the reflectance at two wavelengths, 488 and 667 nm for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and 490 and 705 nm for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) applications, respectively. With the new approaches, the mean ratio and the relative percentage difference are 1.05 and 4.6%, respectively, based on an independent in situ data set. Furthermore, the estimates are reliable within a factor of 1.9 (95% confidence interval). Comparisons also show that the Kd(490) derived with the new algorithms are well correlated
Remote sensing of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water. [coastal zone color scanner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Austin, R. W.
1981-01-01
A technique was devised which uses remotely sensed spectral radiances from the sea to assess the optical diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (lambda) of near-surface ocean water. With spectral image data from a sensor such as the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) carried on NIMBUS-7, it is possible to rapidly compute the K (lambda) fields for large ocean areas and obtain K "images" which show synoptic, spatial distribution of this attenuation coefficient. The technique utilizes a relationship that has been determined between the value of K and the ratio of the upwelling radiances leaving the sea surface at two wavelengths. The relationship was developed to provide an algorithm for inferring K from the radiance images obtained by the CZCS, thus the wavelengths were selected from those used by this sensor, viz., 443, 520, 550 and 670 nm. The majority of the radiance arriving at the spacecraft is the result of scattering in the atmospheric and is unrelated to the radiance signal generated by the water. A necessary step in the processing of the data received by the sensor is, therefore, the effective removal of these atmospheric path radiance signals before the K algorithm is applied. Examples of the efficacy of these removal techniques are given together with examples of the spatial distributions of K in several ocean areas.
Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Zhong-Ping; Darecki, Miroslaw; Carder, Kendall L.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Stramski, Dariusz; Rhea, W. Joseph
2005-02-01
The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength λ from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, ?(λ). There are two standard methods for the derivation of ?(λ) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive ?(λ) from reflectance has also been developed. In this study, using ?(490) and ?(443) as examples, we compare the ?(λ) values derived from the three methods using data collected in three different regions that cover oceanic and coastal waters, with ?(490) ranging from ˜0.04 to 4.0 m-1. The derived values are compared with the data calculated from in situ measurements of the vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance. The comparisons show that the two standard methods produced satisfactory estimates of ?(λ) in oceanic waters where attenuation is relatively low but resulted in significant errors in coastal waters. The newly developed semianalytical method appears to have no such limitation as it performed well for both oceanic and coastal waters. For all data in this study the average of absolute percentage difference between the in situ measured and the semianalytically derived ? is ˜14% for λ = 490 nm and ˜11% for λ = 443 nm.
A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors
Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily Kara
2015-01-01
A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.
Le, Cheng-Feng; Li, Yun-Mei; Zha, Yong; Sun, De-Yong; Wang, Li-Zhen
2009-02-01
The spectral and chemical analytical data of Taihu Lake water quality in Nov. 8-22, 2007 were used to analyze the spectral characteristics of diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) of the water body in autumn and related affecting factors. On the basis of this analysis, the Kd at band 490 nm, Kd (490), was used as a variable to build the relationship between Kd and remote sensing reflectance. The results indicated that within the scope of visible band, the Kd of the water body at most locations of Taihu Lake presented an exponent decreasing trend with the increase of wave length. Due to the higher concentration of phytoplankton in some locations, a peak value of Kd was presented at band 675 nm. Non-organic suspended particles, because of their higher content in suspended sediment, had larger effects on Kd than organic suspended ones. There was a good correlation between Kd and remote sensing reflectance. Taking Rrs (550), Rrs (675) and Rrs (731) as independent variables and doing regression analysis with Kd (490), a good linear relationship was found between Kd (490) and Rrs (731), and multi-variate linear regression analysis using variables Rrs (550), Rrs (675) and Rrs (731) could get better effect (R2 > 0.96) than the regression analysis using variable Rrs (731). PMID:19459373
Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Feng-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Shen, Su-Chin; Yuan, Ouyang; Yang, Chih-He
2013-01-01
In this study, time-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning images of the process of water diffusion in the skin that illustrate the enhancement in the backscattered intensities due to the increased water concentration are presented. In our experiments, the water concentration in the skin was increased by soaking the hand in water, and the same region of the skin was scanned and measured with the OCT system and a commercial moisture monitor every three minutes. To quantitatively analyze the moisture-related optical properties and the velocity of water diffusion in human skin, the attenuation coefficients of the skin, including the epidermis and dermis layers, were evaluated. Furthermore, the evaluated attenuation coefficients were compared with the measurements made using the commercial moisture monitor. The results demonstrate that the attenuation coefficient increases as the water concentration increases. Furthermore, by evaluating the positions of center-of mass of the backscattered intensities from OCT images, the diffusion velocity can be estimated. In contrast to the commercial moisture monitor, OCT can provide three-dimensional structural images of the skin and characterize its optical property, which together can be used to observe morphological changes and quantitatively evaluate the moisture-related attenuation coefficients in different skin layers. PMID:23529149
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.
2014-01-01
Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This
Bardaji, Raul; Sánchez, Albert-Miquel; Simon, Carine; Wernand, Marcel R.; Piera, Jaume
2016-01-01
A critical parameter to assess the environmental status of water bodies is the transparency of the water, as it is strongly affected by different water quality related components (such as the presence of phytoplankton, organic matter and sediment concentrations). One parameter to assess the water transparency is the diffuse attenuation coefficient. However, the number of subsurface irradiance measurements obtained with conventional instrumentation is relatively low, due to instrument costs and the logistic requirements to provide regular and autonomous observations. In recent years, the citizen science concept has increased the number of environmental observations, both in time and space. The recent technological advances in embedded systems and sensors also enable volunteers (citizens) to create their own devices (known as Do-It-Yourself or DIY technologies). In this paper, a DIY instrument to measure irradiance at different depths and automatically calculate the diffuse attenuation Kd coefficient is presented. The instrument, named KdUINO, is based on an encapsulated low-cost photonic sensor and Arduino (an open-hardware platform for the data acquisition). The whole instrument has been successfully operated and the data validated comparing the KdUINO measurements with the commercial instruments. Workshops have been organized with high school students to validate its feasibility. PMID:26999132
Bardaji, Raul; Sánchez, Albert-Miquel; Simon, Carine; Wernand, Marcel R; Piera, Jaume
2016-01-01
A critical parameter to assess the environmental status of water bodies is the transparency of the water, as it is strongly affected by different water quality related components (such as the presence of phytoplankton, organic matter and sediment concentrations). One parameter to assess the water transparency is the diffuse attenuation coefficient. However, the number of subsurface irradiance measurements obtained with conventional instrumentation is relatively low, due to instrument costs and the logistic requirements to provide regular and autonomous observations. In recent years, the citizen science concept has increased the number of environmental observations, both in time and space. The recent technological advances in embedded systems and sensors also enable volunteers (citizens) to create their own devices (known as Do-It-Yourself or DIY technologies). In this paper, a DIY instrument to measure irradiance at different depths and automatically calculate the diffuse attenuation Kd coefficient is presented. The instrument, named KdUINO, is based on an encapsulated low-cost photonic sensor and Arduino (an open-hardware platform for the data acquisition). The whole instrument has been successfully operated and the data validated comparing the KdUINO measurements with the commercial instruments. Workshops have been organized with high school students to validate its feasibility. PMID:26999132
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saulquin, Bertand; Hamdi, Anouar; Populus, Jacques; Loutier, Romain; Demaria, Julien; Mangin, Antoine; D'Andon, Odile Fanton
2010-12-01
Accurate estimations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is critical to understand physical processes such as the heat transfer in the upper layer of the ocean and also biological processes such as phytoplankton photosynthesis in the ocean euphotic zone. Light availability in the water column and the seabed determine the euphotic zone and constraints the type and distribution of the algae species. The EuSeaMap project's aim is to characterize at a resolution of 250m the European infralitoral benthic zone, according to biology, physic and geology criteriums and using observations and models. Satellite observations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the downwelling spectral irradiance at wavelength 490 nm (Kd490) or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (KdPAR) is an effective method to provide large scale maps of these parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several empirical and semi-analytical models are commonly used to derive the Kd490 and KdPAR maps from ocean colour satellite sensors such as the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS), the Sea- viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Most of these existing empirical or semi- analytical models have been calibrated on open ocean waters and provide good results in these areas, but tend to underestimate the attenuation of light in coastal waters, our area of interest. We propose here a new estimation of the euphotic depth and the KdPAR for coastal European waters using MERIS reflectances at the resolution of 1km and 250 m. First, a semi-analytical model is used to estimate the Kd490, and in a second step, two relationships have been developed between the KdPAR and the Kd490 for respectively clear and turbid waters. Satellite-derived fields of Kd490 and the deduced KdPAR are validated using matchups collected over the world. Distribution maps of seabed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokoletsky, Leonid; Yang, Xianping; Shen, Fang
2014-11-01
Radiative transfer modelling in atmosphere, water, and on the air-water surface was used to create an algorithm and computer code for satellite monitoring Chinese estuarine and coastal waters. The atmospheric part of the algorithm is based on the Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance (REST) model for calculation of optical properties of the atmosphere from the top of the atmosphere to the target; for modelling optical properties from target towards satellite's sensor, an optical reciprocity principle has been used. An algorithm uses estimates derived from three different sources: 1) the MODIS-based software; 2) radiative transfer equations, and 3) well-known empirical relationships between measured parameters and optical depths and transmittances for such atmospheric components as molecules, aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, precipitable water vapor and uniformly mixed gases. Using this model allowed us to derive a reliable relationship relating an important parameter, the diffuse-to-global solar incoming irradiance ratio, to the aerosol optical thickness, solar zenith angle and wavelength. The surface and underwater parts of the algorithm contained theoretical and semi-empirical relationships between inherent (such as absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients) and apparent (remote-sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd) optical properties, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measured in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The first false colour maps of SSC and Kd demonstrated a well accordance with the multi-year field observations in the region, and suggest promise for use of this algorithm for the regular monitoring of Chinese and worldwide natural waters.
Simon, Arthi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy
2013-12-01
The vertical spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of Kd is an important optical property related to the penetration and availability of light underwater, which is of fundamental interest in studies of ocean physics and biology. Models developed in the recent decades were mainly based on theoretical analyses and numerical (radiative transfer) simulations to estimate this property in optically deep waters, thus leaving inadequate knowledge of its variability at multiple depths and wavelengths, covering a wide range of solar incident geometry, in turbid coastal waters. In the present study, a new model is developed to quantify the vertical, spatial and temporal variability of K(d) at multiple wavelengths and to quantify its dependence with respect to solar incident geometry under differing sky conditions. Thus, the new model is derived as a function of inherent optical properties (IOPs - absorption a and backscattering b(b)), solar zenith angle and depth parameters. The model results are rigorously evaluated using time-series and discrete in situ data from clear and turbid coastal waters. The K(d) values derived from the new model are found to agree with measured data within the mean relative error 0.02~6.24% and R² 0.94~0.99. By contrast, the existing models have large errors when applied to the same data sets. Statistical results of the new model for the vertical spectral distribution of K(d) in clear oceanic waters (for different solar zenith and in-water conditions) are also good when compared to those of the existing models. These results suggest that the new model can provide an improved interpretation about the variation of the vertical spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance, which will have important implications for ocean physics, biogeochemical cycles and underwater applications in both relatively clear and turbid coastal waters. PMID:24514558
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Arthi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy
2016-07-01
A semi-analytical model is developed for estimating the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance (Kd(λ)) in inland and coastal waters. The model works as a function of the inherent optical properties (absorption and backscattering), depth, and solar zenith angle. Results of this model are validated using a large number of in-situ measurements of Kd(λ) in clear oceanic, turbid coastal and productive lagoon waters. To further evaluate its relative performance, Kd(λ) values obtained from this model are compared with results from three existing models. Validation results show that the present model is a better descriptor of Kd(λ) and shows an overall better performance compared to the existing models. The applicability of the present model is further tested on two Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) remote sensing images acquired simultaneously with our field measurements. The Kd(λ) spectra derived from HICO imageries have good agreement with measured data with the mean relative percent error of less than 12% which are well within the benchmark for a validated uncertainty of ±35% endorsed for the remote sensing products in oceanic waters. The model offers potential advantages for predicting changes in spectral and vertical Kd values in a wide variety of waters within inland and coastal environments.
Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter
Ho, Clifford K.
2007-06-12
An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.
Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.
Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin
2014-06-17
Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482
Diffusion coefficients of several aqueous alkanolamine solutions
Snijder, E.D.; Riele, M.J.M. te; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1993-07-01
In absorption processes of acid gases (H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], COS) in alkanolamine solutions, diffusion coefficients are used for the calculation of the mass transfer rate. The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), correlations for the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature at different concentrations are given. A single relation for every amine has been derived which correlates the diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature and concentration. The temperature was varied between 298 and 348 K, and the concentration between 0 and 4000-5000 mol/m[sup 3]. Furthermore, a modified Stokes-Einstein relation is presented for the prediction of the diffusion coefficients in the alkanolamines in relation to the viscosity of the solvent and the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution. The diffusion coefficients at low concentrations are compared with some available relations for the estimation of diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution, and it appears that the agreement is fairly good.
Attenuation coefficient of usable solar radiation of the global oceans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Junfang; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Kahru, Mati
2016-05-01
Usable solar radiation (USR) represents spectrally integrated solar energy in the spectral range of 400-560 nm, a domain where photons penetrate the most in oceanic waters and thus contribute to photosynthesis and heating at deeper depths. Through purely numerical simulations, it was found that the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling USR (Kd(USR), m-1) is nearly a constant vertically in the upper water column for clear waters and most turbid waters. Subsequently an empirical model was developed to estimate Kd(USR) based on the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd(490), m-1). We here evaluate this relationship using data collected from a wide range of oceanic and coastal environments and found that the relationship between Kd(490) and Kd(USR) developed via the numerical simulation is quite robust. We further refined this relationship to extend the applicability to "clearest" natural waters. This refined relationship was then used to produce sample distribution of Kd(USR) of global oceans. As expected, extremely low Kd(USR) (˜0.02 m-1) was observed in ocean gyres, while significantly higher Kd(USR) (˜5.2 m-1) was found in very turbid coastal regions. A useful application of Kd(USR) is to easily and accurately propagate surface USR to deeper depths, potentially to significantly improve the estimation of basin scale primary production and heat fluxes in the upper water column.
Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.
1990-01-01
Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)
Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea.
Haltrin, V I
1999-02-20
A differential equation of a Riccati type for the diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea is proposed. For a homogeneous sea with arbitrary inherent optical properties this equation is solved analytically. For an inhomogeneous sea it is solved approximately for any arbitrary stratification. The resulting equation expresses the diffuse reflection coefficient of the sea through vertical profiles of absorption and backscattering coefficients, bottom albedo, and sea depth. The results of calculations with this equation are compared with Monte Carlo computations. It was found that the precision of this approach is in the range of 15%. PMID:18305694
Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals
Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.
2000-07-15
Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Improved Diffusion Coefficients for Stellar Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.
2014-04-01
We are currently working on the fourth generation of our codes for building evolutionary and static models of hot subdwarf and white dwarf stars. One of the improvements of these codes consists in an update of all the microphysics involved in the computations. As part of our efforts, we have taken a look at possible improvements for the diffusion coefficients. Since the publication of the widely used diffusion coefficients of Paquette et al. (1986), the number-crunching power of computers has immensely increased, allowing more accurate computations of the triple collision integrals. We have thus produced new tables of diffusion coefficients with higher accuracy and higher resolution than before, of general use in stellar astrophysics.
Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.
1973-01-01
A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.
Gamma ray attenuation coefficient measurement for neutron-absorbent materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalali, Majid; Mohammadi, Ali
2008-05-01
The compounds Na 2B 4O 7, H 3BO 3, CdCl 2 and NaCl and their solutions attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in the shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to the four compounds aforementioned, in energies 662, 778.9, 867.38, 964.1, 1085.9, 1173, 1212.9, 1299.1,1332 and 1408 keV, have been determined by the γ rays transmission method in a good geometry setup; also, these coefficients were calculated by MCNP code. A comparison between experiments, simulations and Xcom code has shown that the study has potential application for determining the attenuation coefficient of various compound materials. Experiment and computation show that H 3BO 3 with the lowest average Z has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds.
The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.
1974-01-01
A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).
Attenuation Coefficient Estimation of the Healthy Human Thyroid In Vivo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouyer, J.; Cueva, T.; Portal, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Lavarello, R.
Previous studies have demonstrated that attenuation coefficients can be useful towards characterizing thyroid tissues. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation coefficients were estimated from healthy human thyroids in vivo using a clinical scanner. The selected subjects were five young, healthy volunteers (age: 26 ± 6 years old, gender: three females, two males) with no reported history of thyroid diseases, no palpable thyroid nodules, no smoking habits, and body mass index less than 30 kg/m2. Echographic examinations were conducted by a trained sonographer using a SonixTouch system (Ultrasonix Medical Corporation, Richmond, BC) equipped with an L14-5 linear transducer array (nominal center frequency of 10 MHz, transducer footprint of 3.8 cm). Radiofrequency data corresponding to the collected echographic images in both transverse and longitudinal views were digitized at a sampling rate of 40 MHz and processed with Matlab codes (MathWorks, Natick, MA) to estimate attenuation coefficients using the spectral log difference method. The estimation was performed using an analysis bandwidth spanning from 4.0 to 9.0 MHz. The average value of the estimated ultrasonic attenuation coefficients was equal to 1.34 ± 0.15 dB/(cm.MHz). The standard deviation of the estimated average attenuation coefficient across different volunteers suggests a non-negligible inter-subject variability in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of the human thyroid.
Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houghton, W. M.
1983-01-01
The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.
Micro-Fluidic Diffusion Coefficient Measurement
Forster, F.K.; Galambos, P.
1998-10-06
A new method for diffusion coefficient measurement applicable to micro-fluidics is pre- sented. The method Iltilizes an analytical model describing laminar dispersion in rect- anglllar ~llicro_channe]s. The Illethod ~vas verified throllgh measllremen~ of fllloresceill diffusivity in water and aqueolls polymer solutions of differing concentration. The diffll- sivity of flllorescein was measlmed as 0.64 x 10-gm2/s in water, 0.49 x 10-gm2/s in the 4 gm/dl dextran solution and 0.38 x 10-9n12/s in the 8 gnl/dl dextran solution.
Optical attenuation coefficient in individual ZnO nanowires.
Little, Anree; Hoffman, Abigail; Haegel, Nancy M
2013-03-11
Attenuation coefficient measurements for the propagation of bandedge luminescence are made on individual ZnO nanowires by combining the localized excitation capability of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to record the distribution and intensity of wave-guided emission. Measurements were made for individual nanostructures with triangular cross-sections ranging in diameter from 680 to 2300 nm. The effective attenuation coefficient shows an inverse dependence on nanowire diameter (d(-1)), indicating scattering losses due to non-ideal waveguiding behavior. PMID:23482201
Fractional diffusions with time-varying coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garra, Roberto; Orsingher, Enzo; Polito, Federico
2015-09-01
This paper is concerned with the fractionalized diffusion equations governing the law of the fractional Brownian motion BH(t). We obtain solutions of these equations which are probability laws extending that of BH(t). Our analysis is based on McBride fractional operators generalizing the hyper-Bessel operators L and converting their fractional power Lα into Erdélyi-Kober fractional integrals. We study also probabilistic properties of the random variables whose distributions satisfy space-time fractional equations involving Caputo and Riesz fractional derivatives. Some results emerging from the analysis of fractional equations with time-varying coefficients have the form of distributions of time-changed random variables.
Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas.
Murphy, Anthony B
2014-01-01
The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457
Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas
Murphy, Anthony B.
2014-01-01
The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457
ANALYTIC FORMS OF THE PERPENDICULAR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT IN NRMHD TURBULENCE
Shalchi, A.
2015-02-01
In the past different analytic limits for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence were discussed. These different limits or cases correspond to different transport modes describing how the particles are diffusing across the large-scale magnetic field. In the current paper we describe a new transport regime by considering the model of noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We derive different analytic forms of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, and while we do this, we focus on the aforementioned new transport mode. We show that for this turbulence model a small perpendicular diffusion coefficient can be obtained so that the latter diffusion coefficient is more than hundred times smaller than the parallel diffusion coefficient. This result is relevant to explain observations in the solar system where such small perpendicular diffusion coefficients have been reported.
Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids
Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.
2013-11-15
The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.
Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.
2013-11-01
The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green-Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.
Combined diffusion coefficients for a mixture of three ionized gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X. N.; Murphy, A. B.; Li, H. P.; Xia, W. D.
2014-12-01
The combined diffusion coefficient method has been demonstrated to greatly simplify the treatment of diffusion in the modelling of thermal plasmas in gas mixtures without loss of accuracy. In this paper, an extension of this method to allow treatment of diffusion of a three-gas mixture has been achieved, provided that the gases are homonuclear and do not react with each other, and satisfy local chemical equilibrium. Formulas for the combined diffusion coefficients are presented, and combined diffusion coefficients for different mixtures of helium, argon and carbon at temperatures up to 30 000 K and at atmosphere pressure are calculated as an example.
Bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for spatially confined waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xinxin; Tao, Xin; Lu, Quanmin; Dai, Lei
2015-11-01
Theoretical bounce resonance diffusion coefficients from interactions between electrons and spatially confined waves are derived and validated. Roberts and Schulz bounce resonance diffusion coefficients assume waves to be present on the whole bounce trajectory of particles; therefore, they are not directly applicable to waves that have a finite spatial extent. We theoretically derive and numerically validate a new set of bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for spatially confined waves. We apply our analysis to magnetosonic waves, which are confined to equatorial regions, using a previously published magnetosonic wave model. We find that the bounce resonance diffusion coefficients are comparable to the gyroresonance diffusion coefficients. We conclude that bounce resonance diffusion with magnetosonic waves might play an important role in relativistic electron dynamics.
Temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudyak, V. Ya.; Dubtsov, S. N.; Baklanov, A. M.
2008-06-01
The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles in gases has been experimentally studied. It is established that this dependence significantly differs from that predicted by various correlations, in particular, by the Cunningham-Millikan-Davies correlation that is used as an instrumental basis for virtually all methods of measurement of the diffusion coefficient in aerosols.
Controlling frontal photopolymerization with optical attenuation and mass diffusion.
Hennessy, Matthew G; Vitale, Alessandra; Matar, Omar K; Cabral, João T
2015-06-01
Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) is a versatile directional solidification process that can be used to rapidly fabricate polymer network materials by selectively exposing a photosensitive monomer bath to light. A characteristic feature of FPP is that the monomer-to-polymer conversion profiles take on the form of traveling waves that propagate into the unpolymerized bulk from the illuminated surface. Practical implementations of FPP require detailed knowledge about the conversion profile and speed of these traveling waves. The purpose of this theoretical study is to (i) determine the conditions under which FPP occurs and (ii) explore how optical attenuation and mass transport can be used to finely tune the conversion profile and propagation kinetics. Our findings quantify the strong optical attenuation and slow mass transport relative to the rate of polymerization required for FPP. The shape of the traveling wave is primarily controlled by the magnitude of the optical attenuation coefficients of the neat and polymerized material. Unexpectedly, we find that mass diffusion can increase the net extent of polymerization and accelerate the growth of the solid network. The theoretical predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data acquired for representative systems. PMID:26172720
Controlling frontal photopolymerization with optical attenuation and mass diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennessy, Matthew G.; Vitale, Alessandra; Matar, Omar K.; Cabral, João T.
2015-06-01
Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) is a versatile directional solidification process that can be used to rapidly fabricate polymer network materials by selectively exposing a photosensitive monomer bath to light. A characteristic feature of FPP is that the monomer-to-polymer conversion profiles take on the form of traveling waves that propagate into the unpolymerized bulk from the illuminated surface. Practical implementations of FPP require detailed knowledge about the conversion profile and speed of these traveling waves. The purpose of this theoretical study is to (i) determine the conditions under which FPP occurs and (ii) explore how optical attenuation and mass transport can be used to finely tune the conversion profile and propagation kinetics. Our findings quantify the strong optical attenuation and slow mass transport relative to the rate of polymerization required for FPP. The shape of the traveling wave is primarily controlled by the magnitude of the optical attenuation coefficients of the neat and polymerized material. Unexpectedly, we find that mass diffusion can increase the net extent of polymerization and accelerate the growth of the solid network. The theoretical predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data acquired for representative systems.
A study on photon attenuation coefficients of different wood materials with different densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saritha, B.; Nageswara Rao, A. S.
2015-12-01
A study on the variation of linear attenuation coefficients with the densities of the wood samples is under taken. The soft wood and hard wood samples were collected from the forest area of Pakal in Warangal district. The linear and mass attenuation coefficients are measured using gamma ray spectrometry based on NaI (Tl) scintillation detector with energies of 662 KeV and 59.5 KeV respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient values measured from experiment and are compared with theoretical methods using XCOM program. The plots of density versus linear attenuation coefficient for different wood materials correspond to higher order polynomial are presented. It is observed that variation of linear attenuation coefficient depends on densities of materials. The Chloroxylon swietenia with more density has more linear attenuation coefficient at 59.5 KeV and 662 KeV. The variation in attenuation coefficient attributed to chemical composition of wood used in the experiment.
Uranium soft x-ray total attenuation coefficients
Del Grande, N.K.; Oliver, A.J.
1981-01-01
Uranium total attenuation coefficients were measured continuously from 0.84 to 6.0 keV and at selected higher energies using a vacuum single crystal diffractometer and flow-proportional counter. Statistical fluctuations ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The overall accuracy was 3%. Prominent structure was measured within 20 eV of the M/sub 5/ (3.552 keV) and M/sub 4/ (3.728 keV) edges. Jump ratios were determined from log-log polynomial fits to data at energies apart from the near-edge regions. These data were compared with calculations based on a relativistic HFS central potential model and with previously tabulated data.
A consistent tissue attenuation coefficient estimator using bubble harmonic echoes.
Tsao, Sheng-Kai; Tsao, Jenho
2010-12-01
The ultrasonic property of soft tissue can be quantified by its attenuation coefficient α. Traditionally the backscattering signal of tissue is used to estimate α. To improve precision, a large number of spatially independent samples of tissue echoes are required for averaging. In this paper, we propose a new estimation method, which makes use of microbubbles to provide temporally independent samples for averaging. It is easier for temporal sampling to maintain ergodicity and provide a large number of independent samples for statistical averaging. A stochastic model for the harmonic signals of an ideal bubble attenuated by tissue is derived based on Kuc's and Miller's works. An estimator of α is then presented. This estimator is consistent and could be biased because of the unknown squarelaw relation between the second and fundamental harmonics for non-ideal bubble oscillation. In experimental works, we design a simplified phantom for demonstrating the performance of the proposed estimator. It is shown that both first and second harmonics can estimate α consistently. However, the interference of the tissue backscattering signal may cause additional estimation error using the first harmonic. PMID:21156361
Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients
Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K
2014-01-01
We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV—even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Key Points Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presented The coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m value The electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic PMID:26167440
Improved diffusion coefficients generated from Monte Carlo codes
Herman, B. R.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.; Aviles, B. N.
2013-07-01
Monte Carlo codes are becoming more widely used for reactor analysis. Some of these applications involve the generation of diffusion theory parameters including macroscopic cross sections and diffusion coefficients. Two approximations used to generate diffusion coefficients are assessed using the Monte Carlo code MC21. The first is the method of homogenization; whether to weight either fine-group transport cross sections or fine-group diffusion coefficients when collapsing to few-group diffusion coefficients. The second is a fundamental approximation made to the energy-dependent P1 equations to derive the energy-dependent diffusion equations. Standard Monte Carlo codes usually generate a flux-weighted transport cross section with no correction to the diffusion approximation. Results indicate that this causes noticeable tilting in reconstructed pin powers in simple test lattices with L2 norm error of 3.6%. This error is reduced significantly to 0.27% when weighting fine-group diffusion coefficients by the flux and applying a correction to the diffusion approximation. Noticeable tilting in reconstructed fluxes and pin powers was reduced when applying these corrections. (authors)
Derivation of anisotropic diffusion coefficients in a large annular cavity
Eiichi Suetomi; Hiroshi Sekimoto )
1993-06-01
A small reactor for a spacecraft or a small liquid-metal reactor for urban siting, decentralized electrical units, or seawater desalination is designed for a large leakage of neutrons from the reactor core. In these reactors, a movable annular reflector is used for reactivity control. Therefore, a large annular cavity exists between the core and the shielding materials. In this paper, anisotropic diffusion coefficients for a large annular cavity are derived by equating the neutron currents obtained by the diffusion equation and by the transport equation. These diffusion coefficients depend only on the geometrical configuration of the cavity. A numerical comparison of diffusion calculations using these diffusion coefficients and transport calculations shows good agreement.
The temperature variation of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in metal alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danford, M. D.
1990-01-01
Hydrogen diffusion coefficients were measured as a function of temperature for a few metal alloys using an electrochemical evolution technique. Results from these measurements are compared to those obtained by the time-lag method. In all cases, diffusion coefficients obtained by the electrochemical method are larger than those by the time-lag method by an order of magnitude or more. These differences are attributed mainly to hydrogen trapping.
Experimental measurements of the diffusion coefficient of 212Pb.
Su, Y F; Newton, G J; Cheng, Y S; Yeh, H C
1989-03-01
Knowledge of the diffusion coefficient of Rn progeny is necessary for assessing the radiation exposure resulting from exposure to Rn and its progeny. The diffusion coefficient for 220Rn progeny was determined in ambient air by two independent methods, measuring deposition using a cylindrical tube or screens. A sampling train consisting of a diffusion tube and a screen-type diffusion battery was used for the experimental study. A range of flow rates and relative humidities was investigated. For 35% less than or equal to RH less than or equal to 85%, results from the two systems agree with each other. The diffusion coefficient of 212Pb was 0.036 +/- 0.002 cm2 s-1 and 0.037 +/- 0.004 cm2 s-1 for the tube and screen penetration methods, respectively. In low humidity air (RH less than 30%), a linear relationship between the diffusion coefficient of 212Pb and relative humidity was observed. The observed diffusion coefficient is strongly affected by the amount of material agglomerated onto the 212Pb atom. Further studies on the effects of trace gases and organics are required to fully understand the results. PMID:2537267
Experimental measurements of the diffusion coefficient of /sup 212/Pb
Su, Y.F.; Newton, G.J.; Cheng, Y.S.; Yeh, H.C.
1989-03-01
Knowledge of the diffusion coefficient of Rn progeny is necessary for assessing the radiation exposure resulting from exposure to Rn and its progeny. The diffusion coefficient for 220Rn progeny was determined in ambient air by two independent methods, measuring deposition using a cylindrical tube or screens. A sampling train consisting of a diffusion tube and a screen-type diffusion battery was used for the experimental study. A range of flow rates and relative humidities was investigated. For 35% less than or equal to RH less than or equal to 85%, results from the two systems agree with each other. The diffusion coefficient of 212Pb was 0.036 +/- 0.002 cm2 s-1 and 0.037 +/- 0.004 cm2 s-1 for the tube and screen penetration methods, respectively. In low humidity air (RH less than 30%), a linear relationship between the diffusion coefficient of 212Pb and relative humidity was observed. The observed diffusion coefficient is strongly affected by the amount of material agglomerated onto the 212Pb atom. Further studies on the effects of trace gases and organics are required to fully understand the results.
Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients from Bounce Resonance with Magnetosonic Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, X.; Li, X.; Lu, Q.; Dai, L.
2015-12-01
Theoretical bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for interactions between electrons and magnetosonic waves are calculated and validated using guiding-center test particle simulations. First, we compare the theoretical diffusion coefficients of Roberts and Schulz with test particle simulations and find perfect agreement. However, the theoretical diffusion coefficients of Roberts and Schulz assume waves to be present on the whole trajectories of particles; therefore, they are not directly applicable to magnetosonic waves, which are found to be confined to equatorial regions from observations. Second, we derive a new set of bounce-resonance diffusion coefficients, taking into consideration the equatorial confinement of magnetosonic waves. These new diffusion coefficients are also validated by test particle simulations. Using a previously published magnetosonic wave model, our results demonstrate that bounce-resonance diffusion mainly results in strong pitch angle scattering of energetic electrons even with a moderate wave amplitude of 50 pT. We conclude that bounce-resonance diffusion plays an important role in relativistic electron dynamics and should be incorporated into global radiation belt modeling.
Empirical determination of diffusion coefficients and geospeedometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaoul, Olivier; Béjina, Frédéric
2005-02-01
Geospeedometry allows to estimate the cooling rate (s init) of metamorphic rocks at the beginning of the cooling history using diffusion data. But the choice of a diffusion activation energy (E) and a preexponential factor (D 0) from experimental results can be difficult. We propose a method to obtain E directly from the rock itself by studying the variation of the average concentration of elements or isotopes (
Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron
Zhang, Baohua
2014-01-15
On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ε phases) have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K) and pressure range (0-100 GPa), compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.
Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water models.
Tazi, Sami; Boţan, Alexandru; Salanne, Mathieu; Marry, Virginie; Turq, Pierre; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2012-07-18
We report the diffusion coefficient and viscosity of popular rigid water models: two non-polarizable ones (SPC/E with three sites, and TIP4P/2005 with four sites) and a polarizable one (Dang-Chang, four sites). We exploit the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the system size (Yeh and Hummer 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 15873) to obtain the size-independent value. This also provides an estimate of the viscosity of all water models, which we compare to the Green-Kubo result. In all cases, a good agreement is found. The TIP4P/2005 model is in better agreement with the experimental data for both diffusion and viscosity. The SPC/E and Dang-Chang models overestimate the diffusion coefficient and underestimate the viscosity. PMID:22739097
Ion diffusion coefficient measurements in nanochannels at various concentrations.
Wang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Xue, Jianming; Hu, Guoqing
2014-03-01
Diffusion is one of the most fundamental properties of ionic transport in solutions. Here, we present experimental studies and theoretical analysis on the ion diffusion in nanochannels. Based on Fick's second law, we develop a current monitoring method to measure ion diffusion coefficient of high solution concentrations in nanochannels. This method is further extended to the cases at medium and low concentrations. Through monitoring ionic current during diffusion, we obtain diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride solution at different concentrations in nanochannels. These diffusion coefficients within the confined space are close to theirs bulk values. It is also found that the apparent ion diffusion equilibrium in the present experiments is very slow at low concentration, which we attribute to the slow equilibrium of the nanochannel surface charge. Finally, we get a primary acknowledge of the equilibrium rate between the nanochannel surface charge and electrolyte solution. The results in this work have improved the understanding of nanoscale diffusion and nanochannel surface charge and may be useful in nanofluidic applications such as ion-selective transport, energy conversion, and nanopore biosensors. PMID:24803967
Ion diffusion coefficient measurements in nanochannels at various concentrations
Wang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Xue, Jianming; Hu, Guoqing
2014-01-01
Diffusion is one of the most fundamental properties of ionic transport in solutions. Here, we present experimental studies and theoretical analysis on the ion diffusion in nanochannels. Based on Fick's second law, we develop a current monitoring method to measure ion diffusion coefficient of high solution concentrations in nanochannels. This method is further extended to the cases at medium and low concentrations. Through monitoring ionic current during diffusion, we obtain diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride solution at different concentrations in nanochannels. These diffusion coefficients within the confined space are close to theirs bulk values. It is also found that the apparent ion diffusion equilibrium in the present experiments is very slow at low concentration, which we attribute to the slow equilibrium of the nanochannel surface charge. Finally, we get a primary acknowledge of the equilibrium rate between the nanochannel surface charge and electrolyte solution. The results in this work have improved the understanding of nanoscale diffusion and nanochannel surface charge and may be useful in nanofluidic applications such as ion-selective transport, energy conversion, and nanopore biosensors. PMID:24803967
Divergent Diffusion Coefficients in Simulations of Fluids and Lipid Membranes.
Vögele, Martin; Hummer, Gerhard
2016-08-25
We investigate the dependence of single-particle diffusion coefficients on the size and shape of the simulation box in molecular dynamics simulations of fluids and lipid membranes. We find that the diffusion coefficients of lipids and a carbon nanotube embedded in a lipid membrane diverge with the logarithm of the box width. For a neat Lennard-Jones fluid in flat rectangular boxes, diffusion becomes anisotropic, diverging logarithmically in all three directions with increasing box width. In elongated boxes, the diffusion coefficients normal to the long axis diverge linearly with the height-to-width ratio. For both lipid membranes and neat fluids, this behavior is predicted quantitatively by hydrodynamic theory. Mean-square displacements in the neat fluid exhibit intermediate regimes of anomalous diffusion, with t ln t and t(3/2) components in flat and elongated boxes, respectively. For membranes, the large finite-size effects, and the apparent inability to determine a well-defined lipid diffusion coefficient from simulation, rationalize difficulties in comparing simulation results to each other and to those from experiments. PMID:27385207
Mutual diffusion coefficients in systems containing the nickel ion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Ana C. F.; Veríssimo, Luis V. M. M.; Gomes, Joselaine C. S.; Santos, Cecilia I. A. V.; Barros, Marisa C. F.; Lobo, Victor M. M.; Sobral, Abílio J. F. N.; Esteso, Miguel A.; Leaist, Derek G.
2013-04-01
Mutual diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in water have been measured at 293.15 K and 303.15 K and at concentrations between 0.020 mol dm-3 and 0.100 mol dm-3, using a conductimetric cell. The experimental mutual diffusion coefficients are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss model. The equivalent conductances at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at those temperatures have been estimated using these results. In addition, from these data, we have estimated some transport and structural parameters, such as limiting diffusion coefficient, ionic conductance at infinitesimal concentration, hydrodynamic radii and activation energy, contributing this way to a better understanding of the structure of these systems and of their thermodynamic behavior in aqueous solution at different concentrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohmann, Martin; Lengenfelder, B.; Kanawade, R.; Klämpfl, F.; Schmidt, Michael
2015-12-01
Coherent light propagating through turbid media is attenuated due to scattering and absorption. The decrease of the intensity of the coherent light is described by the attenuation coefficient. The measured decay of the coherent light through turbid media with optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to reconstruct the attenuation coefficient. Since most of the OCT systems work in the near-infrared region, they are the optical window from 800-1400 nm in tissue. Hence, the most part of the attenuation coefficient is caused due to the scattering. Therefore, deriving the attenuation coefficient is one way to get an approximation of the scattering coefficient which is difficult to access even up to day. Moreover, OCT measurements are one of the few possibilities to derive physical properties with micrometre resolution of the media under investigation.
Intrinsic Diffusion Coefficient of Interstitial Copper in Silicon
Istratov, A.A.; Flink, C.; Hieslmair, H.; Weber, E.R.; Heiser, T.
1998-08-01
Transient ion drift experiments designed to obtain reliable values for the intrinsic copper diffusivity in silicon are reported. From these measurements, the diffusion barrier of Cu in Si is determined to be 0.18{plus_minus}0.01 eV . It is shown that the commonly used expression of Hall and Racette [J.thinspthinspAppl.thinspthinspPhys.thinspthinsp{bold 35}, 379 (1964)] actually gives an effective diffusion coefficient for heavily boron-doped silicon and can neither be used for other doping levels nor extrapolated to lower temperatures. A model is developed which predicts the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature, doping level, and the type of dopant. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Exact curvilinear diffusion coefficients in the repton model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buhot, A.
2005-10-01
The Rubinstein-Duke or repton model is one of the simplest lattice model of reptation for the diffusion of a polymer in a gel or a melt. Recently, a slightly modified model with hardcore interactions between the reptons has been introduced. The curvilinear diffusion coefficients of both models are exactly determined for all chain lengths. The case of periodic boundary conditions is also considered.
SHETTY, ANIL N.; CHIANG, SHARON; MALETIC-SAVATIC, MIRJANA; KASPRIAN, GREGOR; VANNUCCI, MARINA; LEE, WESLEY
2016-01-01
In this article, we discuss the theoretical background for diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Molecular diffusion is a random process involving thermal Brownian motion. In biological tissues, the underlying microstructures restrict the diffusion of water molecules, making diffusion directionally dependent. Water diffusion in tissue is mathematically characterized by the diffusion tensor, the elements of which contain information about the magnitude and direction of diffusion and is a function of the coordinate system. Thus, it is possible to generate contrast in tissue based primarily on diffusion effects. Expressing diffusion in terms of the measured diffusion coefficient (eigenvalue) in any one direction can lead to errors. Nowhere is this more evident than in white matter, due to the preferential orientation of myelin fibers. The directional dependency is removed by diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, which then yields a set of three eigenvalues and eigenvectors, representing the magnitude and direction of the three orthogonal axes of the diffusion ellipsoid, respectively. For example, the eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector along the long axis of the fiber corresponds qualitatively to diffusion with least restriction. Determination of the principal values of the diffusion tensor and various anisotropic indices provides structural information. We review the use of diffusion measurements using the modified Stejskal–Tanner diffusion equation. The anisotropy is analyzed by decomposing the diffusion tensor based on symmetrical properties describing the geometry of diffusion tensor. We further describe diffusion tensor properties in visualizing fiber tract organization of the human brain.
The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trafimow, David
2016-01-01
Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.
Evaluation of the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient of industrial emissions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryzhakova, N. K.; Pokrovskaya, E. A.; Babicheva, V. O.
2015-07-01
A method for determining the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficients of industrial emissions in complex terrain and with long exposure times has been considered. The method is based on the usage of the distribution of the polluting impurity measured along a certain direction from a point source. The measurements are carried out with moss-biomonitors for a CHP in Novosibirsk.
Correction for multiple scattering of unpolarized photons in attenuation coefficient measurements
Fernandez, J.E.; Sumini, M.; Satori, R.
1995-01-01
Calculations of the diffusion of unpolarized photons in thin thickness targets have been performed with recourse to a vector transport model taking rigorously into account the polarization introduced by the scattering interactions. An order-of-interactions solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for photons was used to describe the multiple scattering terms due to the prevailing effects in the X-ray regime. An analytical expression for the correction factor to the attenuation coefficient is given in term of the solid angle subtended by the detector and the energy interval characterizing the detection response. Although the main corrections are due to the influence of the pure Rayleigh effect, first- and second-order chains involving the Rayleigh and Compton effects have been considered as possible sources of overlapping contributions to the transmitted intensity. The extent of the corrections is estimated and some examples are given for pure element targets.
Measurement of attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic waves in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuzeng; Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong; Li, Xiongbing
2016-02-01
Attenuation corrections in nonlinear acoustics play an important role in the study of nonlinear fluids, biomedical imaging, or solid material characterization. The measurement of attenuation coefficients in a nonlinear regime is not easy because they depend on the source pressure and requires accurate diffraction corrections. In this work, the attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic waves which come from the absorption of water are measured in nonlinear ultrasonic experiments. Based on the quasilinear theory of the KZK equation, the nonlinear sound field equations are derived and the diffraction correction terms are extracted. The measured sound pressure amplitudes are adjusted first for diffraction corrections in order to reduce the impact on the measurement of attenuation coefficients from diffractions. The attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonics are calculated precisely from a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting process of the experiment data. The results show that attenuation coefficients in a nonlinear condition depend on both frequency and source pressure, which are much different from a linear regime. In a relatively lower drive pressure, the attenuation coefficients increase linearly with frequency. However, they present the characteristic of nonlinear growth in a high drive pressure. As the diffraction corrections are obtained based on the quasilinear theory, it is important to use an appropriate source pressure for accurate attenuation measurements.
Temperature Dependence of the Particle Diffusion Coefficient in Dust Grains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pechal, Radim; Richterova, Ivana; Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek
2014-05-01
During the interaction of ions/neutrals with dust grains, some of the particles are implanted into the grain and, as a consequence, the density gradient induces their diffusion toward the grain surface. Their release can cause a transport of these particles over large distances in space. In our laboratory experiment, measurements of the diffusion coefficient of the particles implanted into the dust grain are carried out in an electrodynamic quadrupole trap. Although experimental setup does not allow an assessment of the dust grain temperature, it can be modified (e.g., by changing thermal radiation from the surrounding walls, laser irradiation, etc.). We present an upgraded laboratory set-up and the resulting temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient estimations and discuss implications for the space dust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veneziani, G. R.; Corrêa, E. L.; Potiens, M. P. A.; Campos, L. L.
2016-07-01
IAEA code of practice TRS-457 states that standard phantoms should offer the same primary attenuation and scatter production as relevant body section of a representative patient. Material cost, availability and dimensional stability must also be considered. The goal of this study is to determine the attenuation coefficient of printed ABS and PLA samples in standard X-ray beams, verifying if phantoms printed with these materials could be an easier-handle substitute for PMMA, enabling the creation of different designs in an easier and cheaper way. Results show that PMMA presents higher attenuation coefficient, followed by PLA and ABS, which means that thinner PMMA layer creates higher radiation attenuation.
Optimal estimation of diffusion coefficients from single-particle trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vestergaard, Christian L.; Blainey, Paul C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik
2014-02-01
How does one optimally determine the diffusion coefficient of a diffusing particle from a single-time-lapse recorded trajectory of the particle? We answer this question with an explicit, unbiased, and practically optimal covariance-based estimator (CVE). This estimator is regression-free and is far superior to commonly used methods based on measured mean squared displacements. In experimentally relevant parameter ranges, it also outperforms the analytically intractable and computationally more demanding maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). For the case of diffusion on a flexible and fluctuating substrate, the CVE is biased by substrate motion. However, given some long time series and a substrate under some tension, an extended MLE can separate particle diffusion on the substrate from substrate motion in the laboratory frame. This provides benchmarks that allow removal of bias caused by substrate fluctuations in CVE. The resulting unbiased CVE is optimal also for short time series on a fluctuating substrate. We have applied our estimators to human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycolase proteins diffusing on flow-stretched DNA, a fluctuating substrate, and found that diffusion coefficients are severely overestimated if substrate fluctuations are not accounted for.
The porous medium permeability and effective diffusion coefficient direct correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markicevic, Bojan
2012-11-01
Dimensionless analysis of a momentum and mass transport in the homogeneous porous medium reveals that the permeability and effective to the molecular diffusion coefficient ratio can be expressed as a function of medium pore and throat sizes and two additional geometrical scales. These two scales, each one pertinent to the momentum and mass transport, respectively, are referred to as permeability and diffusivity characteristic scales. Based on these findings, it can be shown that the medium permeability and effective diffusivity can be correlated, and, at the same time, that one microscopic scale needs to be known in this correlation. The same is implied from the Katz-Thompson formula - which correlates the permeability, effective diffusivity, and breakthrough capillary pressure length scale. We recast the correlation developed into the Katz-Thompson formula form, showing how corresponding members are related. It turns out that the coefficient from the Katz-Thompson formula is equal to the ratio of the permeability to diffusivity characteristic length scales, and it is indeed constant for the homogeneous media. As porous media are heterogeneous materials, the analysis is extended onto such materials using heterogeneous capillary networks. The networks with the uniform, normal and log-normal pore size distribution functions are generated, where the networks are sufficiently large to obtain small variations in permeability and effective diffusivity for pore size distribution set. For such stochastically homogeneous media, the effective pore size averages are used in calculating the permeability and effective diffusivity showing the true nature of the coefficient in the Katz-Thompson formula.
Li, Min; Zhou, Tong; Song, Yanan
2016-07-01
A grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression (SVR) is proposed. First, the spectra of the first and second back-wall echoes are cut into several frequency bands to calculate the energy attenuation coefficient spectrum. Second, the frequency band that is sensitive to grain size variation is determined. Finally, a statistical model between the energy attenuation coefficient in the sensitive frequency band and average grain size is established through SVR. Experimental verification is conducted on austenitic stainless steel. The average relative error of the predicted grain size is 5.65%, which is better than that of conventional methods. PMID:26995732
Determination of thermal diffusion coefficient of nanofluid: Fullerene-toluene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Alain; Bou-Ali, M. Mounir
2011-05-01
Thermodiffusion coefficient at fullerene mass concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.2% was established for pure fullerene (C 60) diluted in toluene solutions. For this, the thermogravitational technique has been used in planar configuration with 4 extraction points. The determination of the concentration distribution along the column in steady state is determined by the method of analysis based on density measurements. In order to determine the thermal diffusion coefficient all thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, thermal expansion coefficient and mass expansion coefficients were determined. All these studies coincide with the importance of the knowledge of the thermophysics and transport properties of the nanofluids to develop new applications and to optimize the existing ones.
Determination of diffusion coefficient in disordered organic semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis
2016-05-01
Charge carrier transport in organic semiconductors is dominated by positional and energetic disorder in Gaussian density of states (GDOS) and is characterized by hopping through localized states. Due to the immobilization of charge carriers in these localized states, significant non-uniform carrier distribution exists, resulting diffusive transport. A simple, nevertheless powerful technique to determine diffusion coefficient D in disordered organic semiconductors has been presented. Diffusion coefficients of charge carriers in two technologically important organic molecular semiconductors, Pentacene and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) have been measured from current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of Al/Pentacene/Au and Al/CuPc/Au based Schottky diodes. Ideality factor g and carrier mobility μ have been calculated from the exponential and space charge limited region respectively of J-V characteristics. Classical Einstein relation is not valid in organic semiconductors due to energetic disorders in DOS. Using generalized Einstein relation, diffusion coefficients have been obtained to be 1.31×10-6 and 1.73×10-7 cm2/s for Pentacene and CuPc respectively.
Calcium diffusion coefficient in rod photoreceptor outer segments.
Nakatani, Kei; Chen, Chunhe; Koutalos, Yiannis
2002-01-01
Calcium (Ca(2+)) modulates several of the enzymatic pathways that mediate phototransduction in the outer segments of vertebrate rod photoreceptors. Ca(2+) enters the rod outer segment through cationic channels kept open by cyclic GMP (cGMP) and is pumped out by a Na(+)/Ca(2+),K(+) exchanger. Light initiates a biochemical cascade, which leads to closure of the cGMP-gated channels, and a concomitant decline in the concentration of Ca(2+). This decline mediates the recovery from stimulation by light and underlies the adaptation of the cell to background light. The speed with which the decline in the Ca(2+) concentration propagates through the rod outer segment depends on the Ca(2+) diffusion coefficient. We have used the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator fluo-3 and confocal microscopy to measure the profile of the Ca(2+) concentration after stimulation of the rod photoreceptor by light. From these measurements, we have obtained a value of 15 +/- 1 microm(2)s(-1) for the radial Ca(2+) diffusion coefficient. This value is consistent with the effect of a low-affinity, immobile buffer reported to be present in the rod outer segment (L.Lagnado, L. Cervetto, and P.A. McNaughton, 1992, J. Physiol. 455:111-142) and with a buffering capacity of approximately 20 for rods in darkness(S. Nikonov, N. Engheta, and E.N. Pugh, Jr., 1998, J. Gen. Physiol. 111:7-37). This value suggests that diffusion provides a significant delay for the radial propagation of the decline in the concentration of Ca(2+). Also, because of baffling by the disks, the longitudinal Ca(2+) diffusion coefficient will be in the order of 2 microm(2)s(-1), which is much smaller than the longitudinal cGMP diffusion coefficient (30-60 microm(2)s(-1); ). Therefore, the longitudinal decline of Ca(2+) lags behind the longitudinal spread of excitation by cGMP. PMID:11806915
Hahne, Susanne; Maass, Philipp
2014-03-27
Analysis of signal fluctuations of a locally fixed probe, caused by molecules diffusing under the probe, can be used to determine diffusion coefficients. Theoretical treatments so far have been limited to point-like particles or to molecules with circle-like shapes. Here we extend these treatments to molecules with rectangle-like shapes, for which also rotational diffusion needs to be taken into account. Focusing on the distribution of peak widths in the signal, we show how translational as well as rotational diffusion coefficients can be determined. We address also the question, how the distribution of interpeak time intervals and autocorrelation function can be employed for determining diffusion coefficients. Our approach is validated against kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24640969
Vertical eddy diffusion coefficient from the LANDSAT imagery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viswanadham, Y. (Principal Investigator); Torsani, J. A.
1982-01-01
Analysis of five stable cases of the smoke plumes that originated in eastern Cabo Frio (22 deg 59'S; 42 deg 02'W), Brazil using LANDSAT imagery is presented for different months and years. From these images the lateral standard deviation (sigma sub y) and the lateral eddy diffusion coefficient (K sub y) are obtained from the formula based on Taylor's theory of diffusion by continuous moment. The rate of kinetic energy dissipation (e) is evaluated from the diffusion parameters sigma sub y and K sub y. Then, the vertical diffusion coefficient (K sub z) is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results agree well with the previous experimental values obtained over water surfaces by various workers. Values of e and K sub z show the weaker mixing processes in the marine stable boundary layer. The data sample is apparently to small to include representative active turbulent regions because such regions are so intermittent in time and in space. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of mesoscale atmospheric diffusion models.
Meryem Seferinolu; Yuda Yurum
2006-05-15
The aim of this study is to measure the diffusion coefficients of pyridine in Turkish Cayirhan lignite (C: 57.1 wt%, dmmf) at temperatures about 20-27{sup o}C and determine the type of transport mechanism of diffusion. The raw coal sample was demineralized with HCl and HF by standard methods, and the raw and demineralized coal samples were extracted with pyridine. To investigate the diffusion of pyridine vapor in coal samples, the mass of pyridine uptake per mass of coal sample (M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity}}) was calculated as a function of time. The diffusion coefficients were measured from the slope of graphs of M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity}} versus t{sup 1/2}. The diffusion coefficient of pyridine in the raw coal increased from 10.0 x 10{sup -15} to 11.9 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s when the temperature was elevated from 21.1 to 26.9{sup o}C, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of pyridine raw coal and of those treated with HCl and HF were 11.9 x 10{sup -15}, 4.3 x 10{sup -15}, and 4.8 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s at 26.9{sup o}C, respectively. The studies in the present work on pyridine vapor diffusion in raw coals have generally indicated that the diffusion obeyed the Fickian diffusion mechanism the temperatures 20.0-27.0{sup o}C. Generally, the diffusion exponent values increased when the temperature elevated from 20.0 to 27.0{sup o}C, but this rise placed the diffusion of pyridine between the Fickian diffusion and Case II diffusion mechanisms. 29 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.
Apparent diffusion coefficient map of a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma
Ramachandran, Amrutha; Inyang, Alero F; Subhawong, Ty K
2016-01-01
Plasmacytomas are rare tumors, which arise from the monoclonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells. They may affect either the bony skeleton or rarely the soft tissues, the latter being referred to as extramedullary or extraosseous. We report a case of an extramedullary plasmacytoma that presented as a soft tissue mass involving the muscles of the left leg, in a patient who was previously treated for multiple myeloma. We describe the MR Imaging characteristics of the tumor and highlight the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. PMID:27200157
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen
2010-11-01
The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.
Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.
2011-02-01
Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an
Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S
2011-04-25
Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an
Comparison of RNFL thickness and RPE-normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient for glaucoma diagnosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.
2013-03-01
Recently, a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) attenuation coefficient, based on normalization on the retinal pigment epithelium, was introduced. In contrast to conventional RNFL thickness measures, this novel measure represents a scattering property of the RNFL tissue. In this paper, we compare the RNFL thickness and the RNFL attenuation coefficient on 10 normal and 8 glaucomatous eyes by analyzing the correlation coefficient and the receiver operator curves (ROCs). The thickness and attenuation coefficient showed moderate correlation (r=0.82). Smaller correlation coefficients were found within normal (r=0.55) and glaucomatous (r=0.48) eyes. The full separation between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the RNFL attenuation coefficient yielded an area under the ROC (AROC) of 1.0. The AROC for the RNFL thickness was 0.9875. No statistically significant difference between the two measures was found by comparing the AROC. RNFL attenuation coefficients may thus replace current RNFL thickness measurements or be combined with it to improve glaucoma diagnosis.
Response of radiation belt simulations to different radial diffusion coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y.; Subbotin, D.; Kellerman, A. C.
2013-12-01
Resonant interactions between Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves and relativistic electrons may violate the third adiabatic invariant of motion, which produces radial diffusion in the electron radiation belts. This process plays an important role in the formation and structure of the outer electron radiation belt and is important for electron acceleration and losses in that region. Two parameterizations of the resonant wave-particle interaction of electrons with ULF waves in the magnetosphere by Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2012] are evaluated using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) diffusion code to estimate their relative effect on the radiation belt simulation. The period of investigation includes quiet time and storm time geomagnetic activity and is compared to data based on satellite observations. Our calculations take into account wave-particle interactions represented by radial diffusion transport, local acceleration, losses due to pitch-angle diffusion, and mixed diffusion. We show that the results of the 3D diffusion simulations depend on the assumed parametrization of waves. The differences between the simulations and potential missing physical mechanisms are discussed. References Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999JA900344 Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. J. Rae, D. K. Milling, S. R. Elkington, A. A. Chan, and H. J. Singer (2012), ULF wave derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04222, doi:10.1029/2011JA017463.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Celia M.
2010-01-01
Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medhat, M. E.; Singh, V. P.
2014-09-01
The main goal of this present study is focused on testing the applicability of Geant4 electromagnetic models for studying mass attenuations coefficients for different types of composite materials at 59.5, 80, 356, 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The simulated results of mass attenuation coefficients were compared with the experimental and theoretical XCOM data for the same samples and a good agreement has been observed. The results indicate that this process can be followed to determine the data on the attenuation of gamma rays with the several energies in different materials. The modeling for photon interaction parameters was standard for any type of composite samples. The Geant4 code can be utilized for gamma ray attenuation coefficients for the sample at different energies, which may sometimes be impractical by experiment investigation.
Brain tumor CT attenuation coefficients: semiquantitative analysis of histograms.
Ratzka, M; Haubitz, I
1983-01-01
This paper reports on work in progress on semiquantitative curve analyses of histograms of brain tumors. Separation of statistical groups of attenuation values obtained by computer calculation is done separately from scanning, using histogram printouts as the data input for a programmable calculator. This method is discussed together with its results in 50 cases of malignant gliomas. The detection of hidden tissue portions and the more accurate evaluation of partial enhancement effects have been the investigators' main concerns to the present time; however, this method may allow more specific diagnosis of malignancy and changes in tumor characteristics than visual assessment alone. This has not been proven by studies that have evaluated large numbers of cases, but seems to be worth pursuing as a new approach. PMID:6410783
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebru Ermis, Elif; Celiktas, Cuneyt
2015-07-01
Calculations of gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of various detector materials (crystals) were carried out by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) method at different gamma-ray energies. NaI, PVT, GSO, GaAs and CdWO4 detector materials were chosen in the calculations. Calculated coefficients were also compared with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values. Obtained results through this method were highly in accordance with those of the NIST values. It was concluded from the study that FLUKA MC method can be an alternative way to calculate the gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of the detector materials.
Characterizations of the mirror attenuator mosaic - Solar diffuser plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Robert B., III; Avis, Lee M.; Gibson, M. A.; Kopia, Leonard P.
1992-01-01
The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was used for the flight calibration of the broadband shortwave (0.2-5-microns) and total (0.2 to greater than 200-microns) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers. The MAM solar-reflecting surface consisted of a tightly packed array of vacuum-deposited aluminum, concave spherical mirrors, while its solar-absorbing surface consisted of black chrome. The effective reflectance of the MAM was constant to within +/- 2 percent after almost 2 years in orbit, a marked improvement over earlier solar diffusers.
The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Generazio, E. R.
1984-01-01
Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.
The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Generazio, E. R.
1985-01-01
Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.
FXG mass attenuation coefficient evaluation for radiotherapy routine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreira, M. V.; de Almeida, A.; Costa, R. T.; Perles, L. A.
2004-01-01
The knowledge of a radioactive beam energy or quality is important in radiotherapy once it is correlated with the type, size, and localization of the tumor. One indicative of the radiation quality is the half-value-layer (HVL), the material thickness which reduces the beam intensity to half. The analysis of a treatment beam spectrum can be inferred through its homogeneity coefficient (HC, ratio between the first and the second HVL) that for values >= 0.7 has the indication to be adequate for treatments. Another important indicator of radiation quality is the mass absorption coefficient (cm2/g), related to the photons energies absorbed in a particular exposed material. Once that several materials can be used as radiation detectors for X and γ dosimetry, this work has the purpose to verify the ferrous Xylenol gelatin (FXG) material performance, through its μ/ρ behavior and compare it with the μ/ρ behavior for soft tissue. The X and γ energies where selected, in the energies normally used in radiotherapy and their spectra were evaluated using the HC coefficient. The μ/ρ, for the FXG material, were obtained experimentally and from simulation with X-COM and a developed routine using the GEANT4 Library. From the results from all μ/ρ values obtained for the FXG material, when compared to those from water, one can see similar behaviors, when one considers measurements for energies greater than 78.0 keV. These results indicate that, once the human body is composed with +/-80 % of water, the FXG for the energies used, could also be used as soft tissue simulator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tenney, D. R.; Unnam, J.
1978-01-01
Diffusion calculations were performed to establish the conditions under which concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient was important in single, two, and three phase binary alloy systems. Finite-difference solutions were obtained for each type of system using diffusion coefficient variations typical of those observed in real alloy systems. Solutions were also obtained using average diffusion coefficients determined by taking a logarithmic average of each diffusion coefficient variation considered. The constant diffusion coefficient solutions were used as reference in assessing diffusion coefficient variation effects. Calculations were performed for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries in order to compare the effect of diffusion coefficient variations with the effect of interface geometries. In most of the cases considered, the diffusion coefficient of the major-alloy phase was the key parameter that controlled the kinetics of interdiffusion.
Kalwarf, D.R.; Nielson, K.K.; Rich, D.C.; Rogers, V.C.
1982-11-01
A method was developed and used to determine radon diffusion coefficients in compacted soils by transient-diffusion measurements. A relative standard deviation of 12% was observed in repeated measurements with a dry soil by the transient-diffusion method, and a 40% uncertainty was determined for moistures exceeding 50% of saturation. Excellent agreement was also obtained between values of the diffusion coefficient for radon in air, as measured by the transient-diffusion method, and those in the published literature. Good agreement was also obtained with diffusion coefficients measured by a steady-state method on the same soils. The agreement was best at low moistures, averaging less than ten percent difference, but differences of up to a factor of two were observed at high moistures. The comparison of the transient-diffusion and steady-state methods at low moistures provides an excellent verification of the theoretical validity and technical accuracy of these approaches, which are based on completely independent experimental conditions, measurement methods and mathematical interpretations.
Radon diffusion coefficients in soils of varying moisture content
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papachristodoulou, C.; Ioannides, K.; Pavlides, S.
2009-04-01
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the Earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the atmosphere. Due to its unique properties, soil gas radon has been established as a powerful tracer used for a variety of purposes, such as exploring uranium ores, locating geothermal resources and hydrocarbon deposits, mapping geological faults, predicting seismic activity or volcanic eruptions and testing atmospheric transport models. Much attention has also been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to exploit radon profiles for geophysical purposes and also to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through soils. Among other factors, the importance of soil moisture in such studies has been largely highlighted and it is widely accepted that any measurement of radon transport parameters should be accompanied by a measurement of the soil moisture content. In principle, validation of transport models in the field is encountered by a large number of uncontrollable and varying parameters; laboratory methods are therefore preferred, allowing for experiments to be conducted under well-specified and uniform conditions. In this work, a laboratory technique has been applied for studying the effect of soil moisture content on radon diffusion. A vertical diffusion chamber was employed, in which radon was produced from a 226Ra source, was allowed to diffuse through a soil column and was finally monitored using a silicon surface barrier detector. By solving the steady-state radon diffusion equation, diffusion coefficients (D) were determined for soil samples of varying moisture content (m), from null (m=0) to saturation (m=1). For dry soil, a D value of 4.1×10-7 m2s-1 was determined, which increased moderately by a factor of ~3 for soil with low moisture content, i.e. up to m ~0.2. At higher water fractions, a decrease
Optimal diffusion coefficient estimation in single-particle tracking
Michalet, Xavier; Berglund, Andrew J.
2016-01-01
Single-particle tracking is increasingly used to extract quantitative parameters on single molecules and their environment, while advances in spatial and temporal resolution of tracking techniques inspire new questions and avenues of investigation. Correspondingly, sophisticated analytical methods are constantly developed to obtain more refined information from measured trajectories. Here we point out some fundamental limitations of these approaches due to the finite length of trajectories, the presence of localization error, and motion blur, focusing on the simplest motion regime of free diffusion in an isotropic medium (Brownian motion). We show that two recently proposed algorithms approach the theoretical limit of diffusion coefficient uncertainty. We discuss the practical performance of the algorithms as well as some important implications of these results for single-particle tracking. PMID:23005136
Estimation of glucose diffusion coefficient in scleral tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Tuchin, Valery V.
2000-04-01
Results of experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of the eye sclera controlled by administration of osmotically active chemical, such as glucose, are presented. Glucose administration induces the diffusion of matter and as a result the equalization of the refractive indices of collagen fibrils and base material, and corresponding changes of transmittance spectra of scleral tissue. Transmittance spectra of the human scleral samples impregnated by glucose were measured. The significant increase of transmittance under action of osmotic liquid was observed. The diffusion coefficient of glucose within scleral tissue was estimated; the average value is 3.45 X 10-6 +/- 4.59 X 10-7 cm2/sec. The results are general and can be used to describe many other fibrous tissues impregnated by osmotically active chemical agents.
Diffusion Coefficient in an Electrophoretic Asymmetrically Tilting Ratchet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasciak, P.; Kulakowski, K.; Gudowska-Nowak, E.
2005-05-01
We use the cellular-automaton Duke--Rubinstein model to simulate gel electrophoresis of DNA in periodically changing electric field. The field is dichotomic and its time average is zero. We observe non-vanishing current of molecules, what is known as the ratchet effect. We calculate the drift velocity and the diffusion coefficient for large field amplitude, where nonlinear effects can be observed. The results indicate that tuning the amplitude and frequency of the applied field for a given range of the molecule length can improve the resolving power of the separation of DNA.
Tracer diffusion coefficients in a sheared inelastic Maxwell gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garzó, Vicente; Trizac, Emmanuel
2016-07-01
We study the transport properties of an impurity in a sheared granular gas, in the framework of the Boltzmann equation for inelastic Maxwell models. We investigate here the impact of a nonequilibrium phase transition found in such systems, where the tracer species carries a finite fraction of the total kinetic energy (ordered phase). To this end, the diffusion coefficients are first obtained for a granular binary mixture in spatially inhomogeneous states close to the simple shear flow. In this situation, the set of coupled Boltzmann equations are solved by means of a Chapman–Enskog-like expansion around the (local) shear flow distributions for each species, thereby retaining all the hydrodynamic orders in the shear rate a. Due to the anisotropy induced by the shear flow, three tensorial quantities D ij , D p,ij , and D T,ij are required to describe the mass transport process instead of the conventional scalar coefficients. These tensors are given in terms of the solutions of a set of coupled algebraic equations, which can be exactly solved as functions of the shear rate a, the coefficients of restitution {αsr} and the parameters of the mixture (masses and composition). Once the forms of D ij , D p,ij , and D T,ij are obtained for arbitrary mole fraction {{x}1}={{n}1}/≤ft({{n}1}+{{n}2}\\right) (where n r is the number density of species r), the tracer limit ({{x}1}\\to 0 ) is carefully considered for the above three diffusion tensors. Explicit forms for these coefficients are derived showing that their shear rate dependence is significantly affected by the order-disorder transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araruna, F. D.; Braz e Silva, P.; Carvalho, R. R.; Rojas-Medar, M. A.
2015-06-01
We consider the motion of a viscous incompressible fluid consisting of two components with a diffusion effect obeying Fick's law in ℝ3. We prove that there exists a small time interval where the fluid variables converge uniformly as the viscosity and the diffusion coefficient tend to zero. In the limit, we find a non-homogeneous, non-viscous, incompressible fluid governed by an Euler-like system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ukanwa, A. O.
1974-01-01
This experiment was performed in Skylab 3 with two objectives in mind. First, the experimental self-diffusion coefficients for liquid zinc were to be determined in a convection-free environment. Secondly the reduction in convective mixing in earth gravity by going into the zero-gravity environment of space was to be estimated. The experiment was designed to utilize high temperatures and linear thermal gradients provided by the M518 Multipurpose Electric Furnace, and the radioactivity of zinc-65 of 245-day half-life to investigate self-diffusion in liquid zinc. The distribution of zinc-65 tracer, after melting, maintaining at soak temperature for 1 hour of soak time and then resolidifying, was obtained by sample sectioning. The concentration of activity of each section (microcurie-gram) was plotted against positions along the sample axial and radial position. Experimental data and theoretical results from solution of Fick's law of diffusion in one dimensional were compared. Samples tested on earth showed very rapid diffusion. Diffusion coefficient in unit gravity was 50 times the zero-gravity diffusion coefficient of Skylab.
Diffusion in multilayer media: Transient behavior of the lateral diffusion coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Weiss, George H.
2006-04-01
A general formalism for treating lateral diffusion in a multilayer medium is developed. The formalism is based on the relation between the lateral diffusion and the distribution of the cumulative residence time, which the diffusing particle spends in different layers. We exploit this fact to derive general expressions which give the global and local time-dependent diffusion coefficients in terms of the average cumulative times spent by the particle in different layers and the probabilities of finding the particle in different layers, respectively. These expressions are used to generalize two recently obtained results: (a) A solution for the short-time behavior of the lateral diffusion coefficient in two layers separated by a permeable membrane obtained by a perturbation theory is extended to the entire range of time. (b) A solution for the time-dependent diffusion coefficient of a ligand, which repeatedly dissociates and rebinds to sites on a planar surface, obtained under the assumption that the medium above the surface is infinite, is generalized to allow for the medium layer of finite thickness. For the latter problem we derive an expression for the Fourier-Laplace transform of the propagator in terms of the double Laplace transform of the probability density of the cumulative residence time spent by the ligand in the medium layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garzó, Vicente; Murray, J. Aaron; Vega Reyes, Francisco
2013-04-01
The mass flux of a low-density granular binary mixture obtained previously by solving the Boltzmann equation by means of the Chapman-Enskog method is considered further. As in the elastic case, the associated transport coefficients D, Dp, and D' are given in terms of the solutions of a set of coupled linear integral equations which are approximately solved by considering the first and second Sonine approximations. The diffusion coefficients are explicitly obtained as functions of the coefficients of restitution and the parameters of the mixture (masses, diameters, and concentration) and their expressions hold for an arbitrary number of dimensions. In order to check the accuracy of the second Sonine correction for highly inelastic collisions, the Boltzmann equation is also numerically solved by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to determine the mutual diffusion coefficient D in some special situations (self-diffusion problem and tracer limit). The comparison with DSMC results reveals that the second Sonine approximation to D improves the predictions made from the first Sonine approximation. We also study the granular segregation driven by a uni-directional thermal gradient. The segregation criterion is obtained from the so-called thermal diffusion factor Λ, which measures the amount of segregation parallel to the temperature gradient. The factor Λ is determined here by considering the second-order Sonine forms of the diffusion coefficients and its dependence on the coefficients of restitution is widely analyzed across the parameter space of the system. The results obtained in this paper extend previous works carried out in the tracer limit (vanishing mole fraction of one of the species) by some of the authors of the present paper.
Comparison Actin- and Glass-Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Diffusion Coefficients
Sterling, Sarah M.; Dawes, Ryan; Allgeyer, Edward S.; Ashworth, Sharon L.; Neivandt, David J.
2015-01-01
The formation of biomimetic lipid membranes has the potential to provide insights into cellular lipid membrane dynamics. The construction of such membranes necessitates not only the utilization of appropriate lipids, but also physiologically relevant substrate/support materials. The substrate materials employed have been shown to have demonstrable effects on the behavior of the overlying lipid membrane, and thus must be studied before use as a model cushion support. To our knowledge, we report the formation and investigation of a novel actin protein-supported lipid membrane. Specifically, inner leaflet lateral mobility of globular actin-supported DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayers, deposited via the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir Schaefer methodology, was investigated by z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy across a temperature range of 20–44°C. The actin substrate was found to decrease the diffusion coefficient when compared to an identical membrane supported on glass. The depression of the diffusion coefficient occurred across all measured temperatures. These results indicated that the actin substrate exerted a direct effect on the fluidity of the lipid membrane and highlighted the fact that the choice of substrate/support is critical in studies of model lipid membranes. PMID:25902434
Determination of mass attenuation coefficient of low-Z dosimetric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Khayatt, A. M.; Ali, A. M.; Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.
2014-12-01
The mass attenuation coefficients of some low-Z dosimetric materials with potential applications in dosimetry, medical and radiation protection have been investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation code Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP). Appreciable variations are noted for the mass attenuation coefficient by changing the photon energy. The MCNP-simulated parameters are compared with the experimental data wherever possible and theoretical values through the WinXcom program. The simulated results obtained by MCNP generally agree well with the experiment and WinXcom predictions for various low-Z dosimetric and tissue substitute materials. In addition, the mass attenuation coefficients around the k-edges for low-Z dosimetric materials estimated from the MCNP code agree very well with WinXcom prediction. Finally, the results indicate that this simulation process can be followed to determine the interaction parameters of gamma rays in such low-Z materials for which there are no satisfactory experimental values available.
Han, I; Demir, L
2010-01-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho) for pure Au and Au99Be1, Au88Ge12, Au95Zn5 alloys were measured at 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The samples were irradiated with 241Am and 109Cd radioactive point source using transmission arrangement. The gamma- rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Total atomic and electronic cross-sections (sigmat and sigmae), effective atomic and electron densities (Zeff and Nel) were determined using the obtained mass attenuation coefficients for investigated Au alloys. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients of each alloy were estimated using mixture rule. PMID:20421703
Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.
2007-05-01
Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (μ), mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), total atomic cross-section (σ_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (σ_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of γ-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive γ-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of μ/ρ and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.
Study of photon attenuation coefficients of some multielement materials. [123-1250 keV
Bhandal, G.S. ); Singh, K. . Dept. of Physics)
1994-03-01
Total photon mass attenuation of six multielement shielding materials (concrete, plaster of paris, quick lime, black cement, white cement, and silica) is measured in the 123- to 1,250-keV energy range. The experimental results are analyzed in terms of cross sections, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities. Considerable sensitivity of the total mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers to variations in oxygen content are found in these multielement materials.
Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey
Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.
2015-03-30
In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.
Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.
2015-03-01
In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.
A New Relationship Among Self- and Impurity Diffusion Coefficients in Binary Solution Phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Jinghua; Du, Yong; Shang, Shunli; Cui, Senlin; Wang, Jianchuan; Huang, Baiyun; Liu, Zikui
2016-05-01
A new relationship among self- and impurity diffusion coefficients has been proposed for binary solution phases and verified via 30 solid solutions. In terms of this model, one impurity diffusion coefficient in a binary phase can be predicted once the other three diffusion coefficients are available. The application of the present model is exemplified in the Al-Mg system.
A New Relationship Among Self- and Impurity Diffusion Coefficients in Binary Solution Phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Jinghua; Du, Yong; Shang, Shunli; Cui, Senlin; Wang, Jianchuan; Huang, Baiyun; Liu, Zikui
2016-07-01
A new relationship among self- and impurity diffusion coefficients has been proposed for binary solution phases and verified via 30 solid solutions. In terms of this model, one impurity diffusion coefficient in a binary phase can be predicted once the other three diffusion coefficients are available. The application of the present model is exemplified in the Al-Mg system.
Calculation of combined diffusion coefficients in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures
Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua Rong, Mingzhe Wu, Yi; Murphy, Anthony B.
2014-10-15
Diffusion coefficients play an important role in the description of the transport of metal vapours in gas mixtures. This paper is devoted to the calculation of four combined diffusion coefficients, namely, the combined ordinary diffusion coefficient, combined electric field diffusion coefficient, combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and combined pressure diffusion coefficient in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures at temperatures up to 30 000 K. These four coefficients describe diffusion due to composition gradients, applied electric fields, temperature gradients, and pressure gradients, respectively. The influence of copper fluoride and sulfide species on the diffusion coefficients is shown to be negligible. The effect of copper proportion and gas pressures on these diffusion coefficients is investigated. It is shown that increasing the proportion of copper generally increases the magnitude of the four diffusion coefficients, except for copper mole fractions of 90% or more. It is further found that increasing the pressure reduces the magnitude of the coefficients, except for the combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and shifts the maximum of all four coefficients towards higher temperatures. The results presented in this paper can be applied to the simulation of high-voltage circuit breaker arcs.
Nonperturbative estimate of the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francis, A.; Kaczmarek, O.; Laine, M.; Neuhaus, T.; Ohno, H.
2015-12-01
We estimate the momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark within a pure SU(3) plasma at a temperature of about 1.5 Tc . Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations on a series of lattices extending up to 1923×48 permit us to carry out a continuum extrapolation of the so-called color-electric imaginary-time correlator. The extrapolated correlator is analyzed with the help of theoretically motivated models for the corresponding spectral function. Evidence for a nonzero transport coefficient is found and, incorporating systematic uncertainties reflecting model assumptions, we obtain κ =(1.8 - 3.4 )T3 . This implies that the "drag coefficient," characterizing the time scale at which heavy quarks adjust to hydrodynamic flow, is ηD-1=(1.8 - 3.4 )(Tc/T )2(M /1.5 GeV ) fm /c , where M is the heavy quark kinetic mass. The results apply to bottom and, with somewhat larger systematic uncertainties, to charm quarks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.
2010-09-01
The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.
Byun, Jong-In; Yun, Ju-Yong
2015-08-01
It is shown that the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient of a sample with unknown chemical composition can be determined through a systematic calibration of the correlation between the linear attenuation coefficient, gamma-ray energy and the relative degree of attenuation. For calibration, H2O, MnO2, NaCl, Na2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4 were used as reference materials. Point-like gamma-ray sources with modest activity of approximately 37kBq, along with an HPGe detector, were used in the measurements. A semi-empirical formula was derived to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients as a function of the relative count rate and the gamma-ray energy. The method was applied to the determination of the linear attenuation coefficients for K2CrO4 and SiO2 test samples in the same setup used in calibration. The experimental result agreed well with the ones calculated by elementary data. PMID:25997111
Effective density and mass attenuation coefficient for building material in Brazil.
Salinas, I C P; Conti, C C; Lopes, R T
2006-01-01
This paper presents values for density and mass attenuation coefficient of building materials commonly used in Brazil. Transmission measurements were performed to provide input information for simulations with MCNP4B code. The structure for the clay bricks was simulated as a mix of all material layers and an effective density determined. The mass attenuation coefficients were determined for the 50-3,000 keV gamma-ray energy range. A comparison with results for similar materials found in the literature showed good agreement. PMID:16257357
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurudirek, M.; Medhat, M. E.
2014-07-01
An alternative approach is used to measure normalized mass attenuation coefficients (µ/ρ) of materials with unknown thickness and density. The adopted procedure is based on the use of simultaneous emission of Kα and Kβ X-ray lines as well as gamma peaks from radioactive sources in transmission geometry. 109Cd and 60Co radioactive sources were used for the purpose of the investigation. It has been observed that using the simultaneous X- and/or gamma rays of different energy allows accurate determination of relative mass attenuation coefficients by eliminating the dependence of µ/ρ on thickness and density of the material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Matthew D.; Helmer, Karl G.; Lee, Jing-Huei; Han, Sam S.; Springer, Charles S.; Sotak, Christopher H.
2002-05-01
An NMR method is presented for measuring compartment-specific water diffusion coefficient (D) values. It uses relaxography, employing an extracellular contrast reagent (CR) to distinguish intracellular (IC) and extracellular (EC) 1H2O signals by differences in their respective longitudinal (T1) relaxation times. A diffusion-weighted inversion-recovery spin-echo (DW-IRSE) pulse sequence was used to acquire IR data sets with systematically and independently varying inversion time (TI) and diffusion-attenuation gradient amplitude (g) values. Implementation of the DW-IRSE technique was demonstrated and validated using yeast cells suspended in 3 mM Gd-DTPA2- with a wet/dry mass ratio of 3.25:1.0. Two-dimensional (2D) NMR data were acquired at 2.0 T and analyzed using numerical inverse Laplace transformation (2D- and sequential 1D-ILT) and sequential exponential fitting to yield T1 and water D values. All three methods gave substantial agreement. Exponential fitting, deemed the most accurate and time efficient, yielded T1:D (relative contribution) values of 304 ms:0.023×10-5 cm2/s (47%) and 65 ms:1.24×10-5 cm2/s (53%) for the IC and EC components, respectively. The compartment-specific D values derived from direct biexponential fitting of diffusion-attenuation data were also in good agreement. Extension of the DW-IRSE method to in vivo models should provide valuable insights into compartment-specific water D changes in response to injury or disease.
Measuring diffusion coefficients via two-photon fluorescence recovery after photobleaching.
Sullivan, Kelley D; Brown, Edward B
2010-01-01
Multi-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is a microscopy technique used to measure the diffusion coefficient (or analogous transport parameters) of macromolecules, and can be applied to both in vitro and in vivo biological systems. Multi-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is performed by photobleaching a region of interest within a fluorescent sample using an intense laser flash, then attenuating the beam and monitoring the fluorescence as still-fluorescent molecules from outside the region of interest diffuse in to replace the photobleached molecules. We will begin our demonstration by aligning the laser beam through the Pockels Cell (laser modulator) and along the optical path through the laser scan box and objective lens to the sample. For simplicity, we will use a sample of aqueous fluorescent dye. We will then determine the proper experimental parameters for our sample including, monitor and bleaching powers, bleach duration, bin widths (for photon counting), and fluorescence recovery time. Next, we will describe the procedure for taking recovery curves, a process that can be largely automated via LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) for enhanced throughput. Finally, the diffusion coefficient is determined by fitting the recovery data to the appropriate mathematical model using a least-squares fitting algorithm, readily programmable using software such as MATLAB (The Mathworks, Natick, MA). PMID:20190730
Measurement of diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genin, Vadim D.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.
2015-03-01
Optical clearing of the rat skin under the action of propylene glycol was studied ex vivo. It was found that collimated transmittance of skin samples increased, whereas weight and thickness of the samples decreased during propylene glycol penetration in skin tissue. A mechanism of the optical clearing under the action of propylene glycol is discussed. Diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue ex vivo has been estimated as (1.35±0.95)×10-7 cm2/s with the taking into account of kinetics of both weight and thickness of skin samples. The presented results can be useful for enhancement of many methods of laser therapy and optical diagnostics of skin diseases and localization of subcutaneous neoplasms.
Diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in a cast gamma titanium aluminide
Sundaram, P.A.; Wessel, E.; Ennis, P.J.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Singheiser, L.
1999-06-04
Gamma titanium aluminides have the potential for high temperature applications because of their high specific strength and specific modulus. Their oxidation resistance is good, especially at intermediate temperatures and with suitable alloying additions, good oxidation resistance can be obtained up to 800 C. One critical area of application is in combustion engines in aero-space vehicles such as hypersonic airplanes and high speed civil transport airplanes. This entails the use of hydrogen as a fuel component and hence the effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of gamma titanium aluminides is of significant scientific and technological utility. The purpose of this short investigation is to use an electrochemical method under galvanostatic conditions to determine the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in a cast gamma titanium aluminide, a typical technical alloy with potential application in gas turbines under creep conditions. This result will be then compared with that obtained by microhardness profiling of electrolytically hydrogen precharged material.
Damla, N; Baltas, H; Celik, A; Kiris, E; Cevik, U
2012-07-01
Some building materials, regularly used in Turkey, such as sand, cement, gas concrete (lightweight, aerated concrete), tile and brick, have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic, numbers (Z(eff)), effective electron densities (N(e)) and photon interaction cross section (σ(a)) at 14 different energies from 81- to 1332-keV gamma-ray energies. The gamma rays were detected by using gamma-ray spectroscopy, a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The elemental compositions of samples were analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Mass attenuation coefficients of these samples have been compared with tabulations based upon the results of WinXcom. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using the mixture rule and the experimental values of investigated parameters were compared with the calculated values. The agreement of measured values of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities and photon interaction cross section with the theory has been found to be quite satisfactory. PMID:22128356
Comparison of attenuation coefficients for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 pressure vessels
Marek, M.; Rataj, J.; Vandlik, S.
2011-07-01
The paper summarizes the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence with E > 0.5 MeV through a reactor pressure vessel for vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) reactor types measured and/or calculated for mock-up experiments, as well as for operated nuclear power plant (NPP) units. The attenuation coefficient is possible to evaluate directly only by using the retro-dosimetry, based on a combination of the measured activities from the weld sample and concurrent ex-vessel measurement. The available neutron fluence attenuation coefficients (E > 0.5 MeV), calculated and measured at a mock-up experiment simulating the VVER-440-unit conditions, vary from 3.5 to 6.15. A similar situation is used for the calculations and mock-up experiment measurements for the VVER-1000 RPV, where the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence varies from 5.99 to 8.85. Because of the difference in calculations for the real units and the mock-up experiments, the necessity to design and perform calculation benchmarks both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 would be meaningful if the calculation model is designed adequately to a given unit. (authors)
Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of sulfur hexafluoride in water
King. D.B.; Saltzman, E.S.
1995-04-15
Sulfur hexafluoride has been widely used in field studies and laboratory experiments to develop a relationship between gas transfer and wind speed. The interpretation of the data from such studies requires the diffusion coefficient of SF{sub 6} (D{sub SF6}), which has not previously been measured. In this study, D{sub SF6} has been determined in pure water and in 35%NaCl over a temperature range of 5-25{degrees}C. The measurements were made using a continuous-flow diffusion cell where SF{sub 6} flows beneath an agar gel membrane while helium flows above the gel. The experimental data for pure water yielded the following equation: D{sub SF6}=0.029 exp ({minus}19.3/RT, where R is the gas constant and T is temperature in kelvins). Measurements of D{sub SF6} in 35% NaCl were not significantly different from the pure water values. On the basis of this data, the authors estimate the Schmidt numbers for seawater over the temperature range 5-25{degrees}C to be Sc=3016.1{minus}172.00t+4.4996t{sup 2}{minus}0.047965t{sup 3}, where t is temperature in degrees Celsius. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Universal function for the diffusion coefficient of DNA fragment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercier, Jean-Francois
2005-03-01
The separation of DNA fragments by (gel or capillary) electrophoresis has been studied extensively. To characterize the separation achieved by such systems, one needs to understand the impact (and their dependency upon the experimental quantities) of two physical parameters: the electrophoresis mobility μ and the diffusion coefficient D. Three different regimes have been shown to exist for both μ and D: the Ogston regime, the reptation regime and the reptation-with orientation regime (note that separation is only possible for the first two regimes). Both μ and D are well described by theory for all three regimes. Unfortunatly this results in disjointed scaling regimes and no theory-based general equations can apply to all regimes. Recently, an empirical formula has been proposed that adequately fit the mobility μ of dsDNA fragments across all three regimes and is compatible with accepted theories. In this work we propose a similar formula for the diffusion coefficent D. With those two formulas, one could optimize any separation system quite easily for a wide range of DNA molecular sizes.
Effect of ilmenite on the attenuation coefficient of gamma ray shielding cementious matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Faramawy, Nabil; Ramadan, Wageeh; El-Zakla, Tarek; Sayed, Magda; El-Dessouky, Mohamed; Sakr, Khaled
2015-11-01
The current work investigated the effect of the Portland cement mixed with different percentages of water and ilmenite ore on the attenuation of gamma radiation as shielding blocks. Different concentrations of ilmenite from 5% up to 20% with different grain size were mixed with cement. The properties of the investigated blocks, as compressive strength, wet and dry density, absorption and porosity percentages, were studied. The thermal stability of the studied samples and their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were examined through thermogravimetric analysis and XRD respectively. In addition, the attenuation coefficients of the considered samples for gamma radiation were performed using gamma ray spectrometer. The results revealed that, the maximum linear attenuation coefficient (µ) and minimum transmission fraction were performed for cement mixed with 10% of ilmenite and with the size range 106-250 µm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peinado, Liliana M.; Bloemen, Paul R.; Almasian, Mitra; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.
2016-03-01
Despite the improvements in early cancer diagnosis, adequate diagnostic tools for early staging of bladder cancer tumors are lacking [1]. MEMS-probes based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) provide cross-sectional imaging with a high-spatial resolution at a high-imaging speed, improving visualization of cancerous tissue [2-3]. Additionally, studies show that the measurement of localized attenuation coefficient allows discrimination between healthy and cancerous tissue [4]. We have designed a new miniaturized MEMS-probe based on OCT that will optimize early diagnosis by improving functional visualization of suspicious lesions in bladder. During the optical design phase of the probe, we have studied the effect of the numerical aperture (NA) on the OCT signal attenuation. For this study, we have employed an InnerVision Santec OCT system with several numerical apertures (25mm, 40mm, 60mm, 100mm, 150mm and 200mm using achromatic lenses). The change in attenuation coefficient was studied using 15 dilutions of intralipid ranging between 6*10-5 volume% and 20 volume%. We obtained the attenuation coefficient from the OCT images at several fixed positions of the focuses using established OCT models (e.g. single scattering with known confocal point spread function (PSF) [5] and multiple scattering using the Extended Huygens Fresnel model [6]). As a result, a non-linear increase of the scattering coefficient as a function of intralipid concentration (due to dependent scattering) was obtained for all numerical apertures. For all intralipid samples, the measured attenuation coefficient decreased with a decrease in NA. Our results suggest a non-negligible influence of the NA on the measured attenuation coefficient. [1] Khochikar MV. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Indian J Urol 2011 Apr-Jun; 27(2): 218-225. [2] Sun J and Xie H. Review Article MEMS-Based Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography. IJO 2011, Article ID 825629, 12 pages. doi:10
Reduction of TGS image reconstruction times using separable attenuation coefficient models
Estep, R.J.; Prettyman, T.H.; Sheppard, G.A.
1995-12-31
The tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) method for assaying transuranic and low-level waste produces low-resolution {open_quotes}density{close_quotes} images of 208-l waste drums at two or more transmission gamma-ray energies and uses these to make detailed attenuation corrections at neighboring emission gamma-ray energies. For example, we have used the 136-, 285-, and 401-keV lines from a {sup 75}Se transmission source to correct for attenuation of the 129-, 203-, 345-, and 414-keV lines in {sup 239}Pu assays. The list can expand to 20 or more emission energies when performing multiple-isotope assays. Methods for projecting attenuation images from transmission to emission energies were recently discussed with emphasis on the problems encountered when the opacity of a sample leads to poor counting statistics. This report focuses on increases in computational speed that can be attained by using separable attenuation coefficient models.
Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib
2015-06-21
In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975 cm(-1), respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of -5.2 ± 7.1% and -6.1 ± 6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to -0.8 ± 6.3% and -3.3 ± 4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Woo-Jin; Kang, Se-Ryong; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin
2016-07-01
The objective of this study was to develop a spectral CT system using a photon counting detector and to decompose materials by applying a multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) to the energy-dependent attenuation coefficient ratios. We imaged cylindrical phantoms of Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with four holes filled with calcium chloride, iodine, and gold nanoparticle contrast agents. The attenuation coefficients were measured via reconstructed multi-energy images, and the linear attenuation ratio was used for material identification. The MDA projection matrix, determined from training phantoms, was used to identify the four materials in the testing phantoms. For quantification purposes, the relationships between the attenuation coefficients at multiple energy bins and the concentrations were characterized by using the least-squares method for each material. The mean identification accuracy for each of the three materials were 0.94 ± 0.09 for iodine, 0.96 ± 0.07 for gold nanoparticles, and 0.92 ± 0.05 for calcium chloride. The mean quantification errors were 1.90 ± 1.58% for iodine, 3.85 ± 3.13% for gold nanoparticle, and 3.40 ± 2.62% for calcium chloride. The developed multi-energy CT system based on the photon-counting detector with MDA can precisely decompose the four materials.
Instantaneous signal attenuation method for analysis of PFG fractional diffusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Guoxing
2016-08-01
An instantaneous signal attenuation (ISA) method for analyzing pulsed field gradient (PFG) fractional diffusion (FD) has been developed, which is modified from the propagator approach developed in 2001 by Lin et al. for analyzing PFG normal diffusion. Both, the current ISA method and the propagator method have the same fundamental basis that the total signal attenuation (SA) is the accumulation of all the ISA, and the ISA is the average SA of the whole diffusion system at each moment. However, the manner of calculating ISA is different. Unlike the use of the instantaneous propagator in the propagator method, the current method directly calculates ISA as A(K(t‧), t‧ + dt‧)/A(K(t‧), t‧), where A(K(t‧), t‧ + dt‧) and A(K(t‧), t‧) are the SA. This modification makes the current method applicable to PFG FD as the instantaneous propagator may not be obtainable in FD. The ISA method was applied to study PFG SA including the effect of finite gradient pulse widths (FGPW) for free FD, restricted FD and the FD affected by a non-homogeneous gradient field. The SA expressions were successfully obtained for all three types of free FDs while other current methods still have difficulty in obtaining all of them. The results from this method agree with reported results such as that obtained by the effective phase shift diffusion equation (EPSDE) method. The M-Wright phase distribution approximation was also used to derive an SA expression for time FD as a comparison, which agrees with ISA method. Additionally, the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) simulation was performed to simulate the SA of PFG FD, and the simulation results agree with the analytical results. Particularly, the CTRW simulation results give good support to the analytical results including FGPW effect for free FD and restricted time FD based on a fractional derivative model where there have been no corresponding theoretical reports to date. The theoretical SA expressions including FGPW obtained
Instantaneous signal attenuation method for analysis of PFG fractional diffusions.
Lin, Guoxing
2016-08-01
An instantaneous signal attenuation (ISA) method for analyzing pulsed field gradient (PFG) fractional diffusion (FD) has been developed, which is modified from the propagator approach developed in 2001 by Lin et al. for analyzing PFG normal diffusion. Both, the current ISA method and the propagator method have the same fundamental basis that the total signal attenuation (SA) is the accumulation of all the ISA, and the ISA is the average SA of the whole diffusion system at each moment. However, the manner of calculating ISA is different. Unlike the use of the instantaneous propagator in the propagator method, the current method directly calculates ISA as A(K(t'),t'+dt')/A(K(t'),t'), where A(K(t'),t'+dt') and A(K(t'),t') are the SA. This modification makes the current method applicable to PFG FD as the instantaneous propagator may not be obtainable in FD. The ISA method was applied to study PFG SA including the effect of finite gradient pulse widths (FGPW) for free FD, restricted FD and the FD affected by a non-homogeneous gradient field. The SA expressions were successfully obtained for all three types of free FDs while other current methods still have difficulty in obtaining all of them. The results from this method agree with reported results such as that obtained by the effective phase shift diffusion equation (EPSDE) method. The M-Wright phase distribution approximation was also used to derive an SA expression for time FD as a comparison, which agrees with ISA method. Additionally, the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) simulation was performed to simulate the SA of PFG FD, and the simulation results agree with the analytical results. Particularly, the CTRW simulation results give good support to the analytical results including FGPW effect for free FD and restricted time FD based on a fractional derivative model where there have been no corresponding theoretical reports to date. The theoretical SA expressions including FGPW obtained here such as [Formula: see
Divine, Craig E; McCray, John E
2004-03-15
Passive diffusion (PD) samplers offer several potential technical and cost-related advantages, particularly for measuring dissolved gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at contaminated sites. Sampler equilibration is a diffusion-type process; therefore, equilibration time is dependent on sampler dimensions, membrane thickness, and the temperature-dependent membrane diffusion coefficient (Dm) for the analyte of interest. Diffusion coefficients for low-density polyethylene membranes were measured for He, Ne, H2, O2, and N2 in laboratory experiments and ranged from 1.1 to 1.9 x 10(-7) cm2 sec(-1) (21 degrees C). Additionally, Dm values for several commonly occurring VOCs were estimated from empirical experimental data previously presented by others (Vroblesky, D. A.; Campbell, T. R. Adv. Environ. Res. 2001, 5(1), 1.), and estimated values ranged from 1.7 to 4.4 x 10(-7) cm2 sec(-1) (21 degrees C). On the basis of these Dm ranges, PD sampler equilibration time is predicted for various sampler dimensions, including dimensions consistent with simple constructed samplers used in this study and commercially available samplers. Additionally, a numerical model is presented that can be used to evaluate PD sampler concentration "lag time" for conditions in which in situ concentrations are temporally variable. The model adequately predicted lag time for laboratory experiments and is used to show that data obtained from appropriately designed PD samplers represent near-instantaneous measurement of in situ concentrations for most field conditions. PMID:15074699
Gamma convolution models for self-diffusion coefficient distributions in PGSE NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Röding, Magnus; Williamson, Nathan H.; Nydén, Magnus
2015-12-01
We introduce a closed-form signal attenuation model for pulsed-field gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR based on self-diffusion coefficient distributions that are convolutions of n gamma distributions, n ⩾ 1 . Gamma convolutions provide a general class of uni-modal distributions that includes the gamma distribution as a special case for n = 1 and the lognormal distribution among others as limit cases when n approaches infinity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the gamma convolution model by simulations and experimental data from samples of poly(vinyl alcohol) and polystyrene, showing that this model provides goodness of fit superior to both the gamma and lognormal distributions and comparable to the common inverse Laplace transform.
The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material-air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to es...
Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing; Jeong, Hyunjo Cho, Sungjong
2015-07-15
A novel method to determine acoustic parameters involved in measuring the nonlinearity parameter of fluids or solids is proposed. The approach is based on the measurement of fundamental and second harmonic pressures with a calibrated receiver, and on a nonlinear least squares data-fitting to multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) equations which explicitly define the attenuation and diffraction effects in the quasilinear regime. Results obtained in water validate the proposed method. The choice of suitable source pressure is discussed with regard to the quasilinear approximation involved. The attenuation coefficients are also acquired in nonlinear regime and their relations are discussed.
Inner zone electron radial diffusion coefficients - An update with Van Allen Probes MagEIS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, Paul; Fennell, Joseph; Guild, Timothy; Mazur, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Clemmons, James; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bernard; Roeder, James
2016-07-01
Using MagEIS data from NASA's recent Van Allen Probes mission, we estimate the quiet-time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt and slot, for energies up to ~700 keV. We provide observational evidence that energy diffusion is negligible. The main dynamic processes, then, are radial diffusion and elastic pitch angle scattering. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate over pitch angle to obtain a field line content whose dynamics consist of radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere. We estimate the loss timescale from periods of exponential decay in the time series. We then estimate the radial diffusion coefficient from the temporal and radial variation of the field line content. We show that our diffusion coefficients agree well with previously determined values. Our coefficients are consistent with diffusion by electrostatic impulses, whereas outer zone radial diffusion is thought to be dominated by electromagnetic fluctuations.
Quantitative RNFL attenuation coefficient measurements by RPE-normalized OCT data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.
2012-03-01
We demonstrate significantly different scattering coefficients of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between normal and glaucoma subjects. In clinical care, SD-OCT is routinely used to assess the RNFL thickness for glaucoma management. In this way, the full OCT data set is conveniently reduced to an easy to interpret output, matching results from older (non- OCT) instruments. However, OCT provides more data, such as the signal strength itself, which is due to backscattering in the retinal layers. For quantitative analysis, this signal should be normalized to adjust for local differences in the intensity of the beam that reaches the retina. In this paper, we introduce a model that relates the OCT signal to the attenuation coefficient of the tissue. The average RNFL signal (within an A-line) was then normalized based on the observed RPE signal, resulting in normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient maps. These maps showed local defects matching those found in thickness data. The average (normalized) RNFL attenuation coefficient of a fixed band around the optic nerve head was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (3.0mm-1 vs. 4.9mm-1, P<0.01, Mann-Whitney test).
The diagnostic value of biexponential apparent diffusion coefficients in myopathy.
Ran, Jun; Liu, Yao; Sun, Dong; Morelli, John; Zhang, Ping; Wu, Gang; Sheng, Yuda; Xie, Ruyi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoming
2016-07-01
To investigate the performance of a biexponential signal decay model using DWI in myopathies and to differentiate Polymyositis (PM)/Dermatomyositis (DM), Glycogen Storage Diseases (GSDs) and Muscular Dystrophies (MDs) utilizing diffusion-weighted imaging. 11 healthy volunteers (control group) and 46 patients with myopathy were enrolled in the retrospective study. 27 of 46 patients had PM/DM, 7 patients GSDs and 12 patients MDs. After conventional MR sequences, diffusion weighted imaging with a b-factor ranging from 0 to 1200 s/mm(2) was performed on both thighs. The intra-muscular signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) on multiple-b DWI images were measured for 7 different muscles and compared among the different groups. The median T2 signal intensity and biexponential apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), including standard ADC, fast ADC, and slow ADC values, were compared among the different groups. The intra-muscular SNRs were statistically significantly different depending on the b value, and also found among the 4 groups (p < 0.05). The median T2 signal intensity of the normal muscles in control group was statistically significantly lower than that of edematous muscles in the PM/DM, GSDs and MDs groups (p = 0.000), while there were no statistically significant differences among the PM/DM, GSDs, and MDs groups (p > 0.05). The median standard ADC value of the edematous muscles in GSDs was statistically significantly lower than that of normal muscles in the control group (p = 0.000) and the median ADC value of the edematous muscles in PM/DM patients was statistically significantly greater than that of the GSDs (p = 0.000) and MDs groups (p = 0.005). The median slow ADC value of the edematous muscles in MDs patients and PM/DM patients was statistically significantly greater than that of GSDs patients (p < 0.05). Intra-muscular SNR decay curves and biexponential ADC parameters are useful in distinguishing among PM/DM, GSDs, and MDs. PMID:27142711
High silicon self-diffusion coefficient in dry forsterite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsura, T.; Fei, H.; Hegoda, C.; Yamazaki, D.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Yurimoto, H.; Shcheka, S.
2012-12-01
Plastic deformation of mantle minerals is believed to be controlled by self-diffusion of the slowest species, which is silicon in silicate minerals. Olivine is the main constituent of upper mantle. Therefore, silicon self-diffusion coefficient (DSi) in olivine provides the basic information of upper mantle rheology. Dohmen et al. [1] and Jaoul et al. [2] measured the DSi at ambient pressure under dry conditions in natural olivine and iron-free forsterite, respectively. However, their results were ~2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that estimated from deformation experiments [3]. In this study, we revisited DSi in forsterite and resolved this discrepancy [4]. Forsterite single crystals were polished in colloidal silica solution, deposited with 300-500 nm of 29Si enriched Mg2SiO4 films, covered by 100 nm of ZrO2 films, and annealed at 1600-1800 K from ambient pressure up to 13 GPa using an ambient pressure furnace and multi-anvil apparatus. The surface roughness after diffusion were reduced to <50 nm by polishing again in colloidal silica solution. Diffusion profiles were obtained by SIMS. Water contents in the samples were <1 μg/g by FT-IR [4]. logDSi were determined to be -19.7±0.4 and -18.1±0.3 log[m2/s] under ambient pressure at 1600 and 1800 K, respectively. These values were 2.4 orders of magnitude higher than that determined by Jaoul et al. [2] in forsterite, as well as that reprted by Dohmen et al. [1] in natural olivine. Their low DSi could be obtained due to the bad contact of the coated films with the substrate. Our results well explain the high dislocation climb rates in deformation experiments [4]. We also determined a small negative pressure dependence of DSi with an activation volume of 1.7±0.4 cm3/mol, and an activation energy of ~410 kJ/mol. Calibratied to the same temperature, the nearly linear relationship of DSi against pressure in dry forsterite in this study, iron and water bearing wadsleyite and ringwoodite by Shimojuku et al. [5
On the Origin of Quantum Diffusion Coefficient and Quantum Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Aseem
2016-03-01
Synchronizability of space and time experiences between different inhabitants of a spacetime is abstracted as a fundamental premise of Classical physics. Absence thereof i.e. desynchronization between space and time experiences of a system under study and the observer is then studied for a single dimension single particle system. Desynchronization fundamentally makes probability concepts enter physics ab-initio and not as secondary tools to deal with situations wherein incomplete information in situation following perfectly deterministic dynamics demands its introduction. Desynchronization model based on Poisson distribution of events vis-à-vis an observer, leads to expectation of particle's motion as a Brownian motion deriving Nelson's quantum diffusion coefficient naturally, without needing to postulate it. This model also incorporates physical effects akin to those of Bohm's Quantum Potential, again without needing any sub-quantum medium. Schrodinger's equation is shown to be derivable incorporating desynchronization only of space while Quantum Field Theory is shown to model desynchronization of time as well. Fundamental suggestion of the study is that it is desynchronization that is at the root of quantum phenomena rather than sub-micro scales of spacetime. Absence of possibility of synchronization between system's space and time and those of observer is studied. Mathematical modeling of desynchronized evolution explains some intriguing aspects of Quantum Mechanical theory.
Coordinate-dependent diffusion coefficients: Decay rate in open quantum systems
Sargsyan, V. V.; Palchikov, Yu. V.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.
2007-06-15
Based on a master equation for the reduced density matrix of an open quantum collective system, the influence of coordinate-dependent microscopical diffusion coefficients on the decay rate from a metastable state is treated. For various frictions and temperatures larger than a crossover temperature, the quasistationary decay rates obtained with the coordinate-dependent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients are compared with those obtained with the coordinate-independent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients and coordinate-independent and -dependent phenomenological sets of diffusion coefficients. Neglecting the coordinate dependence of diffusion coefficients, one can strongly overestimate or underestimate the decay rate at low temperature. The coordinate-dependent phenomenological diffusion coefficient in momentum are shown to be suitable for applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lu; Wu, Li-Wei; Wei, Le; Gao, Juan; Sun, Cui-Li; Chai, Pei; Li, Dao-Wu
2014-02-01
The accuracy of attenuation correction in positron emission tomography scanners depends mainly on deriving the reliable 511-keV linear attenuation coefficient distribution in the scanned objects. In the PET/CT system, the linear attenuation distribution is usually obtained from the intensities of the CT image. However, the intensities of the CT image relate to the attenuation of photons in an energy range of 40 keV-140 keV. Before implementing PET attenuation correction, the intensities of CT images must be transformed into the PET 511-keV linear attenuation coefficients. However, the CT scan parameters can affect the effective energy of CT X-ray photons and thus affect the intensities of the CT image. Therefore, for PET/CT attenuation correction, it is crucial to determine the conversion curve with a given set of CT scan parameters and convert the CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. A generalized method is proposed for converting a CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. Instead of some parameter-dependent phantom calibration experiments, the conversion curve is calculated directly by employing the consistency conditions to yield the most consistent attenuation map with the measured PET data. The method is evaluated with phantom experiments and small animal experiments. In phantom studies, the estimated conversion curve fits the true attenuation coefficients accurately, and accurate PET attenuation maps are obtained by the estimated conversion curves and provide nearly the same correction results as the true attenuation map. In small animal studies, a more complicated attenuation distribution of the mouse is obtained successfully to remove the attenuation artifact and improve the PET image contrast efficiently.
Acoustic speed and attenuation coefficient in sheep aorta measured at 5-9 MHz.
Fraser, Katharine H; Poepping, Tamie L; McNeilly, Alan; Megson, Ian L; Hoskins, Peter R
2006-06-01
B-mode ultrasound (US) images from blood vessels in vivo differ significantly from vascular flow phantom images. Phantoms with acoustic properties more closely matched to those of in vivo arteries may give better images. A method was developed for measuring the speed and attenuation coefficient of US over the range 5 to 9 MHz in samples of sheep aorta using a pulse-echo technique. The times-of-flight method was used with envelope functions to identify the reference points. The method was tested with samples of tissue-mimicking material of known acoustic properties. The tissue samples were stored in Krebs physiologic buffer solution and measured over a range of temperatures. At 37 degrees C, the acoustic speed and attenuation coefficient as a function of frequency in MHz were 1600 +/- 50 ms(-1) and 1.5 +/- 4f(0.94 +/- 1.3) dB cm(-1), respectively. PMID:16785018
Miller, D.G.; Vitagliano, V.; Sartorio, R.
1986-04-10
Some interesting aspects of multicomponent diffusion in liquids are discussed. These include the existence of a negative main term diffusion coefficient; the utility of taking different components as the solvent; the change-of-solvent transformation for Fick's law coefficients and Onsager coefficients; the validity of the Onsager reciprocal relations on changing solvents; and the calculation of partial molar volumes from diffusion data. Previous work is surveyed on the irreversible thermodynamic basis for macroscopic diffusion; the importance of reference frames and transformations among them; and second law conditions on the volume-fixed diffusion coefficient matrix. Certain diffusion descriptions in other reference frames do not preserve these second law conditions. 78 references, 5 tables.
Measurement of photon mass attenuation coefficients of plutonium from 60 to 2615 keV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rettschlag, M.; Berndt, R.; Mortreau, P.
2007-11-01
Measurements have been made to determine plutonium photon mass attenuation coefficients by using a collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range from 60 to 2615 keV. These experimental results were compared with previous experimental and theoretical data. Good agreements are observed in the 240-800 keV energy range, whereas differences up to maximum 10% are observed out of these limits.
Spin Diffusion Coefficient of A1-PHASE of Superfluid 3He at Low Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afzali, R.; Pashaee, F.
The spin diffusion coefficient tensor of the A1-phase of superfluid 3He at low temperatures and melting pressure is calculated using the Boltzmann equation approach and Pfitzner procedure. Then considering Bogoliubov-normal interaction, we show that the total spin diffusion is proportional to 1/T2, the spin diffusion coefficient of superfluid component D\\uparrowxzxz is proportional to T-2, and the spin diffusion coefficient of super-fluid component D\\uparrowxxxx (=D\\uarrowxyxy) is independent of temperature. Furthermore, it is seen that superfluid components play an important role in spin diffusion of the A1-phase.
Shalchi, A.
2013-09-01
We explore perpendicular diffusion based on the unified nonlinear transport theory. We derive simple analytical forms for the perpendicular mean free path and investigate the influence of different model spectra. We show that for cases where the field line random walk is normal diffusive, the perpendicular diffusion coefficient consists of only two transport regimes. Details of the spectral shape are less important, especially those of the inertial range. Only the macroscopic properties of the turbulence spectrum control the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. Simple formulae for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient are derived which can easily be implemented in solar modulation or shock acceleration codes.
Measurement of the dimensionless extinction coefficient of soot within laminar diffusion flames.
Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Jensen, Kirk A.
2005-01-01
The dimensionless extinction coefficient (K{sub e}) of soot must be known to quantify laser extinction measurements of soot concentration and to predict optical attenuation through smoke clouds. Previous investigations have measured K{sub e} for post-flame soot emitted from laminar and turbulent diffusion flames and smoking laminar premixed flames. This paper presents the first measurements of soot K{sub e} from within laminar diffusion flames, using a small extractive probe to withdraw the soot from the flame. To measure K{sub e}, two laser sources (635 nm and 1310 nm) were coupled to a transmission cell, followed by gravimetric sampling. Coannular diffusion flames of methane, ethylene and nitrogen-diluted kerosene burning in air were studied, together with slot flames of methane and ethylene. K{sub e} was measured at the radial location of maximum soot volume fraction at several heights for each flame. Results for K{sub e} at both 635 nm and 1310 nm for ethylene and kerosene coannular flames were in the range of 9-10, consistent with the results from previous studies of post-flame soot. The ethylene slot flame and the methane flames have lower K{sub e} values, in some cases as low as 2.0. These lower values of K{sub e} are found to result from the contributions of (a) the condensation of PAH species during the sampling of soot, (b) the wavelength-dependent absorptivity of soot precursor particles, and, in the case of methane, (c) the negligible contribution of soot scattering to the extinction coefficient. RDG calculations of soot scattering, in combination with the measured K{sub e} values, imply that the soot refractive index is in the vicinity of 1.75-1.03i at 635 nm.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Knowledge of the diffusion coefficient is necessary for modeling gas transport in soils and other porous media. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and pore structure parameters, such as the fractal dimension of pores (Dmp), the shortest path leng...
Data set for diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys from first-principles
Zhou, Bi-Cheng; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zi-Kui
2015-01-01
Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in Mg are critical for the development of new Mg alloys for lightweight applications. Here we present the data set of the temperature-dependent dilute tracer diffusion coefficients for 47 substitutional alloying elements in hexagonal closed packed (hcp) Mg calculated from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) by combining transition state theory and an 8-frequency model. Benchmark for the DFT calculations and systematic comparison with experimental diffusion data are also presented. The data set refers to “Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study” by Zhou et al. [1]. PMID:26702419
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilia Anisa, Nor; Azian, Noor; Sharizan, Mohd; Iwai, Yoshio
2014-04-01
6-gingerol and 6-shogaol are the main constituents as anti-inflammatory or bioactive compounds from zingiber officinale Roscoe. These bioactive compounds have been proven for inflammatory disease, antioxidatives and anticancer. The effect of temperature on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were studied in subcritical water extraction. The diffusion coefficient was determined by Fick's second law. By neglecting external mass transfer and solid particle in spherical form, a linear portion of Ln (1-(Ct/Co)) versus time was plotted in determining the diffusion coefficient. 6-gingerol obtained the higher yield at 130°C with diffusion coefficient of 8.582x10-11 m2/s whilst for 6-shogaol, the higher yield and diffusion coefficient at 170°C and 19.417 × 10-11 m2/s.
Single-image diffusion coefficient measurements of proteins in free solution.
Zareh, Shannon Kian; DeSantis, Michael C; Kessler, Jonathan M; Li, Je-Luen; Wang, Y M
2012-04-01
Diffusion coefficient measurements are important for many biological and material investigations, such as studies of particle dynamics and kinetics, and size determinations. Among current measurement methods, single particle tracking (SPT) offers the unique ability to simultaneously obtain location and diffusion information about a molecule while using only femtomoles of sample. However, the temporal resolution of SPT is limited to seconds for single-color-labeled samples. By directly imaging three-dimensional diffusing fluorescent proteins and studying the widths of their intensity profiles, we were able to determine the proteins' diffusion coefficients using single protein images of submillisecond exposure times. This simple method improves the temporal resolution of diffusion coefficient measurements to submilliseconds, and can be readily applied to a range of particle sizes in SPT investigations and applications in which diffusion coefficient measurements are needed, such as reaction kinetics and particle size determinations. PMID:22500769
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panin, V. Y.; Aykac, M.; Casey, M. E.
2013-06-01
The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.
Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E
2013-06-01
The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction. PMID:23648397
NMR measurements of solvent self-diffusion coefficients in polymer solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Frank D.; Pickup, Stephen; Waggoner, R. Allen
1989-11-01
The transport of solvents and other small molecules in polymer solutions is important in many areas such as reaction rates, drying of coatings, plasticizer loss, curing of resins, elimination of residual monomer, and controlled drug release. Some of the work done in our laboratory on the diffusion of small molecules in polymer solutions and dispersions is reviewed. The diffusion data was used to test the Vrentas and Duda's free-volume theory for self-diffusion coefficients; test the independence of the normalized solvent self-diffusion for several polymer-solvent systems; and predict the solvent loss curves for drying of coatings based on solvent self-diffusion coefficients.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The diffusion coefficient of water in biobased hydrogels were measured utilizing a simple NMR method. This method tracks the migration of deuterium oxide through imaging data that is fit to a diffusion equation. The results show that a 5 wt% soybean oil based hydrogel gives aqueous diffusion of 1.37...
Alam, M N; Miah, M M; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Ghose, S; Rahman, R
2001-06-01
The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the gamma-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with gamma-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases. PMID:11300413
Labyed, Yassin; Bigelow, Timothy A; McFarlin, Barbara L
2011-01-01
Premature delivery is the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Currently, premature delivery cannot be prevented and new treatments are difficult to develop due to the inability to diagnose symptoms prior to uterine contractions. Cervical ripening is a long period that precedes the active phase of uterine contractions and cervical dilation. The changes in the microstructure of the cervix during cervical ripening suggest that the ultrasonic attenuation should decrease. The objective of this study is to use the reference phantom algorithm to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in the cervix of pregnant human patients. Prior to applying the algorithm to in vivo human data, two homogeneous phantoms with known attenuation coefficients were used to validate the algorithm and to find the length and the width of the region of interest (ROI) that achieves the smallest error in the attenuation coefficient estimates. In the phantom data, we found that the errors in the attenuation coefficients estimates are less than 12% for ROIs that contain 40 wavelengths or more axially and 30 echo lines or more laterally. The reference phantom algorithm was then used to obtain attenuation maps of the echoes from two human pregnant cervices at different gestational ages. It was observed that the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at a more advanced gestational age is smaller than the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at an earlier gestational age which suggests that ultrasonic attenuation decreases with increasing gestational age. We also observed a large variance between the attenuation coefficient estimates in the different regions of the cervix due to the natural variation in tissue micro-structures across the cervix. The preliminary results indicate that the algorithm could potentially provide an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing the risk of premature delivery. PMID:20570308
Lober, Robert M; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tang, Yujie; Barnes, Patrick D; Edwards, Michael S; Vogel, Hannes; Fisher, Paul G; Monje, Michelle; Yeom, Kristen W
2014-03-01
While pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) remain fatal, recent data have shown subgroups with distinct molecular biology and clinical behavior. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted MRI can be used as a prognostic marker to stratify DIPG subsets with distinct clinical behavior. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from diffusion-weighted MRI were computed in 20 consecutive children with treatment-naïve DIPG tumors. The median ADC for the cohort was used to stratify the tumors into low and high ADC groups. Survival, gender, therapy, and potential steroid effects were compared between the ADC groups. Median age at diagnosis was 6.6 (range 2.3-13.2) years, with median follow-up seven (range 1-36) months. There were 14 boys and six girls. Seventeen patients received radiotherapy, five received chemotherapy, and six underwent cerebrospinal fluid diversion. The median ADC of 1,295 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s for the cohort partitioned tumors into low or high diffusion groups, which had distinct median survivals of 3 and 13 months, respectively (log-rank p < 0.001). Low ADC tumors were found only in boys, whereas high ADC tumors were found in both boys and girls. Available tissue specimens in three low ADC tumors demonstrated high-grade histology, whereas one high ADC tumor demonstrated low-grade histology with a histone H3.1 K27M mutation and high-grade metastatic lesion at autopsy. ADC derived from diffusion-weighted MRI may identify prognostically distinct subgroups of pediatric DIPG. PMID:24522717
Impurity Diffusion Coefficients of Al and Zn in Mg Determined from Solid-to-Solid Diffusion Couples
Kammerer, Catherine; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Perry, Kelly A; Belova, Irina; Murch, Prof. Graeme; Sohn, Yong Ho
2013-08-01
Increasing use and development of lightweight Mgalloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As property enhancing components, Al and Zn are two of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. We have investigated the concentration dependent interdiffusion of Al and Zn in Mg using diffusion couples of pure polycrystalline Mg mated to Mg solid solutions containing either <9 at.% Al or <3 at.% Zn. Concentration profiles were determined by electron micro-probe microanalysis of the diffusion zone. The interdiffusion coefficients were determined by the classical Boltzmann-Matano method within the Mg solid solution. As the concentration of Al or Zn approaches the dilute ends, we employ an analytical approach based on the Hall method to estimate the impurity diffusion coefficients. Results of Al and Zn impurity diffusion in Mg are reported and compared to published impurity diffusion coefficients typically determined by thin film techniques.
Comparative study of methods used to estimate ionic diffusion coefficients using migration tests
Narsilio, G.A. Li, R. Pivonka, P. Smith, D.W.
2007-08-15
Ionic diffusion coefficients are estimated rapidly using electromigration tests. In this paper, electromigration tests are accurately simulated by numerically solving the Nernst-Planck (NP) equation (coupled with the electroneutrality condition (EN)) using the finite element method. Numerical simulations are validated against experimental data obtained elsewhere [E. Samson, J. Marchand, K.A. Snyder, Calculation of ionic diffusion coefficients on the basis of migration test results, Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions 36 (257) (2003) 156-165., H. Friedmann, O. Amiri, A. Ait-Mokhtar, A direct method for determining chloride diffusion coefficient by using migration test, Cement and Concrete Research 34 (11) (2004) 1967-1973.]. It is shown that migration due to the non-linear electric potential completely overwhelms diffusion due to concentration gradients. The effects of different applied voltage differences and chloride source concentrations on estimations of chloride diffusion coefficients are explored. We show that the pore fluid within concrete and mortar specimens generally differs from the curing solution, lowering the apparent diffusion coefficient, primarily due to interactions of chloride ions with other ions in the pore fluid. We show that the variation of source chloride concentration strongly affects the estimation of diffusion coefficients in non-steady-state tests; however this effect vanishes under steady-state conditions. Most importantly, a comparison of diffusion coefficients obtained from sophisticated analyses (i.e., NP-EN) and a variety of commonly used simplifying methods to estimate chloride diffusion coefficients allows us to identify those methods and experimental conditions where both approaches deliver good estimates for chloride diffusion coefficients. Finally, we demonstrate why simultaneous use and monitoring of current density and fluxes are recommended for both the non-steady and steady-state migration tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Guoxing
2015-10-01
Inter-molecular multiple quantum coherence (iMQC) has important applications in NMR and MRI. However, the current theoretical methods still have some difficulties in analyzing the behavior of iMQC signal attenuation of pulsed field gradient diffusion experiments. In this paper, the iMQC diffusion experiments were analyzed by an effective phase shift diffusion equation (EPSDE) method, which is based on the idea that the accumulating phase shift (APS) can be viewed as the result of a diffusion process in virtual phase space (VPS) with effective diffusion coefficient K2(t) D (rad2/s) where K ( t ) = ∫0 t γ g ( t ' ) d t ' is a wavenumber and D is the physical diffusion coefficient of the spin carrier in the real space. The term K(ttot) z1 needs to be added to the APS when K(ttot) is not zero. Most of the time, K(ttot) equals zero. However, in iMQC experiments, the condition K(ttot) equaling zero or being non-zero for each spin depends on the gradient pulse setting. The signal attenuations of these two types of iMQC, zero or non-zero K(ttot), were analyzed in detail for free and restricted diffusions, which shows that there are significant differences between these two types of iMQC. Particularly, if an apparent diffusion coefficient Dapp is used to analyze the signal attenuation, it equals nD for zero K(ttot) which agrees with current theoretical and experimental reports, while for non-zero K(ttot), it equals (2n - 1) D which agrees with experimental results from the literature; there are no similar theoretical results reported for comparison. The result that Dapp equals (2n - 1) D is important because the higher value of Dapp means that non-zero K(ttot) iMQC can potentially provide more contrast and measure slower diffusion rates than zero K(ttot) iMQC. The EPSDE method provides a new way to analyze iMQC diffusion experiments.
Jacobs, Michael A; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Petrowski, Kyle; Macura, Katarzyna J
2008-12-01
Prostate cancer is a major health problem, and the exploration of noninvasive imaging methods that have the potential to improve specificity while maintaining high sensitivity is still critically needed. Tissue changes induced by tumor growth can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Current MRI methods include conventional T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Techniques such as DWI/ADC provide functional information about the behavior of water molecules in tissue; MRS can provide biochemical information about the presence or absence of certain metabolites, such as choline, creatine, and citrate. Finally, vascular parameters can be investigated using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Moreover, with whole-body MRI and DWI, metastatic disease can be evaluated in 1 session and may provide a way to monitor treatment. Therefore, when combining these various methods, a multiparametric data set can be built to assist in the detection, localization, assessment of prostate cancer aggressiveness, and tumor staging. Such a comprehensive approach offers more power to evaluate prostate disease than any single measure alone. In this article, we focus on the role of DWI/ADC and MRS in the detection and characterization using both in vivo and ex vivo imaging of prostate pathology. PMID:19512848
Velocity-Space Diffusion Coefficients Due to Full-Wave ICRF Fields in Toroidal Geometry
Harvey, R.W.; Jaeger, F.; Berry, L.A.; Batchelor, D.B.; D'Azevedo, E.; Carter, M.D.; Ershov, N.M.; Smirnov, A.P.; Bonoli, P.; Wright, J.C.; Smithe, D.N.
2005-09-26
Jaeger et al. have calculated bounce-averaged QL diffusion coefficients from AORSA full-wave fields, based on non-Maxwellian distributions from CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. A zero banana-width approximation is employed. Complementing this calculation, a fully numerical calculation of ion velocity diffusion coefficients using the full-wave fields in numerical tokamak equilibria has been implemented to determine the finite orbit width effects. The un-approximated Lorentz equation of motion is integrated to obtain the change in velocity after one complete poloidal transit of the tokamak. Averaging velocity changes over initial starting gyro-phase and toroidal angle gives bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. The coefficients from the full-wave and Lorentz orbit methods are compared for an ITER DT second harmonic tritium ICRF heating case: the diffusion coefficients are similar in magnitude but reveal substantial finite orbit effects.
Nonlinearity Effects of Lateral Density Diffusion Coefficient on Gain-Guided VCSEL Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Jian-Zhong; Cheung, Samson H.; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Electron and hole diffusions in the plane of semiconductor quantum wells play an important part in the static and dynamic operations of semiconductor lasers. In this paper, we apply a hydrodynamic model developed from the semiconductor Bloch equations to numerically study the effects of nonlinearity in the diffusion coefficient on single mode operation and direct modulation of a gain-guided InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well laser, operating not too far from threshold. We found that a small diffusion coefficient is advantageous for lowering the threshold current and increasing the modulation bandwidth. Most importantly, the effects of nonlinearity in the coefficient can be approximately reproduced by replacing the coefficient with an effective constant diffusion coefficient, which corresponds roughly to the half height density of the density distribution.
Miller, D.G.
1998-11-02
A procedure is developed for analyzing combined concentration profiles from multicomponent solid-state diffusion data obtained with free-diffusion boundary conditions. This procedure is exactly analogous to the analysis of liquid-state diffusion data obtained from free-diffusion refractive-index profiles (e.g. from Rayleigh interferometry). All data from all couples are least-squared together to characterize the diffusion coefficient matrix. Different profile weightings provide interesting alternatives, as well as diagnostics. Symmetric averagings are shown to eliminate or reduce effects of concentration dependence.
Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Liao, Zhenzhong; Liu, Huanqing; Wang, Supin
2009-11-01
This paper simultaneously investigated the transient characteristics of integrated backscatter (IBS), attenuation coefficient and bubble activities as time traces before, during and after HIFU treatment, with different HIFU parameters (acoustic power and duty cycle) in both transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and freshly excised bovine livers. These dynamic changes of acoustic parameters and bubble activities were correlated with the visualization of lesion development selected from photos, conventional B-mode ultrasound images and differential IBS images over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired by a modified diagnostic ultrasound scanner to estimate the changes of mean IBS and attenuation coefficient averaged in the lesion region, and to construct the differential IBS images and B-mode ultrasound images simultaneously. Bubble activities over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment were investigated by the passive cavitation detection (PCD) method and the changes in subharmonic and broadband noise were correlated with the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation coefficient. When HIFU was switched on, IBS and attenuation coefficient increased with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode and differential IBS image. At the same time, the level of subharmonic and broadband noise rose abruptly. Then, there was an initial decrease in the attenuation coefficient, followed by an increase when at lower HIFU power. As the lesion appeared, IBS and attenuation coefficient both increased rapidly to a value twice that of normal. Then the changes in IBS and attenuation coefficient showed more complex patterns, but still showed a slower trend of increases with lesion development. Violent bubble activities were visible in the gel and were evident as strongly echogenic regions in the differential IBS images and B-mode images simultaneously. This was detected by a dramatic high level of subharmonic and broadband
The water column diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) of the Louisiana Continental Shelf (LCS) was examined during ten years to characterize the spatial and temporal variations on monthly scales from 1998 to 2007. This region is well-known for summer hypoxia (dissolved oxygen < 2...
Measurement of effective air diffusion coefficients for trichloroethene in undisturbed soil cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Smith, James A.
2002-06-01
In this study, we measure effective diffusion coefficients for trichloroethene in undisturbed soil samples taken from Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. The measured effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0609 cm 2/s over a range of air-filled porosity of 0.23-0.49. The experimental data were compared to several previously published relations that predict diffusion coefficients as a function of air-filled porosity and porosity. A multiple linear regression analysis was developed to determine if a modification of the exponents in Millington's [Science 130 (1959) 100] relation would better fit the experimental data. The literature relations appeared to generally underpredict the effective diffusion coefficient for the soil cores studied in this work. Inclusion of a particle-size distribution parameter, d10, did not significantly improve the fit of the linear regression equation. The effective diffusion coefficient and porosity data were used to recalculate estimates of diffusive flux through the subsurface made in a previous study performed at the field site. It was determined that the method of calculation used in the previous study resulted in an underprediction of diffusive flux from the subsurface. We conclude that although Millington's [Science 130 (1959) 100] relation works well to predict effective diffusion coefficients in homogeneous soils with relatively uniform particle-size distributions, it may be inaccurate for many natural soils with heterogeneous structure and/or non-uniform particle-size distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.
2014-05-01
The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.
Crescenti, Remo A; Bamber, Jeffrey C; Partridge, Mike; Bush, Nigel L; Webb, Steve
2007-11-21
Research on polymer-gel dosimetry has been driven by the need for three-dimensional dosimetry, and because alternative dosimeters are unsatisfactory or too slow for that task. Magnetic resonance tomography is currently the most well-developed technique for determining radiation-induced changes in polymer structure, but quick low-cost alternatives remain of significant interest. In previous work, ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound were found to change as a function of absorbed radiation dose in polymer-gel dosimeters, although the investigations were restricted to one ultrasound frequency. Here, the ultrasound attenuation coefficient mu in one polymer gel (MAGIC) was investigated as a function of radiation dose D and as a function of ultrasonic frequency f in a frequency range relevant for imaging dose distributions. The nonlinearity of the frequency dependence was characterized, fitting a power-law model mu = af(b); the fitting parameters were examined for potential use as additional dose readout parameters. In the observed relationship between the attenuation coefficient and dose, the slopes in a quasi-linear dose range from 0 to 30 Gy were found to vary with the gel batch but lie between 0.0222 and 0.0348 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 2.3 MHz, between 0.0447 and 0.0608 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 4.1 MHz and between 0.0663 and 0.0880 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 6.0 MHz. The mean standard deviation of the slope for all samples and frequencies was 15.8%. The slope was greater at higher frequencies, but so were the intra-batch fluctuations and intra-sample standard deviations. Further investigations are required to overcome the observed variability, which was largely associated with the sample preparation technique, before it can be determined whether any frequency is superior to others in terms of accuracy and precision in dose determination. Nevertheless, lower frequencies will allow measurements through larger samples. The fit parameter a of the frequency dependence, describing the
Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, Yingqi; Molz, Fred J.
2006-04-30
The exchange of solute mass (through molecular diffusion) between fluid in fractures and fluid in the rock matrix is called matrix diffusion. Owing to the orders-of-magnitude slower flow velocity in the matrix compared to fractures, matrix diffusion can significantly retard solute transport in fractured rock, and therefore is an important process for a variety of problems, including remediation of subsurface contamination and geological disposal of nuclear waste. The effective matrix diffusion coefficient (molecular diffusion coefficient in free water multiplied by matrix tortuosity) is an important parameter for describing matrix diffusion, and in many cases largely determines overall solute transport behavior. While matrix diffusion coefficient values measured from small rock samples in the laboratory are generally used for modeling field-scale solute transport in fractured rock (Boving and Grathwohl, 2001), several research groups recently have independently found that effective matrix diffusion coefficients much larger than laboratory measurements are needed to match field-scale tracer-test data (Neretnieks, 2002; Becker and Shapiro, 2000; Shapiro, 2001; Liu et al., 2003, 2004a). In addition to the observed enhancement, Liu et al. (2004b), based on a relatively small number of field-test results, reported that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient might be scale dependent, and, like permeability and dispersivity, it seems to increases with test scale. This scale-dependence has important implications for large-scale solute transport in fractured rock. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the enhancement of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, the potential scale dependence and its mechanisms are not fully investigated at this stage. The major objective of this study is to again demonstrate (based on more data published in the literature than those used in Liu et al. [2004b]) the potential scale dependence of the effective
Scale Dependence of Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient Evidence and Preliminary Interpertation
H.H. Liu; Y. Zhang
2006-06-20
The exchange of solute mass (through molecular diffusion) between fluid in fractures and fluid in the rock matrix is called matrix diffusion. Owing to the orders-of-magnitude slower flow velocity in the matrix compared to fractures, matrix diffusion can significantly retard solute transport in fractured rock, and therefore is an important process for a variety of problems, including remediation of subsurface contamination and geological disposal of nuclear waste. The effective matrix diffusion coefficient (molecular diffusion coefficient in free water multiplied by matrix tortuosity) is an important parameter for describing matrix diffusion, and in many cases largely determines overall solute transport behavior. While matrix diffusion coefficient values measured from small rock samples in the laboratory are generally used for modeling field-scale solute transport in fractured rock (Boving and Grathwohl, 2001), several research groups recently have independently found that effective matrix diffusion coefficients much larger than laboratory measurements are needed to match field-scale tracer-test data (Neretnieks, 2002; Becker and Shapiro, 2000; Shapiro, 2001; Liu et al., 2003,2004a). In addition to the observed enhancement, Liu et al. (2004b), based on a relatively small number of field-test results, reported that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient might be scale dependent, and, like permeability and dispersivity, it seems to increases with test scale. This scale-dependence has important implications for large-scale solute transport in fractured rock. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the enhancement of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, the potential scale dependence and its mechanisms are not fully investigated at this stage. The major objective of this study is to again demonstrate (based on more data published in the literature than those used in Liu et al. [2004b]) the potential scale dependence of the effective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.; Khazanov, G. V.; Avanov, L. A.
2016-04-01
Electron pitch angle (Dαα) and momentum (Dpp) diffusion coefficients have been calculated due to resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode chorus waves. Calculations have been performed at two spatial locations L = 4.6 and 6.8 for electron energies ≤10 keV. Landau (n = 0) resonance and cyclotron harmonic resonances n = ±1, ±2, … ±5 have been included in the calculations. It is found that diffusion coefficient versus pitch angle (α) profiles show large dips and oscillations or banded structures. The structures are more pronounced for ECH and lower band chorus (LBC) and particularly at location 4.6. Calculations of diffusion coefficients have also been performed for individual resonances. It is noticed that the main contribution of ECH waves in pitch angle diffusion coefficient is due to resonances n = +1 and n = +2. A major contribution to momentum diffusion coefficients appears from n = +2. However, the banded structures in Dαα and Dpp coefficients appear only in the profile of diffusion coefficients for n = +2. The contribution of other resonances to diffusion coefficients is found to be, in general, quite small or even negligible. For LBC and upper band chorus waves, the banded structures appear only in Landau resonance. The Dpp diffusion coefficient for ECH waves is one to two orders smaller than Dαα coefficients. For chorus waves, Dpp coefficients are about an order of magnitude smaller than Dαα coefficients for the case n ≠ 0. In case of Landau resonance, the values of Dpp coefficient are generally larger than the values of Dαα coefficients particularly at lower energies. As an aid to the interpretation of results, we have also determined the resonant frequencies. For ECH waves, resonant frequencies have been estimated for wave normal angle 89° and harmonic resonances n = +1, +2, and +3, whereas for whistler mode waves, the frequencies have been calculated for angle 10° and Landau
Effective diffusion coefficient of a Brownian particle in a periodically expanded conical tube
Antipov, Anatoly E.; Barzykin, Alexander V.; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Zitserman, Vladimir Yu.; Aldoshin, Sergei M.
2016-01-01
Diffusion in a tube of periodically varying diameter occurs slower than that in a cylindrical tube because diffusing particles get trapped in wells of the periodic entropy potential which is due to variation of the tube cross-section area. To quantify the slowdown one has to establish a relation between the effective diffusion coefficient of the particle and the tube geometry, which is a very complicated problem. Here we show how to overcome the difficulties in the case of a periodically expanded conical tube, where we find an approximate solution for the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of the parameters determining the tube geometry. PMID:24329385
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, E.; Bunton, P.; Pojman, J. A.
2007-10-01
A simple technique for determining the diffusion coefficient between two miscible liquids is presented based on observing concentration-dependent ultraviolet-excited fluorescence using a digital camera. The ultraviolet-excited visible fluorescence of corn syrup is proportional to the concentration of the syrup. The variation of fluorescence with distance from the transition zone between the fluids is fit by the Fick's law solution to the diffusion equation. By monitoring the concentration at successive times, the diffusion coefficient can be determined in otherwise transparent materials. The technique is quantitative and makes measurement of diffusion accessible in the advanced undergraduate physics laboratory.
Al-Masri, M S; Hasan, M; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Doubal, A W
2013-02-01
Mass attenuation coefficients of various soil and sediment samples (density range between 1.0 and 1.7 g cm(-3)) collected from 60 sites distributed in Syrian land have been determined for gamma lines of 46.5, 59.5, 88, 122, 165, 392, 661, 1173, and 1332 keV using gamma spectrometry and simulation software program X-com. The average mass attenuation coefficients for the studied samples were found to be 0.513, 0.316, 0.195, 0.155, 0.134, 0.096, 0.077, 0.058, and 0.055 cm(2) g(-1) at previous energies, respectively. The results have shown that Ca and Fe contents of the samples have strong effect on the mass attenuation coefficient at lower energies. In addition, self-attenuation correction factors determined using mass attenuation coefficient was in good agreement with addition spiked reference material method provided that the sample thickness is 2.7 cm. However, mass attenuation coefficients determined in this study can be used for determination of gamma emitters at energy ranges from 46.5 to 1332 keV in any soil and sediment samples having density of 1.0-1.7 g cm(-3). PMID:23103572
Garcia-Ratés, Miquel; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Bonet Avalos, Josep; Nieto-Draghi, Carlos
2012-03-01
Mass diffusion coefficients of CO(2)/brine mixtures under thermodynamic conditions of deep saline aquifers have been investigated by molecular simulation. The objective of this work is to provide estimates of the diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in salty water to compensate the lack of experimental data on this property. We analyzed the influence of temperature, CO(2) concentration,and salinity on the diffusion coefficient, the rotational diffusion, as well as the electrical conductivity. We observe an increase of the mass diffusion coefficient with the temperature, but no clear dependence is identified with the salinity or with the CO(2) mole fraction, if the system is overall dilute. In this case, we notice an important dispersion on the values of the diffusion coefficient which impairs any conclusive statement about the effect of the gas concentration on the mobility of CO(2) molecules. Rotational relaxation times for water and CO(2) increase by decreasing temperature or increasing the salt concentration. We propose a correlation for the self-diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in terms of the rotational relaxation time which can ultimately be used to estimate the mutual diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in brine. The electrical conductivity of the CO(2)-brine mixtures was also calculated under different thermodynamic conditions. Electrical conductivity tends to increase with the temperature and salt concentration. However, we do not observe any influence of this property with the CO(2) concentration at the studied regimes. Our results give a first evaluation of the variation of the CO(2)-brine mass diffusion coefficient, rotational relaxation times, and electrical conductivity under the thermodynamic conditions typically encountered in deep saline aquifers. PMID:22292779
Quantitative mapping of the per‐axon diffusion coefficients in brain white matter
Kruggel, Frithjof; Alexander, Daniel C.
2015-01-01
Purpose This article presents a simple method for estimating the effective diffusion coefficients parallel and perpendicular to the axons unconfounded by the intravoxel fiber orientation distribution. We also call these parameters the per‐axon or microscopic diffusion coefficients. Theory and Methods Diffusion MR imaging is used to probe the underlying tissue material. The key observation is that for a fixed b‐value the spherical mean of the diffusion signal over the gradient directions does not depend on the axon orientation distribution. By exploiting this invariance property, we propose a simple, fast, and robust estimator of the per‐axon diffusion coefficients, which we refer to as the spherical mean technique. Results We demonstrate quantitative maps of the axon‐scale diffusion process, which has factored out the effects due to fiber dispersion and crossing, in human brain white matter. These microscopic diffusion coefficients are estimated in vivo using a widely available off‐the‐shelf pulse sequence featuring multiple b‐shells and high‐angular gradient resolution. Conclusion The estimation of the per‐axon diffusion coefficients is essential for the accurate recovery of the fiber orientation distribution. In addition, the spherical mean technique enables us to discriminate microscopic tissue features from fiber dispersion, which potentially improves the sensitivity and/or specificity to various neurological conditions. Magn Reson Med, 2015. Magn Reson Med 75:1752–1763, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25974332
Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Park, Jonggu; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette
2012-01-01
The diffusion of water into dentin adhesive polymers and leaching of unpolymerized monomer from the adhesive are linked to their mechanical softening and hydrolytic degradation. Therefore, diffusion coefficient data are critical for the mechanical design of these polymeric adhesives. In this study, diffusion coefficients of water and leachables were obtained for sixteen methacrylate-based crosslinked polymers using absorption experiments. The experimental mass change data was interpreted using numerical solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equations. The calculated diffusion coefficients varied from 1.05 × 10−8 cm2/sec (co-monomer TMTMA) to 3.15 × 10−8 cm2/sec (co-monomer T4EGDMA). Correlation of the diffusion coefficients with crosslink density and hydrophilicity showed an inverse trend (R2 = 0.41). The correlation of diffusion coefficient with crosslink density and hydrophilicity are closer for molecules differing by simple repeat units (R2 = 0.95). These differences in the trends reveal mechanisms of interaction of the diffusing water with the polymer structure. PMID:22430592
Lai, C.C.; Tan, C.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1995-02-01
Molecular diffusion coefficients of ethyl acetate, toluene, phenol, and caffeine in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by a chromatographic peak broadening technique in a coated capillary column at temperatures of 308, 318, and 328 K and pressures up to 145 bar. A linear adsorption in the polymer layer coated on the inner wall of the capillary column was observed. The experimentally determined diffusion coefficients showed substantial agreement with those reported in the literature. The diffusion coefficients were in the order of 10[sup [minus]4] cm[sup 2]/s and decreased with increasing carbon dioxide density. Based on the molecular diffusion coefficient data reported here and those published elsewhere, an empirically modified Wilke-Chang equation was proposed which was found to be more quantitative than some existing equations such as the Stokes-Einstein and Wilke-Chang equations.
Leahy-Dios, Alana; Zhuo, Lin; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2008-05-22
New thermal diffusion coefficients of binary mixtures are measured for n-decane-n-alkanes and 1-methylnaphthalene-n-alkanes with 25 and 75 wt % at 25 degrees C and 1 atm using the thermogravitational column technique. The alkanes range from n-pentane to n-eicosane. The new results confirm the recently observed nonmonotonic behavior of thermal diffusion coefficients with molecular weight for binary mixtures of n-decane- n-alkanes at the compositions studied. In this work, the mobility and disparity effects on thermal diffusion coefficients are quantified for binary mixtures. We also show for the binary mixtures studied that the thermal diffusion coefficients and mixture viscosity, both nonequilibrium properties, are closely related. PMID:18438988
On the determinatino of high-pressure mass-diffusion coefficients for binary mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.
2003-01-01
A model for high-pressure binary diffusion coefficient calculation is proposed based on considerations originating from recasting both the low pressure kinetic theory and the Stokes-Einstein infinite dilution expressions into forms consistent with corresponding states theory.
Manzini, Gianmarco; Cangiani, Andrea; Sutton, Oliver
2014-10-02
This document presents the results of a set of preliminary numerical experiments using several possible conforming virtual element approximations of the convection-reaction-diffusion equation with variable coefficients.
Diffusion coefficients of articular cartilage for different CT and MRI contrast agents.
Kulmala, K A M; Korhonen, R K; Julkunen, P; Jurvelin, J S; Quinn, T M; Kröger, H; Töyräs, J
2010-10-01
In contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), the equilibrium distribution of anionic contrast agent is expected to reflect the fixed charged density (FCD) of articular cartilage. Diffusion is mainly responsible for the transport of contrast agents into cartilage. In osteoarthritis, cartilage composition changes at early stages of disease, and solute diffusion is most likely affected. Thus, investigation of contrast agent diffusion could enable new methods for imaging of cartilage composition. The aim of this study was to determine the diffusion coefficient of four contrast agents (ioxaglate, gadopentetate, iodide, gadodiamide) in bovine articular cartilage. The contrast agents were different in molecular size and charge. In peripheral quantitative CT experiments, penetration of contrast agent into the tissue was allowed either through the articular surface or through deep cartilage. To determine diffusion coefficients, a finite element model based on Fick's law was fitted to experimental data. Diffusion through articular surface was faster than through deep cartilage with every contrast agent. Iodide, being of atomic size, diffused into the cartilage significantly faster (q<0.05) than the other three contrast agents, for either transport direction. The diffusion coefficients of all clinical contrast agents (ioxaglate, gadopentetate and gadodiamide) were relatively low (142.8-253.7 μm(2)/s). In clinical diagnostics, such slow diffusion may not reach equilibrium and this jeopardizes the determination of FCD by standard methods. However, differences between diffusion through articular surface and deep cartilage, that are characterized by different tissue composition, suggest that diffusion coefficients may correlate with cartilage composition. Present method could therefore enable image-based assessment of cartilage composition by determination of diffusion coefficients within cartilage tissue. PMID:20594900
Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
May, C. E.; Kautz, Harold E.
1978-01-01
The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 X 10 to the minus 7th power squared cm per sec + or - 30 percent in 45 percent potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the minus 7 squared cm per sec + or - 25 percent in 40 percent sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.
Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
May, C. E.; Kautz, H. E.
1978-01-01
The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 30% in 45% potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 25% in 40% sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half-cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite-size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.
Štefl, Martin; Kułakowska, Anna; Hof, Martin
2009-01-01
Abstract A new (to our knowledge) robust approach for the determination of lateral diffusion coefficients of weakly bound proteins is applied for the phosphatidylserine specific membrane interaction of bovine prothrombin. It is shown that z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in combination with pulsed interleaved dual excitation allows simultaneous monitoring of the lateral diffusion of labeled protein and phospholipids. Moreover, from the dependencies of the particle numbers on the axial sample positions at different protein concentrations phosphatidylserine-dependent equilibrium dissociation constants are derived confirming literature values. Increasing the amount of membrane-bound prothrombin retards the lateral protein and lipid diffusion, indicating coupling of both processes. The lateral diffusion coefficients of labeled lipids are considerably larger than the simultaneously determined lateral diffusion coefficients of prothrombin, which contradicts findings reported for the isolated N-terminus of prothrombin. PMID:19651025
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietrich, Olaf; Hubert, Alexander; Heiland, Sabine
2014-06-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate a model of restricted water diffusion between equidistant permeable membranes for cell-size and permeability measurements in biological tissue. Based on the known probability distribution of diffusion distances after the diffusion time τ in a system of permeable membranes characterized by three parameters (membrane permeability P, membrane distance L, and free diffusivity D0), an equivalent dimensionless model was derived with a probability distribution characterized by only a single (dimensionless) tissue parameter \\tilde{P}. Evaluating this proposed model function, the dimensionless diffusion coefficient \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\,\\tilde{P}) was numerically calculated for 60 values of the dimensionless diffusion time \\tilde{\\tau } and 35 values of \\tilde{P}. Diffusion coefficients were measured in a carrot by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 18 diffusion times between 9.9 and 1022.7 ms and fitted to the simulation results \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\,\\tilde{P}) to determine L, P, and D0. The measured diffusivities followed the simulated dependence of \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\tilde{P}). Determined cell sizes varied from 21 to 76 μm, permeabilities from 0.007 to 0.039 μm-1, and the free diffusivities from 1354 to 1713 μm2 s-1. In conclusion, the proposed dimensionless tissue model can be used to determine tissue parameters (D0, L, P) based on diffusion MRI with multiple diffusion times. Measurements in a carrot showed a good agreement of the cell diameter, L, determined by diffusion MRI and by light microscopy.
FITTING OF THE DATA FOR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN UNSATURATED POROUS MEDIA
B. Bullard
1999-05-01
The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate diffusion coefficients in unsaturated porous media for use in the TSPA-VA analyses. Using experimental data, regression techniques were used to curve fit the diffusion coefficient in unsaturated porous media as a function of volumetric water content. This calculation substantiates the model fit used in Total System Performance Assessment-1995 An Evaluation of the Potential Yucca Mountain Repository (TSPA-1995), Section 6.5.4.
Note on coefficient matrices from stochastic Galerkin methods for random diffusion equations
Zhou Tao; Tang Tao
2010-11-01
In a recent work by Xiu and Shen [D. Xiu, J. Shen, Efficient stochastic Galerkin methods for random diffusion equations, J. Comput. Phys. 228 (2009) 266-281], the Galerkin methods are used to solve stochastic diffusion equations in random media, where some properties for the coefficient matrix of the resulting system are provided. They also posed an open question on the properties of the coefficient matrix. In this work, we will provide some results related to the open question.
Comparison of ICRF-Induced Ion Diffusion Coefficients Calculated with the DC and AORSA Codes
Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.
2009-11-26
The DC (Diffusion Coefficient) code obtains RF diffusion coefficients by direct numerical integration of the Lorentz force equation for ion motion in the combined equilibrium fields and the RF full wave EM fields from the AORSA full-wave code. Suitable averaging over initial gyro- and toroidal-angle of coordinate 'kicks' after a bounce-period, gives noise-free bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. For direct comparison with zero-banana-width coefficients from AORSA, perpendicular-drift terms in the Lorentz equation are subtracted off the integration. The DC code has been coupled to the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. For a C-Mod minority ion ICRF heating test case, the total power absorption using the diffusion coefficients agree well, and the profiles are similarly close. This supports the DC calculation and the Kennel-Engelmann-based, no-correlations, coefficient calculation in AORSA. However, resonance correlations cause large differences in the pitch angle variations of the diffusion coefficients, and in the resulting evolution of the ion distribution functions.
Response of radiation belt simulations to different radial diffusion coefficients models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drozdov, Alexander; Baker, Daniel N.; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam
2016-07-01
Two parameterizations of the resonant wave-particle interactions of electrons with ultra-low frequency waves in the magnetosphere by Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2014] are evaluated using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) diffusion code to estimate the effect of changing a diffusion coefficient on the radiation belt simulation. The period of investigation includes geomagnetically quiet and active time. The simulations take into account wave-particle interactions represented by radial diffusion transport, local acceleration, losses due to pitch-angle diffusion, and mixed diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuccaro, R.; Magnetto, C.; Albo, P. A. Giuliano; Troia, A.; Lago, S.
Although high intensity focused ultrasound beams (HIFU) have found rapid agreement in clinical environment as a tool for non invasive surgical ablation and controlled destruction of cancer cells, some aspects related to the interaction of ultrasonic waves with tissues, such as the conversion of acoustic energy into heat, are not thoroughly understood. In this work, innovative tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs), based on Agar and zinc acetate, have been used to conduct investigations in order to determine a relation between the sample attenuation coefficient and its temperature increase measured in the focus region when exposed to an HIFU beam. An empirical relation has been deduced establishing useful basis for further processes of validations of numerical models to be adopted for customizing therapeutic treatments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, I.; Demir, L.; Şahin, M.
2009-09-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ m) for SiO 2 {Quartz (1 1 0 1), Quartz (1 1 0 0) and Quartz (0 0 0 1)}, KAlSi 3O 8 {Orthoclase (0 1 0), Orthoclase (1 0 0)}, CaSO 4·2H 2O (gypsum), FeS 2 (pyrite) and Mg 2Si 2O 6 (pyroxene) natural minerals were measured at 22.1, 25.0, 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The γ- and X-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Atomic and electronic cross sections ( σ t and σ e), the effective atomic and electron numbers or electron densities ( Z eff and N eff) were determined using the obtained μ m values for investigated samples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çevik, Ugˇur; Baltaş, Hasan; Çelik, Ahmet; Bacaksız, Emin
2006-06-01
The X-rays attenuation coefficients for Cu, In and Se in elemental state and the semiconductor CuInSe2 were measured at 15 different energies from 11.9 to 37.3 keV by using the secondary excitation method. Monochromatic photons were obtained using the following secondary targets: Br, Sr, Mo, Cd, Te and Ba. 59.5 keV gamma rays emitted from an annular 241Am radioactive source were used to excite secondary target and X-rays emitted from secondary target were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 0.16 keV at 5.9 keV. A method to determine the thickness of thin film with XRF is described. Additionally, the effect of absorption edges on effective atomic numbers and their variation with photon energy in composite semiconductor sample was discussed. Obtained values were compared with calculated values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imel, Adam; Miller, Brad; Holley, Wade; Baskaran, Durairaj; Mays, Jimmy; Dadmun, Mark
2015-03-01
The diffusion properties of nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites are largely unknown and depend intimately on the dispersion of the nanoparticles. We examine the diffusion of soft, organic nanoparticles, which disperse in a polymer matrix due to the interpenetration of polymer chains and particles and the reduction in the depletion of entropy in the system. The impact of the presence of soft nanoparticles on the diffusion coefficient of polystyrene chains has recently been determined with neutron reflectivity. This was completed by monitoring the interdiffusion of deuterated and protonated polystyrene nanocomposite bilayers with and without the soft nanoparticles dispersed throughout both layers and extracting the diffusion coefficient from the one-dimensional solution to Fick's second law of diffusion. In this work, we extend this method to bilayer systems with only the soft nanoparticles as one of the layers and a linear deuterated polystyrene as an adjacent layer. The development of this method allows us to determine the tracer diffusion coefficient of the soft polystyrene nanoparticles for the first time by analyzing the mutual diffusion coefficient from Fick's second law and the fast and slow modes theories for diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Qiong; Li, Shu-Suo; Ma, Yue; Gong, Sheng-Kai
2012-10-01
The diffusion coefficients of several alloying elements (Al, Mo, Co, Ta, Ru, W, Cr, Re) in Ni are directly calculated using the five-frequency model and the first principles density functional theory. The correlation factors provided by the five-frequency model are explicitly calculated. The calculated diffusion coefficients show their excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Both the diffusion pre-factor (D0) and the activation energy (Q) of impurity diffusion are obtained. The diffusion coefficients above 700 K are sorted in the following order: DAl > DCr > DCo > DTa > DMo > DRu > DW > DRe. It is found that there is a positive correlation between the atomic radius of the solute and the jump energy of Ni that results in the rotation of the solute-vacancy pair (E1). The value of E2-E1 (E2 is the solute diffusion energy) and the correlation factor each also show a positive correlation. The larger atoms in the same series have lower diffusion activation energies and faster diffusion coefficients.
An alternative model for estimating liquid diffusion coefficients requiring no viscosity data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morales, Wilfredo
1993-01-01
An equation, based on the free volume of a liquid solvent, was derived via dimensional analysis, to predict binary diffusion coefficients. The equation assumed that interaction between the solute and liquid solvent molecules followed a Lennard-Jones potential. The equation was compared to other diffusivity equations and was found to give good results over the temperature range examined.
Imaging the attenuation coefficients of magnetically constrained positron beams in matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, Charles C.
2016-09-01
This paper describes a method for tomographically imaging the linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) of positron beams in heterogeneous materials. A β+ ray emitter such as 68Ga, placed in a uniform 3T static magnetic field, generates a well-defined positron beam that maintains its spatial coherence over an attenuation of more than 10-3 while signaling its intensity via the annihilation radiation it generates. A positron emission tomography (PET) system embedded in the magnetic field measures the positron-electron annihilation distribution within objects illuminated by the beam. It's shown that this image can be decomposed into maps of the positron beam's flux and its material-dependent LACs without need for auxiliary measurements or transmission of the beam completely through the object. The initial implementation employs a hybrid PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner developed for medical applications. Mass thicknesses up to 0.55 g/cm2 at a spatial resolution of a few millimeters have been imaged.
Temperature-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients from ab initio Computations: Hydrogen in Nickel
E Wimmer; W Wolf; J Sticht; P Saxe; C Geller; R Najafabadi; G Young
2006-03-16
The temperature-dependent mass diffusion coefficient is computed using transition state theory. Ab initio supercell phonon calculations of the entire system provide the attempt frequency, the activation enthalpy, and the activation entropy as a function of temperature. Effects due to thermal lattice expansion are included and found to be significant. Numerical results for the case of hydrogen in nickel demonstrate a strong temperature dependence of the migration enthalpy and entropy. Trapping in local minima along the diffusion path has a pronounced effect especially at low temperatures. The computed diffusion coefficients with and without trapping bracket the available experimental values over the entire temperature range between 0 and 1400 K.
Calculation of the coefficient and dynamics of water diffusion in graphite joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Liu, Wen-Bin
2006-06-01
The coefficient and dynamics of water diffusion in adhesive-graphite joints were calculated insitu with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, a method that is significantly simpler than elemental analysis. Water diffusion coefficient and dynamics of adhesive-graphite joints treated by different surface treatment menthods were also investigated. Calculation results indicated that the water diffusion rate in adhesive-graphite joints treated by sandpaper was higher than that treated by chemical oxidation or by silane couple agent. Also the durability of graphite joints treated by coupling agent is superior to that treated by chemical oxidation or sandpaper burnishing.
Franco, Luís F M; Castier, Marcelo; Economou, Ioannis G
2016-08-28
Applying classical molecular dynamics simulations, we calculate the parallel self-diffusion coefficients of different fluids (methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) confined between two {101̄4} calcite crystal planes. We have observed that the molecules close to the calcite surface diffuse differently in distinct directions. This anisotropic behavior of the self-diffusion coefficient is investigated for different temperatures and pore sizes. The ion arrangement in the calcite crystal and the strong interactions between the fluid particles and the calcite surface may explain the anisotropy in this transport property. PMID:27586936
Narváez Valderrama, Jhon F; Baek, Kine; Molina, Francisco J; Allan, Ian J
2016-01-01
A film-stacking technique was used to estimate diffusion coefficients of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in low density polyethylene (LDPE) and silicone rubber. Substantially higher PBDE diffusion coefficients were observed for silicone rubber (AlteSil™) than for LDPE. A much steeper decrease in LDPE diffusion coefficients was found with increasing PBDE molecular weight than that for silicone rubber. From a passive sampling point-of-view, this means that for equivalent polymer-water partition coefficients for these two materials, the mass transfer resistance for these substances in the LDPE will be significantly higher than that for silicone rubber. Boundary layer control of the uptake process for silicone rubber can be expected for PBDEs. With a microplastic perspective, the low diffusion coefficients of PBDEs and in particular of decabromo diphenyl ether (BDE 209) in LDPE imply that the polymer diffusion coefficients for these plastic additives used as flame retardants need to be taken into account when considering the risk posed by microplastic particle ingestion by marine organisms. PMID:26678428
Styszko, Katarzyna; Kupiec, Krzysztof
2016-10-01
In this study the diffusion coefficients of isoproturon, diuron and cybutryn in acrylate and silicone resin-based renders were determined. The diffusion coefficients were determined using measuring concentrations of biocides in the liquid phase after being in contact with renders for specific time intervals. The mathematical solution of the transient diffusion equation for an infinite plate contacted on one side with a limited volume of water was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficients through the acrylate render were 8.10·10(-9) m(2) s(-1) for isoproturon, 1.96·10(-9) m(2) s(-1) for diuron and 1.53·10(-9) m(2) s(-1) for cybutryn. The results for the silicone render were lower by one order of magnitude. The compounds with a high diffusion coefficient for one polymer had likewise high values for the other polymer. PMID:27391050
Entropy-scaling laws for diffusion coefficients in liquid metals under high pressures
Cao, Qi-Long Shao, Ju-Xiang; Wang, Fan-Hou; Wang, Pan-Pan
2015-04-07
Molecular dynamic simulations on the liquid copper and tungsten are used to investigate the empirical entropy-scaling laws D{sup *}=A exp(BS{sub ex}), proposed independently by Rosenfeld and Dzugutov for diffusion coefficient, under high pressure conditions. We show that the scaling laws hold rather well for them under high pressure conditions. Furthermore, both the original diffusion coefficients and the reduced diffusion coefficients exhibit an Arrhenius relationship D{sub M}=D{sub M}{sup 0} exp(−E{sub M}/K{sub B}T), (M=un,R,D) and the activation energy E{sub M} increases with increasing pressure, the diffusion pre-exponential factors (D{sub R}{sup 0} and D{sub D}{sup 0}) are nearly independent of the pressure and element. The pair correlation entropy, S{sub 2}, depends linearly on the reciprocal temperature S{sub 2}=−E{sub S}/T, and the activation energy, E{sub S}, increases with increasing pressure. In particular, the ratios of the activation energies (E{sub un}, E{sub R}, and E{sub D}) obtained from diffusion coefficients to the activation energy, E{sub S}, obtained from the entropy keep constants in the whole pressure range. Therefore, the entropy-scaling laws for the diffusion coefficients and the Arrhenius law are linked via the temperature dependence of entropy.
Bounce averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics based magnetic field geometry from RAM-SCB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.
2014-10-01
In this work we explore wave-particle interaction in the radiation belt. By applying quasilinear theory, we obtain the particle diffusion coefficients in both pitch angle and energy for different configurations of the Earth's magnetic field. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference, and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provide a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. The bounce averaged electron pitch angle diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. The equatorial pitch angle, wave frequency and spectral distribution of whistler waves are shown to affect the bounce averaged diffusion coefficients. In addition, wave-particle resonance is significantly influenced by the magnetic field configuration: in storm conditions, diffusion is strongly reduced for some equatorial pitch angles.
Evaluation of Hamaker coefficients using Diffusion Monte Carlo method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maezono, Ryo; Hongo, Kenta
We evaluated the Hamaker's constant for Cyclohexasilane to investigate its wettability, which is used as an ink of 'liquid silicon' in 'printed electronics'. Taking three representative geometries of the dimer coalescence (parallel, lined, and T-shaped), we evaluated these binding curves using diffusion Monte Carlo method. The parallel geometry gave the most long-ranged exponent, ~ 1 /r6 , in its asymptotic behavior. Evaluated binding lengths are fairly consistent with the experimental density of the molecule. The fitting of the asymptotic curve gave an estimation of Hamaker's constant being around 100 [zJ]. We also performed a CCSD(T) evaluation and got almost similar result. To check its justification, we applied the same scheme to Benzene and compared the estimation with those by other established methods, Lifshitz theory and SAPT (Symmetry-adopted perturbation theory). The result by the fitting scheme turned to be twice larger than those by Lifshitz and SAPT, both of which coincide with each other. It is hence implied that the present evaluation for Cyclohexasilane would be overestimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goulart, Viviane P.; dos Santos, Moisés O.; Latrive, Anne; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M.
2015-05-01
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising alternative for treatment of skin lesions such as squamous cell carcinoma. We propose a method to monitor the effects of PDT in a noninvasive way by using the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) calculated from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. We conducted a study on mice with chemically induced neoplastic lesions and performed PDT on these lesions using homemade photosensitizers. The response of neoplastic lesions to therapy was monitored using, at the same time, macroscopic clinical visualization, histopathological analysis, OCT imaging, and OCT-based attenuation coefficient measurement. Results with all four modalities demonstrated a positive response to treatment. The attenuation coefficient was found to be 1.4 higher in skin lesions than in healthy tissue and it decreased after therapy. This study shows that the OAC is a potential tool to noninvasively assess the evolution of skin neoplastic lesions with time after treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Roache, Nancy F.
2014-06-01
The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material/air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to estimate parameters Dm and Kma. The SVOCs chosen for study were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, including PCB-52, PCB-66, PCB-101, PCB-110, and PCB-118. The test materials included polypropylene, high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyether ether ketone, glass, stainless steel and concrete. Two 53-L environmental chambers were connected in series, with the relatively stable SVOCs source in the source chamber and the test materials, made as small “buttons”, in the test chamber. Prior to loading the test chamber with the test materials, the test chamber had been dosed with SVOCs for 12 days to “coat” the chamber walls. During the tests, the material buttons were removed from the test chamber at different exposure times to determine the amount of SVOC absorbed by the buttons. SVOC concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the test chamber were also monitored. The data were used to estimate the partition and diffusion coefficients by fitting a sink model to the experimental data. The parameters obtained were employed to predict the accumulation of SVOCs in the sink materials using an existing mass transfer model. The model prediction agreed reasonably well with the experimental data.
Balch, J; Guéguen, C
2015-01-01
In situ measurements of labile metal species using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) passive samplers are based on the diffusion rates of individual species. Although most studies have dealt with chemically isolated humic substances, the diffusion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) across the hydrogel is not well understood. In this study, the diffusion coefficient (D) and molecular weight (MW) of 11 aquatic DOM and 4 humic substances (HS) were determined. Natural, unaltered aquatic DOM was capable of diffusing across the diffusive gel membrane with D values ranging from 2.48×10(-6) to 5.31×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Humic substances had diffusion coefficient values ranging from 3.48×10(-6) to 6.05×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), congruent with previous studies. Molecular weight of aquatic DOM and HS samples (∼500-1750 Da) measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) strongly influenced D, with larger molecular weight DOM having lower D values. No noticeable changes in DOM size properties were observed during the diffusion process, suggesting that DOM remains intact following diffusion across the diffusive gel. The influence of molecular weight on DOM mobility will assist in further understanding and development of the DGT technique and the uptake and mobility of contaminants associated with DOM in aquatic environments. PMID:25112575
Sidhu, Baltej Singh; Dhaliwal, A S; Mann, K S; Kahlon, K S
2011-10-01
Linear attenuation coefficients of regular as well as irregular shaped archaeological samples of FaLG (flyash-lime-gypsum) of unknown thickness have been measured employing 'simplified two media' method. Seven different liquid materials plus air have been used as media to measure attenuation coefficient of these samples. Obtained results have been compared with those for regular shaped samples. Experimental values have also been compared with theoretical values calculated from FFAST and XCOM. A good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical values. Present measurements employing 'simplified two media' method have been reported for the first time for checking its validation and reliability. PMID:21727010
Annunziata, Onofrio; Vergara, Alessandro; Paduano, Luigi; Sartorio, Roberto; Miller, Donald G; Albright, John G
2009-10-01
We have experimentally investigated multicomponent diffusion in a protein-polymer-salt-water quaternary system. Specifically, we have measured the nine multicomponent diffusion coefficients, D(ij), for the lysozyme-poly(ethylene glycol)-NaCl-water system at pH 4.5 and 25 degrees C using precision Rayleigh interferometry. Lysozyme is a model protein for protein-crystallization and enzymology studies. We find that the protein diffusion coefficient, D(11), decreases as polymer concentration increases at a given salt concentration. This behavior can be quantitatively related to the corresponding increase in fluid viscosity only at low polymer concentration. However, at high polymer concentration (250 g/L), protein diffusion is enhanced compared to the corresponding viscosity prediction. We also find that a protein concentration gradient induces salt diffusion from high to low protein concentration. This effect increases in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol). Finally, we have evaluated systematic errors associated with measurements of protein diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering. This work overall helps characterize protein diffusion in crowded environments and may provide guidance for further theoretical developments in the field of protein crystallization and protein diffusion in such crowded systems, such as the cytoplasm of living cells. PMID:19746957
Sublimation kinetics and diffusion coefficients of TNT, PETN, and RDX in air by thermogravimetry.
Hikal, Walid M; Weeks, Brandon L
2014-07-01
The diffusion coefficients of explosives are crucial in their trace detection and lifetime estimation. We report on the experimental values of diffusion coefficients of three of the most important explosives in both military and industry: TNT, PETN, and RDX. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the sublimation rates of TNT, PETN, and RDX powders in the form of cylindrical billets. The TGA was calibrated using ferrocene as a standard material of well-characterized sublimation rates and vapor pressures to determine the vapor pressures of TNT, PETN, and RDX. The determined sublimation rates and vapor pressures were used to indirectly determine the diffusion coefficients of TNT, PETN, and RDX for the first time. A linear log-log dependence of the diffusion coefficients on temperature is observed for the three materials. The diffusion coefficients of TNT, PETN, and RDX at 273 K were determined to be 5.76×10(-6)m(2)/sec, 4.94×10(-6)m(2)/s, and 5.89×10(-6)m(2)/s, respectively. Values are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values in literature. PMID:24840410
2014-01-01
Background Support vector regression (SVR) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) were used for the analysis of electroanalytical experimental data to estimate diffusion coefficients. Results For simulated cyclic voltammograms based on the EC, Eqr, and EqrC mechanisms these regression algorithms in combination with nonlinear kernel/covariance functions yielded diffusion coefficients with higher accuracy as compared to the standard approach of calculating diffusion coefficients relying on the Nicholson-Shain equation. The level of accuracy achieved by SVR and GPR is virtually independent of the rate constants governing the respective reaction steps. Further, the reduction of high-dimensional voltammetric signals by manual selection of typical voltammetric peak features decreased the performance of both regression algorithms compared to a reduction by downsampling or principal component analysis. After training on simulated data sets, diffusion coefficients were estimated by the regression algorithms for experimental data comprising voltammetric signals for three organometallic complexes. Conclusions Estimated diffusion coefficients closely matched the values determined by the parameter fitting method, but reduced the required computational time considerably for one of the reaction mechanisms. The automated processing of voltammograms according to the regression algorithms yields better results than the conventional analysis of peak-related data. PMID:24987463
A first-principles methodology for diffusion coefficients in metals and dilute alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantina, Manjeera
This work is a study exploring the extent of suitability of static first-principles calculations for studying diffusion in metallic systems. Specifically, vacancy-mediated volume diffusion in pure elements and alloys with dilute concentration of impurities is studied. A novel procedure is discovered for predicting diffusion coefficients that overcomes the shortcomings of the well-known transition state theory, by Vineyard. The procedure that evolves from Eyring's reaction rate theory yields accurate diffusivity results that include anharmonic effects within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Alongside, the procedure is straightforward in its application within the conventional harmonic approximation, from the results of static first-principles calculations. To prove the extensibility of the procedure, diffusivities have been computed for a variety of systems. Over a wide temperature range, the calculated self-diffusion and impurity diffusion coefficients using local density approximation (LDA) of density functional theory (DFT) are seen to be in excellent match with experimental data. Self-diffusion coefficients have been calculated for: (i) fcc Al, Cu, Ni and Ag (ii) bcc W and Mo (v) hcp Mg, Ti and Zn. Impurity diffusion coefficients have been computed for: (i) Mg, Si, Cu, Li, Ag, Mo and 3d transition elements in fcc Al (ii) Mo, Ta in bcc W and Nb, Ta and W in bcc Mo (iii) Sn and Cd in hcp Mg and Al in hcp Ti. It is also an observation from this work, that LDA does not require surface correction for yielding energetics of vacancy-containing system in good comparison with experiments, unlike generalized gradient approximation (GGA). It is known that first-principles' energy minimization procedures based on electronic interactions are suited for metallic systems wherein the valence electrons are freely moving. In this thesis, research has been extended to study suitability of first-principles calculations within LDA/GGA including the localization parameter U, for Al
Yang, J; Köhler, K; Davis, D M; Burroughs, N J
2010-06-01
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is a widely established method for the estimation of diffusion coefficients, strip bleaching with an associated recovery curve analysis being one of the simplest techniques. However, its implementation requires near 100% bleaching in the region of interest with negligible fluorescence loss outside, both constraints being hard to achieve concomitantly for fast diffusing molecules. We demonstrate that when these requirements are not met there is an error in the estimation of the diffusion coefficient D, either an under- or overestimation depending on which assumption is violated the most. We propose a simple modification to the recovery curve analysis incorporating the concept of the relative bleached mass m giving a revised recovery time parametrization tau=m(2)w(2)/4piD for a strip of width w. This modified model removes the requirement of 100% bleaching in the region of interest and allows for limited diffusion of the fluorophore during bleaching. We validate our method by estimating the (volume) diffusion coefficient of FITC-labelled IgG in 60% glycerol solution, D= 4.09 +/- 0.21 microm(2) s(-1), and the (surface) diffusion coefficient of a green-fluorescent protein-tagged class I MHC protein expressed at the surface of a human B cell line, D= 0.32 +/- 0.03 microm(2) s(-1) for a population of cells. PMID:20579262
Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.
2014-09-26
A simple and straightforward method for measuring diffusion coefficients using interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes is reported. The method does not require that the exact electrode area be known but depends only the size of the gap between the IDA electrode pairs. Electroactive molecules produced at the generator electrode of the IDA by a voltage step or scan can diffuse to the collector electrode and the time delay before the current for the reverse electrochemical reaction is detected at the collector is used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The measurement of the diffusion rate of Ru(NH3)6+2 in aqueous solution has been used as an example measuring diffusion coefficients using this method. Additionally, a digital simulation of the electrochemical response of the IDA electrodes was used to simulate the entire current/voltage/time behavior of the system and verify the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.
Buffie, K.; Shalchi, A.; Heesen, V. E-mail: v.heesen@soton.ac.uk
2013-02-10
Diffusion coefficients are usually used to describe the propagation of cosmic rays through the universe. Whereas such transport parameters can be obtained from experiments in the solar system, it is difficult to determine diffusion coefficients in the Milky Way or in external galaxies. Recently, a value for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 has been proposed. In the present paper, we reproduce this value theoretically by using an advanced analytical theory for perpendicular diffusion.
Lee, Yugyung; Khemka, Alok; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Lee, Chi H
2008-03-01
This study is aimed to elucidate the physicodynamic phenomena governing diffusion coefficient (D) of the loaded drugs in a female controlled drug delivery system (FcDDS) and to find the most influencing variable on the diffusivity using artificial neural networks (ANN). The release profiles of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), a topical microbicide used as a model drug, from FcDDS were obtained using in vitro apparatus, the Simulant Vaginal System (SVS), under various conditions. The effects of formulation and intrinsic/extrinsic variables on the diffusivity of SDS were assessed using artificial neural networks (ANN). The release profiles of SDS from FcDDS revealed a non-linear relationship between the diffusivity and formulation/physiological variables. Intrinsic variables (vaginal fluid pH, vaginal fluid secretion rate) have a more prominent role in defining the diffusion coefficient of SDS from FcDDS than formulation variables (formulation loading weight and loaded doses in the formulation) or extrinsic variables (inserting position). Among 5 variables, pH of vagina fluids is the most influencing factor in defining the diffusion coefficient (maximum value of 0.95+/-0.04) of SDS from FcDDS. The external exposure conditions clearly outweighed the effects of the formulation variables on the diffusion coefficient of SDS. A model-based approach can be used to assess the diffusion coefficient of loaded drugs in FcDDS under the given conditions, leading to a parameter-specific prevention strategy against sexually transmitted diseases (STD) with a high degree of confidence. PMID:17981411
Liang, Sisi; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria; Bongers, Andre; Shi, Peng; Sved, Paul; Watson, Geoffrey; Bourne, Roger
2016-05-01
This study compares the theoretical information content of single- and multi-compartment models of diffusion-weighted signal attenuation in prostate tissue. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed at 9.4 T with multiple diffusion times and an extended range of b values in four whole formalin-fixed prostates. Ten models, including different combinations of isotropic, anisotropic and restricted components, were tested. Models were ranked using the Akaike information criterion. In all four prostates, two-component models, comprising an anisotropic Gaussian component and an isotropic restricted component, ranked highest in the majority of voxels. Single-component models, whether isotropic (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC) or anisotropic (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI), consistently ranked lower than multi-component models. Model ranking trends were independent of voxel size and maximum b value in the range tested (1.6-16 mm(3) and 3000-10 000 s/mm(2) ). This study characterizes the two major water components previously identified by biexponential models and shows that models incorporating both anisotropic and restricted components provide more information-rich descriptions of DWI signals in prostate tissue than single- or multi-component anisotropic models and models that do not account for restricted diffusion. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26999065
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qingliang; Zhou, Chuanqing; Wei, Huajiang; He, Yonghong; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi
2012-10-01
Recent reports have suggested that spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a useful tool for quantifying the permeability of hyperosmotic agents in various tissues. We report our preliminary results on quantification of glucose diffusion and assessment of the optical attenuation change due to the diffusion of glucose in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro by using a SD-OCT and then calculated the permeability coefficients (PC) and optical attenuation coefficients (AC). The PC of a 30% aqueous solution of glucose was 3.37±0.23×10-6 cm/s in normal tissue and 5.65±0.16×10-6 cm/s in cancerous colon tissue. Optical AC in a normal colon ranged from 3.48±0.37 to 2.68±0.82 mm-1 and was significantly lower than those seen in the cancerous tissue (8.48±0.95 to 3.16±0.69 mm-1, p<0.05). The results suggest that quantitative measurements of using PC and AC from OCT images could be a potentially powerful method for colon cancer detection.
Crack diffusion coefficient - A candidate fracture toughness parameter for short fiber composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mull, M. A.; Chudnovsky, A.; Moet, A.
1987-01-01
In brittle matrix composites, crack propagation occurs along random trajectories reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the strength field. Considering the crack trajectory as a diffusive process, the 'crack diffusion coefficient' is introduced. From fatigue crack propagation experiments on a set of identical SEN polyester composite specimens, the variance of the crack tip position along the loading axis is found to be a linear function of the effective 'time'. The latter is taken as the effective crack length. The coefficient of proportionality between variance of the crack trajectory and the effective crack length defines the crack diffusion coefficient D which is found in the present study to be 0.165 mm. This parameter reflects the ability of the composite to deviate the crack from the energetically most efficient path and thus links fracture toughness to the microstructure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohsaka, K.; Rednikov, A.; Sadhal, S. S.
2003-02-01
We present a technique that can be used to determine the thermal diffusivity coefficient of undercooled liquids, which exist at temperatures below their freezing points. The technique involves levitation of a small amount of liquid in a flattened drop shape using an acoustic levitator and heating it with a laser beam. The heated drop is then subjected to natural cooling by heat loss from the surface. Due to acoustic streaming, the heat loss mainly occurs through the equator section of the drop. The measured cooling rate in combination with a radial heat conduction model allows us to calculate the thermal diffusivity coefficient of the drop. We demonstrate the feasibility of the technique using glycerin drops as a model liquid. The technique is well suited if the thermal diffusivity coefficient of the liquid in the normal state (i.e., above the freezing point) is known or can be measured by conventional techniques.
Studies on molten glass sealing in diffusion coefficient measurements using shear cell technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jianding; Natsuisaka, Makoto; Kato, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Kyoichi; Itami, Toshio; Yoda, Shinichi
2000-05-01
To develop a shear cell technique for measuring the diffusion coefficient of molten materials with high vapor pressure, molten silica glass was used to seal the vapor leak from the clearance between the cell and the rotating rod. An apparatus was designed to investigate the sealing ability of several molten silica glasses. Using Corning 0211, 7059, and 7740 silica glasses, Ar could be sealed under 150 kPa in the 1100-1500 K temperature range. The corresponding viscosities of the molten silica glasses in the sealing temperature range were 105.3-103.8 Pa s. Based on the results of Ar sealing experiments, the configuration of molten glass sealing was used to seal the As vapor leak in InxGa1-xAs diffusion coefficient measurement experiments. The As vapor leak was successfully sealed and excellent diffusion coefficient measurement data were obtained using the shear cell technique during microgravity experiments carried out on sounding rocket.
Excess entropy scaling for the diffusion coefficient in expanded liquid metals.
Bretonnet, J L
2004-06-15
Molecular-dynamics simulation is used to compute the pair correlation function and the velocity autocorrelation function of Cs and Rb along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve, from which the excess entropy S(ex) and the diffusion coefficient D are deduced. The numerical results of both physical properties are correlated and a scaling law between the excess entropy and the reduced diffusion coefficient D(*)(=D/D(0)) is investigated for different expressions of the reduction parameter D(0). The choice of thermodynamic states along the liquid--vapor coexistence curve gives us the possibility to extend the investigation of the relation between the reduced diffusion coefficient and the excess entropy over a wide area and to test the adequacy of the scaling law confidently. PMID:15268140
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jun; Zhou, Jianqin; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Navessin, Titichai; Liu, Zhong-Sheng (Simon); Lei, Chao; Rohling, Jurandir H.; Bessarabov, Dmitri; Knights, Shanna; Ye, Siyu
In this work, using an in-house made Loschmidt diffusion cell, we measure the effective coefficient of dry gas (O 2-N 2) diffusion in cathode catalyst layers of PEM fuel cells at 25 °C and 1 atmosphere. The thicknesses of the catalyst layers under investigation are from 6 to 29 μm. Each catalyst layer is deposited on an Al 2O 3 membrane substrate by an automated spray coater. Diffusion signal processing procedure is developed to deduce the effective diffusion coefficient, which is found to be (1.47 ± 0.05) × 10 -7 m 2 s -1 for the catalyst layers. Porosity and pore size distribution of the catalyst layers are also measured using Hg porosimetry. The diffusion resistance of the interface between the catalyst layer and the substrate is found to be negligible. The experimental results show that the O 2-N 2 diffusion in the catalyst layers is dominated by the Knudsen effect.
Out-of-field activity in the estimation of mean lung attenuation coefficient in PET/MR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berker, Yannick; Salomon, André; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar
2014-01-01
In clinical PET/MR, photon attenuation is a source of potentially severe image artifacts. Correction approaches include those based on MR image segmentation, in which image voxels are classified and assigned predefined attenuation coefficients to obtain an attenuation map. In whole-body imaging, however, mean lung attenuation coefficients (LAC) can vary by a factor of 2, and the choice of inappropriate mean LAC can have significant impact on PET quantification. Previously, we proposed a method combining MR image segmentation, tissue classification and Maximum Likelihood reconstruction of Attenuation and Activity (MLAA) to estimate mean LAC values. In this work, we quantify the influence of out-of-field (OOF) accidental coincidences when acquiring data in a single bed position. We therefore carried out GATE simulations of realistic, whole-body activity and attenuation distributions derived from data of three patients. A bias of 15% was found and significantly reduced by removing OOF accidentals from our data, suggesting that OOF accidentals are the major contributor to the bias. We found approximately equal contributions from OOF scatter and OOF randoms, and present results after correction of the bias by rescaling of results. Results using temporal subsets suggest that 30-second acquisitions may be sufficient for estimation mean LAC with less than 5% uncertainty if mean bias can be corrected for.
Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey
Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.
2005-03-28
Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.
Attenuation coefficient of the light in skin of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Aureliano, D. P.; De Pretto, L. R.; Freitas, A. Z.; Ribeiro, M. S.
2015-06-01
Optical properties of the biological tissue play an important role to a correct use of optical techniques for therapy and diagnosis. The mice skin presents morphological differences due to characteristics such as gender, body mass and age. Murine models are frequently used in pre-clinical trials in optical therapy and diagnosis. Therefore, the assessment of the skin tissue in animal models is needed for a proper understanding of how light interacts with skin. Noninvasive techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been used to obtain optical information of the tissue, as the attenuation coefficient, with the advantage of obtaining sectional images in real time. In this study, eight female BALB/c albino mice (twenty-four weeks old) and eight male C57BL/6 black mice (eight weeks old) were used to measure the attenuation coefficient of the light in the skin, utilizing the OCT technique, aiming to check for influence of the aging process. Two moments were assessed twenty-two weeks apart from each other. Our data show that the aging process significantly affects the light attenuation coefficient in mice skin. Twenty-two weeks after, statistical significant differences were observed between groups within a same strain. We conclude that light attenuation coefficient of mice skin may be influenced by factors such as disorganization of the dermis. Morphological aspects of skin should be taken into account in studies that involve optical strategies in murine models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salazar, Agustín; Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Celorrio, R.
2011-08-01
The aim of this work is to analyze the ability of modulated photothermal radiometry to retrieve the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of layered materials simultaneously. First, we extend the thermal quadrupole method to calculate the surface temperature of semitransparent multilayered materials. Then, this matrix method is used to evaluate the influence of heat losses by convection and radiation, the influence of the use of thin paint layers on the accuracy of thermal diffusivity measurements, and the effect of lateral heat diffusion due to the use of Gaussian laser beams. Finally, we apply the quadrupole method to retrieve (a) the thermal contact resistance in glass stacks and (b) the thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient depth profiles in heterogeneous materials with continuously varying physical properties, as is the case of functionally graded materials and partially cured dental resins.
Measurement of the local particle diffusion coefficient in a magnetized plasma
Meyerhofer, D.D.; Levinton, F.M.
1987-02-01
Local impurity particle diffusion coefficients have been measured in a low temperature plasma by the injection of test particles at the center of the plasma. The injection is accomplished by a high voltage discharge between two small graphite electrodes on a probe. The probe can be located anywhere in the plasma. The diffusion is observed spectroscopically. An analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution of the CII radiation from the carbon discharge can determine the parallel and perpendicular diffusion of the impurity ions. Results with the diagnostic have been obtained in the Proto S-1/C spheromak. The measured value of the diffusion coefficient in the afterglow plasma is in good agreement with classical predictions.
Radiation dose estimation and mass attenuation coefficients of cement samples used in Turkey.
Damla, N; Cevik, U; Kobya, A I; Celik, A; Celik, N; Van Grieken, R
2010-04-15
Different cement samples commonly used in building construction in Turkey have been analyzed for natural radioactivity using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations observed in the cement samples were 52, 40 and 324 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and world average limits. The radiological hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), gamma index (I(gamma)) and alpha index (I(alpha)) indices as well as terrestrial absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the international data. The Ra(eq) values of cement are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv y(-1). Moreover, the mass attenuation coefficients were determined experimentally and calculated theoretically using XCOM in some cement samples. Also, chemical compositions analyses of the cement samples were investigated. PMID:20018450
Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients for YBaCuO superconductor at different energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çevik, U.; Baltas, H.; Çelik, S.; Karaca, I.; Kopya, I.
2005-01-01
The mass attenuation coefficients for Y2O3, BaCO3, CuO compounds, and solid-state forms of YBa2Cu3O7 superconductor were determined at energies of 57.5, 59.5, 65.2, 74.8, 77.1, 87.3, 94.6, 98.4, 122, and 136 keV. The samples were irradiated using a 241Am point source emitting 59.5 keV photon energies and a 57Co point source emitting 122 and 136 keV photon energies. The other energies were obtained using secondary targets such as Ta, Bi2O3, and (CH3COO)2UO22H2O. The gamma- and x-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Samples were selected on the basis of known composition and mass densities were measured using a densitometer. The experimental results obtained in this study are compared with theoretical values.
Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Isitman, Nihat Ali
2013-01-01
In this study, the total mass attenuation coefficients (μ(m)) for some homo- and hetero-chain polymers, namely polyamide-6 (PA-6), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) were measured at 59.5, 511, 661.6, 1173.2, 1274.5 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The samples were separately irradiated with (241)Am, (22)Na, (137)Cs and (60)Co (638 kBq) radioactive gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″×2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector having an energy resolution of 7 % at 662 keV gamma ray from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and the effective electron densities (N(eff)) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ(m) values for the investigated samples. Furthermore, Z(eff) and N(eff) of each polymer were computed for total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region from 1 keV to 10 MeV. The experimental values of the selected polymers were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. PMID:22645382
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahne, Susanne; Ikonomov, Julian; Sokolowski, Moritz; Maass, Philipp
2013-02-01
Methods of determining surface diffusion coefficients of molecules from signal fluctuations of a locally fixed probe are revisited and refined. Particular emphasis is put on the influence of the molecule's extent. In addition to the formerly introduced autocorrelation method and residence time method, we develop a further method based on the distribution of intervals between successive peaks in the signal. The theoretical findings are applied to scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules on the Ag(100) surface. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of each method and suggest a combination to obtain accurate results for diffusion coefficients.
ICP-MS measurement of diffusion coefficients of Cs in NBG-18 graphite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, L. M.; Brockman, J. D.; Robertson, J. D.; Loyalka, S. K.
2015-11-01
Graphite is used in the HGTR/VHTR as moderator and it also functions as a barrier to fission product release. Therefore, an elucidation of transport of fission products in reactor-grade graphite is required. We have measured diffusion coefficients of Cs in graphite NBG-18 using the release method, wherein we infused spheres of NBG-18 with Cs and measured the release rates in the temperature range of 1090-1395 K. We have obtained: These seem to be the first reported values of Cs diffusion coefficients in NBG-18. The values are lower than those reported for other graphites in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasirabadi, P. Shojaee; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H.
2016-06-01
Nowadays, many electronic systems are exposed to harsh conditions of relative humidity and temperature. Mass transport properties of electronic packaging materials are needed in order to investigate the influence of moisture and temperature on reliability of electronic devices. Polycarbonate (PC) is widely used in the electronics industry. Thus, in this work the water diffusion coefficient into PC is investigated. Furthermore, numerical methods used for estimation of the diffusion coefficient and their assumptions are discussed. 1D and 3D numerical solutions are compared and based on this, it is shown how the estimated value can be different depending on the choice of dimensionality in the model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penner, Reginald M.; Vandyke, Leon S.; Martin, Charles R.
1987-01-01
The current pulse E sub oc relaxation method and its application to the determination of diffusion coefficients in electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films is described. Diffusion coefficients for such films in Et4NBF4 and MeCN are determined for a series of submicron film thicknesses. Measurement of the double-layer capacitance, C sub dl, and the resistance, R sub u, of polypyrrole thin films as a function of potential obtained with the galvanostatic pulse method is reported. Measurements of the electrolyte concentration in reduced polypyrrole films are also presented to aid in the interpretation of the data.
A New Method for the Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients with Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorval, Eric
2014-06-01
This paper presents a new Monte Carlo-based method for the calculation of diffusion coefficients. One distinctive feature of this method is that it does not resort to the computation of transport cross sections directly, although their functional form is retained. Instead, a special type of tally derived from a deterministic estimate of Fick's Law is used for tallying the total cross section, which is then combined with a set of other standard Monte Carlo tallies. Some properties of this method are presented by means of numerical examples for a multi-group 1-D implementation. Calculated diffusion coefficients are in general good agreement with values obtained by other methods.
Kruk, D; Meier, R; Rachocki, A; Korpała, A; Singh, R K; Rössler, E A
2014-06-28
Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FC NMR) relaxation studies are reported for three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMIM-SCN, 220-258 K), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4, 243-318 K), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6, 258-323 K). The dispersion of (1)H spin-lattice relaxation rate R1(ω) is measured in the frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz, and the studies are complemented by (19)F spin-lattice relaxation measurements on BMIM-PF6 in the corresponding frequency range. From the (1)H relaxation results self-diffusion coefficients for the cation in EMIM-SCN, BMIM-BF4, and BMIM-PF6 are determined. This is done by performing an analysis considering all relevant intra- and intermolecular relaxation contributions to the (1)H spin-lattice relaxation as well as by benefiting from the universal low-frequency dispersion law characteristic of Fickian diffusion which yields, at low frequencies, a linear dependence of R1 on square root of frequency. From the (19)F relaxation both anion and cation diffusion coefficients are determined for BMIM-PF6. The diffusion coefficients obtained from FC NMR relaxometry are in good agreement with results reported from pulsed- field-gradient NMR. This shows that NMR relaxometry can be considered as an alternative route of determining diffusion coefficients of both cations and anions in ionic liquids. PMID:24985656
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruk, D.; Meier, R.; Rachocki, A.; Korpała, A.; Singh, R. K.; Rössler, E. A.
2014-06-01
Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FC NMR) relaxation studies are reported for three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMIM-SCN, 220-258 K), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4, 243-318 K), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6, 258-323 K). The dispersion of 1H spin-lattice relaxation rate R1(ω) is measured in the frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz, and the studies are complemented by 19F spin-lattice relaxation measurements on BMIM-PF6 in the corresponding frequency range. From the 1H relaxation results self-diffusion coefficients for the cation in EMIM-SCN, BMIM-BF4, and BMIM-PF6 are determined. This is done by performing an analysis considering all relevant intra- and intermolecular relaxation contributions to the 1H spin-lattice relaxation as well as by benefiting from the universal low-frequency dispersion law characteristic of Fickian diffusion which yields, at low frequencies, a linear dependence of R1 on square root of frequency. From the 19F relaxation both anion and cation diffusion coefficients are determined for BMIM-PF6. The diffusion coefficients obtained from FC NMR relaxometry are in good agreement with results reported from pulsed- field-gradient NMR. This shows that NMR relaxometry can be considered as an alternative route of determining diffusion coefficients of both cations and anions in ionic liquids.
Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter
2002-08-01
Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through porous media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminant transport. Prediction of diffusion coefficients in both saturated and unsaturated zones requires knowledge of tortuosity and constrictivity factors. No methods are available for the direct measurement of these factors, which are empirical in their definition. In this paper, a new definition for the tortuosity factor is proposed, as the real to ideal interfacial area ratio. We define the tortuosity factor for saturated porous media (ts) as the ratio S/So (specific surface of real porous medium to that of an idealized capillary bundle). For unsaturated media, tortuosity factor (ta) is defined as aaw/aaw,o (ratio of the specific air-water interfacial area of real and the corresponding idealized porous medium). This tortuosity factor is suitably measured using sorptive tracers (e.g., nitrogen adsorption method) for saturated media and interfacial tracers for unsaturated media. A model based on this new definition of tortuosity factors, termed the Interfacial Area Ratio (IAR) model, is presented for the prediction of diffusion coefficients as a function of the degree of water saturation. Diffusion coefficients and diffusive resistances measured in a number of saturated and unsaturated granular porous media, for solutes in dilute aqueous solutions, agree well with the predictions of the IAR model. A comparison of permeability of saturated sands estimated based on ts and the same based on the Kozeny-Carman equation confirm the usefulness of the ts parameter as a measure of tortuosity.
FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY
Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson
2005-04-08
Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal
Non-Fermi liquid behavior of the drag and diffusion coefficients in QED plasma
Sarkar, Sreemoyee; Dutt-Mazumder, Abhee K.
2011-11-01
We calculate the drag and diffusion coefficients in low temperature QED plasma and go beyond the leading order approximation. The non-Fermi-liquid behavior of these coefficients are clearly revealed. We observe that the subleading contributions due to the exchange of soft transverse photon in both cases are larger than the leading order terms coming from the longitudinal sector. The results are presented in closed form at zero and low temperature.
Correlation between the self-diffusion coefficient of lithium and the equation of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eftaxias, K.; Grammatikakis, J.; Varotsos, P.
1985-10-01
Anderson and Swenson [Phys. Rev. B 31, 668 (1985)] have recently presented new isothermal elastic data for lithium for temperatures up to 350 K. It is shown that these data are closely connected to the temperature variation of the self-diffusion coefficient D. Although the latter varies by six orders of magnitude (in the temperature region 195-350 K), however, the elastic data can successfully reproduce the self-diffusion curve without the use of any adjustable parameter.
Pc 5 Spectral Density at ULTIMA stataions and its Radial Diffusion Coefficients for REE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimoto, A.; Tokunaga, T.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Mann, I. R.; Chi, P. J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Yumoto, K.
2009-12-01
Pc 5 magnetic pulsations with frequencies between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz, are believed to contribute to the Relativistic Electron Enhancement (REE) in the outer radiation belt during magnetic storms. Ground-based observations suggested that high-speed solar wind and large-amplitude Pc 5 waves with a long duration during the storm recovery phase are closely associated with the production of relativistic electrons [Baker et al., 1998; Rostoker et al., 1998; Mathie and Mann, 2000; O’Brien et al., 2001, 2003]. On the other hand, many relativistic electron acceleration mechanisms have been proposed theoretically. They are separated roughly into two themes: in situ acceleration at L lower than 6.6 by wave particle interactions (as internal source acceleration mechanisms) [Liu et al., 1999; Summers et al., 1999; Summers and Ma, 2000] and acceleration by radial diffusion to transport and accelerate a source population of electrons from the outer to the inner magnetosphere (as external source acceleration mechanisms) [Elkington et al., 1999, 2003; Hudson et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2001]. One possible external source acceleration mechanism is the resonant interaction with ULF toroidal and poloidal waves. In order to verify which of the two mechanisms is more effective for the REE, we have to examine the time variation of electron phase space density. Electron phase space density is not directly measured, but we can estimate radial diffusion coefficients using observational electric and magnetic data. The goal of this paper is to get more reliable radial diffusion coefficient from ground-based observational magnetic field and to show reasonability of it for radial diffusion model. We use the global magnetometer data obtained from ULTIMA (Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array, see http://www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/ultima/ultima.html) stations, to precisely define the radial diffusion timescales. The ULTIMA includes McMAC, CARISAM, 210MM and MAGDAS/CPMN magnetometer
Mukhopadhyay, B; Bhattacharyya, R
2006-02-01
The paper is concerned with the effect of variable dispersal rates on Turing instability of a non-Lotka-Volterra reaction-diffusion system. In ecological applications, the dispersal rates of different species tends to oscillate in time. This oscillation is modeled by temporal variation in the diffusion coefficient with large as well as small periodicity. The case of large periodicity is analyzed using the theory of Floquet multipliers and that of the small periodicity by using Hill's equation. The effect of such variation on the resulting Turing space is studied. A comparative analysis of the Turing spaces with constant diffusivity and variable diffusivities is performed. Numerical simulations are carried out to support analytical findings. PMID:16794932