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Sample records for diffuse tidal structures

  1. Constraining Deep Earth Structure Using Tidal Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, H. C.; Tromp, J.; Ishii, M.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Yang, H.; Davis, J. L.; Latychev, K.

    2013-12-01

    The solid Earth responses to luni-solar tidal forcings, as measured by space-geodetic and/or seismic techniques, have the potential to provide important and novel constraints on the long-wavelength density and elastic structure of the deep mantle as well as anelastic behavior at tidal frequencies. Here we describe a normal-mode theory for computing the semi-diurnal and long-period body tide response of a 3-D, rotating and anelastic Earth. The new theory provides a framework for incorporating body tide observations to infer deep Earth structure using tomographic methods, and, in this regard, it extends our earlier numerical formulation of this problem (Latychev et al., EPSL, 2008). To begin, we use normal-mode theory to treat the response of spherically symmetric, elastic Earth models, and demonstrate that the theory accurately reproduces the tidal Love numbers widely used in body-tide calculations. Next, we compute the body tide response of 3-D Earth models and benchmark these results against a finite-element formulation of this response. We also present results of an analysis which explores the sensitivity of the predictions to different models of mantle Q. Finally, we present preliminary inferences of deep mantle elastic and density structure based, in part, on the semi-diurnal tidal (radial displacement) response estimated from a network of GPS stations. We discuss the implications of these results for the structure and buoyancy of deep mantle LLSVPs.

  2. Interior Structure and Tidal Response of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Teresa; Sohl, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke; Knapmeyer, Martin; Wagner, Frank Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent determinations of Mercury's mean density, polar moment of inertia factor, and the inertia of its solid outer shell provide strong constraints on the radius of its liquid core. We present an ensemble of spherically symmetric interior structure models that all satisfy the observational constraints. The models consist of a pure iron solid inner core, a liquid Fe-FeS outer core, a peridotite mantle and a crust predominantly composed of plagioclase. The sulfur content in the outer core, the iron and magnesium content of the mantle, and the crustal thickness vary throughout the ensemble. Comparison of observed and predicted moments of inertia yields admissible ranges for the outer core radius and the mantle density. From this model ensemble we derive geophysical observables that would allow further constraining the interior structure of Mercury in future experiments. The moment of inertia constraints allow for both forsterite and fayalite rich mantle compositions. Variations of mantle density trade off with crustal thickness and core composition. This non-uniqueness could be resolved using seismic travel time observations: since the P wave velocity of a fayalite mantle is significantly lower than that of the plagioclase-rich crust, a shadow zone arises as a clear discriminant between the two end-member compositions. The planet's response to solar tidal forcing strongly depends on its interior structure and rheological properties and can be parameterized in terms of the surface body tide Love numbers k2 and h2, respectively. We employ the frequency-dependent Maxwell rheology to calculate the body tide Love numbers for the main tidal period (87.97 days) using the density, rigidity and viscosity profiles of our structural models. We obtain values between 0.38 and 0.65 for k2 and between 0.70 and 1.12 for h2, respectively, thereby indicating the substantial tidal response of Mercury's interior. Furthermore we find that, via viscosity and rigidity, both k2 and h2 are

  3. From Globular Clusters to Tidal Dwarfs: Structure Formation in Tidal Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, K.; Hunsberger, S.; Gallagher, S.; Charlton, J.; Whitmore, B.; Hibbard, J.; Kundu, A.; Zaritsky, D.

    1999-12-01

    Galaxy interactions trigger star formation in tidal debris. How does this star formation depend on the local and global physical conditions? Using WFPC2/HST images, we investigate the range of structure within tidal tails of four classic ``Toomre Sequence'' mergers: NGC 4038/9 (``Antennae''), NGC 7252 (``Atoms for Peace''), NGC 3921, and NGC 3256. These tails contain a variety of stellar associations with sizes from globular clusters up to dwarf Irregulars. We explore whether there is a continuum between the two extremes. Our eight fields sample seven tidal tails at a variety of stages in the evolutionary sequence. Some of these tails are rich in HI while others are HI poor. Large tidal dwarfs are embedded in three of the tails. Using V and I WFPC2 images, we measure luminosities and colors of substructures within the tidal tails. The properties of globular cluster candidates in the tails will be contrasted with those of the hundreds of young clusters in the central regions of these mergers. We address whether globular clusters form and survive in the tidal tails and whether tidal dwarfs are composed of only young stars. By comparing the properties of structures in the tails of the four mergers with different ages, we examine systematic evolution of structure along the evolutionary sequence and as a function of HI content. We acknowledge support from NASA through STScI, and from NSF for an REU supplement for Karen Knierman.

  4. Mars interior structure models from tidal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoldini, A.; Verhoeven, O.; van Hoolst, T.; Mocquet, A.; Dehant, V.

    2005-12-01

    Besides the mean planetary density, obtained from the planet's mass and size, the polar moment of inertia (MOI) gives important constraints on the interior structure of a planet. Nevertheless, these constraints are not sufficient for precisely determining the state and size of the planet's core, nor do they provide strong constraints on mantle composition and temperature. On the other hand, the additional use of the latest estimates of mean crustal density and thickness and an assumed bulk Fe/Si ratio for Mars (e.g. chondritic with Fe/Si=1.7) can strongly reduce the set of interior models, which are parameterized in terms of core composition and size, and of mantle composition and temperature. Unfortunately, the origin of Mars and the value of the Martian Fe/Si bulk ratio are not well known. We therefore propose to complement the MOI and the mean density with the latest estimate of the tidal Love number k2 in order to better constrain the interior structure and composition. We consider spherically symmetric models of Mars, consisting of a crust parameterized by mean density and thickness, a mantle with different mineralogical compositions and temperature profiles, and a core parameterized by size, composition (Fe, Ni and FeS), and state (liquid, solid or both). For the presently known values, with their associated uncertainties, of the mean density, the MOI and the Love umber k2, we calculate sets of possible interior models in terms of the above arameterization and compute the bulk Fe/Si ratios.

  5. From Globular Clusters to Tidal Dwarfs: Structure Formation in the Tidal Tails of Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Charlton, Jane C.; Hunsberger, Sally D.; Whitmore, Bradley; Kundu, Arunav; Hibbard, J. E.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2003-09-01

    Using V and I images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) of the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate compact stellar structures within tidal tails. Six regions of tidal debris in the four classic ``Toomre sequence'' mergers: NGC 4038/39 (``Antennae''), NGC 3256, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252 (``Atoms for Peace'') have been studied in order to explore how the star formation depends on the local and global physical conditions. These mergers sample a range of stages in the evolutionary sequence and tails with and without embedded tidal dwarf galaxies. The six tails are found to contain a variety of stellar structures, with sizes ranging from those of globular clusters up to those of dwarf galaxies. From V and I WFPC2 images, we measure the luminosities and colors of the star clusters. NGC 3256 is found to have a large population of blue clusters (0.2<~V-I<~0.9), particularly in its western tail, similar to those found in the inner region of the merger. In contrast, NGC 4038/39 has no clusters in the observed region of the tail, only less luminous point sources likely to be individual stars. NGC 3921 and NGC 7252 have small populations of clusters along their tails. A significant cluster population is clearly associated with the prominent tidal dwarf candidates in the eastern and western tails of NGC 7252. The cluster-rich western tail of NGC 3256 is not distinguished from the others by its dynamical age or by its total H I mass. However, the mergers that have few clusters in the tail all have tidal dwarf galaxies, while NGC 3256 does not have prominent tidal dwarfs. We speculate that star formation in tidal tails may manifest itself either in small structures like clusters along the tail or in large structures such as dwarf galaxies, but not in both. Also, NGC 3256 has the highest star formation rate of the four mergers studied, which may contribute to the high number of star clusters in its tidal tails. Based in part on observations obtained with the

  6. Salinity structure of a tidal freshwater ecosystem under multiple tidal conditions, Mission River, TX, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Befus, K. M.; Cardenas, M.; McClelland, J. W.; Moffett, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    The ecological health and integrity of coastal estuaries critically depends on the balance between the quantity, quality, and timing of freshwater inflow. This balance may be upset by subtle changes in numerous hydrologic conditions, including precipitation rates and frequencies, runoff conditions, and tides. Certain hydrologic conditions will create an abnormally long freshwater residence time in a lower river reach--on the order of months between episodic storms--which will drastically alter the quantity, quality, and timing of estuarine freshwater inflow. We term this fresh, tidal, lentic river reach the 'tidal freshwater ecosystem' (TFE) and find that it remains largely overlooked by hydrologic and estuarine sciences. We hypothesize that TFEs occur in coastal rivers with small bed slope and riverine discharge, enabling denser saltwater intruding inland via tidal motion to impede freshwater discharge to the estuary. However, the balance of forces governing the relative rates and volumes of freshwater discharge, saltwater intrusion, and freshwater-saltwater mixing are not well understood in TFEs, especially with regard to the influence of vertical salinity structure (whether stratified, well-mixed, or a combination) on the retardation of freshwater discharge. In this study we sought to empirically characterize the salinity structure of a river known to contain a tidal freshwater reach, the Mission River of southern Texas. During high and low spring and neap tides, we surveyed a ~ 22 km-long tidal section of the river by towing two instruments: a multi-parameter probe measuring temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) at mid-channel depth; and, at the water surface, an electrical resistivity geophysical cable measuring water and channel bed sediment electrical resistivity. We also profiled the water column every 0.25 km using a second multi-parameter probe. The data successfully resolved longitudinal and vertical salinity variations

  7. A one-dimensional diffusion analogy model for estimation of tide heights in selected tidal marshes in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, David M.; O’Brien, Kevin; Rozsa, Ron

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensional diffusion analogy model for estimating tide heights in coastal marshes was developed and calibrated by using data from previous tidal-marsh studies. The method is simpler to use than other one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic models because it does not require marsh depth and tidal prism information; however, the one-dimensional diffusion analogy model cannot be used to estimate tide heights, flow velocities, and tide arrival times for tide conditions other than the highest tide for which it is calibrated. Limited validation of the method indicates that it has an accuracy within 0.3 feet. The method can be applied with limited calibration information that is based entirely on remote sensing or geographic information system data layers. The method can be used to estimate high-tide heights in tidal wetlands drained by tide gates where tide levels cannot be observed directly by opening the gates without risk of flooding properties and structures. A geographic information system application of the method is demonstrated for Sybil Creek marsh in Branford, Connecticut. The tidal flux into this marsh is controlled by two tide gates that prevent full tidal inundation of the marsh. The method application shows reasonable tide heights for the gates-closed condition (the normal condition) and the one-gate-open condition on the basis of comparison with observed heights. The condition with all tide gates open (two gates) was simulated with the model; results indicate where several structures would be flooded if the gates were removed as part of restoration efforts or if the tide gates were to fail.

  8. Effects of intratidal and tidal range variability on circulation and salinity structure in the Cape Fear River Estuary, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, May Ling; Luettich, Richard A.; Seim, Harvey

    2009-04-01

    Tidal influences on circulation and the salinity structure are investigated in the largely unstudied Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), North Carolina, a partially mixed estuary along the southeast coast of the United States. During two different tidal conditions (high versus low tidal range) and when river flow was low, salinity and velocity data were collected over a semidiurnal tidal cycle in a 2.8 km long transect along the estuary axis. Water level data were recorded nearby. Mechanisms that influence salt transport characteristics are diagnosed from an analysis of the field data. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between tidal range and salinity through comparison of along-channel circulation characteristics, computed salt fluxes, and coefficients of vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) based on a parameterization and on salt budget analysis. Findings indicate up-estuary tidally driven salt fluxes resulting from oscillatory salt transport are dominant near the pycnocline, while mean advective transport dominates near the bottom during both tidal range periods. Earlier research related to salt transport in estuaries with significant gravitational circulation suggests that up-estuary salt transport increases during low tidal ranges as a result of increased gravitational circulation. In the CFRE, in contrast, net (tidally averaged) near-bottom along-channel velocities are greater during higher tidal range conditions than during lower tidal range conditions. Findings indicate stronger tidal forcing and associated mixing contribute to greater near-bottom salinity gradients and, consequently, increased baroclinic circulation. Lower near-bottom salinities during the higher tidal range period are a result of a combination of increased vertical turbulent salt fluxes near the pycnocline and increased bottom-generated mixing.

  9. From Globular Clusters to Tidal Dwarfs: Structure Formation in the Tidal Tails of Merging Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, K. A.; Gallagher, S. C.; Charlton, J. C.; Hunsberger, S. D.; Whitmore, B. C.; Kundu, A.; Hibbard, J. E.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2001-05-01

    Using V and I images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) of the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate compact stellar structures within tidal tails. Six regions of tidal debris in the four classic ``Toomre Sequence'' mergers: NGC 4038/9 (``Antennae''), NGC 3256, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252 (``Atoms for Peace'') have been studied in order to explore how the star formation depends upon the local and global physical conditions. These mergers sample a range of stages in the evolutionary sequence, and include HI--rich and HI--poor environments. The six tails are found to contain a variety of stellar structures, with sizes ranging from those of globular clusters up to those of dwarf galaxies. From V and I WFPC2 images, we measure the luminosities and colors of the star clusters. NGC 3256 is found to have a large population of young clusters lying along both tails, similar to those found in the inner region of the merger. In contrast, NGC 4038/9 has no clusters in the observed region of the tail, only less luminous point sources likely to be individual stars. NGC 3921 and NGC 7252 have small populations of clusters that are concentrated in certain regions of the tail, and particularly in the prominent tidal dwarfs in the eastern and western tails of NGC 7252. The two cluster--rich tails of NGC 3256 are not distinguished from the others by their ages or by their total HI masses. We acknowledge support from NASA through STScI, and from NSF for an REU supplement for Karen Knierman.

  10. Tidal effects on the spatial structure of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasetto, S.; Chiosi, C.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: The spatial distribution of galaxies in the Local Group (LG) is the footprint of its formation mechanism and the gravitational interactions among its members and the external massive galaxies or galaxy groups. Using a 3D-geometrical description of the spatial distribution of all the members of the LG (not only the satellites of the MW and M 31) based on present-day data of positions and distances, we found in our previous study that all galaxies (MW, M 31, their satellites, and even the most distant objects) are confined within a slab of about 200 kpc thickness. Examining how external galaxies or groups would gravitationally affect (and eventually alter) the planar structure (and its temporal evolution) of the LG, they found that the external force field acts parallel to the plane determined by geometry and studied this with the Least Action Principle. Methods: In this paper, we thoroughly investigated the role played by the tidal forces exerted by external galaxies or galaxy groups on the LG galaxies (the most distant dwarfs in particular) in shaping their large-scale distribution. We studied in particular an idea based on the well-known effect of tidal interactions, according to which a system of mass-points can undergo not only tidal stripping but also tidal compression and thus become flatter. Results: Excluding the dwarf galaxies tightly bound to the MW and M 31, the same tidal forces can account for the planar distribution of the remaining dwarf galaxies. We analytically recover our previous results and prove that a planar distribution of the LG dwarf galaxies is compatible with the external force field. We also highlight the physical cause of this result.

  11. Scaling laws to understand tidal dissipation in fluid planetary regions and stars I. Rotation, stratification and thermal diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auclair Desrotour, P.; Mathis, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Tidal dissipation in planets and stars is one of the key physical mechanisms driving the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. Several signatures of its action are observed in planetary systems thanks to their orbital architecture and the rotational state of their components. Aims: Tidal dissipation inside the fluid layers of celestial bodies is intrinsically linked to the dynamics and physical properties of those bodies. This complex dependence must be characterized. Methods: We compute the tidal kinetic energy dissipated by viscous friction and thermal diffusion in a rotating local fluid Cartesian section of a star, planet, or moon submitted to a periodic tidal forcing. The properties of tidal gravito-inertial waves excited by the perturbation are derived analytically as explicit functions of the tidal frequency and local fluid parameters (i.e. the rotation, the buoyancy frequency characterizing the entropy stratification, viscous and thermal diffusivities) for periodic normal modes. Results: The sensitivity of the resulting dissipation frequency-spectra, which could be highly resonant, to a control parameter of the system is either important or negligible depending on the position in the regime diagram relevant for planetary and stellar interiors. For corresponding asymptotic behaviours of tidal gravito-inertial waves dissipated by viscous friction and thermal diffusion, scaling laws for the frequencies, number, width, height, and contrast with the non-resonant background of resonances are derived to quantify these variations. Conclusions: We characterize the strong impact of the internal physics and dynamics of fluid planetary layers and stars on the dissipation of tidal kinetic energy in their bulk. We point out the key control parameters that really play a role in tidal dissipation and demonstrate how it is now necessary to develop ab initio modelling for tidal dissipation in celestial bodies. Appendices are available in electronic form

  12. Inferring Earth structure from the response to ocean tidal loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, H. R.; Simons, M.; Ito, T.

    2012-12-01

    Tidal forces, generated primarily by gravitational interactions with the moon and Sun, distort the shape of Earth's solid interior (body tides) and redistribute the mass of the oceans (ocean tides). The periodic shifting of ocean mass places cyclic loads on Earth, with the response to these loads observable as spatial displacements in Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Gravitational and elastic responses of the solid Earth to ocean tidal loads (OTLs) are controlled by the material properties of Earth's interior and may hence be used to constrain independently the absolute values of density and the elastic moduli down to c. 300km depth. Previous analysis of this type focused on structure in the western United States. We present observational results and modeled predictions for OTL-induced surface displacements at nearly 100 GPS stations across Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. Relative to the earlier study region, eastern South America is an ideal geographic location to study the effects of OTLs because it is composed primarily of stable shield and platform provinces, implying less structural complexity. Furthermore, the region is bounded to the north and east by large amplitude ocean tides. Obtaining absolute values for material properties in the crust and upper mantle beneath South America could provide valuable insight into the structure of the Amazonian craton and hence knowledge about its long-term stability against tectonic deformation. We extract the amplitude and phase of several main tidal constituents from the GPS data using classical harmonic analysis. We then compare our observations with theoretical predictions drawn from a variety of Earth models. Predicted surface displacements derived from radially symmetric Earth models, such as PREM and ad hoc perturbations to PREM, exhibit spatially correlated residuals, suggesting a need to explore a wider family of models, including those with lateral heterogeneity. Initially we have relied on one

  13. Load Diffusion in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Cornelius O.; Simmonds, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    This research has been concerned with load diffusion in composite structures. Fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities provides a significant aid towards this process. The results are also amendable to parameter study with a large parameter space and should be useful in structural tailoring studies.

  14. Gas and stellar spiral structures in tidally perturbed disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettitt, Alex R.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Wadsley, James W.

    2016-06-01

    Tidal interactions between disc galaxies and low-mass companions are an established method for generating galactic spiral features. In this work, we present a study of the structure and dynamics of spiral arms driven in interactions between disc galaxies and perturbing companions in 3D N-body/smoothed hydrodynamical numerical simulations. Our specific aims are to characterize any differences between structures formed in the gas and stars from a purely hydrodynamical and gravitational perspective, and to find a limiting case for spiral structure generation. Through analysis of a number of different interacting cases, we find that there is very little difference between arm morphology, pitch angles and pattern speeds between the two media. The main differences are a minor offset between gas and stellar arms, clear spurring features in gaseous arms, and different radial migration of material in the stronger interacting cases. We investigate the minimum mass of a companion required to drive spiral structure in a galactic disc, finding the limiting spiral generation cases with companion masses of the order of 1 × 109 M⊙, equivalent to only 4 per cent of the stellar disc mass, or 0.5 per cent of the total galactic mass of a Milky Way analogue.

  15. The current structure of stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow

    SciTech Connect

    Myrhaug, D.; Slaattelid, O.H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents the bottom shear stress and velocity profiles in stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow by using similarity theory. For a given seabed roughness length, free stream current velocity components, frequency of tidal oscillation, Coriolis parameter and stratification parameter the maximum bottom shear stress is determined for flow conditions in the rough, smooth and transitional smooth-to-rough turbulent regime. Further, the direction of the bottom shear stress and the velocity profiles are given. Comparison is made with data from field measurements of time-independent as well as tidal planetary boundary layer flow for neutral conditions, and the agreement between the predictions and the data is generally good. Further, an example of application for stable stratification is given, and qualitatively the predictions show, as expected, that the bottom shear stress and the thickness of the boundary layer become smaller for stable than for neutral stratification. Other features of the tidal planetary boundary layer flow are also discussed.

  16. Time Series Measurements of Diffuse Hydrothermal Flow at the ASHES Vent Field Reveal Tidally Modulated Heat and Volume Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Fornari, D. J.; Crone, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Existing time-series measurements of temperature and velocity of diffuse hydrothermal fluids exhibit variability over a range of periods from seconds to days. Frequency analysis of these measurements reveals differences between studies and field locations including nearly white spectra, as well as spectra with peaks at tidal and inertial periods. Based upon these results, previous authors have suggested several processes that may control diffuse flow rates, including tidally induced currents and 'tidal pumping', and have also suggested that there are no systematic controls. To further investigate the processes that control variability in diffuse flow, we use data from a new, deep-sea camera and temperature measurement system, the Diffuse Effluent Measurement System (DEMS), deployed during the July, 2014 cruise of the R/V Atlantis. The DEMS was deployed with DSV Alvin above a fracture network at the Phoenix vent within the ASHES vent field (Axial Seamount, 1541 mbsl). The system collected 20 seconds of imagery at 20 Hz and 24 seconds of temperature measurements at 1 Hz each hour over the period between July 22 and August 2nd. Velocities of the upwelling fluids were calculated using Diffuse Fluid Velocimetry (DFV; Mittelstaedt et al., 2010). DFV is a cross correlation technique that tracks moving index of refraction anomalies (i.e., hot parcels of fluid) through time. Over the ~12 day deployment, median flow rates ranged from 0.5 cm/s to 6 cm/s and mean fluid temperature anomalies from 0°C up to ~6.5°C, yielding an average heat flux density of 0.23 MW/m2. Spectral analysis of both the measured temperatures and calculated velocities yield a peak in normalized power at the semi-diurnal lunar period (M2, 12.4hrs), but no other spectral peaks above the 95% confidence level. Here, we present these results and discuss their implications for the tidal current and tidal pressure models of diffuse flow variability at the ASHES vent field.

  17. On the structure of tidally disrupted stellar debris streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Eric R.; Nixon, Chris; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    A tidal disruption event (TDE) - when a star is destroyed by the immense gravitational field of a supermassive black hole - transforms a star into a stream of tidally shredded debris. The properties of this debris ultimately determine the observable signatures of tidal disruption events (TDEs). Here we derive a simple, self-similar solution for the velocity profile of the debris streams produced from TDEs, and show that this solution agrees extremely well with numerical results. Using this self-similar solution, we calculate an analytic, approximate expression for the radial density profile of the stream. We show that there is a critical adiabatic index that varies as a function of position along the stream above (below) which the stream is unstable (stable) to gravitational fragmentation. We also calculate the impact of heating and cooling on this stability criterion.

  18. The effects of laterally varying icy shell structure on the tidal response of Ganymede and Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, G.; Wahr, J.; Zhong, S.

    2014-03-01

    We use a finite-element model to solve for the response of Ganymede and Europa to tidal forcing from Jupiter, using various icy shell models with laterally variable (3-D) structure. In all cases, the shell is assumed to be underlain by a liquid-water ocean. Icy shells with laterally varying thickness are derived from a thermal conduction model. Three-dimensional shear modulus profiles for the shell are built either from a conduction model or, for Europa, by assuming a hemispherical difference in composition. Icy shell structures with a nonglobal ocean are built for Ganymede. Using these shell structures to calculate the tidal response of Ganymede and Europa, we conclude the following: (1) the presence of lateral variations in thickness or in shear modulus would not degrade future attempts to use tidal observations to decide on the existence or absence of a liquid ocean and to determine the mean icy shell thickness. (2) Given accurate enough observations, the presence of lateral variations in thickness or in shear modulus could be determined by searching for nondegree-2 components in the tidal response. (3) In the absence of significant viscous convective flow in the shell, the effects of a laterally varying shear modulus on the tidal response would be smaller than those of a laterally varying shell thickness. (4) If the shell is partially grounded, tidal observations of either gravity or uplift would be able to roughly differentiate regions where the ice is grounded from those where it is floating.

  19. Numerical study on the velocity structure around tidal fronts in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guimei; Wang, Hui; Sun, Song; Han, Boping

    2003-05-01

    The velocity components across tidal fronts are examined using the Blumberg and Mellor 3-D nonlinear numerical coastal circulation model incorporated with the Mellor and Yamada level 2.5 turbulent closure model based on the reasonable model output of the M2 tide and density residual currents. In the numerical experiments, upwelling motion appears around all the fronts with different velocity structures, accounting for surface cold water around the fronts. The experiments also suggest that the location and formation of fronts are closely related to topography and tidal mixing, as is the velocity structure around the front.

  20. Dynamics of sub-aquatic bed form structures in the tidal Elbe, Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehres, Nicole; Qrefa-Sander, Mamat; Entelmann, Ingo; Winterscheid, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Sub-aquatic bed forms (dunes) are characteristic structures of a sandy river bed. The direction, migration and geometrical parameters of their movement are important spatial and time indicators of the sandy sediment loads carried near the bottom. Subject to the availability of sediments, the dynamics of dunes are influenced by a number of factors, such as river discharge / tidal flow, water depth / tidal characteristics and grain size distribution. Once dunes increase in height they can impair the safety and ease of shipping. Individual shallows created by this are then eliminated, for example through water injection procedures. On an annual average, about 1.5 million m³ of sediments have been dredged in this way in the area of the channel of the tidal Elbe (Entelmann, 2010). With the broad data base available, the dynamics of these structures have been studied in different sections along the tidal Elbe river. As a first step multibeam echo-soundings were systematically analysed using a geographic information system (GIS) to classify existing bed forms according to their average height. Results of this analysis is a baseline map of bed forms for the tidal Elbe river. Within smaller focus areas, which are located in different sections along the tidal Elbe, targeted datasets of multibeam echo-soundings had been recorded for the purpose of this study. Using a software tool called Rheno Bedform Tracking (refer to Frings, et al. 2012) it was possible to derive from these datasets bed form dimensions on individual structures. This study gives an overview of the quality of correlations found with the aforementioned factors in different focus areas. Entelmann, I. (2010): WI-Einsatz im Kontext des Strombau- und Sedimentmanagementkonzeptes Tideelbe. Beitrag zur BfG-Veranstaltung Umweltauswirkungen von Wasserinjektionsbaggerungen, BfG-2/2011, Koblenz. Frings R.M. (2011): Proposal for the revision of the dunetracking software DT2D. Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water

  1. Internal structures and developing mechanisms of tidal sand ridges in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2004-12-01

    *Abstract:* The internal structures of the tidal sand ridges in the East China Sea are characterized by the southwest-dipping beddings and several erosion surfaces, which resulted in young sand ridges overlying old ones and forming a unique multi-layer complex structure. These characteristics reveal the multi-phase development of the tidal sand ridges, and their multi-repetitive forming history of accumulation, erosion and accumulation. There are two mechanisms interpreting the migration and evolution of these sand ridges. One mechanism concerns the evolution tidal sand ridge itself. The tidal current difference along two flanks of a ridge makes the sediments migrate toward the side with lower current speed. This is so-called auto-cyclic process of sand ridge developing. For the tidal sand ridges in the East China Sea, one side is dominated by flood currents in a NW direction, the other side is dominated by ebb current in a SE direction. Due to the influences of topography gradient of the continental shelf and the runoff from Chinese main land, the velocity of the ebb currents is larger than that of the flood currents, so the sediment is transported to southwest continuously, and it is a certainty for the sand ridges migrate toward SW and form the beddings inclining toward SW. The other mechanism is allo-cyclic process, which relates to global or regional hydrodynamic changes, such as sea-level fluctuations or storm waves. The post-glacial sea level rose rapidly in a stepwise pattern caused by the four postglacial melting water pulses (MWP-1A, 1B, 1C, 1D) (Liu et al., 2004) and it should play an important role in this mechanism. Both mechanisms exist in the development of the tidal sand ridges in the East China Sea, so there is some difficulties to distinguish them clearly. It is obvious that the tidal sand ridges of the East China Sea have evolved continuously since the postglacial period; four stages of sand ridges have formed in sequence: younger ridges overlaid

  2. Transformations of galaxies - III. Encounter dynamics and tidal response as functions of galaxy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Tidal interactions between disc galaxies depend on galaxy structure, but the details of this relationship are incompletely understood. I have constructed a three-parameter grid of bulge/disc/halo models broadly consistent with Λ cold dark matter, and simulated an extensive series of encounters using these models. Halo mass and extent strongly influence the dynamics of orbit evolution. In close encounters, the transfer of angular momentum mediated by the dynamical response of massive, extended haloes can reverse the direction of orbital motion of the central galaxies after their first passage. Tidal response is strongly correlated with the ratio ve/vc of escape to circular velocity within the participating discs. Moreover, the same ratio also correlates with the rate at which tidal tails are reaccreted by their galaxies of origin; consequently, merger remnants with `twin tails', such as NGC 7252, may prove hard to reproduce unless (ve/vc)2 ≲ 5.5. The tidal morphology of an interacting system can provide useful constraints on progenitor structure. In particular, encounters in which halo dynamics reverses orbital motion exhibit a distinctive morphology which may be recognized observationally. Detailed models attempting to reproduce observations of interacting galaxies should explore the likely range of progenitor structures along with other encounter parameters.

  3. Tidally-induced Flow Structure Over Intertidal Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. B.; Ke, X.; Gao, S.

    1998-02-01

    Previous investigations have assumed that a significant linear relationship betweenuz-lnZis sufficient to define a logarithmic velocity profile given by the von Kármán-Prandtl equation. However, it is demonstrated here that such a criterion alone is insufficient. An internal consistency analysis is developed to establish realistic logarithmic velocity profiles, in the estimation of boundary layer parameters associated with intertidal flat environments. The analytical procedure includes: (i) onward linear regression, to establish the relationship between apparentu*values and near-bed current speeds,uz(here, the observedu50is used); (ii) an assessment of the constant and correlation coefficient within theu*-uzrelationship; (iii) calculation ofz0andC50values, on the basis of the slope of the regression line; and (iv) undertaking a comparison between the derivedz0andC50and those obtained using the instantaneous velocity profiles. The internal consistency is shown to be enhanced if the data are filtered, before a more detailed analysis. This approach is applied to the analysis of 192 current velocity (gradient rig) data sets collected from the intertidal flats of the Loughor Estuary and Swansea Bay (South Wales), and The Wash (eastern England). Overall, less than 40% of the data sets are logarithmic in character, with variations between the various stations. Nevertheless, boundary layer parameters were determined for most locations. Non-logarithmic profiles on intertidal flats are considered to be caused by: (i) rotary tidal currents; (ii) wind effects; (iii) wave action and other short-period oscillations; and (iv) topographically-induced secondary flows. Measurement errors can lead also to deviations from an ' idealized ' logarithmic profile.

  4. Using Ocean Tidal Load Response to Explore the Elastic Structure of the Amazonian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, H. R.; Simons, M.; Rivera, L. A.; Owen, S. E.; Ito, T.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate ocean tidal load response in South America using observations of GPS displacements from Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. Spatial variations in the tidal loading response allow us to constrain absolute ranges of density and the two elastic moduli through the regional crust and upper mantle. We process 30-second GPS data using the GIPSY-OASIS II software to obtain position estimates every 5-minutes, with special attention paid to removing tropospheric delay effects. We then extract tidal loading response signals from multiple years of processed GPS time series using generalized harmonic analysis techniques, whereby satellite modulation corrections and the astronomical argument are updated at each epoch. To compare with our observations, we construct a range of forward models by convolving modern ocean tidal loading models (e.g., FES2012, TPX08-Atlas) with Greens functions for Earth structure. The development of our own load Love number and Greens function computation code provides us with the facility to explore a wide range of 1D, layered elastic Earth models. Finally, we convert our forward modeling methods into a Bayesian inversion framework to explore the range of density and elastic structural models for the Amazonian Craton that are consistent with our observations.

  5. The effects of laterally varying icy shell structure on the tidal response of Europa and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahr, J. M.; A, G.; Zhong, S.

    2013-12-01

    One of the long-sought objectives of an icy moon orbiter or fly-by mission, has been to use tidal observations to help determine the existence of a liquid ocean and characteristics of the overlying icy shell. The radio science component of such a mission could be used to estimate the tidal potential Love number k2 for gravity. And if there is an on-board laser altimeter, it could be used to determine the radial displacement Love number h2. Knowledge of either of those Love numbers could provide information on the presence of an ocean beneath the icy outer shell, and the two Love numbers could be combined to place constraints on the thickness of the icy shell. Though if a subsurface ocean exists, complications could conceivably arise if the icy outer shell has significant lateral variations in elastic thickness or shear modulus, or if the ocean is not global in extent so that the icy shell is grounded in places but floating in others. In these cases, the tidal deformation pattern would not be represented as the sum of degree 2 harmonics, and so the results could not be characterized in terms of a single Love number. In this study, by solving a set of tidal loading problems with laterally variable icy shell structures (for which the existence of an ocean layer is assumed), we investigate how those structures might complicate the interpretation of the tide measurements, and we discuss how to extract information regarding the interior structure of Ganymede and Europa from measurements of their tidal response.

  6. Sounding the Earth's electrical structure with satellite-detected ocean tidal magnetic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayver, Alexander; Schnepf, Neesha; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Sabaka, Terence; Nair, Manoj; Olsen, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade, the quality of satellite data, processing and modeling methods have experienced substantial improvements leading to a stage where satellite-observed tidal magnetic signals can be used to image electrical conductivity of the subsurface. In 2015, a collaborative project supported by ESA's STSE program was kicked off with the primary goal of performing the necessary data processing and their inversion. We present the first radial electrical conductivity model of the oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle obtained by inverting ocean tidal magnetic signals on the global scale. Specifically, the oceanic M2 tidal magnetic field was extracted as a part of the comprehensive magnetic field model (CM5) based on the twelve years of data from pre-Swarm satellite missions and magnetic observatories. The magnetic field was shown to exhibit structure on multiple spatial scales providing uniform global spatial coverage. In order to accurately model the tidal signal, we built the source by using the latest generation of the high-resolution HAMTIDE oceanic tide model and also derived laterally variable electrical conductivity of the world ocean. A surface conductance map that takes into account continent/ocean conductivity and sea-bottom sediment conductivity was used to account for the near-surface inhomogeneous layer. The integral equation forward solver was combined with a global stochastic optimization method and random sampling to carry out the inversion and uncertainty quantification. The obtained model is consistent with the existing regional models and provides a view on global lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

  7. Structural Design of a Horizontal-Axis Tidal Current Turbine Composite Blade

    SciTech Connect

    Bir, G. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the structural design of a tidal composite blade. The structural design is preceded by two steps: hydrodynamic design and determination of extreme loads. The hydrodynamic design provides the chord and twist distributions along the blade length that result in optimal performance of the tidal turbine over its lifetime. The extreme loads, i.e. the extreme flap and edgewise loads that the blade would likely encounter over its lifetime, are associated with extreme tidal flow conditions and are obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Given the blade external shape and the extreme loads, we use a laminate-theory-based structural design to determine the optimal layout of composite laminas such that the ultimate-strength and buckling-resistance criteria are satisfied at all points in the blade. The structural design approach allows for arbitrary specification of the chord, twist, and airfoil geometry along the blade and an arbitrary number of shear webs. In addition, certain fabrication criteria are imposed, for example, each composite laminate must be an integral multiple of its constituent ply thickness. In the present effort, the structural design uses only static extreme loads; dynamic-loads-based fatigue design will be addressed in the future. Following the blade design, we compute the distributed structural properties, i.e. flap stiffness, edgewise stiffness, torsion stiffness, mass, moments of inertia, elastic-axis offset, and center-of-mass offset along the blade. Such properties are required by hydro-elastic codes to model the tidal current turbine and to perform modal, stability, loads, and response analyses.

  8. Structural Proton Diffusion along Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Serowy, Steffen; Saparov, Sapar M.; Antonenko, Yuri N.; Kozlovsky, Wladas; Hagen, Volker; Pohl, Peter

    2003-01-01

    For H+ transport between protein pumps, lateral diffusion along membrane surfaces represents the most efficient pathway. Along lipid bilayers, we measured a diffusion coefficient of 5.8 × 10−5 cm2 s−1. It is too large to be accounted for by vehicle diffusion, considering proton transport by acid carriers. Such a speed of migration is accomplished only by the Grotthuss mechanism involving the chemical exchange of hydrogen nuclei between hydrogen-bonded water molecules on the membrane surface, and the subsequent reorganization of the hydrogen-bonded network. Reconstitution of H+-binding sites on the membrane surface decreased the velocity of H+ diffusion. In the absence of immobile buffers, structural (Grotthuss) diffusion occurred over a distance of 100 μm as shown by microelectrode aided measurements of the spatial proton distribution in the immediate membrane vicinity and spatially resolved fluorescence measurements of interfacial pH. The efficiency of the anomalously fast lateral diffusion decreased gradually with an increase in mobile buffer concentration suggesting that structural diffusion is physiologically important for distances of ∼10 nm. PMID:12547784

  9. Equilibrium Structures of Differentially Rotating and Tidally Distorted White Dwarf Models of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Arvind Kumar; Mohan, C.; Singh, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for computing the equilibrium structures and various physical parameters of a primary component of the binary system assuming that the primary is more massive than the secondary and is rotating differentially according to the law of the w2 = b0 + b1 × s2 + b2 × s4, w being the angular velocity of rotation of a fluid element distant s from the axis of rotation and b0, b1, b2 suitably chosen numerical constants. This method utilizes the averaging approach of Kippenhahn and Thomas (1997) and the concept of Roche equipotentials in a manner earlier used by Mohan et al. (1997) to incorporate the effects of rotation and tidal distortions on the equilibrium structures of certain rotationally and tidally distorted stellar models. The use of the method has been illustrated by applying it to obtain the structures and some observable parameters of certain differentially rotating and tidally distorted binary systems whose primary component is assumed to be a white dwarf star.

  10. Can Tidal Tomography be Used to Unravel the Long-wavelength Structure of the Lunar Interior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chuan; Zhong, Shijie; Wahr, John

    2015-04-01

    The Moon displays a number of hemispherically asymmetric features that may be related to long- wavelength structure and dynamics in the lunar mantle. Here we propose to use observations of the non-degree-2 gravitational response of the Moon to degree-2 tidal forcing to constrain the long-wavelength lunar mantle structure. For a planetary body with laterally varying structure, degree-2 tidal forces excite gravitational response at non-degree-2 harmonics due to mode coupling effects. Theory has been long established for computing the elastic response of a spherically symmetric terrestrial planetary body to both body tide and surface loading forces. However, for a planet with laterally heterogeneous mantle structure, the response is usually computed using a fully numerical approach. In this paper, we develop a semi-analytic method based on perturbation theory to solve for the elastic response of a planetary body with lateral heterogeneities in its mantle. We present a derivation of the governing equations for our second-order perturbation method and use them to study the high-order tidal effects caused by mode coupling between degree-2 body tide forcing and the laterally heterogeneous elastic structure of the mantle. We test our method by applying it to the Moon in which small long-wavelength lateral heterogeneities are assumed to exist in the elastic moduli of the lunar mantle. The tidal response of the Moon is determined mode by mode, for lateral heterogeneities with different depth ranges within the mantle and different horizontal scales. Our perturbation method solutions are compared with numerical results, showing remarkable agreement between the two methods. We conclude that our perturbation method provides accurate results and can be adapted to address a variety of forward and inverse response problems. We show that if there is ~5% lateral variations in lunar mantle shear wave speed at degree-1, the degree-3 response due to the mode-couple could reach to ~2% of

  11. Transient tidal eddy motion in the western Gulf of Maine, part 1: Primary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. S.; Marques, G. M.

    2013-07-01

    High frequency radar-derived surface current maps of the Great South Channel (GSC) in the western Gulf of Maine in 2005 revealed clockwise (CW) and anticlockwise (ACW) eddy motion associated with the strong regional tidal currents. To better elucidate the kinematics and dynamics of these transient tidal eddy motions, an observational and modeling study was conducted during the weakly stratified conditions of winter 2008-2009. Our moored bottom pressure and ADCP current measurements in 13m depth were augmented by historical current measurements in about 30m in documenting the dominance of highly polarized M2 semidiurnal currents in our nearshore study region. The high-resolution finite element coastal ocean model (QUODDY) - forced by the five principal tidal constituents - produced maps depicting the formation and evolution of the CW and ACW eddy motions that regularly follow maximum ebb and flood flows, respectively. Observation versus model current comparison required that the model bottom current drag coefficient be set to at an unusually high Cd=0.01 - suggesting the importance of form drag in the study region. The observations and model results were consistent in diagnosing CW or ACW eddy motions that (a) form nearshore in the coastal boundary layer (CBL) for about 3h after the respective tidal current maxima and then (b) translate southeastward across the GSC along curved 50m isobath at speeds of about 25m/s. Observation-based and model-based momentum budget estimates were consistent in showing a first order forced semidiurnal standing tidal wave dynamics (like the adjacent Gulf of Maine) which was modulated by adverse pressure gradient/bottom stress forcing to generate the eddy motions. Observation-based estimates of terms in the transport vorticity budget showed that in the shallower Inner Zone subregion (average depth=23m) that the diffusion of nearshore vorticity was dominant in feeding the growth of eddy motion vorticity; while in the somewhat deeper

  12. Intra- and inter-tidal variability of the vertical current structure in the Marsdiep basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, J. J.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Maas, L. R. M.; van Aken, H. M.

    2015-02-01

    The vertical structure of the along-stream current in the main channel of the periodically-stratified estuarine Marsdiep basin is investigated by combining velocity measurements collected during three different seasons with a one-dimensional water column model. The observed vertical shears in the lowest part of the water column are greater during ebb than during flood due to an asymmetry in drag coefficient (i.e. bed friction), which is most likely determined by the surrounding complex bathymetry. This asymmetry is usually not incorporated in models. Furthermore, a mid-depth velocity maximum is observed and simulated during early and late flood which is generated by along-stream and cross-stream tidal straining, respectively. Negative shears are present in the upper part of the water column during flood, which correlate well with the along-stream salinity gradient. The mid-depth velocity maximum during late flood results in an early current reversal in the upper part of the water column. The elevated vertical shears during ebb are able to reduce vertical stratification induced by along-stream tidal straining, whereas cross-stream tidal straining during late flood promotes the generation of vertical stratification. The simulations suggest that these processes are most important during spring tide conditions. This study has demonstrated that an asymmetry in bed friction and the presence of density gradients both have a strong impact on the vertical structure of along-stream velocity in the Marsdiep basin.

  13. Slowly breaking waves: the longevity of tidally induced spiral structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, Curtis; Dobbs, Clare L.; Hwang, Jeong-Sun

    2011-07-01

    We have discovered long-lived waves in two sets of numerical models of fast (marginally bound or unbound) flyby galaxy collisions, carried out independently with two different codes. In neither simulation set are the spirals the result of a collision-induced bar formation. Although there is variation in the appearance of the waves with time, they do not disappear and reform recurrently, as seen in other cases described in the literature. We also present an analytic theory that can account for the wave structure, not as propagating transients, nor as a fixed pattern propagating through the disc. While these waves propagate through the disc, they are mantained by the coherent oscillations initiated by the impulsive disturbance. Specifically, the analytic theory suggests that they are caustic waves in ensembles of stars pursuing correlated epicyclic orbits after the disturbance. This theory is an extension of that developed by Struck and collaborators for colliding ring galaxies. The models suggest that this type of wave may persist for a couple of Gyr, and galaxy interactions occur on comparable time-scales, so waves produced by the mechanism may be well represented in observed spirals. In particular, this mechanism can account for the tightly wound, and presumably long-lived, spirals seen in some nearby early-type galaxies. These spirals are also likely to be common in groups and clusters, where fast encounters between galaxies occur relatively frequently. However, as the spirals become tightly wound, and evolve to modest amplitudes, they may be difficult to resolve unless they are nearby. None the less, the effect may be one of several processes that result from galaxy harassment, and via wave-enhanced star formation, contributes to the Butcher-Oemler effect.

  14. Load Diffusion in Composite and Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Cornelius O.; Ambur, D. (Technical Monitor); Nemeth, M. P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The research carried out here builds on our previous NASA supported research on the general topic of edge effects and load diffusion in composite structures. Further fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for the multi-functional large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Some specific problems recently considered were those of end effects in smart materials and structures, study of the stress response of pressurized linear piezoelectric cylinders for both static and steady rotating configurations, an analysis of the effect of pre-stressing and pre-polarization on the decay of end effects in piezoelectric solids and investigation of constitutive models for hardening rubber-like materials. Our goal in the study of load diffusion is the development of readily applicable results for the decay lengths in terms of non-dimensional material and geometric parameters. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses.

  15. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  16. High abundance of small zoobenthos around biogenic structures in tidal sediments of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, K.

    1981-12-01

    On the tidal flats of the island of Sylt (eastern part of the North Sea) the quantity of micro- and meiofauna associated with shoots of seagrass (Zostera noltii), with infaunal bivalves (Macoma balthica), and with tubes and burrows of polychaetes (Pygospio elegans, Pectinaria koreni, Nereis diversicolor, Nereis virens, Arenicola marina) was found to add up to 5 to 33 % of the overall abundance. These structures, taken together, account for 10 to 50 % of the faunal abundance on an average tidal flat at Sylt. The quantitative effect of biogenic structures at the sediment surface (casts and funnels) is small compared to that of tubes and burrows penetrating the anaerobic subsurface layer. In providing stable oxic microenvironments these elite structures frequently bring together more individuals than occur in the entire reducing sediment below surface. Faunal composition of irrigated dwellings of large infauna is different from that of the oxic surface sediment. The common denominator of all elite structures of the subsurface is an oxic halo. Burrows without such a halo are unattractive. There is no evidence that owners of burrows prey on their smaller inmates.

  17. Seasonal variation of assemblage and feeding guild structure of fish species in a boreal tidal basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnreitner, Florian; Pockberger, Moritz; Asmus, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Species composition, abundance, feeding relationships and guild structure of the fish assemblage in the Sylt-Rømø bight, a tidal basin in the northern Wadden Sea, were investigated to show seasonal differences and the importance of functional groups in this area. The tidal flats and in shallow subtidal areas were sampled using a beach seine and a bottom trawl net was used for deeper subtidal areas and tidal gullies. Species richness of fish was highest in summer where 26 species were caught, while the lowest richness was recorded in winter (17 species). Clear differences in species richness and abundance were found between shallow areas and deeper parts of the bight. Clupea harengus and Ammodytes tobianus were the most abundant species in deeper areas, while Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus dominated shallower waters. Gut contents of 27 fish species were identified and the guild structure analyzed by UPGMA clustering of niche overlaps. Calanoid copepods (19.9%), Crangon crangon (18.2%) and mysid shrimps (8.4%) were the most abundant prey items of all fish species combined. Seven feeding guilds were present in the fall and winter, and eight and six in spring and summer, respectively. Fish feeding on calanoid copepods and C. crangon were present year round, whereas the occurrence of other guilds varied between seasons. Species composition of prey changed through seasons and, for some fish species, even the feeding mode itself varied with season. Most noticeable, 11 fish species changed guilds between seasons. We found a convergence in summer towards abundant prey items, whereas in winter diet overlap was lower. This is the first investigation of guild structure of almost all fish species present in a Wadden Sea area, and shows that consideration of seasonal differences is essential when determining feeding relationships of fish in temperate areas.

  18. Load Diffusion in Composite and Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, C. O.

    2003-01-01

    The research carried out here builds on our previous NASA supported research on the general topic of edge effects and load diffusion in composite structures. Further fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for the multi-functional large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Some specific problems recently considered were those of end effects in smart materials and structures, study of the stress response of pressurized linear piezoelectric cylinders for both static and steady rotating configurations, an analysis of the effect of pre-stressing and pre-polarization on the decay of end effects in piezoelectric solids and investigation of constitutive models for hardening rubber-like materials. Our goal in the study of load diffusion is the development of readily applicable results for the decay lengths in terms of non-dimensional material and geometric parameters. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities provides a significant aid towards this process. The analysis is also amenable to parameter study with a large parameter space and should be useful in structural tailoring studies. Special purpose analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and in assessing results from general purpose finite element analyses. For example, a rational basis is needed in choosing where to use three-dimensional to two-dimensional transition finite elements in analyzing stiffened plates and shells. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities furnished by

  19. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES WITH TIDAL DEBRIS AND THEIR SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comeron, Sebastien; Regan, Michael W.; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; De Paz, Armando Gil; and others

    2012-07-01

    Tidal debris around galaxies can yield important clues on their evolution. We have identified tidal debris in 11 early-type galaxies (T {<=} 0) from a sample of 65 early types drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G). The tidal debris includes features such as shells, ripples, and tidal tails. A variety of techniques, including two-dimensional decomposition of galactic structures, were used to quantify the residual tidal features. The tidal debris contributes {approx}3%-10% to the total 3.6 {mu}m luminosity of the host galaxy. Structural parameters of the galaxies were estimated using two-dimensional profile fitting. We investigate the locations of galaxies with tidal debris in the fundamental plane and Kormendy relation. We find that galaxies with tidal debris lie within the scatter of early-type galaxies without tidal features. Assuming that the tidal debris is indicative of recent gravitational interaction or merger, this suggests that these galaxies have either undergone minor merging events so that the overall structural properties of the galaxies are not significantly altered, or they have undergone a major merging events but already have experienced sufficient relaxation and phase mixing so that their structural properties become similar to those of the non-interacting early-type galaxies.

  20. Nekton community structure varies in response to coastal urbanization near mangrove tidal tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.; Bell, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential influence of coastal development on estuarine-habitat quality, we characterized land use and the intensity of land development surrounding small tidal tributaries in Tampa Bay. Based on this characterization, we classified tributaries as undeveloped, industrial, urban, or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). Over one third (37 %) of the tributaries have been heavily developed based on landscape development intensity (LDI) index values >5.0, while fewer than one third (28 %) remain relatively undeveloped (LDI < 3.0). We then examined the nekton community from 11 tributaries in watersheds representing the four defined land-use classes. Whereas mean nekton density was independent of land use, species richness and nekton-community structure were significantly different between urban and non-urban (i.e., undeveloped, industrial, man-made) tributaries. In urban creeks, the community was species-poor and dominated by high densities of poeciliid fishes, Poecilia latipinna and Gambusia holbrooki, while typically dominant estuarine taxa including Menidia spp., Fundulus grandis, and Adinia xenica were in low abundance and palaemonid grass shrimp were nearly absent. Densities of economically important taxa in urban creeks were only half that observed in five of the six undeveloped or industrial creeks, but were similar to those observed in mosquito ditches suggesting that habitat quality in urban and mosquito-ditch tributaries is suboptimal compared to undeveloped tidal creeks. Furthermore, five of nine common taxa were rarely collected in urban creeks. Our results suggest that urban development in coastal areas has the potential to alter the quality of habitat for nekton in small tidal tributaries as reflected by variation in the nekton community.

  1. Tidal deformation of Ganymede: Sensitivity of Love numbers on the interior structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Shunichi; Kimura, Jun; Matsumoto, Koji; Nimmo, Francis; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2016-07-01

    Tidal deformation of icy satellites provides crucial information on their subsurface structures. In this study, we investigate the parameter dependence of the tidal displacement and potential Love numbers (i.e., h2 and k2, respectively) of Ganymede. Our results indicate that Love numbers for Ganymede models without a subsurface ocean are not necessarily smaller than those with a subsurface ocean. The phase lag, however, depends primarily on the presence/absence of a subsurface ocean. Thus, the determination of the phase lag would be of importance to infer whether Ganymede possesses a subsurface ocean or not based only on geodetic measurements. Our results also indicate that the major control on Love numbers is the thickness of the ice shell if Ganymede possesses a subsurface ocean. This result, however, does not necessarily indicate that measurement of either of h2 or k2 alone is sufficient to estimate the shell thickness; while a thin shell leads to large h2 and k2 independent of parameters, a thick shell does not necessarily lead to small h2 and k2. We found that to reduce the uncertainty in the shell thickness, constraining k2 in addition to h2 is necessary, highlighting the importance of collaborative analyses of topography and gravity field data.

  2. Equilibrium Structure of Rotationally and Tidally Distorted Prasad Model Including the Effect of Mass Variation Inside the Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Seema; Lal, A. K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose suitable modifications in the concept of Roche equipotentials to account for the effect of mass distribution inside the star on its equipotential surfaces and use this in conjunction with the approach of Kippenhahn and Thomas, in a manner earlier used by Prasad and Mohan, to incorporate the effects of rotational and tidal forces in the equations of stellar structure parameters. The proposed method has been used to compute the structure parameters of the rotationally and tidally distorted Prasad model of the star.

  3. Towards Tidal Tomography: Using Earth's Body-Tide Signal to Constrain Deep-Mantle Density Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Harriet; Yang, Hsin-Ying; Davis, James; Mitrovica, Jerry; Tromp, Jeroen; Latychev, Konstantin

    2015-04-01

    Luni-solar forcings drive long wavelength deformation at timescales ranging from 8 hours to 18.6 years. We propose that globally distributed GPS estimates of this deformation within the semi-diurnal band provide a new and independent constraint on long-wavelength deep mantle structure. A particular target of "tidal tomography" is the buoyancy structure of LLSVPs, which constitute a large volumetric fraction of the mantle. Constraining this structure is the key to understanding the longevity of the LLSVPs, and indeed the evolution of the entire mantle and Earth system. To this end, we begin by reporting on the development of a new normal-mode theory, based on relatively recent advances in free oscillation seismology, which is capable of predicting semi-diurnal body tides on a laterally heterogeneous, rotating and anelastic Earth. We next present the results of a suite of benchmark tests involving comparisons with predictions based on both classical tidal Love number theory for 1-D Earth models and finite-volume simulations that incorporate 3-D elastic and density structure. We find that body tide deformation is most sensitive to long wavelength, deep mantle structure, and, in particularly, to shear wave velocity and density structure. When combined with results from seismological datasets, this sensitivity provides a powerful tool to investigate the buoyancy structure of the LLSVPs. For example, adopting a variety of seismic tomography models a priori, we perform an extensive parameter search to determine misfits between model predictions based on the new theory and GPS-derived estimates of the semi-diurnal body tide displacements. Preliminary results, focusing only on density structure, have indicated that the observations are best fit when the LLSVPs have a bulk density greater than average mantle, in broad agreement with previous inferences based upon seismic normal mode inversions. In follow-up work, we have mapped out trade-offs related to the adopted seismic

  4. Structure of laminar sooting inverse diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Mikofski, Mark A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Blevins, Linda G.

    2007-06-15

    The flame structure of laminar inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) was studied to gain insight into soot formation and growth in underventilated combustion. Both ethylene-air and methane-air IDFs were examined, fuel flow rates were kept constant for all flames of each fuel type, and airflow rates were varied to observe the effect on flame structure and soot formation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl radicals (OH PLIF) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH PLIF), planar laser-induced incandescence of soot (soot PLII), and thermocouple-determined gas temperatures were used to draw conclusions about flame structure and soot formation. Flickering, caused by buoyancy-induced vortices, was evident above and outside the flames. The distances between the OH, PAH, and soot zones were similar in IDFs and normal diffusion flames (NDFs), but the locations of those zones were inverted in IDFs relative to NDFs. Peak OH PLIF coincided with peak temperature and marked the flame front. Soot appeared outside the flame front, corresponding to temperatures around the minimum soot formation temperature of 1300 K. PAHs appeared outside the soot layer, with characteristic temperature depending on the wavelength detection band. PAHs and soot began to appear at a constant axial position for each fuel, independent of the rate of air flow. PAH formation either preceded or coincided with soot formation, indicating that PAHs are important components in soot formation. Soot growth continued for some time downstream of the flame, at temperatures below the inception temperature, probably through reaction with PAHs. (author)

  5. Community structure of terrestrial invertebrates inhabiting a tidal marsh islet in the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Colombini, I; Chelazzi, L; Fallaci, M

    2002-03-29

    The composition of the terrestrial arthropod community of a tidal marsh islet in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia) was studied during two seasons (spring, autumn). The study was conducted on a small islet located in an area where the highest tidal excursions of the Mediterranean occur. Standard trapping methods (pitfall traps, mobile cages) were used to evaluate specie richness and abundance in different areas of the islet. Diversity indices were calculated for coleopterans and isopods alone. The structure of the arthropod community varied a great deal from one season to the other and differences were found when seaward areas were compared with landward ones. El Bessila presented a particularly rich beetle community whereas only few isopod species occurred. The moderately high diversity levels found for the beetle indicate the influence of the high tidal excursions in modelling the structure of the community. PMID:12806011

  6. Diffuse venting at the ASHES hydrothermal field: Heat flux and tidally modulated flow variability derived from in situ time-series measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Eric; Fornari, Daniel J.; Crone, Timothy J.; Kinsey, James; Kelley, Deborah; Elend, Mitch

    2016-04-01

    Time-series measurements of diffuse exit-fluid temperature and velocity collected with a new, deep-sea camera, and temperature measurement system, the Diffuse Effluent Measurement System (DEMS), were examined from a fracture network within the ASHES hydrothermal field located in the caldera of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. The DEMS was installed using the HOV Alvin above a fracture near the Phoenix vent. The system collected 20 s of 20 Hz video imagery and 24 s of 1 Hz temperature measurements each hour between 22 July and 2 August 2014. Fluid velocities were calculated using the Diffuse Fluid Velocimetry (DFV) technique. Over the ˜12 day deployment, median upwelling rates and mean fluid temperature anomalies ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm/s and 0°C to ˜6.5°C above ambient, yielding a heat flux of 0.29 ± 0.22 MW m-2 and heat output of 3.1± 2.5 kW. Using a photo mosaic to measure fracture dimensions, the total diffuse heat output from cracks across ASHES field is estimated to be 2.05 ± 1.95 MW. Variability in temperatures and velocities are strongest at semidiurnal periods and show significant coherence with tidal height variations. These data indicate that periodic variability near Phoenix vent is modulated both by tidally controlled bottom currents and seafloor pressure, with seafloor pressures being the dominant influence. These results emphasize the importance of local permeability on diffuse hydrothermal venting at mid-ocean ridges and the need to better quantify heat flux associated with young oceanic crust.

  7. Triple flame structure and diffusion flame stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veynante, D.; Vervisch, L.; Poinsot, T.; Linan, A.; Ruetsch, G.

    1994-01-01

    The stabilization of diffusion flames is studied using asymptotic techniques and numerical tools. The configuration studied corresponds to parallel streams of cold oxidizer and fuel initially separated by a splitter plate. It is shown that stabilization of a diffusion flame may only occur in this situation by two processes. First, the flame may be stabilized behind the flame holder in the wake of the splitter plate. For this case, numerical simulations confirm scalings previously predicted by asymptotic analysis. Second, the flame may be lifted. In this case a triple flame is found at longer distances downstream of the flame holder. The structure and propagation speed of this flame are studied by using an actively controlled numerical technique in which the triple flame is tracked in its own reference frame. It is then possible to investigate the triple flame structure and velocity. It is shown, as suggested from asymptotic analysis, that heat release may induce displacement speeds of the triple flame larger than the laminar flame speed corresponding to the stoichiometric conditions prevailing in the mixture approaching the triple flame. In addition to studying the characteristics of triple flames in a uniform flow, their resistance to turbulence is investigated by subjecting triple flames to different vortical configurations.

  8. Tidal power

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The paper reviews the physics of tidal power considering gravitational effects of moon and sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range are also discussed. The paper then examines tidal energy resource for principal developments estimated from parametric modeling in Europe and worldwide. Basic parameters that govern the design of tidal power schemes in terms of mean tidal range and surface area of the enclosed basin are identified. While energy extracted is proportional to the tidal amplitude squared, requisite sluicing are is proportional to the square root of the tidal amplitude. Sites with large tidal amplitudes are therefore best suited for tidal power developments, whereas sites with low tidal amplitudes have sluicing that may be prohibitive. It is shown that 48% of the European tidal resource is in the United Kingdom, 42% in France and 8% in Ireland, other countries having negligible potential. Worldwide tidal resource is identified. Tidal barrage design and construction using caissons is examined, as are alternative operating modes (single-action generation, outflow generation, flood generation, two-way generation, twin basin generation, pumping, etc), development trends and possibilities, generation cost at the barrage boundary, sensitivity to discount rates, general economics, and markets. Environmental effects, and institutional constraints to the development of tidal barrage schemes are also discussed.

  9. Effects of habitat structure and tidal height on epifaunal assemblages associated with macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacabelos, Eva; Olabarria, Celia; Incera, Mónica; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2010-09-01

    Patterns of distribution and abundance of epifauna often differ markedly among macroalgal species. The hypotheses tested were that (1) assemblages of mobile epifauna associated with Laminaria ochroleuca and Sargassum muticum differed because they have different structure, and (2) assemblages of mobile epifauna associated with S. muticum differed between heights on the shore because tidal height affects physical and biological conditions. We also investigated the effect of epiphytic biomass on the composition of epifaunal assemblages. Hypotheses were tested with measuring and manipulative experiments using natural and artificial algae, and by measuring uni- and multivariate assemblage descriptors. The results indicated that epifaunal assemblages associated with natural L. ochroleuca and S. muticum differed, but only differences in epifaunal densities were likely to be related to the structure of algae since all other variables did not clearly differ between the two algae. Although structure might play an important role, other factors need to be taken into account and further experimental tests are necessary. Epifaunal assemblages associated with S. muticum did vary depending on the height on the shore, but inconsistently over time in the case of natural algae. In addition, epifaunal densities of natural algae were positively related to biomass of epiphytes in both species. Time of sampling, epiphytic load and height on the shore were the most important factors in structuring epifaunal assemblages rather than complexity of the host algae.

  10. Direct Measurement of Large, Diffuse, Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saif, Babak N.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee; Wyant, J. C.; Atkinson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is a well-established method for the measurement of diffuse objects in experimental mechanics. DSPIs are phase shifting interferometers. Three or four bucket temporal phase shifting algorithms are commonly used to provide phase shifting. These algorithms are sensitive to vibrations and can not be used to measure large optical structures far away from the interferometer. In this research a simultaneous phase shifted interferometer, PhaseCam product of 4D Technology Corporation in Tucson Arizona, is modified to be a Simultaneous phase shifted Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometer (SDSPI). Repeatability, dynamic range, and accuracy of the SDSPI are characterized by measuring a 5 cm x 5 cm carbon fiber coupon.

  11. Tidal Tomography: Constraining Long-Wavelength Deep Mantle Structure Using Earth's Body Tide Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, H. C. P.; Yang, H. Y.; Tromp, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Davis, J. L.; Latychev, K.

    2014-12-01

    Luni-solar gravitational forcing drives the Earth's body-tide response over periods ranging from 8 hours to 18.6 years, a timespan that extends far beyond the seismic band. A finite volume numerical study of body tides in the semi-diurnal (SD) band by Latychev et al. (2008; EPSL) demonstrated that aspherical density and elastic structure inferred from seismic tomography perturbed the radial crustal displacement response by ~1 mm, a level at which they can be observed with modern space-geodetic inferences of body tide signals (Yuan et al., 2012; EPSL). Thus, site-specific estimates of the body-tide response to the known luni-solar forcing potentially provides a new, independent and powerful method for probing long-wavelength, deep mantle structure. To this end, we have used advances in seismic free oscillation theory to derive a new normal mode treatment of the SD body tide response of an aspherical, rotating and anelastic Earth. The accuracy of the theory is demonstrated by benchmarking our body tide predictions against both finite volume treatments of aspherical structure and previous theoretical and observational constraints on the effects of anelasticity. We begin by summarizing these results, as well as a series of synthetic tests that indicate that the body tide response is particularly sensitive to long wavelength, deep mantle structure - a sensitivity that is ideal for investigating the elastic and density structure of the two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that exist below the Pacific and southern Africa. Finally, we also present results from a first tidal analysis of the integrated density of the LLSVPs and discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debate concerning the relative size of thermal and chemical effects on these structures, their net buoyancy and longevity.

  12. Predicting the vertical structure of tidal current and salinity in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, Michael; Wang, Jia; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1990-01-01

    A two-dimensional laterally averaged numerical estuarine model is developed to study the vertical variations of tidal hydrodynamic properties in the central/north part of San Francisco Bay, California. Tidal stage data, current meter measurements, and conductivity, temperature, and depth profiling data in San Francisco Bay are used for comparison with model predictions. An extensive review of the literature is conducted to assess the success and failure of previous similar investigations and to establish a strategy for development of the present model. A σ plane transformation is used in the vertical dimension to alleviate problems associated with fixed grid model applications in the bay, where the tidal range can be as much as 20–25% of the total water depth. Model predictions of tidal stage and velocity compare favorably with the available field data, and prototype salinity stratification is qualitatively reproduced. Conclusions from this study as well as future model applications and research needs are discussed.

  13. Scaling laws to quantify tidal dissipation in star-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Mathis, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary systems evolve over secular time scales. One of the key mechanisms that drive this evolution is tidal dissipation. Submitted to tides, stellar and planetary fluid layers do not behave like rocky ones. Indeed, they are the place of resonant gravito-inertial waves. Therefore, tidal dissipation in fluid bodies strongly depends on the excitation frequency while this dependence is smooth in solid ones. Thus, the impact of the internal structure of celestial bodies must be taken into account when studying tidal dynamics. The purpose of this work is to present a local model of tidal gravito-inertial waves allowing us to quantify analytically the internal dissipation due to viscous friction and thermal diffusion, and to study the properties of the resonant frequency spectrum of the dissipated energy. We derive from this model scaling laws characterizing tidal dissipation as a function of fluid parameters (rotation, stratification, diffusivities) and discuss them in the context of star-planet systems.

  14. Temperature Structure and Atmospheric Circulation of Dry Tidally Locked Rocky Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-07-01

    Next-generation space telescopes will observe the atmospheres of rocky planets orbiting nearby M-dwarfs. Understanding these observations will require well-developed theory in addition to numerical simulations. Here we present theoretical models for the temperature structure and atmospheric circulation of dry, tidally locked rocky exoplanets with gray radiative transfer and test them using a general circulation model (GCM). First, we develop a radiative-convective (RC) model that captures surface temperatures of slowly rotating and cool atmospheres. Second, we show that the atmospheric circulation acts as a global heat engine, which places strong constraints on large-scale wind speeds. Third, we develop an RC-subsiding model which extends our RC model to hot and thin atmospheres. We find that rocky planets develop large day–night temperature gradients at a ratio of wave-to-radiative timescales up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the value suggested by work on hot Jupiters. The small ratio is due to the heat engine inefficiency and asymmetry between updrafts and subsidence in convecting atmospheres. Fourth, we show, using GCM simulations, that rotation only has a strong effect on temperature structure if the atmosphere is hot or thin. Our models let us map out atmospheric scenarios for planets such as GJ 1132b, and show how thermal phase curves could constrain them. Measuring phase curves of short-period planets will require similar amounts of time on the James Webb Space Telescope as detecting molecules via transit spectroscopy, so future observations should pursue both techniques.

  15. Imaging complex structures with diffuse light

    PubMed Central

    Konecky, Soren D.; Panasyuk, George Y.; Lee, Kijoon; Markel, Vadim; Yodh, Arjun G.; Schotland, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We use diffuse optical tomography to quantitatively reconstruct images of complex phantoms with millimeter sized features located centimeters deep within a highly-scattering medium. A non-contact instrument was employed to collect large data sets consisting of greater than 107 source-detector pairs. Images were reconstructed using a fast image reconstruction algorithm based on an analytic solution to the inverse scattering problem for diffuse light. PMID:18542605

  16. Enhancement of diffuse reflectance using air tunnel structure.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Eun; Lee, Gae Hwang; Song, Byoung Gwon; Cha, Seung Nam; Jung, Jae Eun

    2013-02-01

    Submicrometer air gap structure has formed on diffuse reflection structure to improve light reflectance. Covering polymer or liquid on a diffuse reflector to make optical components induces the severe decrease of the total reflectance, since the diffuse reflected angle of some light rays is larger than the critical angle and the rays travel to the medium until meeting a proper small incident angle. The reflectance drops to 68% of the original value with just a polymer coating on the diffuse reflector. The formation of an air tunnel structure between the polymer layer and the diffuse reflector makes a symmetrical reflective index matching state and recovers 95% of the original reflectance. Due to the simple fabrication process and the chemical stability, the structure can be applied to various optical components and reflective display devices. PMID:23381414

  17. Poroelastic response of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems to ocean tidal loading: Implications for shallow permeability structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Sohn, Robert A.

    2016-02-01

    We use the time delay between tidal loading and exit-fluid temperature response for hydrothermal vents to model the poroelastic behavior and shallow upflow zone (SUZ) effective permeability structure of three mid-ocean ridge (MOR) sites with different spreading rates. Hydrothermal vents at Lucky Strike field exhibit relatively small phase lags corresponding to high SUZ effective permeabilities of ≥ ~10-10 m2, with variations that we interpret as resulting from differences in the extrusive layer thickness. By contrast, vents at East Pacific Rise site exhibit relatively large phase lags corresponding to low SUZ effective permeabilities of ≤ ~10-13 m2. Vents at Main Endeavour field exhibit both high and low phase lags, suggestive of a transitional behavior. Our results demonstrate that tidal forcing perturbs hydrothermal flow across the global MOR system, even in places where the tidal amplitude is very low, and that the flow response can be used to constrain variations in SUZ permeability structure beneath individual vent fields.

  18. Prediction of benthic community structure from environmental variables in a soft-sediment tidal basin (North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puls, W.; van Bernem, K.-H.; Eppel, D.; Kapitza, H.; Pleskachevsky, A.; Riethmüller, R.; Vaessen, B.

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between benthos data and environmental data in 308 samples collected from the intertidal zone of the Hörnum tidal basin (German Wadden Sea) was analyzed. The environmental variables were current velocity, wave action, emersion time (all of which were obtained from a 2-year simulation with a numerical model) and four sediment grain-size parameters. A grouping of sample stations into five benthos clusters showed a large-scale (>1 km) zoning of benthic assemblages on the tidal flats. The zoning varied with the distance from the shore. Three sample applications were examined to test the predictability of the benthic community structure based on environmental variables. In each application, the dataset was spatially partitioned into a training set and a test set. Predictions of benthic community structure in the test sets were attempted using a multinomial logistic regression model. Applying hydrodynamic predictors, the model performed significantly better than it did when sediment predictors were applied. The accuracy of model predictions, given by Cohen's kappa, varied between 0.14 and 0.49. The model results were consistent with independently attained evidence of the important role of physical factors in Wadden Sea tidal flat ecology.

  19. The structure of hydrophobic gas diffusion electrodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'flooded agglomerate' model of the Teflon-bonded gas diffusion electrode is discussed. A mathematical treatment of the 'flooded agglomerate' model is given; it can be used to predict the performance of the electrode as a function of measurable physical parameters.

  20. Modeling complex diffusion mechanisms in L1 2 -structured compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacate, M. O.; Lape, M.; Stufflebeam, M.; Evenson, W. E.

    2010-04-01

    We report on a procedure developed to create stochastic models of hyperfine interactions for complex diffusion mechanisms and demonstrate its application to simulate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the divacancy and 6-jump cycle diffusion mechanisms in L12-structured compounds.

  1. TIDAL DISRUPTION, GLOBAL MASS FUNCTION, AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETER EVOLUTION IN STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Trenti, Michele; Vesperini, Enrico; Pasquato, Mario

    2010-01-10

    We present a unified picture for the evolution of star clusters on the two-body relaxation timescale. We use direct N-body simulations of star clusters in a galactic tidal field starting from different multimass King models, up to 10% of primordial binaries and up to N{sub tot} = 65, 536 particles. An additional run also includes a central Intermediate Mass Black Hole. We find that for the broad range of initial conditions we have studied the stellar mass function of these systems presents a universal evolution, which depends only on the fractional mass loss. The structure of the system, as measured by the core to half-mass radius ratio, also evolves toward a universal state, which is set by the efficiency of heating on the visible population of stars induced by dynamical interactions in the core of the system. Interactions with dark remnants (white dwarfs, neutron stars, and stellar mass black holes) are dominant over the heating induced by a moderate population of primordial binaries (3%-5%), especially under the assumption that most of the neutron stars and black holes are retained in the system. All our models without primordial binaries undergo a deep gravothermal collapse in the radial mass profile. However, their projected light distribution can be well fitted by medium concentration King models (with parameter W{sub 0} approx 8), even though there tends to be an excess over the best fit for the innermost points of the surface brightness. This excess is consistent with a shallow cusp in the surface brightness (mu approx R {sup -n}u with nu approx 0.4-0.7), like it has been observed for many globular clusters from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Generally, fitting a King profile to derive the structural parameters yields to larger fluctuations in the core size than defining the core as the radius where the surface brightness is one half of its central value. Classification of core-collapsed globular clusters based on their surface brightness

  2. Tidal Disruption, Global Mass Function, and Structural Parameter Evolution in Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, Michele; Vesperini, Enrico; Pasquato, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We present a unified picture for the evolution of star clusters on the two-body relaxation timescale. We use direct N-body simulations of star clusters in a galactic tidal field starting from different multimass King models, up to 10% of primordial binaries and up to N tot = 65, 536 particles. An additional run also includes a central Intermediate Mass Black Hole. We find that for the broad range of initial conditions we have studied the stellar mass function of these systems presents a universal evolution, which depends only on the fractional mass loss. The structure of the system, as measured by the core to half-mass radius ratio, also evolves toward a universal state, which is set by the efficiency of heating on the visible population of stars induced by dynamical interactions in the core of the system. Interactions with dark remnants (white dwarfs, neutron stars, and stellar mass black holes) are dominant over the heating induced by a moderate population of primordial binaries (3%-5%), especially under the assumption that most of the neutron stars and black holes are retained in the system. All our models without primordial binaries undergo a deep gravothermal collapse in the radial mass profile. However, their projected light distribution can be well fitted by medium concentration King models (with parameter W 0 ~ 8), even though there tends to be an excess over the best fit for the innermost points of the surface brightness. This excess is consistent with a shallow cusp in the surface brightness (μ ~ R -ν with ν ~ 0.4-0.7), like it has been observed for many globular clusters from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Generally, fitting a King profile to derive the structural parameters yields to larger fluctuations in the core size than defining the core as the radius where the surface brightness is one half of its central value. Classification of core-collapsed globular clusters based on their surface brightness profile may thus fail in systems

  3. Structural Measurements from Images of Noble Gas Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadman, Robert V.; Kadlecek, Stephen J.; Emami, Kiarash; MacDuffie Woodburn, John; Vahdat, Vahid; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of externally polarized noble gases such as ^3He has been used for pulmonary imaging for more than a decade. Because gas diffusion is impeded by the alveoli, the diffusion coefficient of gas in the lung, measured on a time scale of milliseconds, is reduced compared to that of the same gas mixture in the absence of restrictions. When the alveolar walls decay, as in emphysema, diffusivity in the lung increases. In this paper, the relationship between diffusion measurements and the size of the restricting structures will be discussed. The simple case of diffusion in an impermeable cylinder, a structure similar to the upper respiratory airways in mammals, has been studied. A procedure will be presented by which airways of order 2 mm in diameter may be accurately measured; demonstration experiments with plastic tubes will also be presented. The additional developments needed before this technique becomes practical will be briefly discussed.

  4. Kinetic Structure of the Reconnection Diffusion Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    We present high-resolution multi-spacecraft observations of electromagnetic fields and particle distributions by Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission throughout a reconnection layer at the sub-solar magnetopause. We study which terms in the generalized Ohm's law balance the observed electric field throughout the region. We also study waves and particle distribution functions in order to identify kinetic boundaries created due to acceleration and trapping of electrons and ions as well as mixing of electron populations from different sides of the reconnecting layer. We discuss the interplay between particles, waves, and DC electric and magnetic fields, which clearly demonstrates kinetic and multi-scale nature of the reconnection diffusion region.

  5. Mapping the Transverse Structure of Tidal Velocity in the Channel of a Saltmarsh Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, S. J.; Arega, F.; Styles, R.

    2008-12-01

    The tidal exchange through the Scott Creek saltmarsh estuary was measured near Big Bay Creek, in Edisto, South Carolina. The techniques used for data collection stemmed from those recommended in previous studies. A bottom-mounted ADCP was used to sample data for 35 days, from the thalweg. A vessel-mounted ADCP was used for 13- hour durations, repeatedly surveying Scott Creek's 50m width. These surveys were performed during 4 different tidal cycles, capturing 1.2, 1.5, 2.3, and 2.4m amplitude events. Survey data were then spatially segregated into 3m wide bins along the transverse axis of the creek. Data in each bin were then depth-integrated, treated as distinct time series of data, and analyzed for 14 significant harmonic frequencies. Resultant constituents were used to construct individual time series for axial current speed through each transverse bin and were compared with both the bottom-mounted and vessel-mounted ADCP datasets. Correlations, between transversely segregated measurements and each constructed time series, averaged 0.88, and varied between 0.71 and 0.93. Standard deviations were 8-14cm/s. This effort was completed to provide both the boundary forcing function to drive a 2-D hydrodynamic model and the baseline to evaluate the effect of tidal restoration for the Scott Creek estuary.

  6. THE INNER STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF THE SAGITTARIUS DWARF GALAXY AS A PRODUCT OF TIDAL STIRRING

    SciTech Connect

    Lokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Majewski, Steven R.; Law, David R.; Mayer, Lucio; Frinchaboy, Peter M. E-mail: stelios@mps.ohio-state.ed E-mail: drlaw@astro.ucla.ed E-mail: p.frinchaboy@tcu.ed

    2010-12-20

    The tidal stirring model envisions the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies in the Local Group and similar environments via the tidal interaction of disky dwarf systems with a larger host galaxy like the Milky Way. These progenitor disks are embedded in extended dark halos and during the evolution both components suffer strong mass loss. In addition, the disks undergo the morphological transformation into spheroids and the transition from ordered to random motion of their stars. Using collisionless N-body simulations, we construct a model for the nearby and highly elongated Sagittarius (Sgr) dSph galaxy within the framework of the tidal stirring scenario. Constrained by the present orbit of the dwarf, which is fairly well known, the model suggests that in order to produce the majority of tidal debris observed as the Sgr stream, but not yet transform the core of the dwarf into a spherical shape, Sgr must have just passed the second pericenter of its current orbit around the Milky Way. In the model, the stellar component of Sgr is still very elongated after the second pericenter and morphologically intermediate between the strong bar formed at the first pericenter and the almost spherical shape existing after the third pericenter. This is thus the first model of the evolution of the Sgr dwarf that accounts for its observed very elliptical shape. At the present time, there is very little intrinsic rotation left and the velocity gradient detected along the major axis is almost entirely of tidal origin. We model the recently measured velocity dispersion profile for Sgr assuming that mass traces light and estimate its current total mass within 5 kpc to be 5.2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}. To have this mass at present, the model requires that the initial virial mass of Sgr must have been as high as 1.6 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, comparable to that of the Large Magellanic Cloud, which may serve as a suitable analog for the pre-interaction, Sgr progenitor.

  7. Tidal Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolla Pittaluga, M.; Seminara, G.; Tambroni, N.

    2003-04-01

    We give an overview of some recent investigations on the mechanics of the processes whereby forms develop in tidal environments. The viewpoint taken here is mechanistic. Some of the questions which deserve an answer may be summarised as follows: i) do tidal channels tend to some altimetric long term equilibrium? ii) why are they typically convergent and weakly meandering? iii) how is such equilibrium affected by the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of tidal inlets? iv) what is the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic role played by tidal flats adjacent to the channels? Some of the above questions have received a considerable attention in the last few years. Schuttelaars and de Swart (1996), Lanzoni and Seminara (2002) and, more recently, Bolla Pittaluga (2003) have investigated the first problem. In particular, the latter two contributions have shown that a straight tidal channel connected to a tidal sea at one end and closed at the other end tends to reach a long term equilibrium profile, which is slightly concave seaward and convex landward where a beach forms. The equilibrium profile is strongly sensitive to the harmonic content of the tidal forcing as well as to the value of sediment concentration established by the coastal hydrodynamics in the far field of the inlet region. Less important are the effect of channel convergence and the role of settling lag in the transport of suspended load. Insufficient attention has been devoted to the understanding of what mechanisms control channel convergence and meandering, though some similarities and differences between tidal and fluvial channels have emerged from some recent works. In particular, free bars form in tidal channels due to an instability mechanism essentially similar to that occurring under steady conditions though the oscillatory character of the flow field makes the bar pattern non migrating (Seminara and Tubino, 2001). Similarly, forced bars in curved tidal channels are driven by the development of

  8. Tidal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impact of Science on Society, 1987

    1987-01-01

    States that tidal power projects are feasible in a relatively limited number of locations around the world. Claims that together they could theoretically produce the energy equivalent to more than one million barrels of oil per year. (TW)

  9. Cation Diffusion Facilitator family: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Kolaj-Robin, Olga; Russell, David; Hayes, Kevin A; Pembroke, J Tony; Soulimane, Tewfik

    2015-05-22

    The Cation Diffusion Facilitators (CDFs) form a family of membrane-bound proteins capable of transporting zinc and other heavy metal ions. Involved in metal tolerance/resistance by efflux of ions, CDF proteins share a two-modular architecture consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) that protrudes into the cytoplasm. Discovery of a Zn²⁺ and Cd²⁺ CDF transporter from a marine bacterium Maricaulis maris that does not possess the CTD questions current perceptions regarding this family of proteins. This article describes a new, CTD-lacking subfamily of CDFs and our current knowledge about this family of proteins in the view of these findings. PMID:25896018

  10. Mesoscopic structure of neuronal tracts from time-dependent diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Burcaw, Lauren M.; Fieremans, Els; Novikov, Dmitry S.

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting brain diffusion MRI measurements in terms of neuronal structure at a micrometer level is an exciting unresolved problem. Here we consider diffusion transverse to a bundle of fibers, and show theoretically, as well as using Monte Carlo simulations and measurements in a phantom made of parallel fibers mimicking axons, that the time dependent diffusion coefficient approaches its macroscopic limit slowly, in a (lnt)/t fashion. The logarithmic singularity arises due to short range disorder in the fiber packing. We identify short range disorder in axonal fibers based on histological data from the splenium, and argue that the time dependent contribution to the overall diffusion coefficient from the extra-axonal water dominates that of the intra-axonal water. This dominance may explain the bias in measuring axon diameters in clinical settings. The short range disorder is also reflected in the linear frequency dependence of the diffusion coefficient measured with oscillating gradients, in agreement with recent experiments. Our results relate the measured diffusion to the mesoscopic structure of neuronal tissue, uncovering the sensitivity of diffusion metrics to axonal arrangement within a fiber tract, and providing an alternative interpretation of axonal diameter mapping techniques. PMID:25837598

  11. Gaseous Diffusion and Pore Structure in Nuclear Graphites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Timothy John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. With the incentive of providing more information for oxidation and safety studies of graphite components in thermal nuclear reactors, a new method has been developed to determine the gas transport pore structure in nuclear graphites. It involves an analysis of the dependence on pressure of the isobaric, isothermal (room temperature) diffusivity ratios of components in a binary gas mixture flowing through annular graphite samples. A Wicke-Kallenbach apparatus was specially built to measure He-Ar diffusivity ratios at pressures below 100 Torr. The new apparatus incorporates capacitance manometers and servovalves for pressure measurement and control, hot wire meters for flow rate measurements, and a mass spectrometer for gas analysis. As pressure decreased, the diffusivity ratios were observed to decrease non-linearly, indicating that the mechanism of flow in the materials was in the transition region between molecular and Knudsen diffusion. A mathematical model was derived to relate the pressure dependence of the transition diffusivity ratio to gas transport pore structure, and a statistical analysis based on Tikhonov regularisation was developed which gave a good fit of the model to the data, and optimal estimates of the number of model capillary pores, and the distribution of pore sizes. In comparison, the established methods of molecular diffusion and permeation (flow of pure gases) only give mean data on the pore size distribution. Pore structure data from the new method accurately predicted CO_2-Ar molecular diffusivity ratios, but overestimated N_2 permeability coefficients, due, it was assumed, to differences between diffusion and permeation pore structure. The cumulative volume distributions for transport pores from the transition diffusion data were similar in shape to those for open pores from mercury porosimetry, but shifted towards higher pore radii, indicating that diffusion is not so influenced

  12. Dynamic links between shape of the eddy viscosity profile and the vertical structure of tidal current amplitude in bays and estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; de Swart, Huib E.

    2016-03-01

    Several field studies in bays and estuaries have revealed pronounced subsurface maxima in the vertical profiles of the current amplitude of the principal tidal harmonic, or of its vertical shear, over the water column. To gain fundamental understanding about these phenomena, a semi-analytical model is designed and analysed, with focus on the sensitivity of the vertical structure of the tidal current amplitude to formulations of the vertical shape of the eddy viscosity. The new analytical solutions for the tidal current amplitude are used to explore their dependence on the degree of surface mixing, the vertical shape of eddy viscosity in the upper part of the water column and the density stratification. Sources of surface mixing are wind and whitecapping. Results show three types of current amplitude profiles of tidal harmonics, characterised by monotonically decreasing shear towards the surface, "surface jumps" (vertical shear of tidal current amplitude has a subsurface maximum) and "subsurface jets" (maximum tidal current amplitude below the surface), respectively. The "surface jumps" and "subsurface jets" both occur for low turbulence near the surface, whilst additionally the surface jumps only occur if the eddy viscosity in the upper part of the water column decreases faster than linearly to the surface. Furthermore, "surface jumps" take place for low density stratification, while and "subsurface jets" occur for high density stratification. The physics causing the presence of surface jumps and subsurface jets is also discussed.

  13. Reaction-Diffusion Patterns in Structured Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Irving

    I will look at pattern formation in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillating chemical reaction in media that are structured at length scales ranging from ten nanometers to a few centimeters. A reverse microemulsion consisting of nanometer diameter droplets of water containing the reactants dispersed in oil allows the physical structure (size, spacing) of the droplets and their chemical composition to be controlled independently, enabling one to generate a remarkable variety of stationary and moving patterns, including Turing structures, ordinary and antispirals, packet waves and spatiotemporal chaos. One- and two-dimensional arrays of aqueous droplets in oil generated by microfluidic techniques have diameters of the order of 100 micrometers and produce a different array of patterns that can be precisely controlled with light. In particular, circular arrays of droplets provide a testing ground for some of Turing's ideas about morphogenesis. By attaching the BZ catalyst to a polymer that shrinks and swells in response to changes in the redox state of the catalyst, one can construct gel materials that transduce chemical changes to mechanical motion, a phenomenon modeled with considerable success by the Balazs group. If time permits, I will also discuss the BZ reaction in coupled macroscopic flow reactors that mimic small neural networks.

  14. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel structures.

    PubMed

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Viergever, Max A; Niessen, Wiro J

    2006-12-01

    A method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orientation of diffusion depend on the local vessel likeliness. Vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) is applied to patient and phantom data and compared to linear, regularized Perona-Malik, edge and coherence enhancing diffusion. The method performs better than most of the existing techniques in visualizing vessels with varying radii and in enhancing vessel appearance. A diameter study on phantom data shows that VED least affects the accuracy of diameter measurements. It is shown that using VED as a preprocessing step improves level set based segmentation of the cerebral vasculature, in particular segmentation of the smaller vessels of the vasculature. PMID:16876462

  15. Multiple octupole-type band structures in {sup 220}Th: Reflection-asymmetric tidal waves?

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Chiara, C. J.; Montero, M.; Sarantites, D. G.; Pechenaya, O. L.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Frauendorf, S. G.

    2006-10-15

    The {sup 220}Th level scheme has been considerably extended from an experiment using the {sup 26}Mg+{sup 198}Pt reaction at 128 MeV. The evaporation residues from this very fissile system were selected with the HERCULES detector system and residue-gated {gamma} rays were measured with Gammasphere. The simplex feature (alternating-parity levels) persists up to the highest spins observed (23({Dirac_h}/2{pi})), but the nucleus exhibits a more vibrational-like behavior than the heavier Th isotopes. In addition, a doubling of the negative-parity, odd-spin states is seen as well as a staggering of the B(E1)/B(E2) ratios. A new interpretation based on a picture of tidal waves on a reflection-asymmetric nuclear surface is proposed.

  16. Limits to Tidal Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, C.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2ρ g a Q_max, where ρ is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

  17. Understanding relationships between morphology and ecosystem structure in a shallow tidal basins of Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Taramelli, Andrea; Valentini, Emiliana; Filipponi, Federico; Meisina, Claudia; Zucca, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Coastal wetlands represent complex ecosystems prone to continue fluctuation of their internal equilibrium. They are valuable natural resources characterized by the continue interactions between geomorphological and biological components. Their adaptation to changing conditions is highly dependent on the rate and extent of spatial and temporal processes and their responses are still poorly understood. According to this, the vulnerability assessment to natural and human made hazard have became fundamental to analyse the resilience of these areas, their ability to cope with the impacts from externally driven forces or the efforts needed to minimize the impacts (Gitay et al., 2011). The objective of this research is to develop a comprehensive and replicable method through the application of Multi-Source data analysis, based on the integration of Earth Observation data and field survey, to analyse a shallow tidal basin of salt marshes, located in the northern part of the Venice lagoon. The study site is characterised by relatively elevated areas colonized by halophytic vegetation, and tidal flats, with not vegetated areas, characterized by lower elevations. Sub-pixel processing techniques (Spectral Mixing Analysis - SMA) were used to analyse the spatial distribution of both vegetation and sediments typology. Furthermore the classifications were assayed in terms of spatial (Power law) and temporal (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) patterns, in order to find the main characteristics of the aforementioned spatial trends and their variation over time. The principal aim is to study the spatio-temporal evolution of this coastal wetland area, in order to indentify tipping points, namely thresholds, beyond which the system reaches critical state and the main climatic, hydrodynamic and morphological variables that may influence and increase this behaviour. This research represents a new approach to study the geomorphological processes and to improve the management and

  18. ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE TIDAL STIRRING MECHANISM FOR THE ORIGIN OF DWARF SPHEROIDALS: DEPENDENCE ON THE ORBITAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF THE PROGENITOR DISKY DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Lokas, Ewa L.; Callegari, Simone; Mayer, Lucio; Moustakas, Leonidas A. E-mail: lokas@camk.edu.pl E-mail: lucio@phys.ethz.ch

    2011-01-10

    The tidal stirring model posits the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) via the tidal interactions between late-type, rotationally supported dwarfs and Milky-Way-sized host galaxies. Using a comprehensive set of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the efficiency of the tidal stirring mechanism for the origin of dSphs. In particular, we examine the degree to which the tidal field of the primary galaxy affects the sizes, masses, shapes, and kinematics of the disky dwarfs for a range of dwarf orbital and structural parameters. Our study is the first to employ self-consistent, equilibrium models for the progenitor dwarf galaxies constructed from a composite distribution function and consisting of exponential stellar disks embedded in massive, cosmologically motivated dark matter halos. Exploring a wide variety of dwarf orbital configurations and initial structures, we demonstrate that in the majority of cases the disky dwarfs experience significant mass loss and their stellar distributions undergo a dramatic morphological, as well as dynamical, transformation. Specifically, the stellar components evolve from disks to bars and finally to pressure-supported, spheroidal systems with kinematic and structural properties akin to those of the classic dSphs in the Local Group (LG) and similar environments. The self-consistency of the adopted dwarf models is crucial for confirming this complex transformation process via tidally induced dynamical instabilities and impulsive tidal heating of the stellar distribution. Our results suggest that such tidal transformations should be common occurrences within the currently favored cosmological paradigm and highlight the key factor responsible for an effective metamorphosis to be the strength of the tidal shocks at the pericenters of the orbit. We also demonstrate that the combination of short orbital times and small pericentric distances, characteristic of dwarfs being accreted by their hosts at high redshift

  19. On the Efficiency of the Tidal Stirring Mechanism for the Origin of Dwarf Spheroidals: Dependence on the Orbital and Structural Parameters of the Progenitor Disky Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Łokas, Ewa L.; Callegari, Simone; Mayer, Lucio; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2011-01-01

    The tidal stirring model posits the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) via the tidal interactions between late-type, rotationally supported dwarfs and Milky-Way-sized host galaxies. Using a comprehensive set of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the efficiency of the tidal stirring mechanism for the origin of dSphs. In particular, we examine the degree to which the tidal field of the primary galaxy affects the sizes, masses, shapes, and kinematics of the disky dwarfs for a range of dwarf orbital and structural parameters. Our study is the first to employ self-consistent, equilibrium models for the progenitor dwarf galaxies constructed from a composite distribution function and consisting of exponential stellar disks embedded in massive, cosmologically motivated dark matter halos. Exploring a wide variety of dwarf orbital configurations and initial structures, we demonstrate that in the majority of cases the disky dwarfs experience significant mass loss and their stellar distributions undergo a dramatic morphological, as well as dynamical, transformation. Specifically, the stellar components evolve from disks to bars and finally to pressure-supported, spheroidal systems with kinematic and structural properties akin to those of the classic dSphs in the Local Group (LG) and similar environments. The self-consistency of the adopted dwarf models is crucial for confirming this complex transformation process via tidally induced dynamical instabilities and impulsive tidal heating of the stellar distribution. Our results suggest that such tidal transformations should be common occurrences within the currently favored cosmological paradigm and highlight the key factor responsible for an effective metamorphosis to be the strength of the tidal shocks at the pericenters of the orbit. We also demonstrate that the combination of short orbital times and small pericentric distances, characteristic of dwarfs being accreted by their hosts at high redshift

  20. Tidal meanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, Marco; Lanzoni, Stefano; Zandolin, Diego; Seminara, Giovanni; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2002-11-01

    Observational evidence is presented on the geometry of meandering tidal channels evolved within coastal wetlands characterized by different tidal, hydrodynamic, topographic, vegetational and ecological features. New insight is provided on the geometrical properties of tidal meanders, with possible dynamic implications on their evolution. In particular, it is shown that large spatial gradients of leading flow rates induce important spatial variabilities of meander wavelengths and widths, while their ratio remains remarkably constant in the range of scales of observation. This holds regardless of changes in width and wavelength up to two orders of magnitude. This suggests a locally adapted evolution, involving the morphological adjustment to the chief landforming events driven by local hydrodynamics. The spectral analysis of local curvatures reveals that Kinoshita's model curve does not fit tidal meanders due to the presence of even harmonics, in particular the second mode. Geometric parameters are constructed that are suitable to detect possible geomorphic signatures of the transitions from ebb- to flood-dominated hydrodynamics, here related to the skewness of the tidal meander. Trends in skewness, however, prove elusive to measure and fail to show detectable patterns. We also study comparatively the spatial patterns of evolution of the ratios of channel width to depth, and the ratio of width to local radius of curvature. Interestingly, the latter ratio exhibits consistency despite sharp differences in channel incision. Since the degree of incision, epitomized by the width-to-depth ratio, responds to the relevant erosion and migrations mechanisms and is much sensitive to vegetation and sediment properties, it is noticeable that we observe a great variety of landscape carving modes and yet recurrent planar features like constant width/curvature and wavelength/width ratios.

  1. Tidal Meanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, M.; Lanzoni, S.; Zandolin, D.; Seminara, S.; Rinaldo, A.

    Observational evidence is presented on the geometry of meandering tidal channels evolved within coastal wetlands characterized by different tidal, hydrodynamic, to- pographic, vegetational and ecological features. New insight is provided on the ge- ometrical properties of tidal meanders, with possible dynamic implications on their evolution. In particular, it is shown that large spatial gradients of leading flow rates induce important spatial variabilities of meander wavelengths and widths, while their ratio remains remarkably constant in the range of scales of observation. This holds regardless of changes in width and wavelength up to two orders of magnitude. This suggests a locally adapted evolution, involving the morphological adjustment to the chief landforming events driven by local hydrodynamics. The spectral analysis of lo- cal curvatures reveals that Kinoshita's model curve does not fit tidal meanders due to the presence of even harmonics, in particular the second mode. Geometric parameters are constructed that are suitable to detect possible geomorphic signatures of the tran- sitions from ebb- to flood-dominated hydrodynamics, here related to the skewness of the tidal meander. Trends in skewness, however, prove elusive to measure and fail to show detectable patterns. We also study comparatively the spatial patterns of evolu- tion of the ratios of channel width to depth, and the ratio of width to local radius of curvature. Interestingly, the latter ratio exhibits consistency despite sharp differences in channel incision. Since the degree of incision, epitomized by the width-to-depth ratio, responds to the relevant erosion and migrations mechanisms and is much sen- sitive to vegetation and sediment properties, it is noticeable that we observe a great variety of landscape carving modes and yet recurrent planar features like constant width/curvature and wavelength/width ratios.

  2. Tidal Dissipation in Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, B. G.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial pattern and total inventory of tidal dissipation within Mercury depends sensitively on internal structure and on orbital eccentricity. Surface heat flow from this source may exceed 3 mW/sq m, and will vary with time as the orbital eccentricity fluctuates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Diffusion and mobility of anisotropic particles in tilted periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-chun; Chen, Qun; Wang, Rang; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-02-01

    We numerically investigated the transport of anisotropic particles in tilted periodic structures. The diffusion and mobility of the particles demonstrate distinct behaviors dependence on the shape of the particles. In two-dimensional (2D) periodic potentials, we find that the mobility is influenced a little by the anisotropy of the particle, while the diffusion increases monotonically with the increasing of the particle anisotropy for large enough biased force. However, due to the sensitivity of the channels for the particle anisotropy, the transport in smooth channels is obviously different from that in energy potentials. The mobility decreases monotonically with the increasing of the particle anisotropy, while the diffusion can be a non-monotonic function of the particle anisotropy with a peak under appropriate biased force.

  4. End Effects and Load Diffusion in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Cornelius O.; Ambur, D. (Technical Monitor); Nemeth, M. P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The research carried out here builds on our previous NASA supported research on the general topic of edge effects and load diffusion in composite structures. Further fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Specific problems recently considered were focussed on end effects in sandwich structures and for functionally graded materials. Both linear and nonlinear (geometric and material) problems have been addressed. Our goal is the development of readily applicable design formulas for the decay lengths in terms of non-dimensional material and geometric parameters. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities provides a significant aid towards this process. The analysis is also amenable to parameter study with a large parameter space and should be useful in structural tailoring studies.

  5. Massively Parallel Simulations of Diffusion in Dense Polymeric Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup, Wilcox, R.T. , Hobbs, J.D. , Ford, D.M.

    1997-11-01

    An original computational technique to generate close-to-equilibrium dense polymeric structures is proposed. Diffusion of small gases are studied on the equilibrated structures using massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations running on the Intel Teraflops (9216 Pentium Pro processors) and Intel Paragon(1840 processors). Compared to the current state-of-the-art equilibration methods this new technique appears to be faster by some orders of magnitude.The main advantage of the technique is that one can circumvent the bottlenecks in configuration space that inhibit relaxation in molecular dynamics simulations. The technique is based on the fact that tetravalent atoms (such as carbon and silicon) fit in the center of a regular tetrahedron and that regular tetrahedrons can be used to mesh the three-dimensional space. Thus, the problem of polymer equilibration described by continuous equations in molecular dynamics is reduced to a discrete problem where solutions are approximated by simple algorithms. Practical modeling applications include the constructing of butyl rubber and ethylene-propylene-dimer-monomer (EPDM) models for oxygen and water diffusion calculations. Butyl and EPDM are used in O-ring systems and serve as sealing joints in many manufactured objects. Diffusion coefficients of small gases have been measured experimentally on both polymeric systems, and in general the diffusion coefficients in EPDM are an order of magnitude larger than in butyl. In order to better understand the diffusion phenomena, 10, 000 atoms models were generated and equilibrated for butyl and EPDM. The models were submitted to a massively parallel molecular dynamics simulation to monitor the trajectories of the diffusing species.

  6. Diffusion MRI at 25: Exploring brain tissue structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bihan, Denis Le; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion MRI (or dMRI) came into existence in the mid-1980s. During the last 25 years, diffusion MRI has been extraordinarily successful (with more than 300,000 entries on Google Scholar for diffusion MRI). Its main clinical domain of application has been neurological disorders, especially for the management of patients with acute stroke. It is also rapidly becoming a standard for white matter disorders, as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal abnormalities in white matter fiber structure and provide outstanding maps of brain connectivity. The ability to visualize anatomical connections between different parts of the brain, non-invasively and on an individual basis, has emerged as a major breakthrough for neurosciences. The driving force of dMRI is to monitor microscopic, natural displacements of water molecules that occur in brain tissues as part of the physical diffusion process. Water molecules are thus used as a probe that can reveal microscopic details about tissue architecture, either normal or in a diseased state. PMID:22120012

  7. Formation and structure of the turbidity maximum in the macrotidal Charente estuary (France): Influence of fluvial and tidal forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toublanc, F.; Brenon, I.; Coulombier, T.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding estuarine sediment dynamics and particularly turbidity maximum dynamics is crucial for the management of these coastal systems. Various processes impact the formation, movement and structure of the turbidity maximum. Several studies have shown that tidal asymmetry and density gradients are responsible for the presence of this suspended sedimentary mass. The Charente estuary is a highly turbid system (with suspended sediment concentrations often in excess of 5 g/L) that remains poorly understood despite its strong impact on local activities. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrosedimentary model is developed to represent the sediment dynamics of this estuary. Model validation demonstrates good accuracy, especially on reproducing semi-diurnal and spring-neap variability. Several simulations are performed to evaluate the influence of tides and river discharge on the turbidity maximum. Mean and maximum suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and sediment stratification are calculated. SSC transects are also used to visualize the suspended sediment distribution along the estuary. The turbidity maximum generally oscillates between the river mouth and the Rochefort area (20-30 km upstream). The model shows strong variations at different time scales, and demonstrates that SSC is mainly driven by deposition/resuspension processes. Spring-neap comparisons show that the turbidity maximum is not well-defined during neap tides for low and mean runoff conditions. Simulations of spring tides and/or high runoff conditions all result in a compact suspended sedimentary mass. Performing simulations without taking density gradients into account demonstrates that tidal asymmetry is the main mechanism leading to the formation of the turbidity maximum. However, density gradients contribute to maintaining the stability of the turbidity maximum. Vertical stratification traps sediments at the bottom. Longitudinal stratification ensures a sharper edge at the downstream limit

  8. THE STELLAR STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES FORMED BY TIDAL STIRRING

    SciTech Connect

    Lokas, Ewa L.; Klimentowski, Jaroslaw; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone E-mail: stelios@mps.ohio-state.ed

    2010-01-10

    Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we study the stellar properties of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies resulting from the tidally induced morphological transformation of disky dwarfs on a cosmologically motivated eccentric orbit around the Milky Way. The dwarf galaxy models initially consist of an exponential stellar disk embedded in an extended spherical dark matter halo. Depending on the initial orientation of the disk with respect to the orbital plane, different final configurations are obtained. The least evolved dwarf is triaxial and retains a significant amount of rotation. The more evolved dwarfs are prolate spheroids with little rotation. We show that in this scenario the final density distribution of stars can be approximated by a simple modification of the Plummer law. The kinematics of the dwarfs is significantly different depending on the line of sight which has important implications for mapping the observed stellar velocity dispersions of dwarfs to subhalo circular velocities. When the dwarfs are observed along the long axis, the measured velocity dispersion is higher and decreases faster with radius. In the case where rotation is significant, when viewed perpendicular to the long axis, the effect of minor axis rotation is detected, as expected for triaxial systems. We model the velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves of the dwarfs under the assumption of constant mass-to-light ratio by solving the Jeans equations for spherical and axisymmetric systems and adjusting different sets of free parameters, including the total mass. We find that the mass is typically overestimated when the dwarf is seen along the long axis and underestimated when the observation is along the short or intermediate axis. For the studied cases, the effect of non-sphericity cannot, however, bias the inferred mass by more than 60% in either direction, even for the most strongly stripped dwarf which is close to disruption.

  9. Structure of Microgravity Transitional and Pulsed Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, M. Yousef; Hegde, Uday; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained in a study of pulsed gas jet diffusion flames to better characterize the recently observed vortex/flame interactions in microgravity transitional and turbulent diffusion flames, and to improve the understanding of large-scale structures in corresponding normal-gravity flames. In preparation for a space experiment, tests were conducted in the 5.18-Second Zero-Gravity Facility of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Both unpulsed and pulsed laminar flames were studied and numerical modeling of these flames was carried out for data comparison and model validation. In addition, complementary tests for a series of unpulsed flames were conducted on-board the NASA KC-135 research aircraft. The microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames have been observed to be dominated by large-scale disturbances, or structures. These structures first appear intermittently in the flame at Reynolds numbers (based on the cold jet injection properties) of about 2100. With increase in injection Reynolds number, the rate of intermittent disturbances increases until the generation becomes continuous at Reynolds numbers of 3000 and higher. The behavior of these structures depends upon the velocity and temperature characteristics of the jet/flame shear layer. These characteristics are different in normal gravity and microgravity.

  10. Biased diffusion in three-dimensional comb-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Dagdug, Leonardo; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we study biased diffusion of point Brownian particles in a three-dimensional comb-like structure formed by a main cylindrical tube with identical periodic cylindrical dead ends. It is assumed that the dead ends are thin cylinders whose radius is much smaller than both the radius of the main tube and the distance between neighboring dead ends. It is also assumed that in the main tube, the particle, in addition to its regular diffusion, moves with a uniform constant drift velocity. For such a system, we develop a formalism that allows us to derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the first two moments of the particle displacement along the main tube axis. Inverting these Laplace transforms numerically, one can find the time dependences of the two moments for arbitrary values of both the drift velocity and the dead-end length, including the limiting case of infinitely long dead ends, where the unbiased diffusion becomes anomalous at sufficiently long times. The expressions for the Laplace transforms are used to find the effective drift velocity and diffusivity of the particle as functions of its drift velocity in the main tube and the tube geometric parameters. As might be expected from common-sense arguments, the effective drift velocity monotonically decreases from the initial drift velocity to zero as the dead-end length increases from zero to infinity. The effective diffusivity is a more complex, non-monotonic function of the dead-end length. As this length increases from zero to infinity, the effective diffusivity first decreases, reaches a minimum, and then increases approaching a plateau value which is proportional to the square of the particle drift velocity in the main tube.

  11. Structural origin of slow diffusion in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hoi Sung; Piana-Agostinetti, Stefano; Shaw, David E; Eaton, William A

    2015-09-25

    Experimental, theoretical, and computational studies of small proteins suggest that interresidue contacts not present in the folded structure play little or no role in the self-assembly mechanism. Non-native contacts can, however, influence folding kinetics by introducing additional local minima that slow diffusion over the global free-energy barrier between folded and unfolded states. Here, we combine single-molecule fluorescence with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to discover the structural origin for the slow diffusion that markedly decreases the folding rate for a designed α-helical protein. Our experimental determination of transition path times and our analysis of the simulations point to non-native salt bridges between helices as the source, which provides a quantitative glimpse of how specific intramolecular interactions influence protein folding rates by altering dynamics and not activation free energies. PMID:26404828

  12. Foraging in a tidally structured environment by Red Knots (Calidris canutus): ideal, but not free.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Jan A; Spaans, Bernard; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2006-05-01

    Besides the "normal" challenge of obtaining adequate intake rates in a patchy and dangerous world, shorebirds foraging in intertidal habitats face additional environmental hurdles. The tide forces them to commute between a roosting site and feeding grounds, twice a day. Moreover, because intertidal food patches are not all available at the same time, shorebirds should follow itineraries along the best patches available at a given time. Finally, shorebirds need additional energy stores in order to survive unpredictable periods of bad weather, during which food patches are covered by extreme tides. In order to model such tide-specific decisions, we applied stochastic dynamic programming in a spatially explicit context. Two assumptions were varied, leading to four models. First, birds had either perfect (ideal) or no (non-ideal) information about the intake rate at each site. Second, traveling between sites was either for free or incurred time and energy costs (non-free). Predictions were generated for three aspects of foraging: area use, foraging routines, and energy stores. In general, non-ideal foragers should feed most intensely and should maintain low energy stores. If traveling for such birds is free, they should feed at a random site; otherwise, they should feed close to their roost. Ideal foragers should concentrate their feeding around low tide (especially when free) and should maintain larger energy stores (especially when non-free). If traveling for such birds is free, they should feed at the site offering the highest intake rate; otherwise, they should trade off travel costs and intake rate. Models were parameterized for Red Knots (Calidris canutus) living in the Dutch Wadden Sea in late summer, an area for which detailed, spatially explicit data on prey densities and tidal heights are available. Observations of radio-marked knots (area use) and unmarked knots (foraging routines, energy stores) showed the closest match with the ideal/non-free model. We

  13. Diffusion and structure in complex fluids: I. Axial diffusion in membranes II. Proteins in ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihari, Malvika

    Geometrically hindered motions of a single large solute (particle or polymer) can be imaged in real time via optical microscopy. The dynamics of fluorescent colloidal particles near surfaces and in porous membranes were monitored using confocal microscopy. A method of analysis to estimate diffusivity of particles in the axial direction by observing their intensity fluctuations was developed. The intensity fluctuations correspond to the Brownian motion of the particles in the axial direction. The method was successful in capturing the hindered diffusion of particles close to surfaces and in pores. This study provides a novel route to monitor the dynamics of particles, including biomacromolecules, near surfaces, through porous substrates and biological tissues. Ionic liquid (IL) as a medium for room temperature preservation of biomacromolecules has been proposed and, to investigate the possibility, physicochemical and enzymatic properties of proteins in the neat hydrophilic IL, ethylmethyl imidazolium ethyl sulfate [EMIM][EtSO4] were studied. Spectroscopic techniques were employed to probe the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins whereas light scattering and viscometry were used to estimate the hydrodynamic size. The secondary structure of the protein was retained in the ionic liquid but the tertiary structure was found to change. Alterations in protein conformation/activity were investigated after transfer of the dissolved protein from the IL to buffer. Further, suitability of ionic liquid gels as protein encapsulation and preservation media was assessed.

  14. Spectral analysis and structure preserving preconditioners for fractional diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelli, Marco; Mazza, Mariarosa; Serra-Capizzano, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    Fractional partial order diffusion equations are a generalization of classical partial differential equations, used to model anomalous diffusion phenomena. When using the implicit Euler formula and the shifted Grünwald formula, it has been shown that the related discretizations lead to a linear system whose coefficient matrix has a Toeplitz-like structure. In this paper we focus our attention on the case of variable diffusion coefficients. Under appropriate conditions, we show that the sequence of the coefficient matrices belongs to the Generalized Locally Toeplitz class and we compute the symbol describing its asymptotic eigenvalue/singular value distribution, as the matrix size diverges. We employ the spectral information for analyzing known methods of preconditioned Krylov and multigrid type, with both positive and negative results and with a look forward to the multidimensional setting. We also propose two new tridiagonal structure preserving preconditioners to solve the resulting linear system, with Krylov methods such as CGNR and GMRES. A number of numerical examples show that our proposal is more effective than recently used circulant preconditioners.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of multicomponent noncontinuum diffusion in fractal porous structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qiang; Chen, Zhenqian

    2015-07-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) of multicomponent diffusion is developed to examine multicomponent, noncontinuum mass diffusion in porous media. An additional collision interaction is proposed to mimic the Knudsen diffusion caused by the collision interaction between gas molecules and solid pore walls. Using the improved LBM model, the ternary mixtures diffusion is simulated in fractal porous structures which are reconstructed by the random midpoint displacement algorithm. The effects of fractal characteristics and Knudsen diffusion resistance on the multicomponent diffusion in porous structures are investigated and discussed. The results indicate that the smaller fractal dimension enhances the diffusion rate of gas mixtures in fractal porous structures. When the dimensionless Knudsen diffusion coefficient is less than 20, the presence of Knudsen diffusion resistance reduces the rate of mass diffusion in porous structures obviously, especially for the species with larger molecular weight.

  16. Interplay between Microscopic Diffusion and Local Structure of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Cunsolo, A.; Orecchini, A; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    2010-11-29

    We present a quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) study of single-particle dynamics in pure water, measured at temperatures between 256 and 293 K along an isobaric path at 200 MPa. A thorough analysis of the spectral line shapes reveals a departure from simple models of continuous or jump diffusion, with such an effect becoming stronger at lower temperatures. We show that such a diverging trend of dynamical quantities upon cooling closely resembles the divergent (anomalous) compressibility observed in water by small-angle diffraction. Such an analogy suggests an interesting interplay between single-particle diffusion and structural arrangements in liquid water, both bearing witness of the well-known water anomalies. In particular, a fit of dynamical parameters by a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher law provides a critical temperature of about 220 K, interestingly close to the hypothesized position of the second critical point of water and to the so-called Widom line.

  17. Diffuse Optical Intracluster Light as a Measure of Stellar Tidal Stripping: The Cluster CL0024+17 at z ~ 0.4 Observed at the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Grazian, A.; Gallozzi, S.; Castellano, M.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Boutsia, K.; Paris, D.; Speziali, R.; Testa, V.

    2014-01-01

    We have evaluated the diffuse intracluster light (ICL) in the central core of the galaxy cluster CL0024+17 at z ~ 0.4 observed with the prime focus camera (Large Binocular Camera) at the Large Binocular Telescope. The measure required an accurate removal of the galaxies' light within ~200 kpc from the center. The residual background intensity has then been integrated in circular apertures to derive the average ICL intensity profile. The latter shows an approximate exponential decline as expected from theoretical cold dark matter models where the ICL is due to the integrated contribution of light from stars that are tidally stripped from the halo of their host galaxies due to encounters with other galaxies in the cluster cold dark matter (CDM) potential. The radial profile of the ICL over the galaxies intensity ratio (ICL fraction) is increasing with decreasing radius, but near the cluster center it starts to bend and then decreases where the overlap of the halos of the brightest cluster galaxies becomes dominant. Theoretical expectations in a simplified CDM scenario show that the ICL fraction profile can be estimated from the stripped over galaxy stellar mass ratio in the cluster. It is possible to show that the latter quantity is almost independent of the properties of the individual host galaxies but mainly depends on the average cluster properties. The predicted ICL fraction profile is thus very sensitive to the assumed CDM profile, total mass, and concentration parameter of the cluster. Adopting values very similar to those derived from the most recent lensing analysis in CL0024+17, we find a good agreement with the observed ICL fraction profile. The galaxy counts in the cluster core have then been compared with that derived from composite cluster samples in larger volumes, up to the clusters virial radius. The galaxy counts in the CL0024+17 core appear flatter and the amount of bending with respect to the average cluster galaxy counts imply a loss of total

  18. Ancient Stone Tidal Weirs in Penghu Archipelago: Distribution, Category, Structure and Function, a Google Earth and GIS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, J.; Guo, H. D.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to give a comprehensive archaeological investigation for Penghu's stone tidal weirs (STWs) based on both Google Earth and GIS. Firstly, this study uses GoogleEarth Pro tools to clip a GeoEye-1 image (acquisition date: 22/07/2013) and a WorldView-2 image (acquisition date: 25/01/2014) for Chipei Island and Husi Island, respectively, and save them at a "premium resolution" of 4800 dpi. More, using 15 m panchromatic orthorectified Landsat images as a base, two clips were geo-referenced in ENVI 5.1 with minimal root mean square error. Furthermore, the STWs were manual extracted from the two GoogleEarth images in ArcGIS 10.1. Category and size statistics are presented; construction structure and weir function are discussed. Lastly, by using GIS analyses, STWs characteristics of intertidal flats across Penghu archipelago have been mapped and related to key geographical environmental variables. From spring to summer of 2015 our research team conducted investigations into Penghu's STWs based on different seasons and time periods of GoogleEarth historic images. Our results showed that, distributed amongst Penghu's coastline, there are 503 STWs. Compared with the official survey results (around 592 STWs), the counts are similar but the GoogleEarth-based method is more time-saving and efficient.

  19. Kinetic Effects of Aromatic Molecular Structures on Diffusion Flame Extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Sang Hee; Dooley, S.; Dryer, F. L.; Ju, Yiguang

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic effects of aromatic molecular structures for jet fuel surrogates on the extinction of diffusion flames have been investigated experimentally and numerically in the counterflow configuration for toluene, n-propylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. Quantitative measurement of OH concentration for aromatic fuels was conducted by directly measuring the quenching rate from the emission lifetimes of OH planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF). The kinetic models for toluene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were validated against the measurements of extinction strain rates and LIF measurements. A semi-detailed n-propylbenzene kinetic model was developed and tested. The experimental results showed that the extinction limits are ranked from highest to lowest as n-propylbenzene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. The present models for toluene and n-propylbenzene agree reasonably well with the measurements, whereas the model for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene under-estimates extinction limits. Kinetic pathways of OH production and consumption were analyzed to investigate the impact of fuel fragmentation on OH formation. It was found that, for fuels with different molecular structures, the fuel decomposition pathways and their propagation into the formation of radical pool play an important role to determine the extinction limits of diffusion flames. Furthermore, OH concentrations were found to be representative of the entire radical pool concentration, the balance between chain branching and propagation/termination reactions and the balance between heat production from the reaction zone and heat losses to the fuel and oxidizer sides. Finally, a proposed “OH index,” was defined to demonstrate a linear correlation between extinction strain rate and OH index and fuel mole fraction, suggesting that the diffusion flame extinctions for the tested aromatic fuels can be determined by the capability of a fuel to establish a radical pool

  20. Topographic control of mat-surface structures evolution: Examples from modern evaporitic carbonate (Abu Dhabi) and evaporitic siliciclastic (Tunisia) tidal flats.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafid Bouougri, El; Porada, Hubertus

    2010-05-01

    In terms of optimal light utilization, mat surfaces ideally are flat. In nature, however, flat mat surfaces are observed rarely or in restricted patches only. Rather they are shaped by a variety of linear and subcircular to irregular protrusions at various scales, including overgrown upturned crack margins, bulges (‘petees'), domes (‘blisters' and ‘pustules'), reticulate networks with tufts and pinnacles etc. These features are so characteristic that ‘mat types' have been established according to their prevalence, e.g., film, flat, smooth, crinkle, blister, tufted, cinder, mammilate, pustular and polygonal mats (Kendall and Skipwith, 1969; Logan et al., 1974). Responsible for the development of such mat surface features are environmental (physical and chemical) factors and, in reaction, the opportunistic growth behaviour of the participating bacterial taxa. Theoretically, a ‘juvenile' mat may be assumed as being flat, evolving into various forms with typical surface morphologies according to environmental impacts and respective bacterial reactions. Observations in the Abu Dhabi evaporitic carbonate tidal flats and Tunisian evaporitic siliciclastic tidal flats demonstrate that topography plays a fundamental role, both on the large scale of the tidal flat and on the small scale of mat surface morphology. It controls, together with related factors like, e.g., frequency of tidal flooding; duration of water cover; frequency and duration of subaerial exposure, the spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of mat surface structures. On the tidal flat scale, topographic differences result a priori from its seaward gradient and may arise additionally from physical processes which may modify the substrate surface and produce in the intertidal and lower supratidal zones narrow creeks and shallow depressions meandering perpendicular to the slope. Within a wide tidal flat without local topographic changes in the tidal zones, mat surface structures display a

  1. The interactive roles of predation and tidal elevation in structuring populations of the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Salazar, M. E.; Griffiths, C. L.; Seed, R.

    1987-08-01

    The size and age structure of the Cerastoderma edule population at Traeth Melynog, North Wales, varies dramatically with tidal level. In areas low on the shore up to 96% of cockle spat fail to survive their first summer, but mortality rate subsequently declines and remains at a low level. By contrast cockles high on the shore suffer moderate mortality during their first year (47%), but increasing rates thereafter. High-shore populations consequently consist mainly of smaller (younger) individuals and low-shore ones of a transient spatfall, plus a few larger and older individuals. The potential role of shore crabs, Carcinus maenas, and oystercatchers, Haematopus ostralegus in the determination of these patterns is assessed. Shore crabs move up into the intertidal to feed with each flood tide from about April to December. They selectively consume cockles < 15 mm in length, taking an estimated 236 × 10 3 cockles, or 2432 g dry flesh year -1 per linear meter of shoreline, mostly from lower shore levels. Oystercatchers are present only during winter and preferentially select large cockles of at least 20 mm length. They are estimated to remove 9 × 10 3 cockles, or 1204 g dry flesh year -1 per linear meter of shoreline, most of this from mid- and high-shore levels. These results indicate that shore crabs are far more important predators than previously suspected, taking 25 × the numbers and 2 × the biomass cosumed by oystercatchers. Predation also appears to be the key factor controlling the structure of the C. edule population. Crabs consume almost all the cockles settling low on the shore during their first summer, but avoid older individuals, which subsequently survive and grow well under low levels of oystercatcher predation. On the high shore, crabs are unimportant and the cockles survive well as they slowly grow into the size range attractive to oystercatchers. Thereafter they suffer increasingly severe winter mortality and are soon eliminated.

  2. Experiments on Diffusion Flame Structure of a Laminar Vortex Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Shin-Juh; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The study of flame-vortex interactions provides one of the means to better understand turbulent combustion, and allows for canonical configurations that contain the fundamental elements found in turbulent flames, These include concentrated vorticity, entrainment and mixing, strain and nonequilibrium phenomena, diffusion and differential diffusion, partial premixing and diluent effects, and heat release effects. In flame- vortex configurations, these fundamental elements can be studied under more controlled conditions than is possible in direct investigations of turbulent flames. Since the paper of Marble, the problem of the flame-vortex interaction has received considerable attention theoretically, numerically and experimentally. Several configurations exist for study of the premixed flame/vortex ring interaction but more limited results have been obtained to date for the diffusion flame/vortex ring case. The setup of Chen and Dahm, which is conceptually similar to that of Karagozian and Manda and Karagozian, Suganuma and Strom where the ring is composed of fuel and air and combustion begins during the ring formation process, is used in the current study. However, it is essential to conduct the experiments in microgravity to remove the asymmetries caused by buoyancy and thus obtain highly symmetric and repeatable interactions. In previous studies it was found that the flame structure of the vortex ring was similar to that obtained analytically by Karagozian and Manda. Dilution of propane with nitrogen led mainly to a reduction in flame luminosities, flame burnout times were affected by both fuel volumes and amount of dilution, and a simple model of the burnout times was developed. In this paper, a discussion on reacting ring displacement and flame burnout time will be given, and the flame structures of vortex rings containing ethane and air will be compared to those of propane reacting in air.

  3. Ion-scale structure in Mercury's magnetopause reconnection diffusion region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Dorelli, John C.; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Poh, Gangkai; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2016-06-01

    The strength and time dependence of the electric field in a magnetopause diffusion region relate to the rate of magnetic reconnection between the solar wind and a planetary magnetic field. Here we use ~150 ms measurements of energetic electrons from the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft observed over Mercury's dayside polar cap boundary (PCB) to infer such small-scale changes in magnetic topology and reconnection rates. We provide the first direct measurement of open magnetic topology in flux transfer events at Mercury, structures thought to account for a significant portion of the open magnetic flux transport throughout the magnetosphere. In addition, variations in PCB latitude likely correspond to intermittent bursts of ~0.3-3 mV/m reconnection electric fields separated by ~5-10 s, resulting in average and peak normalized dayside reconnection rates of ~0.02 and ~0.2, respectively. These data demonstrate that structure in the magnetopause diffusion region at Mercury occurs at the smallest ion scales relevant to reconnection physics.

  4. DEEP IMAGING OF M51: A NEW VIEW OF THE WHIRLPOOL’S EXTENDED TIDAL DEBRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Aaron E.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul

    2015-02-10

    We present deep, wide-field imaging of the M51 system using CWRU’s Burrell Schmidt Telescope at KPNO to study the faint tidal features that constrain its interaction history. Our images trace M51's tidal morphology down to a limiting surface brightness of μ{sub B,lim} ∼ 30 mag arcsec{sup −2} and provide accurate colors (σ{sub B−V}<0.1) down to μ{sub B} ∼ 28. We identify two new tidal streams in the system (the south and northeast plumes) with surface brightnesses of μ{sub B} = 29 and luminosities of ∼10{sup 6}L{sub ⊙,B}. While the northeast plume may be a faint outer extension of the tidal “crown” north of NGC 5195 (M51b), the south plume has no analog in any existing M51 simulation and may represent a distinct tidal stream or disrupted dwarf galaxy. We also trace the extremely diffuse northwest plume out to a total extent of 20′ (43 kpc) from NGC 5194 (M51a) and show it to be physically distinct from the overlapping bright tidal streams from M51b. The northwest plume’s morphology and red color (B−V=0.8) instead argue that it originated from tidal stripping of M51a’s extreme outer disk. Finally, we confirm the strong segregation of gas and stars in the southeast tail and do not detect any diffuse stellar component in the H i portion of the tail. Extant simulations of M51 have difficulty matching both the wealth of tidal structure in the system and the lack of stars in the H i tail, motivating new modeling campaigns to study the dynamical evolution of this classic interacting system.

  5. Connections Among the Spatial and Temporal Structures in Tidal Currents, Internal Bores, and Surficial Sediment Distributions Over the Shelf off Palos Verdes, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Xu, Jingping; Signell, Richard P.; Steele, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The topography of the Continental Shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight has rapid variations over relatively small spatial scales. The width of the shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula, just northwest of Los Angeles, California, is only 1 to 3 km. About 7 km southeast of the peninsula, the shelf within San Pedro Bay widens to about 20 km. In 2000, the Los Angeles County Sanitation District began deploying a dense array of moorings in this complex region of the central Southern California Bight to monitor local circulation patterns. Moorings were deployed at 13 sites on the Palos Verdes shelf and within the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. At each site, a mooring supported a string of thermistors and an adjacent bottom platform housed an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. These instruments collected vertical profiles of current and temperature data continuously for one to two years. The variable bathymetry in the region causes rapid changes in the amplitudes and spatial structures of barotropic tidal currents, internal tidal currents, and in the associated nonlinear baroclinic currents that occur at approximate tidal frequencies. The largest barotropic tidal constituent is M2, the principal semidiurnal tide. The amplitude of this tidal current changes over fairly short along-shelf length scales. Tidal-current amplitudes are largest in the transition region between the two shelves; they increase from about 5 cm/s over the northern San Pedro shelf to nearly 10 cm/s on the southern portion of the Palos Verdes Shelf. Tidal-current amplitudes are then reduced to less than 2 cm/s over the very narrow section of the northern Palos Verdes shelf that lies just 6 km upcoast of the southern sites. Models suggest that the amplitude of the barotropic M2 tidal currents, which propagate toward the northwest primarily as a Kelvin wave, is adjusting to the short topographic length scales in the region. Semidiurnal sea-level oscillations are, as expected

  6. Diffuse optical imaging of the breast using structured-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Zheng, Jie; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse optical imaging with structured-light illumination and detection can provide rapid, wide-field anatomical and functional imaging of the breast with an application for breast cancer screening. Our aims for this study were to test the feasibility of structured-light, test our pattern set, and develop and optimize our image reconstruction algorithm. For our phantom studies, we created an agar phantom with dimensions similar to a compressed breast. A cubic inclusion of 30mm by 30mm by 25mm with twice the amount of absorption contrast than the background was placed at the center. Near-infrared light of eleven patterns including a full illumination and single stripes was illuminated onto the breast phantom and detected with a CCD camera, with integration of the signals according to the patterns performed post-data acquisition, with a total of 121 measurements. These measurements were then used in our reconstruction algorithm that iteratively minimized the difference between the collected data and the estimation from our FEM-based forward model of photon diffusion to calculate the absorption values. Reconstructions of the 3D absorption maps detect an inclusion at the center and indicate that our selected set of patterns may be sufficient for structured-light imaging. We are currently improving our instrumentation and testing with additional phantom studies, while also performing simulations of numerical breast phantoms created from MR images to test structured-light's ability to image complex and realistic breast tissue composition. We hope to use this technique as optical method to image molecular markers, such as hemoglobin, water and lipid, within the breast.

  7. Imaging Absorbing Structures Embedded in Thick Diffusing Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilworth, David Saunders

    Linear systems models and confocal imaging techniques are applied to the problem of imaging absorbing structures embedded in thick diffusing media. At the microscopic level, the model is linear in complex field and space variant; at the macroscopic level where spatial averaging processes are considered the model is linear in irradiance and space variant, thereby becoming mathematically more tractable. We describe the planar confocal imager, in which a small spot of light scans the front surface of a diffuser, and the light distribution on the back surface is sampled for each position of the scanning spot. A composite image is then formed by selection of one pixel from each of the 25,600 images, viz., a pixel from a spot opposite or nearly opposite from the scanning spot. The overall process is effectively a confocal imaging process. The planar system can be modified to create 3-D confocal imaging, where many stereo image pairs are created of the absorbing structures within a thick diffuser. Techniques for both planar and exfoliative deconvolution are investigated. Planar deconvolution sharpens images affected by space invariant processes in which the image point spread function is always the same. Exfoliatative deconvolution is a systematic method for sharpening images formed by space variant processes in which the point spread function varies in accordance with the depth of the embedded object. Results from planar and 3-D confocal scanning verify the linear systems model and demonstrate that the broad beam point spread function width (the point spread function formed by conventional, non-confocal imaging) can be reduced by a factor of 2. Results from planar and exfoliative deconvolution demonstrate that the confocal point spread function width can be reduced by a factor of 1.5. Preliminary optical and data processing techniques are discussed for developing a coherent confocal scanner. The image resolution from this type of scanner will be determined by the

  8. ADCP observations about the mean stratification and the vertical structure of tidal and inertial currents in the northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuda, J.-L.; Millot, C.

    2003-04-01

    Mounted on the GEOSTAR benthic observatory (Beranzoli et al., 2000) which was deployed in August 1998 at about 42 m in the northern Adriatic for test purposes, a 300-kHz ADCP was operated during 18 days with an hourly sampling rate. The reduced cell size of 80 cm allowed to study finely i) the temporal variation of the mean stratification, ii) the vertical structure of tidal currents and iii) an energetic few-day episode of inertial oscillations. Even though no thermistor string was available to monitor the stratification's evolution, the maximum magnitude of the current shear was found to be a relevant indicator of the pycnocline's depth, as confirmed by ship-handled CTD profiles performed just before and after the experiment. From the depth evolution of the shear maximum, it was possible to detect a sudden deepening of the pycnocline (from about 14 m down to about 30 m), consistently with simultaneous temperature and salinity increases recorded by an observatory-mounted SBE16 CTD. Such a deepening might be attributed to the advection of a neighbouring thicker mixed layer, to an intense vertical mixing due to sea roughness or, more probably, to a downwelling phenomenon. Indeed, it was associated with south-easterly winds that prevailed in the northern Adriatic and with downward vertical velocities (1-2 cm/s) that were sampled over the whole depth during the pycnocline's deepening. Rotary spectral analysis and band-pass filtering at all depths in the inertial, diurnal and semi-diurnal frequency bands revealed the complex vertical structure of the related currents. This is particularly striking for the diurnal components whose energy is confined in a few-meter surface layer, contrary to the energy of the semidiurnal components which is distributed over the whole water column. Concerning the former (K1 mainly), the tidal harmonic analysis (Foreman, 1978) evidences a clockwise polarisation of the currents and a roughly constant orientation of the related ellipses

  9. Tidal events and salt-marsh structure influence black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) recruitment across an ecotone.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2012-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted at a black mangrove-salt-marsh ecotone in southwest Florida (U.S.A.) to investigate retention of propagules of the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, by salt-marsh plants as a mechanism of facilitation operating on recruitment success at landward boundaries. Buoyant A. germinans propagules are dispersed by tides, and stranding is required for establishment; therefore, processes that enable stranding should facilitate mangrove recruitment. We expected the physical structure of salt-marsh vegetation to define propagule retention capacity, and we predicted that salt-marsh plants with distinct growth forms would differentially retain propagules. Experimental monoculture plots (1 m2) of salt-marsh plants with different growth forms (Sporobolus virginicus [grass], Sesuvium portulacastrum [succulent forb], and Batis maritima [succulent scrub]) were created, and A. germinans propagules were emplaced into these plots and monitored over time. For comparison, propagules were also placed into natural polyculture plots (1 m2). Polyculture plots contained at least two of the salt-marsh plant taxa selected for monoculture treatments, and S. virginicus was always present within these polyculture plots. Natural polyculture plots retained 59.3% +/- 11.0% (mean +/- SE) of emplaced propagules. Monocultures varied in their propagule retention capacities with plots of S. virginicus retaining on average 65.7% +/- 11.5% of transplanted propagules compared to 7.2% +/- 1.8% by B. maritima and 5.0% +/- 1.9% by S. portulacastrum. Plots containing S. virginicus retained a significantly greater percentage of emplaced propagules relative to the two succulent salt-marsh taxa. Furthermore, propagule entrapment, across all treatments, was strongly correlated with salt-marsh structure (r2 = 0.6253, P = 0.00001), which was estimated using an indirect quantitative metric (lateral obstruction) calculated from digital images of plots. Overall, our findings imply that

  10. Composition, structural characteristics and temporal patterns of fish assemblages in non-tidal Mediterranean lagoons: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maci, S.; Basset, A.

    2009-08-01

    The importance of transitional water ecosystems as nursery habitats and feeding grounds for fish species is well-known. Detailed studies of colonization patterns of fish guilds in response to biotic and abiotic drivers are however unevenly distributed among ecosystem types. We address here the temporal variability of fish assemblages in small non-tidal lagoons in the Mediterranean basin. The study was carried out at the Acquatina lagoon (Lecce, Italy) where four stations, situated in two habitat types along a confinement gradient, were sampled twice per month for one year with fyke nets. Forty-five taxa ranging across 20 families were collected, with the most abundant species, Atherina boyeri, accounting for more than 95% of total abundance. Pooling all species together (excluding sand smelt), the structural features of the assemblage, relative abundance of families, and abundance of individual species all showed significant temporal patterns. Mean abundance peaked in Summer and Autumn and fell in Winter, whereas taxonomic richness and diversity were highest in Summer and lowest in Spring. Within the fish assemblage, multivariate ordination showed temporal segregation of species belonging to the same family or genus and expected to be functionally similar, suggesting that they avoid competition for space and resources by timing inward migration and peak occurrence differently. Of the environmental driving forces, which also showed temporal patterns of variation, salinity was the main factor affecting the distribution of individuals and species. The catch of young individuals of several marine species confirmed the role of this small lagoon as a nursery and feeding area, and emphasized the need for further studies.

  11. Diffusion and Subdiffusion of Interacting Particles on Comblike Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénichou, O.; Illien, P.; Oshanin, G.; Sarracino, A.; Voituriez, R.

    2015-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a tracer particle (TP) on a comb lattice populated by randomly moving hard-core particles in the dense limit. We first consider the case where the TP is constrained to move on the backbone of the comb only. In the limit of high density of the particles, we present exact analytical results for the cumulants of the TP position, showing a subdiffusive behavior ˜t3 /4. At longer times, a second regime is observed where standard diffusion is recovered, with a surprising nonanalytical dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the particle density. When the TP is allowed to visit the teeth of the comb, based on a mean-field-like continuous time random walk description, we unveil a rich and complex scenario with several successive subdiffusive regimes, resulting from the coupling between the geometrical constraints of the comb lattice and particle interactions. In this case, remarkably, the presence of hard-core interactions asymptotically speeds up the TP motion along the backbone of the structure.

  12. Electronic structure, phase transitions and diffusive properties of elemental plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setty, Arun; Cooper, B. R.

    2003-03-01

    We present a SIC-LDA-LMTO based study of the electronic structure of the delta, alpha and gamma phases of plutonium, and also of the alpha and gamma phases of elemental cerium. We find excellent agreement with the experimental densities and magnetic properties [1]. Furthermore, detailed studies of the computational densities of states for delta plutonium, and comparison with the experimental photoemission spectrum [2], provide evidence for the existence of an unusual fluctuating valence state. Results regarding the vacancy formation and self-diffusion in delta plutonium will be presented. Furthermore, a study of interface diffusion between plutonium and steel (technologically relevant in the storage of spent fuel) or other technologically relevant alloys will be included. Preliminary results regarding gallium stabilization of delta plutonium, and of plutonium alloys will be presented. [1] M. Dormeval et al., private communication (2001). [2] A. J. Arko, J. J. Joyce, L. Morales, J. Wills, and J. Lashley et. al., Phys. Rev. B, 62, 1773 (2000). [3] B. R. Cooper et al, Phil. Mag. B 79, 683 (1999); B.R. Cooper, Los Alamos Science 26, 106 (2000)); B.R. Cooper, A.K. Setty and D.L.Price, to be published.

  13. Small-scale sedimentary structures and their implications in recognizing large-scale ancient tidal bedforms. Example from Dur At Talah outcrop, Late Eocene, Sirt Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouessa, Ashour; Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Pelletier, Jonathan; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-01

    The Dur At Talah escarpment (150 m thick and 150 km long) is exposed at the southern side of the Sirt Basin, central Libya. This outcrop exposes an Upper Eocene succession, composed by highly bioturbated fine grained sandstones to claystones at the base (New Idam Unit; 80-100 m thick), overlain by medium grained to microconglomeratic sandstones at the top (Sarir Unit; 60 m thick). The latter is split into two subunits of nearly equal thickness: the lower Sarir subunit, composed of medium to coarse cross-bedded sandstones; and the upper Sarir subunit, composed of very coarse to microconglomeratic sandstones. The whole succession evolves from shallow marine estuarine (the New Idam Unit) to fluvial deposits (the upper Sarir subunit). The sandstone of the lower Sarir subunit, which is the focus of this article, is previously misinterpreted as being deposited in a purely fluvial environment. However, close observations revealed that the depositional environment is largely tide-influenced. It is notably marked by conspicuous subaqueous dune cross-stratifications that bear a variety of discrete, multi-scale, sedimentary structures evidencing their deposition in tidal rather than fluvial setting. Mud drapes, tidal bundles, and perpendicularly draining and oppositely climbing ripples are largely developed. Among these structures, the most diagnostic are of millimetric to centimetric scale. As a prime aim of this article, all these sedimentary structures are described, interpreted, and discussed for the first time from this outcrop. Their style of association and the quality of their preservation provide an outstanding ancient example of tide-dominated siliciclastic systems. Such structures are rarely found together in one outcrop as they are in Dur At Talah, and they provide a significant indicators in identifying ancient bedforms of tidal origin. Evidences of subtidal and intertidal depositional environments are afforded by these structures. Criteria indicative of

  14. Structure and Early Soot Oxidation Properties of Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Leathy, A. M.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Soot is an important unsolved problem of combustion science because it is present in most hydrocarbon-fueled flames and current understanding of the reactive and physical properties of soot in flame environments is limited. This lack of understanding affects progress toward developing reliable predictions of flame radiation properties, reliable predictions of flame pollutant emission properties and reliable methods of computational combustion, among others. Motivated by these observations, the present investigation extended past studies of soot formation in this laboratory, to consider soot oxidation in laminar diffusion flames using similar methods. Early work showed that O2 was responsible for soot oxidation in high temperature O2-rich environments. Subsequent work in high temperature flame environments having small O2 concentrations, however, showed that soot oxidation rates substantially exceeded estimates based on the classical O2 oxidation rates of Nagle and Strickland-Constable and suggests that radicals such as O and OH might be strong contributors to soot oxidation for such conditions. Neoh et al. subsequently made observations in premixed flames, supported by later work, that showed that OH was responsible for soot oxidation at these conditions with a very reasonable collision efficiency of 0.13. Subsequent studies in diffusion flames, however, were not in agreement with the premixed flame studies: they agreed that OH played a dominant role in soot oxidation in flames, but found collision efficiencies that varied with flame conditions and were not in good agreement with each other or with Neoh et al. One explanation for these discrepancies is that optical scattering and extinction properties were used to infer soot structure properties for the studies that have not been very successful for representing the optical properties of soot. Whatever the source of the problem, however, these differences among observations of soot oxidation in premixed and

  15. METHODS OF EXPLORING METABOLIC STRUCTURE AND TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BACTERIOPLANKTON AND PHYTOPLANKTON IN SALT MARSH TIDAL CREEKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial metabolic diversity and phytoplankton community diversity were examined in eight shallow tidal creeks over a two-year period (1997-1998) within North Inlet estuary, South Carolina. The BIOLOG 96-well microplate method was used to assess metabolic diversity of bacteria, ...

  16. Diffuse scattering and partial disorder in complex structures

    PubMed Central

    Welberry, T. R.; Goossens, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS) goes back almost to the beginnings of X-ray crystallography. Because SCDS arises from two-body correlations, it contains information about local (short-range) ordering in the sample, information which is often crucial in the attempt to relate structure to function. This review discusses the state of the field, including detectors and data collection and the modelling of SCDS using Monte Carlo and ab initio techniques. High-quality, three-dimensional volumes of SCDS data can now be collected at synchrotron light sources, allowing ever more detailed and quantitative analyses to be undertaken, and opening the way to approaches such as three-dimensional pair distribution function studies (3D-PDF) and automated refinement of a disorder model, powerful techniques that require large volumes of low-noise data. PMID:25485135

  17. Spin Diffusion Editing for Structural Fingerprints of Therapeutic Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Franks, Joshua; Glushka, John N; Jones, Michael T; Live, David H; Zou, Qin; Prestegard, James H

    2016-01-19

    The growing importance of biologics and biosimilars as therapeutic and diagnostic agents is giving rise to new demands for analytical methodology that can quickly and accurately assess the chemical and physical state of protein-based products. A particular challenge exists in physical characterization where the proper fold and extent of disorder of a protein is a major concern. The ability of NMR to reflect structural and dynamic properties of proteins is well recognized, but sensitivity limitations and high levels of interference from excipients in typical biologic formulations have prevented widespread applications to quality assessment. Here we demonstrate applicability of a simple one-dimensional proton NMR method that exploits enhanced spin diffusion among protons in well-structured areas of a protein. We show that it is possible to reduce excipient signals and allow focus on structural characteristics of the protein. Additional decomposition of the resulting spectra based on rotating frame spin relaxation allows separate examination of components from aggregates and disordered regions. Application to a comparison of two different monoclonal antibodies and to detection of partial pH denaturation of a monoclonal antibody illustrates the procedure. PMID:26653763

  18. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong

    2012-09-01

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} years.

  19. Wind-induced mat deformation structures in recent tidal flats and sabkhas of SE-Tunisia and their significance for environmental interpretation of fossil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouougri, El Hafid; Porada, Hubertus

    2012-07-01

    Physical processes acting on leathery and cohesive microbial mats that grow in tidal flats produce a large variety of mat deformation structures (MDS). Among these processes are strong winds which sweep episodically or continuously wide and protected areas of intertidal-supratidal zones covered with microbial mats. Wind-induced MDS occur when a mat layer covering the intertidal zone is floating or loosely attached to the underlying sedimentary layers. Observed MDS triggered by wind shear in recent intertidal to supratidal flats include: i) tearing and breaking up of mats into fragments and pieces of distinct size and shape, ii) network of folds and crumpled structures related to warping and creeping of soft mats, iii) flipped-over edges along shrinkage cracks and tears, iv) rolled-up mat edges and v) wind-blown mat fragments, scattered over the supratidal zone. The observed structures association forms a succession starting from simple tearing and breaking of a mat by wind forces and subsequent crumpling and folding. With continuous strong wind shear acting upon mat surfaces, most of the flipped-over edges are oriented in the direction of wind and form along tears and crack margins; they may evolve into rolled-up edges forming thick cigar-like bodies including both mat and thin sediment layers ('jelly roll'). Dried and non-biostabilised mat fragments are ripped off, transported landward and scattered over upper supratidal and sabkha zones. Within and intertidal-supratidal profile, the structures display a zonality which is controlled by the cohesive behaviour of mats and water-saturation of both mats and underlying sediment substrate. In the absence of recorded physical sedimentary features within the peritidal deposits, recognition and preservation of similar wind-induced mat deformation structures appear critical for environmental interpretation and indicate aeolian processes and an intertidal to supratidal flat setting, flooded intermittently during spring tide

  20. Tidal Love Numbers and Tidal Heating of a Rotating Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Howard

    2010-10-01

    Many studies of tidal dissipation in solar system objects make use of Love numbers (non-dimensional measures of the height of the tidal bulge and the associated induced gravitational quadrupole moment) based on Kelvin's solution for the deformation of a homogeneous incompressible body. This solution ignores (assumes negligible) the inertial terms in the equations of motion. When the oscillatory tidal time dependence is included, analytic solutions can be obtained which, surprisingly, do not asymptote to Kelvin's solution in the long-period limit. When the Coriolis terms are also included, a system of three coupled second-order partial differential equations (for the three velocity components, or suitable substitutes) results. Free surface boundary conditions must be satisfied. When the object is not homogeneous, the Poisson equation for the gravitational potential must also be solved. There appear to be no analytic solutions for this system, but numerical solutions are straightforward, and the results can be tabulated in terms of non-dimensionalized values of the rigidity, viscosity, forcing frequency, and rotation frequency. This rotating system couples modes with different latitude structures. The resulting tidal torque is more complicated than usually assumed. In addition to the global net tidal torque that exchanges rotational and orbital angular momentum (and thus leads to the traditional tidal heating and orbital evolution), local differential torques act on the body. Depending on the body's long-term viscoelastic properties, considerable additional heating (which does not affect the orbital evolution and therefore does not figure in the calculation of the body's tidal dissipation factor) may occur, particularly in a layered, inhomogeneous object.

  1. Small-scale structure in the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.

    1990-01-01

    The initial results of a study to probe the small-scale structure in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) through IUE and optical observations of interstellar absorption lines toward both components of resolvable binary stars is reported. The binaries (Kappa CrA, 57 Aql, 59 And, HR 1609/10, 19 Lyn, and Theta Ser) observed with IUE have projected linear separations ranging from 5700 to 700 Au. Except for Kappa CrA, the strengths of the interstellar absorption lines toward both components of these binaries agree to within 10 percent. In the case of Kappa CrA, the optically thin interstellar Mg I and Mn II lines are about 50 percent stronger toward Kappa-2 CrA than Kappa-1 CrA. Higher resolution observations of interstellar Ca II show that this difference is concentrated in the main interstellar component at V(LSR) = 9 + or - 2 km/s. Interestingly, this velocity corresponds to an intervening cloud that may be associated with the prominent Loop I shell in the local ISM. Given the separation (23 arcsec) and distance (120 pc) of Kappa CrA, the line strength variations indicate that this cloud has structure on scales of 2800 AU or less.

  2. Structure of confined laminar spray diffusion flames: Numerical investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawid, M. A.; Bulzan, D. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of confined laminar spray diffusion flames is investigated numerically by solving the gas-phase conservation equations for mass species, continuity, momentum, and energy and the liquid-phase equations for droplet position, velocity, size, and temperature. A one-step global reaction scheme along with six equilibrium reactions are employed to model the flame chemistry. Monodisperse as well as polydisperse sprays are considered. The numerical results demonstrate that liquid spray flames substantially differ from gaseous flames in their structure, i.e., temperature, concentration, and velocity fields, shape, and dimensions under the same conditions. Spray flames are predicted to be taller and narrower than their counterpart gaseous ones and their shapes are almost cylindrical. This is in agreement with experimental observations. The numerical computations also show that the use of the equilibrium reactions with the one-step reaction scheme decreases the flame temperature compared to the one-step reaction scheme without the equilibrium reactions and more importantly increases the surface area of the flame zone due to a phenomenon termed 'equilibrium broadening.' The spray flames also possess a finite thickness with minimal overlap of the fuel and oxygen species. A case for which a fuel-mixture consisting of 20 to 80 percent gas-liquid by mass is introduced into the combustor is also investigated and compared with predictions using only gaseous or liquid fuel.

  3. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Cambrian Series 2 tidal deposits (NW Estonia): implications for identifying endogenic triggering mechanisms in ancient sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Põldsaar, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) are documented in several horizons within silt- and sandstones of the Cambrian Series 2 (Dominopolian Stage) Tiskre Formation, and some in the below-deposited argillaceous deposits of the Lükati Formation (northern part of the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin, NW Estonia). The aim of this study was to map, describe, and analyze these deformation features, discuss their deformation mechanism and possible triggers. Load structures (simple load casts, pillows, flame structures, convoluted lamination) with varying shapes and sizes occur in the Tiskre Fm in sedimentary interfaces within medium-bedded peritidal rhythmites (siltstone-argillaceous material) as well as within up to 3 m thick slightly seaward inclined stacked sandstone sequences. Homogenized beds, dish-and-pillar structures, and severely deformed bedding are also found within these stacked units and within a large tidal runoff channel infill. Autoclastic breccias and water-escape channels are rare and occur only in small-scale -- always related to thin, horizontal tidal laminae. Profound sedimentary dykes, sand volcanoes, and thrust faults, which are often related to earthquake triggered soft sediment deformation, were not observed within the studied intervals. Deformation horizon or horizons with large flat-topped pillows often with elongated morphologies occur at or near the boundary between the Tiskre and Lükati formations. Deformation mechanisms identified in this study for the various deformation types are gravitationally unstable reversed density gradient (especially in case of load features that are related to profound sedimentary interfaces) and lateral shear stress due to sediment current drag (in case of deformation structures that not related to loading at any apparent sedimentary interface). Synsedimentary liquefaction was identified as the primary driving force in most of the observed deformation horizons. Clay thixotropy may have contributed in the

  4. Oxygen penetration through invertebrate burrow walls in Korean tidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon Joo; Koh, Chul-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Macrofaunal burrows increase the surface area of the sediment-water interface, which has a great impact on the metabolism of aerobic microbes and the oscillation of reduced metabolites within the sediment. Given the importance of macrofauna in surficial sediments, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of burrow architectures on dissolved oxygen diffusion rates in comparison with unburrowed sediment, and thereby to evaluate the theoretical assumption used for modeling solute distribution in the burrow system using field samples. Employing microsensors, horizontal oxygen profiles were measured on a micrometer scale around burrows of seven invertebrates in tidal flats of the west coast of Korea. Oxygen diffusion distance through the burrow walls of seven invertebrates showed spatio-temporal variation with a range of 0.6 to 2.9 mm. Two groups of burrows were identified based on their oxygen diffusive properties relative to unburrowed sediments: 1) oxygen penetration similar to that of ambient sediments and 2) clearly enhanced oxygen penetration. Differences in the diffusive properties of the burrow wall were related to the burrow depth and diameter, existence of mucus lining on the wall, sediment grain size, and tidal phases. Also inhabitant activity was an important factor affecting oxygen penetration, which is discussed in the paper. These results further demonstrate that simplified assumptions (i.e. burrow structures are viewed as direct biogeochemical extensions of the sediment-water interface) may not be exact representation of the nature.

  5. Calculating lunar retreat rates using tidal rhythmites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvale, E.P.; Johnson, H.W.; Sonett, C.P.; Archer, A.W.; Zawistoski, A.N.N.

    1999-01-01

    Tidal rhythmites are small-scale sedimenta??r}- structures that can preserve a hierarchy of astronomically induced tidal periods. They can also preserve a record of periodic nontidal sedimentation. If properly interpreted and understood, tidal rhjthmites can be an important component of paleoastronomy and can be used to extract information on ancient lunar orbital dynamics including changes in Earth-Moon distance through geologic time. Herein we present techniques that can be used to calculate ancient Earth-Moon distances. Each of these techniques, when used on a modern high-tide data set, results in calculated estimates of lunar orbital periods and an EarthMoon distance that fall well within 1 percent of the actual values. Comparisons to results from modern tidal data indicate that ancient tidal rhythmite data as short as 4 months can provide suitable estimates of lunar orbital periods if these tidal records are complete. An understanding of basic tidal theory allows for the evaluation of completeness of the ancient tidal record as derived from an analysis of tidal rhythmites. Utilizing the techniques presented herein, it appears from the rock record that lunar orbital retreat slowed sometime during the midPaleozoic. Copyright ??1999, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  6. Relevance of Pore Structure and Diffusion-Accessible Porosity for Calcium-Bromide Diffusion in Na-Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnacher, R. M.; Davis, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bentonite is an important hydraulic barrier material in many geotechnical applications, such as geosynthetic clay liners at solid waste landfills, or as proposed backfill material in engineered barrier systems at nuclear waste repositories. The limited permeability of bentonite is at least partially the result of its low porosity and the swelling of Na-montmorillonite, its major mineralogical component, in water. Due to these characteristics, the transport of contaminants through bentonite layers is expected to be limited and dominated by diffusion processes. In bentonite, the majority of the connected porosity is associated with montmorillonite particles, which consist of stacks of negatively-charged smectite layers. As a result, compacted smectite has two types of porosities: (1) large pores between clay particles, where diffusion is less affected by electric-double-layer forces, and (2) very thin interlayer spaces within individual clay particles, where diffusion is strongly impacted by surface charge and ionic strength. As diffusion is expected to take place differently in these two volumes, this essentially creates two 'small-scale diffusion pathways', where each may become dominant under different system conditions. Furthermore, for surface-reactive solutes, these two porous regimes differ with regards to surface complexation reactions. Electrostatic and hydration forces only are thought to govern interlayer binding, whereas chemical bonding with surface ligands is dominant for reactions at edge sites of layered clay particles and for iron oxide nanoparticles on outer basal planes. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the relevance of clay pore structure and diffusion-accessible porosity for solute diffusion rates, and hence, contaminant mobility in bentonites. First, we will discuss the effects of chemical solution conditions on montmorillonite properties, such as clay surface charge, diffusion-accessible porosity, clay tortuosity and constrictivity

  7. Probabilistic Diffusion Tractography Reveals Improvement of Structural Network in Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Peng, Yueheng; Xie, Qiankun; Gong, Jinnan; Dong, Li; Lai, Yongxiu; Li, Hong; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Musicians experience a large amount of information transfer and integration of complex sensory, motor, and auditory processes when training and playing musical instruments. Therefore, musicians are a useful model in which to investigate neural adaptations in the brain. Methods Here, based on diffusion-weighted imaging, probabilistic tractography was used to determine the architecture of white matter anatomical networks in musicians and non-musicians. Furthermore, the features of the white matter networks were analyzed using graph theory. Results Small-world properties of the white matter network were observed in both groups. Compared with non-musicians, the musicians exhibited significantly increased connectivity strength in the left and right supplementary motor areas, the left calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex and the right caudate nucleus, as well as a significantly larger weighted clustering coefficient in the right olfactory cortex, the left medial superior frontal gyrus, the right gyrus rectus, the left lingual gyrus, the left supramarginal gyrus, and the right pallidum. Furthermore, there were differences in the node betweenness centrality in several regions. However, no significant differences in topological properties were observed at a global level. Conclusions We illustrated preliminary findings to extend the network level understanding of white matter plasticity in musicians who have had long-term musical training. These structural, network-based findings may indicate that musicians have enhanced information transmission efficiencies in local white matter networks that are related to musical training. PMID:25157896

  8. Macromolecular coal structure as revealed by novel diffusion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Peppas, N.A.; Olivares, J.; Drummond, R.; Lustig, S.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of the present work was the elucidation of the mechanistic characteristics of dynamic transport of various penetrants (solvents) in thin sections of coals by examining their penetrant uptake, front swelling and stress development. An important objective of this work was the study of coal network structure in different thermodynamically compatible penetrants and the analysis of dynamic swelling in terms of present anomalous transport theories. Interferometry/polariscopy, surface image analysis and related techniques were used to quantify the stresses and solvent concentration profiles in these sections. Dynamic and equilibrium swelling behavior were correlated using the polar interaction contributions of the solvent solubility parameters. The penetrant front position was followed in thin coal sections as a function of time. The initial front velocity was calculated for various coals and penetrants. Our penetrant studies with thin coal section from the same coal sample but with different thickness show that within the range of 150 {mu}m to 1500{mu}m the transport mechanism of dimethyl formamide in the macromolecular coal network is non-Fickian. In fact, for the thickest samples the transport mechanism is predominately Case-II whereas in the thinner samples penetrant uptake may be diffusion-controlled. Studies in various penetrants such as acetone, cyclohexane, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene and methylene chloride indicated that penetrant transport is a non-Fickian phenomenon. Stresses and cracks were observed for transport of methylene chloride. 73 refs., 88 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Rheology, Structure, and Diffusion in Concentrated Colloidal Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionberger, Robert A.

    The goal of this thesis is to predict quantitatively the macroscopic properties of concentrated colloidal dispersions from knowledge of the fundamental microscopic forces acting on individual particles. From detailed predictions of the microstructure we calculate macroscopic properties of the suspension. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics provides a fundamental basis for calculating the microstructure, however it requires including many-body couplings. A nonequilibrium closure based on the hypernetted chain (HNC) equilibrium closure relates the many-body forces to the interparticle force and pair distribution function. A computational algorithm exploiting Fast Fourier Transforms solves the resulting integro-differential equations for weak perturbations from equilibrium, yielding the perturbed pair density as a function of volume fraction and interparticle potential. The weak flow expansion yields predictions for the low-shear viscosity and the long-time self-diffusion coefficient. We have developed simple approximations based on lubrication analysis for the hydrodynamic interactions in concentrated dispersions. With this extension our nonequilibrium theory is in good agreement with measurements of the low shear viscosity and high frequency modulus in systems where hydrodynamic interactions are important. The predictions for the modulus with varying extent of hydrodynamic interaction illustrate the link between the behavior of the high frequency modulus and the hydrodynamic properties very near the particle surface. We extend the solution of the conservation equation for the nonequilibrium structure across the entire frequency spectrum at high density. From the nonequilibrium structure, we calculate frequency dependent linear viscoelastic properties for different interparticle potentials and extent of hydrodynamic interaction. A comparison of these systems illustrates the change in asymptotic behavior when hydrodynamic interactions are included. Calculation of the

  10. Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

    2002-04-01

    Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

  11. Light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on OLED with microcavity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Doo-Hee; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jonghee; Park, Seung Koo; Moon, Jaehyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-10-20

    We examined the light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on microcavity designed OLEDs. The results of FDTD simulations and experiments showed that the pillar shaped nano-structure was more effective than the concave micro-structure for light diffusing of microcavity OLEDs. The sharp luminance distribution of the microcavity OLED was changed to near Lambertian luminance distribution by the nano-structure, and light diffusing effects increased with the height of the nano-structure. Furthermore, the nano-structure has advantages including light extraction of the substrate mode, reproducibility of manufacturing process, and minimizing pixel blur problems in an OLED display panel. The nano-structure is a promising candidate for a light diffuser, resolving the viewing angle problems in microcavity OLEDs. PMID:25607307

  12. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric

    2009-10-15

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  13. Tidal deformations of a spinning compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Maselli, Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    The deformability of a compact object induced by a perturbing tidal field is encoded in the tidal Love numbers, which depend sensibly on the object's internal structure. These numbers are known only for static, spherically-symmetric objects. As a first step to compute the tidal Love numbers of a spinning compact star, here we extend powerful perturbative techniques to compute the exterior geometry of a spinning object distorted by an axisymmetric tidal field to second order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic deformations and new classes of induced Love numbers emerge. For example, a spinning object immersed in a quadrupolar, electric tidal field can acquire some induced mass, spin, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole moments to second order in the spin. The deformations are encoded in a set of inhomogeneous differential equations which, remarkably, can be solved analytically in vacuum. We discuss certain subtleties in defining the tidal Love numbers in general relativity, which are due to the difficulty in separating the tidal field from the linear response of the object in the solution, even in the static case. By extending the standard procedure to identify the linear response in the static case, we prove analytically that the Love numbers of a Kerr black hole remain zero to second order in the spin. As a by-product, we provide the explicit form for a slowly-rotating, tidally-deformed Kerr black hole to quadratic order in the spin, and discuss its geodesic and geometrical properties.

  14. Spartina anglica eradication experiment and in situ monitoring assess structuring strength of habitat complexity on marine macrofauna at high tidal level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottet, Maud; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Lebleu, Pascal

    2007-02-01

    The cordgrass Spartina anglica is an introduced species that tends to invade sheltered sand and mudflats, at the upper low marsh level. In Arcachon Bay, a lagoon in South West of France, the cordgrass can also replace Zostera noltii beds. The consequence of cordgrass presence on macrobenthic fauna was estimated and compared to adjacent habitats (bare sands, Z. noltii sea grass beds) during one year. The communities of the three habitats were characterised by low species richness, low abundance and biomass (when Hydrobia ulvae, 90% of abundance, is not considered) and high seasonal stability. The infaunal assemblages were particularly homogeneous between habitats without any characteristic species. Cordgrass eradication experiments were performed and zoobenthic recolonisation was observed the following year. Modifications in benthic fauna were observed on epifauna only. These results highlight the limited structuring effect of habitat heterogeneity at high tidal levels and in soft-bottom sediments where desiccation becomes the dominant factor determining infauna community structure.

  15. An insight into real and average structure from diffuse X-ray scattering - a case study.

    PubMed

    Chodkiewicz, Michał Leszek; Makal, Anna; Gajda, Roman; Vidovic, Dragoslav; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional diffuse X-ray scattering from an organic salt [N-(3-(2,6-dimethylanilino)-1-methylbut-2-enylidene)-2,6-dimethylanilinium chloride, C21H27N2(+)Cl(-)] was interpreted with the help of an analytical model of diffuse scattering. An analysis of the relationship between symmetry and diffuse scattering for the studied system has been undertaken. The symmetry of the system explains the extinction pattern, taking the form of curves, on the diffuse scattering planes. We have also tested the relationship between the average structure model and scattering intensities. Two models, differing in their representation of overlapping atoms, were used. In the case of diffuse scattering the difference between resulting intensities is immense, while for the Bragg intensities it is much smaller. This sensitivity of diffuse scattering could potentially be used to improve the description of the average structure. PMID:27484378

  16. Sparse and Adaptive Diffusion Dictionary (SADD) for recovering intra-voxel white matter structure.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Ramon; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso; Rivera, Mariano

    2015-12-01

    On the analysis of the Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images, multi-compartment models overcome the limitations of the well-known Diffusion Tensor model for fitting in vivo brain axonal orientations at voxels with fiber crossings, branching, kissing or bifurcations. Some successful multi-compartment methods are based on diffusion dictionaries. The diffusion dictionary-based methods assume that the observed Magnetic Resonance signal at each voxel is a linear combination of the fixed dictionary elements (dictionary atoms). The atoms are fixed along different orientations and diffusivity profiles. In this work, we present a sparse and adaptive diffusion dictionary method based on the Diffusion Basis Functions Model to estimate in vivo brain axonal fiber populations. Our proposal overcomes the following limitations of the diffusion dictionary-based methods: the limited angular resolution and the fixed shapes for the atom set. We propose to iteratively re-estimate the orientations and the diffusivity profile of the atoms independently at each voxel by using a simplified and easier-to-solve mathematical approach. As a result, we improve the fitting of the Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance signal. The advantages with respect to the former Diffusion Basis Functions method are demonstrated on the synthetic data-set used on the 2012 HARDI Reconstruction Challenge and in vivo human data. We demonstrate that improvements obtained in the intra-voxel fiber structure estimations benefit brain research allowing to obtain better tractography estimations. Hence, these improvements result in an accurate computation of the brain connectivity patterns. PMID:26519793

  17. Mean motions and tidal and two-day structure and variability in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Isler, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the motion field and an analysis of the tidal and 2-day wave motions observed in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over the central Pacific from 1 October 1990 through 19 August 1992 is presented. Characteristics and interactions of motions at lower and higher frequencies will be addressed elsewhere. Wind measurements were obtained with an MF radar operating on Kauai, Hawaii (22 deg N, 160 deg W), using the partial reflection drift technique. Results presented in this paper reveal a zonal mean motion reflecting the mesopause semiannual oscillation (MSAO) observed at more equatorial latitudes from approximately January to July, coinciding with the period during which the MSAO and the annual cycle of the zonal mean wind at higher latitudes are in phase. Eastward and westward maxima are 55 m/s below 80 km and 45 m/s near 85 km during the first year, with maxima of 57 and 53 m/s during the second year and evidence of substantial interannual variability. The second MSAO cycle is greatly suppressed in the Hawaiian data due to the reversal of the correlation between this and the annual cycle at higher latitudes from approximately July to December and because the second cycle is weaker climatologically at equatorial latitudes. Significant planetary wave activity is observed during periods of mean eastward motions, and tidal and 2-day motions are found to be large and variable. The maximum diurnal tides were observed during October and November 1990, and February, March, April, July, and August of 1991 and 1992. Maximum 2-day amplitudes occurred during February, July, and August of 1991 and 1992. Significantly, the large diurnal amplitude maximum noted during November 1990 failed to appear the following year, while the February 2-day amplitude maximum declined somewhat in 1992.

  18. Spin Echo Attenuation of Restricted Diffusion as a Discord of Spin Phase Structure

    PubMed

    Stepisnik

    1998-04-01

    By using the particle probability density we analyze the spin echo attenuation of particles, diffusing in a bounded region. It provides a means to expand a nonuniform spin phase distribution into a series of waves that characterize the geometry and boundary conditions of confinement. Random motion disrupts the initial phase structure created by applied gradients and consequently discords its structure waves. By assuming the spin phase fluctuation and/or the randomness of spin phase distribution in the subensemble as a Gaussian stochastic process, we derive a new analytical expression for the echo attenuation related to the particle velocity correlation. For a diffusion in porous structure we get the expression featuring the same "diffusive diffraction" patterns as those being found and explained by P. T. Callaghan and A. Coy ("Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy," Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford (1991); J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4599-4609 (1994)) with the use of propagator theory. With the new approach we cast a new light on the phenomena and derive analitically how the diffusive diffractions appear when the sequence of finite or even modulated gradients are applied. The method takes into account the non-Markovian character of restricted diffusion, and therefore the echo dependence on the diffusion lengths and on the strength of applied gradient differs from the results of authors assuming the Markovian diffusion either by dealing with the diffusion propagators or by the computer simulation of Fick's diffusion. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9571110

  19. Characterization of Tissue Structure at Varying Length Scales Using Temporal Diffusion Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gore, John C.; Xu, Junzhong; Colvin, Daniel C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Parsons, Edward C.; Does, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The concepts, theoretical behavior and experimental applications of temporal diffusion spectroscopy are reviewed and illustrated. Temporal diffusion spectra are obtained by using oscillating gradient waveforms in diffusion-weighted measurements, and represent the manner in which various spectral components of molecular velocity correlations vary in different geometrical structures that restrict or hinder free movements. Measurements made at different gradient frequencies reveal information on the scale of restrictions or hindrances to free diffusion, and the shape of a spectrum reveals the relative contributions of spatial restrictions at different distance scales. Such spectra differ from other so-called diffusion spectra which depict spatial frequencies and are defined at a fixed diffusion time. Experimentally, oscillating gradients at moderate frequency are more feasible for exploring restrictions at very short distances, which in tissues correspond to structures smaller than cells. We describe the underlying concepts of temporal diffusion spectra and provide analytical expressions for the behavior of the diffusion coefficient as a function of gradient frequency in simple geometries with different dimensions. Diffusion in more complex model media that mimic tissues has been simulated using numerical methods. Experimental measurements of diffusion spectra have been obtained in suspensions of particles and cells, as well as in vivo in intact animals. An observation of particular interest is the increased contrast and heterogeneity observed in tumors using oscillating gradients at moderate frequency compared to conventional pulse gradient methods, and the potential for detecting changes in tumors early in their response to treatment. Computer simulations suggest that diffusion spectral measurements may be sensitive to intracellular structures such as nuclear size, and that changes in tissue diffusion properties may be measured before there are changes in cell

  20. Nanoscale structure in AgSbTe2 determined by diffuse elastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Eliot D; Ma, Jie; Delaire, Olivier A; Budai, John D; May, Andrew F; Karapetrova, Evguenia A.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse elastic neutron scattering measurements confirm that AgSbTe2 has a hierarchical structure, with defects on length scales from nanometers to microns. While scattering from mesoscale structure is consistent with previously-proposed structures in which Ag and Sb order on a NaCl lattice, more diffuse scattering from nanoscale structure suggests a structural rearrangement in which hexagonal layers form a combination of (ABC), (ABA), and (AAB) stacking sequences. The AgCrSe2 structure is the best-fitting model for the local atomic arrangements.

  1. Which Tidal Tails Give The Best Constraints On The Graininess Of DarkMatter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.

    2011-04-01

    The timescale for a tidal tail in a galaxy to diverge from its original orbit due to perturbations from dark subhalos depends on a Coulomb logarithm and so is sensitive to distant dark sub-halos. However the timescale for clumps or kinks to form in the tail depends on the compression or sheer induced by encounters and these are strongly dependent on the impact parameter, giving a diffusion coefficient for thickening that is independent of the Coulomb log and strongly dependent on close encounters. The induced sheer or compression gives a timescale for clump or kink formation of approximately 1 Gyr for a 10^7 solar mass subhalo coming within a kpc of a tail (or having a core radius of a kpc). Because they sample more halo volume faster we find that the structure of wide tidal tails from disrupting dwarf galaxies give stronger constraints on the number of bound dark subhalos than either diffuse tidal features in the outer parts of galaxies or colder tidal tails from evaporating globular clusters.

  2. Realistic models of stochastically varying hyperfine interactions caused by vacancy diffusion in L12-structured compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, J. R.; Zacate, M. O.; Evenson, W. E.

    2013-05-01

    Perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) is an attractive method for fundamental studies of diffusion because of the possibility to observe directly atomic scale defects involved in a diffusion process. Previous work investigated under what experimental conditions one could observe a contribution to a PAC spectrum that clearly could be attributed to a vacancy in L12-structured compounds for the special case of self-diffusion. This has since been extended in the present work to consider the case of impurity diffusion and to explore whether or not distant vacancies or configurations with multiple vacancies affect PAC spectra significantly.

  3. Melting of Io by tidal dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.; Cassen, P.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    The resonant structure of Io leads to forced eccentricities that are considerably larger than the free values. Although still modest by all standards, these forced eccentricities coupled with the enormous tides induced by Jupiter lead to magnitudes of tidal dissipation that are large enough to completely dominate the thermal history of Io. In the present paper, the forced eccentricities are calculated and then substituted into an expression for the total tidal dissipation. The results point to the possibility that the dissipation of tidal energy in Io may have melted a major fraction of Io's mass.

  4. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-07-28

    Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier's equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls_as_xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.

  5. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation-libration-screw structural ensembles.

    PubMed

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H; Afonine, Pavel V; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Wall, Michael E; Jackson, Colin J; Sauter, Nicholas K; Adams, Paul D; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S

    2015-08-01

    Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier's equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation-libration-screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls_as_xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis. PMID:26249347

  6. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-07-28

    Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier'smore » equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls_as_xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.« less

  7. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier’s equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls_as_xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophos­phodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis. PMID:26249347

  8. Hydrogen Diffusion Behavior in Titanium-Chromium Hydrides with Laves Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman Jr., R.C.; Craft, B.D.; Attalla, A.; Johnson, J.R.

    1981-03-31

    Extensive NMR measurements of the proton relaxation times have been performed on low (i.e., alpha-phase) and intermediate (i.e., alpha'-phase) hydrogen concentrations in TiCr{sub}2H{sub}x with both the hexagonal Cl4 and cubic Cl5 Laves structures. The relaxation times indicate rapid diffusion rates above 200 K for all the TiCr{sub}2H{sub}x phases; however, large differences in the diffusion activation energies are observed. This behavior is associated with the hydrogen interstitial site occupancies and diffusion pathways becoming restricted in the Cl4 structure.

  9. Diffusion of helium in carbonates: Effects of mineral structure and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Amidon, W.; Hobbs, D.; Watson, E. B.

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion of helium has been characterized in four carbonates: calcite, dolomite, magnesite, and aragonite. Cleaved or oriented and polished slabs of carbonate minerals were implanted with 100 keV or 3 MeV 3He at doses of 5 × 10153He/cm2 and 1 × 10163He/cm2, respectively, and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. 3He distributions following diffusion experiments were measured with nuclear reaction analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. Our results show that He diffusion in calcite is the fastest among the carbonates studied, with diffusivities progressively slower in magnesite, dolomite and aragonite. In the case of the isomorphic trigonal carbonates (calcite, dolomite, magnesite), these observations are broadly consistent with predictions based on lattice characteristics such as unit cell size and inter-atomic apertures, with diffusivities faster in more open carbonate structures. Dolomite is an exception to this trend, suggesting that its unique ordered R3 crystal structure may play a role in slowing helium diffusion. Diffusion is anisotropic in all of the trigonal carbonates, and is typically slowest for diffusion along the c direction, and faster for diffusion normal to c and in directions normal to cleavage surfaces. The patterns of diffusional anisotropy are predicted to first order by the size of limiting inter-atomic apertures along any given crystallographic direction, providing additional support to the concept of modeling crystal lattices as "molecular sieves" with regard to diffusion of helium. When the effects of anisotropy and diffusion domain size are considered, our results are in reasonable agreement with previous results from bulk degassing of natural samples. Modeling of helium diffusive loss shows that calcite and magnesite are unlikely to be retentive of helium on the Earth's surface for typical grain sizes and time/temperature conditions. Dolomite and aragonite may be retentive under cooler conditions, but because helium retention is strongly

  10. Fractional order analysis of Sephadex gel structures: NMR measurements reflecting anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magin, Richard L.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Neuberger, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G.

    2011-12-01

    We report the appearance of anomalous water diffusion in hydrophilic Sephadex gels observed using pulse field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR diffusion data was collected using a Varian 14.1 Tesla imaging system with a home-built RF saddle coil. A fractional order analysis of the data was used to characterize heterogeneity in the gels for the dynamics of water diffusion in this restricted environment. Several recent studies of anomalous diffusion have used the stretched exponential function to model the decay of the NMR signal, i.e., exp[-( bD) α], where D is the apparent diffusion constant, b is determined the experimental conditions (gradient pulse separation, durations and strength), and α is a measure of structural complexity. In this work, we consider a different case where the spatial Laplacian in the Bloch-Torrey equation is generalized to a fractional order model of diffusivity via a complexity parameter, β, a space constant, μ, and a diffusion coefficient, D. This treatment reverts to the classical result for the integer order case. The fractional order decay model was fit to the diffusion-weighted signal attenuation for a range of b-values (0 < b < 4000 s mm -2). Throughout this range of b values, the parameters β, μ and D, were found to correlate with the porosity and tortuosity of the gel structure.

  11. The Role of the Organization Structure in the Diffusion of Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz-Royo, Carlos; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion and adoption of innovations is a topic of increasing interest in economics, market research, and sociology. In this paper we investigate, through an agent based model, the dynamics of adoption of innovative proposals in different kinds of structures. We show that community structure plays an important role on the innovation diffusion, so that proposals are more likely to be accepted in homogeneous organizations. In addition, we show that the learning process of innovative technologies enhances their diffusion, thus resulting in an important ingredient when heterogeneous networks are considered. We also show that social pressure blocks the adoption process whatever the structure of the organization. These results may help to understand how different factors influence the diffusion and acceptance of innovative proposals in different communities and organizations. PMID:25978360

  12. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-07-28

    A method of simulating X-ray diffuse scattering from multi-model PDB files is presented. Despite similar agreement with Bragg data, different translation–libration–screw refinement strategies produce unique diffuse intensity patterns. Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier’s equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls-as-xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.

  13. Microstructural Evolution of Cu/Solder/Cu Pillar-Type Structures with Different Diffusion Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsi-Kuei; Lin, Yu-Jie; Chen, Chih-Ming; Liu, Kuo-Chio; Wang, Ying-Lang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Microstructural evolution of the Cu/solder/Cu pillar-type bonding structures with a reduced solder volume subjected to thermal aging at 423 K to 473 K(150 °C to 200 °C) was investigated. In a bonding structure employing a Ni single layer as the diffusion barrier, solder was consumed with formation of the Ni3Sn4 phase at the bonding interfaces due to an usual Sn/Ni interfacial reaction. However, an unusual Sn/Cu reaction occurred with formation of the Cu6Sn5 (and Cu3Sn) phase on the periphery of the Cu pillar due to out-diffusion of Sn toward the pillar periphery. Consumption of solder was accelerated by the above two reactions which led to the formation of a continuous gap in the bonding structure. Employment of a thicker Ni layer plus a Cu cap layer as the diffusion barrier in the bonding structure effectively blocked out-diffusion of Sn toward the periphery of the Cu pillar and therefore retarded the gap formation. The retardation effect was attributed to an increment of diffusion distance on the pillar periphery due to an effective diffusion barrier composed by Ni and thicker Cu-Sn (Cu6Sn5 + Cu3Sn) phase layers. Detailed phase identification and microstructural evolution in the bonding structures were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Microstructural Evolution of Cu/Solder/Cu Pillar-Type Structures with Different Diffusion Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsi-Kuei; Lin, Yu-Jie; Chen, Chih-Ming; Liu, Kuo-Chio; Wang, Ying-Lang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Microstructural evolution of the Cu/solder/Cu pillar-type bonding structures with a reduced solder volume subjected to thermal aging at 423 K to 473 K(150 °C to 200 °C) was investigated. In a bonding structure employing a Ni single layer as the diffusion barrier, solder was consumed with formation of the Ni3Sn4 phase at the bonding interfaces due to an usual Sn/Ni interfacial reaction. However, an unusual Sn/Cu reaction occurred with formation of the Cu6Sn5 (and Cu3Sn) phase on the periphery of the Cu pillar due to out-diffusion of Sn toward the pillar periphery. Consumption of solder was accelerated by the above two reactions which led to the formation of a continuous gap in the bonding structure. Employment of a thicker Ni layer plus a Cu cap layer as the diffusion barrier in the bonding structure effectively blocked out-diffusion of Sn toward the periphery of the Cu pillar and therefore retarded the gap formation. The retardation effect was attributed to an increment of diffusion distance on the pillar periphery due to an effective diffusion barrier composed by Ni and thicker Cu-Sn (Cu6Sn5 + Cu3Sn) phase layers. Detailed phase identification and microstructural evolution in the bonding structures were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Diffusion in Cytoplasm: Effects of Excluded Volume Due to Internal Membranes and Cytoskeletal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Igor L.; Kraikivski, Pavel; Slepchenko, Boris M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The intricate geometry of cytoskeletal networks and internal membranes causes the space available for diffusion in cytoplasm to be convoluted, thereby affecting macromolecule diffusivity. We present a first systematic computational study of this effect by approximating intracellular structures as mixtures of random overlapping obstacles of various shapes. Effective diffusion coefficients are computed using a fast homogenization technique. It is found that a simple two-parameter power law provides a remarkably accurate description of effective diffusion over the entire range of volume fractions and for any given composition of structures. This universality allows for fast computation of diffusion coefficients, once the obstacle shapes and volume fractions are specified. We demonstrate that the excluded volume effect alone can account for a four-to-sixfold reduction in diffusive transport in cells, relative to diffusion in vitro. The study lays the foundation for an accurate coarse-grain formulation that would account for cytoplasm heterogeneity on a micron scale and binding of tracers to intracellular structures. PMID:19651034

  16. Spatial patterns of tidal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2013-03-01

    In a body periodically strained by tides, heating produced by viscous friction is far from homogeneous. The spatial distribution of tidal heating depends in a complicated way on the tidal potential and on the internal structure of the body. I show here that the distribution of the dissipated power within a spherically stratified body is a linear combination of three angular functions. These angular functions depend only on the tidal potential whereas the radial weights are specified by the internal structure of the body. The 3D problem of predicting spatial patterns of dissipation at all radii is thus reduced to the 1D problem of computing weight functions. I compute spatial patterns in various toy models without assuming a specific rheology: a viscoelastic thin shell stratified in conductive and convective layers, an incompressible homogeneous body and a two-layer model of uniform density with a liquid or rigid core. For a body in synchronous rotation undergoing eccentricity tides, dissipation in a mantle surrounding a liquid core is highest at the poles. Within a soft layer (or asthenosphere) in contact with a more rigid layer, the same tides generate maximum heating in the equatorial region with a significant degree-four structure if the soft layer is thin. The asthenosphere can be a layer of partial melting in the upper mantle or, very differently, an icy layer in contact with a silicate mantle or solid core. Tidal heating patterns are thus of three main types: mantle dissipation (with the icy shell above an ocean as a particular case), dissipation in a thin soft layer and dissipation in a thick soft layer. Finally, I show that the toy models predict well patterns of dissipation in Europa, Titan and Io. The formalism described in this paper applies to dissipation within solid layers of planets and satellites for which internal spherical symmetry and viscoelastic linear rheology are good approximations.

  17. Striations, duration, migration and tidal response in deep tremor.

    PubMed

    Ide, Satoshi

    2010-07-15

    Deep tremor in subduction zones is thought to be caused by small repeating shear slip events on the plate interface with significant slow components. It occurs at a depth of about 30 kilometres and provides valuable information on deep plate motion and shallow stress accumulation on the fault plane of megathrust earthquakes. Tremor has been suggested to repeat at a regular interval, migrate at various velocities and be modulated by tidal stress. Here I show that some time-invariant interface property controls tremor behaviour, using precise location of tremor sources with event duration in western Shikoku in the Nankai subduction zone, Japan. In areas where tremor duration is short, tremor is more strongly affected by tidal stress and migration is inhibited. Where tremor lasts longer, diffusive migration occurs with a constant diffusivity of 10(4) m(2) s(-1). The control property may be the ratio of brittle to ductile areas, perhaps determined by the influence of mantle wedge serpentinization on the plate interface. The spatial variation of the controlling property seems to be characterized by striations in tremor source distribution, which follows either the current or previous plate subduction directions. This suggests that the striations and corresponding interface properties are formed through the subduction of inhomogeneous structure, such as seamounts, for periods as long as ten million years. PMID:20631797

  18. Sub-diffuse structured light imaging provides macroscopic maps of microscopic tissue structure (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen C.

    2016-03-01

    The onset and progression of cancer introduces changes to the intra-cellular ultrastructural components and to the morphology of the extracellular matrix. While previous work has shown that localized scatter imaging is sensitive to pathology-induced differences in these aspects of tissue microstructure, wide adaptation this knowledge for surgical guidance is limited by two factors. First, the time required to image with confocal-level localization of the remission signal can be substantial. Second, localized (i.e. sub-diffuse) scatter remission intensity is influenced interchangeably by parameters that define scattering frequency and anisotropy. This similarity relationship must be carefully considered in order to obtain unique estimates of biomarkers that define either the scatter density or features that describe the distribution (e.g. shape, size, and orientation) of scatterers. This study presents a novel approach that uses structured light imaging to address both of these limitations. Monte Carlo data were used to model the reflectance intensity over a wide range of spatial frequencies, reduced scattering coefficients, absorption coefficients, and a metric of the scattering phase function that directly maps to the fractal dimension of scatter sizes. The approach is validated in tissue-simulating phantoms constructed with user-tuned scattering phase functions. The validation analysis shows that the phase function can be described in the presence of different scatter densities or background absorptions. Preliminary data from clinical tissue specimens show quantitative images of both the scatter density and the tissue fractal dimension for various tissue types and pathologies. These data represent a novel wide-field quantitative approach to mapping microscopic structural biomarkers that cannot be obtained with standard diffuse imaging. Implications for the use of this approach to assess surgical margins will be discussed.

  19. Confined diffusion in tubular structures analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on a mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, Emilien; Lenne, Pierre-François; Sturgis, James N.; Rigneault, Hervé

    2006-06-01

    In fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis it is generally assumed that molecular species diffuse freely in volumes much larger than the three-dimensional FCS observation volume. However, this standard assumption is not valid in many measurement conditions, particularly in tubular structures with diameters in the micrometer range, such as those found in living cells (organelles, dendrites) and microfluidic devices (capillaries, reaction chambers). As a result the measured autocorrelation functions (ACFs) deviate from those predicted for free diffusion, and this can shift the measured diffusion coefficient by as much as ~50% when the tube diameter is comparable with the axial extension of the FCS observation volume. We show that the range of validity of the FCS measurements can be drastically improved if the tubular structures are located in the close vicinity of a mirror on which FCS is performed. In this case a new fluctuation time in the ACF, arising from the diffusion of fluorescent probes in optical fringes, permits measurement of the real diffusion coefficient within the tubular structure without assumptions about either the confined geometry or the FCS observation volume geometry. We show that such a measurement can be done when the tubular structure contains at least one pair of dark and bright fringes resulting from interference between the incoming and the reflected excitation beams on the mirror surface. Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and IscS-EGFP in the cytoplasm of living Escherichia coli illustrates the capabilities of the technique.

  20. Confined diffusion in tubular structures analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on a mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Etienne, Emilien; Lenne, Pierre-Francois; Sturgis, James N.; Rigneault, Herve

    2006-06-20

    In fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis it is generally assumed that molecular species diffuse freely in volumes much larger than the three-dimensional FCS observation volume. However, this standard assumption is not valid in many measurement conditions, particularly in tubular structures with diameters in the micrometer range, such as those found in living cells (organelles, dendrites) and microfluidic devices (capillaries,reaction chambers). As a result the measured autocorrelation functions (ACFs) deviate from those predicted for free diffusion, and this can shift the measured diffusion coefficient by as much as {approx}50% when the tube diameter is comparable with the axial extension of the FCS observation volume. We show that the range of validity of the FCS measurements can be drastically improved if the tubular structures are located in the close vicinity of a mirror on which FCS is performed. In this case a new fluctuation time in the ACF, arising from the diffusion of fluorescent probes in optical fringes,permits measurement of the real diffusion coefficient within the tubular structure without assumptions about either the confined geometry orthe FCS observation volume geometry. We show that such a measurement can be done when the tubular structure contains at least one pair of dark and bright fringes resulting from interference between the incoming and the reflected excitation beams on the mirror surface. Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and IscS-EGFP in the cytoplasm of living Escherichiacoli illustrates the capabilities of the technique.

  1. Nonlinear structure of the diffusing gas-metal interface in a thermonuclear plasma.

    PubMed

    Molvig, Kim; Vold, Erik L; Dodd, Evan S; Wilks, Scott C

    2014-10-01

    This Letter describes the theoretical structure of the plasma diffusion layer that develops from an initially sharp gas-metal interface. The layer dynamics under isothermal and isobaric conditions is considered so that only mass diffusion (mixing) processes can occur. The layer develops a distinctive structure with asymmetric and highly nonlinear features. On the gas side of the layer the diffusion coefficient goes nearly to zero, causing a sharp "front," or well defined boundary between mix layer and clean gas with similarities to the Marshak thermal waves. Similarity solutions for the nonlinear profiles are found and verified with full ion kinetic code simulations. A criterion for plasma diffusion to significantly affect burn is given. PMID:25325648

  2. Experimental investigation of a double-diffused MOS structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. C.; Halsor, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Self-aligned polysilicon gate technology was applied to double-diffused MOS (DMOS) construction in a manner that retains processing simplicity and effectively eliminates parasitic overlap capacitance because of the self-aligning feature. Depletion mode load devices with the same dimensions as the DMOS transistors were integrated. The ratioless feature results in smaller dimension load devices, allowing for higher density integration with no increase in the processing complexity of standard MOS technology. A number of inverters connected as ring oscillators were used as a vehicle to test the performance and to verify the anticipated benefits. The propagation time-power dissipation product and process related parameters were measured and evaluated. This report includes (1) details of the process; (2) test data and design details for the DMOS transistor, the load device, the inverter, the ring oscillator, and a shift register with a novel tapered geometry for the output stages; and (3) an analytical treatment of the effect of the distributed silicon gate resistance and capacitance on the speed of DMOS transistors.

  3. Structural changes underlying compensatory increase of diffusing capacity after left pneumonectomy in adult dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, C C; Fryder-Doffey, F; Stalder-Nayarro, V; Johnson, R L; Reynolds, R C; Weibel, E R

    1993-01-01

    To determine if the functional compensation in diffusing capacity of the remaining lung following pneumonectomy is due to structural growth, we performed morphometric analysis of the right lung in three adult foxhounds approximately 2 yr after left pneumonectomy (removal of 42% of lung) and compared the results to those in normal adult dogs previously studied by the same techniques. Diffusing capacity was calculated by an established morphometric model and compared to physiologic estimates at peak exercise in the same dogs after pneumonectomy. The major structural changes after left pneumonectomy are hyperinflation of the right lung, alveolar enlargement, and thinning of the alveolar-capillary tissue barrier. These changes confer significant functional compensation for gas exchange by reducing the overall resistance to O2 diffusion. The magnitude of compensation in diffusing capacity estimated either morphometrically or physiologically is similar. In spite of morphometric and physiologic evidence of functional compensation, there is no evidence of significant growth of structural components. After pneumonectomy, morphometric estimates of diffusing capacity are on average 23% higher than physiologic estimates in the same dogs at peak exercise. We conclude that the previously reported large differences between morphometric and physiologic estimates of diffusing capacity reflects the presence of large physiologic reserves available for recruitment. Images PMID:8349815

  4. Resolving Fine Cardiac Structures in Rats with High-Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Irvin; McClymont, Darryl; Burton, Rebecca A. B.; Maguire, Mahon L.; Whittington, Hannah J.; Lygate, Craig A.; Kohl, Peter; Schneider, Jürgen E.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac architecture is fundamental to cardiac function and can be assessed non-invasively with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, we aimed to overcome technical challenges in ex vivo DTI in order to extract fine anatomical details and to provide novel insights in the 3D structure of the heart. An integrated set of methods was implemented in ex vivo rat hearts, including dynamic receiver gain adjustment, gradient system scaling calibration, prospective adjustment of diffusion gradients, and interleaving of diffusion-weighted and non-diffusion-weighted scans. Together, these methods enhanced SNR and spatial resolution, minimised orientation bias in diffusion-weighting, and reduced temperature variation, enabling detection of tissue structures such as cell alignment in atria, valves and vessels at an unprecedented level of detail. Improved confidence in eigenvector reproducibility enabled tracking of myolaminar structures as a basis for segmentation of functional groups of cardiomyocytes. Ex vivo DTI facilitates acquisition of high quality structural data that complements readily available in vivo cardiac functional and anatomical MRI. The improvements presented here will facilitate next generation virtual models integrating micro-structural and electro-mechanical properties of the heart. PMID:27466029

  5. Resolving Fine Cardiac Structures in Rats with High-Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Teh, Irvin; McClymont, Darryl; Burton, Rebecca A B; Maguire, Mahon L; Whittington, Hannah J; Lygate, Craig A; Kohl, Peter; Schneider, Jürgen E

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac architecture is fundamental to cardiac function and can be assessed non-invasively with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, we aimed to overcome technical challenges in ex vivo DTI in order to extract fine anatomical details and to provide novel insights in the 3D structure of the heart. An integrated set of methods was implemented in ex vivo rat hearts, including dynamic receiver gain adjustment, gradient system scaling calibration, prospective adjustment of diffusion gradients, and interleaving of diffusion-weighted and non-diffusion-weighted scans. Together, these methods enhanced SNR and spatial resolution, minimised orientation bias in diffusion-weighting, and reduced temperature variation, enabling detection of tissue structures such as cell alignment in atria, valves and vessels at an unprecedented level of detail. Improved confidence in eigenvector reproducibility enabled tracking of myolaminar structures as a basis for segmentation of functional groups of cardiomyocytes. Ex vivo DTI facilitates acquisition of high quality structural data that complements readily available in vivo cardiac functional and anatomical MRI. The improvements presented here will facilitate next generation virtual models integrating micro-structural and electro-mechanical properties of the heart. PMID:27466029

  6. Tidal Distortion of Titan: Implications for Surface Features and Tidal Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, F.; Hussmann, H.; Coustenis, A.; Knapmeyer, M.; Lange, C.; Solomonidou, A.; Stephan, K.; Wagner, F. W.

    2012-04-01

    Titan is unique due to its similarity to the Earth and terrestrial planets in spite of the satellite's ice-rich bulk composition. Gravitational field data acquired by the Cassini spacecraft suggest that Titan's interior is composed of a mixture of rock and ice and is only partly differentiated. Titan is tidally locked with respect to Saturn and thereby subject to periodic tidal forcing of its interior and surface. Based on interior structure models and assumptions on rheological properties of planetary materials (i.e. ice, rock, water-ammonia ocean), we compute the elastic body tide Love numbers h2, k2, and l2 in order to describe Titan's tidal response. Key parameters, e.g., tidally-induced changes of local gravity, tilt relative to the direction of gravity, and areal strain are then given by linear combinations of h2, k2, and l2. We find peak-to-peak amplitudes of tidally-induced surface displacement and tilt variation on the order of up to a few tens of metres and a few arc seconds, respectively. Based on the obtained variations of tidal parameters, we will address possible implications for morphotectonic surface features and compositional heterogeneity on Titan. In addition, we will address possible measurements of global tidal distortion by using a network of several small landed stations. Each of those would have to carry an instrument suite to monitor tidally-induced changes of local gravity, tilt relative to the direction of gravity, and areal strain at the surface of Titan. Furthermore, tidal stresses are expected to induce significant seismic activity comparable to tidally-induced quakes on the Moon, and possibly along with seismicity induced by localized cryovolcanic activity.

  7. Banded structures in electron pitch angle diffusion coefficients from resonant wave-particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.; Khazanov, G. V.; Avanov, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Electron pitch angle (Dαα) and momentum (Dpp) diffusion coefficients have been calculated due to resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode chorus waves. Calculations have been performed at two spatial locations L = 4.6 and 6.8 for electron energies ≤10 keV. Landau (n = 0) resonance and cyclotron harmonic resonances n = ±1, ±2, … ±5 have been included in the calculations. It is found that diffusion coefficient versus pitch angle (α) profiles show large dips and oscillations or banded structures. The structures are more pronounced for ECH and lower band chorus (LBC) and particularly at location 4.6. Calculations of diffusion coefficients have also been performed for individual resonances. It is noticed that the main contribution of ECH waves in pitch angle diffusion coefficient is due to resonances n = +1 and n = +2. A major contribution to momentum diffusion coefficients appears from n = +2. However, the banded structures in Dαα and Dpp coefficients appear only in the profile of diffusion coefficients for n = +2. The contribution of other resonances to diffusion coefficients is found to be, in general, quite small or even negligible. For LBC and upper band chorus waves, the banded structures appear only in Landau resonance. The Dpp diffusion coefficient for ECH waves is one to two orders smaller than Dαα coefficients. For chorus waves, Dpp coefficients are about an order of magnitude smaller than Dαα coefficients for the case n ≠ 0. In case of Landau resonance, the values of Dpp coefficient are generally larger than the values of Dαα coefficients particularly at lower energies. As an aid to the interpretation of results, we have also determined the resonant frequencies. For ECH waves, resonant frequencies have been estimated for wave normal angle 89° and harmonic resonances n = +1, +2, and +3, whereas for whistler mode waves, the frequencies have been calculated for angle 10° and Landau

  8. Reaction Kernel Structure of a Slot Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, F.; Katta, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion flame stabilization in normal earth gravity (1 g) has long been a fundamental research subject in combustion. Local flame-flow phenomena, including heat and species transport and chemical reactions, around the flame base in the vicinity of condensed surfaces control flame stabilization and fire spreading processes. Therefore, gravity plays an important role in the subject topic because buoyancy induces flow in the flame zone, thus increasing the convective (and diffusive) oxygen transport into the flame zone and, in turn, reaction rates. Recent computations show that a peak reactivity (heat-release or oxygen-consumption rate) spot, or reaction kernel, is formed in the flame base by back-diffusion and reactions of radical species in the incoming oxygen-abundant flow at relatively low temperatures (about 1550 K). Quasi-linear correlations were found between the peak heat-release or oxygen-consumption rate and the velocity at the reaction kernel for cases including both jet and flat-plate diffusion flames in airflow. The reaction kernel provides a stationary ignition source to incoming reactants, sustains combustion, and thus stabilizes the trailing diffusion flame. In a quiescent microgravity environment, no buoyancy-induced flow exits and thus purely diffusive transport controls the reaction rates. Flame stabilization mechanisms in such purely diffusion-controlled regime remain largely unstudied. Therefore, it will be a rigorous test for the reaction kernel correlation if it can be extended toward zero velocity conditions in the purely diffusion-controlled regime. The objectives of this study are to reveal the structure of the flame-stabilizing region of a two-dimensional (2D) laminar jet diffusion flame in microgravity and develop a unified diffusion flame stabilization mechanism. This paper reports the recent progress in the computation and experiment performed in microgravity.

  9. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  10. Contribution to the theory of tidal oscillations of an elastic earth. External tidal potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.

    1974-01-01

    The differential equations of the tidal oscillations of the earth were established under the assumption that the interior of the earth is laterally inhomogeneous. The theory was developed using vectorial and dyadic symbolism to shorten the exposition and to reduce the differential equations to a symmetric form convenient for programming and for numerical integration. The formation of tidal buldges on the surfaces of discontinuity and the changes in the internal density produce small periodic variations in the exterior geopotential which are reflected in the motion of artificial satellites. The analoques of Love elastic parameters in the expansion of exterior tidal potential reflect the asymmetric and inhomogeneous structure of the interior of the earth.

  11. Anomalous diffusion and the structure of human transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, D.

    2008-04-01

    The dispersal of individuals of a species is the key driving force of various spatiotemporal phenomena which occur on geographical scales. It can synchronise populations of interacting species, stabilise them, and diversify gene pools [1-3]. The geographic spread of human infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is essentially promoted by human travel which occurs on many length scales and is sustained by a variety of means of transportation [4-8]. In the light of increasing international trade, intensified human traffic, and an imminent influenza A pandemic the knowledge of dynamical and statistical properties of human dispersal is of fundamental importance and acute [7,9,10]. A quantitative statistical theory for human travel and concomitant reliable forecasts would substantially improve and extend existing prevention strategies. Despite its crucial role, a quantitative assessment of human dispersal remains elusive and the opinion that humans disperse diffusively still prevails in many models [11]. In this chapter I will report on a recently developed technique which permits a solid and quantitative assessment of human dispersal on geographical scales [11]. The key idea is to infer the statistical properties of human travel by analysing the geographic circulation of individual bank notes for which comprehensive datasets are collected at the online bill-tracking website www.wheresgeorge.com. The analysis shows that the distribution of travelling distances decays as a power law, indicating that the movement of bank notes is reminiscent of superdiffusive, scale free random walks known as Lèvy flights [13]. Secondly, the probability of remaining in a small, spatially confined region for a time T is dominated by heavy tails which attenuate superdiffusive dispersal. I will show that the dispersal of bank notes can be described on many spatiotemporal scales by a two parameter continuous time random walk

  12. Structural disorder and anomalous water diffusion in random packing of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Andrea; Capuani, Silvia; Palombo, Marco; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Ruocco, Giancarlo

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays Nuclear Magnetic Resonance diffusion (dNMR) measurements of water molecules in heterogeneous systems have broad applications in material science, biophysics and medicine. Up to now, microstructural rearrangement in media has been experimentally investigated by studying the diffusion coefficient (D(t)) behavior in the tortuosity limit. However, this method is not able to describe structural disorder and transitions in complex systems. In this talk we show that, according to the continuous time random walk framework, the dNMR measurable parameter α, quantifying the anomalous regime of D(t) , provides a quantitative characterization of structural disorder and structural transition in heterogeneous systems. This is demonstrated by comparing α measurements obtained in random packed monodisperse micro-spheres with Molecular Dynamics simulations of disordered porous media and 3D Monte Carlo simulation of particles diffusion in these kind of systems. Experimental results agree well with simulations that correlate the most used parameters and functions characterizing the disorder in porous media.

  13. Phase equilibria, fluid structure, and diffusivity of a discotic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Cienega-Cacerez, Octavio; Moreno-Razo, José Antonio; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Sambriski, Edward John

    2014-05-14

    Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed for the Gay-Berne discotic fluid parameterized by GB(0.345, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0). The volumetric phase diagram exhibits isotropic (IL), nematic (ND), and two columnar phases characterized by radial distribution functions: the transversal fluid structure varies between a hexagonal columnar (CD) phase (at higher temperatures and pressures) and a rectangular columnar (CO) phase (at lower temperatures and pressures). The slab-wise analysis of fluid dynamics suggests the formation of grain-boundary defects in the CO phase. Longitudinal fluid structure is highly periodic with narrow peaks for the CO phase, suggestive of a near-crystalline (yet diffusive) system, but is only short-ranged for the CD phase. The IL phase does not exhibit anisotropic diffusion. Transversal diffusion is more favorable in the ND phase at all times, but only favorable at short times for the columnar phases. In the columnar phases, a crossover occurs where longitudinal diffusion is favored over transversal diffusion at intermediate-to-long timescales. The anomalous diffusivity is pronounced in both columnar phases, with three identifiable contributions: (a) the rattling of discogens within a transient "interdigitation" cage, (b) the hopping of discogens across columns, and (c) the drifting motion of discogens along the orientation of the director. PMID:24718439

  14. Diffuse optical intracluster light as a measure of stellar tidal stripping: The cluster CL0024+17 at z ∼ 0.4 observed at the large binocular telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Grazian, A.; Gallozzi, S.; Castellano, M.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Boutsia, K.; Paris, D.; Speziali, R.; Testa, V.

    2014-01-20

    We have evaluated the diffuse intracluster light (ICL) in the central core of the galaxy cluster CL0024+17 at z ∼ 0.4 observed with the prime focus camera (Large Binocular Camera) at the Large Binocular Telescope. The measure required an accurate removal of the galaxies' light within ∼200 kpc from the center. The residual background intensity has then been integrated in circular apertures to derive the average ICL intensity profile. The latter shows an approximate exponential decline as expected from theoretical cold dark matter models where the ICL is due to the integrated contribution of light from stars that are tidally stripped from the halo of their host galaxies due to encounters with other galaxies in the cluster cold dark matter (CDM) potential. The radial profile of the ICL over the galaxies intensity ratio (ICL fraction) is increasing with decreasing radius, but near the cluster center it starts to bend and then decreases where the overlap of the halos of the brightest cluster galaxies becomes dominant. Theoretical expectations in a simplified CDM scenario show that the ICL fraction profile can be estimated from the stripped over galaxy stellar mass ratio in the cluster. It is possible to show that the latter quantity is almost independent of the properties of the individual host galaxies but mainly depends on the average cluster properties. The predicted ICL fraction profile is thus very sensitive to the assumed CDM profile, total mass, and concentration parameter of the cluster. Adopting values very similar to those derived from the most recent lensing analysis in CL0024+17, we find a good agreement with the observed ICL fraction profile. The galaxy counts in the cluster core have then been compared with that derived from composite cluster samples in larger volumes, up to the clusters virial radius. The galaxy counts in the CL0024+17 core appear flatter and the amount of bending with respect to the average cluster galaxy counts imply a loss of total

  15. Low temperature Zn diffusion for GaSb solar cell structures fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulima, Oleg V.; Faleev, Nikolai N.; Kazantsev, Andrej B.; Mintairov, Alexander M.; Namazov, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Low temperature Zn diffusion in GaSb, where the minimum temperature was 450 C, was studied. The pseudo-closed box (PCB) method was used for Zn diffusion into GaAs, AlGaAs, InP, InGaAs and InGaAsP. The PCB method avoids the inconvenience of sealed ampoules and proved to be simple and reproducible. The special design of the boat for Zn diffusion ensured the uniformality of Zn vapor pressure across the wafer surface, and thus the uniformity of the p-GaSb layer depth. The p-GaSb layers were studied using Raman scattering spectroscopy and the x-ray rocking curve method. As for the postdiffusion processing, an anodic oxidation was used for a precise thinning of the diffused GaSb layers. The results show the applicability of the PCB method for the large-scale production of the GaSb structures for solar cells.

  16. Analysis and design of numerical schemes for gas dynamics. 2: Artificial diffusion and discrete shock structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1994-01-01

    The effect of artificial diffusion on discrete shock structures is examined for a family of schemes which includes scalar diffusion, convective upwind and split pressure (CUSP) schemes, and upwind schemes with characteristics splitting. The analysis leads to conditions on the diffusive flux such that stationary discrete shocks can contain a single interior point. The simplest formulation which meets these conditions is a CUSP scheme in which the coefficients of the pressure differences is fully determined by the coefficient of convective diffusion. It is also shown how both the characteristic and CUSP schemes can be modified to preserve constant stagnation enthalpy in steady flow, leading to four variants, the E and H-characteristic schemes, and the E and H-CUSP schemes. Numerical results are presented which confirm the properties of these schemes.

  17. Numerical Study of Buoyancy and Differential Diffusion Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of Triple Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. -Y.; Echekki, T.

    1999-01-01

    Triple flames arise in a number of practical configurations where fuel and oxidizer are partially premixed, such as in the base of a lifted jet flame. Past experimental studies, theoretical analyses, and numerical modeling of triple flames suggested the potential role of triple flames in stabilizing turbulent flames and in promoting flame propagation. From recent numerical simulations of laminar triple flames, a strong influence of differential diffusion among species and heat on the triple flame structure has been gradually appreciated. This paper reports preliminary numerical results on the influence of gravity and differential diffusion effects on the structure and dynamics of triple flames with a one-step global irreversible chemistry model.

  18. Secondary Structural Change Can Occur Diffusely and Not Modularly during Protein Folding and Unfolding Reactions.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Pooja; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2016-05-11

    A major goal of protein folding studies is to understand the structural basis of the coupling between stabilizing interactions, which leads to cooperative conformational change. The goal is challenging because of the difficulty in simultaneously measuring global cooperativity by determining population distributions of the conformations present, and the structures of these conformations. Here, hydrogen exchange (HX) into the small protein monellin was carried out under conditions where structure-opening is rate limiting for most backbone amide sites. Detection by mass spectrometry allowed characterization of not only segment-specific structure-opening rates but also the cooperativity of unfolding of the different secondary structural segments of the protein. The segment-specific pattern of HX reveals that the backbone hydrogen-bonding network disassembles in a structurally diffuse, asynchronous manner. A comparison of the site-specific transient opening rates of secondary and tertiary structure in the protein provides a structural rationale for the observation that unfolding is hierarchical and describable by exponential kinetics, despite being diffuse. Since unfolding was studied in native conditions, the sequence of events during folding in the same conditions will be the reverse of the sequence of events observed during unfolding. Hence, the formation of secondary structural units during folding would also occur in a non-cooperative, diffuse, and asynchronous manner. PMID:27093885

  19. Three-dimensional structures of equatorial waves and the resulting super-rotation in the atmosphere of a tidally locked hot Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Shang-Min; Gu, Pin-Gao; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) equatorial trapped waves excited by stellar isolation and the resulting equatorial super-rotating jet in a vertical stratified atmosphere of a tidally locked hot Jupiter are investigated. Taking the hot Jupiter HD 189733b as a fiducial example, we analytically solve linear equations subject to stationary stellar heating with a uniform zonal-mean flow included. We also extract wave information in the final equilibrium state of the atmosphere from our radiative hydrodynamical simulation for HD 189733b. Our analytic wave solutions are able to qualitatively explain the 3D simulation results. Apart from previous wave studies, investigating the vertical structure of waves allows us to explore new wave features such as the wavefronts tilts related to the Rossby-wave resonance as well as dispersive equatorial waves. We also attempt to apply our linear wave analysis to explain some numerical features associated with the equatorial jet development seen in the general circulation model by Showman and Polvani. During the spin-up phase of the equatorial jet, the acceleration of the jet can be in principle boosted by the Rossby-wave resonance. However, we also find that as the jet speed increases, the Rossby-wave structure shifts eastward, while the Kelvin-wave structure remains approximately stationary, leading to the decline of the acceleration rate. Our analytic model of jet evolution implies that there exists only one stable equilibrium state of the atmosphere, possibly implying that the final state of the atmosphere is independent of initial conditions in the linear regime. Limitations of our linear model and future improvements are also discussed.

  20. Three-dimensional Structures of Equatorial Waves and the Resulting Super-rotation in the Atmosphere of a Tidally Locked Hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shang-Min; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Gu, Pin-Gao

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) equatorial trapped waves excited by stellar isolation and the resulting equatorial super-rotating jet in a vertical stratified atmosphere of a tidally locked hot Jupiter are investigated. Taking the hot Jupiter HD 189733b as a fiducial example, we analytically solve linear equations subject to stationary stellar heating with a uniform zonal-mean flow included. We also extract wave information in the final equilibrium state of the atmosphere from our radiative hydrodynamical simulation for HD 189733b. Our analytic wave solutions are able to qualitatively explain the 3D simulation results. Apart from previous wave studies, investigating the vertical structure of waves allows us to explore new wave features such as the wavefronts tilts related to the Rossby-wave resonance as well as dispersive equatorial waves. We also attempt to apply our linear wave analysis to explain some numerical features associated with the equatorial jet development seen in the general circulation model by Showman and Polvani. During the spin-up phase of the equatorial jet, the acceleration of the jet can be in principle boosted by the Rossby-wave resonance. However, we also find that as the jet speed increases, the Rossby-wave structure shifts eastward, while the Kelvin-wave structure remains approximately stationary, leading to the decline of the acceleration rate. Our analytic model of jet evolution implies that there exists only one stable equilibrium state of the atmosphere, possibly implying that the final state of the atmosphere is independent of initial conditions in the linear regime. Limitations of our linear model and future improvements are also discussed.

  1. Structural and diffusion characterizations of steam-stable mesostructured zeolitic UL-ZSM-5 materials.

    PubMed

    Vinh-Thang, Hoang; Huang, Qinglin; Ungureanu, Adrian; Eić, Mladen; Trong-On, Do; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2006-05-01

    A series of mesoporous UL-ZSM-5 materials (Si/Al = 50) with different micro- and mesoporosity as well as crystallinity was prepared following the procedure proposed in one of our recent studies (Trong-On, D.; Kaliaguine, S. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 3248-3251. Trong-On, D.; Kaliaguine, S. U.S. Patent 6,669,924, B1, 2003). These materials have zeolitic structure in the form of nanoparticles intergrown in the walls of the amorphous wormhole-like aluminosilicate mesopores of Al-Meso-50, which was used as a precursor in the synthesis. The structure, crystallinity, and textural properties of the synthesized materials, as well as a reference ZSM-5 zeolite sample, were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/scanning electron microscoy (SEM) analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 27Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption techniques. The acid properties were examined by FTIR of adsorbed pyridine. UL-ZSM-5 materials were shown to be highly hydrothermally stable. The diffusion of two C7 hydrocarbons, i.e., n-heptane and toluene, in four UL-ZSM-5 materials with different microporosities, related acidities, and crystallinities were investigated using the zero-length column (ZLC) method. Furthermore, the wormhole-like mesostructured aluminosilicate precursor (Al-Meso-50) and a reference MFI zeolite sample were also investigated using the same technique. A theoretical model considering a combination of mesopore diffusion (with surface slip in the main channels) with an activated, mainly surface diffusion mechanism in the intrawall biporous structure, was proposed and employed to interpret the experimental ZLC results. A classical Knudsen type of diffusion was replaced by an activated surface slip type of diffusion mechanism in the mesopores. The transport of n-heptane in UL-ZSM-5 materials was found to be mainly controlled by mesopore diffusion in the main

  2. Diffusion injected multi-quantum well light-emitting diode structure

    SciTech Connect

    Riuttanen, L. Nykänen, H.; Svensk, O.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, M.; Kivisaari, P.; Oksanen, J.; Tulkki, J.

    2014-02-24

    The attention towards light-emitting diode (LED) structures based on nanowires, surface plasmon coupled LEDs, and large-area high-power LEDs has been increasing for their potential in increasing the optical output power and efficiency of LEDs. In this work we demonstrate an alternative way to inject charge carriers into the active region of an LED, which is based on completely different current transport mechanism compared to conventional current injection approaches. The demonstrated structure is expected to help overcoming some of the challenges related to current injection with conventional structures. A functioning III-nitride diffusion injected light-emitting diode structure, in which the light-emitting active region is located outside the pn-junction, is realized and characterized. In this device design, the charge carriers are injected into the active region by bipolar diffusion, which could also be utilized to excite otherwise challenging to realize light-emitting structures.

  3. Study of thermal diffusivity of nanofluids with bimetallic nanoparticles with Au(core)/Ag(shell) structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez Fuentes, R.; Pescador Rojas, J. A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Sanchez Ramirez, J. F.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.

    2008-11-01

    The thermal diffusivity of Au/Ag nanoparticles with core/shell structure, at different compositions (Au/Ag = 3/1, 1/1, 1/3, 1/6), was measured by using the mismatched mode of the dual-beam thermal lens (TL) technique. This study determines the effect of the bimetallic composition on the thermal diffusivity of the nanofluids. In these results we find a lineal increment of the nanofluid it thermal diffusivity when the Ag shell thickness is increased. Our results show that the nanoparticle structure is an important parameter to improve the heat transport in composites and nanofluids. These results could have importance for applications in therapies and photothermal deliberation of drugs. Complementary measurements with UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM, were used to characterize the Au(core)/Ag(shell) nanoparticles.

  4. Diffusion and growth of aluminum adatoms on magnesium clusters with hexahedral structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiongying; Hu, Wangyu; Yang, Jianyu; Chen, Chuanpin

    2015-02-01

    The surface diffusion and growth of Al atoms on Mg clusters with hexahedral structure was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The diffusion pathways and the corresponding energy barriers were determined via the nudged elastic band method. Two diffusion paths from a (0001) facet to a neighboring (1 1 bar 01) facet and between two adjacent (1 1 bar 01) facets were considered. The energy barriers on the (1 1 bar 01) facets and between the two (1 1 bar 01) facets were remarkably increased. As such, the adatom's mobility became limited at low temperatures. The growth of small Al-Mg nanoclusters was modeled via the one-by-one atom deposition technique to form an anomalous core-shell structure. The Mg atoms with lower surface energy and larger atomic radius occupied the core and the Al atoms with higher surface energy and smaller atomic radius occupied the shell.

  5. Cosmic tidal reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Yu, Yu; Er, Xinzhong; Chen, Xuelei

    2016-05-01

    The gravitational coupling of a long-wavelength tidal field with small-scale density fluctuations leads to anisotropic distortions of the locally measured small-scale matter correlation function. Since the local correlation function is known to be statistically isotropic in the absence of such tidal interactions, the tidal distortions can be used to reconstruct the long-wavelength tidal field and large-scale density field in analogy with the cosmic microwave background lensing reconstruction. In this paper we present the theoretical framework of cosmic tidal reconstruction and test the reconstruction in numerical simulations. We find that the density field on large scales can be reconstructed with good accuracy and the cross-correlation coefficient between the reconstructed density field and the original density field is greater than 0.9 on large scales (k ≲0.1 h /Mpc ), with the filter scale ˜1.25 Mpc /h . This is useful in the 21 cm intensity mapping survey, where the long-wavelength radial modes are lost due to a foreground subtraction process.

  6. Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Suvi

    2013-12-01

    The majority of supermassive black holes in the Universe lie dormant and starved of fuel. These hidden beasts can be temporarily illuminated when an unlucky star passes close enough to be tidally disrupted and consumed by the black hole. Theorists first proposed in 1975 that tidal disruption events should be an inevitable consequence of supermassive black holes in galaxy nuclei and later argued that the resulting flare of radiation from the accretion of the stellar debris could be a unique signpost for the presence of a dormant black hole in the center of a normal galaxy. It was not until over two decades later that the first convincing tidal disruption event candidates emerged in the X-rays by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Since then, over a dozen total candidates have now emerged from searches across the electromagnetic spectrum, including the X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical. In the last couple of years, we have also witnessed a paradigm shift with the discovery of relativistic beamed emission associated with tidal disruption events. I review the census of observational candidates to date and discuss the exciting prospects for using large samples of tidal disruption events discovered with the next-generation of ground-based and space-based synoptic surveys to probe accretion disk and/or jet formation and black hole demographics.

  7. Lagrangian Coherent Structures and drifter experiments in a tidal driven flow in the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, F.; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.; Montero, P.

    2009-09-01

    We study the two-dimensional time dependent surface currents at the western coast of Galicia, Spain, including estuarines (Rias Baixas) and off-shore regions (Costa da Morte). Turbulence in ocean currents plays an important role for the mixing of water volumes with different scalar properties. The spatial structures of the current indicate, where turbulence-induced mixing can be expected. The mixing spreads available nutrients and has therefore a strong influence on the biological production. The currents also drive the temporal evolution of oil spills and other contaminations on the surface. Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) of the flow are detected by the analysis of Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) of the velocity field. This approach is based on the theory that the distance of two particle trajectories grows exponentially in time for turbulent flows and reveals the flow structures that are relevant for mixing. The analyzed velocity data is obtained from a operational 3-dim ocean model (MOHID), which was run for different typical meteorological situations at the coast of Galicia. Concerning aquaculture, the region Rias Baixas is one of the most productive areas in the world. The presence of harmful algae blooms (HAB) is a severe problem for this industry. Therefore the knowledge of areas of retention of primary production and HABs inside the Rias is very important. In order to monitor the structure of the flow and possible retention zones, several drifter experiments are performed in the framework of the DRIFTER (AMPERA) project in an estuarine (Ria de Arousa), where the flow is mainly forced by the tides and the wind. The predicted mixing properties and LCSs from the model are compared to data from these experiments.

  8. Structural Assembly of Multidomain Proteins and Protein Complexes Guided by the Overall Rotational Diffusion Tensor

    PubMed Central

    Ryabov, Yaroslav; Fushman, David

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple and robust approach that uses the overall rotational diffusion tensor as a structural constraint for domain positioning in multidomain proteins and protein-protein complexes. This method offers the possibility to use NMR relaxation data for detailed structure characterization of such systems provided the structures of individual domains are available. The proposed approach extends the concept of using long-range information contained in the overall rotational diffusion tensor. In contrast to the existing approaches, we use both the principal axes and principal values of protein’s rotational diffusion tensor to determine not only the orientation but also the relative positioning of the individual domains in a protein. This is achieved by finding the domain arrangement in a molecule that provides the best possible agreement with all components of the overall rotational diffusion tensor derived from experimental data. The accuracy of the proposed approach is demonstrated for two protein systems with known domain arrangement and parameters of the overall tumbling: the HIV-1 protease homodimer and Maltose Binding Protein. The accuracy of the method and its sensitivity to domain positioning is also tested using computer-generated data for three protein complexes, for which the experimental diffusion tensors are not available. In addition, the proposed method is applied here to determine, for the first time, the structure of both open and closed conformations of Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin chain, where domain motions render impossible accurate structure determination by other methods. The proposed method opens new avenues for improving structure characterization of proteins in solution. PMID:17550252

  9. Systematic electronic-structure investigation of substitutional impurity diffusion and flux coupling in bcc iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Luca; Nastar, Maylise; Sandberg, Nils; Olsson, Pär

    2016-05-01

    The diffusion properties of a wide range of impurities (transition metals and Al, Si, and P) in ferritic alloys are here investigated by means of a combined ab initio-atomic diffusion theory approach. The flux-coupling mechanisms and the solute-diffusion coefficients are inferred from electronic-structure calculations of solute-defect interactions and microscopic jump frequencies. All properties except the second-nearest-neighbor binding energy are found to have a characteristic bell shape as a function of the d -band filling for the 4 d and 5 d series, and an M shape for the 3 d row because of the out-of-trend behavior of Mn. The solute jump frequencies are governed by compressibility, which makes diffusion of large solutes faster, although this effect is partially compensated for by lower attempt frequencies and larger correlations with the vacancy. Diffusion coefficients are predicted in a wide temperature range, far below the experimentally accessible temperatures. In accordance with experiments, Co is found to be a slow diffuser in iron, and the same behavior is predicted for Re, Os, and Ir impurities. Finally, flux-coupling phenomena depend on the iron jump frequencies next to a solute atom, which are mainly controlled by similar electronic interactions to those determining the binding energies. Vacancy drag and solute enrichment at sinks systematically arise below a solute-dependent temperature threshold, directly correlated with the electronic-level interactions at the equilibrium and the saddle-point states. Early transition metals with repulsive second-nearest-neighbor interactions also diffuse via vacancy drag, although they show a lower temperature threshold than the late metals. This confirms that drag is the most common solute-vacancy coupling mechanism in iron at low temperatures, and this is likely to be confirmed as well for impurity diffusion in other transition metals.

  10. Diffuse carbon dioxide emissions from hidden subsurface structures at Asama volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Masaaki; Mori, Toshiya; Kazahaya, Ryunosuke; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We measured diffuse carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and soil temperature around the summit of Asama volcano, Japan to assess the diffuse degassing structure around the summit area. Soil CO2 flux was measured using an accumulation chamber method, and the spatial distributions of CO2 flux and soil temperature were derived from the mean of 100 sequential Gaussian simulations. Results show that soil CO2 flux was high on the eastern flank of Kamayama cone and the eastern rim of Maekake crater, the outer cone. These areas mostly correspond to high-temperature anomalies. The average emission rate of diffuse CO2 was calculated to be 12.6 t day-1 (12.2-14.6 t day-1). Such diffuse emissions account for 12 % of the total (diffuse and plume) CO2 emissions from the summit area. The diffuse CO2 anomalies probably reflect permeable zones controlled by local topography and hidden fractures bordering Maekake crater. The permeable zones are connected to the low-electrical-resistivity zone inferred to indicate both a hydrothermal fluid layer and an upper sealed layer made of clay minerals. Magmatic gas from the main conduit ascends to the volcano surface through this fluid layer and the permeable zones. These insights emphasize that the pathways and the connection between the pathways and the source of diffuse CO2 combine to create the pattern of heterogeneous diffuse CO2 emission seen at the surface. Only by using a combination of gas measurements and geophysical tools can we begin to understand the dynamics of this system as a whole.

  11. The influence of canopy structure and tidal level on fish assemblages in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogoreutz, Claudia; Kneer, Dominik; Litaay, Magdalena; Asmus, Harald; Ahnelt, Harald

    2012-07-01

    Seagrass meadows support abundant and diverse fish assemblages, but there are very few studies on the relation between seagrass beds with distinctly different plant canopies and their associated fish fauna. In the present study, fish assemblages were investigated by underwater visual census at intertidal and subtidal sites with varying seagrass species composition, shoot density, biomass, and leaf area index (LAI) on two small coral islands in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. We investigated (1) whether fish assemblages in distinctly different seagrass beds differ regarding community parameters, and (2) whether seagrass parameters affect fish abundances. Overall, more than 120 fish taxa were found. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis and non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling ordination (nMDS) showed site-specific similarities for fish assemblage structure with a distinct separation into subtidal and intertidal sites. Species accumulation curves for gamma diversity, single study sites, and the two most diverse fish families (Labridae, Pomacentridae), suggesting that species numbers are likely to increase with diel sampling. Total fish abundance and abundance for six out of the nine most common species varied distinctly among the study sites. The study indicates that seagrass beds with differing canopy parameters support distinct fish assemblages that differ with respect to species richness, dominant species, and the abundance of total and most common fish species. These differences are likely due to different canopy structures and water depth.

  12. Half-collision analysis of far-wing diffuse structure in Cs-Xe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Hillard, M. E.; Lempert, W. R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser excitation in the far red wing of the second principal series doublet of Cs mixed with Xe revealed a diffuse structure associated with the 2P(3/2) component. The structure is thought to originate from a reflection type of spectrum between the weakly bound E 2Sigma(1/2) excited state and the X 2Sigma(1/2) repulsive ground state of CsXe.

  13. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  14. Shear Stress, Turbulence Production and Dissipation in Small Tidal Channels Intersecting a Tidal Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieterse, A.; Puleo, J. A.; McKenna, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    A 16-day field experiment was conducted in March and April 2013 in a tidal wetland in Kent County, Delaware. The study area was a tidal flat fed by a second-order channel that flows into the Brockonbridge Gut, a small tributary of Delaware Bay. The goal of the field study was to investigate spatio-temporal variability in the hydrodynamics of the tidal flat and the small channels that intersect it, over the period of one spring-neap tidal cycle. The experiment combined remotely-sensed imagery with high-frequency in-situ measurements. A tower with imagers (RGB, NIR, TIR) was deployed to quantify the spatial variations of inundation of the channels, flat and marsh. In-situ sensors that measure flow velocity, sediment concentration and water depth were deployed at six locations on the tidal flat and in the channels. At three locations, a Nortek Vectrino II - profiling velocimeter was deployed that measures a 30 mm velocity profile at 1 mm vertical increments at 100 Hz. These velocity profiles are used to compute turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation and stress profiles close to the bed. Results show that peak velocities in the channels occur at the beginning and end of ebbing tide, when the water level is below the tidal flat level. At these instances, peaks in turbulence and bed stress also occur. The flow velocity and turbulence peaks are smaller when the water level does not fall below the tidal flat level. On the tidal flat, the flow velocities and turbulence are generally small compared to the intersecting tidal channel. Maximum flow velocities in the channels are around 0.4 m/s, while on the flat maximum velocities are under 0.1 m/s. A comparison is made between turbulence production and dissipation in both the channel and on the tidal flat to determine if advection and diffusion are important in this environment. In addition, the hydrodynamics at several locations in the channel are compared to investigate changes throughout the study area.

  15. Structure and Soot Properties of Non-Buoyant Laminar Round-Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortazavi, Saeed; Sunderland, Peter B.; Jurng, Jongsoo; Faeth, Gerard M.

    1993-01-01

    The structure and soot properties of nonbuoyant laminar diffusion flames are being studied experimentally and theoretically in order to better understand the soot and thermal radiation emissions from luminous flames. The measurements involve weakly-buoyant flames at low pressure in normal gravity (ng) and nonbuoyant flames at normal pressures in microgravity (micro g). The objectives of the present investigation are to study the differences of soot properties between nonbuoyant and buoyant diffusion flames, and to evaluate predictions based on the laminar flamelet approach.

  16. Recent developments in the tidal deformability of spinning compact objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Maselli, Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    We review recent work on the theory of tidal deformability and the tidal Love numbers of a slowly spinning compact object within general relativity. Angular momentum introduces couplings between distortions of different parity and new classes of spin-induced, tidal Love numbers emerge. Due to spin-tidal effects, a rotating object immersed in a quadrupolar, electric tidal field can acquire some induced mass, spin, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole moments to second-order in the spin. The tidal Love numbers depend strongly on the object’s internal structure. All tidal Love numbers of a Kerr black hole (BH) were proved to be exactly zero to first-order in the spin and also to second-order in the spin, at least in the axisymmetric case. For a binary system close to the merger, various components of the tidal field become relevant. Preliminary results suggest that spin-tidal couplings can introduce important corrections to the gravitational waveforms of spinning neutron star (NS) binaries approaching the merger.

  17. A gradient structure for systems coupling reaction-diffusion effects in bulk and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glitzky, Annegret; Mielke, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    We derive gradient-flow formulations for systems describing drift-diffusion processes of a finite number of species which undergo mass-action type reversible reactions. Our investigations cover heterostructures, where material parameter may depend in a nonsmooth way on the space variable. The main results concern a gradient-flow formulation for electro-reaction-diffusion systems with active interfaces permitting drift-diffusion processes and reactions of species living on the interface and transfer mechanisms allowing bulk species to jump into an interface or to pass through interfaces. The gradient flows are formulated in terms of two functionals: the free energy and the dissipation potential. Both functionals consist of a bulk and an interface integral. The interface integrals determine the interface dynamics as well as the self-consistent coupling to the model in the bulk. The advantage of the gradient structure is that it automatically generates thermodynamically consistent models.

  18. Random Vibration Tests for Prediction of Fatigue Life of Diffuser Structure for Gas Dynamic Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, O. F.; Banaszak, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Static and dynamic strain measurements which were taken during test stand operations of the gas dynamic laser (GDL) for the AF Airborne Laser Laboratory indicated that higher than expected vibrational stress levels may possibly limit the fatigue life of the laser structure. Particularly the diffuser sidewall structure exhibited large amplitude random vibrations which were excited by the internal gas flow. The diffuser structure consists of two layers of brazed stainless steel, AISI-347, panels. Cooling ducts were milled into the outer face sheet. These in turn are backed by the inner face sheet. So called T-rail stiffeners silver-brazed to the outer face sheets add the required stiffness and divide the sidewall into smaller rectangular plate sections.

  19. Chemical activity induces dynamical force with global structure in a reaction-diffusion-convection system.

    PubMed

    Mahara, Hitoshi; Okada, Koichi; Nomura, Atsushi; Miike, Hidetoshi; Sakurai, Tatsunari

    2009-07-01

    We found a rotating global structure induced by the dynamical force of local chemical activity in a thin solution layer of excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction coupled with diffusion. The surface flow and deformation associated with chemical spiral waves (wavelength about 1 mm) represents a global unidirectional structure and a global tilt in the entire Petri dish (100 mm in diameter), respectively. For these observations, we scanned the condition of hierarchal pattern selection. From this result, the bromomalonic acid has an important role to induce the rotating global structure. An interaction between a reaction-diffusion process and a surface-tension-driven effect leads to such hierarchal pattern with different scales. PMID:19658764

  20. The extended structure of the dwarf irregular galaxies Sextans A and Sextans B. Signatures of tidal distortion in the outskirts of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, M.; Beccari, G.; Fraternali, F.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Sollima, A.; Testa, V.; Galleti, S.; Perina, S.; Faccini, M.; Cusano, F.

    2014-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the stellar and H i structure of the dwarf irregular galaxies Sextans A and Sextans B, members of the NGC 3109 association. We use newly obtained deep (r ≃ 26.5) and wide-field g and r photometry to extend the surface brightness (SB) profiles of the two galaxies down to μV ≃ 31.0 mag/arcsec2. We find that both galaxies are significantly more extended than previously traced with surface photometry, out to ~4 kpc from their centres along their major axes. Older stars are found to have more extended distribution than younger populations. We obtain the first estimate of the mean metallicity for the old stars in Sex B, from the colour distribution of the red giant branch, ⟨[Fe/H]⟩ = -1.6. The SB profiles show significant changes of slope and cannot be fitted with a single Sérsic model. Both galaxies have HI discs as massive as their respective stellar components. In both cases the H i discs display solid-body rotation with maximum amplitude of ~50 km s-1 (albeit with significant uncertainty due to the poorly constrained inclination), implying a dynamical mass ~109 M⊙, a mass-to-light ratio M / LV ~ 25, and a dark-to-baryonic mass ratio of ~10. The distribution of the stellar components is more extended than the gaseous disc in both galaxies. We find that the main, approximately round, stellar body of Sex A is surrounded by an elongated low-SB stellar halo that can be interpreted as a tidal tail, similar to that found in another member of the same association (Antlia). We discuss these, as well as other evidence of tidal disturbance, in the framework of a past passage of the NGC 3109 association close to the Milky Way, which has been hypothesised by several authors and is also supported by the recently discovered filamentary configuration of the association itself. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTable of stellar photometry is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  1. Tidal constraints on the interior of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, C.; Tobie, G.; Verhoeven, O.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rambaux, N.

    2015-10-01

    As a prospective study for a future exploration of Venus, we propose to systematically investigate the signature of the internal structure in the gravity field and the rotation state of Venus, through the determination of the moment of inertia and the tidal Love number.

  2. Periodic surface structure bifurcation induced by ultrafast laser generated point defect diffusion in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abere, Michael J.; Torralva, Ben; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of high spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures (HSFL) with period <0.3 λ in GaAs after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses in air is studied. We have identified a point defect generation mechanism that operates in a specific range of fluences in semiconductors between the band-gap closure and ultrafast-melt thresholds that produces vacancy/interstitial pairs. Stress relaxation, via diffusing defects, forms the 350-400 nm tall and ˜90 nm wide structures through a bifurcation process of lower spatial frequency surface structures. The resulting HSFL are predominately epitaxial single crystals and retain the original GaAs stoichiometry.

  3. Structure and Vulnerability of Pacific Northwest Tidal Wetlands –A Summary of Wetland Climate Change Researchby the Western Ecology Division, U.S. EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change poses a serious threat to the tidal wetlands of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the U.S. In response to this threat, scientists at the Western Ecology Division of the U.S. EPA at and the Western Fisheries Research Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, along w...

  4. Forced diffusion via electrically induced crystallization for fabricating ZnO–Ti–Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Hung, Fei-Yi

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ZnO–Ti–Si system is very important for the structural design. • The electrically induced crystallization method is useful to diffusion process. • Intermetallic compound characteristics have been presented using electrically induced crystallization. • Interface mechanism about diffusion of TZO–TiSi{sub x}–Si structure is presented. - Abstract: Electrically induced crystallization (EIC) is a recently developed process for material modification. This study is applied to EIC to fabricate ZnO–Ti–Si multi-layer structures of various thicknesses to dope Ti into ZnO thin film and to form TiSi{sub x} intermetallic compound (IMC) in a single step. The IMC layer was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy images. The Ti layer thickness was more than 40 nm, which enhanced electron transmission and decreased the total electrical resistance in the structure. Finally, the diffusion mechanisms of EIC and the annealing process were investigated. This study shows that the EIC process has potential for industrial applications.

  5. Network diffusion accurately models the relationship between structural and functional brain connectivity networks

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnour, Farras; Voss, Henning U.; Raj, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anatomic connectivity of large-scale brain networks and their functional connectivity is of immense importance and an area of active research. Previous attempts have required complex simulations which model the dynamics of each cortical region, and explore the coupling between regions as derived by anatomic connections. While much insight is gained from these non-linear simulations, they can be computationally taxing tools for predicting functional from anatomic connectivities. Little attention has been paid to linear models. Here we show that a properly designed linear model appears to be superior to previous non-linear approaches in capturing the brain’s long-range second order correlation structure that governs the relationship between anatomic and functional connectivities. We derive a linear network of brain dynamics based on graph diffusion, whereby the diffusing quantity undergoes a random walk on a graph. We test our model using subjects who underwent diffusion MRI and resting state fMRI. The network diffusion model applied to the structural networks largely predicts the correlation structures derived from their fMRI data, to a greater extent than other approaches. The utility of the proposed approach is that it can routinely be used to infer functional correlation from anatomic connectivity. And since it is linear, anatomic connectivity can also be inferred from functional data. The success of our model confirms the linearity of ensemble average signals in the brain, and implies that their long-range correlation structure may percolate within the brain via purely mechanistic processes enacted on its structural connectivity pathways. PMID:24384152

  6. Influence of liquid structure on diffusive isotope separation in molten silicates and aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.M.; DePaolo, D.J.; Ryerson, F.J.; Peterson, B.

    2011-03-01

    Molecular diffusion in natural volcanic liquids discriminates between isotopes of major ions (e.g., Fe, Mg, Ca, and Li). Although isotope separation by diffusion is expected on theoretical grounds, the dependence on mass is highly variable for different elements and in different media. Silicate liquid diffusion experiments using simple liquid compositions were carried out to further probe the compositional dependence of diffusive isotopic discrimination and its relationship to liquid structure. Two diffusion couples consisting of the mineral constituents anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}; denoted AN), albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}; denoted AB), and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}; denoted DI) were held at 1450°C for 2 h and then quenched to ambient pressure and temperature. Major-element as well as Ca and Mg isotope profiles were measured on the recovered quenched glasses. In both experiments, Ca diffuses rapidly with respect to Si. In the AB–AN experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 20 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Ca is much greater than in natural liquid experiments where D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 1. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 6 and the efficiency of isotope separation is between that of the natural liquid experiments and the AB–AN experiment. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Mg}/D{sub Si} ~ 1 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Mg is smaller than it is for Ca yet similar to that observed for Mg in natural liquids. The results from the experiments reported here, in combination with results from natural volcanic liquids, show clearly that the efficiency of diffusive separation of Ca isotopes is systematically related to the solvent-normalized diffusivity—the ratio of the diffusivity of the cation (D{sub Ca}) to the diffusivity of silicon (D{sub Si}). The results on Ca isotopes are consistent with available data on Fe, Li, and Mg isotopes in silicate liquids, when considered in terms of the parameter D{sub cation

  7. A reassessment of the role of tidal dispersion in estuaries and bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geyer, W. Rockwell; Signell, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The role of tidal dispersion is reassessed, based on a consideration of the relevant physical mechanisms, particularly those elucidated by numerical simulations of tide-induced dispersion. It appears that the principal influence of tidal currents on dispersion occurs at length scales of the tidal excursion and smaller; thus the effectiveness of tidal dispersion depends on the relative scale of the tidal excursion to the spacing between major bathymetric and shoreline features. In estuaries where the typical spacing of topographic features is less than the tidal excursion, tidal dispersion may contribute significantly to the overall flushing. In estuaries and embayments in which the typical spacing between major features is larger than the tidal excursion, the influence of tidal dispersion will be localized, and it will not markedly contribute to overall flushing. Tidal dispersion is most pronounced in regions of abrupt topographic changes such as headlands and inlets, where flow separation occurs. The strong strain rate in the region of flow separation tends to stretch patches of fluid into long filaments, which are subsequently rolled up and distorted by the transient eddy field. The dispersion process accomplished by the tides varies strongly as a function of position and tidal phase and thus does not lend itself to parameterization by an eddy diffusion coefficient.

  8. Propagation of tidal waves up in Yangtze Estuary during the dry season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sheng; Tong, Chaofeng; Lee, Dong-Young; Zheng, Jinhai; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yixin

    2015-09-01

    Tide is one of the most important hydrodynamic driving forces and has unique features in the Yangtze Estuary (YE) due to the complex geometry of third-order bifurcations and four outlets. This paper characterizes the tidal oscillations, tidal dampening, tidal asymmetry, and tidal wave propagation, which provides insights into the response of the estuary to tides during the dry season. The structural components of tidal oscillations are initially attained by tidal analysis. The increasingly richer spectrum inside the estuary shows an energy transfer corresponding to the generation and development of nonlinear overtides and compound tides. A 2-D numerical model is further set up to reproduce tidal dynamics in the estuary. The results show that the estuary is a strongly dissipative estuary with a strong nonlinear phenomenon. Three amplifications are presented in the evolution process of tidal ranges due to the channel convergence. Tidal asymmetry is spatiotemporally characterized by the M4/M2 amplitude ratio, the 2M2-M4 phase difference, and the flood-ebb duration-asymmetry parameter, and the estuary tends to be flood-dominant. There exists mimic standing waves with the phase difference of the horizontal and vertical tide close to 90° when tidal wave propagates into the estuary, especially during the neap tide. In addition, the differences in tidal distortion, tidal ranges, and tidal waves along the two routes in the South Branch (S-B) suggest the branched system behaves differently from a single system.

  9. Multiscale Structured and Functionally Graded Gas Diffusion Electrodes for PEM-Fuel Cells and Electrodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, H.; Franz, M.; Bienhüls, C.; Willert-Porada, M.

    2008-02-01

    In the presented work, different methods of preparation of functionally graded gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) for fuel cell and electrodialysis application were investigated. High electrochemical performance with a low platinum catalyst content of only 0.1 mg/cm2 was achieved. The new GDEs are superior to commercial ones with five times higher platinum content, due to their optimized pore structure and improved distribution of catalyst and ion conductive polymer.

  10. Multifractal analysis of the branch structure of diffusion-limited aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, W. G.; Heffernan, D. M.

    2012-02-01

    We examine the branch structure of radial diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) clusters for evidence of multifractality. The lacunarity of DLA clusters is measured and the generalized dimensions D(q) of their mass distribution is estimated using the sandbox method. We find that the global n-fold symmetry of the aggregates can induce anomalous scaling behavior into these measurements. However, negating the effects of this symmetry, standard scaling is recovered.

  11. Multifractal analysis of the branch structure of diffusion-limited aggregates.

    PubMed

    Hanan, W G; Heffernan, D M

    2012-02-01

    We examine the branch structure of radial diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) clusters for evidence of multifractality. The lacunarity of DLA clusters is measured and the generalized dimensions D(q) of their mass distribution is estimated using the sandbox method. We find that the global n-fold symmetry of the aggregates can induce anomalous scaling behavior into these measurements. However, negating the effects of this symmetry, standard scaling is recovered. PMID:22463212

  12. Study of the spatial distribution of minority carrier diffusion length in epiplanar detector structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, T.; Węgrzecki, M.; Stolarski, M.; Krajewski, T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key parameters determining detection properties of silicon PIN detector structures (p+-ν-n+ or n+-ν-p+) is minority carrier diffusion length in p-n junction regions p-n (p+-ν or n+-ν). The parameter concerned strongly depends on quality of the starting material and technological processes conducted and has a significant impact on detector parameters, in particular dark current intensity. Thus, the parameter must be determined in order to optimise the design and technology of detectors. The paper presents a method for measuring the spatial distribution of effective carrier diffusion length in silicon detector structures, based on the measurement of photoelectric current of a non-polarised structure illuminated (spot diameter of 250 μm) with monochromatic radiation of two wavelengths λ1 = 500 nm (silicon penetration depth of around 0.9 μm) and λ2 = 900 nm (silicon penetration depth of around 33 μm). The value of diffusion length was determined by analysing the spatial distribution of optical carrier generation and values of photoelectric currents.

  13. Holographic Inversion of Diffuse Electron Diffraction Intensities for the Ni(001)/K Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, K.; Wedler, H.

    At low temperatures many adsorbates arrange in lattice gas disorder on crystalline substrates. In a low energy electron diffraction (LEED) experiment this leads to diffuse intensities super-imposed on the sharp spots caused by the substrate. For the disordered adsorption system Ni(001)/K, we present two-dimensional intensity distributions as function of the electron energy and angle of incidence. They can be measured very fast (20 s per frame) and reliably using an automatic video based data acquisition technique. We show that diffuse intensity spectra DI(E) taken as function of energy for fixed surface parallel electron momentum transfer carry the information about the local adsorption structure. This is equivalent to conventional I(E) spectra taken for sharp spots. In the light of recent proposals it is shown that the diffuse single energy intensity pattern is not a hologram of the local structure because e.g. the reference wave is ill defined. However, the diffraction processes disturbing the pure reference wave cancel when the intensities of different energies are suitably averaged. It is demonstrated that the holographic reconstruction of real space information from such scanned energy data leads to reliable and well resolved atomic images. Full widths at half-maximum of such atomic images are not greater than 1 Å. Substrate atoms behind the reference atom in direction of the incident beam are imaged best. So, image reconstructions for different beam directions produce a full and high quality three-dimensional image of the local adsorption structure.

  14. Modeling structure-function relationships for diffusive drug transport in inert porous geopolymer matrices.

    PubMed

    Jämstorp, Erik; Strømme, Maria; Frenning, Göran

    2011-10-01

    A unique structure-function relationship investigation of mechanically strong geopolymer drug delivery vehicles for sustained release of potent substances is presented. The effect of in-synthesis water content on geopolymer pore structure and diffusive drug transport is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, N2 gas adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, compression strength test, drug permeation, and release experiments are performed. Effective diffusion coefficients are measured and compared with corresponding theoretical values as derived from pore size distribution and connectivity via pore-network modeling. By solely varying the in-synthesis water content, mesoporous and mechanically strong geopolymers with porosities of 8%-45% are obtained. Effective diffusion coefficients of the model drugs Saccharin and Zolpidem are observed to span two orders of magnitude (∼1.6-120 × 10(-8) cm(2) /s), comparing very well to theoretical estimations. The ability to predict drug permeation and release from geopolymers, and materials alike, allows future formulations to be tailored on a structural and chemical level for specific applications such as controlled drug delivery of highly potent substances. PMID:21656516

  15. Developments in tidal power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, R. H.

    Successful, planned, and potential tidal power plants and sites are discussed. Units are in operation in France and Russia, with the French plant using reversible blade turbines being used as a design guide for plants in Argentina and Australia. The U.S. is studying the feasibility of a plant in Passamaquaddy Bay, and Canada is pursuing construction of a plant in the Bay of Fundy. The Severn River in Great Britain is receiving a site study, and over a hundred plants have been built as local power systems in China. Bulb-type turbines, which enhance the volume emptying and filling the retaining basin, are considered as the highest performing power unit. Simpler one-way flow turbines have been suggested as more economical to install. Governmental, institutional, and investor impediments to tidal power plant are explored.

  16. Diffusion bonding and brazing of high purity copper for linear collider accelerator structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmer, J. W.; Klingmann, J.; van Bibber, K.

    2001-05-01

    is proposed for fabricating the NLC structures. The structure would be assembled with pure silver braze inserts using a self-aligning step joint design, then the assembly would be vacuum diffusion bonded at 700 °C and 3.45 MPa pressure to seal the critical inner portion of the assembly. Finally, during the same furnace cycle, the temperature would be increased to 800 °C in order to react the silver with the copper to form a liquid braze alloy that would join and seal the outer portion of the cells together.

  17. Unravelling tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenel, M.; Mathis, S.; Remus, F.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Tidal dissipation in planetary interiors is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. New constraints on this dissipation are now obtained both in the solar and exo-planetary systems. Aims: Tidal dissipation in planets is intrinsically related to their internal structure. Indeed, the dissipation behaves very differently when we compare its properties in solid and fluid planetary layers. Since planetary interiors consist of both types of regions, it is necessary to be able to assess and compare the respective intensity of the reservoir of dissipation in each type of layers. Therefore, in the case of giant planets, the respective contribution of the potential central dense rocky/icy core and of the deep convective fluid envelope must be computed as a function of the mass and the radius of the core. This will allow us to obtain their respective strengths. Methods: Using a method that evaluates the reservoir of dissipation associated to each region, which is a frequency-average of complex tidal Love numbers, we compared the respective contributions of the central core and of the fluid envelope. Results: For Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets, we show that the viscoelastic dissipation in the core could dominate the turbulent friction acting on tidal inertial waves in the envelope. However, the fluid dissipation would not be negligible. This demonstrates that it is necessary to build complete models of tidal dissipation in planetary interiors from their deep interior to their surface without any arbitrary assumptions. Conclusions: We demonstrate how important it is to carefully evaluate the respective strength of each type of dissipation mechanism in planetary interiors and to go beyond the usually adopted ad-hoc models. We confirm the significance of tidal dissipation in the potential dense core of gaseous giant planets.

  18. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  19. Emission, Structure and Optical Properties of Overfire Soot from Buoyant Turbulent Diffusion Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koylu, Umit Ozgur

    The present study investigated soot and carbon monoxide emissions, and evaluated the optical properties of soot, in the overfire region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames burning in still air. Soot and carbon monoxide emissions, and the corresponding correlation between these emissions, were studied experimentally. The optical properties of soot were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The experiments involved gas (acetylene, propylene, ethylene, propane, methane) and liquid (toluene, benzene, n-heptane, iso-propanol, ethanol, methanol) fuels. The investigation was limited to the fuel-lean (overfire) region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames burning in still air. Measurements included flame heights, characteristic flame residence times, carbon monoxide and soot concentrations, mixture fractions, ex-situ soot structure parameters (primary particle sizes, number of primary particles in aggregates, fractal dimensions), and in-situ optical cross sections (differential scattering, total scattering, and absorption) of soot in the overfire region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames, emphasizing conditions in the long residence time regime where these properties are independent of position in the overfire region and flame residence time. The predictions of optical cross sections for polydisperse aggregates were based on Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for fractal aggregates; the predictions of this theory were evaluated by combining the TEM structure and the light scattering/extinction measurements. Carbon monoxide concentrations and mixture fractions were correlated in the overfire region of gas- and liquid -fueled turbulent diffusion flames. Soot volume fraction state relationships were observed for liquid fuels, supporting earlier observations for gas fuels. A strong correlation between carbon monoxide and soot concentrations was established in the fuel-lean region of both gas- and liquid-fueled turbulent diffusion flames. The structure and emission

  20. The Tidal Radius of the Arches Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosek, Matthew; Lu, Jessica R.; Anderson, Jay; Ghez, Andrea; Morris, Mark; Clarkson, William

    2015-08-01

    At a projected distance of just ˜26 pc from the center of the Milky Way, the Arches cluster allows us to examine the structure of a young massive cluster in the strong tidal environment of the Galactic center (GC). We use the HST WFC3IR camera to conduct an astrometric and photometric study of the outer region of the Arches cluster (R > 6.25”) in order to measure its radial profile. Using proper motions we separate cluster members from field stars down to F153M = 20 mag (˜2.5 M_sun) over a 120” x 120” field of view, covering an area 144 times larger than previous proper motion studies. This is a significant improvement over photometrically-determined cluster membership, which is complicated by the high degree of differential reddening across the field. Using cluster membership probabilities, a derived extinction map, and extensive completeness simulations, we construct the radial profile of the Arches cluster to a radius of ˜80” (˜3.1 pc assuming a distance of 8 kpc). Evidence of mass segregation out to this radius is observed, and no significant tidal tail structure is apparent. We find that the projected radial extent of the Arches cluster is significantly larger than its expected tidal radius. This result suggests either that the cluster is not as close to the GC as previously thought or that it is inflated beyond its nominal tidal radius.

  1. Overland Tidal Power Generation Using Modular Tidal Prism

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Naturally occurring sites with sufficient kinetic energy suitable for tidal power generation with sustained currents > 1 to 2 m/s are relatively rare. Yet sites with greater than 3 to 4 m of tidal range are relatively common around the U.S. coastline. Tidal potential does exist along the shoreline but is mostly distributed, and requires an approach which allows trapping and collection to also be conducted in a distributed manner. In this paper we examine the feasibility of generating sustainable tidal power using multiple nearshore tidal energy collection units and present the Modular Tidal Prism (MTP) basin concept. The proposed approach utilizes available tidal potential by conversion into tidal kinetic energy through cyclic expansion and drainage from shallow modular manufactured overland tidal prisms. A preliminary design and configuration of the modular tidal prism basin including inlet channel configuration and basin dimensions was developed. The unique design was shown to sustain momentum in the penstocks during flooding as well as ebbing tidal cycles. The unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used to subject the proposed design to a number of sensitivity tests and to optimize the size, shape and configuration of MTP basin for peak power generation capacity. The results show that an artificial modular basin with a reasonable footprint (≈ 300 acres) has the potential to generate 10 to 20 kw average energy through the operation of a small turbine located near the basin outlet. The potential of generating a total of 500 kw to 1 MW of power through a 20 to 40 MTP basin tidal power farms distributed along the coastline of Puget Sound, Washington, is explored.

  2. Tidal Venuses: triggering a climate catastrophe via tidal heating.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rory; Mullins, Kristina; Goldblatt, Colin; Meadows, Victoria S; Kasting, James F; Heller, René

    2013-03-01

    Traditionally, stellar radiation has been the only heat source considered capable of determining global climate on long timescales. Here, we show that terrestrial exoplanets orbiting low-mass stars may be tidally heated at high-enough levels to induce a runaway greenhouse for a long-enough duration for all the hydrogen to escape. Without hydrogen, the planet no longer has water and cannot support life. We call these planets "Tidal Venuses" and the phenomenon a "tidal greenhouse." Tidal effects also circularize the orbit, which decreases tidal heating. Hence, some planets may form with large eccentricity, with its accompanying large tidal heating, and lose their water, but eventually settle into nearly circular orbits (i.e., with negligible tidal heating) in the habitable zone (HZ). However, these planets are not habitable, as past tidal heating desiccated them, and hence should not be ranked highly for detailed follow-up observations aimed at detecting biosignatures. We simulated the evolution of hypothetical planetary systems in a quasi-continuous parameter distribution and found that we could constrain the history of the system by statistical arguments. Planets orbiting stars with masses<0.3 MSun may be in danger of desiccation via tidal heating. We have applied these concepts to Gl 667C c, a ∼4.5 MEarth planet orbiting a 0.3 MSun star at 0.12 AU. We found that it probably did not lose its water via tidal heating, as orbital stability is unlikely for the high eccentricities required for the tidal greenhouse. As the inner edge of the HZ is defined by the onset of a runaway or moist greenhouse powered by radiation, our results represent a fundamental revision to the HZ for noncircular orbits. In the appendices we review (a) the moist and runaway greenhouses, (b) hydrogen escape, (c) stellar mass-radius and mass-luminosity relations, (d) terrestrial planet mass-radius relations, and (e) linear tidal theories. PMID:23537135

  3. Estimating Diffusion Network Structures: Recovery Conditions, Sample Complexity & Soft-thresholding Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Hadi; Gomez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Song, Le; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Information spreads across social and technological networks, but often the network structures are hidden from us and we only observe the traces left by the diffusion processes, called cascades. Can we recover the hidden network structures from these observed cascades? What kind of cascades and how many cascades do we need? Are there some network structures which are more difficult than others to recover? Can we design efficient inference algorithms with provable guarantees? Despite the increasing availability of cascade-data and methods for inferring networks from these data, a thorough theoretical understanding of the above questions remains largely unexplored in the literature. In this paper, we investigate the network structure inference problem for a general family of continuous-time diffusion models using an ℓ1-regularized likelihood maximization framework. We show that, as long as the cascade sampling process satisfies a natural incoherence condition, our framework can recover the correct network structure with high probability if we observe O(d3 log N) cascades, where d is the maximum number of parents of a node and N is the total number of nodes. Moreover, we develop a simple and efficient soft-thresholding inference algorithm, which we use to illustrate the consequences of our theoretical results, and show that our framework outperforms other alternatives in practice. PMID:25932466

  4. The Unusual Tidal Dwarf Candidate in the Merger System NGC 3227/3226: Star Formation in a Tidal Shock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, Carole G.; James, Phil A.; Loiseau, Nora; Schinnerer, Eva; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2004-10-01

    We report the discovery of active star formation in the H I cloud associated with the interacting Seyfert system NGC 3227/3226 that was originally identified as a candidate tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) by Mundell et al. and that we name J1023+1952. We present broadband optical B, R, I (from the Isaac Newton Telescope), and ultraviolet images (from XMM-Newton) that show that the H I cloud is associated with massive ongoing star formation seen as a cluster of blue knots (MB<~-15.5 mag) surrounded by a diffuse ultraviolet halo and cospatial with a ridge of high neutral hydrogen column density (NH~3.7×1021 cm-2) in the southern half of the cloud. We also detect Hα emission from the knots with a flux density of FHα~2.55×10-14 ergs s-1 cm-2 corresponding to a star formation rate of SFR(Hα)~10.6×10-3 Msolar yr-1. J1023+1952 lies at the base of the northern tidal tail, and, although it spatially overlaps the edge of the disk of NGC 3227, Mundell et al. showed that the H I cloud is kinematically distinct with an H I mean velocity 150 km s-1 higher than that of NGC 3227. Comparison of ionized (Hα) and neutral (H I) gas kinematics of the cloud shows closely matched recessional velocities, providing strong evidence that the star-forming knots are embedded in J1023+1952 and are not merely optical knots in the background disk of NGC 3227, thus confirming J1023+1952 as a gas-rich (MH/LB>1.5) dwarf galaxy. No star formation is detected in the northern half of the cloud, despite similar H I column densities; instead, our new high-resolution H I image shows a ridge of high column density coincident with the reddest structures evident in our B-I image. We suggest that these structures are caused by the background stellar continuum from the disk of NGC 3227 being absorbed by dust intrinsic to J1023+1952, thus placing J1023+1952 in front of NGC 3227 along the line of sight. We discuss two scenarios for the origin of J1023+1952: as a third, preexisting dwarf galaxy involved in the

  5. Molecular structure effects on the post irradiation diffusion in polymer gel dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Mattea, Facundo; Romero, Marcelo R; Vedelago, José; Quiroga, Andrés; Valente, Mauro; Strumia, Miriam C

    2015-06-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters have specific advantages for recording 3D radiation dose distribution in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. But, even in systems where the 3D structure is usually maintained for long periods of time after irradiation, it is still not possible to eliminate the diffusion of the different species in the regions of dose gradients within the gel. As a consequence, information of the dose loses quality over time. In the pursuit of a solution and to improve the understanding of this phenomenon a novel system based on itaconic acid and N-N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (BIS) is hereby proposed. Effects of changes in the chemical structure of the monomers over the dosimetric sensitivity and over the post-irradiation diffusion of species was studied. In this study, one of the carboxylic groups of the itaconic acid molecule was modified with aniline to obtain molecules with similar reactivity but different molecular sizes. Then, dosimeters based on these modified species and on the original ITA molecules were irradiated in an X-ray tomography apparatus at different doses up to 173Gy. Afterwards, the resulting dosimeters were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and optical absorbance in order to study their feasibility and capabilities as dosimetric systems, and by optical-CT to analyze the post irradiation diffusion. PMID:25773266

  6. Highly transparent sapphire micro-grating structures with large diffuse light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-08-01

    The highly transparent micro-grating structures (MGSs) of sapphire substrate with large diffuse light scattering were theoretically and experimentally studied. From the finite difference time domain simulation, it was found that the degree of diffuse light scattering is strongly dependent on the size of grating structures. For a highly transparent property, the sapphire MGSs were optimally designed by the theoretical calculations using the rigorous coupled wave analysis method. The order of taper, geometry (i.e., width and height), and pitch length of MGSs were optimized to maximize their average total transmittance over a wide wavelength range of 300-1800 nm. Additionally, the influence of the deposition of low-refractive index material such as SiO2 onto sapphire MGSs on the transmittance characteristics was investigated. To verify experimentally the feasibility, the sapphire MGSs were fabricated by the conventional lithography and dry etching processes. The SiO2 deposited sapphire MGS exhibited a further increase in the total transmittance due to its relatively more graded refractive index profile while maintaining a significantly enhanced diffuse light scattering. The experimental data were in a reasonable agreement with the theoretical results.

  7. Bulk diffusion induced structural modifications of carbon-transition metal nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, M.; Abrasonis, G.; Kovacs, Gy. J.; Krause, M.; Munnik, F.; Heller, R.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

    2011-03-15

    The influence of transition metal (TM = V,Co,Cu) type on the bulk diffusion induced structural changes in carbon:TM nanocomposite films is investigated. The TMs have been incorporated into the carbon matrix via ion beam co-sputtering, and subsequently the films have been vacuum annealed in the temperature range of 300 - 700 deg. C. The structure of both the dispersed metal rich and the carbon matrix phases has been determined by a combination of elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-grown films consist of carbidic (V and Co) and metallic (Cu) nanoparticles dispersed in the carbon matrix. Thermal annealing induces surface segregation of Co and Cu starting at {>=} 500 deg. C, preceded by the carbide-metal transformation of Co-carbide nanoparticles at {approx} 300 deg. C. No considerable morphological changes occur in C:V films. In contrast to the surface diffusion dominated regime where all the metals enhance the six-fold ring clustering of C, in the bulk diffusion controlled regime only Co acts as a catalyst for the carbon graphitization. These results are consistent with the metal-induced crystallization mechanism in the C:Co films. The results are discussed on the basis of the metal-carbide phase stability, carbon solubility in metals or their carbides, and interface species.

  8. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stoltze, Andrew J.; Wong, Terrence S.; Harland, Karisa K.; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M.; Mohr, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system, and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Materials and Methods Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n=235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes ≤ 8 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW). Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Results Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag-valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg PBW (SD 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (p < 0.001) and intensive care unit (p = 0.015). ARDS was not associated with pre-hospital tidal volume (p = 0.840). Conclusions Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation, but was not associated with ARDS. PMID:25813548

  9. Dissipation of Tidal Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The moon's gravity imparts tremendous energy to the Earth, raising tides throughout the global oceans. What happens to all this energy? This question has been pondered by scientists for over 200 years, and has consequences ranging from the history of the moon to the mixing of the oceans. Richard Ray at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and Gary Egbert of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. studied six years of altimeter data from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite to address this question. According to their report in the June 15 issue of Nature, about 1 terawatt, or 25 to 30 percent of the total tidal energy dissipation, occurs in the deep ocean. The remainder occurs in shallow seas, such as on the Patagonian Shelf. 'By measuring sea level with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter, our knowledge of the tides in the global ocean has been remarkably improved,' said Richard Ray, a geophysicist at Goddard. The accuracies are now so high that this data can be used to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. (Red areas, above) The deep-water tidal dissipation occurs generally near rugged bottom topography (seamounts and mid-ocean ridges). 'The observed pattern of deep-ocean dissipation is consistent with topographic scattering of tidal energy into internal motions within the water column, resulting in localized turbulence and mixing', said Gary Egbert an associate professor at OSU. One important implication of this finding concerns the possible energy sources needed to maintain the ocean's large-scale 'conveyor-belt' circulation and to mix upper ocean heat into the abyssal depths. It is thought that 2 terawatts are required for this process. The winds supply about 1 terawatt, and there has been speculation that the tides, by pumping energy into vertical water motions, supply the remainder. However, all current general circulation models of the oceans ignore the tides. 'It is possible that properly

  10. Electrochemical characterization of p(+)n and n(+)p diffused InP structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Faur, Maria; Faur, Mircea; Goradia, M.; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos

    1993-01-01

    The relatively well documented and widely used electrolytes for characterization and processing of Si and GaAs-related materials and structures by electrochemical methods are of little or no use with InP because the electrolytes presently used either dissolve the surface preferentially at the defect areas or form residual oxides and introduce a large density of surface states. Using an electrolyte which was newly developed for anodic dissolution of InP, and was named the 'FAP' electrolyte, accurate characterization of InP related structures including nature and density of surface states, defect density, and net majority carrier concentration, all as functions of depth was performed. A step-by-step optimization of n(+)p and p(+)n InP structures made by thermal diffusion was done using the electrochemical techniques, and resulted in high performance homojunction InP structures.

  11. Parametric estimation of 3D tubular structures for diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Larusson, Fridrik; Anderson, Pamela G.; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Kilmer, Misha E.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Miller, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for the recovery of 3D tubular shapes representing vascular structures in breast tissue. Using a parametric level set method (PaLS) our method incorporates the connectedness of vascular structures in breast tissue to reconstruct shape and absorption values from severely limited data sets. The approach is based on a decomposition of the unknown structure into a series of two dimensional slices. Using a simplified physical model that ignores 3D effects of the complete structure, we develop a novel inter-slice regularization strategy to obtain global regularity. We report on simulated and experimental reconstructions using realistic optical contrasts where our method provides a more accurate estimate compared to an unregularized approach and a pixel based reconstruction. PMID:23411913

  12. Enhanced anisotropic ionic diffusion in layered electrolyte structures from density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschfeld, J. A.; Lustfeld, H.

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes with high ionic diffusivity at temperatures distinctively lower than the presently used ones are the prerequisite for the success of, e.g., solid oxide fuel cells. We have found a promising structure having an asymmetric but superior ionic mobility in the direction of the oxygen-ion current. Using a layering of zirconium and yttrium in the fluorite structure of zirconia, a high vacancy concentration and a low migration barrier in two dimensions are obtained, while the mobility in the third direction is basically sacrificed. According to our density functional theory calculations an electrolyte made of this structure could operate at a temperature reduced by ≈200∘C. Thus a window to a different class of electrolytes has been flung open. In our structure the price paid is a more complicated manufacturing method.

  13. Ex Vivo 3D Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Quantification of Cardiac Laminar Structure

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Patrick A.; Tseng, Hsiang-Jer; Younes, Laurent; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) method for measuring cardiac fiber structure at high spatial resolution is presented. The method was applied to the ex vivo reconstruction of the fiber architecture of seven canine hearts. A novel hypothesis-testing method was developed and used to show that distinct populations of secondary and tertiary eigenvalues may be distinguished at reasonable confidence levels (P ≤ 0.01) within the canine ventricle. Fiber inclination and sheet angles are reported as a function of transmural depth through the anterior, lateral, and posterior left ventricle (LV) free wall. Within anisotropic regions, two consistent and dominant orientations were identified, supporting published results from histological studies and providing strong evidence that the tertiary eigenvector of the diffusion tensor (DT) defines the sheet normal. PMID:16149057

  14. Structural health monitoring by extraction of coherent guided waves from diffuse fields.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Karim G; Srivastava, Ankit; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Bartoli, Ivan; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Conti, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies in a wide range of applications have demonstrated that Green's functions (impulse responses) can be extracted from cross-correlation of diffuse fields using only passive sensors. This letter demonstrates the passive-only reconstruction of coherent Lamb waves (dc-500 kHz) in an aluminum plate of thickness comparable to aircraft fuselage and wing panels. It is further shown that the passively reconstructed waves are sensitive to the presence of damage in the plate as it would be expected in a typical "active" guided wave test. This proof-of-principle study suggests the potential for a structural health monitoring method for aircraft panels based on passive ultrasound imaging reconstructed from diffuse fields. PMID:18177065

  15. On the structure of gaseous confined laminar diffusion flames: Numerical investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawid, M. A.; Bulzan, D. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The structure and characteristics of gaseous confined laminar diffusion flames are investigated by numerically solving the time-dependent two-dimensional axisymmetric conservation equations. The numerical model accounts for the important chemical and physical processes involved, including axial diffusion, viscous effects, radial convection, and finite-rate chemistry. The numerical results clearly show that the flame has a finite thickness and leakage of fuel vapor into the flame zone is possible. The effect of heat release is found to induce some radial flow. Predicted flame shape and dimensions are compared to the classical Burke-Schumann flame. The numerically calculated flame is observed to be about 15 percent taller and 5 percent narrower than that of the Burke-Schumann solution under the same conditions.

  16. ANOVA-HDMR structure of the higher order nodal diffusion solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bokov, P. M.; Prinsloo, R. H.; Tomasevic, D. I.

    2013-07-01

    Nodal diffusion methods still represent a standard in global reactor calculations, but employ some ad-hoc approximations (such as the quadratic leakage approximation) which limit their accuracy in cases where reference quality solutions are sought. In this work we solve the nodal diffusion equations utilizing the so-called higher-order nodal methods to generate reference quality solutions and to decompose the obtained solutions via a technique known as High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR). This representation and associated decomposition of the solution provides a new formulation of the transverse leakage term. The HDMR structure is investigated via the technique of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), which indicates why the existing class of transversely-integrated nodal methods prove to be so successful. Furthermore, the analysis leads to a potential solution method for generating reference quality solutions at a much reduced calculational cost, by applying the ANOVA technique to the full higher order solution. (authors)

  17. Influence of capping on manganese diffusion in {CdTe}/{CdMnTe} quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maćkowski, S.; Nguyen The Khoi; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Gaj, J. A.; Kamińska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kossut, J.

    1998-06-01

    The influence of In- or SiO 2-capping on thermally induced interdiffusion in {CdTe}/{CdMnTe} quantum well structures was investigated by spin tracing method based on exciton Zeeman splitting measurements. The results show that the diffusion of manganese occurring at interfaces during an annealing process is strongly enhanced in the case of In-capped samples. SiO 2 protective layers, on the other hand, efficiently inhibit the diffusion of Mn across the interfaces, even in the case of In capping. The degree of the interdiffusion was found to be correlated with Cd and Te evaporation from the samples, measured by Rutherford Backscattering, indicating an important role of cation vacancies in the interdiffusion process.

  18. Hydrodynamical scaling laws to explore the physics of tidal dissipation in star-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Mathis, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-10-01

    Fluid celestial bodies can be strongly affected by tidal perturbations, which drive the evolution of close planetary systems over long timescales. While the tidal response of solid bodies varies smoothly with the tidal frequency, fluid bodies present a highly frequency-resonant tidal dissipation resulting from the complex hydrodynamical response. In these bodies, tides have the form of a combination of inertial waves restored by the Coriolis acceleration and gravity waves in the case of stably stratified layers, which are restored by the Archimedean force. Because of processes such as viscous friction and thermal diffusion, the energy given by the tidal forcing is dissipated. This directly impact the architecture of planetary systems. In this study, we detail a local analytical model which makes us able to characterize the internal dissipation of fluid bodies as functions of identified control parameters such as the inertial, Brunt-Väisälä and tidal frequencies, and the Ekman and Prandtl numbers.

  19. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and on the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  20. Use of vertical temperature gradients for prediction of tidal flat sediment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Holland, K. Todd; Reed, Allen H.; Abelev, Andrei

    2012-03-01

    Sediment characteristics largely govern tidal flat morphologic evolution; however, conventional methods of investigating spatial variability in lithology on tidal flats are difficult to employ in these highly dynamic regions. In response, a series of laboratory experiments was designed to investigate the use of temperature diffusion toward sediment characterization. A vertical thermistor array was used to quantify temperature gradients in simulated tidal flat sediments of varying compositions. Thermal conductivity estimates derived from these arrays were similar to measurements from a standard heated needle probe, which substantiates the thermistor methodology. While the thermal diffusivities of dry homogeneous sediments were similar, diffusivities for saturated homogeneous sediments ranged approximately one order of magnitude. The thermal diffusivity of saturated sand was five times the thermal diffusivity of saturated kaolin and more than eight times the thermal diffusivity of saturated bentonite. This suggests that vertical temperature gradients can be used for distinguishing homogeneous saturated sands from homogeneous saturated clays and perhaps even between homogeneous saturated clay types. However, experiments with more realistic tidal flat mixtures were less discriminating. Relationships between thermal diffusivity and percent fines for saturated mixtures varied depending upon clay composition, indicating that clay hydration and/or water content controls thermal gradients. Furthermore, existing models for the bulk conductivity of sediment mixtures were improved only through the use of calibrated estimates of homogeneous end-member conductivity and water content values. Our findings suggest that remotely sensed observations of water content and thermal diffusivity could only be used to qualitatively estimate tidal flat sediment characteristics.

  1. Use of vertical temperature gradients for prediction of tidal flat sediment characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Holland, K. Todd; Reed, Allen H.; Abelev, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Sediment characteristics largely govern tidal flat morphologic evolution; however, conventional methods of investigating spatial variability in lithology on tidal flats are difficult to employ in these highly dynamic regions. In response, a series of laboratory experiments was designed to investigate the use of temperature diffusion toward sediment characterization. A vertical thermistor array was used to quantify temperature gradients in simulated tidal flat sediments of varying compositions. Thermal conductivity estimates derived from these arrays were similar to measurements from a standard heated needle probe, which substantiates the thermistor methodology. While the thermal diffusivities of dry homogeneous sediments were similar, diffusivities for saturated homogeneous sediments ranged approximately one order of magnitude. The thermal diffusivity of saturated sand was five times the thermal diffusivity of saturated kaolin and more than eight times the thermal diffusivity of saturated bentonite. This suggests that vertical temperature gradients can be used for distinguishing homogeneous saturated sands from homogeneous saturated clays and perhaps even between homogeneous saturated clay types. However, experiments with more realistic tidal flat mixtures were less discriminating. Relationships between thermal diffusivity and percent fines for saturated mixtures varied depending upon clay composition, indicating that clay hydration and/or water content controls thermal gradients. Furthermore, existing models for the bulk conductivity of sediment mixtures were improved only through the use of calibrated estimates of homogeneous end-member conductivity and water content values. Our findings suggest that remotely sensed observations of water content and thermal diffusivity could only be used to qualitatively estimate tidal flat sediment characteristics.

  2. Don't Cross the (Tidal) Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    In a tidal disruption event (TDE), an unfortunate star passes too close to a dormant supermassive black hole (BH) and gets torn apart by tidal forces, feeding the BH for a short time. Oddly, were not finding nearly as many TDEs typically detected due to their distinctive observational signatures as theory says we should. A recent study suggests that we might be missing many of these events, due to the way the streams of shredded stars fall onto the BHs.Signatures of ShreddingWhen a BH tears a star apart, the stars material is stretched out into whats known as a tidal stream. That stream continues on a trajectory around the BH, with roughly half the material eventually falling back on the BH, whipping around it in a series of orbits. Where those orbits intersect each other, the material smashes together and circularizes, forming a disk that then accretes onto the BH.What does a TDE look like? We dont observe anything until after the tidal streams collide and the material begins to accrete onto the BH. At that point we observe a sudden peak in luminosity, which then gradually decreases (scaling roughly as time-5/3) as the tail end of whats left of the star accretes and the BHs food source eventually runs out.So why have we only been observing about a tenth as many TDEs as theory predicts we should see? By studying the structure of tidal streams in TDEs, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz (UC Santa Cruz) have found a potential reason and the culprit is general relativity.Dark YearsThe authors run a series of simulations of TDEs around black holes of varying masses and spins to see what form the resulting tidal streams take over time. They find that precession of the tidal stream due to the BHs gravitational effects changes how the stream interacts with itself, and therefore what we observe. Some cases behave like what we expect for whats currently considered a typical TDE but some dont.Example from simulations of a

  3. Conservation of tidal marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Daiber, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

  4. Tidal Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stelzenmuller, Nickolas; Aliseda, Alberto; Palodichuk, Michael; Polagye, Brian; Thomson, James; Chime, Arshiya; Malte, Philip

    2014-03-31

    This technical report contains results on the following topics: 1) Testing and analysis of sub-scale hydro-kinetic turbines in a flume, including the design and fabrication of the instrumented turbines. 2) Field measurements and analysis of the tidal energy resource and at a site in northern Puget Sound, that is being examined for turbine installation. 3) Conceptual design and performance analysis of hydro-kinetic turbines operating at high blockage ratio, for use for power generation and flow control in open channel flows.

  5. Tidal heating of Ariel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittemore, William C.

    1990-01-01

    During evolution through the 4:1 commensurability early in the history of the Uranian system, over 3.8 billion years ago, tidal heating may have raised the internal temperature of Ariel by up to about 20 K; the internal temperature of Ariel may already have been high in virtue of both accretional and radiogenic heating. The additional increase in Ariel's temperature could then have triggered the geological activity that led to a late resurfacing, by decreasing lithospheric thickness and exacerbating thermal stresses on it to the point where observed cracks and faults formed.

  6. Fractional diffusion models of cardiac electrical propagation: role of structural heterogeneity in dispersion of repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Kay, David; Grau, Vicente; Rodriguez, Blanca; Burrage, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Impulse propagation in biological tissues is known to be modulated by structural heterogeneity. In cardiac muscle, improved understanding on how this heterogeneity influences electrical spread is key to advancing our interpretation of dispersion of repolarization. We propose fractional diffusion models as a novel mathematical description of structurally heterogeneous excitable media, as a means of representing the modulation of the total electric field by the secondary electrical sources associated with tissue inhomogeneities. Our results, analysed against in vivo human recordings and experimental data of different animal species, indicate that structural heterogeneity underlies relevant characteristics of cardiac electrical propagation at tissue level. These include conduction effects on action potential (AP) morphology, the shortening of AP duration along the activation pathway and the progressive modulation by premature beats of spatial patterns of dispersion of repolarization. The proposed approach may also have important implications in other research fields involving excitable complex media. PMID:24920109

  7. Control of the crystal structure of InAs nanowires by tuning contributions of adatom diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui; Ren, Xiaomin; Ye, Xian; Guo, Jingwei; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xia; Cai, Shiwei; Huang, Yongqing

    2010-11-01

    The dependence of crystal structure on contributions of adatom diffusion (ADD) and precursor direct impingement (DIM) was investigated for vapor-liquid-solid growth of InAs nanowires (NWs). The ADD contributions from the sidewalls and substrate surface can be changed by using GaAs NWs of different length as the basis for growing InAs NWs. We found that pure zinc-blende structure is favored when DIM contributions dominate. Moreover, without changing the NW diameter or growth parameters (such as temperature or V/III ratio), a transition from zinc-blende to wurtzite structure can be realized by increasing the ADD contributions. A nucleation model is proposed in which ADD and DIM contributions play different roles in determining the location and phase of the nucleus.

  8. Analysis of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy Tidal Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Bart; Myers, Jeannette; Rusthoven, Mary; The, Lih-Sin; Hartmann, Dieter

    2007-11-01

    The Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy is one of the satellite galaxies interacting with the Milky Way. Discovered to be located just below the galactic center; this galaxy is currently being tidally disrupted as it approaches the Milky Way disk. We performed a series of N-body simulations of the interaction between Sagittarius and the Milky Way over a 1 Gyr time period leading up to today's position. Here we present our analysis of the tidal tails and compare them to the known tidal structures we observe today.

  9. Influence of diffusive transport on the structural evolution of W/O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sameh, Herzi; Wafa, Essafi; Sihem, Bellagha; Fernando, Leal-Calderon

    2012-12-21

    Double emulsions of the W/O/W type are compartmented materials suitable for encapsulation and sustained release of hydrophilic compounds. Initially, the inner aqueous droplets contain an encapsulated compound (EC), and the external phase comprises an osmotic regulator (OR). Over time, water and the solutes dissolved in it tend to be transferred from one aqueous compartment to the other across the oil phase. Water transfer being by far the fastest process, osmotic equilibration of two compartments is permanently ensured. Since the transport of the EC and OR generally occurs at dissimilar rates, the osmotic regulation process provokes a continuous flux of water that modifies the inner and outer volumes. We fabricated W/O/W emulsions stabilized by a couple of amphiphilic polymers, and we measured the inward and outward diffusion kinetics of the solutes. The phenomenology was explored by varying the chemical nature of the OR while keeping the same EC or vice versa. Microscope observations revealed different evolution scenarios, depending on the relative rates of transfer of the EC and OR. Structural evolution was mainly determined by the permeation ratio between the EC and the OR, irrespective of their chemical nature. In particular, a regime leading to droplet emptying was identified. In all cases, evolution was due to diffusion/permeation phenomena and coalescence was marginal. Results were discussed within the frame of a simple mean-field model taking into account the diffusive transfer of the solutes. PMID:23176152

  10. Long Chain Molecules in the Molten State: Surface Adsorption, Near Surface Structure, and Mutual-Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng

    1993-01-01

    The surface segregation in a binary mixture of polymer due to surface energy difference or end-grafting is studied. The surface energy difference induced segregation is compared with the mean-field theory. The end-labeling of chains strengthens the ability of the chain to bind to the surface, and the stretching of the end grafted chains is proved to be a controlling fact limiting the brush density. The structure of a chain near a surface needs to be known in order to make more quantitative analysis. Such knowledge is currently not available although a reflecting surface model is proposed. We also studied the mutual-diffusion of compatible linear chains. It is observed that the broadening of the interfacial width scales as the 1/4 power of the diffusion time for a time scale much longer than the reptation time. It is speculated that the anomalous behavior is either due to small molecular residue in the sample or due to the long chain nature of the polymer itself. If the former possibility can be ruled out, the validity of applying the reptation model to polymer diffusion over small distances might be under challenge. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is an established technique and its application in polymer science has been around for quite some time. However, the quantitative application in depth profiling was so far not very successful. The technique is reviewed and procedures that ensure correct extraction of depth profiles from raw SIMS data are discussed.