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Sample records for diffusion limited aggregation

  1. Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.

  2. Attracted diffusion-limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, S H Ebrahimnazhad; Saberi, A A

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) with a seed placed on an attractive plane as a simple model in connection with the electrical double layers. We compute the fractal dimension of the aggregated patterns as a function of the attraction strength α. For the patterns grown in both two and three dimensions, the fractal dimension shows a significant dependence on the attraction strength for small values of α and approaches that of the ordinary two-dimensional (2D) DLA in the limit of large α. For the nonattracting case with α = 1, our results in three dimensions reproduce the patterns of 3D ordinary DLA, while in two dimensions our model leads to the formation of a compact cluster with dimension 2. For intermediate α, the 3D clusters have a quasi-2D structure with a fractal dimension very close to that of the ordinary 2D DLA. This allows one to control the morphology of a growing cluster by tuning a single external parameter α. PMID:23005417

  3. Attracted diffusion-limited aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbari, S. H. Ebrahimnazhad; Saberi, A. A.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) with a seed placed on an attractive plane as a simple model in connection with the electrical double layers. We compute the fractal dimension of the aggregated patterns as a function of the attraction strength α. For the patterns grown in both two and three dimensions, the fractal dimension shows a significant dependence on the attraction strength for small values of α and approaches that of the ordinary two-dimensional (2D) DLA in the limit of large α. For the nonattracting case with α=1, our results in three dimensions reproduce the patterns of 3D ordinary DLA, while in two dimensions our model leads to the formation of a compact cluster with dimension 2. For intermediate α, the 3D clusters have a quasi-2D structure with a fractal dimension very close to that of the ordinary 2D DLA. This allows one to control the morphology of a growing cluster by tuning a single external parameter α.

  4. Anisotropic diffusion-limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Popescu, M N; Hentschel, H G E; Family, F

    2004-06-01

    Using stochastic conformal mappings, we study the effects of anisotropic perturbations on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in two dimensions. The harmonic measure of the growth probability for DLA can be conformally mapped onto a constant measure on a unit circle. Here we map m preferred directions for growth to a distribution on the unit circle, which is a periodic function with m peaks in [-pi,pi) such that the angular width sigma of the peak defines the "strength" of anisotropy kappa= sigma(-1) along any of the m chosen directions. The two parameters (m,kappa) map out a parameter space of perturbations that allows a continuous transition from DLA (for small enough kappa ) to m needlelike fingers as kappa--> infinity. We show that at fixed m the effective fractal dimension of the clusters D(m,kappa) obtained from mass-radius scaling decreases with increasing kappa from D(DLA) approximately 1.71 to a value bounded from below by D(min) = 3 / 2. Scaling arguments suggest a specific form for the dependence of the fractal dimension D(m,kappa) on kappa for large kappa which compares favorably with numerical results. PMID:15244564

  5. Diffusion Limited Aggregation: Algorithm optimization revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, F. L.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2011-08-01

    The Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) model developed by Witten and Sander in 1978 is useful in modeling a large class of growth phenomena with local dependence. Besides its simplicity this aggregation model has a complex behavior that can be observed at the patterns generated. We propose on this work a brief review of some important proprieties of this model and present an algorithm to simulate a DLA aggregates that simpler and efficient compared to others found in the literature.

  6. Diffusion-limited aggregation on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Crowdy, D.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2010-08-01

    We develop a general theory of transport-limited aggregation phenomena occurring on curved surfaces, based on stochastic iterated conformal maps and conformal projections to the complex plane. To illustrate the theory, we use stereographic projections to simulate diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) on surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature, including the sphere (K>0) and the pseudo-sphere (K<0), which approximate "bumps" and "saddles" in smooth surfaces, respectively. Although the curvature affects the global morphology of the aggregates, the fractal dimension (in the curved metric) is remarkably insensitive to curvature, as long as the particle size is much smaller than the radius of curvature. We conjecture that all aggregates grown by conformally invariant transport on curved surfaces have the same fractal dimension as DLA in the plane. Our simulations suggest, however, that the multifractal dimensions increase from hyperbolic (K<0) to elliptic (K>0) geometry, which we attribute to curvature-dependent screening of tip branching.

  7. Thermodynamically reversible generalization of diffusion limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, R M; Margolus, N H

    1999-07-01

    We introduce a lattice gas model of cluster growth via the diffusive aggregation of particles in a closed system obeying a local, deterministic, microscopically reversible dynamics. This model roughly corresponds to placing the irreversible diffusion limited aggregation model (DLA) in contact with a heat bath. Particles release latent heat when aggregating, while singly connected cluster members can absorb heat and evaporate. The heat bath is initially empty, hence we observe the flow of entropy from the aggregating gas of particles into the heat bath, which is being populated by diffusing heat tokens. Before the population of the heat bath stabilizes, the cluster morphology (quantified by the fractal dimension) is similar to a standard DLA cluster. The cluster then gradually anneals, becoming more tenuous, until reaching configurational equilibrium when the cluster morphology resembles a quenched branched random polymer. As the microscopic dynamics is invertible, we can reverse the evolution, observe the inverse flow of heat and entropy, and recover the initial condition. This simple system provides an explicit example of how macroscopic dissipation and self-organization can result from an underlying microscopically reversible dynamics. We present a detailed description of the dynamics for the model, discuss the macroscopic limit, and give predictions for the equilibrium particle densities obtained in the mean field limit. Empirical results for the growth are then presented, including the observed equilibrium particle densities, the temperature of the system, the fractal dimension of the growth clusters, scaling behavior, finite size effects, and the approach to equilibrium. We pay particular attention to the temporal behavior of the growth process and show that the relaxation to the maximum entropy state is initially a rapid nonequilibrium process, then subsequently it is a quasistatic process with a well defined temperature. PMID:11969759

  8. Diffusion-Limited Aggregation with Polygon Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Yan-Ting; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

    2012-12-01

    Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) assumes that particles perform pure random walk at a finite temperature and aggregate when they come close enough and stick together. Although it is well known that DLA in two dimensions results in a ramified fractal structure, how the particle shape influences the formed morphology is still unclear. In this work, we perform the off-lattice two-dimensional DLA simulations with different particle shapes of triangle, quadrangle, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon, respectively, and compare with the results for circular particles. Our results indicate that different particle shapes only change the local structure, but have no effects on the global structure of the formed fractal cluster. The local compactness decreases as the number of polygon edges increases.

  9. Diffusion limited aggregation. The role of surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ruiz, Juan M.; Otálora, Fermín

    1991-11-01

    We present a growth model in which the hitting particles are able to diffuse to more stable growth sites in the perimeter of a cluster growing by diffusion limited aggregation. By tuning the diffusion path Ls, the morphological output - from disordered fractal to perfect single crystals - can be controlled. Instabilities appear when the mean length of the crystal faces Lf are greater than 2 Ls.

  10. Scaling in the Diffusion Limited Aggregation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshutin, Anton

    2012-01-01

    We present a self-consistent picture of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) growth based on the assumption that the probability density P(r,N) for the next particle to be attached within the distance r to the center of the cluster is expressible in the scale-invariant form P[r/Rdep(N)]. It follows from this assumption that there is no multiscaling issue in DLA and there is only a single fractal dimension D for all length scales. We check our assumption self-consistently by calculating the particle-density distribution with a measured P(r/Rdep) function on an ensemble with 1000 clusters of 5×107 particles each. We also show that a nontrivial multiscaling function D(x) can be obtained only when small clusters (N<10000) are used to calculate D(x). Hence, multiscaling is a finite-size effect and is not intrinsic to DLA.

  11. Linear relationship statistics in diffusion limited aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi, Abbas Ali

    2009-11-01

    We show that various surface parameters in two-dimensional diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) grow linearly with the number of particles. We find the ratio of the average length of the perimeter and the accessible perimeter of a DLA cluster together with its external perimeters to the cluster size, and define a microscopic schematic procedure for attachment of an incident new particle to the cluster. We measure the fractal dimension of the red sites (i.e., the sites such that cutting each of them splits the cluster) as equal to that of the DLA cluster. It is also shown that the average number of dead sites and the average number of red sites have linear relationships with the cluster size.

  12. Scaling in the diffusion limited aggregation model.

    PubMed

    Menshutin, Anton

    2012-01-01

    We present a self-consistent picture of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) growth based on the assumption that the probability density P(r,N) for the next particle to be attached within the distance r to the center of the cluster is expressible in the scale-invariant form P[r/R{dep}(N)]. It follows from this assumption that there is no multiscaling issue in DLA and there is only a single fractal dimension D for all length scales. We check our assumption self-consistently by calculating the particle-density distribution with a measured P(r/R{dep}) function on an ensemble with 1000 clusters of 5×10{7} particles each. We also show that a nontrivial multiscaling function D(x) can be obtained only when small clusters (N<10 000) are used to calculate D(x). Hence, multiscaling is a finite-size effect and is not intrinsic to DLA. PMID:22304265

  13. Beyond diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics in microparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Erb, Randall M; Krebs, Melissa D; Alsberg, Eben; Samanta, Bappaditya; Rotello, Vincent M; Yellen, Benjamin B

    2009-11-01

    Aggregation in nondiffusion limited colloidal particle suspensions follows a temporal power-law dependence that is consistent with classical diffusion limited cluster aggregation models; however, the dynamic scaling exponents observed in these systems are not adequately described by diffusion limited cluster aggregation models, which expect these scaling exponents to be constant over all experimental conditions. We show here that the dynamic scaling exponents for 10 microm particles increase with the particle concentration and the particle-particle free energy of interaction. We provide a semiquantitative explanation for the scaling behavior in terms of the long-ranged particle-particle interaction potential. PMID:20364980

  14. Diffusion-limited aggregates grown on nonuniform substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornette, V.; Centres, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.; Nieto, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper, patterns of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) grown on nonuniform substrates are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We consider a nonuniform substrate as the largest percolation cluster of dropped particles with different structures and forms that occupy more than a single site on the lattice. The aggregates are grown on such clusters, in the range the concentration, p, from the percolation threshold, pc up to the jamming coverage, pj. At the percolation threshold, the aggregates are asymmetrical and the branches are relatively few. However, for larger values of p, the patterns change gradually to a pure DLA. Tiny qualitative differences in this behavior are observed for different k sizes. Correspondingly, the fractal dimension of the aggregates increases as p raises in the same range pc≤p≤pj. This behavior is analyzed and discussed in the framework of the existing theoretical approaches.

  15. Optimizing off-lattice Diffusion-Limited Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijpers, Kasper R.; de Martín, Lilian; van Ommen, J. Ruud

    2014-03-01

    We present a technique to improve the time scaling of Diffusion-Limited Aggregation simulations. The proposed method reduces the number of calculations by making an extensive use of the RAM memory to store information about the particles’ positions and distances. We have simulated clusters up to 5ṡ106 particles in 2D and up to 1ṡ106 particles in 3D and compared the calculation times with previous algorithms proposed in the literature. Our method scales t∝Np1.08, outperforming the current optimization techniques.

  16. Abnormal Stability in Growth of Diffusion-Limited Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Shonosuke

    2009-01-01

    An abnormal and unsteady growth of an isotropic cluster in diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) is observed in stability analyses. Macroscopic fluctuation due to the delay of transition from a dendritic tip to a tip-splitting growth induces the anisotropy of DLA. An asymptotic deformation factor \\varepsilon∞ = 0.0888 is obtained from large DLA clusters. A symmetric oval model proposed from the dual-stability growth of DLA gives an asymptotic fractal dimension of 1.7112 using \\varepsilon∞. The correspondence of this model to the box dimension is excellent.

  17. Growth of Silicon Nanosheets Under Diffusion-Limited Aggregation Environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaejun; Kim, Sung Wook; Kim, Ilsoo; Seo, Dongjea; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) growth of cubic-structured (silicon) Si nanosheets (SiNSs) was investigated. Freestanding, single-crystalline SiNSs with a thickness of 5-20 nm were grown on various Si substrates under an atmospheric chemical vapor deposition process. Systematic investigation indicated that a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) environment that leads to dendritic growth in <110> directions at the initial stage is essential for 2D growth. The kinetic aspects under DLA environments that ascribe to the dendritic and 2D growth were discussed. Under the more dilute conditions made by addition of Ar to the flow of H2, the SiNSs grew epitaxially on the substrates with periodic arrangement at a specific angle depending on the orientation of the substrate. It reveals that SiNSs always grew two dimensionally with exposing (111) surfaces. That is thermodynamically favorable. PMID:26518028

  18. Modeling realistic breast lesions using diffusion limited aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Elangovan, Premkumar; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Diaz, Oliver; Wells, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Synthesizing the appearance of malignant masses and inserting these into digital mammograms can be used as part of a wider framework for investigating the radiological detection task in X-ray mammography. However, the randomness associated with cell division within cancerous masses and the associated complex morphology challenges the realism of the modeling process. In this paper, Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA), a type of fractal growth process is proposed and utilized for modeling breast lesions. Masses of different sizes, shapes and densities were grown by controlling DLA growth parameters either prior to growth, or dynamically updating these during growth. A validation study was conducted by presenting 30 real and 30 simulated masses in a random order to a team of radiologists. The results from the validation study suggest that the observers found it difficult to differentiate between the real and simulated lesions.

  19. Growth of Silicon Nanosheets Under Diffusion-Limited Aggregation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaejun; Kim, Sung Wook; Kim, Ilsoo; Seo, Dongjea; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2015-10-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) growth of cubic-structured (silicon) Si nanosheets (SiNSs) was investigated. Freestanding, single-crystalline SiNSs with a thickness of 5-20 nm were grown on various Si substrates under an atmospheric chemical vapor deposition process. Systematic investigation indicated that a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) environment that leads to dendritic growth in <110> directions at the initial stage is essential for 2D growth. The kinetic aspects under DLA environments that ascribe to the dendritic and 2D growth were discussed. Under the more dilute conditions made by addition of Ar to the flow of H2, the SiNSs grew epitaxially on the substrates with periodic arrangement at a specific angle depending on the orientation of the substrate. It reveals that SiNSs always grew two dimensionally with exposing (111) surfaces. That is thermodynamically favorable.

  20. Influence of particle size on diffusion-limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Z J; Zou, X W; Zhang, W B; Jin, Z Z

    1999-11-01

    The influence of particle size on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) has been investigated by computer simulations. For DLA clusters consisting of two kinds of particles with different sizes, when large particles are in the minority, the patterns of clusters appear asymmetrical and nonuniform, and their fractal dimensions D(f) increase compared with one-component DLA. With increasing size of large particles, D(f) increases. This increase can be attributed to two reasons: one is that large particles become new growth centers; the other is the big masses of large particles. As the concentration ratio x(n) of large particles increases, D(f) will reach a maximum value D(f(m)) and then decrease. When x(n) exceeds a certain value, the morphology and D(f) of the two-component DLA clusters are similar to those of one-component DLA clusters. PMID:11970534

  1. Anisotropic diffusion limited aggregation in three dimensions: universality and nonuniversality.

    PubMed

    Goold, Nicholas R; Somfai, Ellák; Ball, Robin C

    2005-09-01

    We explore the macroscopic consequences of lattice anisotropy for diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) in three dimensions. Simple cubic and bcc lattice growths are shown to approach universal asymptotic states in a coherent fashion, and the approach is accelerated by the use of noise reduction. These states are strikingly anisotropic dendrites with a rich hierarchy of structure. For growth on an fcc lattice, our data suggest at least two stable fixed points of anisotropy, one matching the bcc case. Hexagonal growths, favoring six planar and two polar directions, appear to approach a line of asymptotic states with continuously tunable polar anisotropy. The more planar of these growths visually resembles real snowflake morphologies. Our simulations use a new and dimension-independent implementation of the DLA model. The algorithm maintains a hierarchy of sphere coverings of the growth, supporting efficient random walks onto the growth by spherical moves. Anisotropy was introduced by restricting growth to certain preferred directions. PMID:16241431

  2. Anisotropic diffusion limited aggregation in three dimensions: Universality and nonuniversality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goold, Nicholas R.; Somfai, Ellák; Ball, Robin C.

    2005-09-01

    We explore the macroscopic consequences of lattice anisotropy for diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) in three dimensions. Simple cubic and bcc lattice growths are shown to approach universal asymptotic states in a coherent fashion, and the approach is accelerated by the use of noise reduction. These states are strikingly anisotropic dendrites with a rich hierarchy of structure. For growth on an fcc lattice, our data suggest at least two stable fixed points of anisotropy, one matching the bcc case. Hexagonal growths, favoring six planar and two polar directions, appear to approach a line of asymptotic states with continuously tunable polar anisotropy. The more planar of these growths visually resembles real snowflake morphologies. Our simulations use a new and dimension-independent implementation of the DLA model. The algorithm maintains a hierarchy of sphere coverings of the growth, supporting efficient random walks onto the growth by spherical moves. Anisotropy was introduced by restricting growth to certain preferred directions.

  3. Scaling laws in the diffusion limited aggregation of persistent random walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Isadora R.; Alves, Sidiney G.; Ferreira, Silvio C.

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the diffusion limited aggregation of particles executing persistent random walks. The scaling properties of both random walks and large aggregates are presented. The aggregates exhibit a crossover between ballistic and diffusion limited aggregation models. A non-trivial scaling relation ξ∼ℓ1.25 between the characteristic size ξ, in which the cluster undergoes a morphological transition, and the persistence length ℓ, between ballistic and diffusive regimes of the random walk, is observed.

  4. Diffusion-limited aggregation with power-law pinning.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, H G E; Popescu, M N; Family, F

    2004-01-01

    Using stochastic conformal mapping techniques we study the patterns emerging from Laplacian growth with a power-law decaying threshold for growth R(-gamma)(N) (where R(N) is the radius of the N-particle cluster). For gamma>1 the growth pattern is in the same universality class as diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), while for gamma<1 the resulting patterns have a lower fractal dimension D(gamma) than a DLA cluster due to the enhancement of growth at the hot tips of the developing pattern. Our results indicate that a pinning transition occurs at gamma=1/2, significantly smaller than might be expected from the lower bound alpha(min) approximately 0.67 of multifractal spectrum of DLA. This limiting case shows that the most singular tips in the pruned cluster now correspond to those expected for a purely one-dimensional line. Using multifractal analysis, analytic expressions are established for D(gamma) both close to the breakdown of DLA universality class, i.e., gamma less, similar 1, and close to the pinning transition, i.e., gamma greater, similar 1/2. PMID:14995617

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of interfacial interactions between small nanoparticles during diffusion-limited aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Dongmei; Yang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Haixing; Tang, Huan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the limitations of experimental methods at the atomic level, research on the aggregation of small nanoparticles (D < 5 nm) in aqueous solutions is quite rare. The aggregation of small nanoparticles in aqueous solutions is very different than that of normal sized nanoparticles. The interfacial interactions play a dominant role in the aggregation of small nanoparticles. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations, which can explore the microscopic behavior of nanoparticles during the diffusion-limited aggregation at an atomic level, were employed to reveal the aggregation mechanism of small nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. First, the aggregation processes and aggregate structure were depicted. Second, the particle-particle interaction and surface diffusion of nanoparticles during aggregation were investigated. Third, the water-mediated interactions during aggregation were ascertained. The results indicate that the aggregation of nanoparticle in aqueous solutions is affected by particle size. The strong particle-particle interaction and high surface diffusion result in the formation of particle-particle bonds of 2 nm TiO2 nanoparticles, and the water-mediated interaction plays an important role in the aggregation process of 3 and 4 nm TiO2 nanoparticles.

  6. An extended fractal growth regime in the diffusion limited aggregation including edge diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Aritra; Batabyal, R.; Das, G. P.; Dev, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated on-lattice diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) involving edge diffusion and compared the results with the standard DLA model. For both cases, we observe the existence of a crossover from the fractal to the compact regime as a function of sticking coefficient. However, our modified DLA model including edge diffusion shows an extended fractal growth regime like an earlier theoretical result using realistic growth models and physical parameters [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 1829]. While the results of Zhang et al. showed the existence of the extended fractal growth regime only on triangular but not on square lattices, we find its existence on the square lattice. There is experimental evidence of this growth regime on a square lattice. The standard DLA model cannot characterize fractal morphology as the fractal dimension (Hausdorff dimension, DH) is insensitive to morphology. It also predicts DH = DP (the perimeter dimension). For the usual fractal structures, observed in growth experiments on surfaces, the perimeter dimension can differ significantly (DH ≠ DP) depending on the morphology. Our modified DLA model shows minor sensitivity to this difference.

  7. Multifractal analysis of the branch structure of diffusion-limited aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, W. G.; Heffernan, D. M.

    2012-02-01

    We examine the branch structure of radial diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) clusters for evidence of multifractality. The lacunarity of DLA clusters is measured and the generalized dimensions D(q) of their mass distribution is estimated using the sandbox method. We find that the global n-fold symmetry of the aggregates can induce anomalous scaling behavior into these measurements. However, negating the effects of this symmetry, standard scaling is recovered.

  8. Multifractal analysis of the branch structure of diffusion-limited aggregates.

    PubMed

    Hanan, W G; Heffernan, D M

    2012-02-01

    We examine the branch structure of radial diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) clusters for evidence of multifractality. The lacunarity of DLA clusters is measured and the generalized dimensions D(q) of their mass distribution is estimated using the sandbox method. We find that the global n-fold symmetry of the aggregates can induce anomalous scaling behavior into these measurements. However, negating the effects of this symmetry, standard scaling is recovered. PMID:22463212

  9. Electrochemical Growth of Ag Junctions and Diffusion Limited Aggregate (DLA) Fractal Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Zak; Tuppan, Sam; Kim, Woo-Joong; Seattle University Team

    2015-03-01

    We attempt construction of a single atom connection between two copper wires. By applying a DC voltage across the wires when immersed in a silver nitrate solution, we deposit silver until a junction is formed. The deposited silver forms a fractal structure that can be simulated with a diffusion limited aggregation model.

  10. Predictive model for diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics of nanocolloids under high concentration.

    PubMed

    Lattuada, Marco

    2012-01-12

    Smoluchowski's equation for the rate of aggregation of colloidal particles under diffusion-limited conditions has set the basis for the interpretation of kinetics of aggregation phenomena. Nevertheless, its use is limited to sufficiently dilute conditions. In this work we propose a correction to Smoluchowski's equation by using a result derived by Richards ( J. Phys. Chem. 1986 , 85 , 3520 ) within the framework of trapping theory. This corrected aggregation kernel, which accounts for concentration dependence effects, has been implemented in a population-balance equations scheme and used to model the aggregation kinetics of colloidal particles undergoing diffusion-limited aggregation under concentrated conditions (up to a particle volume fraction of 30%). The predictions of population balance calculations have been validated by means of Brownian dynamic simulations. It was found that the corrected kernel can very well reproduce the results from Brownian dynamic simulations for all concentration values investigated, and is also able to accurately predict the time required by a suspension to reach the gel point. On the other hand, classical Smoluchowski's theory substantially underpredicts the rate of aggregation as well as the onset of gelation, with deviations becoming progressively more severe as the particle volume fraction increases. PMID:22148884

  11. Stationary growth and unique invariant harmonic measure of cylindrical diffusion limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Riccardo; Taloni, Alessandro; Caglioti, Emanuele; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

    2012-08-10

    We prove that the harmonic measure is stationary, unique, and invariant on the interface of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) growing on a cylinder surface. We provide a detailed theoretical analysis puzzling together multiscaling, multifractality, and conformal invariance, supported by extensive numerical simulations of clusters built using conformal mappings and on a lattice. The growth properties of the active and frozen zones are clearly elucidated. We show that the unique scaling exponent characterizing the stationary growth is the DLA fractal dimension. PMID:23006279

  12. Stationary Growth and Unique Invariant Harmonic Measure of Cylindrical Diffusion Limited Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Riccardo; Taloni, Alessandro; Caglioti, Emanuele; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    We prove that the harmonic measure is stationary, unique, and invariant on the interface of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) growing on a cylinder surface. We provide a detailed theoretical analysis puzzling together multiscaling, multifractality, and conformal invariance, supported by extensive numerical simulations of clusters built using conformal mappings and on a lattice. The growth properties of the active and frozen zones are clearly elucidated. We show that the unique scaling exponent characterizing the stationary growth is the DLA fractal dimension.

  13. Interplay of model ingredients affecting aggregate shape plasticity in diffusion-limited aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Neto, P.; Stošić, T.; Stošić, B.; Lessa, R.; Milošević, M. V.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the combined effect of three ingredients of an aggregation model—surface tension, particle flow and particle source—representing typical characteristics of many aggregation growth processes in nature. Through extensive numerical experiments and for different underlying lattice structures we demonstrate that the location of incoming particles and their preferential direction of flow can significantly affect the resulting general shape of the aggregate, while the surface tension controls the surface roughness. Combining all three ingredients increases the aggregate shape plasticity, yielding a wider spectrum of shapes as compared to earlier works that analyzed these ingredients separately. Our results indicate that the considered combination of effects is fundamental for modeling the polymorphic growth of a wide variety of structures in confined geometries and/or in the presence of external fields, such as rocks, crystals, corals, and biominerals.

  14. Interplay of model ingredients affecting aggregate shape plasticity in diffusion-limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Neto, P; Stošić, T; Stošić, B; Lessa, R; Milošević, M V

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the combined effect of three ingredients of an aggregation model--surface tension, particle flow and particle source--representing typical characteristics of many aggregation growth processes in nature. Through extensive numerical experiments and for different underlying lattice structures we demonstrate that the location of incoming particles and their preferential direction of flow can significantly affect the resulting general shape of the aggregate, while the surface tension controls the surface roughness. Combining all three ingredients increases the aggregate shape plasticity, yielding a wider spectrum of shapes as compared to earlier works that analyzed these ingredients separately. Our results indicate that the considered combination of effects is fundamental for modeling the polymorphic growth of a wide variety of structures in confined geometries and/or in the presence of external fields, such as rocks, crystals, corals, and biominerals. PMID:25122308

  15. Probing surface characteristics of diffusion-limited-aggregation clusters with particles of variable size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshutin, A. Yu.; Shchur, L. N.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a technique for probing the harmonic measure of a diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) cluster surface with variable-size particles and generate 1000 clusters with 50×106 particles using an original off-lattice killing-free algorithm. Taking, in sequence, the limit of the vanishing size of the probing particles and then sending the growing cluster size to infinity, we achieve unprecedented accuracy in determining the fractal dimension D=1.7100(2) crucial to the characterization of the geometric properties of DLA clusters.

  16. Self-assembly of high molecular weight polypeptide copolymers studied via diffusion limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph; Wu, Yuzhou; Pramanik, Goutam; Weil, Tanja

    2014-01-13

    The assembly of high molecular weight polypeptides into complex architectures exhibiting structural complexity ranging from the nano- to the mesoscale is of fundamental importance for various protein-related diseases but also hold great promise for various nano- and biotechnological applications. Here, the aggregation of partially unfolded high molecular weight polypeptides into multiscale fractal structures is investigated by means of diffusion limited aggregation and atomic force microscopy. The zeta potential, the hydrodynamic radius, and the obtained fractal morphologies were correlated with the conformation of the polypeptide backbones as obtained from circular dichroism measurements. The polypeptides are modified with polyethylene oxide side chains to stabilize the polypeptides and to normalize intermolecular interactions. The modification with the hydrophobic thioctic acid alters the folding of the polypeptide backbone, resulting in a change in solution aggregation and fractal morphology. We found that a more compact folding results in dense and highly branched structures, whereas a less compact folded polypeptide chain yields a more directional assembly. Our results provide first evidence for the role of compactness of polypeptide folding on aggregation. Furthermore, the mesoscale-structured biofilms were used to achieve a hierarchical protein assembly, which is demonstrated by deposition of Rhodamine-labeled HSA with the preassembled fractal structures. These results contribute important insights to the fundamental understanding of the aggregation of high molecular weight polypeptides in general and provide opportunities to study nanostructure-related effects on biological systems such as adhesion, proliferation, and the development of, for example, neuronal cells. PMID:24354281

  17. Random walks, diffusion limited aggregation in a wedge, and average conformal maps.

    PubMed

    Sander, Leonard M; Somfai, Ellák

    2005-06-01

    We investigate diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in a wedge geometry. Arneodo and collaborators have suggested that the ensemble average of DLA cluster density should be close to the noise-free selected Saffman-Taylor finger. We show that a different, but related, ensemble average, that of the conformal maps associated with random clusters, yields a nontrivial shape which is also not far from the Saffman-Taylor finger. However, we have previously demonstrated that the same average of DLA in a channel geometry is not the Saffman-Taylor finger. This casts doubt on the idea that the average of noisy diffusion-limited growth is governed by a simple transcription of noise-free results. PMID:16035911

  18. Analysis of patterns formed by two-component diffusion limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Postnikov, E B; Ryabov, A B; Loskutov, A

    2010-11-01

    We consider diffusion limited aggregation of particles of two different kinds. It is assumed that a particle of one kind may adhere only to another particle of the same kind. The particles aggregate on a linear substrate which consists of periodically or randomly placed particles of different kinds. We analyze the influence of initial patterns on the structure of growing clusters. It is shown that at small distances from the substrate, the cluster structures repeat initial patterns. However, starting from a critical distance the initial periodicity is abruptly lost, and the particle distribution tends to a random one. An approach describing the evolution of the number of branches is proposed. Our calculations show that the initial pattern can be detected only at the distance which is not larger than approximately one and a half of the characteristic pattern size. PMID:21230475

  19. Bias-free simulation of diffusion-limited aggregation on a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Yen Lee

    We identify sources of systematic error in traditional simulations of the Witten-Sander model of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) on a square lattice. Based on semi-analytic solutions of the walk-to-line and walk-to-square first-passage problems, we develop an algorithm that reduces the simulation bias to below 10-12. We grow clusters of 108 particles on 65536 × 65536 lattices. We verify that lattice DLA clusters inevitably grow into anisotropic shapes, dictated by the anisotropy of the aggregation process. We verify that the fractal dimension evolves from the continuum DLA value, D = 1 . 71 , for small disk-shaped clusters, towards Kesten's bound of D = 3 / 2 for highly anisotropic clusters with long protruding arms.

  20. Is it really possible to grow isotropic on-lattice diffusion-limited aggregates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, S. G.; Ferreira, S. C., Jr.

    2006-03-01

    In a recent paper (Bogoyavlenskiy V A 2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 2533), an algorithm aiming to generate isotropic clusters of the on-lattice diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model was proposed. The procedure consists of aggregation probabilities proportional to the squared number of occupied sites (k2). In the present work, we analysed this algorithm using the noise reduced version of the DLA model and large-scale simulations. In the noiseless limit, instead of isotropic patterns, a 45° (30°) rotation in the anisotropy directions of the clusters grown on square (triangular) lattices was observed. A generalized algorithm, in which the aggregation probability is proportional to kν, was proposed. The exponent ν has a nonuniversal critical value νc, for which the patterns generated in the noiseless limit exhibit the original (axial) anisotropy for ν < νc and the rotated one (diagonal) for ν > νc. The values νc = 1.395 ± 0.005 and νc = 0.82 ± 0.01 were found for square and triangular lattices, respectively. Moreover, large-scale simulations show that there is a nontrivial relation between the noise reduction and anisotropy direction. The case ν = 2 (Bogoyavlenskiy's rule) is an example where the patterns exhibit the axial anisotropy for small and the diagonal one for large noise reduction.

  1. Morphological transition between diffusion-limited and ballistic aggregation growth patterns.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S C; Alves, S G; Brito, A Faissal; Moreira, J G

    2005-05-01

    In this work, the transition between diffusion-limited (DLA) and ballistic aggregation (BA) models was reconsidered using a model in which biased random walks simulate the particle trajectories. The bias is controlled by a parameter lambda, which assumes the value lambda=0 (1) for the ballistic (diffusion-limited) aggregation model. Patterns growing from a single seed were considered. In order to simulate large clusters, an efficient algorithm was developed. For lambda (not equal to) 0 , the patterns are fractal on small length scales, but homogeneous on large ones. We evaluated the mean density of particles (-)rho in the region defined by a circle of radius r centered at the initial seed. As a function of r, (-)rho reaches the asymptotic value rho(0)(lambda) following a power law (-)rho = rho(0) +Ar(-gamma) with a universal exponent gamma=0.46 (2) , independent of lambda . The asymptotic value has the behavior rho(0) approximately |1-lambda|(beta) , where beta=0.26 (1) . The characteristic crossover length that determines the transition from DLA- to BA-like scaling regimes is given by xi approximately |1-lambda|(-nu) , where nu=0.61 (1) , while the cluster mass at the crossover follows a power law M(xi) approximately |1-lambda(-alpha) , where alpha=0.97 (2) . We deduce the scaling relations beta=nugamma and beta=2nu-alpha between these exponents. PMID:16089530

  2. A new example of the diffusion-limited aggregation: Ni-Cu film patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockar, Hakan; Bayirli, Mehmet; Alper, Mursel

    2010-02-01

    The mechanism of the growth of the dendrites in the Ni-Cu films is studied by comparing them with the aggregates obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations according to the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. The films were grown by electrodeposition. The structural analysis of the films carried out using the x-ray diffraction showed that the films have a face-centered cubic structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used for morphological observations and the film compositions were determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The observed SEM images are compared with the patterns obtained by MC simulations according to DLA model in which the sticking probability, P between the particles is used as a parameter. For all samples between the least and the densest aggregates in the films, the critical exponents of the density-density correlation functions, α were within the interval 0.160 ± 0.005-0.124 ± 0.006, and the fractal dimensions, Df, varies from 1.825 ± 0.006 to 1.809 ± 0.008 according to the method of two-point correlation function. These values are also verified by the mass-radius method. The pattern with α and Df within these intervals was obtained by MC simulations to DLA model while the sticking probability, P was within the interval from 0.35 to 0.40 obtained by varying P (1-0.001). The results showed that the DLA model in this binary system is a possible mechanism for the formation of the ramified pattern of Ni-Cu within the Ni-rich base part of the Ni-Cu films due to the diffusive characteristics of Cu.

  3. Phase transition in diffusion limited aggregation with patchy particles in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartha, Moses J.; Sayeed, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    The influence of patchy interactions on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) has been investigated by computer simulations. In this model, the adsorption of the particle is irreversible, but the adsorption occurs only when the 'sticky patch' makes contact with the sticky patch of a previously adsorbed particle. As we vary the patch size, growth rate of the cluster decreases, and below a well-defined critical patch size, pc the steady state growth rate goes to zero. The system reaches an absorbing phase producing a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition. The order parameter close to the critical value of the patch size shows a power law behavior ρ (∞) ∼(p -pc) β, where β = 0.2840. We have found that the value of the critical exponent convincingly shows that this transition in patchy DLA belongs to the directed percolation universality class.

  4. Dendritic carbon architectures formed by nanotube core-directed diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenyu; Kong, Xiaohui

    2010-08-28

    A regular array of fractal patterns with macroscopic dendritic carbon architecture was prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The dendritic carbon architectures have micrometre-sized stems and hyperbranches evolved by lateral growth, and they are formed by diffusion-limited aggregation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticle building blocks generated from catalytic pyrolysis of toluene, which is directed by carbon nanotube cores, and followed by subsequent restructuring from surface to bulk. Incorporation of such proposed processes in Monte Carlo simulations generates dendritic architectures similar to the morphologies observed from the experiments. The findings provide direct information to the time resolved evolution of the morphology and microstructure of the dendritic carbon architecture, which mimic the nature behavior as snowflake attaching on the tree branches. Those will be important to understand the growth of vapor grown carbon fibers and carbon filamentous structures, and further possibility to control branching out of vapor grown carbon fibers. PMID:20607160

  5. A diffusion-limited aggregation model for the evolution of drainage networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a modified diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model for the evolution of fluvial drainage networks. Random walkers are introduced randomly on a grid, and each two-dimensional random walk proceeds until the walker finds a drainage network on which to accrete. This model for headward growth of drainage networks generates drainage patterns remarkably similar to actual drainages. The model also predicts statistical features which agree with actual networks, including the frequency-order (bifurcation) ratio (R(sub b) = 3.98) and the stream length-order (R(sub r) = 2.09). Using the definition of network fractal dimension D = log R(sub b)/log R(sub r), we find that our DLA model gives D = 1.87, near the observed range of D approximately equal to 1.80 - 1.85.

  6. Scaling exponent of the maximum growth probability in diffusion-limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mogens H; Mathiesen, Joachim; Procaccia, Itamar

    2003-04-01

    An early (and influential) scaling relation in the multifractal theory of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) is the Turkevich-Scher conjecture that relates the exponent alpha(min) that characterizes the "hottest" region of the harmonic measure and the fractal dimension D of the cluster, i.e., D=1+alpha(min). Due to lack of accurate direct measurements of both D and alpha(min), this conjecture could never be put to a serious test. Using the method of iterated conformal maps, D was recently determined as D=1.713+/-0.003. In this paper, we determine alpha(min) accurately with the result alpha(min)=0.665+/-0.004. We thus conclude that the Turkevich-Scher conjecture is incorrect for DLA. PMID:12786408

  7. Diffusion-Limited Aggregation with Anisotropic Sticking Probability: A Tentative Model for River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    1986-10-01

    Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model with anisotropic sticking probability Ps is computer-simulated on two dimensional square lattice. The cluster grows from a seed particle at the origin in the positive y area with the absorption-type boundary along x-axis. The cluster is found to grow anisotropically as R//˜Nν// and R\\bot˜Nν\\bot, where R\\bot and R// are the radii of gyration of the cluster along x- and y-axes, respectively, and N is the particle number constituting the cluster. The two exponents are shown to become assymptotically ν//{=}2/3, ν\\bot{=}1/3 whenever the sticking anisotropy exists. It is also found that the present model is fairly consistent with Hack’s law of river networks, suggesting that it is a good candidate of a prototype model for the evolution of the river network.

  8. Nanostructured diffusion-limited-aggregation crystal pattern formation in a reactive microemulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rohit; Srivastava, P. K.

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) crystal pattern formation in microemulsion consisting of water, styrene, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), potassium persulphate and an oscillating Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reactant is reported. A variety of spatiotemporal patterns like concentric wave, spatial (stripe) and chaotic patterns appear. A colloidal phase composed of numerous nano-sized particles has been observed. The solid phase nucleation has been found to occur in the colloidal phase and has been found to grow in a symmetric crystal pattern with the progress of the reaction finally exhibiting DLA structures. We show that the formation of a nanostructured DLA crystal pattern is governed by spatial structures emerging in the BZ microemulsion system. Without any spatial structure in the microemulsion system only hydrogel of high viscosity is formed. A nano-sized branched crystal pattern was formed with a particle diameter in the range of 60-100 nm, as evident by transmission electron microscope, powder x-ray diffraction and particle size analyser studies.

  9. Mean-field diffusion-limited aggregation: a "density" model for viscous fingering phenomena.

    PubMed

    Bogoyavlenskiy, V A

    2001-12-01

    We explore a universal "density" formalism to describe nonequilibrium growth processes, specifically, the immiscible viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw cells (usually referred to as the Saffman-Taylor problem). For that we develop an alternative approach to the viscous fingering phenomena, whose basic concepts have been recently published in a Rapid Communication [Phys. Rev. E 63, 045305(R) (2001)]. This approach uses the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) paradigm as a core: we introduce a mean-field DLA generalization in stochastic and deterministic formulations. The stochastic model, a quasicontinuum DLA, simulates Monte Carlo patterns, which demonstrate a striking resemblance to natural Hele-Shaw fingers and, for steady-state growth regimes, follow precisely the Saffman-Taylor analytical solutions in channel and sector configurations. The relevant deterministic theory, a complete set of differential equations for a time development of density fields, is derived from that stochastic model. As a principal conclusion, we prove an asymptotic equivalency of both the stochastic and deterministic mean-field DLA formulations to the classic Saffman-Taylor hydrodynamics in terms of an interface evolution. PMID:11736272

  10. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on dielectrophoresis induced diffusion limited aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Faisal Khair

    Wires formed by diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) induced by dielectrophoresis (DEP) of gold nanoparticles were investigated as an effective sample preparation method for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Thymine was used as a test molecule and its SERS was measured to investigate the effectiveness of this technique that reproducibly resulted in x10 9 enhancement. It is known that molecules adsorbed near or at the surface of certain nanostructures produce strongly increased Raman signals and such phenomena is attributed to the concentration of electromagnetic (EM) optical fields at "hotspots" that usually occur at nanoscale junctions or clefts in metal nanostructures. Similarly, the enhancement obtained is attributed to the localized surface Plasmon's of the gold nanoparticles and the formation of "hotspots" in DEP wires. There are other methods that reproducibly yield in excess of x108 enhancement in SERS using tunable lasers and very elaborate Raman spectroscopy. The results presented here are obtained using a fixed laser excitation source at 785 nm and a simple spectrometer (5 cm-1 resolution).

  11. Scaling structure of the growth-probability distribution in diffusion-limited aggregation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Y.; Sato, S.; Matsushita, M.

    1987-08-01

    In nonequilibrium growth such as diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), the growth-site probability distribution characterizes these growth processes. By solving the Laplace equation numerically, we calculate the growth probability Pg(x) at the perimeter site x of clusters for the DLA and its generalized version called the η model, and obtain the generalized dimension D(q) and the f-α spectrum proposed by Halsey et al.

    [Phys. Rev. A 33, 1141 (1986)]
    . It is found that D(q) depends strongly on q and that the f-α spectrum is continuous. Our results suggest that these growth processes cannot be described by a simple scaling theory with a few scaling exponents. This is in clear contrast to the Botet-Jullien model
    [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1943 (1985)]
    which yields equilibrium patterns whose D(q) is constant. It is also found that the information dimension D(1) which represents the properties of the unscreened surface is in good agreement with our recent theory.

  12. Transition in the fractal properties from diffusion-limited aggregation to Laplacian growth via their generalization.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, H George E; Levermann, Anders; Procaccia, Itamar

    2002-07-01

    We study the fractal and multifractal properties (i.e., the generalized dimensions of the harmonic measure) of a two-parameter family of growth patterns that result from a growth model that interpolates between diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) and Laplacian growth patterns in two dimensions. The two parameters are beta that determines the size of particles accreted to the interface, and C that measures the degree of coverage of the interface by each layer accreted to the growth pattern at every growth step. DLA and Laplacian growth are obtained at beta=0, C=0 and beta=2, C=1, respectively. The main purpose of this paper is to show that there exists a line in the beta-C phase diagram that separates fractal (D<2) from nonfractal (D=2) growth patterns. Moreover, Laplacian growth is argued to lie in the nonfractal part of the phase diagram. Some of our arguments are not rigorous, but together with the numerics they indicate this result rather strongly. We first consider the family of models obtained for beta=0, C>0, and derive for them a scaling relation D=2D(3). We then propose that this family has growth patterns for which D=2 for some C>C(cr), where C(cr) may be zero. Next we consider the whole beta-C phase diagram and define a line that separates two-dimensional growth patterns from fractal patterns with D<2. We explain that Laplacian growth lies in the region belonging to two-dimensional growth patterns, motivating the main conjecture of this paper, i.e., that Laplacian growth patterns are two dimensional. The meaning of this result is that the branches of Laplacian growth patterns have finite (and growing) area on scales much larger than any ultraviolet cutoff length. PMID:12241482

  13. Diffusion limited aggregation of particles with different sizes: Fractal dimension change by anisotropic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, F. L.; Mattos, O. A.; Amorin, V. S.; Souza, A. B.

    2015-07-01

    Clusters formation models have been extensively studied in literature, and one of the main task of this research area is the analysis of the particle aggregation processes. Some work support that the main characteristics of this processes are strictly correlated to the cluster morphology, for example in DLA. It is expected that in the DLA clusters formation with particles containing different sizes the modification of the aggregation processes can be responsible for changes in the DLA morphology. The present article is going to analyze the formation of DLA clusters of particles with different sizes and show that the aggregates obtained by this approach generate an angle selection mechanism on dendritic growth that influences the shielding effect of the DLA edge and affect the fractal dimension of the clusters.

  14. Traveling front solutions to directed diffusion-limited aggregation, digital search trees, and the Lempel-Ziv data compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Satya N.

    2003-08-01

    We use the traveling front approach to derive exact asymptotic results for the statistics of the number of particles in a class of directed diffusion-limited aggregation models on a Cayley tree. We point out that some aspects of these models are closely connected to two different problems in computer science, namely, the digital search tree problem in data structures and the Lempel-Ziv algorithm for data compression. The statistics of the number of particles studied here is related to the statistics of height in digital search trees which, in turn, is related to the statistics of the length of the longest word formed by the Lempel-Ziv algorithm. Implications of our results to these computer science problems are pointed out.

  15. Scaling and multiscaling behavior of the perimeter of a diffusion-limited aggregation generated by the Hastings-Levitov method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, F.; Saberi, A. A.; Rouhani, S.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the scaling behavior of a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) simulated by the Hastings-Levitov method. We obtain the fractal dimension of the clusters by direct analysis of the geometrical patterns, in good agreement with one obtained from an analytical approach. We compute the two-point density correlation function and we show that, in the large-size limit, it agrees with the obtained fractal dimension. These support the statistical agreement between the patterns and DLA clusters. We also investigate the scaling properties of various length scales and their fluctuations, related to the boundary of the cluster. We find that all of the length scales do not have a simple scaling with the same correction to scaling exponent. The fractal dimension of the perimeter is obtained equal to that of the cluster. The growth exponent is computed from the evolution of the interface width equal to β = 0.557(2). We also show that the perimeter of the DLA cluster has an asymptotic multiscaling behavior.

  16. Scaling and multiscaling behavior of the perimeter of a diffusion-limited aggregation generated by the Hastings-Levitov method.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, F; Saberi, A A; Rouhani, S

    2009-09-16

    In this paper, we analyze the scaling behavior of a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) simulated by the Hastings-Levitov method. We obtain the fractal dimension of the clusters by direct analysis of the geometrical patterns, in good agreement with one obtained from an analytical approach. We compute the two-point density correlation function and we show that, in the large-size limit, it agrees with the obtained fractal dimension. These support the statistical agreement between the patterns and DLA clusters. We also investigate the scaling properties of various length scales and their fluctuations, related to the boundary of the cluster. We find that all of the length scales do not have a simple scaling with the same correction to scaling exponent. The fractal dimension of the perimeter is obtained equal to that of the cluster. The growth exponent is computed from the evolution of the interface width equal to β = 0.557(2). We also show that the perimeter of the DLA cluster has an asymptotic multiscaling behavior. PMID:21832341

  17. Test of multiscaling in a diffusion-limited-aggregation model using an off-lattice killing-free algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshutin, Anton Yu.; Shchur, Lev N.

    2006-01-01

    We test the multiscaling issue of diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) clusters using a modified algorithm. This algorithm eliminates killing the particles at the death circle. Instead, we return them to the birth circle at a random relative angle taken from the evaluated distribution. In addition, we use a two-level hierarchical memory model that allows using large steps in conjunction with an off-lattice realization of the model. Our algorithm still seems to stay in the framework of the original DLA model. We present an accurate estimate of the fractal dimensions based on the data for a hundred clusters with 50 million particles each. We find that multiscaling cannot be ruled out. We also find that the fractal dimension is a weak self-averaging quantity. In addition, the fractal dimension, if calculated using the harmonic measure, is a nonmonotonic function of the cluster radius. We argue that the controversies in the data interpretation can be due to the weak self-averaging and the influence of intrinsic noise.

  18. Average shape of transport-limited aggregates.

    PubMed

    Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z

    2005-08-12

    We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry. PMID:16196793

  19. Average Shape of Transport-Limited Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2005-08-01

    We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry.

  20. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2010-05-01

    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  1. Fractal aggregation growth and the surrounding diffusion field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Satoru; Saito, Yukio; Uwaha, Makio

    2005-10-01

    Silver metal trees grow and form a forest at the edge of a Cu plate in the AgNO3 water solution in a two-dimensional ( d=2) cell. The local structure of the forest is similar to that of the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), but the whole pattern approaches a uniform structure. Its growth dynamics is characterized by the fractal dimension Df of DLA. Time-dependence of the tip height is found to satisfy the scaling relation with the solute concentration c, and the asymptotic growth velocity V is consistent with the power law V˜c expected from the theory. The thickness ξc of the diffusion boundary layer is measured by the Michelson interferometry, and the scaling relation is also confirmed.

  2. Diffusion Limited Aggregation on a Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamini, Itai; Yadin, Ariel

    2008-04-01

    We consider the DLA process on a cylinder G × {mathbb{N}} . It is shown that this process “grows arms”, provided that the base graph G has small enough mixing time. Specifically, if the mixing time of G is at most log^{(2-ɛ)}left\\vert G right\\vert , the time it takes the cluster to reach the m th layer of the cylinder is at most of order m \\cdot left\\vert G right\\vert/loglogleft\\vert G right\\vert . In particular we get examples of infinite Cayley graphs of degree 5, for which the DLA cluster on these graphs has arbitrarily small density. In addition, we provide an upper bound on the rate at which the “arms” grow. This bound is valid for a large class of base graphs G, including discrete tori of dimension at least 3. It is also shown that for any base graph G, the density of the DLA process on a G-cylinder is related to the rate at which the arms of the cluster grow. This implies that for any vertex transitive G, the density of DLA on a G-cylinder is bounded by 2/3.

  3. Flux-limited diffusion with relativistic corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1983-03-15

    A recently reported flux-limited diffusion theory is extended to include relativistic terms, correct to first order in the fluid velocity. We show that this diffusion theory is fully flux limited, and yields the correct result for the radiative flux in the classical diffusion limit, namely a Fick's law component plus a v/c convective term.

  4. Diffusion and deformations of single hydra cells in cellular aggregates.

    PubMed Central

    Rieu, J P; Upadhyaya, A; Glazier, J A; Ouchi, N B; Sawada, Y

    2000-01-01

    Cell motion within cellular aggregates consists of both random and coherent components. We used confocal microscopy to study the center of mass displacements and deformations of single endodermal Hydra cells in two kinds of cellular aggregates, ectodermal and endodermal. We first carefully characterize the center of mass displacements using standard statistical analysis. In both aggregates, cells perform a persistent random walk, with the diffusion constant smaller in the more cohesive endodermal aggregate. We show that a simple parametric method is able to describe cell deformations and relate them to displacements. These deformations are random, with their amplitude and direction uncorrelated with the center of mass motion. Unlike for an isolated cell on a substrate, the random forces exerted by the surrounding cells predominate over the deformation of the cell itself, causing the displacements of a cell within an aggregate. PMID:11023896

  5. Diffusion, aggregation, and the thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Eaton, John K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2008-09-01

    The effects of nanoparticle aggregation and diffusion are difficult to separate using most nanofluid thermal conductivity data, for which the temperature dependence is collected sequentially. The present work captures the instantaneous temperature-dependent thermal conductivity using cross-sectional infrared microscopy and tracks the effects of aggregation and diffusion over time. The resulting data are strongly influenced by spatial and temperature variations in particle size and concentration and are interpreted using a Monte Carlo simulation and rate equations for particle and heat transport. These experiments improve our understanding of nanofluid behavior in practical systems including microscale heat exchangers.

  6. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CMRS (see 47 CFR 20.9) shall have an attributable interest in a total of more than 55 MHz of licensed... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee...

  7. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CMRS (see 47 CFR 20.9) shall have an attributable interest in a total of more than 55 MHz of licensed... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee...

  8. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CMRS (see 47 CFR 20.9) shall have an attributable interest in a total of more than 55 MHz of licensed... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee...

  9. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CMRS (see 47 CFR 20.9) shall have an attributable interest in a total of more than 55 MHz of licensed... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee...

  10. Hydration and diffusion dynamics shape microbial community composition and function in soil aggregates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, D.; Ebrahimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Natural variations in soil hydration conditions (rainfall, evaporation, root water uptake) affect gas and nutrient diffusion and soil microbial community composition and function. The conditions in soil aggregates are of particular interest due to limitations to oxygen diffusion into the core often containing organic carbon (as aggregation agent). The constantly varying soil hydration conditions affect the spatial extent of anoxic conditions in aggregates and thus the sized and self-organization of aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities. We developed an artificial soil aggregate composed of 3-D angular pore network combined with individual based models of motile microbial cells that grow, move, intercept nutrients and are inhibited by presence or absence of oxygen. The hydration conditions in the model aggregate affect community size, spatial segregation, and growth rates. The opposing diffusion directions of oxygen and carbon were essential to maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic communities within an aggregate (anaerobes become extinct when carbon sources are external). Cohabited soil aggregates promoted onset of anaerobic conditions by oxygen consumption by peripheral aerobes. Model predictions of CO2 and N2O production rates were in good agreement with experimental data. Results illustrate how aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities are activated by certain hydration conditions that enhance either nitrogen losses or decomposition of organic matter both contributing to GHG emissions.

  11. Fluctuations and discreteness in diffusion limited growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devita, Jason P.

    This thesis explores the effects of fluctuations and discreteness on the growth of physical systems where diffusion plays an important role. It focuses on three related problems, all dependent on diffusion in a fundamental way, but each with its own unique challenges. With diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), the relationship between noisy and noise-free Laplacian growth is probed by averaging the results of noisy growth. By doing so in a channel geometry, we are able to compare to known solutions of the noise-free problem. We see that while the two are comparable, there are discrepancies which are not well understood. In molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), we create efficient computational algorithms, by replacing random walkers (diffusing atoms) with approximately equivalent processes. In one case, the atoms are replaced by a continuum field. Solving for the dynamics of the field yields---in an average sense---the dynamics of the atoms. In the other case, the atoms are treated as individual random-walking particles, but the details of the dynamics are changed to an (approximately) equivalent set of dynamics. This approach involves allowing adatoms to take long hops. We see approximately an order of magnitude speed up for simulating island dynamics, mound growth, and Ostwald ripening. Some ideas from the study of MBE are carried over to the study of front propagation in reaction-diffusion systems. Many of the analytic results about front propagation are derived from continuum models. It is unclear, however, that these results accurately describe the properties of a discrete system. It is reasonable to think that discrete systems will converge to the continuum results when sufficiently many particles are included. However, computational evidence of this is difficult to obtain, since the interesting properties tend to depend on a power law of the logarithm of the number of particles. Thus, the number of particles included in simulations must be exceedingly large. By

  12. Field theory and diffusion creep predictions in polycrystalline aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, A.; Busso, E. P.; Forest, S.

    2015-07-01

    In polycrystals, stress-driven vacancy diffusion at high homologous temperatures leads to inelastic deformation. In this work, a novel continuum mechanics framework is proposed to describe the strain fields resulting from such a diffusion-driven process in a polycrystalline aggregate where grains and grain boundaries are explicitly considered. The choice of an anisotropic eigenstrain in the grain boundary region provides the driving force for the diffusive creep processes. The corresponding inelastic strain rate is shown to be related to the gradient of the vacancy flux. Dislocation driven deformation is then introduced as an additional mechanism, through standard crystal plasticity constitutive equations. The fully coupled diffusion-mechanical model is implemented into the finite element method and then used to describe the biaxial creep behaviour of FCC polycrystalline aggregates. The corresponding results revealed for the first time that such a coupled diffusion-stress approach, involving the gradient of the vacancy flux, can accurately predict the well-known macroscopic strain rate dependency on stress and grain size in the diffusion creep regime. They also predict strongly heterogeneous viscoplastic strain fields, especially close to grain boundaries triple junctions. Finally, a smooth transition from Herring and Coble to dislocation creep behaviour is predicted and compared to experimental results for copper.

  13. 77 FR 31767 - Aggregation, Position Limits for Futures and Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... approach best resolves those issues while maintaining a bright-line aggregation test?'' \\67\\ See 76 FR... Contracts'').\\4\\ \\4\\ See Position Limits for Futures and Swaps, 76 FR 71626, Nov. 18, 2011. The regulations... numerical level of the non-spot month limits based upon a formula provided in part 151.\\12\\ \\9\\ See 76 FR...

  14. Hydration and diffusion processes shape microbial community organization and function in model soil aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Or, Dani

    2015-12-01

    The constantly changing soil hydration status affects gas and nutrient diffusion through soil pores and thus the functioning of soil microbial communities. The conditions within soil aggregates are of particular interest due to limitations to oxygen diffusion into their core, and the presence of organic carbon often acting as binding agent. We developed a model for microbial life in simulated soil aggregates comprising of 3-D angular pore network model (APNM) that mimics soil hydraulic and transport properties. Within these APNM, we introduced individual motile (flagellated) microbial cells with different physiological traits that grow, disperse, and respond to local nutrients and oxygen concentrations. The model quantifies the dynamics and spatial extent of anoxic regions that vary with hydration conditions, and their role in shaping microbial community size and activity and the spatial (self) segregation of anaerobes and aerobes. Internal carbon source and opposing diffusion directions of oxygen and carbon within an aggregate were essential to emergence of stable coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic communities (anaerobes become extinct when carbon sources are external). The model illustrates a range of hydration conditions that promote or suppress denitrification or decomposition of organic matter and thus affect soil GHG emissions. Model predictions of CO2 and N2O production rates were in good agreement with limited experimental data. These limited tests support the dynamic modeling approach whereby microbial community size, composition, and spatial arrangement emerge from internal interactions within soil aggregates. The upscaling of the results to a population of aggregates of different sizes embedded in a soil profile is underway.

  15. Attachment limited versus diffusion limited nucleation of organic molecules: Hexaphenyl on sputter-modified mica.

    PubMed

    Tumbek, L; Winkler, A

    2012-08-01

    The nucleation and growth of organic molecules is usually discussed in the framework of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA). In this letter we demonstrate for the rod-like organic molecules hexaphenyl (6P) on sputter-modified mica, that under specific experimental conditions the nucleation has to be described by attachment limited aggregation (ALA). The crucial parameter for the growth mode is the roughness of the substrate surface, as induced by ion sputtering. With decreasing surface roughness the diffusion probability of the molecules increases and the growth mode changes from DLA to ALA. This was derived from the deposition rate dependence of the island density. A critical size of i = 7 molecules was determined for the nucleation of 6P on a moderately sputtered mica surface. PMID:23470898

  16. Attachment limited versus diffusion limited nucleation of organic molecules: Hexaphenyl on sputter-modified mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumbek, L.; Winkler, A.

    2012-08-01

    The nucleation and growth of organic molecules is usually discussed in the framework of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA). In this letter we demonstrate for the rod-like organic molecules hexaphenyl (6P) on sputter-modified mica, that under specific experimental conditions the nucleation has to be described by attachment limited aggregation (ALA). The crucial parameter for the growth mode is the roughness of the substrate surface, as induced by ion sputtering. With decreasing surface roughness the diffusion probability of the molecules increases and the growth mode changes from DLA to ALA. This was derived from the deposition rate dependence of the island density. A critical size of i = 7 molecules was determined for the nucleation of 6P on a moderately sputtered mica surface.

  17. Intramolecular diffusion controls aggregation of the PAPf39 peptide.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Kinshuk R; French, Kinsley C; Tzul, Franco O; Makhatadze, George I; Lapidus, Lisa J

    2016-09-01

    The 39-residue fragment of human prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) is found in high concentrations in semen and easily form fibrils. Previous work has shown that fibrillization is accelerated with a deletion of the first 8, mostly charged residues and it was hypothesized that fibrillization depended on the dynamics of these peptides. To test this hypothesis we have measured the intramolecular diffusion of the full length and 8-residue deletion peptides at two different pHs and found a correlation with fibrillization lag time. These results can be explained by a simple kinetic model of the early stages of aggregation in which oligomerization is controlled by the rate of peptide reconfiguration. PMID:27393931

  18. 42 CFR 441.354 - Aggregate projected expenditure limit (APEL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approval; however, CMS makes final calculations of the aggregate limit after base data have been verified... section, the term base year means— (1) Federal fiscal year (FFY) 1987 (that is, October 1, 1986 through... categories during FFY 1987, the base year means FFY 1989 (that is, October 1, 1988 through September 30,...

  19. Diffusion limitations in Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Post, M.F.M.; Van'tHoog, A.C.; Minderhoud, J.K.; Sie, S.T. . Lab.)

    1989-07-01

    The extent of diffusion limitations in the catalytic conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction has been established for a number of iron- and cobalt-based catalysts. The studies were performed in a fixed-bed microreactor system at temperatures in the range 473-523 {Kappa}. Variation of catalyst particle size in the range 0.2.-2.6 mm shows that the conversion of synthesis gas decreases considerably when the average particle size is increased. The effects of variation of particle size and pore diameter have been quantified with the Thiele model for diffusion limitations. Evidence has accumulated that the limited mobility of reactant molecules in the liquid-filled pores of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is the main cause of retardation of the reaction rates. The experimentally determined reaction rates with various catalysts operated under different conditions show an excellent fit with the theoretical model.

  20. Localization of Protein Aggregation in Escherichia coli Is Governed by Diffusion and Nucleoid Macromolecular Crowding Effect

    PubMed Central

    Coquel, Anne-Sophie; Jacob, Jean-Pascal; Primet, Mael; Demarez, Alice; Dimiccoli, Mariella; Julou, Thomas; Moisan, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli) where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian). Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids) are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of “soft” intracellular structuring (based on macromolecular

  1. Kinetic theory of diffusion-limited nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, T.; Bonvalet, M.; Blavette, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examine binary nucleation in the size and composition space {R,c} using the formalism of the multivariable theory [N. V. Alekseechkin, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)]. We show that the variable c drops out of consideration for very large curvature of the new phase Gibbs energy with composition. Consequently nuclei around the critical size have the critical composition, which is derived from the condition of criticality for the canonical variables and is found not to depend on surface tension. In this case, nucleation kinetics can be investigated in the size space only. Using macroscopic kinetics, we determine the general expression for the condensation rate when growth is limited by bulk diffusion, which accounts for both diffusion and capillarity and exhibits a different dependence with the critical size, as compared with the interface-limited regime. This new expression of the condensation rate for bulk diffusion-limited nucleation is the counterpart of the classical interface-limited result. We then extend our analysis to multicomponent solutions.

  2. Kinetic theory of diffusion-limited nucleation.

    PubMed

    Philippe, T; Bonvalet, M; Blavette, D

    2016-05-28

    We examine binary nucleation in the size and composition space {R,c} using the formalism of the multivariable theory [N. V. Alekseechkin, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)]. We show that the variable c drops out of consideration for very large curvature of the new phase Gibbs energy with composition. Consequently nuclei around the critical size have the critical composition, which is derived from the condition of criticality for the canonical variables and is found not to depend on surface tension. In this case, nucleation kinetics can be investigated in the size space only. Using macroscopic kinetics, we determine the general expression for the condensation rate when growth is limited by bulk diffusion, which accounts for both diffusion and capillarity and exhibits a different dependence with the critical size, as compared with the interface-limited regime. This new expression of the condensation rate for bulk diffusion-limited nucleation is the counterpart of the classical interface-limited result. We then extend our analysis to multicomponent solutions. PMID:27250310

  3. Diffusion limitations in Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Post, M.F.M.; Sie, S.T. Badhuisweg 3, 1031 CM Amsterdam )

    1988-01-01

    Indirect conversion of natural hydrocarbon resources such as natural gas into transportation fuels or chemicals usually involves the conversion to carbon monoxide and hydrogen (synthesis gas), followed by a catalytic conversion to the desired products via e.g. the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. In a fixed-bed mode of operation, the FT catalyst generally consists of particles of a few mm in size, for pressure-drop and heat-transfer considerations. To investigate whether diffusion limitations inside larger catalyst particles play a role during the synthesis reaction, the authors have made an extensive study using a number of iron- and cobalt-based catalysts, in which they have evaluated and quantified the effects of catalyst particle size and pore diameter on reaction rates. The effects due to variation of particle size and pore diameter have been quantified with the Thiele model for diffusion limitations.

  4. Diffusion-limited hyperbranched polymers with substitution effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; He, Xuehao; Chen, Yu

    2011-03-14

    Highly branched structure has the essential influence on macromolecular property and functionality in physics and chemistry. In this work, we proposed a diffusion-limited reaction model with the consideration of macromolecular unit relaxations and substitution effect of monomers to study the structure of hyperbranched polymers prepared by slow monomer addition to a core molecule. The exponential relationship (R(g) ∼ N(λ)) between the radius of gyration R(g) and the degree of polymerization N, was systematically analyzed at various branching degrees. It is shown that the effective exponent λ(eff) decreases at lower N and but increases toward that of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) clusters (λ(DLA) = 0.4) with the degree of polymerization increasing. The substitution effect of monomers in reaction strongly influences the evolution pathway of λ(eff). With the static light scattering technique, the fractal property of internal chains was further calculated. A general law about the radial distribution of the units of diffusion-limited hyperbranched polymers was found that, at smaller reactivity ratio k(12), the radial density of all monomer units D(A) declines from the center region to the peripheral layer revealing the dense core structure; however, at larger k(12), the density distribution shows a loose-dense-loose structure. These structural characteristics are helpful to deeply understand the property of hyperbranched polymers. PMID:21405187

  5. Shape and scale dependent diffusivity of colloidal nanoclusters and aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcanzare, M. M. T.; Ollila, S. T. T.; Thakore, V.; Laganapan, A. M.; Videcoq, A.; Cerbelaud, M.; Ferrando, R.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-07-01

    The diffusion of colloidal nanoparticles and nanomolecular aggregates, which plays an important role in various biophysical and physicochemical phenomena, is currently under intense study. Here, we examine the shape and size dependent diffusion of colloidal nano- particles, fused nanoclusters and nanoaggregates using a hybrid fluctuating lattice Boltzmann-Molecular Dynamics method. We use physically realistic parameters characteristic of an aqueous solution, with explicitly implemented microscopic no-slip and full-slip boundary conditions. Results from nanocolloids below 10 nm in radii demonstrate how the volume fraction of the hydrodynamic boundary layer influences diffusivities. Full-slip colloids are found to diffuse faster than no-slip particles. We also characterize the shape dependent anisotropy of the diffusion coefficients of nanoclusters through the Green-Kubo relation. Finally, we study the size dependence of the diffusion of nanoaggregates comprising N ≤ 108 monomers and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient approaches the continuum scaling limit of N-1/3.

  6. Diffusion-limited deposition of dipolar particles.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, F; Tavares, J M; Tasinkevych, M; Telo da Gama, M M

    2004-06-01

    Deposits of dipolar particles are investigated by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We found that the effect of the interactions is described by an initial, nonuniversal, scaling regime characterized by orientationally ordered deposits. In the dipolar regime, the order and geometry of the clusters depend on the strength of the interactions and the magnetic properties are tunable by controlling the growth conditions. At later stages, the growth is dominated by thermal effects and the diffusion-limited universal regime obtains, at finite temperatures. At low temperatures the crossover size increases exponentially as T decreases and at T=0 only the dipolar regime is observed. PMID:15244567

  7. Phase-field modeling of two-dimensional solute precipitation/dissolution: Solid fingers and diffusion-limited precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul

    2011-01-28

    Two-dimensional dendritic growth due to solute precipitation was simulated using a phase-field model reported earlier [Z. Xu and P. Meakin, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 014705 (2008)]. It was shown that diffusion-limited precipitation due to the chemical reaction at the solid-liquid interface posses similarities with diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). The diffusion-limited precipitation is attained by setting the chemical reaction rate much larger compared to the solute diffusion to eliminate the effect of the interface growth kinetics. The phase-field simulation results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions. The fractal solid fingers can be formed in the diffusion-limited precipitation and have a fractal dimension measured , close to 1.64, the fractal dimensionality of large square lattice diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) clusters.

  8. Fireproof impact limiter aggregate packaging inside shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Byington, Gerald A.; Oakes, Jr., Raymon Edgar; Feldman, Matthew Rookes

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a product and a process for making a fireproof, impact limiter, homogeneous aggregate material for casting inside a hazardous material shipping container, or a double-contained Type-B nuclear shipping container. The homogeneous aggregate material is prepared by mixing inorganic compounds with water, pouring the mixture into the void spaces between an inner storage containment vessel and an outer shipping container, vibrating the mixture inside the shipping container, with subsequent curing, baking, and cooling of the mixture to form a solidified material which encapsulates an inner storage containment vessel inside an outer shipping container. The solidified material forms a protective enclosure around an inner storage containment vessel which may store hazardous, toxic, or radioactive material. The solidified material forms a homogeneous fire-resistant material that does not readily transfer heat, and provides general shock and specific point-impact protection, providing protection to the interior storage containment vessel. The material is low cost, may contain neutron absorbing compounds, and is easily formed into a variety of shapes to fill the interior void spaces of shipping containers.

  9. Ion Specificity in Protein Aggregation Predicted from Diffusivity Measurements in Stable Protein Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Jonathan; San Miguel, Adriana; Bommarius, Andreas; Behrens, Sven

    2011-03-01

    The aggregation of therapeutic proteins in solution represents a major challenge in pharmaceutical development, as the mid- and long-term stability of these proteins is crucial for their efficacy and for compliance with FDA requirements. Monitoring slow aggregation experimentally is notoriously time-consuming, yet often unavoidable, since no theory with predictive power is currently available. In the present work, diffusion and aggregation kinetics of the globular model proteins lysozyme and BSA were studied in sodium-salt solutions of different composition and ionic strength using dynamic light scattering. We find a strong correlation between the concentration dependent protein diffusivity in stable solutions and the kinetics of protein aggregation in unstable solutions of similar composition but higher salt content. Our findings suggest a fast and convenient new way to assess a protein's specific tendency to aggregate in different types of electrolytes and buffer solutions.

  10. Tuning the thermal diffusivity of silver based nanofluids by controlling nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Agresti, Filippo; Barison, Simona; Battiston, Simone; Pagura, Cesare; Colla, Laura; Fedele, Laura; Fabrizio, Monica

    2013-09-13

    With the aim of preparing stable nanofluids for heat exchange applications and to study the effect of surfactant on the aggregation of nanoparticles and thermal diffusivity, stable silver colloids were synthesized in water by a green method, reducing AgNO₃ with fructose in the presence of poly-vinylpyrollidone (PVP) of various molecular weights. A silver nanopowder was precipitated from the colloids and re-dispersed at 4 vol% in deionized water. The Ag colloids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, combined dynamic light scattering and ζ-potential measurements, and laser flash thermal diffusivity. The Ag nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the molecular weight of PVP strongly affects the ζ-potential and the aggregation of nanoparticles, thereby affecting the thermal diffusivity of the obtained colloids. In particular, it was observed that on increasing the molecular weight of PVP the absolute value of the ζ-potential is reduced, leading to increased aggregation of nanoparticles. A clear relation was identified between thermal diffusivity and aggregation, showing higher thermal diffusivity for nanofluids having higher aggregation. A maximum improvement of thermal diffusivity by about 12% was found for nanofluids prepared with PVP having higher molecular weight. PMID:23942258

  11. Tuning the thermal diffusivity of silver based nanofluids by controlling nanoparticle aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agresti, Filippo; Barison, Simona; Battiston, Simone; Pagura, Cesare; Colla, Laura; Fedele, Laura; Fabrizio, Monica

    2013-09-01

    With the aim of preparing stable nanofluids for heat exchange applications and to study the effect of surfactant on the aggregation of nanoparticles and thermal diffusivity, stable silver colloids were synthesized in water by a green method, reducing AgNO3 with fructose in the presence of poly-vinylpyrollidone (PVP) of various molecular weights. A silver nanopowder was precipitated from the colloids and re-dispersed at 4 vol% in deionized water. The Ag colloids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, combined dynamic light scattering and ζ-potential measurements, and laser flash thermal diffusivity. The Ag nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the molecular weight of PVP strongly affects the ζ-potential and the aggregation of nanoparticles, thereby affecting the thermal diffusivity of the obtained colloids. In particular, it was observed that on increasing the molecular weight of PVP the absolute value of the ζ-potential is reduced, leading to increased aggregation of nanoparticles. A clear relation was identified between thermal diffusivity and aggregation, showing higher thermal diffusivity for nanofluids having higher aggregation. A maximum improvement of thermal diffusivity by about 12% was found for nanofluids prepared with PVP having higher molecular weight.

  12. Grain boundary diffusion of oxygen, potassium and calcium in natural and hot-pressed feldspar aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farver, John R.; Yund, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Grain boundary diffusion rates of oxygen, potassium and calcium in fine-grained feldspar aggregates were determined experimentally. The starting materials were a natural albite rock from the Tanco pegmatite and aggregates hot-pressed from fragments of Amelia albite or Ab, Or and An composition glasses. The technique employed isotopic tracers (18O, 41K, 42Ca) either evaporated onto the surface or in an aqueous solution surrounding the sample, and depth profiling using an ion microprobe (SIMS). From the depth profiles, the product of the grain boundary diffusion coefficient (D') and effective boundary width (δ) was calculated using numerical solutions to the appropriate diffusion equation. The experimental reproducibility of D'δ is a factor of 3. A separate determination of D' independent of δ yields an effective grain boundary width of ˜3 nm, consistent with high resolution TEM observations of a physical grain boundary width <5 nm. Oxygen (as molecular water) grain boundary diffusion rates were determined in the Ab and Or aggregates at 450°-800°C and 100 MPa (hydrothermal), potassium rates in Or aggregates at 450°-700°C both at 0.1 MPa (in air) and at 100 MPa (hydrothermal), and calcium rates in An aggregates at 700°-1100°C and 0.1 MPa (in air). Oxygen grain boundary diffusion rates are similar in all three of the Ab aggregates and in the Or aggregate. Potassium and oxygen depth profiles measured in the same samples yield different D'δ values, confirming a diffusional transport mechanism. Potassium diffusion in the Or aggregate has a greater activation energy (216 vs 78 kJ/mol) than oxygen, and the Arrhenius relations cross at ˜625°C. Potassium D'δ values in Or aggregates are about a factor of five greater in hydrothermal experiments at 100 MPa than in experiments at 0.1 MPa in air. Calcium grain boundary diffusion rates in An aggregates are 4 to 5 orders of magnitude slower than potassium in Or and have a greater (291 kJ/mol) activation energy. This

  13. Some free boundary problems involving non-local diffusion and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José Antonio; Vázquez, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the study of evolution processes involving degenerate parabolic equations which may exhibit free boundaries. The equations we have selected follow two recent trends in diffusion theory: considering anomalous diffusion with long-range effects, which leads to fractional operators or other operators involving kernels with large tails; and the combination of diffusion and aggregation effects, leading to delicate long-term equilibria whose description is still incipient. PMID:26261360

  14. Public Good Diffusion Limits Microbial Mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rajita; Korolev, Kirill S.

    2015-04-01

    Standard game theory cannot describe microbial interactions mediated by diffusible molecules. Nevertheless, we show that one can still model microbial dynamics using game theory with parameters renormalized by diffusion. Contrary to expectations, greater sharing of metabolites reduces the strength of cooperation and leads to species extinction via a nonequilibrium phase transition. We report analytic results for the critical diffusivity and the length scale of species intermixing. Species producing slower public good is favored by selection when fitness saturates with nutrient concentration.

  15. A numerical study of soot aggregate formation in a laminar coflow diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Thomson, M.J.; Guo, H.; Liu, F.; Smallwood, G.J.

    2009-03-15

    Soot aggregate formation in a two-dimensional laminar coflow ethylene/air diffusion flame is studied with a pyrene-based soot model, a detailed sectional aerosol dynamics model, and a detailed radiation model. The chemical kinetic mechanism describes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation up to pyrene, the dimerization of which is assumed to lead to soot nucleation. The growth and oxidation of soot particles are characterized by the HACA surface mechanism and pyrene-soot surface condensation. The mass range of the solid soot phase is divided into thirty-five discrete sections and two equations are solved in each section to model the formation of the fractal-like soot aggregates. The coagulation model is improved by implementing the aggregate coagulation efficiency. Several physical processes that may cause sub-unitary aggregate coagulation efficiency are discussed. Their effects on aggregate structure are numerically investigated. The average number of primary soot particles per soot aggregate n{sub p} is found to be a strong function of the aggregate coagulation efficiency. Compared to the available experimental data, n{sub p} is well reproduced with a constant 20% aggregate coagulation efficiency. The predicted axial velocity, OH mole fraction, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} mole fraction are validated against experimental data in the literature. Reasonable agreements are obtained. Finally, a sensitivity study of the effects of particle coalescence on soot volume fraction and soot aggregate nanostructure is conducted using a coalescence cutoff diameter method. (author)

  16. Endocannabinoids Control Platelet Activation and Limit Aggregate Formation under Flow

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Valentina; Koekman, Arnold C.; Weeterings, Cees; Roest, Mark; de Groot, Philip G.; Herczenik, Eszter; Maas, Coen

    2014-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system has previously been implicated in the regulation of neurons and inflammatory cells. Additionally, it has been reported that endocannabinoid receptors are present on circulating platelets, but there has been conflicting evidence on their contribution to platelet function. Objectives Our aim was to examine the role of endocannabinoids in platelet function in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results We studied the effects of the well-characterized endogenous endocannabinoid anandamide on platelet aggregation in suspension, α-granule release, calcium mobilization, Syk phosphorylation, as well as platelet spreading and aggregate formation under flow. Anandamide inhibits platelet aggregation and α-granule release by collagen, collagen-derived peptide CRP-XL, ADP, arachidonic acid and thromboxane A2 analogue U46619. However, activation via thrombin receptor PAR-1 stays largely unaffected. Calcium mobilization is significantly impaired when platelets are stimulated with collagen or CRP-XL, but remains normal in the presence of the other agonists. In line with this finding, we found that anandamide prevents collagen-induced Syk phosphorylation. Furthermore, anandamide-treated platelets exhibit reduced spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, have a decreased capacity for binding fibrinogen in solution and show perturbed platelet aggregate formation under flow over collagen. Finally, we investigated the influence of Cannabis sativa consumption by human volunteers on platelet activation. Similar to our in vitro findings with anandamide, ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation and aggregate formation on immobilized collagen under flow were impaired in whole blood of donors that had consumed Cannabis sativa. Conclusions Endocannabinoid receptor agonists reduce platelet activation and aggregate formation both in vitro and ex vivo after Cannabis sativa consumption. Further elucidation of this novel regulatory mechanism for platelet function

  17. Asymptotic Diffusion-Limit Accuracy of Sn Angular Differencing Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T S; Morel, J E; Chang, J H

    2009-11-05

    In a previous paper, Morel and Montry used a Galerkin-based diffusion analysis to define a particular weighted diamond angular discretization for S{sub n}n calculations in curvilinear geometries. The weighting factors were chosen to ensure that the Galerkin diffusion approximation was preserved, which eliminated the discrete-ordinates flux dip. It was also shown that the step and diamond angular differencing schemes, which both suffer from the flux dip, do not preserve the diffusion approximation in the Galerkin sense. In this paper we re-derive the Morel and Montry weighted diamond scheme using a formal asymptotic diffusion-limit analysis. The asymptotic analysis yields more information than the Galerkin analysis and demonstrates that the step and diamond schemes do in fact formally preserve the diffusion limit to leading order, while the Morel and Montry weighted diamond scheme preserves it to first order, which is required for full consistency in this limit. Nonetheless, the fact that the step and diamond differencing schemes preserve the diffusion limit to leading order suggests that the flux dip should disappear as the diffusion limit is approached for these schemes. Computational results are presented that confirm this conjecture. We further conjecture that preserving the Galerkin diffusion approximation is equivalent to preserving the asymptotic diffusion limit to first order.

  18. Two solvable systems of coagulation equations with limited aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoin, Jean

    2009-11-01

    We consider two simple models for the formation of polymers where at the initial time, each monomer has a certain number of potential links (called arms in the text) that are consumed when aggregations occur. Loosely speaking, this imposes restrictions on the number of aggregations. The dynamics of concentrations are governed by modifications of Smoluchowski's coagulation equations. Applying classical techniques based on generating functions, resolution of quasi-linear PDE's, and Lagrange inversion formula, we obtain explicit solutions to these non-linear systems of ODE's. We also discuss the asymptotic behavior of the solutions and point at some connexions with certain known solutions to Smoluchowski's coagulation equations with additive or multiplicative kernels.

  19. 12 CFR 723.17 - Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan limit? 723.17 Section 723.17 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.17 Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan limit? There are three circumstances where a...

  20. 42 CFR 441.354 - Aggregate projected expenditure limit (APEL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... individuals age 65 or older furnished as an alternative to care in an SNF or ICF (NF effective October 1, 1990... × (1+Z), where P=The aggregate amount of the State's medical assistance under title XIX for SNF and ICF... adjusted) for SNF services, ICF-other services, and mental health facility services for the base...

  1. 42 CFR 441.354 - Aggregate projected expenditure limit (APEL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... individuals age 65 or older furnished as an alternative to care in an SNF or ICF (NF effective October 1, 1990... × (1+Z), where P=The aggregate amount of the State's medical assistance under title XIX for SNF and ICF... adjusted) for SNF services, ICF-other services, and mental health facility services for the base...

  2. 42 CFR 441.354 - Aggregate projected expenditure limit (APEL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... individuals age 65 or older furnished as an alternative to care in an SNF or ICF (NF effective October 1, 1990... × (1+Z), where P=The aggregate amount of the State's medical assistance under title XIX for SNF and ICF... adjusted) for SNF services, ICF-other services, and mental health facility services for the base...

  3. 42 CFR 441.354 - Aggregate projected expenditure limit (APEL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individuals age 65 or older furnished as an alternative to care in an SNF or ICF (NF effective October 1, 1990... × (1+Z), where P=The aggregate amount of the State's medical assistance under title XIX for SNF and ICF... adjusted) for SNF services, ICF-other services, and mental health facility services for the base...

  4. Defining the Limits: Protein Aggregation and Toxicity In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, William M.; Klaips, Courtney L.; Serio, Tricia R.

    2014-01-01

    The proper folding of proteins to their functional forms is essential to cellular homeostasis. Perhaps not surprisingly, cells have evolved multiple pathways, some overlapping and others complementary, to resolve misfolded proteins when they arise, ranging from refolding through the action of molecular chaperones to elimination through regulated proteolytic mechanisms. These protein quality control pathways are sufficient, under normal conditions, to maintain a functioning proteome, but in response to diverse environmental, genetic, and/or stochastic events, protein misfolding exceeds the corrective capacity of these pathways, leading to the accumulation of aggregates and ultimately toxicity. Particularly devastating examples of these effects include certain neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington’s Disease, which are associated with the expansion of polyglutamine tracks in proteins. In these cases, protein misfolding and aggregation are clear contributors to pathogenesis, but uncovering the precise mechanistic links between the two events remains an area of active research. Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other model systems have uncovered previously unanticipated complexity in aggregation pathways, the contributions of protein quality control processes to them, and the cellular perturbations that result from them. Together these studies suggest that aggregate interactions and localization, rather than their size, are the crucial considerations in understanding the molecular basis of toxicity. PMID:24766537

  5. Invisibility cloaking in the diffusive-light limit (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schittny, Robert; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Albert Einstein's theory of relativity imposes stringent limitations to making macroscopic objects invisible with respect to electromagnetic light waves propagating in vacuum. These limitations are not relevant though for propagation of light in diffusive media like fog or milk because the effective energy speed is significantly lower than in vacuum due to multiple scattering events. Here, by exploiting the close mathematical analogy between the electrostatic or near-field limit of optics on the one hand and light diffusion on the other hand, we design, fabricate, and characterize simple core-shell cloaking structures for diffusive light propagation in cylindrical and spherical geometry.

  6. The effects of nutrient chemotaxis on bacterial aggregation patterns with non-linear degenerate cross diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, J. Francisco; Málaga, Carlos; Plaza, Ramón G.

    2013-11-01

    This paper studies a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for bacterial aggregation patterns on the surface of thin agar plates. It is based on the non-linear degenerate cross diffusion model proposed by Kawasaki et al. (1997) [5] and it includes a suitable nutrient chemotactic term compatible with such type of diffusion, as suggested by Ben-Jacob et al. (2000) [20]. An asymptotic estimation predicts the growth velocity of the colony envelope as a function of both the nutrient concentration and the chemotactic sensitivity. It is shown that the growth velocity is an increasing function of the chemotactic sensitivity. High resolution numerical simulations using Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), which include noise in the diffusion coefficient for the bacteria, are presented. The numerical results verify that the chemotactic term enhances the velocity of propagation of the colony envelope. In addition, the chemotaxis seems to stabilize the formation of branches in the soft-agar, low-nutrient regime.

  7. Reaction-diffusion-advection approach to spatially localized treadmilling aggregates of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochelis, Arik; Bar-On, Tomer; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional myosins belong to a class of molecular motors that walk processively inside cellular protrusions towards the tips, on top of actin filament. Surprisingly, in addition, they also form retrograde moving self-organized aggregates. The qualitative properties of these aggregates are recapitulated by a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model and admit two distinct families of modes: traveling waves and pulse trains. Unlike the traveling waves that are generated by a linear instability, pulses are nonlinear structures that propagate on top of linearly stable uniform backgrounds. Asymptotic analysis of isolated pulses via a simplified reaction-diffusion-advection variant on large periodic domains, allows to draw qualitative trends for pulse properties, such as the amplitude, width, and propagation speed. The results agree well with numerical integrations and are related to available empirical observations.

  8. Phase-field modeling of two-dimensional solute precipitation/dissolution: Solid fingers and diffusion-limited precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhijie Xu; Paul Meakin

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional dendritic growth due to solute precipitation was simulated using a phase-field model reported earlier [Z. Xu and P. Meakin, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 014705 (2008)]. It was shown that diffusion-limited precipitation due to the chemical reaction at the solid–liquid interface has similarities with diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). The diffusion-limited precipitation is attained by setting the chemical reaction rate much larger compared to the solute diffusion to eliminate the effect of the interface growth kinetics. The phase-field simulation results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions. The fractal solid fingers can be formed in the diffusion-limited precipitation and have a fractal dimension measured df = 1.68, close to 1.64, the fractal dimensionality of large square lattice DLA clusters.

  9. Phase-field modeling of two-dimensional solute precipitation∕dissolution: solid fingers and diffusion-limited precipitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul

    2011-01-28

    Two-dimensional dendritic growth due to solute precipitation was simulated using a phase-field model reported earlier [Z. Xu and P. Meakin, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 014705 (2008)]. It was shown that diffusion-limited precipitation due to the chemical reaction at the solid-liquid interface has similarities with diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). The diffusion-limited precipitation is attained by setting the chemical reaction rate much larger compared to the solute diffusion to eliminate the effect of the interface growth kinetics. The phase-field simulation results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions. The fractal solid fingers can be formed in the diffusion-limited precipitation and have a fractal dimension measured d(f)=1.68, close to 1.64, the fractal dimensionality of large square lattice DLA clusters. PMID:21280717

  10. Phase-field modeling of two-dimensional solute precipitation/dissolution: Solid fingers and diffusion-limited precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional dendritic growth due to solute precipitation was simulated using a phase-field model reported earlier [Z. Xu and P. Meakin, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 014705 (2008)]. It was shown that diffusion-limited precipitation due to the chemical reaction at the solid-liquid interface has similarities with diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). The diffusion-limited precipitation is attained by setting the chemical reaction rate much larger compared to the solute diffusion to eliminate the effect of the interface growth kinetics. The phase-field simulation results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions. The fractal solid fingers can be formed in the diffusion-limited precipitation and have a fractal dimension measured d_f = 1.68, close to 1.64, the fractal dimensionality of large square lattice DLA clusters.

  11. Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Siekman, Martin H.; Kooij, E. Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-07-01

    The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 °C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and consequent transport of heat and molecules are found to be key ingredients for understanding the evolution of the snow (ice) flakes. We conclude that not the local availability of water molecules (DLA), but rather them having the locally required orientation is the key factor for incorporation into the 2D ice nanocrystal. In combination with the transport of latent heat, we attribute the evolution of fractal 2D ice nanocrystals to local temperature dependent rotation limited aggregation. The ice growth occurs under extreme supersaturation, i.e., the conditions closely resemble the natural ones for the growth of complex 2D snow (ice) flakes and we consider our findings crucial for solving the "perennial" snow (ice) flake enigma.

  12. Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Siekman, Martin H; Kooij, E Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-07-21

    The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 °C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and consequent transport of heat and molecules are found to be key ingredients for understanding the evolution of the snow (ice) flakes. We conclude that not the local availability of water molecules (DLA), but rather them having the locally required orientation is the key factor for incorporation into the 2D ice nanocrystal. In combination with the transport of latent heat, we attribute the evolution of fractal 2D ice nanocrystals to local temperature dependent rotation limited aggregation. The ice growth occurs under extreme supersaturation, i.e., the conditions closely resemble the natural ones for the growth of complex 2D snow (ice) flakes and we consider our findings crucial for solving the "perennial" snow (ice) flake enigma. PMID:26203037

  13. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  14. Estimation of the diffusion-limited rate of microtubule assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Odde, D J

    1997-01-01

    Microtubule assembly is a complex process with individual microtubules alternating stochastically between extended periods of assembly and disassembly, a phenomenon known as dynamic instability. Since the discovery of dynamic instability, molecular models of assembly have generally assumed that tubulin incorporation into the microtubule lattice is primarily reaction-limited. Recently this assumption has been challenged and the importance of diffusion in microtubule assembly dynamics asserted on the basis of scaling arguments, with tubulin gradients predicted to extend over length scales exceeding a cell diameter, approximately 50 microns. To assess whether individual microtubules in vivo assemble at diffusion-limited rates and to predict the theoretical upper limit on the assembly rate, a steady-state mean-field model for the concentration of tubulin about a growing microtubule tip was developed. Using published parameter values for microtubule assembly in vivo (growth rate = 7 microns/min, diffusivity = 6 x 10(-12) m2/s, tubulin concentration = 10 microM), the model predicted that the tubulin concentration at the microtubule tip was approximately 89% of the concentration far from the tip, indicating that microtubule self-assembly is not diffusion-limited. Furthermore, the gradients extended less than approximately 50 nm (the equivalent of about two microtubule diameters) from the microtubule tip, a distance much less than a cell diameter. In addition, a general relation was developed to predict the diffusion-limited assembly rate from the diffusivity and bulk tubulin concentration. Using this relation, it was estimated that the maximum theoretical assembly rate is approximately 65 microns/min, above which tubulin can no longer diffuse rapidly enough to support faster growth. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9199774

  15. A Computational Investigation of Sooting Limits of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecoustre, V. R.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Limiting conditions for soot particle inception in spherical diffusion flames were investigated numerically. The flames were modeled using a one-dimensional, time accurate diffusion flame code with detailed chemistry and transport and an optically thick radiation model. Seventeen normal and inverse flames were considered, covering a wide range of stoichiometric mixture fraction, adiabatic flame temperature, and residence time. These flames were previously observed to reach their sooting limits after 2 s of microgravity. Sooting-limit diffusion flames with residence times longer than 200 ms were found to have temperatures near 1190 K where C/O = 0.6, whereas flames with shorter residence times required increased temperatures. Acetylene was found to be a reasonable surrogate for soot precursor species in these flames, having peak mole fractions of about 0.01.

  16. 5 CFR 9901.313 - Aggregate compensation limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards Act of 1938, as amended (29 U.S.C. 201-219 and 5 CFR part 551); (iii) Severance pay under 5 U.S.C... physicians and dentists (in occupational series 0602 and 0680, respectively) payment to the employee may not... limitation described in or established by this section. (3) Except for physicians and dentists...

  17. 5 CFR 9901.313 - Aggregate compensation limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards Act of 1938, as amended (29 U.S.C. 201-219 and 5 CFR part 551); (iii) Severance pay under 5 U.S.C... physicians and dentists (in occupational series 0602 and 0680, respectively) payment to the employee may not... limitation described in or established by this section. (3) Except for physicians and dentists...

  18. Morphological diagram of diffusion driven aggregate growth in plane: Competition of anisotropy and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshutin, A. Yu.; Shchur, L. N.

    2011-09-01

    Two-dimensional structures grown with Witten and Sander algorithm are investigated. We analyze clusters grown off-lattice and clusters grown with antenna method with N=3,4,5,6,7 and 8 allowed growth directions. With the help of variable probe particles technique we measure fractal dimension of such clusters D(N) as a function of their size N. We propose that in the thermodynamic limit of infinite cluster size the aggregates grown with high degree of anisotropy ( N=3,4,5) tend to have fractal dimension D equal to 3/2, while off-lattice aggregates and aggregates with lower anisotropy ( N>6) have D≈1.710. Noise-reduction procedure results in the change of universality class for DLA. For high enough noise-reduction value clusters with N⩾6 have fractal dimension going to 3/2 when N→∞.

  19. Information diffusion, Facebook clusters, and the simplicial model of social aggregation: a computational simulation of simplicial diffusers for community health interventions.

    PubMed

    Kee, Kerk F; Sparks, Lisa; Struppa, Daniele C; Mannucci, Mirco A; Damiano, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    By integrating the simplicial model of social aggregation with existing research on opinion leadership and diffusion networks, this article introduces the constructs of simplicial diffusers (mathematically defined as nodes embedded in simplexes; a simplex is a socially bonded cluster) and simplicial diffusing sets (mathematically defined as minimal covers of a simplicial complex; a simplicial complex is a social aggregation in which socially bonded clusters are embedded) to propose a strategic approach for information diffusion of cancer screenings as a health intervention on Facebook for community cancer prevention and control. This approach is novel in its incorporation of interpersonally bonded clusters, culturally distinct subgroups, and different united social entities that coexist within a larger community into a computational simulation to select sets of simplicial diffusers with the highest degree of information diffusion for health intervention dissemination. The unique contributions of the article also include seven propositions and five algorithmic steps for computationally modeling the simplicial model with Facebook data. PMID:26362453

  20. 42 CFR 447.512 - Drugs: Aggregate upper limits of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Aggregate upper limits of payment. (a) (b) Other drugs. The agency payments for brand name drugs certified... of brand name drugs. (1) The upper limit for payment for multiple source drugs for which a specific... an electronic alternative means approved by the Secretary) that a specific brand is...

  1. 42 CFR 447.512 - Drugs: Aggregate upper limits of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Aggregate upper limits of payment. (a) (b) Other drugs. The agency payments for brand name drugs certified... of brand name drugs. (1) The upper limit for payment for multiple source drugs for which a specific... an electronic alternative means approved by the Secretary) that a specific brand is...

  2. 42 CFR 447.512 - Drugs: Aggregate upper limits of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Aggregate upper limits of payment. (a) Multiple source drugs. Except for brand name drugs that are certified... applies. (b) Other drugs. The agency payments for brand name drugs certified in accordance with paragraph... brand name drugs. (1) The upper limit for payment for multiple source drugs for which a specific...

  3. The aggregation and diffusion of asphaltenes studied by GPU-accelerated dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sibo; Xu, Junbo; Wen, Hao

    2014-12-01

    The heavy crude oil consists of thousands of compounds and much of them have large molecular weights and complex structures. Studying the aggregation and diffusion behavior of asphaltenes can facilitate the understanding of the heavy crude oil. In previous studies, the fused aromatic rings were treated as rigid bodies so that dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) integrated with the quaternion method can be used to study asphaltene systems. In this work, DPD integrated with the quaternion method is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs). Compared with the serial program, tens of times speedup can be achieved when simulations performed on a single GPU. Using multiple GPUs can provide faster computation speed and more storage space for simulations of significant large systems. By using large systems, simulations of the asphaltene-toluene system at extremely dilute concentrations can be performed. The determined diffusion coefficients of asphaltenes are similar to that in experimental studies. At last, the aggregation behavior of asphaltenes in heptane was investigated, and the simulation results agreed with the modified Yen model. Monomers, nanoaggregates and clusters were observed from the simulations at different concentrations.

  4. 42 CFR 447.78 - Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing. 447.78 Section 447.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments:...

  5. 42 CFR 447.78 - Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing. 447.78 Section 447.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments:...

  6. 42 CFR 447.78 - Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing. 447.78 Section 447.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments:...

  7. 42 CFR 447.78 - Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing. 447.78 Section 447.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments:...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-2 - Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price readjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... readjustments. 48.4216(e)-2 Section 48.4216(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-2 Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price... advertising, as provided in section 4216(e)(1) and § 48.4216(e)-1, plus the amount of the readjustments...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-2 - Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price readjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... readjustments. 48.4216(e)-2 Section 48.4216(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-2 Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price... advertising, as provided in section 4216(e)(1) and § 48.4216(e)-1, plus the amount of the readjustments...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-2 - Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price readjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... readjustments. 48.4216(e)-2 Section 48.4216(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-2 Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price... advertising, as provided in section 4216(e)(1) and § 48.4216(e)-1, plus the amount of the readjustments...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-2 - Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price readjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... readjustments. 48.4216(e)-2 Section 48.4216(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-2 Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price... advertising, as provided in section 4216(e)(1) and § 48.4216(e)-1, plus the amount of the readjustments...

  12. Weak Glycolipid Binding of a Microdomain-Tracer Peptide Correlates with Aggregation and Slow Diffusion on Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Tim; Manna, Manoj; Ruhnow, Maria; Wisantoso, Yudi; Wang, Yaofeng; Matysik, Artur; Oglęcka, Kamila; Mu, Yuguang; Geifman-Shochat, Susana; Wohland, Thorsten; Kraut, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Organized assembly or aggregation of sphingolipid-binding ligands, such as certain toxins and pathogens, has been suggested to increase binding affinity of the ligand to the cell membrane and cause membrane reorganization or distortion. Here we show that the diffusion behavior of the fluorescently tagged sphingolipid-interacting peptide probe SBD (Sphingolipid Binding Domain) is altered by modifications in the construction of the peptide sequence that both result in a reduction in binding to ganglioside-containing supported lipid membranes, and at the same time increase aggregation on the cell plasma membrane, but that do not change relative amounts of secondary structural features. We tested the effects of modifying the overall charge and construction of the SBD probe on its binding and diffusion behavior, by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR; Biacore) analysis on lipid surfaces, and by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) on live cells, respectively. SBD binds preferentially to membranes containing the highly sialylated gangliosides GT1b and GD1a. However, simple charge interactions of the peptide with the negative ganglioside do not appear to be a critical determinant of binding. Rather, an aggregation-suppressing amino acid composition and linker between the fluorophore and the peptide are required for optimum binding of the SBD to ganglioside-containing supported lipid bilayer surfaces, as well as for interaction with the membrane. Interestingly, the strength of interactions with ganglioside-containing artificial membranes is mirrored in the diffusion behavior by FCS on cell membranes, with stronger binders displaying similar characteristic diffusion profiles. Our findings indicate that for aggregation-prone peptides, aggregation occurs upon contact with the cell membrane, and rather than giving a stronger interaction with the membrane, aggregation is accompanied by weaker binding and complex diffusion profiles indicative of heterogeneous diffusion

  13. Influence of neighboring reactive particles on diffusion-limited reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, Changsun; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter M.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Competition between reactive species is commonplace in typical chemical reactions. Specifically the primary reaction between a substrate and its target enzyme may be altered when interactions with secondary species in the system are substantial. We explore this competition phenomenon for diffusion-limited reactions in the presence of neighboring particles through numerical solution of the diffusion equation. As a general model for globular proteins and small molecules, we consider spherical representations of the reactants and neighboring particles; these neighbors vary in local density, size, distribution, and relative distance from the primary target reaction, as well as their surface reactivity. Modulations of these model variables permit inquiry into the influence of excluded volume and competition on the primary reaction due to the presence of neighboring particles. We find that the surface reactivity effect is long-ranged and a strong determinant of reaction kinetics, whereas the excluded volume effect is relatively short-ranged and less influential in comparison. As a consequence, the effect of the excluded volume is only modestly dependent on the neighbor distribution and is approximately additive; this additivity permits a linear approximation to the many-body effect on the reaction kinetics. In contrast, the surface reactivity effect is non-additive, and thus it may require higher-order approximations to describe the reaction kinetics. Our model study has broad implications in the general understanding of competition and local crowding on diffusion-limited chemical reactions.

  14. Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion for temperature-dependent linear spectra of light harvesting aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschel, Gerhard; Möbius, Sebastian; Eisfeld, Alexander; Suess, Daniel; Strunz, Walter T.

    2015-01-21

    Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion (NMQSD) has turned out to be an efficient method to calculate excitonic properties of aggregates composed of organic chromophores, taking into account the coupling of electronic transitions to vibrational modes of the chromophores. NMQSD is an open quantum system approach that incorporates environmental degrees of freedom (the vibrations in our case) in a stochastic way. We show in this paper that for linear optical spectra (absorption, circular dichroism), no stochastics is needed, even for finite temperatures. Thus, the spectra can be obtained by propagating a single trajectory. To this end, we map a finite temperature environment to the zero temperature case using the so-called thermofield method. The resulting equations can then be solved efficiently by standard integrators.

  15. Diffusion-limited growth in bacterial colony formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Mitsugu; Fujikawa, Hiroshi

    1990-09-01

    Colonies of bacterial species called Bacillus subtilis have been found to grow two-dimensionally and self-similarly on agar plates through diffusion-limited processes in a nutrient concentration field. We obtained a fractal dimension of the colony patterns of D=1.73±0.02, very close to that of the two-dimensional DLA model, and confirmed the existence of the screening effect of protruding main branches against inner ones in a colony, the repulsion between two neighboring colonies and the tendency to grow toward nutrient. These effects are all characteristic of the pattern formation in a Laplacian field. This finding implies the importance of physical properties of the environment for the morphology of bacterial colonies in general.

  16. Diffusion Limited Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) in Microgravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, M. C.; Lauver, R. W.; Hegde, U. G.; Sikora, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Tests designed to quantify the gravitational effects on thermal mixing and reactant injection in a Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) reactor have recently been performed in the Zero Gravity Facility (ZGF) at NASA s Glenn Research Center. An artificial waste stream, comprising aqueous mixtures of methanol, was pressurized to approximately 250 atm and then heated to 450 C. After uniform temperatures in the reactor were verified, a controlled injection of air was initiated through a specially designed injector to simulate diffusion limited reactions typical in most continuous flow reactors. Results from a thermal mapping of the reaction zone in both 1-g and 0-g environments are compared. Additionally, results of a numerical model of the test configuration are presented to illustrate first order effects on reactant mixing and thermal transport in the absence of gravity.

  17. Approaching the strong coupling limit in single plasmonic nanorods interacting with J-aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Gülis; Johansson, Göran; Johansson, Peter; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Käll, Mikael; Shegai, Timur

    2013-01-01

    We studied scattering and extinction of individual silver nanorods coupled to the J-aggregate form of the cyanine dye TDBC as a function of plasmon – exciton detuning. The measured single particle spectra exhibited a strongly suppressed scattering and extinction rate at wavelengths corresponding to the J-aggregate absorption band, signaling strong interaction between the localized surface plasmon of the metal core and the exciton of the surrounding molecular shell. In the context of strong coupling theory, the observed “transparency dips” correspond to an average vacuum Rabi splitting of the order of 100 meV, which approaches the plasmon dephasing rate and, thereby, the strong coupling limit for the smallest investigated particles. These findings could pave the way towards ultra-strong light-matter interaction on the nanoscale and active plasmonic devices operating at room temperature. PMID:24166360

  18. Diffusion limitations of the lung - comparison of different measurement methods.

    PubMed

    Preisser, A M; Seeber, M; Harth, V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis leads to a decrease of oxygen diffusion, in particular during exercise. Bronchial obstruction also could decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (P(a)O(2)). In this study we investigated the validity of blood gas content, especially P(a)O(2) and P(a)O(2) affected by hyperventilation (P(a)O(2corr)) and alveolo-arterial oxygen gradient (P(A-a)O(2)) in comparison with the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO) in different lung diseases. A total of 250 subjects were studied (52.3 ± 12.5 year; F/M 40/210), among which there were 162 subjects with different lung disorders and 88 healthy controls. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of DLCO with P(a)O(2), P(a)O(2corr), and PA-aO(2) were analyzed in each group. The results show that the diagnostic power of P(A-a)O(2) against P(a)O(2corr) was equivalent, especially during exercise (r = -0.89 and -0.92, respectively). DLCO showed only weak correlations with P(a)O(2corr) and P(A-a)O(2) (r = 0.17 and -0.19, respectively). In conclusion, DLCO shows a better match with blood gas content during exercise than at rest during which it is routinely tested. Thus, the exercise test is advisable. The P(A-a)O(2) takes into account the level of ventilation, which makes it correlate better with DLCO rather than with blood gas content. The most significant problems in clinical evaluation of blood gas parameters during exercise are the insufficiently defined limits of normal-to-pathological range. PMID:25381558

  19. On the Geometry of Diffusion and the Limits of Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Muhammad

    2010-03-01

    As the future of Moore's law of transistor scaling appears uncertain, Electronics is trying to reinvent itself by broadening its focus to other areas including macroelectronics (electronics of large, possibly flexible and transparent displays), bioelectronics (e.g. nanobio sensors for geomomics, proteomics), and energy-harvesting (e.g. solar cells). In this talk, I focus on the recent progress in the field of bioelectronics, specifically on nanobiosensors for gene and protein identification. While capabilities of classical techniques based on optical detection of biomolecules is already impressive, the method is too expensive to preclude its routine use in clinical setting for personal medicine. As an cost-effective alternative, (optical) label-free electronic detection of biomolecules has long been a cherished dream for researchers involved in Genomics and Proteomics. Despite significant interest and almost monthly reports of groundbreaking experimental results in leading journals by researchers all over the world, the elements that dictate response of a biosensor has remained -- until recently -- poorly understood. In this talk, we discuss how the elementary use of fractal geometry of diffusion, percolative transport in random networks, electrolyte screening-limited response, etc. are finally allowing us to establish the performance potential of such sensors and how ``form' or geometry is fundamental in defining the sensitivity of biosensors.

  20. Exploring the Limits to Observational Diffuse Interstellar Band Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.

    2014-02-01

    The status of DIB research (Herbig 1995) has strongly advanced since the DIB conference in Boulder in 1994. In the same year we reported the discovery of two near IR diffuse bands coincident with C60 +, that was confirmed in subsequent years. Since then a number of DIB observational studies have been published such as DIB surveys, measurements of DIB families, correlations and environment dependences as well as DIBs in extra-galactic sources. Resolved substructures were measured and compared to predicted rotational contours of large molecules. Polarisation studies provided constraints on possible carrier molecules and upper limits. DIBs carriers have been linked with several classes of organic molecules observed in the interstellar medium, in particular to the UIR bands (assigned to PAHs), the Extended Red Emission (ERE) or the recently detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME, assigned to spinning dust). In particular fullerenes and PAHs have been proposed to explain some DIBs and specific molecules were searched for in DIB spectra. DIB carriers could be present in various dehydrogenation and ionization states. Experiments in the laboratory and in space contribute to our understanding of the photo-stability of possible DIB carriers. In summary, the status of DIB research in the last 20 years has strongly advanced. We review DIB observational results and their interpretation and introduce the relevant plenary discussion.

  1. 12 CFR 723.16 - What is the aggregate member business loan limit for a credit union?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limit for a credit union? 723.16 Section 723.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... limit for a credit union? (a) General. The aggregate limit on a credit union's net member business loan balances is the lesser of 1.75 times the credit union's net worth or 12.25% of the credit union's......

  2. 12 CFR 723.16 - What is the aggregate member business loan limit for a credit union?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... limit for a credit union? 723.16 Section 723.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... limit for a credit union? (a) General. The aggregate limit on a credit union's net member business loan balances is the lesser of 1.75 times the credit union's net worth or 12.25% of the credit union's......

  3. 12 CFR 723.16 - What is the aggregate member business loan limit for a credit union?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limit for a credit union? 723.16 Section 723.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... limit for a credit union? (a) General. The aggregate limit on a credit union's net member business loan balances is the lesser of 1.75 times the credit union's net worth or 12.25% of the credit union's......

  4. 12 CFR 723.16 - What is the aggregate member business loan limit for a credit union?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... limit for a credit union? 723.16 Section 723.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... limit for a credit union? (a) General. The aggregate limit on a credit union's net member business loan balances is the lesser of 1.75 times the credit union's net worth or 12.25% of the credit union's......

  5. 12 CFR 723.16 - What is the aggregate member business loan limit for a credit union?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limit for a credit union? 723.16 Section 723.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... limit for a credit union? (a) General. The aggregate limit on a credit union's net member business loan balances is the lesser of 1.75 times the credit union's net worth or 12.25% of the credit union's......

  6. Limitations in Determining Multifractal Spectra from Pore-Solid Soil Aggregate Images

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, A N; Martin, M A; Smucker, A J.M.; Rivers, M L

    2011-11-16

    Multifractal methods have the potential to be useful tools for characterizing spatial distributions of soil pores from microtomographic images of undisturbed soil cores and soil aggregates. The objective of this study was to examine the limitations of multifractal analyses in binary (void and solid) soil images and to explore conditions under which multifractal spectra can be obtained. Multifractal characteristics of binary soil images are bounded within certain limiting values corresponding to nonfractal scaling. In this study, we first addressed the theoretical limitations of multifractal analysis of binary images and examined the nonfractal scaling boundaries in multifractal calculations by the method of moments. Then we developed boundary conditions for multifractal calculations by the direct method. Results revealed that fractal scaling is potentially possible only across a relatively narrow range of cell sizes restricted by the nonfractal scaling boundaries. Moreover, the range of cell sizes where fractal scaling is potentially possible varies with pore size. That is, in multifractal calculations it changes continuously with changes in the q value. For the soil aggregates examined in this study, this range varied from two to eight pixels for low q values to 128 pixels for high q values. The varying range makes calculations of true multifractal spectra for binary soil image data impossible. These results are consistent with a general theoretical notion that binary soil images are not multifractal in a strict mathematical sense. We suggest, however, that application of multifractal formalism can generate 'pseudo-multifractal spectra' that might still be useful for summarizing pore distribution information and for comparing pore data among different agricultural management regimes and soil type.

  7. A Mathematical Model of Diffusion-Limited Gas Bubble Dynamics in Tissue with Varying Diffusion Region Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A three-region mathematical model of gas bubble dynamics has been shown suitable for describing diffusion-limited dynamics of more than one bubble in a given volume of extravascular tissue. The model is based on the dynamics of gas exchange between a bubble and a well-stirred tissue region through an intervening unperfused diffusion region previously assumed to have constant thickness and uniform gas diffusivity. As a result, the gas content of the diffusion region remains constant as the volume of the region increases with bubble growth, causing dissolved gas in the region to violate Henry's law. Earlier work also neglected the relationship between the varying diffusion region volume and the fixed total tissue volume, because only cases in which the diffusion region volume is a small fraction of the overall tissue volume were considered. We herein extend the three-region model to correct these theoretical inconsistencies by allowing both the thickness and gas content of the diffusion region to vary during bubble evolution. A postulated difference in gas diffusivity between an infinitesimally thin layer at the bubble surface and the remainder of the diffusion region leads to variation in diffusion region gas content and thickness during bubble growth and resolution. This variable thickness, differential diffusivity (VTDD) model can yield bubble lifetimes considerably longer than those yielded by earlier three-region models for given model and decompression parameters, and meets a need for theoretically consistent but relatively simple bubble dynamics models for use in studies of decompression sickness (DCS) in human subjects, Keywords: decompression sickness, gas diffusion in tissue, diffusivity

  8. Nonlinear diffusion equations as asymptotic limits of Cahn-Hilliard systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, Pierluigi; Fukao, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    An asymptotic limit of a class of Cahn-Hilliard systems is investigated to obtain a general nonlinear diffusion equation. The target diffusion equation may reproduce a number of well-known model equations: Stefan problem, porous media equation, Hele-Shaw profile, nonlinear diffusion of singular logarithmic type, nonlinear diffusion of Penrose-Fife type, fast diffusion equation and so on. Namely, by setting the suitable potential of the Cahn-Hilliard systems, all these problems can be obtained as limits of the Cahn-Hilliard related problems. Convergence results and error estimates are proved.

  9. Effective reaction rates for diffusion-limited reaction cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nałecz-Jawecki, Paweł; Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miekisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Biological signals in cells are transmitted with the use of reaction cycles, such as the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which substrate is modified by antagonistic enzymes. An appreciable share of such reactions takes place in crowded environments of two-dimensional structures, such as plasma membrane or intracellular membranes, and is expected to be diffusion-controlled. In this work, starting from the microscopic bimolecular reaction rate constants and using estimates of the mean first-passage time for an enzyme-substrate encounter, we derive diffusion-dependent effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients (EMRRC) for a generic reaction cycle. Each EMRRC was found to be half of the harmonic average of the microscopic rate constant (phosphorylation c or dephosphorylation d), and the effective (crowding-dependent) motility divided by a slowly decreasing logarithmic function of the sum of the enzyme concentrations. This implies that when c and d differ, the two EMRRCs scale differently with the motility, rendering the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules diffusion-dependent. Analytical predictions are verified using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the two-dimensional triangular lattice at the single-molecule resolution. It is demonstrated that the proposed formulas estimate the steady-state concentrations and effective reaction rates for different sets of microscopic reaction rates and concentrations of reactants, including a non-trivial example where with increasing diffusivity the fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules changes from 10% to 90%.

  10. Water Vapor Diffusion through Soil as Affected by Temperature and Aggregate Size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water vapor diffusion through the soil is an important part in the total water flux in the unsaturated zone of arid or semiarid regions and has several significant agricultural and engineering applications because soil moisture contents near the surface are relatively low. Water vapor diffusing thro...

  11. Numerical analysis of the influence of scale effects and microstructure on hydrogen diffusion in polycrystalline aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Legrand, Esaie; Bouhattate, Jamaa; Feaugas, Xavier; Touzain, S.; Garmestani, Hamid; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Li, Dongsheng

    2013-04-01

    Predicting resistance to environmental degradation, especially hydrogen embrittlement (HE) has become a major concern for life assessment and risk analysis of structural materials. The microstructure of the materials plays a significant role in HE. Despite the large documentation about the subject, the contribution of hydrogen diffusion on this process stays unclear. In this work, we analyze the effects of the microstructure on hydrogen diffusion, especially the influence of grain boundaries considered as high diffusivity paths and possible sites of damage occurrence. Electrochemical permeation was simulated using finite elements method (FEM). Scale effects between the RVE (Representative Volume Element) and the size of the membrane are discussed. Domains of applicability for standard homogenization methods, especially Hashin Shtrikman model are studied using results from microstructural based FEM. Domains of invariance of diffusion behavior and concentration profiles for grain shapes and the size of the membrane are also analyzed. Thus, the difficulty to extract diffusion properties by permeation test for heterogeneous microstructures is highlighted and discussed.

  12. Diffusion limited soil vapor extraction: Geologic and bed thickness controls

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, G.D.; Benson, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) can remove volatile contaminants from the subsurface environment. In a heterogeneous geologic setting, SVE cleanup will progress rapidly through advective mass transfer in permeable sediments and primarily through slow diffusion in lower permeability soil. The contrast in rates of cleanup between high and low permeability soils is further increased by the associated soil moisture retention contrasts (i.e., capillarity) in the same soils. Low permeability soil generally has a higher soil suction capacity and moisture content than high permeability soil. This results in further diminishment of cleanup rate in fine-grained sediments in a heterogeneous environment. This paper investigates how contrasts in soil type and bed thickness affect the rate of SVE diffusive cleanup. The numerical model VENT3D is used to simulate three heterogeneous geologic settings with differing soil contrasts. Within each geologic setting, four simulations are performed with varying bed thicknesses in each, effectively changing the diffusive half-length of the fine-grained soils while maintaining the total bulk percentages of fine-to coarse-grained material. Under these conditions, the bulk flow parameters measured during SVE field testing would be constant for each of the four simulations within a single geologic domain while the cleanup times would not.

  13. Diffusion limited soil vapor extraction: Geologic and bed thickness controls

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, G.D. ); Benson, D.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) can remove volatile contaminants from the subsurface environment. In a heterogeneous geologic setting, SVE cleanup will progress rapidly through advective mass transfer in permeable sediments and primarily through slow diffusion in lower permeability soil. The contrast in rates of cleanup between high and low permeability soils is further increased by the associated soil moisture retention contrasts (i.e., capillarity) in the same soils. Low permeability soil generally has a higher soil suction capacity and moisture content than high permeability soil. This results in further diminishment of cleanup rate in fine-grained sediments in a heterogeneous environment. This paper investigates how contrasts in soil type and bed thickness affect the rate of SVE diffusive cleanup. The numerical model VENT3D is used to simulate three heterogeneous geologic settings with differing soil contrasts. Within each geologic setting, four simulations are performed with varying bed thicknesses in each, effectively changing the diffusive half-length of the fine-grained soils while maintaining the total bulk percentages of fine-to coarse-grained material. Under these conditions, the bulk flow parameters measured during SVE field testing would be constant for each of the four simulations within a single geologic domain while the cleanup times would not.

  14. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-07

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of

  15. Two-dimensional diffusion limited system for cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hlatky, L.

    1985-11-01

    A new cell system, the ''sandwich'' system, was developed to supplement multicellular spheroids as tumor analogues. Sandwiches allow new experimental approaches to questions of diffusion, cell cycle effects and radiation resistance in tumors. In this thesis the method for setting up sandwiches is described both theoretically and experimentally followed by its use in x-ray irradiation studies. In the sandwich system, cells are grown in a narrow gap between two glass slides. Where nutrients and waste products can move into or out of the local environment of the cells only by diffusing through the narrow gap between the slides. Due to the competition between cells, self-created gradients of nutrients and metabolic products are set up resulting in a layer of cells which resembles a living spheroid cross section. Unlike the cells of the spheroid, however, cells in all regions of the sandwich are visible. Therefore, the relative sizes of the regions and their time-dependent growth can be monitored visually without fixation or sectioning. The oxygen and nutrient gradients can be ''turned off'' at any time without disrupting the spatial arrangement of the cells by removing the top slide of the assembly and subsequently turned back on if desired. Removal of the top slide also provides access to all the cells, including those near the necrotic center, of the sandwich. The cells can then be removed for analysis outside the sandwich system. 61 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Diffusion-limited retention of porous particles at density interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Kolja; Khalili, Arzhang; Stocker, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Downward carbon flux in the ocean is largely governed by particle settling. Most marine particles settle at low Reynolds numbers and are highly porous, yet the fluid dynamics of this regime have remained unexplored. We present results of an experimental investigation of porous particles settling through a density interface at Reynolds numbers between 0.1 and 1. We tracked 100 to 500 μm hydrogel spheres with 95.5% porosity and negligible permeability. We found that a small negative initial excess density relative to the lower (denser) fluid layer, a common scenario in the ocean, results in long retention times of particles at the interface. We hypothesized that the retention time was determined by the diffusive exchange of the stratifying agent between interstitial and ambient fluid, which increases excess density of particles that have stalled at the interface, enabling their settling to resume. This hypothesis was confirmed by observations, which revealed a quadratic dependence of retention time on particle size, consistent with diffusive exchange. These results demonstrate that porosity can control retention times and therefore accumulation of particles at density interfaces, a mechanism that could underpin the formation of particle layers frequently observed at pycnoclines in the ocean. We estimate retention times of 3 min to 3.3 d for the characteristic size range of marine particles. This enhancement in retention time can affect carbon transformation through increased microbial colonization and utilization of particles and release of dissolved organics. The observed size dependence of the retention time could further contribute to improve quantifications of vertical carbon flux. PMID:21135242

  17. A Diffusion Limit for a Test Particle in a Random Distribution of Scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, G.; Nota, A.; Pulvirenti, M.

    2014-06-01

    We consider a point particle moving in a random distribution of obstacles described by a potential barrier. We show that, in a weak-coupling regime, under a diffusion limit suggested by the potential itself, the probability distribution of the particle converges to the solution of the heat equation. The diffusion coefficient is given by the Green-Kubo formula associated to the generator of the diffusion process dictated by the linear Landau equation.

  18. Deterministic aggregation kinetics of superparamagnetic colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Colin P.; Klop, Kira E.; Lavergne, François A.; Morrow, Sarah M.; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.; Dullens, Roel P. A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the irreversible aggregation kinetics of superparamagnetic colloidal particles in two dimensions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field at low packing fractions. Optical microscopy and image analysis techniques are used to follow the aggregation process and in particular study the packing fraction and field dependence of the mean cluster size. We compare these to the theoretically predicted scalings for diffusion limited and deterministic aggregation. It is shown that the aggregation kinetics for our experimental system is consistent with a deterministic mechanism, which thus shows that the contribution of diffusion is negligible.

  19. Fluctuation Limit for Interacting Diffusions with Partial Annihilations Through Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-Qing; Fan, Wai-Tong Louis

    2016-06-01

    We study fluctuations of the empirical processes of a non-equilibrium interacting particle system consisting of two species over a domain that is recently introduced in Chen and Fan (Ann Probab, to appear) and establish its functional central limit theorem. This fluctuation limit is a distribution-valued Gaussian Markov process which can be represented as a mild solution of a stochastic partial differential equation. The drift of our fluctuation limit involves a new partial differential equation with nonlinear coupled term on the interface that characterized the hydrodynamic limit of the system. The covariance structure of the Gaussian part consists two parts, one involving the spatial motion of the particles inside the domain and other involving a boundary integral term that captures the boundary interactions between two species. The key is to show that the Boltzmann-Gibbs principle holds for our non-equilibrium system. Our proof relies on generalizing the usual correlation functions to the join correlations at two different times.

  20. Fluctuation Limit for Interacting Diffusions with Partial Annihilations Through Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-Qing; Fan, Wai-Tong Louis

    2016-08-01

    We study fluctuations of the empirical processes of a non-equilibrium interacting particle system consisting of two species over a domain that is recently introduced in Chen and Fan (Ann Probab, to appear) and establish its functional central limit theorem. This fluctuation limit is a distribution-valued Gaussian Markov process which can be represented as a mild solution of a stochastic partial differential equation. The drift of our fluctuation limit involves a new partial differential equation with nonlinear coupled term on the interface that characterized the hydrodynamic limit of the system. The covariance structure of the Gaussian part consists two parts, one involving the spatial motion of the particles inside the domain and other involving a boundary integral term that captures the boundary interactions between two species. The key is to show that the Boltzmann-Gibbs principle holds for our non-equilibrium system. Our proof relies on generalizing the usual correlation functions to the join correlations at two different times.

  1. Ca-Mg inter-diffusion in synthetic polycrystalline dolomite-calcite aggregate at elevated temperatures and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wuu-Liang; Liu, Teh-Ching; Shen, Pouyan; Hsu, Allen

    2009-03-01

    This study measures the reaction rate of dolomite and aragonite (calcite) into Mg-calcite at 800, 850, and 900°C and 1.6 GPa. The dry synthetic dolomite-aragonite aggregate transformed very rapidly into dolomite-calcite polycrystalline aggregate while Mg-calcites formed at a relatively slow rate, becoming progressively richer in Mg with run time. We modeled the reaction progress semi-empirically by the first-order rate law. The temperature dependence of the overall transport rate of MgCO3 into calcite can be described by the kinetic parameters ( E = 231.7 kJ/mol and A o = 22.69 h-1). Extrapolation using the Arrhenius equation to the conditions during exhumation of UHPM rocks indicates that the reaction of dolomite with aragonite into Mg-saturated calcite can be completed as the P-T path enters the Mg-calcite stability field in a geologically short time period (<1 Ky). On the other hand, the extrapolation of the rate to prograde metamorphic conditions reveals that the Mg-calcite formed from dolomitic marble in the absence of metamorphic fluid may not reach Mg-saturation until temperatures corresponding to high-grade metamorphism (e.g., >340°C and >10 My). SEM-EDS analysis of individual calcite grains shows compositional gradients of Mg in the calcite grains. The Mg-Ca inter-diffusion coefficient at 850°C is around 1.68 × 10-14 m2/sec if diffusion is the major control of the reaction. The calculated closure temperatures for Ca-Mg inter-diffusion as a function of cooling rate and grain size reveal that Ca/Mg resetting in calcite in a dry polycrystalline carbonate aggregate (with grain size around 1 mm) may not occur at temperatures below 480°C at a geological cooling rate around 10°C/My, unless other processes, such as short-circuit interdiffusion along grain boundaries and dislocations, are involved.

  2. A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques.

  3. Spatial patterns of African ungulate aggregation reveal complex but limited risk effects from reintroduced carnivores.

    PubMed

    Moll, Remington J; Killion, Alexander K; Montgomery, Robert A; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W

    2016-05-01

    The "landscape of fear" model, recently advanced in research on the non-lethal effects of carnivores on ungulates, predicts that prey will exhibit detectable antipredator behavior not only during risky times (i.e., predators in close proximity) but also in risky places (i.e., habitat where predators kill prey or tend to occur). Aggregation is an important antipredator response in numerous ungulate species, making it a useful metric to evaluate the strength and scope of the landscape of fear in a multi-carnivore, multi-ungulate system. We conducted ungulate surveys over a 2-year period in South Africa to test the influence of three broad-scale sources of variation in the landscape on spatial patterns in aggregation: (1) habitat structure, (2) where carnivores tended to occur (i.e., population-level utilization distributions), and (3) where carnivores tended to kill ungulate prey (i.e., probabilistic kill site maps). We analyzed spatial variation in aggregation for six ungulate species exposed to predation from recently reintroduced lion (Panthera leo) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Although we did detect larger aggregations of ungulates in "risky places," these effects existed primarily for smaller-bodied (<150 kg) ungulates and were relatively moderate (change of 4 individuals across all habitats). In comparison, ungulate aggregations tended to increase at a slightly lower rate in habitat that was more open. The lion, an ambush (stalking) carnivore, had stronger influence on ungulate aggregation than the hyena, an active (coursing) carnivore. In addition, places where lions tended to kill prey had a greater effect on ungulate aggregation than places where lions tended to occur, but an opposing pattern existed for hyena. Our study reveals heterogeneity in the landscape of fear and suggests broad-scale risk effects following carnivore reintroduction only moderately influence ungulate aggregation size and vary considerably by predator hunting mode, type of

  4. Turnover of subsoil organic carbon controlled by substrate limitation and aggregation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Patrick; Don, Axel; Helfrich, Mirjam

    2014-05-01

    Subsoils (>30 cm depth) store more than 50% of the total soil organic carbon (SOC) and subsoil SOC is characterised by high mean residence times compared to topsoil SOC. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the turnover of SOC in the subsoil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature, substrate limitation and aggregation disturbance on subsoil SOC turnover. We assumed that temperature limits SOC turnover in subsoil, but the temperature response of SOC is obscured by an increasing stabilization of organic material with soil depth. In a laboratory incubation experiment the production of CO2 from undisturbed and disturbed soil samples and disturbed soil samples with added 13C labelled roots were investigated at two different temperatures (10 and 20° C). Soil samples were taken from 2-12 cm (depth 1), 30-60 cm (depth2) and 130-160 cm (depth 3) in a deciduous forest from a podzolic Cambisol and were placed in microcosms with an inner diameter of 14.2 cm and a height of 20 cm for depth 1 and 40 cm for depth 2 and 3. The microcosms were incubated for 30 days at 60% of water holding capacity. The incubation experiment showed an average increase of 80-150% in CO2 production for disturbed and undisturbed samples in depth 1 and depth 2 with increasing temperature. However, this was not observed in depth 3. This temperature influence was not found in the disturbed samples with added substrate. Instead, the increase in CO2 production of the labelled samples from depth 2 and 3 had a lag time of 5 to 8 days compared to samples from depth 1. Reasons for this delayed reaction on substrate might be dormant microorganisms in the subsoil at the beginning of the incubation experiment or spatial separation of microorganisms and the labelled substrate. Disturbance of the samples from depth 1 and 2 initially increase the CO2 production, but this effect was minor after day 15. Contrary to expectation, the CO2 production in depth 3 was greater

  5. Multi-scale finite element analysis of chloride diffusion in concrete incorporating paste/aggregate ITZs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Guo, XiaoMing; Mi, ChangWen

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a concurrent multi-scale finite element (FE) model coupling equations of the degree of freedoms of meso-scale model of ITZs and macroscopic model of bulk pastes. The multi-scale model is subsequently implemented and integrated into ABAQUS resulting in easy application to complex concrete structures. A few benchmark numerical examples are performed to test both the accuracy and efficiency of the developed model in analyzing chloride diffusion in concrete. These examples clearly demonstrate that high diffusivity of ITZs, primarily because of its porous microstructure, tends to accelerate chloride penetration along concentration gradient. The proposed model provides new guidelines for the durability analysis of concrete structures under adverse operating conditions.

  6. Experimental Limit on the Cosmic Diffuse Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Hebert, C. L.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Saltzberg, D.; Williams, D.

    2004-07-01

    We report results from 120h of live time with the Goldstone lunar ultrahigh energy neutrino experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for ≤10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of ≥100 EeV (1 EeV=1018 eV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes.

  7. Experimental limit on the cosmic diffuse ultrahigh energy neutrino flux.

    PubMed

    Gorham, P W; Hebert, C L; Liewer, K M; Naudet, C J; Saltzberg, D; Williams, D

    2004-07-23

    We report results from 120 h of live time with the Goldstone lunar ultrahigh energy neutrino experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for < or = 10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22 km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of > or = 100 EeV (1 EeV = 10(18) eV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes. PMID:15323748

  8. Detailed numerical investigation of the Bohm limit in cosmic ray diffusion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A. E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com

    2014-04-10

    A standard model in cosmic ray diffusion theory is the so-called Bohm limit in which the particle mean free path is assumed to be equal to the Larmor radius. This type of diffusion is often employed to model the propagation and acceleration of energetic particles. However, recent analytical and numerical work has shown that standard Bohm diffusion is not realistic. In the present paper, we perform test-particle simulations to explore particle diffusion in the strong turbulence limit in which the wave field is much stronger than the mean magnetic field. We show that there is indeed a lower limit of the particle mean free path along the mean field. In this limit, the mean free path is directly proportional to the unperturbed Larmor radius like in the traditional Bohm limit, but it is reduced by the factor δB/B {sub 0} where B {sub 0} is the mean field and δB the turbulent field. Although we focus on parallel diffusion, we also explore diffusion across the mean field in the strong turbulence limit.

  9. A study of the microstructural and diffusion properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels containing surfactant supramolecular aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Annamaria; Auriemma, Finizia; Ricciardi, Rosa; Mangiapia, Gaetano; Trifuoggi, Marco; Franco, Lorenzo; Rosa, Claudio De; Heenan, Richard K; Paduano, Luigi; D'Errico, Gerardino

    2006-11-23

    Surfactant-containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cryogels have been prepared by drying and reswelling hydrogel patches, previously obtained by the freeze/thaw procedure, in decyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB) aqueous solutions. The microstructural and diffusive properties of the resulting material have been characterized by a combined experimental strategy. Gravimetric measurements show that the cryogel maximum swelling is not affected by the surfactant. The surfactant concentration within the cryogel, measured by ion chromatography, is the same as that in the rehydrating surfactant solution. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-probe and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that surfactant self-aggregation in the gel is similar to that in water, occurring at the same critical concentration and resulting in the formation of micellar aggregates whose structure is not affected by the cryogel polymeric scaffold. However, both the micelle intradiffusion coefficients, measured by PGSE-NMR, and the spin-probe correlation times, measured by EPR, indicate that dynamic processes in the hydrogel are much slower than in bulk water. A quantitative analysis of these results suggests that the cryogel polymer-poor domains, in which surfactant molecules are solubilized, have an average dimension of approximately 0.1 microm. Interestingly the experimental data also show that the polymer-poor phase contains more polymer than expected, suggesting that the spinodal decomposition, which occurs during the freezing step of cryogel preparation, is not complete or prevented by ice formation. PMID:17107141

  10. Effective reaction rates in diffusion-limited phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miekisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the kinetics of the ubiquitous phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle on biological membranes by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the triangular lattice. We establish the dependence of effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients as well as the steady-state phosphorylated substrate fraction on the diffusion coefficient and concentrations of opposing enzymes: kinases and phosphatases. In the limits of zero and infinite diffusion, the numerical results agree with analytical predictions; these two limits give the lower and the upper bound for the macroscopic rate coefficients, respectively. In the zero-diffusion limit, which is important in the analysis of dense systems, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions can convert only these substrates which remain in contact with opposing enzymes. In the most studied regime of nonzero but small diffusion, a contribution linearly proportional to the diffusion coefficient appears in the reaction rate. In this regime, the presence of opposing enzymes creates inhomogeneities in the (de)phosphorylated substrate distributions: The spatial correlation function shows that enzymes are surrounded by clouds of converted substrates. This effect becomes important at low enzyme concentrations, substantially lowering effective reaction rates. Effective reaction rates decrease with decreasing diffusion and this dependence is more pronounced for the less-abundant enzyme. Consequently, the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrates can increase or decrease with diffusion, depending on relative concentrations of both enzymes. Additionally, steady states are controlled by molecular crowders which, mostly by lowering the effective diffusion of reactants, favor the more abundant enzyme.

  11. 27 CFR 53.101 - Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price readjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exclusions and price readjustments. 53.101 Section 53.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... aggregate of exclusions and price readjustments. (a) In general. The sum of the amount excluded from taxable price in respect of charges for local advertising, as provided in section 4216(e)(1) of the Code...

  12. Innovation-diffusion: a geographical study of the transition of family limitation practice in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ting, T Y

    1984-09-01

    This paper uses map analysis to study the transition of family limitation practice in Taiwan between 1961-80. The innovation-diffusion perspective emphasizes that birth control, particularly contraception, is a recent innovation and is essentially new in human culture. The innovation-diffusion theory assumes that the decline of fertility began in a setting where there was no, or at most very limited, previous practice of birth control. The theory emphasizes the importance of the spread of information. It also assumes that innovation starts in metropolitan centers, diffuses to other urban places with some delay, and penetrates to rural areas still later. Innovation behavior also diffuses from 1 area to another which is culturally and linguistically similar. Although there was some urban to rural diffusion from the Taiwan family planning program, the government supported program provided services more evenly between urban and rural areas, thus somewhat limiting the diffusion effect from the program. For the diffusion of family practice in Taiwan, it is expected that the availability of of information about and means of family limitation practice may effect the rate of the increase of small m values -- an index of family limitation -- in an area. The case study of Pingtung county shows that the demand-side diffusion from urban to rural areas was important in the earlier decade of the transition of family plimitation practice, but distance from urban center was less important as practice became more uniform through diffusion. Ethnicity, whether or not the township was dominated by Hakka or Fukienese, also seems to have played an important role in determining the pace at which the local residents adopted family practice limitation. Hakka townships seem to have adopted family limitation practice more slowly than Fukienese townships about the same distance from the urban center. The map analysis of Pingtung county provides descriptive evidence to support the diffusion of

  13. Intraparticle diffusion limitations in the hydrogenation of monounsaturated edible oils and their fatty acid methyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Jonker, G.H.; Veldsink, J.W.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M.

    1998-12-01

    Intraparticle diffusion limitation in the hydrogenation and isomerization of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and edible oils (triacylglycerol, TAG) in porous nickel catalyst was investigated both under reactive and under inert conditions. Under reactive conditions, the diffusion coefficients were determined from the best fits of the model simulations applying the intrinsic reacting kinetics of monounsaturated FAME hydrogenation to experiments under diffusion limited conditions. Due to the absence of reaction (hydrogenation of double bonds), the obtained effective H{sub z} diffusion coefficient (D{sub e}) with the HPLC technique is volume averaged and thereby determined by the larger intercrystalline pores (<30% of the total pore volume) only. Moreover, D{sub e} measured under reaction conditions reflected the influence of the micropores, resulting in a 10-fold lower value.

  14. Diffusion-limited attachment of nanoparticles to flexible membrane-immobilized receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2016-04-01

    In biosystems, vesicles, virions, or metal particles of size ∼100 nm often diffuse in solution and interact with short (<10 nm) flexible receptors immobilized in a lipid membrane. The attachment kinetics of such nanoparticles can be limited by diffusion globally or locally. In the latter case, the calculation of the attachment rate is complicated by the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the distance between a particle and membrane. The analysis, taking this factor into account, shows that the attachment rate constant is proportional to the receptor length and nearly independent of the particle radius.

  15. Secular resonant dressed orbital diffusion - I. Method and WKB limit for tepid discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouvry, Jean-Baptiste; Pichon, Christophe; Prunet, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The equation describing the secular diffusion of a self-gravitating collisionless system induced by an exterior perturbation is derived while assuming that the time-scale corresponding to secular evolution is much larger than that corresponding to the natural frequencies of the system. Its two-dimensional formulation for a tepid galactic disc is also derived using the epicyclic approximation. Its Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) limit is found while assuming that only tightly wound transient spirals are sustained by the disc. It yields a simple quadrature for the diffusion coefficients which provides a straightforward understanding of the loci of maximal diffusion within the disc.

  16. Condensation versus diffusion. A spatial-scale-independent theory of aggregate structures in edible oils: applications to model systems and commercial shortenings studied via rheology and USAXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pink, David A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Singh, Pratham; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how solid fats structures come about in edible oils and quantifying their structures is of fundamental importance in developing edible oils with pre-selected characteristics. We considered the great range of fractal dimensions, from 1.91 to 2.90, reported from rheological measurements. We point out that, if the structures arise via DLA/RLA or DLCA/RLCA, as has been established using ultra small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), we would expect fractal dimensions in the range ~1.7 to 2.1, and ~2.5 or ~3.0. We present new data for commercial fats and show that the fractal dimensions deduced lie outside these values. We have developed a model in which competition between two processes can lead to the range of fractal dimensions observed. The two processes are (i) the rate at which the solid fat particles are created as the temperature is decreased, and (ii) the rate at which these particles diffuse, thereby meeting and forming aggregates. We assumed that aggregation can take place essentially isotropically and we identified two characteristic times: a time characterizing the rate of creation of solid fats, {τ\\text{create}}(T)\\equiv 1/{{R}S}(T) , where {{R}S}(T) is the rate of solid condensation (cm3 s-1), and the diffusion time of solid fats, {τ\\text{diff}}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right)=< {{r}2}> /6{D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) , where {D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) is their diffusion coefficient and < {{r}2}> is the typical average distance that fats must move in order to aggregate. The intent of this model is to show that a simple process can lead to a wide range of fractal dimensions. We showed that in the limit of very fast solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\ll {τ\\text{diff}} the fractal dimension is predicted to be that of DLCA, ~1.7, relaxing to that of RLCA, 2.0-2.1, and that in the limit of very slow solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\gg {τ\\text{diff}} , the fractal dimension is predicted to be that obtained via DLA, ~2.5, relaxing to that of RLA, 3

  17. An asymptotic-preserving scheme for linear kinetic equation with fractional diffusion limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Yan, Bokai

    2016-05-01

    We present a new asymptotic-preserving scheme for the linear Boltzmann equation which, under appropriate scaling, leads to a fractional diffusion limit. Our scheme rests on novel micro-macro decomposition to the distribution function, which splits the original kinetic equation following a reshuffled Hilbert expansion. As opposed to classical diffusion limit, a major difficulty comes from the fat tail in the equilibrium which makes the truncation in velocity space depending on the small parameter. Our idea is, while solving the macro-micro part in a truncated velocity domain (truncation only depends on numerical accuracy), to incorporate an integrated tail over the velocity space that is beyond the truncation, and its major component can be precomputed once with any accuracy. Such an addition is essential to drive the solution to the correct asymptotic limit. Numerical experiments validate its efficiency in both kinetic and fractional diffusive regimes.

  18. Effects of C/O Ratio and Temperature on Sooting Limits of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecoustre, V. R.; Sunderland, P. B.; Chao, B. H.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Limiting conditions for soot particle inception in spherical diffusion flames were investigated numerically. The flames were modeled using a one-dimensional, time accurate diffusion flame code with detailed chemistry and transport and an optically thick radiation model. Seventeen normal and inverse flames were considered, covering a wide range of stoichiometric mixture fraction, adiabatic flame temperature, residence time and scalar dissipation rate. These flames were previously observed to reach their sooting limits after 2 s of microgravity. Sooting-limit diffusion flames with scalar dissipation rate lower than 2/s were found to have temperatures near 1400 K where C/O = 0.51, whereas flames with greater scalar dissipation rate required increased temperatures. This finding was valid across a broad range of fuel and oxidizer compositions and convection directions.

  19. Aggregation Limits Surface Expression of Homomeric GluA3 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sarah K; Hou, Ying; Willibald, Marina; Semenov, Artur; Möykkynen, Tommi; Keinänen, Kari

    2016-04-15

    AMPA receptors are glutamate-gated cation channels assembled from GluA1-4 subunits and have properties that are strongly dependent on the subunit composition. The subunits have different propensities to form homomeric or various heteromeric receptors expressed on cell surface, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we examined the biochemical basis for the poor ability of GluA3 subunits to form homomeric receptors, linked previously to two amino acid residues, Tyr-454 and Arg-461, in its ligand binding domain (LBD). Surface expression of GluA3 was improved by co-assembly with GluA2 but not with stargazin, a trafficking chaperone and modulator of AMPA receptors. The secretion efficiency of GluA2 and GluA3 LBDs paralleled the transport difference between the respective full-length receptors and was similarly dependent on Tyr-454/Arg-461 but not on LBD stability. In comparison to GluA2, GluA3 homomeric receptors showed a strong and Tyr-454/Arg-461-dependent tendency to aggregate both in the macroscopic scale measured as lower solubility in nonionic detergent and in the microscopic scale evident as the preponderance of hydrodynamically large structures in density gradient centrifugation and native gel electrophoresis. We conclude that the impaired surface expression of homomeric GluA3 receptors is caused by nonproductive assembly and aggregation to which LBD residues Tyr-454 and Arg-461 strongly contribute. This aggregation inhibits the entry of newly synthesized GluA3 receptors to the secretory pathway. PMID:26912664

  20. Detangling the Effects of Environmental Filtering and Dispersal Limitation on Aggregated Distributions of Tree and Shrub Species: Life Stage Matters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He-Ming; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Ma, Zun-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive pattern of aggregated tree distributions in natural communities is commonly explained by the joint effect of two clustering processes: environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, yet little consensus remains on the relative importance of the two clustering processes on tree aggregations. Different life stages of examined species were thought to be one possible explanation of this disagreement, because the effect of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation are expected to increase and decrease with tree life stages, respectively. However, few studies have explicitly tested these expectations. In this study, we evaluated these expectations by three different methods (species-habitat association test based on Poisson Clustering model and spatial point pattern analyses based on Heterogeneous Poisson model and the jointly modeling approach) using 36 species in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. Our results showed that the percentage of species with significant habitat association increased with life stages, and there were fewer species affected by dispersal limitation in later life stages compared with those in earlier stages. Percentage of variance explained by the environmental filtering and dispersal limitation also increases and decreases with life stages. These results provided a promising alternative explanation on the existing mixed results about the relative importance of the two clustering processes. These findings also highlighted the importance of plant life stages for fully understanding species distributions and species coexistence. PMID:27227538

  1. Detangling the Effects of Environmental Filtering and Dispersal Limitation on Aggregated Distributions of Tree and Shrub Species: Life Stage Matters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Song; Shen, Guo-Chun; Liu, He-Ming; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Ma, Zun-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive pattern of aggregated tree distributions in natural communities is commonly explained by the joint effect of two clustering processes: environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, yet little consensus remains on the relative importance of the two clustering processes on tree aggregations. Different life stages of examined species were thought to be one possible explanation of this disagreement, because the effect of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation are expected to increase and decrease with tree life stages, respectively. However, few studies have explicitly tested these expectations. In this study, we evaluated these expectations by three different methods (species-habitat association test based on Poisson Clustering model and spatial point pattern analyses based on Heterogeneous Poisson model and the jointly modeling approach) using 36 species in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. Our results showed that the percentage of species with significant habitat association increased with life stages, and there were fewer species affected by dispersal limitation in later life stages compared with those in earlier stages. Percentage of variance explained by the environmental filtering and dispersal limitation also increases and decreases with life stages. These results provided a promising alternative explanation on the existing mixed results about the relative importance of the two clustering processes. These findings also highlighted the importance of plant life stages for fully understanding species distributions and species coexistence. PMID:27227538

  2. Limited diffusive fluxes of substrate facilitate coexistence of two competing bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Or, Dani; Smets, Barth F

    2008-04-01

    Soils are known to support a great bacterial diversity down to the millimeter scale, but the mechanisms by which such a large diversity is sustained are largely unknown. A feature of unsaturated soils is that water usually forms thin, poorly-connected films, which limit solute diffusive fluxes. It has been proposed, but never unambiguously experimentally tested, that a low substrate diffusive flux would impact bacterial diversity, by promoting the coexistence between slow-growing bacteria and their potentially faster-growing competitors. We used a simple experimental system, based on a Petri dish and a perforated Teflon membrane to control diffusive fluxes of substrate (benzoate) whilst permitting direct observation of bacterial colonies. The system was inoculated with prescribed strains of Pseudomonas, whose growth was quantified by microscopic monitoring of the fluorescent proteins they produced. We observed that substrate diffusion limitation reduced the growth rate of the otherwise fast-growing Pseudomonas putida KT2440 strain. This strain out-competed Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 in liquid culture, but its competitive advantage was less marked on solid media, and even disappeared under conditions of low substrate diffusion. Low diffusive fluxes of substrate, characteristic of many unsaturated media (e.g. soils, food products), can thus promote bacterial coexistence in a competitive situation between two strains. This mechanism might therefore contribute to maintaining the noncompetitive diversity pattern observed in unsaturated soils. PMID:18312376

  3. Underdamped scaled Brownian motion: (non-)existence of the overdamped limit in anomalous diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Bodrova, Anna S.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Safdari, Hadiseh; Sokolov, Igor M.; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    It is quite generally assumed that the overdamped Langevin equation provides a quantitative description of the dynamics of a classical Brownian particle in the long time limit. We establish and investigate a paradigm anomalous diffusion process governed by an underdamped Langevin equation with an explicit time dependence of the system temperature and thus the diffusion and damping coefficients. We show that for this underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM) the overdamped limit fails to describe the long time behaviour of the system and may practically even not exist at all for a certain range of the parameter values. Thus persistent inertial effects play a non-negligible role even at significantly long times. From this study a general questions on the applicability of the overdamped limit to describe the long time motion of an anomalously diffusing particle arises, with profound consequences for the relevance of overdamped anomalous diffusion models. We elucidate our results in view of analytical and simulations results for the anomalous diffusion of particles in free cooling granular gases. PMID:27462008

  4. Underdamped scaled Brownian motion: (non-)existence of the overdamped limit in anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Bodrova, Anna S; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Safdari, Hadiseh; Sokolov, Igor M; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    It is quite generally assumed that the overdamped Langevin equation provides a quantitative description of the dynamics of a classical Brownian particle in the long time limit. We establish and investigate a paradigm anomalous diffusion process governed by an underdamped Langevin equation with an explicit time dependence of the system temperature and thus the diffusion and damping coefficients. We show that for this underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM) the overdamped limit fails to describe the long time behaviour of the system and may practically even not exist at all for a certain range of the parameter values. Thus persistent inertial effects play a non-negligible role even at significantly long times. From this study a general questions on the applicability of the overdamped limit to describe the long time motion of an anomalously diffusing particle arises, with profound consequences for the relevance of overdamped anomalous diffusion models. We elucidate our results in view of analytical and simulations results for the anomalous diffusion of particles in free cooling granular gases. PMID:27462008

  5. Scaling Limits of a Tagged Particle in the Exclusion Process with Variable Diffusion Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Patrícia; Jara, Milton

    2008-09-01

    We prove a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem for a tagged particle in a symmetric simple exclusion process in ℤ with variable diffusion coefficient. The scaling limits are obtained from a similar result for the current through -1/2 for a zero-range process with bond disorder. For the CLT, we prove convergence to a fractional Brownian motion of Hurst exponent 1/4.

  6. The effect of receptor clustering on diffusion-limited forward rate constants.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, B; Wiegel, F W

    1983-01-01

    The effect of receptor clustering on the diffusion-limited forward rate constant (k+) is studied theoretically by modeling cell surface receptors by hemispheres distributed on a plane. We give both exact results and bounds. The exact results are obtained using an electrostatic analogue and applying the method of the images. Accurate upper bounds on k+ are found from a variational principle. PMID:6309261

  7. Carrier diffusion limited MTF of a back-illuminated pv detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sudha; Gopal, Vishnu; Chhabra, K. C.

    Carrier diffusion limited MTF of a back-illuminated HgCdTe-PV detector array has been calculated by including the multiple reflections within a CdTe-HgCdTe structure. Results of these calculations show that there is only a marginal improvement in MTF. The gain in quantum efficiency can however become substantial if the unilluminated surface is made strongly reflecting.

  8. Microwave extinction characteristics of nanoparticle aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Cheng, J. X.; Liu, X. X.; Wang, H. X.; Zhao, F. T.; Wen, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    Structure of nanoparticle aggregates plays an important role in microwave extinction capacity. The diffusion-limited aggregation model (DLA) for fractal growth is utilized to explore the possible structures of nanoparticle aggregates by computer simulation. Based on the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method, the microwave extinction performance by different nano-carborundum aggregates is numerically analyzed. The effects of the particle quantity, original diameter, fractal structure, as well as orientation on microwave extinction are investigated, and also the extinction characteristics of aggregates are compared with the spherical nanoparticle in the same volume. Numerical results give out that proper aggregation of nanoparticle is beneficial to microwave extinction capacity, and the microwave extinction cross section by aggregated granules is better than that of the spherical solid one in the same volume.

  9. Aggregation dynamics of rigid polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R.; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-01-01

    Similarly charged polyelectrolytes are known to attract each other and aggregate into bundles when the charge density of the polymers exceeds a critical value that depends on the valency of the counterions. The dynamics of aggregation of such rigid polyelectrolytes are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the morphology of the aggregates depends on the value of the charge density of the polymers. For values close to the critical value, the shape of the aggregates is cylindrical with height equal to the length of a single polyelectrolyte chain. However, for larger values of charge, the linear extent of the aggregates increases as more and more polymers aggregate. In both the cases, we show that the number of aggregates decrease with time as power laws with exponents that are not numerically distinguishable from each other and are independent of charge density of the polymers, valency of the counterions, density, and length of the polyelectrolyte chain. We model the aggregation dynamics using the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with kernels determined from the molecular dynamics simulations and justify the numerically obtained value of the exponent. Our results suggest that once counterions condense, effective interactions between polyelectrolyte chains short-ranged and the aggregation of polyelectrolytes are diffusion-limited.

  10. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited evolution of multiple gas bubbles in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics employed in probabilistic analyses of decompression sickness incidence in man must be theoretically consistent and simple, if they are to yield useful results without requiring excessive computations. They are generally formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe diffusion-limited gas exchange between a gas bubble and the extravascular tissue surrounding it. In our previous model (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30: 232-246, 2002), we showed that with appropriate representation of sink pressures to account for gas loss or gain due to heterogeneous blood perfusion in the unstirred diffusion region around the bubble, diffusion-limited bubble growth in a tissue of finite volume can be simulated without postulating a boundary layer across which gas flux is discontinuous. However, interactions between two or more bubbles caused by competition for available gas cannot be considered in this model, because the diffusion region has a fixed volume with zero gas flux at its outer boundary. The present work extends the previous model to accommodate interactions among multiple bubbles by allowing the diffusion region volume of each bubble to vary during bubble evolution. For given decompression and tissue volume, bubble growth is sustained only if the bubble number density is below a certain maximum.

  11. Limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode with dense particle layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weroński, P.; Nosek, M.; Batys, P.

    2013-09-01

    Exploiting the concept of diffusion permeability of multilayer gel membrane and porous multilayer we have derived a simple analytical equation for the limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode (RDE) covered by a thin layer with variable tortuosity and porosity, under the assumption of negligible convection in the porous film. The variation of limiting diffusion current with the porosity and tortuosity of the film can be described in terms of the equivalent thickness of stagnant solution layer, i.e., the average ratio of squared tortuosity to porosity. In case of monolayer of monodisperse spherical particles, the equivalent layer thickness is an algebraic function of the surface coverage. Thus, by means of cyclic voltammetry of RDE with a deposited particle monolayer we can determine the monolayer surface coverage. The effect of particle layer adsorbed on the surface of RDE increases non-linearly with surface coverage. We have tested our theoretical results experimentally by means of cyclic voltammetry measurements of limiting diffusion current at the glassy carbon RDE covered with a monolayer of 3 μm silica particles. The theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreement at the surface coverage higher than 0.7. This result suggests that convection in a monolayer of 3 μm monodisperse spherical particles is negligibly small, in the context of the coverage determination, in the range of very dense particle layers.

  12. Feedback localization of freely diffusing fluorescent particles near the optical shot-noise limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Andrew J.; McHale, Kevin; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We report near-optimal tracking of freely diffusing fluorescent particles in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry via photon counting and real-time feedback. We present a quantitative statistical model of our feedback network and find excellent agreement with the experiment. We monitor the motion of a single fluorescent particle with a sensitivity of 15 nm/sqrt Hz while collecting fewer than 5000 fluorescence photons/s. Fluorescent microspheres (diffusion coefficient 1.3 μm2/s) are tracked with a root-mean-square tracking error of 170 nm, within a factor of 2 of the theoretical limit set by photon counting shot noise.

  13. Non-normalizable densities in strong anomalous diffusion: beyond the central limit theorem.

    PubMed

    Rebenshtok, Adi; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Barkai, Eli

    2014-03-21

    Strong anomalous diffusion, where ⟨|x(t)|(q)⟩ ∼ tqν(q) with a nonlinear spectrum ν(q) ≠ const, is wide spread and has been found in various nonlinear dynamical systems and experiments on active transport in living cells. Using a stochastic approach we show how this phenomenon is related to infinite covariant densities; i.e., the asymptotic states of these systems are described by non-normalizable distribution functions. Our work shows that the concept of infinite covariant densities plays an important role in the statistical description of open systems exhibiting multifractal anomalous diffusion, as it is complementary to the central limit theorem. PMID:24702341

  14. Limitations and Prospects for Diffusion-Weighted MRI of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Roger; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the most effective component of the modern multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scan for prostate pathology. DWI provides the strongest prediction of cancer volume, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates moderately with Gleason grade. Notwithstanding the demonstrated cancer assessment value of DWI, the standard measurement and signal analysis methods are based on a model of water diffusion dynamics that is well known to be invalid in human tissue. This review describes the biophysical limitations of the DWI component of the current standard mpMRI protocol and the potential for significantly improved cancer assessment performance based on more sophisticated measurement and signal modeling techniques. PMID:27240408

  15. Limitations and Prospects for Diffusion-Weighted MRI of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Roger; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the most effective component of the modern multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scan for prostate pathology. DWI provides the strongest prediction of cancer volume, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates moderately with Gleason grade. Notwithstanding the demonstrated cancer assessment value of DWI, the standard measurement and signal analysis methods are based on a model of water diffusion dynamics that is well known to be invalid in human tissue. This review describes the biophysical limitations of the DWI component of the current standard mpMRI protocol and the potential for significantly improved cancer assessment performance based on more sophisticated measurement and signal modeling techniques. PMID:27240408

  16. Oxygen diffusion limitation triggers ventilatory movements during spiracle closure when insects breathe discontinuously.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ping; Sender, Roi; Gefen, Eran

    2014-07-01

    During discontinuous gas exchange cycles in insects, spiracular opening follows a typical prolonged period of spiracle closure. Gas exchange with the environment occurs mostly during the period of full spiracular opening. In this study we tested the hypothesis that recently reported ventilatory movements during the spiracle closure period serve to mix the tracheal system gaseous contents, and support diffusive exchanges with the tissues. Using heliox (21% O2, 79% He), we found that by increasing oxygen diffusivity in the gas phase, ventilatory movements of Schistocerca gregaria were significantly delayed compared with normoxic conditions. Exposure to hyperoxic conditions (40% O2, 60% N2) resulted in a similar delay in forced ventilation. Together, these results indicate that limits to oxygen diffusion to the tissues during spiracle closure trigger ventilatory movements, which in turn support tissue demands. These findings contribute to our understanding of the mechanistic basis of respiratory gas exchange between insect tissues and the environment. PMID:24737753

  17. A Bayesian approach to distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuyang; Murano, Emi; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2015-10-01

    The tongue is a critical organ for a variety of functions, including swallowing, respiration, and speech. It contains intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that play an important role in changing its shape and position. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to reconstruct tongue muscle fiber tracts. However, previous studies have been unable to reconstruct the crossing fibers that occur where the tongue muscles interdigitate, which is a large percentage of the tongue volume. To resolve crossing fibers, multi-tensor models on DTI and more advanced imaging modalities, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), have been proposed. However, because of the involuntary nature of swallowing, there is insufficient time to acquire a sufficient number of diffusion gradient directions to resolve crossing fibers while the in vivo tongue is in a fixed position. In this work, we address the challenge of distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging by using a multi-tensor model with a fixed tensor basis and incorporating prior directional knowledge. The prior directional knowledge provides information on likely fiber directions at each voxel, and is computed with anatomical knowledge of tongue muscles. The fiber directions are estimated within a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, and the resulting objective function is solved using a noise-aware weighted ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom and in vivo tongue diffusion data including three control subjects and four patients with glossectomies. On the digital phantom, effects of parameters, noise, and prior direction accuracy were studied, and parameter settings for real data were determined. The results on the in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method is able to resolve interdigitated tongue muscles with limited gradient directions. The distributions of the

  18. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  19. Asymptotic diffusion limit of cell temperature discretisation schemes for thermal radiation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley-Stevenson, Richard P.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to unify the asymptotic diffusion limit analysis of thermal radiation transport schemes, for a linear-discontinuous representation of the material temperature reconstructed from cell centred temperature unknowns, in a process known as 'source tilting'. The asymptotic limits of both Monte Carlo (continuous in space) and deterministic approaches (based on linear-discontinuous finite elements) for solving the transport equation are investigated in slab geometry. The resulting discrete diffusion equations are found to have nonphysical terms that are proportional to any cell-edge discontinuity in the temperature representation. Based on this analysis it is possible to design accurate schemes for representing the material temperature, for coupling thermal radiation transport codes to a cell centred representation of internal energy favoured by ALE (arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian) hydrodynamics schemes.

  20. Asymptotic diffusion limit of cell temperature discretisation schemes for thermal radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley-Stevenson, Richard P.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to unify the asymptotic diffusion limit analysis of thermal radiation transport schemes, for a linear-discontinuous representation of the material temperature reconstructed from cell centred temperature unknowns, in a process known as ‘source tilting’. The asymptotic limits of both Monte Carlo (continuous in space) and deterministic approaches (based on linear-discontinuous finite elements) for solving the transport equation are investigated in slab geometry. The resulting discrete diffusion equations are found to have nonphysical terms that are proportional to any cell-edge discontinuity in the temperature representation. Based on this analysis it is possible to design accurate schemes for representing the material temperature, for coupling thermal radiation transport codes to a cell centred representation of internal energy favoured by ALE (arbitrary Lagrange–Eulerian) hydrodynamics schemes.

  1. Self-similar fast-reaction limits for reaction-diffusion systems on unbounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooks, E. C. M.; Hilhorst, D.

    2016-08-01

    We present a unified approach to characterising fast-reaction limits of systems of either two reaction-diffusion equations, or one reaction-diffusion equation and one ordinary differential equation, on unbounded domains, motivated by models of fast chemical reactions where either one or both reactant(s) is/are mobile. For appropriate initial data, solutions of four classes of problems each converge in the fast-reaction limit k → ∞ to a self-similar limit profile that has one of four forms, depending on how many components diffuse and whether the spatial domain is a half or whole line. For fixed k, long-time convergence to these same self-similar profiles is also established, thanks to a scaling argument of Kamin. Our results generalise earlier work of Hilhorst, van der Hout and Peletier to a much wider class of problems, and provide a quantitative description of the penetration of one substance into another in both the fast-reaction and long-time regimes.

  2. Diffusion-Limited Agglomeration and Defect Generation during Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, R.; Han, Y.; Karra, P.; Sherman, P.; Chandra, A.

    2008-06-06

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of copper involves removal of surface asperities with abrasive particles and polishing processes. This leads to copper-containing nanoparticles extruded into the solution. We model the diffusion-limited agglomeration (DLA) of such nanoparticles which can rapidly grow to large sizes. These large particles are detrimental because they can participate in polishing, causing scratches and surface defects during CMP. The agglomeration is much slower in the reaction-limited agglomeration process. Under realistic conditions the defect generation probability can increase significantly over time scales of {approx}10 to 20 min from DLA, unless prevented by slurry rejuvenation or process modification measures.

  3. Flux-limited diffusion in a scattering medium. [such as accretion-disk coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melia, Fulvio; Zylstra, Gregory J.

    1991-01-01

    A diffusion equation (FDT) is presented with a coefficient that reduces to the appropriate limiting form in the streaming and near thermodynamic limits for a moving fluid in which the dominant source of opacity is Thomson scattering. The present results are compared to those obtained with the corresponding equations for an absorptive medium. It is found that FDT for a scattering medium is accurate to better than less than about 17 percent over the range of optical depths of tau in the range of about 0 to 3.

  4. Model of alpha particle diffusion in the outer limiter shadow of TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S. |; Zweben, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    A new code, Monte Carlo Collisional Stochastic Orbit Retracing (MCCSOR), has been developed to model the alpha particle loss signal as measured by the outer midplane scintillator detector in TFTR. The shadowing effects due to the outer limiters and the detector itself have been included, along with a pitch angle scattering and stochastic ripple diffusion. Shadowing by the outer limiters has a strong effect on both the magnitude and pitch angle distribution of the calculated loss. There is at least qualitative agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data.

  5. Nano Vacancy Clusters and Trap Limited Diffusion of Si Interstitials in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Wei-Kan Chu

    2010-05-05

    consecutive steps. (a) First, high energy self ion irradiation is used to create a wide vacancy-rich region, and to form voids by post implantation annealing. (b) In an additional annealing step in oxygen ambient, Si interstitials are injected in by surface oxidation. (c) Analyzing trap-limited diffusion of Si interstitials, which is experimentally detectable by studying the diffusion of multiple boron superlattices grown in Si, and enables us to characterize the nano voids, e.g. their sizes and densities.

  6. Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response

    PubMed Central

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Lančinskas, Algirdas; Žilinskas, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white noise- and temperature-induced trend, on the precision of the concentration determination has been investigated for different configurations of the biosensor operation. The optimization method was found to be suitable and accurate enough for the quantitative determination of the concentrations of the compounds from a given biosensor transient response. The computational experiments showed a complex dependence of the precision of the concentration estimation on the relative thickness of the outer diffusion layer, as well as on whether the biosensor operates under diffusion- or kinetics-limited conditions. When the biosensor response is affected by the induced exponential trend, the duration of the biosensor action can be optimized for increasing the accuracy of the quantitative analysis. PMID:24608006

  7. Possible complication regarding phosphorus removal with a continuous flow biofilm system: diffusion limitation.

    PubMed

    Falkentoft, C M; Arnz, P; Henze, M; Mosbaek, H; Müller, E; Wilderer, P A; Harremoës, P

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion limitation of phosphate possibly constitutes a serious problem regarding the use of a biofilm reactor for enhanced biological phosphorus removal. A lab-scale reactor for simultaneous removal of phosphorus and nitrate was operated in a continuous alternating mode of operation. For a steady-state operation with excess amounts of carbon source (acetate) during the anaerobic phase, the same amount of phosphate was released during the anaerobic phase as was taken up during the anoxic phase. The measured phosphorus content of the biomass that detached during backwash after an anoxic phase was low, 2.4 +/- 0.4% (equal to 24 +/- 4 mg P/g TS). A simplified computer model indicated the reason to be phosphate diffusion limitation and the model revealed a delicate balance between the obtainable phosphorus contents of the biomass and operating parameters, such as backwash interval, biofilm thickness after backwash, and phase lengths. The aspect of diffusion is considered of crucial importance when evaluating the performance of a biofilter for phosphate removal. PMID:11400109

  8. Pushing the limits of in vivo diffusion MRI for the Human Connectome Project

    PubMed Central

    Setsompop, K.; Kimmlingen, R.; Eberlein, E.; Witzel, T.; Cohen-Adad, J.; McNab, J.A.; Keil, B.; Tisdall, M.D.; Hoecht, P.; Dietz, P.; Cauley, S.F.; Tountcheva, V.; Matschl, V.; Lenz, V. H.; Heberlein, K.; Potthast, A.; Thein, H.; Van Horn, J.; Toga, A.; Schmitt, F.; Lehne, D.; Rosen, B.R.; Wedeen, V.; Wald, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other “-omics” endeavor, the accuracy and level of detail obtained from mapping the major connection pathways in the living human brain with diffusion MRI depends on the capabilities of the imaging technology used. The current tools are remarkable; allowing the formation of an “image” of the water diffusion probability distribution in regions of complex crossing fibers at each of half a million voxels in the brain. Nonetheless our ability to map the connection pathways is limited by the image sensitivity and resolution, and also the contrast and resolution in encoding of the diffusion probability distribution. The goal of our Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to address these limiting factors by re-engineering the scanner from the ground up to optimize the high b-value, high angular resolution diffusion imaging needed for sensitive and accurate mapping of the brain’s structural connections. Our efforts were directed based on the relative contributions of each scanner component. The gradient subsection was a major focus since gradient amplitude is central to determining the diffusion contrast, the amount of T2 signal loss, and the blurring of the water PDF over the course of the diffusion time. By implementing a novel 4-port drive geometry and optimizing size and linearity for the brain, we demonstrate a whole-body sized scanner with Gmax = 300mT/m on each axis capable of the sustained duty cycle needed for diffusion imaging. The system is capable of slewing the gradient at a rate of 200 T/m/s as needed for the EPI image encoding. In order to enhance the efficiency of the diffusion sequence we implemented a FOV shifting approach to Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) EPI capable of unaliasing 3 slices excited simultaneously with a modest g-factor penalty allowing us to diffusion encode whole brain volumes with low TR and TE. Finally we combine the multi-slice approach with a compressive sampling reconstruction to sufficiently undersample q

  9. Pushing the limits of in vivo diffusion MRI for the Human Connectome Project.

    PubMed

    Setsompop, K; Kimmlingen, R; Eberlein, E; Witzel, T; Cohen-Adad, J; McNab, J A; Keil, B; Tisdall, M D; Hoecht, P; Dietz, P; Cauley, S F; Tountcheva, V; Matschl, V; Lenz, V H; Heberlein, K; Potthast, A; Thein, H; Van Horn, J; Toga, A; Schmitt, F; Lehne, D; Rosen, B R; Wedeen, V; Wald, L L

    2013-10-15

    Perhaps more than any other "-omics" endeavor, the accuracy and level of detail obtained from mapping the major connection pathways in the living human brain with diffusion MRI depend on the capabilities of the imaging technology used. The current tools are remarkable; allowing the formation of an "image" of the water diffusion probability distribution in regions of complex crossing fibers at each of half a million voxels in the brain. Nonetheless our ability to map the connection pathways is limited by the image sensitivity and resolution, and also the contrast and resolution in encoding of the diffusion probability distribution. The goal of our Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to address these limiting factors by re-engineering the scanner from the ground up to optimize the high b-value, high angular resolution diffusion imaging needed for sensitive and accurate mapping of the brain's structural connections. Our efforts were directed based on the relative contributions of each scanner component. The gradient subsection was a major focus since gradient amplitude is central to determining the diffusion contrast, the amount of T2 signal loss, and the blurring of the water PDF over the course of the diffusion time. By implementing a novel 4-port drive geometry and optimizing size and linearity for the brain, we demonstrate a whole-body sized scanner with G(max) = 300 mT/m on each axis capable of the sustained duty cycle needed for diffusion imaging. The system is capable of slewing the gradient at a rate of 200 T/m/s as needed for the EPI image encoding. In order to enhance the efficiency of the diffusion sequence we implemented a FOV shifting approach to Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) EPI capable of unaliasing 3 slices excited simultaneously with a modest g-factor penalty allowing us to diffusion encode whole brain volumes with low TR and TE. Finally we combine the multi-slice approach with a compressive sampling reconstruction to sufficiently undersample q-space to

  10. Diffuse reflectance optical topography: location of inclusions in 3D and detectability limits

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, N. A.; Baez, G. R.; García, H. A.; Waks Serra, M. V.; Di Rocco, H. O.; Iriarte, D. I.; Pomarico, J. A.; Grosenick, D.; Macdonald, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present contribution we investigate the images of CW diffusely reflected light for a point-like source, registered by a CCD camera imaging a turbid medium containing an absorbing lesion. We show that detection of μa variations (absorption anomalies) is achieved if images are normalized to background intensity. A theoretical analysis based on the diffusion approximation is presented to investigate the sensitivity and the limitations of our proposal and a novel procedure to find the location of the inclusions in 3D is given and tested. An analysis of the noise and its influence on the detection capabilities of our proposal is provided. Experimental results on phantoms are also given, supporting the proposed approach. PMID:24876999

  11. Quantum Mechanical Limitations to Spin Diffusion in the Unitary Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enss, Tilman; Haussmann, Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    We compute spin transport in the unitary Fermi gas using the strong-coupling Luttinger-Ward theory. In the quantum degenerate regime the spin diffusivity attains a minimum value of Ds≃1.3ℏ/m approaching the quantum limit of diffusion for a particle of mass m. Conversely, the spin drag rate reaches a maximum value of Γsd≃1.2kBTF/ℏ in terms of the Fermi temperature TF. The frequency-dependent spin conductivity σs(ω) exhibits a broad Drude peak, with spectral weight transferred to a universal high-frequency tail σs(ω→∞)=ℏ1/2C/3π(mω)3/2 proportional to the Tan contact density C. For the spin susceptibility χs(T) we find no downturn in the normal phase.

  12. Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V

    2014-03-28

    We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second – from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third – from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT. (optical tomography)

  13. Averaging and spectral properties for the 2D advection-diffusion equation in the semi-classical limit for vanishing diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukadinovic, J.; Dedits, E.; Poje, A. C.; Schäfer, T.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation (ADE) on a bounded domain subject to Dirichlet or von Neumann boundary conditions involving a Liouville integrable Hamiltonian. Transformation to action-angle coordinates permits averaging in time and angle, resulting in an equation that allows for separation of variables. The Fourier transform in the angle coordinate transforms the equation into an effective diffusive equation and a countable family of non-self-adjoint Schrödinger equations. For the corresponding Liouville-Sturm problem, we apply complex-plane WKB methods to study the spectrum in the semi-classical limit for vanishing diffusivity. The spectral limit graph is found to consist of analytic curves (branches) related to Stokes graphs forming a tree-structure. Eigenvalues in the neighborhood of branches emanating from the imaginary axis are subject to various sublinear power laws with respect to diffusivity, leading to convection-enhanced rates of dissipation of the corresponding modes. The solution of the ADE converges in the limit of vanishing diffusivity to the solution of the effective diffusion equation on convective time scales that are sublinear with respect to the diffusive time scales.

  14. Scleroderma lung study (SLS): differences in the presentation and course of patients with limited versus diffuse systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Clements, P J; Roth, M D; Elashoff, R; Tashkin, D P; Goldin, J; Silver, R M; Sterz, M; Seibold, J R; Schraufnagel, D; Simms, R W; Bolster, M; Wise, R A; Steen, V; Mayes, M D; Connelly, K; Metersky, M; Furst, D E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary fibrosis is a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This report examines the differences at baseline and over 12 months between patients with limited versus diffuse cutaneous SSc who participated in the Scleroderma Lung Study. Methods SSc patients (64 limited; 94 diffuse) exhibiting dyspnoea on exertion, restrictive pulmonary function and evidence of alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage and/or high‐resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were randomised to receive cyclophosphamide (CYC) or placebo and serially evaluated over 12 months. Results Baseline measures of alveolitis, dyspnoea and pulmonary function were similar in limited and diffuse SSc. However, differences were noted with respect to HRCT‐scored fibrosis (worse in limited SSc), and to functional activity, quality of life, skin and musculoskeletal manifestations (worse in diffuse SSc) (p<0.05). When adjusted for the baseline level of fibrosis, both groups responded similarly to CYC with regard to lung function and dyspnoea (p<0.05). Cyclophosphamide was also associated with more improvement in skin score in the diffuse disease group more than in the limited disease group (p<0.05). Conclusions After adjusting for the severity of fibrosis at baseline, CYC slowed the decline of lung volumes and improved dyspnoea equally in the limited and the diffuse SSc groups. On the other hand, diffuse SSc patients responded better than limited patients with respect to improvements in skin thickening. PMID:17485423

  15. Exact Results for a Diffusion-Limited Pair Annihilation Process on a One-Dimensional Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kazuo; Nakagawa, Tomohiro

    2000-05-01

    The process of pair annihilation of particles diffusing on a ring ofone-dimensional lattice is studied analytically.A set of master equations for the distribution functions of particlesare solved exactly for the initial condition of uniform, randomdistribution of particles.An explicit expression for the time dependence of the densityof particles is derived from the distribution functions.In the limit of infinite lattice, the present result agreeswith the one obtained by [Balding, Clifford and Green:Phys. Lett. A 126 (1988) 481].

  16. 1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yun; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at −78 °C undergoes 1,4-addition to an unsaturated ester via a rate-limiting deaggregation of LDA dimer followed by a post-rate-limiting reaction with the substrate. Muted autocatalysis is traced to a lithium enolate-mediated deaggregation of the LDA dimer and the intervention of LDA-lithium enolate mixed aggregates displaying higher reactivities than LDA. Striking accelerations are elicited by <1.0 mol % LiCl. Rate and mechanistic studies reveal that the uncatalyzed and catalyzed pathways funnel through a common monosolvated-monomer-based intermediate. Four distinct classes of mixed aggregation effects are discussed. PMID:20961095

  17. Lattice Boltzmann method for diffusion-limited partial dissolution of fluids.

    PubMed

    Aursjø, Olav; Pride, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for two partially miscible fluids is developed. By partially miscible we mean that, although there is a definite interfacial region separating the two fluids with a surface tension force acting at all points of the transition region, each fluid can nonetheless accept molecules from the other fluid up to a set solubility limit. We allow each fluid to diffuse into the other with the solubility and diffusivity in each fluid being input parameters. The approach is to define two regions within the fluid: one interfacial region having finite width, across which most of the concentration change occurs, and in which a surface tension force and color separation step are allowed for and one miscible fluid region where the concentration of the binary fluids follows an advection-diffusion equation and the mixture as a whole obeys the Navier-Stokes incompressible flow equations. Numerical examples are presented in which the algorithm produces results that are quantitatively compared to exact analytical results as well as qualitatively examined for their reasonableness. The model has the ability to simulate how bubbles of one fluid flow through another while dissolving their contents as well as to simulate a range of practical invasion problems such as injecting supercritical CO(2) into a porous material saturated with water for sequestration purposes. PMID:26274306

  18. Development of the new approach to the diffusion-limited reaction rate theory

    SciTech Connect

    Veshchunov, M. S.

    2012-04-15

    The new approach to the diffusion-limited reaction rate theory, recently proposed by the author, is further developed on the base of a similar approach to Brownian coagulation. The traditional diffusion approach to calculation of the reaction rate is critically analyzed. In particular, it is shown that the traditional approach is applicable only in the special case of reactions with a large reaction radius and the mean inter-particle distances, and become inappropriate in calculating the reaction rate in the case of a relatively small reaction radius. In the latter case, most important for chemical reactions, particle collisions occur not in the diffusion regime but mainly in the kinetic regime characterized by homogeneous (random) spatial distribution of particles on the length scale of the mean inter-particle distance. The calculated reaction rate for a small reaction radius in three dimensions formally (and fortuitously) coincides with the expression derived in the traditional approach for reactions with a large reaction radius, but notably deviates at large times from the traditional result in the planar two-dimensional geometry. In application to reactions on discrete lattice sites, new relations for the reaction rate constants are derived for both three-dimensional and two-dimensional lattices.

  19. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  20. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The primary advantages of establishing such operating limits include (a) technically defensible screening criteria for landfill-destined solid wastes, (b) significant reductions in the required capacity of radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities, and (c) reductions in costs associated with storage and disposal of radioactive materials. The approach was based on analyses of potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (a) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to groundwater, (b) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (c) calculations of operating limits from the dose objective and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted.

  1. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-05-24

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The approach was based on analyses of the potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (1) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to the groundwater, (2) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (3) calculations of operating limits from the dose limit and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted. The intended application of the results is to refine the radiological monitoring standards employed by the PGDP Health Physics personnel to determine what constitutes radioactive wastes, with concurrence of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

  2. On the limits of applicability of drift-diffusion based hot carrier degradation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jech, Markus; Sharma, Prateek; Tyaginov, Stanislav; Rudolf, Florian; Grasser, Tibor

    2016-04-01

    We study the limits of the applicability of a drift-diffusion (DD) based model for hot-carrier degradation (HCD). In this approach the rigorous but computationally expensive solution of the Boltzmann transport equation is replaced by an analytic expression for the carrier energy distribution function. On the one hand, we already showed that the simplified version of our HCD model is quite successful for LDMOS devices. On the other hand, hot carrier degradation models based on the drift-diffusion and energy transport schemes were shown to fail for planar MOSFETs with gate lengths of 0.5-2.0 µm. To investigate the limits of validity of the DD-based HCD model, we use planar nMOSFETs of an identical topology but with different gate lengths of 2.0, 1.5, and 1.0 µm. We show that, although the model is able to adequately represent the linear and saturation drain current changes in the 2.0 µm transistor, it starts to fail for gate lengths shorter than 1.5 µm and becomes completely inadequate for the 1.0 µm device.

  3. Prevalence of Escherichia coli strains with localized, diffuse, and aggregative adherence to HeLa cells in infants with diarrhea and matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, T A; Blake, P A; Trabulsi, L R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the possible role of Escherichia coli strains with three different patterns of adherence to HeLa cells in causing diarrhea in infants in São Paulo, Brazil, we studied stool specimens from 100 infants up to 1 year of age with acute diarrheal illnesses and 100 age-matched control infants without recent diarrhea. E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells was much more common in patients (23%) than in controls (2%) (P less than 0.0001) and was detected more frequently than rotavirus (19%) was in patients, even though the study was conducted during the coldest months of the year. Most (80%) of the E. coli colonies with localized adherence were of traditional enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes. Little difference was found between patients and controls in the rate of isolation of E. coli with diffuse adherence (31 and 32%, respectively) or aggregative adherence (10 and 8%, respectively). A genetic probe used to detect a plasmid-mediated adhesin which confers expression of localized adherence proved to be 100% sensitive and 99.9% specific in detecting E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells. Although E. coli strains with localized adherence have now been shown to be enteric pathogens in several parts of the world, the role of strains showing diffuse adherence and aggregative adherence is still uncertain. PMID:2563383

  4. Occurrence of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and an endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation in diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J L; Kemp, A; Rogers, M; Mallet, A I; Toia, R F; Spur, B; Earl, J W; Chesterman, C N; Krilis, S A

    1989-01-01

    We have identified PAF in the blister fluid from a patient with bullous mastocytosis, a rare form of mast-cell disease. We have found a novel endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation which obscured the presence of the PAF in unprocessed blister fluid and in ethanol or lipid extracts. The PAF was characterized by the demonstration of chromatographic, mass spectral and biological properties identical to those of authentic PAF. Thus this is the first demonstration of PAF in biological fluid from a patient with mastocytosis. High levels of immunoreactive prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and histamine were also present in the blister fluid. The interaction between PAF and the inhibitor of platelet aggregation in patients with systemic mastocytosis may provide an explanation for some of the manifestations of the disease, in particular the episodic hypotension, cutaneous flushing and pallor. PMID:2805409

  5. Effects of chemical mechanical planarization slurry additives on the agglomeration of alumina nanoparticles II: aggregation rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Neil; Talbot, Jan B

    2014-04-01

    The aggregation rate and mechanism of 150 nm alumina particles in 1mM KNO3 with various additives used in chemical mechanical planarization of copper were investigated. The pH of each suspension was ∼8 such that the aggregation rate was slow enough to be measured and analyzed over ∼120 min. In general, an initial exponential growth was observed for most suspensions indicating reaction-limited aggregation. After aggregate sizes increase to >500 nm, the rate followed a power law suggesting diffusion-limited aggregation. Stability ratios and fractal dimension numbers were also calculated to further elucidate the aggregation mechanism. PMID:24491325

  6. Aggregates and Superaggregates of Soot with Four Distinct Fractal Morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, C. M.; Kim, W.; Fry, D.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soot formed in laminar diffusion flames of heavily sooting fuels evolves through four distinct growth stages which give rise to four distinct aggregate fractal morphologies. These results were inferred from large and small angle static light scattering from the flames, microphotography of the flames, and analysis of soot sampled from the flames. The growth stages occur approximately over four successive orders of magnitude in aggregate size. Comparison to computer simulations suggests that these four growth stages involve either diffusion limited cluster aggregation or percolation in either three or two dimensions.

  7. Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Sang Hee; Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang

    2010-03-15

    The impact of toluene addition in n-decane on OH concentrations, maximum heat release rates, and extinction limits were studied experimentally and computationally by using counterflow diffusion flames with laser induced fluorescence imaging. Sensitivity analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results showed that the extinction strain rate of n-decane/toluene/nitrogen flames decreased significantly with an increase of toluene addition and depended linearly on the maximum OH concentration. It was revealed that the maximum OH concentration, which depends on the fuel H/C ratio, can be used as an index of the radical pool and chemical heat release rate, since it plays a significant role on the heat production via the reaction with other species, such as CO, H{sub 2}, and HCO. Experimental results further demonstrated that toluene addition in n-decane dramatically reduced the peak OH concentration via H abstraction reactions and accelerated flame extinction via kinetic coupling between toluene and n-decane mechanisms. Comparisons between experiments and simulations revealed that the current toluene mechanism significantly over-predicts the radical destruction rate, leading to under-prediction of extinction limits and OH concentrations, especially caused by the uncertainty of the H abstraction reaction from toluene, which rate coefficient has a difference by a factor of 5 in the tested toluene models. In addition, sensitivity analysis of diffusive transport showed that in addition to n-decane and toluene, the transport of OH and H also considerably affects the extinction limit. A reduced linear correlation between the extinction limits of n-decane/toluene blended fuels and the H/C ratio as well as the mean fuel molecular weight was obtained. The results suggest that an explicit prediction of the extinction limits of aromatic and alkane blended fuels can be established by using H/C ratio (or radical index) and the

  8. Forecasting sales of new vehicle with limited data using Bass diffusion model and Grey theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Noratikah; Ismail, Zuhaimy

    2015-02-01

    New product forecasting is a process that determines a reasonable estimate of sales attainable under a given set of conditions. There are several new products forecasting method in practices and Bass Diffusion Model (BDM) is one of the most common new product diffusion model used in many industries to forecast new product and technology. Hence, this paper proposed a combining BDM with Grey theory to forecast sales of new vehicle in Malaysia that certainly have limited data to build a model on. The aims of this paper is to examine the accuracy of different new product forecasting models and thus identify which is the best among the basic BDM and combining BDM with Grey theory. The results show that combining BDM with Grey theory performs better than the basic BDM based on in-sample and out-sample mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results also reveals combining model forecast more effectively and accurately even with insufficient previous data on the new vehicle in Malaysia.

  9. Intermolecular electron transfer rate in diffusion limited region: Picosecond fluorescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, B.; Periasamy, N.; Modi, S.; Dutt, G. Bhaskar; Doraiswamy, S.

    1992-12-01

    The temporal profiles of the quenched fluorescence decay of the free base meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin (H 2TPP) and its Zn derivative (ZnTPP) with quenchers such as quinones and m-dinitrobenzene have been analysed by methods developed for short time regimes which are known to be diffusion influenced [N. Periasamy et al., J. Chem. Phys.88, 1638 (1988); 89, 4799 (1988); Chem. Phys. Lett.160, 457 (1989); N. Periasamy, Biophys. J.. 54, 961 (1988); R. Das and N. Periasamy, Chem. Phys. 136, 361 (1989); G.C. Joshi et al., J. Phys. Chem.94, 2908 (1990)]. These quenchers are known to participate in an electron transfer reaction leading to a charge separation. The intrinsic rate constant ( ka) derived from the analysis is examined as a function of the change in free energy in the electron transfer reaction. Such a comparison indicates that ka can be related to the electron transfer rate, ket. The electron transfer rates measured in acetonitrile (solvent reorganization energy, λ s = 1.35) and toluene (λ s = 0.1) do not indicate the existence of an inverted region as predicted by Marcus. The trend agrees with the findings of Rehm and Weller [ Isr. J. Chem.8, 259 (1970)], except that the rate constants are at least one order of magnitude larger than the diffusion limited values.

  10. Structural limitations of learning in a crowd: communication vulnerability and information diffusion in MOOCs.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Nabeel; Yasseri, Taha; Eynon, Rebecca; Hjorth, Isis

    2014-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) bring together a global crowd of thousands of learners for several weeks or months. In theory, the openness and scale of MOOCs can promote iterative dialogue that facilitates group cognition and knowledge construction. Using data from two successive instances of a popular business strategy MOOC, we filter observed communication patterns to arrive at the "significant" interaction networks between learners and use complex network analysis to explore the vulnerability and information diffusion potential of the discussion forums. We find that different discussion topics and pedagogical practices promote varying levels of 1) "significant" peer-to-peer engagement, 2) participant inclusiveness in dialogue, and ultimately, 3) modularity, which impacts information diffusion to prevent a truly "global" exchange of knowledge and learning. These results indicate the structural limitations of large-scale crowd-based learning and highlight the different ways that learners in MOOCs leverage, and learn within, social contexts. We conclude by exploring how these insights may inspire new developments in online education. PMID:25244925

  11. Structural limitations of learning in a crowd: communication vulnerability and information diffusion in MOOCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillani, Nabeel; Yasseri, Taha; Eynon, Rebecca; Hjorth, Isis

    2014-09-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) bring together a global crowd of thousands of learners for several weeks or months. In theory, the openness and scale of MOOCs can promote iterative dialogue that facilitates group cognition and knowledge construction. Using data from two successive instances of a popular business strategy MOOC, we filter observed communication patterns to arrive at the ``significant'' interaction networks between learners and use complex network analysis to explore the vulnerability and information diffusion potential of the discussion forums. We find that different discussion topics and pedagogical practices promote varying levels of 1) ``significant'' peer-to-peer engagement, 2) participant inclusiveness in dialogue, and ultimately, 3) modularity, which impacts information diffusion to prevent a truly ``global'' exchange of knowledge and learning. These results indicate the structural limitations of large-scale crowd-based learning and highlight the different ways that learners in MOOCs leverage, and learn within, social contexts. We conclude by exploring how these insights may inspire new developments in online education.

  12. Universal diffusion-limited injection and the hook effect in organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Huseynova, Gunel; Xu, Yong; Long, Dang Xuan; Park, Won-Tae; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-01-01

    The general form of interfacial contact resistance was derived for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) covering various injection mechanisms. Devices with a broad range of materials for contacts, semiconductors, and dielectrics were investigated and the charge injections in staggered OTFTs was found to universally follow the proposed form in the diffusion-limited case, which is signified by the mobility-dependent injection at the metal-semiconductor interfaces. Hence, real ohmic contact can hardly ever be achieved in OTFTs with low carrier concentrations and mobility, and the injection mechanisms include thermionic emission, diffusion, and surface recombination. The non-ohmic injection in OTFTs is manifested by the generally observed hook shape of the output conductance as a function of the drain field. The combined theoretical and experimental results show that interfacial contact resistance generally decreases with carrier mobility, and the injection current is probably determined by the surface recombination rate, which can be promoted by bulk-doping, contact modifications with charge injection layers and dopant layers, and dielectric engineering with high-k dielectric materials. PMID:27440253

  13. Numerical simulation of transonic limit cycle oscillations using high-order low-diffusion schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoyuan; Zha, Ge-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    This paper simulates the NLR7301 airfoil limit cycle oscillation (LCO) caused by fluid-structure interaction (FSI) using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) coupled with Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) one-equation turbulence model. A low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme with 5th order weighted essentially nonoscillatory scheme (WENO) is employed to calculate the inviscid fluxes. A fully conservative 4th order central differencing is used for the viscous terms. A fully coupled fluid-structural interaction model is employed. For the case computed in this paper, the predicted LCO frequency, amplitudes, averaged lift and moment, all agree excellently with the experiment performed by Schewe et al. The solutions appear to have bifurcation and are dependent on the initial fields or initial perturbation. The developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/computational structure dynamics (CSD) simulation is able to capture the LCO with very small amplitudes measured in the experiment. This is attributed to the high order low diffusion schemes, fully coupled FSI model, and the turbulence model used. This research appears to be the first time that a numerical simulation of LCO matches the experiment. The simulation confirms several observations of the experiment.

  14. Universal diffusion-limited injection and the hook effect in organic thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuan; Huseynova, Gunel; Xu, Yong; Long, Dang Xuan; Park, Won-Tae; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-01-01

    The general form of interfacial contact resistance was derived for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) covering various injection mechanisms. Devices with a broad range of materials for contacts, semiconductors, and dielectrics were investigated and the charge injections in staggered OTFTs was found to universally follow the proposed form in the diffusion-limited case, which is signified by the mobility-dependent injection at the metal-semiconductor interfaces. Hence, real ohmic contact can hardly ever be achieved in OTFTs with low carrier concentrations and mobility, and the injection mechanisms include thermionic emission, diffusion, and surface recombination. The non-ohmic injection in OTFTs is manifested by the generally observed hook shape of the output conductance as a function of the drain field. The combined theoretical and experimental results show that interfacial contact resistance generally decreases with carrier mobility, and the injection current is probably determined by the surface recombination rate, which can be promoted by bulk-doping, contact modifications with charge injection layers and dopant layers, and dielectric engineering with high-k dielectric materials. PMID:27440253

  15. Diffusive transfer between two intensely interacting cells with limited surface kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    The diffusive transfer, or paracrine delivery, of chemical factors during the interaction of an emitting cell and a receiving cell is a ubiquitous cellular process that facilitates information exchange between the cells an/or to bystander cells. In the cellular immune response this exchange governs the magnitude and breadth of killing of cellular targets, inflammation or tolerance. Paracrine delivery is examined here by solving the the steady-state diffusion equation for the concentration field surrounding two intensely interacting, equi-sized cells on which surface kinetics limits the rates of factor emission and absorption. These chemical factors may be cytokines, such as Interlukins and Interferons, but the results are presented in a generic form so as to be applicable to any chemical factor and/or cell-type interaction. In addition to providing overall transfer rates and transfer efficiencies, the results also indicate that when the receiving cell is naïve, with few factor receptors on its surface, there may be a significant accumulation of factor in the synaptic region between the cells with a consequent release of factor to the medium where it can signal bystander cells. This factor accumulation may play a critical role in activating a naïve receiving cell. As the receiving cell activates and becomes more absorbent, the factor accumulation diminishes, as does potential bystander signaling. PMID:22485051

  16. Universal diffusion-limited injection and the hook effect in organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuan; Huseynova, Gunel; Xu, Yong; Long, Dang Xuan; Park, Won-Tae; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-07-01

    The general form of interfacial contact resistance was derived for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) covering various injection mechanisms. Devices with a broad range of materials for contacts, semiconductors, and dielectrics were investigated and the charge injections in staggered OTFTs was found to universally follow the proposed form in the diffusion-limited case, which is signified by the mobility-dependent injection at the metal-semiconductor interfaces. Hence, real ohmic contact can hardly ever be achieved in OTFTs with low carrier concentrations and mobility, and the injection mechanisms include thermionic emission, diffusion, and surface recombination. The non-ohmic injection in OTFTs is manifested by the generally observed hook shape of the output conductance as a function of the drain field. The combined theoretical and experimental results show that interfacial contact resistance generally decreases with carrier mobility, and the injection current is probably determined by the surface recombination rate, which can be promoted by bulk-doping, contact modifications with charge injection layers and dopant layers, and dielectric engineering with high-k dielectric materials.

  17. Diffusion Rate Limitations in Actin-Based Propulsion of Hard and Deformable Particles

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Richard B.; Purich, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism by which actin polymerization propels intracellular vesicles and invasive microorganisms remains an open question. Several recent quantitative studies have examined propulsion of biomimetic particles such as polystyrene microspheres, phospholipid vesicles, and oil droplets. In addition to allowing quantitative measurement of parameters such as the dependence of particle speed on its size, these systems have also revealed characteristic behaviors such a saltatory motion of hard particles and oscillatory deformation of soft particles. Such measurements and observations provide tests for proposed mechanisms of actin-based motility. In the actoclampin filament end-tracking motor model, particle-surface-bound filament end-tracking proteins are involved in load-insensitive processive insertion of actin subunits onto elongating filament plus-ends that are persistently tethered to the surface. In contrast, the tethered-ratchet model assumes working filaments are untethered and the free-ended filaments grow as thermal ratchets in a load-sensitive manner. This article presents a model for the diffusion and consumption of actin monomers during actin-based particle propulsion to predict the monomer concentration field around motile particles. The results suggest that the various behaviors of biomimetic particles, including dynamic saltatory motion of hard particles and oscillatory vesicle deformations, can be quantitatively and self-consistently explained by load-insensitive, diffusion-limited elongation of (+)-end-tethered actin filaments, consistent with predictions of the actoclampin filament-end tracking mechanism. PMID:16731556

  18. Self-Similarity in Game-Locked Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Xiong, Wan-Ting; Wang, You-Gui

    2012-12-01

    A collective game is studied via agent-based modeling approach, where a group of adaptive learning players seek for their best positions on a vertical line. The movements of players are driven by benefits obtained from interactions. The game falls into an evolutionary stable state, at which aggregations of players on the line emerge. The pattern of these aggregates exhibits self-similarity at different scales with a fractal dimension of 0.58. The underlying mechanism of this aggregation is unique in that aggregates are resulted from mutual lock-in of players. This game-locked aggregation, in contrast with the diffusion limited aggregation, is applicable to a broader scope of aggregation processes.

  19. Normal-to-anomalous diffusion transition in disordered correlated potentials: From the central limit theorem to stable laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado-García, R.; Maldonado, Cesar

    2013-12-01

    We study the diffusion of an ensemble of overdamped particles sliding over a tilted random potential (produced by the interaction of a particle with a random polymer) with long-range correlations. We found that the diffusion properties of such a system are closely related to the correlation function of the corresponding potential. We model the substrate as a symbolic trajectory of a shift space which enables us to obtain a general formula for the diffusion coefficient when normal diffusion occurs. The total time that the particle takes to travel through n monomers can be seen as an ergodic sum to which we can apply the central limit theorem. The latter can be implemented if the correlations decay fast enough in order for the central limit theorem to be valid. On the other hand, we presume that when the central limit theorem breaks down the system give rise to anomalous diffusion. We give two examples exhibiting a transition from normal to anomalous diffusion due to this mechanism. We also give analytical expressions for the diffusion exponents in both cases by assuming convergence to a stable law. Finally we test our predictions by means of numerical simulations.

  20. Normal-to-anomalous diffusion transition in disordered correlated potentials: from the central limit theorem to stable laws.

    PubMed

    Salgado-García, R; Maldonado, Cesar

    2013-12-01

    We study the diffusion of an ensemble of overdamped particles sliding over a tilted random potential (produced by the interaction of a particle with a random polymer) with long-range correlations. We found that the diffusion properties of such a system are closely related to the correlation function of the corresponding potential. We model the substrate as a symbolic trajectory of a shift space which enables us to obtain a general formula for the diffusion coefficient when normal diffusion occurs. The total time that the particle takes to travel through n monomers can be seen as an ergodic sum to which we can apply the central limit theorem. The latter can be implemented if the correlations decay fast enough in order for the central limit theorem to be valid. On the other hand, we presume that when the central limit theorem breaks down the system give rise to anomalous diffusion. We give two examples exhibiting a transition from normal to anomalous diffusion due to this mechanism. We also give analytical expressions for the diffusion exponents in both cases by assuming convergence to a stable law. Finally we test our predictions by means of numerical simulations. PMID:24483421

  1. Effects of Inter- and Intra-aggregate Pore Space on the Soil-Gas Diffusivity Behavior in Unsaturated, Undisturbed Volcanic Ash Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resurreccion, A. C.; Kawamoto, K.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic ash soils (Andisols) have a unique dual porosity structure that results in good drainage and high soil- water retention. Despite of the complicated and highly developed soil structure, recent studies have reported a simple, highly linear relation between the soil-gas diffusion coefficient, Dp, and the soil-air content, ɛ, for several Japanese Andisols. In this study, we explain the linear Dp(ɛ) behavior from the effects of the inter- and intra-aggregate pore-size distributions. We couple the bimodal van Genuchten soil-water retention model with a general Dp(ɛ) model, ɛ^{X}, allowing the tortuosity- connectivity factor X to vary with pF (= log(-ψ; the soil-water matric potential in cm H2O)). Measured data suggest that the tortuosity-connectivity parameter X is at the minimum at pF 3 (where X ~ 2, following Buckingham, 1904), equal to the water retention point where a separation of inter- and intra-aggregate effects on Dp is observed. At pF < 3, the X values increased as pF decreased because of inactive/remote air-filled pore space entrapped by the inter-connected water films between inter-aggregate pore spaces. At pF > 3, X increased to a high value at very dry conditions due to remote air-filled space inside the intra-aggregate pores. By combining the complex dual porosity soil-water retention model with the power- law gas diffusivity model using a parabolic X(pF) function, the surprisingly simple linear behavior of Dp with ɛ was captured while the variation of Dp with pF followed a dual s-shaped curve similar to the water retention curve. A simple linear model to predict Dp(ɛ) is suggested, with slope C and threshold soil-air content, ɛth, calculated from the power-law model ɛ^{X} at pF 2 (near field capacity) and at pF 4.1 (near wilting point) using the same X value (= 2.3) at both pF in agreement with measured data. This linear Dp(ɛ) model performed better, especially at dry conditions, compared to the traditionally-used predictive models when

  2. Aggregation behavior of illite using light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Derrendinger, L.; Sposito, G.

    1995-12-01

    Stable environmental particles can be at the origin of facilitated transport of metals and organic compounds, especially contaminants. We investigated the destabilization (aggregation) kinetics of both a reference and a soil clay mineral: Imt-1 (Silver Hill) illite and Hanford soil illite, respectively. Dynamic and static light scattering was used to follow the aggregation kinetics and infer the structure of the resulting clusters. Kinetics curves showed exponential and power-law shapes, corresponding respectively to reaction-limited and diffusion-limited regimes. The fractal dimension of the clusters showed no observable change with the change of aggregation regime, its value always being between 2.10 and 2.25 ({plus_minus}0.12). The change in aggregation regime for Na-illite (or ccc) was measured to be 45 mol.m{sup -3}.

  3. Near-Limit Flamelet Phenomena in Buoyant Low Stretch Diffusion Flames Beneath a Solid Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Tien, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    A unique near-limit low stretch multidimensional stable flamelet phenomena has been observed for the first time which extends the material flammability limit beyond the one-dimensional low stretch flammability limit to lower burning rates and higher relative heat losses than is possible with uniform flame coverage. During low stretch experiments burning the underside of very large radii (greater than or = 75 cm stretch rate less than or = 3/s) cylindrical cast PMMA samples, multidimensional flamelets were observed, in contrast with a one-dimensional flame that was found to blanket the surface for smaller radii samples ( higher stretch rate). Flamelets were observed by decreasing the stretch rate or by increasing the conductive heat loss from the flame. Flamelets are defined as flames that cover only part of the burning sample at any given time, but persist for many minutes. Flamelet phenomena is viewed as the flame's method of enhancing oxygen flow to the flame, through oxygen transport into the edges of the flamelet. Flamelets form as heat losses (surface radiation and solid-phase conduction) become large relative to the weakened heat release of the low stretch flame. While heat loss rates remain fairly constant, the limiting factor in the heat release of the flame is hypothesized to be the oxygen transport to the flame in this low stretch (low convective) environment. Flamelet extinction is frequently caused by encroachment of an adjacent flamelet. Large-scale whole-body flamelet oscillations at 1.2 - 1.95 Hz are noted prior to extinction of a flamelet. This oscillation is believed to be due a repeated process of excess fuel leakage through the dark channels between the flamelets, fuel premixing with slow incoming oxidizer, and subsequent rapid flame spread and retreat of the flamelet through the premixed layer. The oscillation frequency is driven by gas-phase diffusive time scales.

  4. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2007-12-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau-neutrinos {nu}{sub {tau}} that interact in the Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {tau}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 is used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90 % C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2} dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}} < 1.3 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2 x 10{sup 17} eV < E{sub {nu}} < 2 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  5. Anatomical accuracy of brain connections derived from diffusion MRI tractography is inherently limited.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cibu; Ye, Frank Q; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Modi, Pooja; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Leopold, David A; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2014-11-18

    Tractography based on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is widely used for mapping the structural connections of the human brain. Its accuracy is known to be limited by technical factors affecting in vivo data acquisition, such as noise, artifacts, and data undersampling resulting from scan time constraints. It generally is assumed that improvements in data quality and implementation of sophisticated tractography methods will lead to increasingly accurate maps of human anatomical connections. However, assessing the anatomical accuracy of DWI tractography is difficult because of the lack of independent knowledge of the true anatomical connections in humans. Here we investigate the future prospects of DWI-based connectional imaging by applying advanced tractography methods to an ex vivo DWI dataset of the macaque brain. The results of different tractography methods were compared with maps of known axonal projections from previous tracer studies in the macaque. Despite the exceptional quality of the DWI data, none of the methods demonstrated high anatomical accuracy. The methods that showed the highest sensitivity showed the lowest specificity, and vice versa. Additionally, anatomical accuracy was highly dependent upon parameters of the tractography algorithm, with different optimal values for mapping different pathways. These results suggest that there is an inherent limitation in determining long-range anatomical projections based on voxel-averaged estimates of local fiber orientation obtained from DWI data that is unlikely to be overcome by improvements in data acquisition and analysis alone. PMID:25368179

  6. Energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates from a time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi; Zhong, Xinxin

    2014-06-07

    The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation.

  7. Diffusion in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion in disordered systems does not follow the classical laws which describe transport in ordered crystalline media, and this leads to many anomalous physical properties. Since the application of percolation theory, the main advances in the understanding of these processes have come from fractal theory. Scaling theories and numerical simulations are important tools to describe diffusion processes (random walks: the 'ant in the labyrinth') on percolation systems and fractals. Different types of disordered systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion are presented (the incipient infinite percolation cluster, diffusion-limited aggregation clusters, lattice animals, and random combs), and scaling theories as well as numerical simulations of greater sophistication are described. Also, diffusion in the presence of singular distributions of transition rates is discussed and related to anomalous diffusion on disordered structures.

  8. Implications of Aggregation and Mass Fractal Nature of Aggregates on the Properties of Organic Pigments and Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Nikhil; Beaucage, Gregory; Skillas, George; Jemian, Peter; Long, Gabrielle; Ilavsky, Jan; Clapp, Lisa; Schwartz, Russell

    2002-03-01

    Aggregation of organic pigments was studied by small and ultra-small angle x-ray scattering. The aggregation of organic pigments and the implications for optical properties has not been previously reported in the literature, although extensive literature of this type exists for inorganic pigments such as titanium oxide. The pigments were also inspected for primary particle-size by electron microscopy and aggregate size by light scattering. All the pigments exhibited mass-fractal behavior when mixed into various polymers. Some pigments exhibited mass-fractal behavior even in powder form. The scattering patterns reflected differences in mass fractal dimension and particle size. The mass fractal dimension and the size of the aggregates in the polymer depend on the chemical nature of the pigment, the size and strength of the primary particle, the surface characteristics of the pigment, the interaction between the pigment and the polymer and the type of polymer used. A relation between the aggregate size and optimal optical properties is proposed. Aggregates having size around 0.5 microns show best optical properties and hence the pigment aggregate growth needs to be controlled during processing. The processes of aggregation were examined for these pigments. Some of the pigments formed aggregates by a reaction limited aggregation process while others exhibited diffusion limited aggregation.

  9. Oxidation of nanoscale zero-valent iron under sufficient and limited dissolved oxygen: Influences on aggregation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danlie; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yin, Daqiang

    2015-03-01

    Oxidations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) under aerobic (dissolved oxygen≈8mgL(-1)) and anaerobic (dissolved oxygen <3mgL(-1)) conditions were simulated, and their influences on aggregation behaviors of nZVI were investigated. The two oxidation products were noted as HO-nZVI (nZVI oxidized in highly oxygenated water) and LO-nZVI (nZVI oxidized in lowly oxygenated water) respectively. The metallic iron of the oxidized nZVI was almost exhausted (Fe(0)≈8±5%), thus magnetization mainly depended on magnetite content. Since sufficient dissolved oxygen led to the much less magnetite (∼15%) in HO-nZVI than that in LO-nZVI (>90%), HO-nZVI was far less magnetic (Ms=88kAm(-1)) than LO-nZVI (Ms=365kAm(-1)). Consequently, HO-nZVI formed small agglomerates (228±10nm), while LO-nZVI tended to form chain-like aggregations (>1μm) which precipitated rapidly. Based on the EDLVO theory, we suggested that dissolved oxygen level determined aggregation morphologies by controlling the degree of oxidation and the magnitude of magnetization. Then the chain-like alignment of LO-nZVI would promote further aggregation, but the agglomerate morphology of HO-nZVI would eliminate magnetic forces and inhibit the aggregation while HO-nZVI remained magnetic. Our results indicated the fine colloidal stability of HO-nZVI, which might lead to the great mobility in the environment. PMID:25441925

  10. Identifying the limitations of conventional biofiltration of diffuse methane emissions at long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cuervo, S; Hernández, J; Omil, F

    2016-08-01

    There is growing international concern about the increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, particularly CO2 and methane. The emissions of methane derived from human activities are associated with large flows and very low concentrations, such as those emitted from landfills and wastewater treatment plants, among others. The present work was focused on the biological methane degradation at diffuse concentrations (0.2% vv(-1)) in a conventional biofilter using a mixture of compost, perlite and bark chips as carrier. An extensive characterization of the process was carried out at long-term operation (250 days) in a fully monitored pilot plant, achieving stable conditions during the entire period. Operational parameters such as waterings, nitrogen addition and inlet loads and contact time influences were evaluated. Obtained results indicate that empty bed residence times within 4-8 min are crucial to maximize elimination rates. Waterings and the type of nitrogen supplied in the nutrient solution (ammonia or nitrate) have a strong impact on the biofilter performance. The better results compatible with a stable operation were achieved using nitrate, with elimination capacities up to 7.6 ± 1.1 g CH4 m(-3 )h(-1). The operation at low inlet concentrations (IC) implied that removal rates obtained were quite limited (ranging 3-8 g CH4 m(-3 )h(-1)); however, these results could be significantly increased (up to 20.6 g CH4 m(-3) h(-1)) at higher IC, which indicates that the mass transfer from the gas to the liquid layer surrounding the biofilm is a key limitation of the process. PMID:26708417

  11. Sooting Limits Of Diffusion Flames With Oxygen-Enriched Air And Diluted Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Chao, B. H.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen-enhanced combustion permits certain benefits and flexibility that are not otherwise available in the design of practical combustors, as discussed by Baukal. The cost of pure and enriched oxygen has declined to the point that oxygen-enhanced combustion is preferable to combustion in air for many applications. Carbon sequestration is greatly facilitated by oxygen enrichment because nitrogen can be eliminated from the product stream. For example, when natural gas (or natural gas diluted with CO2) is burned in pure oxygen, the only significant products are water and CO2. Oxygen-enhanced combustion also has important implications for soot formation, as explored in this work. We propose that soot inception in nonpremixed flames requires a region where C/O ratio, temperature, and residence time are above certain critical values. Soot does not form at low temperatures, with the threshold in nonpremixed flames ranging from about 1250-1650 K, a temperature referred to here as the critical temperature for soot inception, Tc. Soot inception also can be suppressed when residence time is short (equivalently, when the strain rate in counterflow flames is high). Soot induction times of 0.8-15 ms were reported by Tesner and Shurupov for acetylene/nitrogen mixtures at 1473 K. Burner stabilized spherical microgravity flames are employed in this work for two main reasons. First, this configuration offers unrestricted control over convection direction. Second, in steady state these flames are strain-free and thus can yield intrinsic sooting limits in diffusion flames, similar to the way past work in premixed flames has provided intrinsic values of C/O ratio associated with soot inception limits.

  12. Mass fractionation of noble gases in diffusion-limited hydrodynamic hydrogen escape.

    PubMed

    Zahnle, K; Kasting, J F; Pollack, J B

    1990-01-01

    Mass fractionation by hydrodynamic hydrogen escape is a promising mechanism for explaining the observed elemental and isotopic abundance patterns in terrestrial planet atmospheres. Previous work has considered only pure hydrogen winds. Here, the theory of mass fractionation by hydrogen escape is extended to atmospheres in which hydrogen is not the only major constituent. Analytical solutions are derived for cases in which all relevant atmospheric constituents escape; both analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for cases in which important heavy constituents are retained. In either case the fractionation patterns that result can differ significantly from those produced by pure hydrogen winds. Three applications of the theory are discussed: (1) The observed fractionation of terrestrial atmospheric neon with respect to mantle neon can be explained as a by-product of diffusion-limited hydrogen escape from a steam atmosphere toward the end of accretion. (2) The anomalously high Martian (SNC) 38Ar/36Ar ratio is attributed to hydrodynamic fractionation by a vigorously escaping, nearly pure hydrogen wind. (3) It is possible that the present high Martian D/H ratio was established during the same hydrodynamic escape phase that fractionated argon, but the predicted degree of D/H enrichment is sensitive to other, less well constrained parameters. PMID:11538474

  13. Unifying binary fluid diffuse-interface models in the sharp-interface limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, David; Nold, Andreas; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-11-01

    Flows involving free boundaries occur widely in both nature and technological applications, existing at liquid-gas interfaces (e.g. between liquid water and water vapour) or between different immiscible fluids (e.g. oil and water, and termed a binary fluid). To understand the asymptotic behaviour near a contact line, a liquid-gas diffuse-interface model has been investigated recently. In contrast, here we investigate the behaviour between two ostensibly immiscible fluids, a binary fluid, using related models where the interface has a thin but finite thickness. Quantities such as the mass fraction of the two fluid components are modelled as varying smoothly but rapidly in the interfacial region. There has been a wide variety of models used for this situation, based on Cahn-Hilliard or Allen-Cahn theories coupled to hydrodynamic equations, and we consider the effect of these differences using matched asymptotic methods in the important sharp-interface limit, where the interface thickness goes to zero. Our aim is to understand which models represent better the classical hydrodynamic model and associated free-surface boundary conditions.

  14. Evidence that diffusion limitation determines oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Koike, A; Wasserman, K; McKenzie, D K; Zanconato, S; Weiler-Ravell, D

    1990-01-01

    To determine the role of arterial O2 content on the mechanism of muscle O2 utilization, we studied the effect of 2, 11, and 20% carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on O2 uptake (VO2), and CO2 output (VCO2) kinetics in response to 6 min of constant moderate- and heavy-intensity cycle exercise in 10 subjects. Increased COHb did not affect resting heart rate, VO2 or VCO2. Also, the COHb did not affect the asymptotic VO2 in response to exercise. However, VO2 and VCO2 kinetics were affected differently. The time constant (TC) of VO2 significantly increased with increased COHb for both moderate and heavy work intensities. VO2 TC was positively correlated with blood lactate. In contrast, VCO2 TC was negatively correlated with increased COHb for the moderate but unchanged for the heavy work intensity. The gas exchange ratio reflected a smaller increase in CO2 stores and faster VCO2 kinetics relative to VO2 with increased COHb. These changes can be explained by compensatory cardiac output (heart rate) increase in response to reduced arterial O2 content. The selective slowing of VO2 kinetics, with decreased blood O2 content and increased cardiac output, suggests that O2 is diffusion limited at the levels of exercise studied. PMID:2122982

  15. Understanding Limitations in the Determination of the Diffuse Galactic Gamma-ray Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Digel, S.W.; Porter, T.A.; Reimer, O.; Strong, A.W.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

    2006-10-03

    We discuss uncertainties and possible sources of errors associated with the determination of the diffuse Galactic {gamma}-ray emission using the EGRET data. Most of the issues will be relevant also in the GLAST era. The focus here is on issues that impact evaluation of dark matter annihilation signals against the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission of the Milky Way.

  16. Fractal dimension and mechanism of aggregation of apple juice particles.

    PubMed

    Benítez, E I; Lozano, J E; Genovese, D B

    2010-04-01

    Turbidity of freshly squeezed apple juice is produced by a polydisperse suspension of particles coming from the cellular tissue. After precipitation of coarse particles by gravity, only fine-colloidal particles remain in suspension. Aggregation of colloidal particles leads to the formation of fractal structures. The fractal dimension is a measure of the internal density of these aggregates and depends on their mechanism of aggregation. Digitized images of primary particles and aggregates of depectinized, diafiltered cloudy apple juice were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average radius of the primary particles was found to be a = 40 ± 11 nm. Maximum radius of the aggregates, R(L), ranged between 250 and 7750 nm. Fractal dimension of the aggregates was determined by analyzing SEM images with the variogram method, obtaining an average value of D(f) = 2.3 ± 0.1. This value is typical of aggregates formed by rapid flocculation or diffusion limited aggregation. Diafiltration process was found to reduce the average size and polydispersity of the aggregates, determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Average gyration radius of the aggregates before juice diafiltration was found to be R(g) = 629 ± 87 nm. Average number of primary particles per aggregate was calculated to be N = 1174. PMID:21339133

  17. Observed Limits on Charge Exchange Contributions to the Diffuse X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, S. G.; Barger, K. A.; Brandl, D. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Pfendner, C. G.; Porter, F. S.; Rocks, L.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Teplin, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-resolution spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background from 0.1 to 1 keV for an approximately 1 sr region of the sky centered at l = 90 degrees b = +60 degrees using a 36 pixel array of microcalorimeters flown on a sounding rocket. With an energy resolution of 11 eV FWHM below 1 keV, the spectrum s observed line ratios help separate charge exchange contributions originating within the heliosphere from thermal emission of hot gas in the interstellar medium. The X-ray sensitivity below 1 keV was reduced by about a factor of four from contamination that occurred early in the flight, limiting the significance of the results. The observed centroid of helium-like O VII is 568 (sup +2 (sub -3) eV at 90% confidence. Since the centroid expected for thermal emission is 568.4 eV and for charge exchange is 564.2 eV, thermal emission appears to dominate for this line complex. The dominance of thermal emission is consistent with much of the high-latitude O VII emission originating in 2-3 x 10(exp 6) K gas in the Galactic halo. On the other hand, the observed ratio of C VI Lygamma to Lyalpha is 0.3 plus or minus 0.2. The expected ratios are 0.04 for thermal emission and 0.24 for charge exchange, indicating that charge exchange must contribute strongly to this line and therefore potentially to the rest of the ROSAT R12 band usually associated with 10(sup 6) K emission from the Local Hot Bubble. The limited statistics of this experiment and systematic uncertainties due to the contamination require only greater than 32% thermal emission for O VII and greater than 20% from charge exchange for C VI at the 90% confidence level. An experimental gold coating on the silicon substrate of the array greatly reduced extraneous signals induced on nearby pixels from cosmic rays passing through the substrate, reducing the triggered event rate by a factor of 15 from a previous flight of the instrument.

  18. Global well-posedness and zero diffusion limit of classical solutions to 3D conservation laws arising in chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongyun; Wen, Huanyao; Zhu, Changjiang

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we study the existence of global classical solutions and the vanishing diffusion limit of a 3D conservation laws derived from the well-known Keller-Segel model. First, we establish the global well-posedness of classical solutions to the Cauchy problem for the model with smooth initial data which is of small L 2 norm, together with some a priori estimates uniform for t and . Then, we investigate the zero diffusion limit and get the global well-posedness of classical solutions to the Cauchy problem for the non-diffusive model. Finally, we derive the convergence rate of the model toward the non-diffusive model. It is shown that the convergence rate in L ∞ norm is of the order . It should be noted that the initial data are small in L 2-norm but can be of large oscillations with constant state at far field. As a byproduct, we improve the corresponding result on the well-posedness of the non-diffusive model which requires small oscillations.

  19. Diffusion-limited Kinetic Pathway for Hydrogen Release from LiNH2/LiH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolih, Biljana; Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2011-03-01

    From experimental work on decomposition of hydrogen storage materials it has been suggested that bulk diffusion of metal species is the bottleneck for hydrogen release. In this work we study the underlying mechanism for diffusion reactions in the dehydrogenation of Li NH2 . Using first-principle, density functional theory methods we have calculated concentration gradients and diffusivities of neutral and charged defects in Li NH2 and Li 2 NH phases. The overall activation energy is obtained from these calculations. The calculated activation energies are found to agree well with experimental work on the kinetics of Li NH2 decomposition, suggesting that diffusion of metal species is a possible method for dehydrogenation of Lithium Amide.

  20. Subdiffraction-Limit Study of Kaede Diffusion and Spatial Distribution in Live Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Somenath; Bratton, Benjamin P.; Weisshaar, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) is used to study the spatial distribution and diffusion of single copies of the protein Kaede in the cytoplasm of live Escherichia coli under moderate growth conditions (67 min doubling time). The spatial distribution of Kaede is uniform within the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic radius of 380 ± 30 nm varies little from cell to cell. Single-particle tracking using 4 ms exposure times reveals negatively curved plots of mean-square displacement versus time. A detailed comparison with Monte Carlo simulations in a spherocylindrical volume shows that the curvature can be quantitatively understood in terms of free diffusion within a confining volume. The mean diffusion coefficient across cells is  = 7.3 ± 1.1 μm2·s−1, consistent with a homotetrameric form of Kaede. The distribution of squared displacements along the long axis for individual Kaede molecules is consistent with homogeneous diffusion. However, for longer cells, a spatial map of one-step estimates of the diffusion coefficient along x suggests that diffusion is ∼20–40% faster within nucleoids than in the ribosome-rich region lying between nucleoid lobes at the cell mid-plane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yielded  = 8.3 ± 1.6 μm2·s−1, in agreement with the single-particle tracking results. PMID:22098753

  1. Calculation of diffusion-limited kinetics for the reactions in collision coupling and receptor cross-linking.

    PubMed Central

    Shea, L D; Omann, G M; Linderman, J J

    1997-01-01

    Both enzyme (e.g., G-protein) activation via a collision coupling model and the formation of cross-linked receptors by a multivalent ligand involve reactions between two molecules diffusing in the plasma membrane. The diffusion of these molecules is thought to play a critical role in these two early signal transduction events. In reduced dimensions, however, diffusion is not an effective mixing mechanism; consequently, zones in which the concentration of particular molecules (e.g., enzymes, receptors) becomes depleted or enriched may form. To examine the formation of these depletion/ accumulation zones and their effect on reaction rates and ultimately the cellular response, Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the reaction and diffusion of molecules in the plasma membrane. The effective reaction rate at steady state is determined in terms of the physical properties of the tissue and ligand for both enzyme activation via collision coupling and the generation of cross-linked receptors. The diffusion-limited reaction rate constant is shown to scale with the mean square displacement of a receptor-ligand complex. The rate constants determined in the simulation are compared with other theoretical predictions as well as experimental data. PMID:9414209

  2. Estimating diffusivity along a reaction coordinate in the high friction limit: Insights on pulse times in laser-induced nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, Brandon C.; Duff, Nathan; Doherty, Michael F.; Peters, Baron

    2009-12-01

    In the high friction limit of Kramers' theory, the diffusion coefficient for motion along the reaction coordinate is a crucial parameter in determining reaction rates from mean first passage times. The Einstein relation between mean squared displacement, time, and diffusivity is inaccurate at short times because of ballistic motion and inaccurate at long times because trajectories drift away from maxima in the potential of mean force. Starting from the Smoluchowski equation for a downward parabolic barrier, we show how drift induced by the potential of mean force can be included in estimating the diffusivity. A modified relation between mean squared displacement, time, and diffusivity now also includes a dependence on the barrier curvature. The new relation provides the diffusivity at the top of the barrier from a linear regression that is analogous to the procedure commonly used with Einstein's relation. The new approach has particular advantages over previous approaches when evaluations of the reaction coordinate are costly or when the reaction coordinate cannot be differentiated to compute restraining forces or velocities. We use the new method to study the dynamics of barrier crossing in a Potts lattice gas model of nucleation from solution. Our analysis shows that some current hypotheses about laser-induced nucleation mechanisms lead to a nonzero threshold laser pulse duration below which a laser pulse will not affect nucleation. We therefore propose experiments that might be used to test these hypotheses.

  3. From static micrographs to particle aggregation dynamics in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Häbel, H; Särkkä, A; Rudemo, M; Hamngren Blomqvist, C; Olsson, E; Abrahamsson, C; Nordin, M

    2016-04-01

    Studies on colloidal aggregation have brought forth theories on stability of colloidal gels and models for aggregation dynamics. Still, a complete link between developed frameworks and obtained laboratory observations has to be found. In this work, aggregates of silica nanoparticles (20 nm) are studied using diffusion limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) and reaction limited cluster aggregation (RLCA) models. These processes are driven by the probability of particles to aggregate upon collision. This probability of aggregation is one in the DLCA and close to zero in the RLCA process. We show how to study the probability of aggregation from static micrographs on the example of a silica nanoparticle gel at 9 wt%. The analysis includes common summary functions from spatial statistics, namely the empty space function and Ripley's K-function, as well as two newly developed summary functions for cluster analysis based on graph theory. One of the new cluster analysis functions is related to the clustering coefficient in communication networks and the other to the size of a cluster. All four topological summary statistics are used to quantitatively compare in plots and in a least-square approach experimental data to cluster aggregation simulations with decreasing probabilities of aggregation. We study scanning transmission electron micrographs and utilize the intensity - mass thickness relation present in such images to create comparable micrographs from three-dimensional simulations. Finally, a characterization of colloidal silica aggregates and simulated structures is obtained, which allows for an evaluation of the cluster aggregation process for different aggregation scenarios. As a result, we find that the RLCA process fits the experimental data better than the DLCA process. PMID:26584453

  4. Chain Dynamics in Single Chain Limit by Rheological and Diffusion Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Wang, Shanfeng

    2004-03-01

    Our recent trace and self diffusion measurements , indicate (a) (b) that the molecular weight scaling of the self-diffusion coefficient is non-reptative for moderately entangled polymer melts as noted previously (c) but asymptotically approaches the reptative exponent of -2.0 for sufficiently entangled polymers, whereas the trace diffusion coefficient, measured by immersing a dilute amount of probe chains in a matrix of sufficiently entangled polymer of the same species, scales reptatively even for the probe chains of moderate entanglement. To further understand the behavior of probe chain dynamics in a matrix, we have measured the intrinsic viscosity and intrinsic storage and loss moduli of dilute solutions made of long chains (in dilution) and short chains, where both chain lengths can be much longer than the entanglement chain length. A rich variety of chain dynamics is observed including Stokes-Zimm behavior and Rouse like behavior as a function of the long and short chain lengths and concentration. (a) S.Q. Wang, Highlight Article, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys., 41, 1589 (2003). (b) "Diffusion and Rheology of Binary Polymer Mixtures", S. Wang et al, Macromolecules, in press (2003). (c) T.P. Lodge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3218 (1999).

  5. Energetic electrons at Uranus: Bimodal diffusion in a satellite limited radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Selesnick, R.S.; Stone, E.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The Voyager 2 cosmic ray experiment observed intense electron fluxes in the middle magnetosphere of Uranus. High counting rates in several of the solid-state detectors precluded in the normal multiple coincidence analysis used for cosmic ray observations, and the authors have therefore performed laboratory measurements of the single-detector response to electrons. These calibrations allow a deconvolution from the counting rate data of the electron energy spectrum between energies of about 0.7 and 2.5 MeV. They present model fits to the differential intensity spectra from observations between L values of 6 and 15. The spectra are well represented by power laws in kinetic energy with spectral indices between 5 and 7. The phase space density at fixed values of the first two adiabatic invariants generally increases with L, indicative of an external source. However, there are also local minima associated with the satellites Ariel and Umbriel, indicating either a local source or an effective source due to nonconservation of the first two adiabatic invariants. For electrons which mirror at the highest magnetic latitudes, the local minimum associated with Ariel is radically displaced from the minimum L of that satellite by {approximately}0.5. The latitude variation of the satellite absorption efficiency predicts that if satellite losses are replenished primarily by radial diffusion there should be an increasing pitch angle anisotropy with decreasing L. The uniformity in the observed anisotropy outside the absorption regions then suggests that it is maintained by pitch angle diffusion. The effective source due to pitch angle diffusion is insufficient to cause the phase space density minimum associated with Ariel. Model solutions of the simultaneous radial and pitch angle diffusion equation show that the displacement of the high-latitude Ariel signature is also consistent with a larger effective source.

  6. Limits of applicability of the “diffusion-controlled product growth” kinetic approach to modeling SHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khina, B. B.; Formanek, B.; Solpan, I.

    2005-01-01

    In modeling SHS in condensed systems, it is typically considered that a solid and a liquid reactant (a molten metal) are separated by a solid product interlayer, and diffusion in this layer is the rate-controlling stage (a “solid-solid-liquid mechanism”). However, in most cases modeling is performed not with real diffusion data (activation energy E and preexponent D0) for the product phase but with fitting parameters which are chosen to match the calculated and measured thermal characteristics of the SHS wave. In this work, a system of kinetic, thermodynamic and structural estimates is developed for evaluating the validity of this approach for particular SHS systems/conditions using available experimental data on both diffusion in the product phase and characteristics of the SHS wave. A classical Ti-C system is chosen as an example. Change in geometry of a unit reaction cell due to melting and spreading of the metallic reactant is taken into account, and different situations arising within this concept are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the “diffusion-controlled growth” kinetics is not applicable to SHS of interstitial compounds in the wave propagation regime because it cannot provide sufficient heat release for sustaining SHS and the final product structure will disagree with experimental data known in literature. As an alternative, a “solid-liquid mechanism” of phase formation during SHS is grounded, which implies a direct contact of a metallic melt with a solid reactant. A micromechanistic criterion for a changeover of these interaction routes is obtained, which is important for SHS in the thermal explosion mode.

  7. Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 CAI: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.

    1993-01-01

    Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of CAI. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 CAI from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 CAIs, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.

  8. A Risk Based Approach to Limit the Effects of Covert Channels for Internet Sensor Data Aggregators for Sensor Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viecco, Camilo H.; Camp, L. Jean

    Effective defense against Internet threats requires data on global real time network status. Internet sensor networks provide such real time network data. However, an organization that participates in a sensor network risks providing a covert channel to attackers if that organization’s sensor can be identified. While there is benefit for every party when any individual participates in such sensor deployments, there are perverse incentives against individual participation. As a result, Internet sensor networks currently provide limited data. Ensuring anonymity of individual sensors can decrease the risk of participating in a sensor network without limiting data provision.

  9. Conflation and aggregation of spatial data improve predictive models for species with limited habitats: a case of the threatened yellow-billed cuckoo in Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; Van Riper, Charles, III; Petrakis, Roy E.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian vegetation provides important wildlife habitat in the Southwestern United States, but limited distributions and spatial complexity often leads to inaccurate representation in maps used to guide conservation. We test the use of data conflation and aggregation on multiple vegetation/land-cover maps to improve the accuracy of habitat models for the threatened western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis). We used species observations (n = 479) from a state-wide survey to develop habitat models from 1) three vegetation/land-cover maps produced at different geographic scales ranging from state to national, and 2) new aggregate maps defined by the spatial agreement of cover types, which were defined as high (agreement = all data sets), moderate (agreement ≥ 2), and low (no agreement required). Model accuracies, predicted habitat locations, and total area of predicted habitat varied considerably, illustrating the effects of input data quality on habitat predictions and resulting potential impacts on conservation planning. Habitat models based on aggregated and conflated data were more accurate and had higher model sensitivity than original vegetation/land-cover, but this accuracy came at the cost of reduced geographic extent of predicted habitat. Using the highest performing models, we assessed cuckoo habitat preference and distribution in Arizona and found that major watersheds containing high-probably habitat are fragmented by a wide swath of low-probability habitat. Focus on riparian restoration in these areas could provide more breeding habitat for the threatened cuckoo, offset potential future habitat losses in adjacent watershed, and increase regional connectivity for other threatened vertebrates that also use riparian corridors.

  10. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2015-01-01

    Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care. PMID:26055180

  11. On the asymptotic preserving property of the unified gas kinetic scheme for the diffusion limit of linear kinetic models

    SciTech Connect

    Mieussens, Luc

    2013-11-15

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) of K. Xu et al. (2010) [37], originally developed for multiscale gas dynamics problems, is applied in this paper to a linear kinetic model of radiative transfer theory. While such problems exhibit purely diffusive behavior in the optically thick (or small Knudsen) regime, we prove that UGKS is still asymptotic preserving (AP) in this regime, but for the free transport regime as well. Moreover, this scheme is modified to include a time implicit discretization of the limit diffusion equation, and to correctly capture the solution in case of boundary layers. Contrary to many AP schemes, this method is based on a standard finite volume approach, it does neither use any decomposition of the solution, nor staggered grids. Several numerical tests demonstrate the properties of the scheme.

  12. Advantages and limitations of the synchrotron based transmission X-ray microscopy in the study of the clay aggregate structure in aqueous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zbik, Marek S; Frost, Ray L; Song, Yen-Fang

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports new application of new transmission X-ray microscopy powered by a synchrotron source for the study of aqueous based clay suspensions. This paper delineates the advantages and limitations of this method. The tested transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) technique has shown good agreement with the cryo-stage SEM technique. The spacial resolution of this TXM technique is 60 nm and clay particles with diameter below 500 nm are clearly visible and their pseudohexagonal symmetry is recognizable in detail. It is clearly demonstrated the methodology of implementing TXM to study aqueous based clay suspensions that are close to approximately 60 nm tomographic resolution. The technique enables us to study discrete structure of clay suspensions in water and within aggregates. This has never been previously possible. Larger crystals, more compact aggregates and less colloidal fraction present in kaolinite from Georgia has impact on faster settling and gelling in denser suspension than for Birdwood kaolinite in which colloidal particles create gel-like networking in less dense aqueous suspension. PMID:18067907

  13. Scattering and propagation of terahertz pulses in random soot aggregate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Ying; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Bai, Lu; Li, Zheng-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Scattering and propagation of terahertz pulses in random soot aggregate systems are studied by using the generalized multi-particle Mie-solution (GMM) and the pulse propagation theory. Soot aggregates are obtained by the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. For a soot aggregate in soot aggregate systems, scattering characteristics are analyzed by using the GMM. Scattering intensities versus scattering angles are given. The effects of different positions of the aggregate on the scattering intensities, scattering cross sections, extinction cross sections, and absorption cross sections are computed and compared. Based on pulse propagation in random media, the transmission of terahertz pulses in random soot aggregate systems is determined by the two-frequency mutual coherence function. Numerical simulations and analysis are given for terahertz pulses (0.7956 THz).

  14. Anomalous kinetics in diffusion limited reactions linked to non-Gaussian concentration probability distribution function.

    PubMed

    de Anna, Pietro; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Dentz, Marco; Bolster, Diogo; Davy, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    We investigate anomalous reaction kinetics related to segregation in the one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system A + B → C. It is well known that spatial fluctuations in the species concentrations cause a breakdown of the mean-field behavior at low concentration values. The scaling of the average concentration with time changes from the mean-field t(-1) to the anomalous t(-1/4) behavior. Using a stochastic modeling approach, the reaction-diffusion system can be fully characterized by the multi-point probability distribution function (PDF) of the species concentrations. Its evolution is governed by a Fokker-Planck equation with moving boundaries, which are determined by the positivity of the species concentrations. The concentration PDF is in general non-Gaussian. As long as the concentration fluctuations are small compared to the mean, the PDF can be approximated by a Gaussian distribution. This behavior breaks down in the fluctuation dominated regime, for which anomalous reaction kinetics are observed. We show that the transition from mean field to anomalous reaction kinetics is intimately linked to the evolution of the concentration PDF from a Gaussian to non-Gaussian shape. This establishes a direct relationship between anomalous reaction kinetics, incomplete mixing and the non-Gaussian nature of the concentration PDF. PMID:22070289

  15. Aggregate fractal dimensions and thermal conduction in nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism producing enhanced thermal conductivities of nanofluids has been the subject of much debate. The formation of aggregates allowing for percolation paths within the fluid has shown the most promise. This work studies the aggregate formation of a nanofluid and compares the results to earlier thermal conductivity measurements and Monte Carlo simulation results. Static light scattering is employed to measure the fractal dimension of aggregates formed in the nanofluid over time at various temperatures and concentrations. As expected, aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Predictions indicate that as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8.

  16. Basin infilling of a schematic 1D estuary using two different approaches: an aggregate diffusive type model and a processed based model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laginha Silva, Patricia; Martins, Flávio A.; Boski, Tomász; Sampath, Dissanayake M. R.

    2010-05-01

    processes. In this viewpoint the system is broken down into its fundamental components and processes and the model is build up by selecting the important processes regardless of its time and space scale. This viewpoint was only possible to pursue in the recent years due to improvement in system knowledge and computer power (Paola, 2000). The primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed, traditionally studied with synthetic models, with a process-based hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphodynamic model, solving explicitly the mass and momentum conservation equations. With this objective, a comparison between two mathematical models for alluvial rivers is made to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed of a conceptual 1D embayment for periods in the order of a thousand years: the traditional synthetic basin infilling aggregate diffusive type model based on the diffusion equation (Paola, 2000), used in the "synthesist" viewpoint and the process-based model MOHID (Miranda et al., 2000). The simulation of the sediment river bed evolution achieved by the process-based model MOHID is very similar to those obtained by the diffusive type model, but more complete due to the complexity of the process-based model. In the MOHID results it is possible to observe a more comprehensive and realistic results because this type of model include processes that is impossible to a synthetic model to describe. At last the combined effect of tide, sea level rise and river discharges was investigated in the process based model. These effects cannot be simulated using the diffusive type model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using process based models to perform studies in scales of 10000 years. This is an advance relative to the use of synthetic models, enabling the use of variable forcing. REFERENCES • Briggs, L.I. and Pollack, H.N., 1967. Digital model of evaporate sedimentation. Science, 155, 453

  17. Light-Scattering Study of Petroleum Asphaltene Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burya, Yevgeniy G.; Yudin, Igor K.; Dechabo, Victor A.; Kosov, Victor I.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2001-08-01

    Dynamic light scattering with an original optical scheme has been used for the investigation of opaque (strongly light-absorbing) asphaltene colloids in crude oils and hydrocarbon mixtures. Diffusion-limited aggregation and reaction-limited aggregation as well as a crossover between these two regimes have been observed. A simple interpolation for the crossover kinetics is proposed. Asphaltene colloidal structures, originally persisting in crude oils, have been detected. Addition of a precipitant above a threshold induces asphaltene aggregation. Depending on the nature of the precipitant, different crude oils respond differently on its addition: (a) exponential-in-time growth of aggregates to huge flocks or (b) fast formation of stable-in-size particles.

  18. Combustion rate limits of hydrogen plus hydrocarbon fuel: Air diffusion flames from an opposed jet burner technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Reeves, Ronald N.; Northam, G. Burton

    1987-01-01

    Combustion of H2/hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures may be considered in certain volume-limited supersonic airbreathing propulsion applications. Effects of HC addition to H2 were evaluated, using a recent argon-bathed, coaxial, tubular opposed jet burner (OJB) technique to measure the extinction limits of counterflow diffusion flames. The OJB flames were formed by a laminar jet of (N2 and/or HC)-diluted H2 mixture opposed by a similar jet of air at ambient conditions. The OJB data, derived from respective binary mixtures of H2 and methane, ethylene, or propane HCs, were used to characterize BLOWOFF and RESTORE. BLOWOFF is a sudden breaking of the dish-shaped OJB flame to a stable torus or ring shape, and RESTORE marks sudden restoration of the central flame by radial inward flame propagation. BLOWOFF is a measure of kinetically-limited flame reactivity/speed under highly stretched, but relatively ideal impingement flow conditions. RESTORE measures inward radial flame propagation rate, which is sensitive to ignition processes in the cool central core. It is concluded that relatively small molar amounts of added HC greatly reduce the reactivity characteristics of counterflow hydrogen-air diffusion flames, for ambient initial conditions.

  19. Electrokinetics of diffuse soft interfaces. 1. Limit of low Donnan potentials.

    PubMed

    Duval, Jérôme F L; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2004-11-01

    The current theoretical approaches to electrokinetics of gels or polyelectrolyte layers are based on the assumption that the position of the very interface between the aqueous medium and the gel phase is well defined. Within this assumption, spatial profiles for the volume fraction of polymer segments (phi), the density of fixed charges in the porous layer (rho fix), and the coefficient modeling the friction to hydrodynamic flow (k) follow a step-function. In reality, the "fuzzy" nature of the charged soft layer is intrinsically incompatible with the concept of a sharp interface and therefore necessarily calls for more detailed spatial representations for phi, rho fix, and k. In this paper, the notion of diffuse interface is introduced. For the sake of illustration, linear spatial distributions for phi and rho fix are considered in the interfacial zone between the bulk of the porous charged layer and the bulk electrolyte solution. The corresponding distribution for k is inferred from the Brinkman equation, which for low phi reduces to Stokes' equation. Linear electrostatics, hydrodynamics, and electroosmosis issues are analytically solved within the context of streaming current and streaming potential of charged surface layers in a thin-layer cell. The hydrodynamic analysis clearly demonstrates the physical incorrectness of the concept of a discrete slip plane for diffuse interfaces. For moderate to low electrolyte concentrations and nanoscale spatial transition of phi from zero (bulk electrolyte) to phi o (bulk gel), the electrokinetic properties of the soft layer as predicted by the theory considerably deviate from those calculated on the basis of the discontinuous approximation by Ohshima. PMID:15518532

  20. Secular diffusion in discrete self-gravitating tepid discs. I. Analytic solution in the tightly wound limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouvry, J. B.; Pichon, C.; Chavanis, P. H.

    2015-09-01

    The secular evolution of an infinitely thin tepid isolated galactic disc made of a finite number of particles is described using the inhomogeneous Balescu-Lenard equation. Assuming that only tightly wound transient spirals are present in the disc, a WKB approximation provides a simple and tractable quadrature for the corresponding drift and diffusion coefficients. It provides insight into the physical processes at work during the secular diffusion of a self-gravitating discrete disc and makes quantitative predictions on the initial variations of the distribution function in action space. When applied to the secular evolution of an isolated stationary self-gravitating Mestel disc, this formalism predicts the initial importance of the corotation resonance in the inner regions of the disc leading to a regime involving radial migration and heating. It predicts in particular the formation of a ridge-like feature in action space, in agreement with simulations, but over-estimates the timescale involved in its appearance. Swing amplification is likely needed to resolve this discrepancy. In astrophysics, the inhomogeneous Balescu-Lenard equation and its WKB limit may also describe the secular diffusion of giant molecular clouds in galactic discs, the secular migration and segregation of planetesimals in proto-planetary discs, or even the long-term evolution of population of stars within the Galactic centre. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Ion-specific aggregation of hydrophobic particles.

    PubMed

    López-León, Teresa; Ortega-Vinuesa, Juan Luis; Bastos-González, Delfina

    2012-06-18

    This work shows that colloidal stability and aggregation kinetics of hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) nanospheres are extremely sensitive to the nature of the salt used to coagulate them. Three PS latices and four aggregating electrolytes, which all share the same cation (Na(+)) but have various anions located at different positions in the classical Hofmeister series depending on their kosmotropic or chaotropic character, are used. The present study focuses on analyzing different aggregating parameters, such as critical coagulation concentrations (CCC), cluster size distributions (CSD), initial kinetic constants K(11), and fractal dimensions of the aggregates d(f). While aggregation induced by SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-) behaved according to the predictions of the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, important discrepancies are found with NO(3)(-), which become dramatic when using SCN(-). These discrepancies among the anions were far more significant when they acted as counterions rather than as co-ions. While SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-) trigger fast diffusion-limited aggregation, SCN(-) gives rise to a stationary cluster size distribution in a few aggregation times when working with cationic PS particles. Clear differences are found among all analyzed parameters (CCC, CSD, K(11), and d(f)), and the experimental findings show that particles aggregate in potential wells whose depth is controlled by the chaotropic character of the anion. This paper presents new experimental evidence that may help to understand the microscopic origin of Hofmeister effects, as the observations are consistent with appealing theoretical models developed in the last few years. PMID:22556130

  2. CD79B limits response of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Won Seog; Ryu, Kyungju; Kim, Seok Jin; Park, Chaehwa

    2016-06-01

    Blockage of B cell receptor signaling with ibrutinib presents a promising clinical approach for treatment of B-cell malignancies. However, many patients show primary resistance to the drug or develop secondary resistance. In the current study, cDNA microarray and Western blot analyses revealed CD79B upregulation in the activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) that display differential resistance to ibrutinib. CD79B overexpression was sufficient to induce resistance to ibrutinib and enhanced AKT and MAPK activation, indicative of an alternative mechanism underlying resistance. Conversely, depletion of CD79B sensitized primary refractory cells to ibrutinib and led to reduced phosphorylation of AKT or MAPK. Combination of the AKT inhibitor or the MAPK inhibitor with ibrutinib resulted in circumvention of both primary and acquired resistance in ABC-DLBCL. Our data collectively indicate that CD79B overexpression leading to activation of AKT/MAPK is a potential mechanism underlying primary ibrutinib resistance in ABC-DLBCL, and support its utility as an effective biomarker to predict therapeutic response to ibrutinib. PMID:26699656

  3. Acoustic phonon-limited diffusion thermopower in monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, S. B.; Sankeshwar, N. S. Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2015-06-24

    Diffusion thermopower S{sub d} is investigated, theoretically, as a function of temperature, T and electron concentration, n{sub s} in a n-type monolayer molebdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}). Electron scattering due to unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling of TA phonons, screened DP coupling of LA phonons, and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling of LA and TA phonons is considered. Total S{sub d} is dominated by electron scattering by TA phonons via unscreened DP coupling. S{sub d} is found to increase (decrease) with increasing T (n{sub s}). At low T and for high n{sub s}, S{sub d} ∼ T and n{sub s}{sup −1} as found from the Mott formula. At a given T and for given ns, S{sub d} in MoS{sub 2} is much larger than that in GaAs, due to the larger electron effective mass in the former.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Crystal: Defect Effect Uncovered by 0 K Limit Phonon Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Zaoli; Cheng, Zhe; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-12-16

    Crystalline ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has the highest reported thermal conductivity at room temperature: 104 W/(m·K), while theoretical predictions proposed an even higher value of 300 W/(m·K). Defects and amorphous fraction in practical UHMWPE fibers significantly reduces the thermal conductivity from the ideal value. Although the amorphous effect can be readily analyzed based on the effective medium theory, the defect effects are poorly understood. This work reports on the temperature-dependent behavior (down to 22 K) of thermal diffusivity and conductivity of UHMWPE fibers in anticipation of observing the reduction in phonon density and scattering rate against temperature and of freezing out high-momentum phonons to clearly observe the defect effects. By studying the temperature-dependent behavior of thermal reffusivity (Θ, inverse of thermal diffusivity) of UHMWPE fibers, we are able to quantify the defect effects on thermal conductivity. After taking out the amorphous region's effect, the residual thermal reffusivities (Θ0) for the studied two samples at the 0 K limit are determined as 3.45 × 10(4) and 2.95 × 10(4) s/m(2), respectively. For rare-/no-defects crystalline materials, Θ0 should be close to zero at the 0 K limit. The defect-induced low-momentum phonon mean free paths are determined as 8.06 and 9.42 nm for the two samples. They are smaller than the crystallite size in the (002) direction (19.7 nm) determined by X-ray diffraction. This strongly demonstrates the diffuse phonon scattering at the grain boundaries. The grain boundary thermal conductance (G) can be evaluated as G ≈ βρc(p)v with sound accuracy. At room temperature, G is around 3.73 GW/(m(2)·K) for S2, comparable to that of interfaces with tight atomic bonding. PMID:26593380

  5. The effect of solution nonideality on modeling transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited intracellular ice formation during cryopreservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gang; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; He, Xiaoming

    2014-04-01

    A new model was developed to predict transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited ice formation in cells during freezing without the ideal-solution assumption that has been used in previous models. The model was applied to predict cell dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF) during cryopreservation of mouse oocytes and bovine carotid artery endothelial cells in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with glycerol as the cryoprotectant or cryoprotective agent. A comparison of the predictions between the present model and the previously reported models indicated that the ideal-solution assumption results in under-prediction of the amount of intracellular ice at slow cooling rates (<50 K/min). In addition, the lower critical cooling rates for IIF that is lethal to cells predicted by the present model were much lower than those estimated with the ideal-solution assumption. This study represents the first investigation on how accounting for solution nonideality in modeling water transport across the cell membrane could affect the prediction of diffusion-limited ice formation in biological cells during freezing. Future studies are warranted to look at other assumptions alongside nonideality to further develop the model as a useful tool for optimizing the protocol of cell cryopreservation for practical applications.

  6. The effect of solution nonideality on modeling transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited intracellular ice formation during cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gang; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; He, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    A new model was developed to predict transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited ice formation in cells during freezing without the ideal-solution assumption that has been used in previous models. The model was applied to predict cell dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF) during cryopreservation of mouse oocytes and bovine carotid artery endothelial cells in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with glycerol as the cryoprotectant or cryoprotective agent. A comparison of the predictions between the present model and the previously reported models indicated that the ideal-solution assumption results in under-prediction of the amount of intracellular ice at slow cooling rates (<50 K/min). In addition, the lower critical cooling rates for IIF that is lethal to cells predicted by the present model were much lower than those estimated with the ideal-solution assumption. This study represents the first investigation on how accounting for solution nonideality in modeling water transport across the cell membrane could affect the prediction of diffusion-limited ice formation in biological cells during freezing. Future studies are warranted to look at other assumptions alongside nonideality to further develop the model as a useful tool for optimizing the protocol of cell cryopreservation for practical applications. PMID:25316951

  7. Use of weak acids to determine the bulk diffusion limitation of H+ ion conductance through the gramicidin channel.

    PubMed Central

    Decker, E R; Levitt, D G

    1988-01-01

    The addition of 2 M formic acid at pH 3.75 increased the single channel H+ ion conductance of gramicidin channels 12-fold at 200 mV. Other weak acids (acetic, lactic, oxalic) produce a similar, but smaller increase. Formic acid (and other weak acids) also blocks the K+ conductance at pH 3.75, but not at pH 6.0 when the anion form predominates. This increased H+ conductance and K+ block can be explained by formic acid (HF) binding to the mouth of the gramicidin channel (Km = 1 M) and providing a source of H+ ions. A kinetic model is derived, based on the equilibrium binding of formic acid to the channel mouth, that quantitatively predicts the conductance for different mixtures of H+, K+, and formic acid. The binding of the neutral formic acid to the mouth of the gramicidin channel is directly supported by the observation that a neutral molecule with a similar structure, formamide (and malonamide and acrylamide), blocks the K+ conductance at pH 6.0. The H+ conductance in the presence of formic acid provides a lower bound for the intrinsic conductance of the gramicidin channel when there is no diffusion limitation at the channel mouth. The 12-fold increase in conductance produced by formic acid suggests that greater than 90% of the total resistance to H+ results from diffusion limitation in the bulk solution. PMID:2449253

  8. Limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to establish an upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos in the cosmic radiation. Earth-skimming ντ may interact in the Earth’s crust and produce a τ lepton by means of charged-current interactions. The τ lepton may emerge from the Earth and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a typical signature, a persistent electromagnetic component even at very large atmospheric depths. The search procedure to select events induced by τ decays against the background of normal showers induced by cosmic rays is described. The method used to compute the exposure for a detector continuously growing with time is detailed. Systematic uncertainties in the exposure from the detector, the analysis, and the involved physics are discussed. No τ neutrino candidates have been found. For neutrinos in the energy range 2×1017eVdiffuse spectrum of the form Eν-2, data collected between 1 January 2004 and 30 April 2008 yield a 90% confidence-level upper limit of Eν2dNντ/dEν<9×10-8GeVcm-2s-1sr-1.

  9. Effects of potassium supply on limitations of photosynthesis by mesophyll diffusion conductance in Carya cathayensis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Song Heng; Huang, Jian Qin; Li, Xue Qin; Zheng, Bing Song; Wu, Jia Sen; Wang, Zheng Jia; Liu, Gen Hua; Chen, Miao

    2011-10-01

    Potassium (K) influences the photosynthesis process in a number of ways; however, the mechanisms underlying the photosynthetic response to differences in K supply are not well understood. Concurrent measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were made to investigate the effect of K nutrition on photosynthetic efficiency and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) in hickory seedlings (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) in a greenhouse. The results show that leaf K concentrations < 0.7-0.8% appeared to limit the leaf net CO2 assimilation rate (A), and that the relative limitation of photosynthesis due to g(m) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) decreased with increasing supplies of K. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that A was most sensitive to the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (V(c,max)) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)). These results indicate that the photosynthetic rate is primarily limited by the biochemical processes of photosynthesis (V(c,max) and J(max)), rather than by g(m) and g(s) in K-deficient plants. Additionally, g(m) was closely correlated with g(s) and the leaf dry mass per unit area (M(A)) in hickory seedlings, which indicates that decreased g(m) and g(s) may be a consequence of leaf anatomical adaptation. PMID:21990026

  10. Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids

    PubMed Central

    Mondiot, Frédéric; Botet, Robert; Snabre, Patrick; Mondain-Monval, Olivier; Loudet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We present experiments and numerical simulations to investigate the collective behavior of submicrometer-sized particles immersed in a nematic micellar solution. We use latex spheres with diameters ranging from 190 to 780 nm and study their aggregation properties due to the interplay of the various colloidal forces at work in the system. We found that the morphology of aggregates strongly depends on the particle size, with evidence for two distinct regimes: the biggest inclusions clump together within minutes into either compact clusters or V-like structures that are completely consistent with attractive elastic interactions. On the contrary, the smallest particles form chains elongated along the nematic axis, within comparable timescales. In this regime, Monte Carlo simulations, based on a modified diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model, strongly suggest that the anisotropic rotational Brownian motion of the clusters combined with short-range depletion interactions dominate the system coarsening; elastic interactions no longer prevail. The simulations reproduce the sharp transition between the two regimes on increasing the particle size. We provide reasonable estimates to interpret our data and propose a likely scenario for colloidal aggregation. These results emphasize the growing importance of the diffusion of species at suboptical-wavelength scales and raise a number of fundamental issues. PMID:24715727

  11. Kappa Distribution in a Homogeneous Medium: Adiabatic Limit of a Super-diffusive Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, I.

    2015-12-01

    The classical statistical theory predicts that an ergodic, weakly interacting system like charged particles in the presence of electromagnetic fields, performing Brownian motions (characterized by small range deviations in phase space and short-term microscopic memory), converges into the Gibbs-Boltzmann statistics. Observation of distributions with a kappa-power-law tails in homogeneous systems contradicts this prediction and necessitates a renewed analysis of the basic axioms of the diffusion process: characteristics of the transition probability density function (pdf) for a single interaction, with a possibility of non-Markovian process and non-local interaction. The non-local, Levy walk deviation is related to the non-extensive statistical framework. Particles bouncing along (solar) magnetic field with evolving pitch angles, phases and velocities, as they interact resonantly with waves, undergo energy changes at undetermined time intervals, satisfying these postulates. The dynamic evolution of a general continuous time random walk is determined by pdf of jumps and waiting times resulting in a fractional Fokker-Planck equation with non-integer derivatives whose solution is given by a Fox H-function. The resulting procedure involves the known, although not frequently used in physics fractional calculus, while the local, Markovian process recasts the evolution into the standard Fokker-Planck equation. Solution of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation with the help of Mellin transform and evaluation of its residues at the poles of its Gamma functions results in a slowly converging sum with power laws. It is suggested that these tails form the Kappa function. Gradual vs impulsive solar electron distributions serve as prototypes of this description.

  12. Vertical Migration in the Sediment-Dwelling Sulfur Bacteria Thioploca spp. in Overcoming Diffusion Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, M.; Forster, S.; Kloser, S.; Fossing, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate the environmental requirements of the filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp., we tested the chemotactic responses of these sedimentary microorganisms to changes in oxygen, nitrate, and sulfide concentrations. A sediment core with a Thioploca mat, retrieved from the oxygen-minimum zone on the Chilean shelf, was incubated in a recirculating flume. The addition of 25 (mu)mol of nitrate per liter to the seawater flow induced the ascent of the Thioploca trichomes (length, up to 70 mm) in their mostly vertically oriented gelatinous sheaths. The upper ends of the filaments penetrated the sediment surface and protruded 1 to 3 mm into the flowing water before they bent downstream. By penetrating the diffusive boundary layer, Thioploca spp. facilitate efficient nitrate uptake in exposed trichome sections that are up to 30 mm long. The cumulative length of exposed filaments per square centimeter of sediment surface was up to 92 cm, with a total exposed trichome surface area of 1 cm(sup2). The positive reaction to nitrate overruled a negative response to oxygen, indicating that nitrate is the principal electron acceptor used by Thioploca spp. in the anoxic environment; 10-fold increases in nitrate fluxes after massive emergence of filaments strengthened this hypothesis. A positive chemotactic response to sulfide concentrations of less than 100 (mu)mol liter(sup-1) counteracted the attraction to nitrate and, along with phobic reactions to oxygen and higher sulfide concentrations, controlled the vertical movement of the trichomes. We suggest that the success of Thioploca spp. on the Chilean shelf is based on the ability of these organisms to shuttle between the nitrate-rich boundary layer and the sulfidic sediment strata. PMID:16535328

  13. Sooting Limits Of Microgravity Spherical Diffusion Flames. [conducted in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Chao, B.-H.; Axelbaum, Richard L.; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Limiting conditions for soot-particle inception were studied in microgravity spherical diffusion flames burning ethylene at atmospheric pressure. Nitrogen was supplied in the fuel and/or oxidizer to obtain the broadest range of stoichiometric mixture fraction. Both normal flames (oxygen in ambience) and inverted flames (fuel in ambience) were considered. Microgravity was obtained in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. The flames were observed with a color video camera and sooting conditions were defined as conditions for which yellow emission was present throughout the duration of the drop. Sooting limit results were successfully correlated in terms of adiabatic flame temperature and stoichiometric mixture fraction. Soot free conditions were favored by increased stoichiometric mixture fractions. No statistically significant effect of convection direction on sooting limits was observed. The relationship between adiabatic flame temperature and stoichiometric mixture fraction at the sooting limits was found to be in qualitative agreement with a simple theory based on the assumption that soot inception can occur only where temperature and local C/O ratio exceed threshold values (circa 1250 K and 1, respectively).

  14. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  15. Exploring the limits of the ``SNB'' multi-group diffusion nonlocal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodrick, Jonathan; Ridgers, Christopher; Kingham, Robert

    2014-10-01

    A correct treatment of nonlocal transport in the presence of steep temperature gradients found in laser and inertial fusion plasmas has long been highly desirable over the use of an ad-hoc flux limiter. Therefore, an implementation of the ``SNB'' nonlocal model (G P Schurtz, P D Nicolaï & M Busquet, Phys. Plas. 7, 4238 (2000)) has been benchmarked against a fully-implicit kinetic code: IMPACT. A variety of scenarios, including relaxation of temperature sinusoids and Gaussians in addition to continuous laser heating have been investigated. Results highlight the effect of neglecting electron inertia (∂f1/∂ t) as well as question the feasibility of a nonlocal model that does not continuously track the evolution of the distribution function. Deviations from the Spitzer electric fields used in the model across steep gradients are also investigated. Regimes of validity for such a model are identified and discussed, and possible improvements to the model are suggested.

  16. Effectiveness factor and diffusion limitations in collagen gel modules containing HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Corstorphine, Lindsay; Sefton, Michael V.

    2010-01-01

    A major obstacle in tissue engineering is overcoming hypoxia in thick, three-dimensional engineered tissues, which is caused by the diffusional limitations of oxygen and lack of internal vasculature to facilitate mass transfer. Modular tissue engineering is a bio-mimetic strategy that forms scalable, vascularized and uniform three-dimensional constructs by assembling small (sub-mm), cell-containing modules. It was previously assumed that mass transfer resistance within the individual modules was negligible, due to their small size. In the present work, this assumption was tested using theoretical analysis of oxygen transport within the module (effectiveness factor) and experimental studies. Small (400μm diameter, post contraction) and large (700μm diameter, post-contraction) HepG2-collagen modules were made for a range of seeding densities (2 × 106 – 1 × 107 cells/ml collagen). Cell density, distribution and morphology within the modules showed that the small modules were capable of sustaining high cell densities (8.0 × 107 ± 4.4 × 107 cells/ cm3) with negligible mass transfer inhibition. Conversely, large modules developed a necrotic core and had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cell densities (1.5 × 107 ± 9.2 × 106 cells/cm3). It was also observed that the embedded cells responded quickly to the oxygen availability, by proliferating or dying to reach a sustainable density of approximately 8000 cells/module. Furthermore, a simple effectiveness factor calculation was successful in estimating the maximum cell density per module. The results gathered in this study confirm the previous assumption that the small diameter modules avoid the internal mass transfer limitations that are often observed in larger constructs. PMID:20653045

  17. Rate Limited Diffusion and Dissolution of Multicomponent Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) and Effects on Mass Discharge in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, M.; Tick, G.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Remediation efforts and contaminant transport predictions generally neglect the complicated dissolution and transport behavior associated with multicomponent NAPL (Non-aqueous phase liquid) sources. Therefore, it is important to understand the diffusion and dissolution processes occurring in these multicomponent systems as a function of mole fraction, molecular similarity/dissimilarity, hydraulic, or nonideal factors. A series of laboratory scale NAPL-aqueous phase dissolution experiments were conducted to assess dissolution and intra-NAPL diffusion as a function of multicomponent NAPL composition (i.e. mole fraction) for both trichloroethene and toluene. These target compounds were selected as representative contaminants as they are commonly components of NAPL mixtures and they define both classes of NAPL (dense-DNAPL and light-LNAPL). Predetermined volumes of target NAPL were mixed with an insoluble n-hexadecane NAPL to create mixtures that vary by NAPL composition. The ideality of resulting target compound dissolution was evaluated by quantifying NAPL-phase activity coefficient through Raoult's Law analysis. The results show that dissolution from the NAPL mixtures behave ideally for mole fractions above 0.2. As the target compound fraction of the NAPL mixture get smaller, the dissolution behavior becomes increasingly more nonideal (i.e. greater NAPL-phase activity coefficients). Overall, the time-series batch experiments show that dissolution rates were consistent for various mole fraction ratios, indicating that intra-NAPL diffusion is not the rate-limiting control over aqueous concentrations or is not significantly controlled by NAPL composition-dependent factors. The results of this work will improve transport predictions, remediation design, and risk assessments especially for sites contaminated by complex NAPL mixtures.

  18. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  19. In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of colloid aggregation and growth dynamics.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Joseph M; Rotkina, Lolita; Bau, Haim H

    2011-06-01

    We report on real-time observations of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles using a custom-made liquid cell that allows for in situ electron microscopy. Process kinetics and fractal dimension of the aggregates are consistent with three-dimensional cluster-cluster diffusion-limited aggregation, even for large aggregates, for which confinement effects are expected. This apparent paradox was resolved through in situ observations of the interactions between individual particles as well as clusters at various stages of the aggregation process that yielded the large aggregates. The liquid cell described herein facilitates real-time observations of various processes in liquid media with the high resolution of the electron microscope. PMID:21797362

  20. H-aggregate analysis of P3HT thin films-Capability and limitation of photoluminescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Philipp; Birkhold, Susanne T.; Zimmermann, Eugen; Hu, Hao; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Weickert, Jonas; Pfadler, Thomas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Polymer morphology and aggregation play an essential role for efficient charge carrier transport and charge separation in polymer-based electronic devices. It is a common method to apply the H-aggregate model to UV/Vis or photoluminescence spectra in order to analyze polymer aggregation. In this work we present strategies to obtain reliable and conclusive information on polymer aggregation and morphology based on the application of an H-aggregate analysis on UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectra. We demonstrate, with P3HT as model system, that thickness dependent reflection behavior can lead to misinterpretation of UV/Vis spectra within the H-aggregate model. Values for the exciton bandwidth can deviate by a factor of two for polymer thicknesses below 150 nm. In contrast, photoluminescence spectra are found to be a reliable basis for characterization of polymer aggregation due to their weaker dependence on the wavelength dependent refractive index of the polymer. We demonstrate this by studying the influence of surface characteristics on polymer aggregation for spin-coated thin-films that are commonly used in organic and hybrid solar cells. PMID:27582091

  1. H-aggregate analysis of P3HT thin films-Capability and limitation of photoluminescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Philipp; Birkhold, Susanne T; Zimmermann, Eugen; Hu, Hao; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Weickert, Jonas; Pfadler, Thomas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Polymer morphology and aggregation play an essential role for efficient charge carrier transport and charge separation in polymer-based electronic devices. It is a common method to apply the H-aggregate model to UV/Vis or photoluminescence spectra in order to analyze polymer aggregation. In this work we present strategies to obtain reliable and conclusive information on polymer aggregation and morphology based on the application of an H-aggregate analysis on UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectra. We demonstrate, with P3HT as model system, that thickness dependent reflection behavior can lead to misinterpretation of UV/Vis spectra within the H-aggregate model. Values for the exciton bandwidth can deviate by a factor of two for polymer thicknesses below 150 nm. In contrast, photoluminescence spectra are found to be a reliable basis for characterization of polymer aggregation due to their weaker dependence on the wavelength dependent refractive index of the polymer. We demonstrate this by studying the influence of surface characteristics on polymer aggregation for spin-coated thin-films that are commonly used in organic and hybrid solar cells. PMID:27582091

  2. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  3. Simulation on the aggregation process of spherical particle confined in a spherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xu, J. J.; Zhang, L.

    2016-04-01

    The aggregation process of spherical particles confined in a spherical shell was studied by using a diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA) model. The influence of geometrical confinement and wetting-like properties of the spherical shell walls on the particle concentration profile, aggregate structure and aggregation kinetics had been explored. The results show that there will be either depletion or absorption particles near the shell walls depending on the wall properties. It is observed that there are four different types of density distribution which can be realized by modifying the property of the inner or outer spherical shell wall. In addition, the aggregate structure will become more compact in the confined spherical shell comparing to bulk system with the same particle volume fraction. The analysis on the aggregation kinetics indicates that geometrical confinement will promote the aggregation process by reducing the invalid movement of the small aggregates and by constraining the movement of those large aggregates. Due to the concave geometrical characteristic of the outer wall of the spherical shell, its effects on the aggregating kinetics and the structure of the formed aggregates are more evident than those of the inner wall. This study will provide some instructive information of controlling the density distribution of low-density porous polymer hollow spherical shells and helps to predict gel structures developed in confined geometries.

  4. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  5. Scaling of transverse nuclear magnetic relaxation due to magnetic nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Keith A; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Issadore, David; Berezovsky, Jesse; Cima, Michael J; Westervelt, R M

    2010-10-01

    The aggregation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles decreases the transverse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time T2CP of adjacent water molecules measured by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse-echo sequence. This effect is commonly used to measure the concentrations of a variety of small molecules. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations of water diffusing around SPIO nanoparticle aggregates to determine the relationship between T2CP and details of the aggregate. We find that in the motional averaging regime T2CP scales as a power law with the number N of nanoparticles in an aggregate. The specific scaling is dependent on the fractal dimension d of the aggregates. We find T2CP∝N-0.44 for aggregates with d = 2.2, a value typical of diffusion limited aggregation. We also find that in two-nanoparticle systems, T2CP is strongly dependent on the orientation of the two nanoparticles relative to the external magnetic field, which implies that it may be possible to sense the orientation of a two-nanoparticle aggregate. To optimize the sensitivity of SPIO nanoparticle sensors, we propose that it is best to have aggregates with few nanoparticles, close together, measured with long pulse-echo times. PMID:20689678

  6. Colloidal aggregation in microgravity by critical Casimir forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veen, Sandra; Schall, Peter; Antoniuk, Oleg; Potenza, Marco; Alaimo, Matteo; Mazzoni, Stefano; Wegdam, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    We study aggregation and crystal growth of spherical Teflon colloids in binary liquid mixtures in microgravity by the critical Casimir effect. The critical Casimir effect induces interactions between colloids due to the confinement of bulk fluctuations (density or concentration) near the critical point of liquids. The strength and range of the interaction depends on the length scale of these fluctuations which increase as one approaches the critical point. The interaction potential can thus be tuned with temperature. We follow the growth of structures in real time with Near Field Scattering. Measurements are performed in microgravity in order to study pure diffusion limited aggregation, without disturbance by sedimentation or flow.

  7. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  8. Microelectrode Measurements of the Activity Distribution in Nitrifying Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, D.; van den Heuvel, J. C.; Ottengraf, S. P. P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under conditions in which ammonium and oxygen penetrated the whole aggregate, nitrification was restricted to this zone; oxygen was consumed in the central parts of the aggregates as well, probably because of oxidation of dead biomass. A sudden increase of the oxygen concentration to saturation (pure oxygen) was inhibitory to nitrification. The pH profiles showed acidification in the aggregates, but not to an inhibitory level. The distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development in the reactor. Mass transfer was significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the aggregates. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of this layer was correlated with the diffusion coefficient of the species. Determination of the distribution of nitrifying activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, whereas the use of oxygen microelectrodes alone would lead to erroneous results. Images PMID:16348875

  9. Aggregate-mediated charge transport in ionomeric electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Keran; Maranas, Janna; Milner, Scott

    Polymers such PEO can conduct ions, and have been studied as possible replacements for organic liquid electrolytes in rechargeable metal-ion batteries. More generally, fast room-temperature ionic conduction has been reported for a variety of materials, from liquids to crystalline solids. Unfortunately, polymer electrolytes generally have limited conductivity; these polymers are too viscous to have fast ion diffusion like liquids, and too unstructured to promote cooperative transport like crystalline solids. Ionomers are polymer electrolytes in which ionic groups are covalently bound to the polymer backbone, neutralized by free counterions. These materials also conduct ions, and can exhibit strong ionic aggregation. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics, we explore the forces driving ionic aggregation, and describe the role ion aggregates have in mediating charge transport. The aggregates are string-like such that ions typically have two neighbors. We find ion aggregates self-assemble like worm-like micelles. Excess charge, or free ions, occasionally coordinate with aggregates and are transported along the chain in a Grotthuss-like mechanism. We propose that controlling ionomer aggregate structure through materials design can enhance cooperative ion transport.

  10. Cluster-cluster aggregation simulation in a concentrated suspension.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Fukasawa, Tomonori; Adachi, Yasuhisa

    2011-11-01

    The collision radius of a floc is an indispensable parameter for the precise description of the rate of aggregation during the development of particle flocs with a wide size distribution. Herein, we report on the characteristics of the collision radius of fractal aggregates formed by off-lattice diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCCA) simulations, and discuss aggregation kinetics based on the value of the estimated collision radius. The collision radius has a fractal relationship with the number of primary particles that compose the floc. Further, the obtained fractal dimensions of flocs increase from the normally accepted value of 1.6-1.8 to a value of ~2.5 when the initial volume fraction is above 8%. From an assessment of the partial radial distribution function of the particles, the increase of the fractal dimensions determined by the collision radius can be attributed to a change in the spatial distribution of neighboring particles. The DLCCA simulation also reveals an apparent increase in the rate of aggregation upon an increase in the initial volume fraction. For a relatively low initial volume fraction, the enhancement of the aggregation rate is expressed by a population balance equation taking into account additional factors, i.e., transient collision flux among particles/flocs, excluded volumes, and polydispersed features of flocs. However, for cases with high initial volume fractions, the population balance model that accounts for these three factors overestimates the aggregation rate, which supports the concept of a caging effect. PMID:21840531

  11. Impacts of a Sub-Slab Aggregate Layer and a Sub-Aggregate Membrane on Radon Entry Rate: A Numerical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J.; Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Riley, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    A subslab aggregate layer can increase the radon entry rate into a building by up to a factor of 5. We use a previously tested numerical technique to investigate and confirm this phenomenon. Then we demonstrate that a sub-aggregate membrane has the potential to significantly reduce the increase in radon entry rate due to the aggregate layer, even when a gap exists between the perimeter of the membrane and the footer. Such membranes greatly reduce diffusion of radon from the soil into the aggregate and are impermeable to flow. Radon entry through the basement floor slab is limited to radon entry through the holes in the membrane. In addition, a sub-aggregate membrane is predicted to improve the performance of active sub-slab ventilation systems and makes passive systems more promising.

  12. Behavior of the Diamond Difference and Low-Order Nodal Numerical Transport Methods in the Thick Diffusion Limit for Slab Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gill DF

    2007-04-17

    The objective of this work is to investigate the thick diffusion limit of various spatial discretizations of the one-dimensional, steady-state, monoenergetic, discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. This work specifically addresses the two lowest order nodal methods, AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1, as well as reconsiders the asymptotic limit of the Diamond Difference method. The asymptotic analyses of the AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1 nodal methods show that AHOT-N0 does not possess the thick diffusion limit for cell edge or cell average fluxes except under very limiting conditions, which is to be expected considering the AHOT-N0 method limits to the Step method in the thick diffusion limit. The AHOT-N1 method, which uses a linear in-cell representation of the flux, was shown to possess the thick diffusion limit for both cell average and cell edge fluxes. The thick diffusion limit of the DD method, including the boundary conditions, was derived entirely in terms of cell average scalar fluxes. It was shown that, for vacuum boundaries, only when {sigma}{sub t}, h, and Q are constant and {sigma}{sub a} = 0 is the asymptotic limit of the DD method close to the finite-differenced diffusion equation in the system interior, and that the boundary conditions between the systems will only agree in the absence of an external source. For a homogeneous medium an effective diffusion coefficient was shown to be present, which was responsible for causing numeric diffusion in certain cases. A technique was presented to correct the numeric diffusion in the interior by altering certain problem parameters. Numerical errors introduced by the boundary conditions and material interfaces were also explored for a two-region problem using the Diamond Difference method. A discrete diffusion solution which exactly solves the one-dimensional diffusion equation in a homogeneous region with constant cross sections and a uniform external source was also developed and shown to be equal to the finite

  13. Induced growth of dendrite gold nanostructure by controlling self-assembly aggregation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, M H; Abdelrasoul, G N; Scarpellini, A; Marras, S; Diaspro, A

    2015-11-15

    Self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is an important growth mode for fabricating functional materials. In this work we report a dendrite structure formed by slowing down the aggregation dynamics of AuNPs self-assembly. The obtained results show that the aggregation dynamics is dominated by the Reaction Limited Aggregation Model (RLA) more than the Diffusion Limited Aggregation Model (DLA). In which the repulsion due to electrostatic forces is dominant by the Van Der Walls attraction forces, and low sticking probability of nanoparticles. The aggregation dynamics of AuNPs can be slowed down if the water evaporation of the drop casted colloidal AuNPs on a quartz substrate is slowed. Slowing down the evaporation allows electrostatic repulsion forces to decrease gradually. At certain point, the attraction forces become higher than the electrostatic repulsion and hence cluster aggregation take place slowly. The slow aggregation dynamics allows the nanoparticles to sample all possible orientation in the sticking site, searching for the lowest energy configuration. The size distribution of the nanoparticles in liquid is confirmed using dynamic light scattering based on Stokes-Einstein equation for diffusion coefficient in water. X-ray and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the sample after aggregation showed a shift which is related to the aggregation compared with non-aggregated colloidal nanoparticles in the solution. The study shows that dendrite self similar structure can be formed by slowing down the aggregation dynamics of nanoparticles as a result of minimizing the Helmholtz free surface energy of the system. PMID:26233557

  14. On the radiative properties of soot aggregates part 1: Necking and overlapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yon, J.; Bescond, A.; Liu, F.

    2015-09-01

    There is a strong interest in accurately modelling the radiative properties of soot aggregates (also known as black carbon particles) emitted from combustion systems and fires to gain improved understanding of the role of black carbon to global warming. This study conducted a systematic investigation of the effects of overlapping and necking between neighbouring primary particles on the radiative properties of soot aggregates using the discrete dipole approximation. The degrees of overlapping and necking are quantified by the overlapping and necking parameters. Realistic soot aggregates were generated numerically by constructing overlapping and necking to fractal aggregates formed by point-touch primary particles simulated using a diffusion-limited cluster aggregation algorithm. Radiative properties (differential scattering, absorption, total scattering, specific extinction, asymmetry factor and single scattering albedo) were calculated using the experimentally measured soot refractive index over the spectral range of 266-1064 nm for 9 combinations of the overlapping and necking parameters. Overlapping and necking affect significantly the absorption and scattering properties of soot aggregates, especially in the near UV spectrum due to the enhanced multiple scattering effects within an aggregate. By using correctly modified aggregate properties (fractal dimension, prefactor, primary particle radius, and the number of primary particle) and by accounting for the effects of multiple scattering, the simple Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for fractal aggregates can reproduce reasonably accurate radiative properties of realistic soot aggregates.

  15. Estimating the concentration of aluminum-substituted hematite and goethite using diffuse reflectance spectrometry and rock magnetism: Feasibility and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengxiang; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Torrent, José; Barrón, Vidal

    2016-06-01

    Hematite and goethite in soils are often aluminum (Al) substituted, which can dramatically change their reflectance and magnetic properties and bias abundance estimates using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and magnetic techniques. In this study, synthetic Al-substituted hematites and goethites and two Chinese loess/paleosol sequences were investigated to test the feasibility and limitations of estimating Al-hematite and Al-goethite concentration. When Al substitution is limited (Al/(Al + Fe) molar ratio < ~8%), the reflectance spectrum provides a reliable estimate of the goethite/hematite concentration ratio. New empirical relationships between the DRS band intensity ratio and the true concentration goethite/hematite ratio are estimated as goethite/hematite = 1.56 × (I425 nm/I535 nm) or goethite/hematite = 6.32 × (I480 nm/I535 nm), where I425 nm, I480 nm, and I535 nm are the amplitudes of DRS second-derivative curves for characteristic bands at ~425 nm, ~480 nm, and ~535 nm, respectively. High Al substitution (> ~8%) reduces DRS band intensity, which leads to biased estimates of mineral concentration. Al substitution and grain size exert a control on coercivity distributions of hematite and goethite and, thus, affect the hard isothermal remanent magnetization. By integrating DRS and magnetic methods, we suggest a way to constrain hematite and goethite Al substitution in natural loess. Results indicate that hematite and goethite in Chinese loess have Al contents lower than ~8% and, thus, that DRS can be used to trace hematite and goethite concentration variations.

  16. Fractal structure and the dynamics of aggregation of synthetic melanin in low pH aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.S.; Sung, J.; Eisner, M.; Moss, S.C.; Gallas, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have used static and dynamic light scattering to study the dynamics of aggregation of synthetic melanin, an amorphous biopolymeric substance, in low pH aqueous solution. We have found that, depending on the final pH value of the solutions, there existed two regimes of the aggregation kinetics, one corresponding to diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), and the other corresponding to reaction limited aggregation (RLA). The precipitates formed in these two regimes can be characterized by fractal structures. We have found fractal dimensions of d/sub f/ = 1.8 for the DLA clusters and d/sub f/ = 2.2 for the RLA clusters. These results agree well with the proposed limits of the fractal dimensions of the gold aggregates formed in aqueous solutions by Weitz et al.

  17. A comparison study of discrete-ordinates and flux-limited diffusion methods for modeling radiation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myra, Eric S.; Hawkins, Wm. Daryl

    2013-03-01

    The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) is investigating methods of improving the predictive capability of numerical simulations for radiative shock waves that are produced in Omega laser experiments. The laser is used to shock, ionize, and accelerate a beryllium foil into a xenon-filled shock tube. These shock waves, when driven above a threshold velocity of about 60 km/s, become strongly radiative and convert much of the incident energy flux into radiation. Radiative shocks have properties that are significantly different from purely hydrodynamic shocks and, in modeling this phenomenon numerically, it is important to compute radiative effects accurately. In this article, we examine approaches to modeling radiation transport by comparing two methods: (i) a computationally efficient, multigroup, flux-limited-diffusion approximation, currently in use in the CRASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, with (ii) a more accurate discrete-ordinates treatment that is offered by the radiation-transport code PDT. We present a selection of results from a growing suite of code-to-code comparison tests, showing both results for idealized problems and for those that are representative of conditions found in the CRASH experiment.

  18. DIFFUSED SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERFACE WITH POISSON–BOLTZMANN ELECTROSTATICS: FREE-ENERGY VARIATION AND SHARP-INTERFACE LIMIT

    PubMed Central

    LI, BO; LIU, YUAN

    2015-01-01

    A phase-field free-energy functional for the solvation of charged molecules (e.g., proteins) in aqueous solvent (i.e., water or salted water) is constructed. The functional consists of the solute volumetric and solute-solvent interfacial energies, the solute-solvent van der Waals interaction energy, and the continuum electrostatic free energy described by the Poisson–Boltzmann theory. All these are expressed in terms of phase fields that, for low free-energy conformations, are close to one value in the solute phase and another in the solvent phase. A key property of the model is that the phase-field interpolation of dielectric coefficient has the vanishing derivative at both solute and solvent phases. The first variation of such an effective free-energy functional is derived. Matched asymptotic analysis is carried out for the resulting relaxation dynamics of the diffused solute-solvent interface. It is shown that the sharp-interface limit is exactly the variational implicit-solvent model that has successfully captured capillary evaporation in hydrophobic confinement and corresponding multiple equilibrium states of underlying biomolecular systems as found in experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. Our phase-field approach and analysis can be used to possibly couple the description of interfacial fluctuations for efficient numerical computations of biomolecular interactions. PMID:26877556

  19. Colloidal Aggregate Structure under Shear by USANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Tirtha; van Dyk, Antony K.; Ginzburg, Valeriy V.; Nakatani, Alan I.

    2015-03-01

    Paints are complex formulations of polymeric binders, inorganic pigments, dispersants, surfactants, colorants, rheology modifiers, and other additives. A commercially successful paint exhibits a desired viscosity profile over a wide shear rate range from 10-5 s-1 for settling to >104 s-1 for rolling, and spray applications. Understanding paint formulation structure is critical as it governs the paint viscosity profile. However, probing paint formulation structure under shear is a challenging task due to the formulation complexity containing structures with different hierarchical length scales and their alterations under the influence of an external flow field. In this work mesoscale structures of paint formulations under shear are investigated using Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (rheo-USANS). Contrast match conditions were utilized to independently probe the structure of latex binder particle aggregates and the TiO2 pigment particle aggregates. Rheo-USANS data revealed that the aggregates are fractal in nature and their self-similarity dimensions and correlations lengths depend on the chemistry of the binder particles, the type of rheology modifier present and the shear stress imposed upon the formulation. These results can be explained in the framework of diffusion and reaction limited transient aggregates structure evolution under simple shear.

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  1. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  2. Archean Earth Atmosphere Fractal Haze Aggregates: Light Scattering Calculations and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boness, D. A.; Terrell-Martinez, B.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an ongoing undergraduate research project of light scattering calculations involving fractal carbonaceous soot aggregates relevant to current anthropogenic and natural sources in Earth's atmosphere, we have read with interest a recent paper [E.T. Wolf and O.B Toon,Science 328, 1266 (2010)] claiming that the Faint Young Sun paradox discussed four decades ago by Carl Sagan and others can be resolved without invoking heavy CO2 concentrations as a greenhouse gas warming the early Earth enough to sustain liquid water and hence allow the origin of life. Wolf and Toon report that a Titan-like Archean Earth haze, with a fractal haze aggregate nature due to nitrogen-methane photochemistry at high altitudes, should block enough UV light to protect the warming greenhouse gas NH3 while allowing enough visible light to reach the surface of the Earth. To test this hypothesis, we have employed a rigorous T-Matrix arbitrary-particle light scattering technique, to avoid the simplifications inherent in Mie-sphere scattering, on haze fractal aggregates at UV and visible wavelenths of incident light. We generate these model aggregates using diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) algorithms, which much more closely fit actual haze fractal aggregates than do diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) algorithms.

  3. Disease progression in systemic sclerosis-overlap syndrome is significantly different from limited and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Moinzadeh, Pia; Aberer, Elisabeth; Ahmadi-Simab, Keihan; Blank, Norbert; Distler, Joerg H W; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Genth, Ekkehard; Guenther, Claudia; Hein, Ruediger; Henes, Joerg; Herich, Lena; Herrgott, Ilka; Koetter, Ina; Kreuter, Alexander; Krieg, Thomas; Kuhr, Kathrin; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Meier, Florian; Melchers, Inga; Mensing, Hartwig; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Pfeiffer, Christiane; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Sárdy, Miklós; Schmalzing, Marc; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Susok, Laura; Tarner, Ingo H; Vaith, Peter; Worm, Margitta; Wozel, Gottfried; Zeidler, Gabriele; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Ahrazoglu, Nil Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-overlap syndromes are a very heterogeneous and remarkable subgroup of SSc-patients, who present at least two connective tissue diseases (CTD) at the same time, usually with a specific autoantibody status. Objectives To determine whether patients, classified as overlap syndromes, show a disease course different from patients with limited SSc (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Methods The data of 3240 prospectively included patients, registered in the database of the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma and followed between 2003 and 2013, were analysed. Results Among 3240 registered patients, 10% were diagnosed as SSc-overlap syndrome. Of these, 82.5% were female. SSc-overlap patients had a mean age of 48±1.2 years and carried significantly more often ‘other antibodies’ (68.0%; p<0.0001), including anti-U1RNP, -PmScl, -Ro, -La, as well as anti-Jo-1 and -Ku antibodies. These patients developed musculoskeletal involvement earlier and more frequently (62.5%) than patients diagnosed as lcSSc (32.2%) or dcSSc (43.3%) (p<0.0001). The onset of lung fibrosis and heart involvement in SSc-overlap patients was significantly earlier than in patients with lcSSc and occurred later than in patients with dcSSc. Oesophagus, kidney and PH progression was similar to lcSSc patients, whereas dcSSc patients had a significantly earlier onset. Conclusions These data support the concept that SSc-overlap syndromes should be regarded as a separate SSc subset, distinct from lcSSc and dcSSc, due to a different progression of the disease, different proportional distribution of specific autoantibodies, and of different organ involvement. PMID:24389298

  4. Asymptotic solutions of neutron transport equation and the limits of correct use of diffusion approximation for rocks.

    PubMed

    Dworak, D; Loskiewicz, J; Janik, M

    2001-05-01

    The diffusion approximation solution for neutron transport has been used in well-logging geophysics for calculating tool responses in boreholes, sometimes with success. The problem of the dimension of different materials to which it can be applied with success is important for the borehole environment. The results obtained show that the diffusion approximation can be used for distances greater than a few millimetre in some rock types. For iron, barium, and other highly absorbing media the use of the diffusion approximation is inappropriate even for large distances. PMID:11258535

  5. Aggregation in charged nanoparticles solutions induced by different interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, S.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2016-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different interactions. The nanoparticle aggregation is induced by addition of salt (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) employing different kind of interactions. The results show that the interaction in presence of salt can be explained using DLVO theory whereas non-DLVO forces play important role for interaction of nanoparticles with protein and surfactant. The presence of salt screens the repulsion between charged nanoparticles giving rise to a net attraction in the DLVO potential. On the other hand, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein leads to protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. In case of non-ionic surfactant, the relatively long-range attractive depletion interaction is found to be responsible for the particle aggregation. Interestingly, the completely different interactions lead to similar kind of aggregate morphology. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are found to have mass fractal nature having a fractal dimension (~2.5) consistent with diffusion limited type of fractal morphology in all three cases.

  6. Dynamics of colloidal aggregation in microgravity by critical Casimir forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potenza, M. A. C.; Manca, A.; Veen, S. J.; Weber, B.; Mazzoni, S.; Schall, P.; Wegdam, G. H.

    2014-06-01

    By combining static and dynamic structure factor measurements under microgravity conditions, we obtain for the first time direct insight into the internal structure of colloidal aggregates formed over a wide range of particle attractions under ideal diffusion-limited conditions. By means of near-field scattering we measure the time-dependent density-density correlation function as the aggregation process evolves, and we determine the ratio of the hydrodynamic and gyration radius to elucidate the aggregate's internal structure as a function of its fractal dimension. Surprisingly, we find that despite the large variation of particle interactions, the mass is always evenly distributed in all objects with fractal dimension ranging from 2.55 for shallow potentials to 1.78 for deep ones.

  7. Oligomeric baroeffect and gas aggregation states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The baroeffect is analyzed to include a gas that aggregates into higher-order polymers or oligomers. The resulting pressure change is found to vary independently of the molecular weight of the gas components and to depend only on the aggregation or oligomeric order of the gas. With increasing aggregation, diffusive slip velocities are found to increase. The calculations are extended to include general counterdiffusion of two distinct aggregation states (k-, j-mer) for the gas, and the pressure change is derived as a function that is independent of both molecular weight and the absolute aggregation. The only parameter that determines the baroeffect is the ratio of aggregated states, beta = k/j. For gases that reversibly aggregate, possible oscillatory behavior and complex dynamics for pressure are discussed. Gas aggregation may play a role for low-temperature crystal-growth conditions in which vapor concentrations of one (or more) species are high.

  8. Aggregation rate and fractal dimension of fullerene nanoparticles via simultaneous multiangle static and dynamic light scattering measurement.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhiyong; Hashmi, Sara M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-02-15

    The time-evolutions of nanoparticle hydrodynamic radius and aggregate fractal dimension during the aggregation of fullerene (C(60)) nanoparticles (FNPs) were measured via simultaneous multiangle static and dynamic light scattering. The FNP aggregation behavior was determined as a function of monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl(2)) electrolyte concentration, and the impact of addition of dissolved natural organic matter (humic acid) to the solution was also investigated. In the absence of humic acid, the fractal dimension decreased over time with monovalent and divalent salts, suggesting that aggregates become slightly more open and less compact as they grow. Although the aggregates become slightly more open, the magnitude of the fractal dimension suggests intermediate aggregation between the diffusion- and reaction-limited regimes. We observed different aggregation behavior with monovalent and divalent salts upon the addition of humic acid to the solution. For NaCl-induced aggregation, the introduction of humic acid significantly suppressed the aggregation rate of FNPs at NaCl concentrations lower than 150mM. In this case, the aggregation was intermediate or reaction-limited even at NaCl concentrations as high as 500mM, giving rise to aggregates with a fractal dimension of 2.0. For CaCl(2)-induced aggregation, the introduction of humic acid enhanced the aggregation of FNPs at CaCl(2) concentrations greater than about 5mM due to calcium complexation and bridging effects. Humic acid also had an impact on the FNP aggregate structure in the presence of CaCl(2), resulting in a fractal dimension of 1.6 for the diffusion-limited aggregation regime. Our results with CaCl(2) indicate that in the presence of humic acid, FNP aggregates have a more open and loose structure than in the absence of humic acid. The aggregation results presented in this paper have important implications for the transport, chemical reactivity, and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic

  9. Free-living bacterial communities associated with tubeworm (Ridgeia piscesae) aggregations in contrasting diffuse flow hydrothermal vent habitats at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Forget, Nathalie L; Kim Juniper, S

    2013-01-01

    We systematically studied free-living bacterial diversity within aggregations of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae sampled from two contrasting flow regimes (High Flow and Low Flow) in the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Northeast Pacific). Eight samples of particulate detritus were recovered from paired tubeworm grabs from four vent sites. Most sequences (454 tag and Sanger methods) were affiliated to the Epsilonproteobacteria, and the sulfur-oxidizing genus Sulfurovum was dominant in all samples. Gammaproteobacteria were also detected, mainly in Low Flow sequence libraries, and were affiliated with known methanotrophs and decomposers. The cooccurrence of sulfur reducers from the Deltaproteobacteria and the Epsilonproteobacteria suggests internal sulfur cycling within these habitats. Other phyla detected included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deinococcus–Thermus. Statistically significant relationships between sequence library composition and habitat type suggest a predictable pattern for High Flow and Low Flow environments. Most sequences significantly more represented in High Flow libraries were related to sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, while mainly heterotrophic groups were more represented in Low Flow libraries. Differences in temperature, available energy for metabolism, and stability between High Flow and Low Flow habitats potentially explain their distinct bacterial communities. PMID:23401293

  10. Free-living bacterial communities associated with tubeworm (Ridgeia piscesae) aggregations in contrasting diffuse flow hydrothermal vent habitats at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Forget, Nathalie L; Kim Juniper, S

    2013-04-01

    We systematically studied free-living bacterial diversity within aggregations of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae sampled from two contrasting flow regimes (High Flow and Low Flow) in the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Northeast Pacific). Eight samples of particulate detritus were recovered from paired tubeworm grabs from four vent sites. Most sequences (454 tag and Sanger methods) were affiliated to the Epsilonproteobacteria, and the sulfur-oxidizing genus Sulfurovum was dominant in all samples. Gammaproteobacteria were also detected, mainly in Low Flow sequence libraries, and were affiliated with known methanotrophs and decomposers. The cooccurrence of sulfur reducers from the Deltaproteobacteria and the Epsilonproteobacteria suggests internal sulfur cycling within these habitats. Other phyla detected included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Statistically significant relationships between sequence library composition and habitat type suggest a predictable pattern for High Flow and Low Flow environments. Most sequences significantly more represented in High Flow libraries were related to sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, while mainly heterotrophic groups were more represented in Low Flow libraries. Differences in temperature, available energy for metabolism, and stability between High Flow and Low Flow habitats potentially explain their distinct bacterial communities. PMID:23401293

  11. Trehalose limits BSA aggregation in spray-dried formulations at high temperatures: implications in preparing polymer implants for long-term protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Karthikan; Wood, Joseph; Tran, Benjamin; Patapoff, Thomas W; Nivaggioli, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Polymer implants are promising systems for sustained release applications but their utility for protein delivery has been hindered because of concerns over drug stability at elevated temperatures required for processing. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model, we have assessed whether proteins can be formulated for processing at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the effect of trehalose and histidine-HCl buffer on BSA stability in a spray-dried formulation has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 80°C to 110°C. When both the sugar and buffer are present, aggregation is suppressed even when exposed to 100°C, the extrusion temperature of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), a bioresorbable polymer. Estimation of aggregation rate constants (k) indicate that though both trehalose and histidine-HCl buffer contribute to BSA stability, the effect because of trehalose alone is more pronounced. BSA-loaded PLGA implants were prepared using hot-melt extrusion process and in vitro release was conducted in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C. Comparison of drug released from implants prepared using four different formulations confirmed that maximal release was achieved from the formulation in which BSA was least aggregated. These studies demonstrate that when trehalose and histidine-HCl buffer are included in spray-dried formulations, BSA stability is maintained both during processing at 100°C and long-term residence within implants. PMID:23754501

  12. Simulation studies on shape and growth kinetics for fractal aggregates in aerosol and colloidal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinson, William Raymond

    The aim of this work is to explore, using computational techniques that simulate the motion and subsequent aggregation of particles in aerosol and colloidal systems, many common but not well studied systems that form fractal clusters. Primarily the focus is on cluster shape and growth kinetics. The structure of clusters made under diffusion limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA) is looked at. More specifically, the shape anisotropy is found to have an inverse relationship on the scaling prefactor k0 and have no effect on the fractal dimension Df . An analytical model that predicts the shape and fractal dimension of diffusion limited cluster-cluster aggregates is tested and successfully predicts cluster shape and dimensionality. Growth kinetics of cluster-cluster aggregation in the free molecular regime where the system starts with ballistic motion and then transitions to diffusive motion as the aggregates grow in size is studied. It is shown that the kinetic exponent will crossover from the ballistic to the diffusional values and the onset of this crossover is predicted by when the nearest neighbor Knudsen number reaches unity. Simulations were carried out for a system in which molten particles coalesce into spheres, then cool till coalescing stops and finally the polydispersed monomers stick at point contacts to form fractal clusters. The kinetic exponent and overall cluster structure for these aggregates was found to be in agreement with DLCA that started with monodispersed monomers. Colloidal aggregation in the presence of shear was studied in detail. Study of a colloidal system characterized a by short-range attractive potential showed that weak shear enhanced the aggregation process. Strong shear led to fragmentation and subsequent nucleation as cluster growth rebounded after an induction time.

  13. Bimolecular photoinduced electron transfer beyond the diffusion limit: the Rehm-Weller experiment revisited with femtosecond time resolution.

    PubMed

    Rosspeintner, Arnulf; Angulo, Gonzalo; Vauthey, Eric

    2014-02-01

    To access the intrinsic, diffusion free, rate constant of bimolecular photoinduced electron transfer reactions, fluorescence quenching experiments have been performed with 14 donor/acceptor pairs, covering a driving-force range going from 0.6 to 2.4 eV, using steady-state and femtosecond time-resolved emission, and applying a diffusion-reaction model that accounts for the static and transient stages of the quenching for the analysis. The intrinsic electron transfer rate constants are up to 2 orders of magnitude larger than the diffusion rate constant in acetonitrile. Above ∼1.5 eV, a slight decrease of the rate constant is observed, pointing to a much weaker Marcus inverted region than those reported for other types of electron transfer reactions, such as charge recombination. Despite this, the driving force dependence can be rationalized in terms of Marcus theory. PMID:24400958

  14. Maskless direct laser writing with visible light: Breaking through the optical resolving limit with cooperative manipulations of nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-28

    In this work, the resolving limit of maskless direct laser writing is overcome by cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion, where the nonlinear reverse saturation absorption can induce the formation of below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot, and the thermal diffusion manipulation can make the heat quantity at the central region of energy absorption spot propagate along the thin film thickness direction. The temperature at the central region of energy absorption spot transiently reaches up to melting point and realizes nanolithography. The sample “glass substrate/AgInSbTe” is prepared, where AgInSbTe is taken as nonlinear reverse saturation absorption thin film. The below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot is simulated theoretically and verified experimentally by near-field spot scanning method. The “glass substrate/Al/AgInSbTe” sample is prepared, where the Al is used as thermal conductive layer to manipulate the thermal diffusion channel because the thermal diffusivity coefficient of Al is much larger than that of AgInSbTe. The direct laser writing is conducted by a setup with a laser wavelength of 650 nm and a converging lens of NA=0.85, the lithographic marks with a size of about 100 nm are obtained, and the size is only about 1/10 the incident focused spot. The experimental results indicate that the cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion is a good method to realize nanolithography in maskless direct laser writing with visible light.

  15. Importance of leaf anatomy in determining mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO2 across species: quantitative limitations and scaling up by models

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Magdalena; Flexas, Jaume; Copolovici, Lucian; Galmés, Jeroni; Hallik, Lea; Medrano, Hipólito; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Tosens, Tiina; Vislap, Vivian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2013-01-01

    Foliage photosynthetic and structural traits were studied in 15 species with a wide range of foliage anatomies to gain insight into the importance of key anatomical traits in the limitation of diffusion of CO2 from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts. The relative importance of different anatomical traits in constraining CO2 diffusion was evaluated using a quantitative model. Mesophyll conductance (g m) was most strongly correlated with chloroplast exposed surface to leaf area ratio (S c/S) and cell wall thickness (T cw), but, depending on foliage structure, the overall importance of g m in constraining photosynthesis and the importance of different anatomical traits in the restriction of CO2 diffusion varied. In species with mesophytic leaves, membrane permeabilities and cytosol and stromal conductance dominated the variation in g m. However, in species with sclerophytic leaves, g m was mostly limited by T cw. These results demonstrate the major role of anatomy in constraining mesophyll diffusion conductance and, consequently, in determining the variability in photosynthetic capacity among species. PMID:23564954

  16. Aggregation kinetics and dissolution of coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Lenhart, John J; Walker, Harold W

    2012-01-17

    Determining the fate of manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is contingent upon understanding how stabilizing agents influence the stability of nanoparticles in aqueous systems. In this study, the aggregation and dissolution tendencies of uncoated silver nanoparticles and the same particles coated with three common coating agents, trisodium citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Tween 80 (Tween), were evaluated. Early stage aggregation kinetics of the uncoated and coated silver nanoparticles were assessed by dynamic light scattering over a range of electrolyte types (NaCl, NaNO(3), and CaCl(2)) and concentrations that span those observed in natural waters. Although particle dissolution was observed, aggregation of all particle types was still consistent with classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The aggregation of citrate-coated particles and SDS-coated particles were very similar to that for the uncoated particles, as the critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) of the particles in different electrolytes were all approximately the same (40 mM NaCl, 30 mM NaNO(3), and 2 mM CaCl(2)). The Tween-stabilized particles were significantly more stable than the other particles, however, and in NaNO(3) aggregation was not observed up to an electrolyte concentration of 1 M. Differences in the rate of aggregation under diffusion-limited aggregation conditions at high electrolyte concentrations for the SDS and Tween-coated particles, in combination with the moderation of their electrophoretic mobilities, suggest SDS and Tween imparted steric interactions to the particles. The dissolution of the silver nanoparticles was inhibited by the SDS and Tween coatings, but not by the citrate coating, and in chloride-containing electrolytes a secondary precipitate of AgCl was observed bridging the individual particles. These results indicate that coating agents could significant influence the fate of silver nanoparticles in aquatic systems, and in some

  17. Reinforcement of rubber by fractal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, T. A.; Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R. H.

    1993-03-01

    Rubber is commonly reinforced with colloidal aggregates of carbon or silica, whose structure has the scale invariance of a fractal object. Reinforced rubbers support large stresses, which often grow faster than linearly with the strain. We argue that under strong elongation the stress arises through lateral compression of the aggregates, driven by the large bulk modulus of the rubber. We derive a power-law relationship between stress and elongation λ when λgg 1. The predicted power p depends on the fractal dimension D and a second structural scaling exponent C. For diffusion-controlled aggregates this power p should lie beween 0.9 and 1.1 ; for reaction-controlled aggregates p should lie between 1.8 and 2.4. For uniaxial compression the analogous powers lie near 4. Practical rubbers filled with fractal aggregates should approach the conditions of validity for these scaling laws. On renforce souvent le caoutchouc avec des agrégats de carbone ou de silice dont la structure a l'invariance par dilatation d'un objet fractal. Les caoutchoucs ainsi renforcés supportent de grandes contraintes qui croissent souvent plus vite que l'élongation. Nous prétendons que, sous élongation forte, cette contrainte apparaît à cause d'une compression latérale des agrégats induite par le module volumique important du caoutchouc. Nous établissons une loi de puissance reliant la contrainte et l'élongation λ quand λgg 1. Cet exposant p dépend de la dimension fractale D et d'un deuxième exposant structural C. Pour des agrégats dont la cinétique de formation est limitée par diffusion, p vaut entre 0,9 et 1,1. Si la cinétique est limitée par le soudage local des particules, p vaut entre 1,8 et 2,4. Sous compression uniaxiale, les puissances homologues valent environ 4. Des caoutchoucs pratiques chargés de tels agrégats devraient approcher des conditions où ces lois d'échelle sont valables.

  18. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  19. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  1. On the radiative properties of soot aggregates - Part 2: Effects of coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengshan; Yon, Jérôme; Bescond, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    The effects of weakly absorbing material coating on soot have attracted considerable research attention in recent years due to the significant influence of such coating on soot radiative properties and the large differences predicted by different numerical models. Soot aggregates were first numerically generated using the diffusion limited cluster aggregation algorithm to produce fractal aggregates formed by log-normally distributed polydisperse spherical primary particles in point-touch. These aggregates were then processed by adding a certain amount of primary particle overlapping and necking to simulate the soot morphology observed from transmission electron microscopy images. After this process, a layer of WAM coating of different thicknesses was added to these more realistic soot aggregates. The radiative properties of these coated soot aggregates over the spectral range of 266-1064 nm were calculated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) using the spectrally dependent refractive index of soot for four aggregates containing Np=1, 20, 51 and 96 primary particles. The considered coating thicknesses range from 0% (no coating) up to 100% coating in terms of the primary particle diameter. Coating enhances both the particle absorption and scattering cross sections, with much stronger enhancement to the scattering one, as well as the asymmetry factor and the single scattering albedo. The absorption enhancement is stronger in the UV than in the visible and the near infrared. The simple corrections to the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans fractal aggregates theory for uncoated soot aggregates are found not working for coated soot aggregates. The core-shell model significantly overestimates the absorption enhancement by coating in the visible and the near infrared compared to the DDA results of the coated soot particle. Treating an externally coated soot aggregate as an aggregate formed by individually coated primary particles significantly underestimates the absorption

  2. Colloidal Recycling: Reconfiguration of Random Aggregates into Patchy Particles.

    PubMed

    Meester, Vera; Verweij, Ruben W; van der Wel, Casper; Kraft, Daniela J

    2016-04-26

    The key ingredients to the successful bottom-up construction of complex materials are believed to be colloids with anisotropic shapes and directional, or patchy, interactions. We present an approach for creating such anisotropic patchy particles based on reconfiguring randomly shaped aggregates of colloidal spheres. While colloidal aggregates are often undesirable in colloidal dispersions due to their random shapes, we exploit them as a starting point to synthesize patchy particles. By a deliberate destabilization of the colloidal particles, diffusion-limited aggregation is induced which partitions the particles into randomly shaped aggregates with controlled size distribution. We achieve a reconfiguration of the aggregates into uniform structures by swelling the polymer spheres with an apolar solvent. The swelling lowers the attractive van der Waals forces, lubricates the contact area between the spheres, and drives the reorganization through minimization of the interfacial energy of the swollen polymer network. This reorganization process yields patchy particles whose patch arrangement is uniform for up to five patches. For particles with more patches, we find that the patch orientation depends on the degree of phase separation between the spheres and the monomer. This enables the synthesis of patchy particles with unprecedented patch arrangements. We demonstrate the broad applicability of this recycling strategy for making patchy particles as well as clusters of spheres by varying the swelling ratio, swelling solvent, surfactant concentration, and swelling time. PMID:27014995

  3. Aggregation and dendritic growth in a magnetic granular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gutiérrez, J.; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    We experimentally study the aggregation of non-Brownian paramagnetic beads in a vibrofluidized system induced by an external magnetic dipole. A dendritic growth is observed in real time, particle by particle, and with the naked eye. Two aggregation stages are observed, where tip, tip-split and side-branching growths are differentiated. We found clusters morphologically similar to those generated by a diffusion limited aggregation algorithm (DLA). However, in our case, due to the finite range of the magnetic field, the clusters reach a finite size and their structures exhibit different rates of aggregation. These are revealed by the existence of two different scaling relations of the mass with the gyration radius, and the nature of the radial mass distribution function. The structures of the clusters are fractal objects with an effective mass fractal dimension of around 1.8. We found that an exponential function describes the aggregation phenomenon as a function of time. This exponential behavior is independent of the final state of the morphology (shape and length) of the agglomerates.

  4. Aggregation of liposomes in presence of La3+ : A study of the fractal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabín, Juan; Prieto, Gerardo; Ruso, Juan M.; Messina, Paula; Sarmiento, Félix

    2007-07-01

    A study of the fractal dimension of the aggregation of three different types of large unilamellar vesicles, formed by egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), dimyristoyl-phosphocholine (DMPC), and dipalmitoyl-phosphocholine (DPPC), in the presence of La3+ , is presented. Aggregate liposome fractal dimensions were calculated by two methods, aggregation kinetics, using the approaches diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) and reaction-limited cluster aggregation (RLCA) and angle-scattering light dispersion. Electrophoretic measurements show a similar variation of the zeta potential ( ζ potential) for EYPC and DPPC, with a small increase of initial positive values. However, the ζ potential of DMPC changes from a initial negative value to near zero with increasing La3+ concentration. The evolution of the aggregate sizes was followed by light scattering. DPPC and DMPC show a RLCA regimen growth at low La3+ concentrations and a DLCA regimen at higher concentrations. In the case of EYPC, the final size of aggregation strongly depends on La3+ concentration. The calculated fractal dimension is in the range 1.8 to 2.1.

  5. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  6. Size dependent fractal aggregation mediated through surfactant in silica nanoparticle solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2012-06-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles in presence of cationic surfactant (DTAB) in aqueous solution. The measurements were carried out for different sizes of nanoparticles (8.2, 16.4 and 26.4 nm) at fixed (1 wt%) nanoparticles and surfactant concentration. It is found that the adsorption of surfactant micelles on the silica nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of nanoparticles, which is characterized by a fractal structure. The number of adsorbed micelles on nanoparticle increases from 7 to 152 with the increase in the size of the nanoparticle from 8.2 to 26.4 nm, whereas interestingly the fractal dimension remains same. The aggregate morphology in these systems is expected to be governed by the diffusion limited aggregation.

  7. Subsurface fluids screening by an analytical system employing a diffusion-limited and implantable sampling module deployable with a cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, D.P.; Ilgner, R.H.; Smith, R.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1997-03-01

    An analytical system employing a diffusion-limited sampling module and a direct sampling ion trap for quantitative assessment of subsurface fluids was developed and field tested. The sampling module is deployable with a cone penetrometer. It can be retrieved and/or remain as an implant for an indefinite time period. The device geometry, comprised of two planar membranes enclosing a diffusion cell, provides good implant ruggedness and reliable service in the field. Also, the sampling module is protected within a push pipe housing to extend implant service life. Subsurface volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors, in nanoliter amounts, diffuse through the sampler membrane wall by a diffusion-limited process that is independent of the soil permeability. Sample vapors are transported to the surface for analysis by direct sampling ion trap, or other analytical devices. Metered pressurized or reduced pressure transport (carrier) gas is utilized for sample transport to the surface. The vapors obtained are a function only of the fluid partial pressure and the vapor conductance of the sampler. Thus, quantitative analytical data is obtained regardless of soil conditions. The sampling module was deployed in the field at Dover Air Force Base at depths of 5 to 8.5 feet by the US Army Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS). Relatively small 1.75 inch diameter push pipe and the relatively small vapor samples extracted cause minimal soil disturbance which preserves the integrity of the sampler subsurface surroundings. Analytical results were obtained for the system sampler operating in real time and as an implant where equilibrium was obtained between sampler interior and the external surroundings.

  8. Diffusion Limitations in Root Uptake of Cadmium and Zinc, But Not Nickel, and Resulting Bias in the Michaelis Constant1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Degryse, Fien; Shahbazi, Afsaneh; Verheyen, Liesbeth; Smolders, Erik

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that diffusive boundary layers affect the determination of active transport parameters, but this has been largely overlooked in plant physiological research. We studied the short-term uptake of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) by spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in solutions with or without metal complexes. At same free ion concentration, the presence of complexes, which enhance the diffusion flux, increased the uptake of Cd and Zn, whereas Ni uptake was unaffected. Competition effects of protons on Cd and Zn uptake were observed only at a very large degree of buffering, while competition of magnesium ions on Ni uptake was observed even in unbuffered solutions. These results strongly suggest that uptake of Cd and Zn is limited by diffusion of the free ion to the roots, except at very high degree of solution buffering, whereas Ni uptake is generally internalization limited. All results could be well described by a model that combined a diffusion equation with a competitive Michaelis-Menten equation. Direct uptake of the complex was estimated to be a major contribution only at millimolar concentrations of the complex or at very large ratios of complex to free ion concentration. The true Km for uptake of Cd2+ and Zn2+ was estimated at <5 nm, three orders of magnitude smaller than the Km measured in unbuffered solutions. Published Michaelis constants for plant uptake of Cd and Zn likely strongly overestimate physiological ones and should not be interpreted as an indicator of transporter affinity. PMID:22864584

  9. Development of Arsenic and Iron Biogeochemical Gradients upon Anaerobiosis at Soil Aggregate Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masue-Slowey, Y.; Pallud, C.; Bedore, P.; Tufano, K.; Fendorf, S.

    2008-12-01

    In aerated soils, As release is limited due to the strong interaction between As(V) and soil minerals. However, under anaerobic conditions, As desorption is stimulated by As(V) reduction to As(III) and reductive dissolution/transformation of Fe (hydr)oxides, common hosts of As. The effect of As(V) and Fe(III) reduction on As release has been extensively studied in laboratory batch and column systems; correlation of apparent Fe and As reduction, with concomitant release to pore water, has also been noted under field conditions. What remains unresolved is the coupling of biogeochemical and physical processes that ultimately control As transport within structured media such as soils. Soils are heterogeneous porous media that are comprised of individual aggregates having pores that are dominated by diffusive (aggregate interiors) or advective (aggregate exteriors) transport. As a consequence of physical and chemical differences in the interior and the exterior of aggregates, As(III,V) and Fe(II,III) chemical gradients develop. Here, we examine As release from constructed aggregates exposed to fluctuating redox conditions. Artificial aggregates were made with As(V) adsorbed ferrihydrite-coated sand homogeneously inoculated with Shewanella sp. ANA-3 (model As(V) and Fe(III) reducer) and then fused using an agarose binder into spheres. Aggregates were placed in a flow reactor and saturated flow of aerobic or anaerobic artificial groundwater media was initiated. Redox fluctuated in select systems to examine changes in chemical gradient under changing aeration status. Our results show that within aerated solutions, oxidized aggregate exteriors provide a "gprotective barrier"h against As release despite anoxia within diffusively constrained aggregate interiors. During a transition to anaerobic conditions in advective zones, however, As is released and transport is promoted. Our study illustrates the microscale variation in biogeoechemical processes within soils and the

  10. Role of Diffusion-weighted Imaging in Acute Stroke Management using Low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Resource-limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Chinonye K; Ogbole, Godwin I; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Ogun, Olufunmilola; Adeyinka, Abiodun; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2015-01-01

    A variety of imaging modalities exist for the diagnosis of stroke. Several studies have been carried out to ascertain their contribution to the management of acute stroke and to compare the benefits and limitations of each modality. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been described as the optimal imaging technique for diagnosing acute ischemic stroke, yet limited evidence is available on the value of DWI in the management of ischemic stroke with low-field magnetic resonance (MR) systems. Although high-field MR imaging (MRI) is desirable for DWI, low-field scanners provide an acceptable clinical compromise which is of importance to developing countries posed with the challenge of limited availability of high-field units. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the usefulness of DWI in acute stroke management with low-field MRI scanners and present the experience in Nigeria. PMID:26709342

  11. Limited information estimation of the diffusion-based item response theory model for responses and response times.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Szardenings, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Psychological tests are usually analysed with item response models. Recently, some alternative measurement models have been proposed that were derived from cognitive process models developed in experimental psychology. These models consider the responses but also the response times of the test takers. Two such models are the Q-diffusion model and the D-diffusion model. Both models can be calibrated with the diffIRT package of the R statistical environment via marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation. In this manuscript, an alternative approach to model calibration is proposed. The approach is based on weighted least squares estimation and parallels the standard estimation approach in structural equation modelling. Estimates are determined by minimizing the discrepancy between the observed and the implied covariance matrix. The estimator is simple to implement, consistent, and asymptotically normally distributed. Least squares estimation also provides a test of model fit by comparing the observed and implied covariance matrix. The estimator and the test of model fit are evaluated in a simulation study. Although parameter recovery is good, the estimator is less efficient than the MML estimator. PMID:26853083

  12. Delayed plastic relaxation limit in SiGe islands grown by Ge diffusion from a local source

    SciTech Connect

    Vanacore, G. M.; Zani, M.; Tagliaferri, A.; Nicotra, G.; Bollani, M.; Bonera, E.; Montalenti, F.; Picco, A.; Boioli, F.; Capellini, G.; Isella, G.; Osmond, J.

    2015-03-14

    The hetero-epitaxial strain relaxation in nano-scale systems plays a fundamental role in shaping their properties. Here, the elastic and plastic relaxation of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by surface-thermal-diffusion from a local Ge solid source on Si(100) are studied by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, enabling the simultaneous investigation of the strain relaxation in different dynamical regimes. Islands grown by this technique remain dislocation-free and preserve a structural coherence with the substrate for a base width as large as 350 nm. The results indicate that a delay of the plastic relaxation is promoted by an enhanced Si-Ge intermixing, induced by the surface-thermal-diffusion, which takes place already in the SiGe overlayer before the formation of a critical nucleus. The local entropy of mixing dominates, leading the system toward a thermodynamic equilibrium, where non-dislocated, shallow islands with a low residual stress are energetically stable. These findings elucidate the role of the interface dynamics in modulating the lattice distortion at the nano-scale, and highlight the potential use of our growth strategy to create composition and strain-controlled nano-structures for new-generation devices.

  13. Delayed plastic relaxation limit in SiGe islands grown by Ge diffusion from a local source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacore, G. M.; Nicotra, G.; Zani, M.; Bollani, M.; Bonera, E.; Montalenti, F.; Capellini, G.; Isella, G.; Osmond, J.; Picco, A.; Boioli, F.; Tagliaferri, A.

    2015-03-01

    The hetero-epitaxial strain relaxation in nano-scale systems plays a fundamental role in shaping their properties. Here, the elastic and plastic relaxation of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by surface-thermal-diffusion from a local Ge solid source on Si(100) are studied by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, enabling the simultaneous investigation of the strain relaxation in different dynamical regimes. Islands grown by this technique remain dislocation-free and preserve a structural coherence with the substrate for a base width as large as 350 nm. The results indicate that a delay of the plastic relaxation is promoted by an enhanced Si-Ge intermixing, induced by the surface-thermal-diffusion, which takes place already in the SiGe overlayer before the formation of a critical nucleus. The local entropy of mixing dominates, leading the system toward a thermodynamic equilibrium, where non-dislocated, shallow islands with a low residual stress are energetically stable. These findings elucidate the role of the interface dynamics in modulating the lattice distortion at the nano-scale, and highlight the potential use of our growth strategy to create composition and strain-controlled nano-structures for new-generation devices.

  14. Effects of water-contaminated air on blowoff limits of opposed jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Jentzen, Marilyn E.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Northam, G. Burton

    1988-01-01

    The effects of water-contaminated air on the extinction and flame restoration of the central portion of N2-diluted H2 versus air counterflow diffusion flames are investigated using a coaxial tubular opposed jet burner. The results show that the replacement of N2 contaminant in air by water on a mole for mole basis decreases the maximum sustainable H2 mass flow, just prior to extinction, of the flame. This result contrasts strongly with the analogous substitution of water for N2 in a relatively hot premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, which was shown by Koroll and Mulpuru (1986) to lead to a significant, kinetically controlled increase in laminar burning velocity.

  15. The development of conductive surfaces by a diffusion-limited in situ polymerization of pyrrole in solfonated polystyrene ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    De Jesus, M.C.; Weiss, R.A.

    1996-10-01

    Surface conductive polymer was developed by in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomers (SPS) using a chemical oxidative process. The polymerization only occurred where the monomer and FeCl{sub 3} oxidizing agent could mutually diffuse which resulted in a reaction confined to a surface layer of the host polymer. The amount of PPy incorporated during the polymerization as well as the surface conductivity attained were function of the sulfonation level. The mechanical properties of the composite were significantly improved above Tg, which is believed to be a combination of two effects: formation of a physical network due to intermolecular interactions between the two polymers and mechanical reinforcement due to the rigidity of the PPy.

  16. Early stage fractal growth in thin films below the percolation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batabyal, R.; Mahato, J. C.; Das, Debolina; Dev, B. N.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate the fractal growth of epitaxial Ag thin films on Si(111) surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The initial stage growth of Ag thin films provides islands of compact shape. These compact-shaped two-dimensional (2D) islands follow the Euclidian dimension 2. As the islands grow they become fractal in nature. The fractal (Hausdorff) dimension of the islands depends on the coverage of the Ag thin films. The mechanism responsible for this fractal nature of the Ag nanostructures varies from diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) to diffusion limited cluster aggregation (DLCA).

  17. Waves and aggregation patterns in myxobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshin, Oleg A.; Welch, Roy; Kaiser, Dale; Oster, George

    2004-03-01

    Under starvation conditions, a population of myxobacteria aggregates to build a fruiting body whose shape is species-specific and within which the cells sporulate. Early in this process, cells often pass through a "ripple phase" characterized by traveling linear, concentric, and spiral waves. These waves are different from the waves observed during slime mold aggregation that depend on diffusible morphogens, because myxobacteria communicate by direct contact. The difference is most dramatic when waves collide: rather than annihilating one another, myxobacterial waves appear to pass through one another unchanged. Under certain conditions, the spacing and location of the nascent fruiting bodies is determined by the wavelength and pattern of the waves. Later in fruiting body development, waves are replaced by streams of cells that circulate around small initial aggregates enlarging and rounding them. Still later, pairs of motile aggregates coalesce to form larger aggregates that develop into fruiting bodies. Here we present a mathematical model that quantitatively explains these wave and aggregation phenomena.

  18. Characterizing Unsaturated Diffusion in Porous Tuff Gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Kneafsey, T J; Roberts, J J; Tomutsa, L; Wang, J S

    2003-11-12

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (e.g., the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent of surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents are calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could significantly hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel.

  19. Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

    2003-11-12

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

  20. Oxygen Transport and Stem Cell Aggregation in Stirred-Suspension Bioreactor Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jincheng; Rostami, Mahboubeh Rahmati; Cadavid Olaya, Diana P.; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Stirred-suspension bioreactors are a promising modality for large-scale culture of 3D aggregates of pluripotent stem cells and their progeny. Yet, cells within these clusters experience limitations in the transfer of factors and particularly O2 which is characterized by low solubility in aqueous media. Cultured stem cells under different O2 levels may exhibit significantly different proliferation, viability and differentiation potential. Here, a transient diffusion-reaction model was built encompassing the size distribution and ultrastructural characteristics of embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates. The model was coupled to experimental data from bioreactor and static cultures for extracting the effective diffusivity and kinetics of consumption of O2 within mouse (mESC) and human ESC (hESC) clusters. Under agitation, mESC aggregates exhibited a higher maximum consumption rate than hESC aggregates. Moreover, the reaction-diffusion model was integrated with a population balance equation (PBE) for the temporal distribution of ESC clusters changing due to aggregation and cell proliferation. Hypoxia was found to be negligible for ESCs with a smaller radius than 100 µm but became appreciable for aggregates larger than 300 µm. The integrated model not only captured the O2 profile both in the bioreactor bulk and inside ESC aggregates but also led to the calculation of the duration that fractions of cells experience a certain range of O2 concentrations. The approach described in this study can be employed for gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of O2 on the physiology of stem cells organized in 3D structures. Such frameworks can be extended to encompass the spatial and temporal availability of nutrients and differentiation factors and facilitate the design and control of relevant bioprocesses for the production of stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25032842

  1. Oxygen transport and stem cell aggregation in stirred-suspension bioreactor cultures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jincheng; Rostami, Mahboubeh Rahmati; Cadavid Olaya, Diana P; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S

    2014-01-01

    Stirred-suspension bioreactors are a promising modality for large-scale culture of 3D aggregates of pluripotent stem cells and their progeny. Yet, cells within these clusters experience limitations in the transfer of factors and particularly O2 which is characterized by low solubility in aqueous media. Cultured stem cells under different O2 levels may exhibit significantly different proliferation, viability and differentiation potential. Here, a transient diffusion-reaction model was built encompassing the size distribution and ultrastructural characteristics of embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates. The model was coupled to experimental data from bioreactor and static cultures for extracting the effective diffusivity and kinetics of consumption of O2 within mouse (mESC) and human ESC (hESC) clusters. Under agitation, mESC aggregates exhibited a higher maximum consumption rate than hESC aggregates. Moreover, the reaction-diffusion model was integrated with a population balance equation (PBE) for the temporal distribution of ESC clusters changing due to aggregation and cell proliferation. Hypoxia was found to be negligible for ESCs with a smaller radius than 100 µm but became appreciable for aggregates larger than 300 µm. The integrated model not only captured the O2 profile both in the bioreactor bulk and inside ESC aggregates but also led to the calculation of the duration that fractions of cells experience a certain range of O2 concentrations. The approach described in this study can be employed for gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of O2 on the physiology of stem cells organized in 3D structures. Such frameworks can be extended to encompass the spatial and temporal availability of nutrients and differentiation factors and facilitate the design and control of relevant bioprocesses for the production of stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25032842

  2. Limitation of parallel flow in double diffusive convection: Two- and three-dimensional transitions in a horizontal porous domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mimouni, N.; Chikh, S.; Rahli, O.; Bennacer, R.

    2014-07-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of double diffusion natural convection in an elongated enclosure filled with a binary fluid saturating a porous medium are carried out in the present work. The Boussinesq approximation is made in the formulation of the problem, and Neumann boundary conditions for temperature and concentration are adopted, respectively, on vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity. The used numerical method is based on the control volume approach, with the third order quadratic upstream interpolation scheme in approximating the advection terms. A semi implicit method algorithm is used to handle the velocity-pressure coupling. To avoid the excessively high computer time inherent to the solution of 3D natural convection problems, full approximation storage with full multigrid method is used to solve the problem. A wide range of the controlling parameters (Rayleigh-Darcy number Ra, lateral aspect ratio Ay, Lewis number Le, and the buoyancy ration N) is investigated. We clearly show that increasing the depth of the cavity (i.e., the lateral aspect ratio) has an important effect on the flow patterns. The 2D perfect parallel flows obtained for small lateral aspect ratio are drastically destabilized by increasing the cavity lateral dimension. This yields a 3D fluid motion with a much more complex flow pattern and the usually considered 2D parallel flow model cannot be applied.

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy of PTCDA molecules on the KCl(100) surface in the limit of low coverages: site selection and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Paulheim, Alexander; Müller, Mathias; Marquardt, Christian; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2013-04-14

    We performed fluorescence (FL) and fluorescence excitation (FLE) spectroscopy on the model molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxyl acid dianhydride (PTCDA) for very low coverages (below 1% of a monolayer) on thin (100) oriented KCl films. Two different states of PTCDA molecules can be distinguished in the spectra: an initial state, which is observed directly after deposition of the molecules onto the cold sample at 20 K, and a final state, which is found after intensive optical excitation or thermal annealing of the sample. The spectrum of the final state is blue-shifted with respect to that of the initial state by 130 ± 15 cm(-1) and exhibits lines with significantly reduced widths. This can be explained by diffusion of molecules from initially populated terrace sites to energetically favoured step edge sites. Polarization dependent spectroscopy reveals the same azimuthal orientation of the molecules on both adsorption sites and leads to a model of the adsorption geometry of PTCDA at the KCl step sites. Our experiment demonstrates how optical spectroscopy can be used to investigate kinetic processes of fluorescent molecules on surfaces. PMID:23435674

  4. Fractal dimension of alumina aggregates grown in two dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosa, Judith L.; Cawley, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The concepts of fractal geometry are applied to the analysis of 0.4-micron alumina constrained to agglomerate in two dimensions. Particles were trapped at the bottom surface of a drop of a dilute suspension, and the agglomeration process was directly observed, using an inverted optical microscope. Photographs were digitized and analyzed, using three distinct approaches. The results indicate that the agglomerates are fractal, having a dimension of approximately 1.5, which agrees well with the predictions of the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model.

  5. Diffuse galactic gamma-ray line emission from nucleosynthetic Fe-60, Al-26, and Na-22 - Preliminary limits from HEAO 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Jacobson, A. S.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data obtained during a two-week period in the fall of 1979 with the HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectroscopy experiment have been searched for diffuse galactic plane gamma-ray line emission expected t4 result from the decay of nucleosynthetic Fe-60, Al-26, and Na-22. With the possible exception of the 1809 keV line from Al-26 decay, for which a 2.6-omicron cosmic excess of (6.0 + or - 2.3) x 0.0001 photons/sq cm per sec per rad was measured, no positive detection was made. However, new limits ranging from 1.8 to 11 times 0.0001 photons/sq cm per sec per rad, at the 3-omicron level of confidence, have been placed on diffuse emission in these lines from the vicinity of the galactic center (between -30 and 30 deg). These limits are lower than some theories predict and thus place new constraints on the yields of these radionuclides in explosive nucleosynthesis and on the present rate of galactic nucleosynthesis.

  6. Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After Chemotherapy in Limited-Stage Head-and-Neck Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jeong Il; Nam, Heerim; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Seok Jin

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To report treatment outcomes after combined-modality therapy in patients with Stage I/II head-and-neck (HN) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six eligible patients received sequential chemotherapy and involved-lesion radiation therapy from 1995 to 2006. After a median of four cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or rituximab-plus-CHOP chemotherapy, a median of 41.4 Gy was delivered to the known initial gross lesion with adequate margin (2 to 3 cm). Results: After a median follow-up of 57 months, eight treatment failures were observed: distant metastasis in 8 patients; and locoregional failure in 4 patients. Among the 4 patients with locoregional failure, 3 presented with in-field failures, and 1 both in-field and out-of-field failure (contralateral neck). Rates of overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) at 10 years were 74.1% and 88.9%, respectively. There was no severe side effect except 1 patient with Grade 3 mucositis during and after completion of radiation therapy. Multivariate analyses showed that absence of B symptom (p = 0.022) and normal lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.017) were related to favorable OS, age >60 years (p = 0.033) was related to favorable FFP, and international prognostic index of 0 or 1 was related to favorable OS (p = 0.003) and FFP (p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that patients with Stage I/II HN DLBL did not need whole-neck irradiation. Involved-lesion radiation therapy might reduce radiation toxicity with favorable treatment results.

  7. Stability of a Random Walk Model for Fruiting Body Aggregation in M. xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie-Smith, G. C.; Schüttler, H. B.; Cotter, C.; Shimkets, L.

    2015-03-01

    Myxococcus xanthus exhibits the social starvation behavior of aggregation into a fruiting body containing myxospores able to survive harsh conditions. During fruiting body aggregation, individual bacteria follow random walk paths determined by randomly selected runtimes, turning angles, and speeds. We have simulated this behavior in terms of a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model, re-formulated as a system of integral equations, describing the angle-resolved cell density, R(r, t, θ), at position r and cell orientation angle θ at time t, and angle-integrated ambient cell density ρ(r, t). By way of a linear stability analysis, we investigated whether a uniform cell density R0 will be unstable for a small non-uniform density perturbation δR(r, t, θ). Such instability indicates aggregate formation, whereas stability indicates absence of aggregation. We show that a broadening of CTRW distributions of the random speed and/or random runtimes strongly favors aggregation. We also show that, in the limit of slowly-varying (long-wavelength) density perturbations, the time-dependent linear density response can be approximated by a drift-diffusion model for which we calculate diffusion and drift coefficients as functions of the CTRW model parameters. Funded by the Fungal Genomics and Computational Biology REU at UGA.

  8. Aggregation-structure-elasticity relationship of gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hang-Shing

    Aerogel is a mesoporous, low-density material which is desirable for applications like thermal insulation and low-k interlayer dielectric. However, its lack of mechanical integrity hinders its development. Experiments have shown that aerogels exhibit a scaling relationship E ∝ rho m between modulus E and density rho, with the exponent m usually between 3 and 4. The objective of the dissertation is to use computer modeling to understand how the random aggregation process accounts for the fractal structure and the compliant nature of aerogels. Model gels were created by the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA), which simulates random aggregation leading to the sol-gel transition. Then each resulting structure was modeled as an elastic beam network and numerically compressed using the finite element method (FEM). Analyses showed that the DLCA gels reproduced the scaling relationship after trimming the non-contributive dangling branches from the mechanically efficient looped networks. The dangling bond deflection (DEF) model was therefore developed to model the random rotational movement of the dangling branches and the subsequent loop structure formation. Model gels with extensive loops and negligible dangling branches were simulated by combining the DLCA and DEF models. Representation of the aerogel networks by the DLCADEF models was validated for the resemblance of the fractal geometry and elastic behavior. The lack of mechanical integrity in aerogels is a natural consequence of the random aggregation and the resulting fractal structure. Fractal clusters are created in the early stage of aggregation, each of which is characterized by a dense core and sparse perimeter. These clusters grow in size until they percolate at the gel point by knitting together at the perimeters. The gel structure possesses a "blob-and-link" architecture, with the blobs representing the rigid cores of the fractal clusters, and the links corresponding to the tenuous chains

  9. Influence of aggregate sizes and microstructures on bioremediation assessment of field-contaminated soils in pilot-scale biopiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Akbari, A.; Frigon, D.; Ghoshal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soils and groundwater is an environmental concern. Bioremediation has been frequently considered a cost-effective, less disruptive remedial technology. Formation of soil aggregate fractions in unsaturated soils is generally believed to hinder aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation due to the slow intra-pore diffusion of nutrients and oxygen within the aggregate matrix and to the reduced bioavailability of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, soil aggregates may harbour favourable niches for indigenous bacteria, providing protective microsites against various in situ environmental stresses. The size of the soil aggregates is likely to be a critical factor for these processes and could be interpreted as a relevant marker for biodegradation assessment. There have been only limited attempts in the past to assess petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in unsaturated soils as a function of aggregate size. This study is aimed at investigating the roles of aggregate sizes and aggregate microstructures on biodegradation activity. Field-aged, contaminated, clayey soils were shipped from Norman Wells, Canada. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity by soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a pilot-scale biopile tank (1m L×0.65m W×0.3 m H). A control biopile was maintained without the nutrient amendment but was aerated. The initial concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the field-contaminated soils increased with increasing aggregate sizes, which were classified in three fractions: micro- (<250 μm), meso- (>250-2000 μm) and macro-aggregates (>2000 μm). Compared to the TPH analyses at whole-soil level, the petroleum hydrocarbon analyses based on the aggregate-size levels demonstrated more clearly the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile, heavier hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in the soil. The removal of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons was 44% in macro-aggregates, but only 13% in meso-aggregates. The increased protein

  10. Analysis and design of numerical schemes for gas dynamics 1: Artificial diffusion, upwind biasing, limiters and their effect on accuracy and multigrid convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1994-01-01

    The theory of non-oscillatory scalar schemes is developed in this paper in terms of the local extremum diminishing (LED) principle that maxima should not increase and minima should not decrease. This principle can be used for multi-dimensional problems on both structured and unstructured meshes, while it is equivalent to the total variation diminishing (TVD) principle for one-dimensional problems. A new formulation of symmetric limited positive (SLIP) schemes is presented, which can be generalized to produce schemes with arbitrary high order of accuracy in regions where the solution contains no extrema, and which can also be implemented on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes. Systems of equations lead to waves traveling with distinct speeds and possibly in opposite directions. Alternative treatments using characteristic splitting and scalar diffusive fluxes are examined, together with modification of the scalar diffusion through the addition of pressure differences to the momentum equations to produce full upwinding in supersonic flow. This convective upwind and split pressure (CUSP) scheme exhibits very rapid convergence in multigrid calculations of transonic flow, and provides excellent shock resolution at very high Mach numbers.

  11. Effect of the Viscosity of Silicone Oil on the Aggregation Behavior of C:F Clusters on a Silicone Oil Liquid Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan-Hong; Ye, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Hui-Min; Cui, Jin

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the effect of silicone oil viscosity on the aggregation behavior of C:F clusters deposited on silicone oil liquid substrates with viscous coefficients of 100, 350 and 500mm2/s by C4F8 dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma. The aggregated C:F clusters all exhibit a branch-like fractal structure. However, the fractal dimension decreases from 1.67 to 1.45 with the silicone oil viscous coefficient increasing from 100mm2/s to 500 mm2/s. Owing to the fractal dimension of 1.67 and 1.45, corresponding to the diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) model and the cluster-cluster-aggregation (CCA) model respectively, the results show that the increase of silicone oil viscosity can lead to the change of C:F clusters aggregating on a silicone oil liquid substrate from DLA to CCA growth.

  12. Simulation of Transport and Reaction Using Random Walks: Reactions Without Concentrations and the Automatic Simulation of Drastically Different Thermodynamic--- Versus Diffusion---Limited Reaction Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. A.; Meerschaert, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    We extend the advantages of Lagrangian random walk particle tracking (RWPT) methods that have long been used to simulate advection and dispersion in highly heterogeneous media. By formulating dissolution as a random, independent decay process, the classical continuum rate law is recovered. A novel formulation of the random precipitation process requires a consideration of the probability that two nearby particles will occupy the same differential volume in a given time period. This depends on local mixing (as by diffusion) and the total domain particle number density, which are fixed and therefore easy to calculate. The result is that the effective reaction rate follows two regimes. First, for high thermodynamic reaction probability and/or fast mixing, the classical continuum rate laws are reproduced. These are coded in the Gillespie method. This implies an exponentially fast approach to equilibrium. Second, for diffusion (mixing) limited reaction rates, equilibrium is approached much more slowly, following a power law that differs for 1-, 2-, or 3-d. At long enough times, the classical law of mass action for equilibrium reactions is reproduced, in an ensemble sense, for either rate regime. The same number of parameters for A+B ⇌ C are needed in a probabilistic versus continuum reaction simulation---one each for forward and backward probabilities that correspond to continuum thermodynamic rates. The random nature of the simulations allows for significant disequilibrium in any given region at any time that is independent of the numerical details such as time stepping or particle density. This is exemplified by nearby or intermingled groups of reactants and little or no product---a result that is often noted in the field that is difficult to reconcile with continuum methods or coarse-grained Eulerian models. Our results support both the recent experiments that show mixing-limited reactions and the results of perturbed advection-dispersion-reaction continuum models

  13. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui

    2016-05-01

    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.

  14. Protein structural and surface water rearrangement constitute major events in the earliest aggregation stages of tau

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Anna; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kinnebrew, Maia; Lew, John; Dahlquist, Frederick W.; Han, Songi

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and the mechanism of its progression is poorly understood. Here, we examine the structural and dynamic characteristics of transiently evolving protein aggregates under ambient conditions by directly probing protein surface water diffusivity, local protein segment dynamics, and interprotein packing as a function of aggregation time, along the third repeat domain and C terminus of Δtau187 spanning residues 255–441 of the longest isoform of human tau. These measurements were achieved with a set of highly sensitive magnetic resonance tools that rely on site-specific electron spin labeling of Δtau187. Within minutes of initiated aggregation, the majority of Δtau187 that is initially homogeneously hydrated undergoes structural transformations to form partially structured aggregation intermediates. This is reflected in the dispersion of surface water dynamics that is distinct around the third repeat domain, found to be embedded in an intertau interface, from that of the solvent-exposed C terminus. Over the course of hours and in a rate-limiting process, a majority of these aggregation intermediates proceed to convert into stable β-sheet structured species and maintain their stacking order without exchanging their subunits. The population of β-sheet structured species is >5% within 5 min of aggregation and gradually grows to 50–70% within the early stages of fibril formation, while they mostly anneal block-wisely to form elongated fibrils. Our findings suggest that the formation of dynamic aggregation intermediates constitutes a major event occurring in the earliest stages of tau aggregation that precedes, and likely facilitates, fibril formation and growth. PMID:26712030

  15. A Colloidal Description of Intermolecular Interactions Driving Fibril-Fibril Aggregation of a Model Amphiphilic Peptide.

    PubMed

    Owczarz, Marta; Motta, Anna C; Morbidelli, Massimo; Arosio, Paolo

    2015-07-14

    We apply a kinetic analysis platform to study the intermolecular interactions underlying the colloidal stability of dispersions of charged amyloid fibrils consisting of a model amphiphilic peptide (RADA 16-I). In contrast to the aggregation mechanisms observed in the large majority of proteins and peptides, where several elementary reactions involving both monomers and fibrils are present simultaneously, the system selected in this work allows the specific investigation of the fibril-fibril aggregation process. We examine the intermolecular interactions driving the aggregation reaction at pH 2.0 by changing the buffer composition in terms of salt concentration, type of ion as well as type and concentration of organic solvent. The aggregation kinetics are followed by dynamic light scattering, and the experimental data are simulated by Smoluchowski population balance equations, which allow to estimate the energy barrier between two colliding fibrils in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). When normalized on a dimensionless time weighted on the Fuchs stability ratio, the aggregation profiles under a broad range of conditions collapse on a single master curve, indicating that the buffer composition modifies the aggregation kinetics without affecting the aggregation mechanism. Our results show that the aggregation process does not occur under diffusion-limited conditions. Rather, the reaction rate is limited by the presence of an activation energy barrier that is largely dominated by electrostatic repulsive interactions. Such interactions could be reduced by increasing the concentration of salt, which induces charge screening, or the concentration of organic solvent, which affects the dielectric constant. It is remarkable that the dependence of the activation energy on the ionic strength can be described quantitatively in terms of charge screening effects in the frame of the DLVO theory, although specific anion and cation effects are also observed. While anion

  16. Stability and aggregation of metal oxide nanoparticles in natural aqueous matrices.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Dongxu; Lenihan, Hunter S; Cherr, Gary; Cardinale, Bradley J; Miller, Robert; Ji, Zhaoxia

    2010-03-15

    There is a pressing need for information on the mobility of nanoparticles in the complex aqueous matrices found in realistic environmental conditions. We dispersed three different metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO(2), ZnO and CeO(2)) in samples taken from eight different aqueous media associated with seawater, lagoon, river, and groundwater, and measured their electrophoretic mobility, state of aggregation, and rate of sedimentation. The electrophoretic mobility of the particles in a given aqueous media was dominated by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and ionic strength, and independent of pH. NOM adsorbed onto these nanoparticles significantly reduces their aggregation, stabilizing them under many conditions. The transition from reaction to diffusion limited aggregation occurs at an electrophoretic mobility from around -2 to -0.8 microm s(-1) V(-1) cm. These results are key for designing and interpreting nanoparticle ecotoxicity studies in various environmental conditions. PMID:20151631

  17. Reaction-diffusion modelling of bacterial colony patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, Masayasu; Sakaguchi, Hideo; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2000-07-01

    It is well known from experiments that bacterial species Bacillus subtilis exhibit various colony patterns. These are essentially classified into five types in the morphological diagram, depending on the substrate softness and nutrient concentration. (A) diffusion-limited aggregation-like; (B) Eden-like; (C) concentric ring-like; (D) disk-like; and (E) dense branching morphology-like. There arises the naive question of whether the diversity of colony patterns observed in experiments is caused by different effects or governed by the same underlying principles. Our research has led us to propose reaction-diffusion models to describe the morphological diversity of colony patterns except for Eden-like ones.

  18. Dynamic light scattering investigations of nanoparticle aggregation following a light-induced pH jump.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ryan J; Pristinski, Denis; Migler, Kalman; Douglas, Jack F; Prabhu, Vivek M

    2010-05-21

    There are many important processes where the stability of nanoparticles can change due to changes in solution environment. These processes are often difficult to study under controlled changes to the solution conditions. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the initial kinetics of aggregation of carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles after well-defined pH jumps using aqueous solutions of photoacid generator (PAG). With this approach, the pH of the solution was controlled by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light without the delays from mixing or stirring. The aggregation kinetics of the nanoparticles was extremely sensitive to the solution pH. The UV exposure dose is inversely correlated with the resulting surface charge of the nanoparticles. Decreasing pH decreases the electrostatic repulsion force between particles and leads to aggregation. The reaction-limited or diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics was sensitive to the pH quench depth, relative to the acid-equilibrium constant (pK(a)) of the surface carboxylic acid groups on the nanoparticles. Since numerous PAGs are commercially available, this approach provides a flexible method to study the aggregation of a variety of solvent-dispersed nanoparticle systems. PMID:20499988

  19. Systemic Sclerosis: Diffuse and Limited

    MedlinePlus

    ... the vascular and the immune systems. For example, blood vessels are frequently affected (vasculopathy), leading to spasmodic color changes (red, white, or blue) brought on by cold exposure. This is commonly ...

  20. Additional Survival Benefit of Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Limited Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jeanny; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level.

  1. Stratification of colloidal aggregation coupled with sedimentation.

    PubMed

    González, Agustín E

    2006-12-01

    One of the consequences of sedimentation in colloidal aggregation is the stratification of the system in the sense that, after a sufficiently long elapsed time, the large clusters lie preferentially at the bottom zones of the confinement prism, and the structural and dynamical quantities describing the aggregates depend on the depth at which they are measured. A few years ago a computer simulation using particles for colloidal aggregation coupled with sedimentation was proposed by the author [A. E. González, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1243 (2001)]. In that simulation, due to computational limitations, the mentioned quantities were averaged over all clusters in the prism, independently of the depth at which they were located, in order to have good statistics for the evaluation of the cluster fractal dimension and the cluster size distribution function. In this work we present a computer simulation using particles of colloidal aggregation coupled with sedimentation, for which the clusters in the simulation box represent those clusters inside a layer at a fixed depth and of arbitrary thickness in the prism. It would then be possible to compare the results with an eventual validation experiment, in which an aggregating sample is sipped out with a pipette at a fixed depth in the prism and subjected to further studies, or with a light scattering study in which the laser beam is focused at a fixed depth in the system. We confirm the acceleration of the aggregation rate, followed by a slowing down, compared with an aggregating system driven purely by diffusion (DLCA). In the present system, the large clusters when drifting downwards sweep smaller ones, which in turn occlude the holes and cavities of these large clusters, increasing in this way their compacticity. We also confirm that (i) in some cases of sedimentation strengths and layer depths, the mean width (perpendicular to the gravitational field direction) and the mean height of the large settling clusters scale with the

  2. Particle aggregation mechanisms in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Istvan; Szabo, Tamas; Desert, Anthony; Trefalt, Gregor; Oncsik, Tamas; Borkovec, Michal

    2014-05-28

    Aggregation of sub-micron and nano-sized polystyrene latex particles was studied in room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) and in their water mixtures by time-resolved light scattering. The aggregation rates were found to vary with the IL-to-water molar ratio in a systematic way. At the water side, the aggregation rate is initially small, but increases rapidly with increasing IL content, and reaches a plateau value. This behaviour resembles simple salts, and can be rationalized by the competition of double-layer and van der Waals forces as surmised by the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO). At the IL side, aggregation slows down again. Two generic mechanisms could be identified to be responsible for the stabilization in ILs, namely viscous stabilization and solvation stabilization. Viscous stabilization is important in highly viscous ILs, as it originates from the slowdown of the diffusion controlled aggregation due to the hindrance of the diffusion in a viscous liquid. The solvation stabilization mechanism is system specific, but can lead to a dramatic slowdown of the aggregation rate in ILs. This mechanism is related to repulsive solvation forces that are operational in ILs due to the layering of the ILs close to the surfaces. These two stabilization mechanisms are suspected to be generic, as they both occur in different ILs, and for particles differing in surface functionalities and size. PMID:24727976

  3. Platelet aggregation test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003669.htm Platelet aggregation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The platelet aggregation blood test checks how well platelets , a ...

  4. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  5. Platelet aggregation test

    MedlinePlus

    The platelet aggregation blood test checks how well platelets , a part of blood, clump together and cause blood to clot. ... Decreased platelet aggregation may be due to: Autoimmune ... Fibrin degradation products Inherited platelet function defects ...

  6. Biological framework for soil aggregation: Implications for ecological functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    Soil aggregation is heuristically understood as agglomeration of primary particles bound together by biotic and abiotic cementing agents. The organization of aggregates is believed to be hierarchical in nature; whereby primary particles bond together to form secondary particles and subsequently merge to form larger aggregates. Soil aggregates are not permanent structures, they continuously change in response to internal and external forces and other drivers, including moisture, capillary pressure, temperature, biological activity, and human disturbances. Soil aggregation processes and the resulting functionality span multiple spatial and temporal scales. The intertwined biological and physical nature of soil aggregation, and the time scales involved precluded a universally applicable and quantifiable framework for characterizing the nature and function of soil aggregation. We introduce a biophysical framework of soil aggregation that considers the various modes and factors of the genesis, maturation and degradation of soil aggregates including wetting/drying cycles, soil mechanical processes, biological activity and the nature of primary soil particles. The framework attempts to disentangle mechanical (compaction and soil fragmentation) from in-situ biophysical aggregation and provides a consistent description of aggregate size, hierarchical organization, and life time. It also enables quantitative description of biotic and abiotic functions of soil aggregates including diffusion and storage of mass and energy as well as role of aggregates as hot spots of nutrient accumulation, biodiversity, and biogeochemical cycles.

  7. A Coarse-Grained Model for Polyglutamine Aggregation Modulated by Amphipathic Flanking Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Kiersten M.; Khan, Siddique J.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts is directly relevant to the formation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions in Huntington’s disease. In vitro studies have uncovered the effects of flanking sequences as modulators of the driving forces and mechanisms of polyQ aggregation in sequence segments associated with HD. Specifically, a seventeen-residue amphipathic stretch (N17) that is directly N-terminal to the polyQ tract in huntingtin decreases the overall solubility, destabilizes nonfibrillar aggregates, and accelerates fibril formation. Published results from atomistic simulations showed that the N17 module reduces the frequency of intermolecular association. Our reanalysis of these simulation results demonstrates that the N17 module also reduces interchain entanglements between polyQ domains. These two effects, which are observed on the smallest lengthscales, are incorporated into phenomenological pair potentials and used in coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations to investigate their impact on large-scale aggregation. We analyze the results from Brownian dynamics simulations using the framework of diffusion-limited cluster aggregation. When entanglements prevail, which is true in the absence of N17, small spherical clusters and large linear aggregates form on distinct timescales, in accord with in vitro experiments. Conversely, when entanglements are quenched and a barrier to intermolecular associations is introduced, both of which are attributable to N17, the timescales for forming small species and large linear aggregates become similar. Therefore, the combination of a reduction of interchain entanglements through homopolymeric polyQ and barriers to intermolecular associations appears to be sufficient for providing a minimalist phenomenological rationalization of in vitro observations regarding the effects of N17 on polyQ aggregation. PMID:25185558

  8. A Limiting Current Oxygen Sensor Based on LSGM as a Solid Electrolyte and LSGMN ( N = Fe, Co) as a Dense Diffusion Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Xiang; He, Bei-Gang; Yu, Jing-Kun

    2016-07-01

    The La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1- x Co x )0.8Mg0.2O3- δ (LSGMC x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25) and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1- x Fe x )0.8Mg0.2O3- δ (LSGMF x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples were prepared by solid-state reaction. The structure, conductivity, thermal expansion behavior, and chemical compatibility were studied by XRD, dilatometry, and four-terminal method. A limiting current oxygen sensor was prepared with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 as a solid electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3- δ as a dense diffusion barrier. The oxygen-sensitive characteristic was measured at different oxygen concentrations. The results show that the phase structure of samples is cubic, except La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3- δ , which has a hexagonal structure. The change in activation energy for electrical conductivity and the increase in thermal expansion coefficient are confirmed to correlate with an increasing concentration of oxygen vacancies. The limiting current oxygen sensor exhibits a good limiting current platform and the limiting current depends linearly on the oxygen concentration: I L(mA) = 12.8519 + 2.2667 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 3.31) at 750 °C, I L(mA) = 14.3222 + 3.5180 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.16) at 800 °C, and I L(mA) = 15.2872 + 5.0269x_{{{O}_{{2}} }}(mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.12) at 850 °C. The sensor has the best sensitivity at 850 °C. As the oxygen concentration increases, the interface resistance of the sensor decreases at 850 °C.

  9. A Limiting Current Oxygen Sensor Based on LSGM as a Solid Electrolyte and LSGMN (N = Fe, Co) as a Dense Diffusion Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Xiang; He, Bei-Gang; Yu, Jing-Kun

    2016-06-01

    The La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1-x Co x )0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGMC x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25) and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1-x Fe x )0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGMF x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples were prepared by solid-state reaction. The structure, conductivity, thermal expansion behavior, and chemical compatibility were studied by XRD, dilatometry, and four-terminal method. A limiting current oxygen sensor was prepared with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 as a solid electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3-δ as a dense diffusion barrier. The oxygen-sensitive characteristic was measured at different oxygen concentrations. The results show that the phase structure of samples is cubic, except La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3-δ , which has a hexagonal structure. The change in activation energy for electrical conductivity and the increase in thermal expansion coefficient are confirmed to correlate with an increasing concentration of oxygen vacancies. The limiting current oxygen sensor exhibits a good limiting current platform and the limiting current depends linearly on the oxygen concentration: I L(mA) = 12.8519 + 2.2667 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 3.31) at 750 °C, I L(mA) = 14.3222 + 3.5180 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.16) at 800 °C, and I L(mA) = 15.2872 + 5.0269x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.12) at 850 °C. The sensor has the best sensitivity at 850 °C. As the oxygen concentration increases, the interface resistance of the sensor decreases at 850 °C.

  10. Comparison of Implicit Schemes to Solve Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics with a Flux-limited Diffusion Approximation: Newton--Raphson, Operator Splitting, and Linearization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsu, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2016-03-01

    Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton-Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas & Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical.

  11. Individual based and mean-field modeling of direct aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Martin; Haškovec, Jan; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    We introduce two models of biological aggregation, based on randomly moving particles with individual stochasticity depending on the perceived average population density in their neighborhood. In the first-order model the location of each individual is subject to a density-dependent random walk, while in the second-order model the density-dependent random walk acts on the velocity variable, together with a density-dependent damping term. The main novelty of our models is that we do not assume any explicit aggregative force acting on the individuals; instead, aggregation is obtained exclusively by reducing the individual stochasticity in response to higher perceived density. We formally derive the corresponding mean-field limits, leading to nonlocal degenerate diffusions. Then, we carry out the mathematical analysis of the first-order model, in particular, we prove the existence of weak solutions and show that it allows for measure-valued steady states. We also perform linear stability analysis and identify conditions for pattern formation. Moreover, we discuss the role of the nonlocality for well-posedness of the first-order model. Finally, we present results of numerical simulations for both the first- and second-order model on the individual-based and continuum levels of description. PMID:24926113

  12. Wax crystallization and aggregation in a model crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignati, Emanuele; Piazza, Roberto; Visintin, Ruben F. G.; Lapasin, Romano; D'Antona, Paolo; Lockhart, Thomas P.

    2005-11-01

    The high-molecular-weight paraffinic ('wax') fraction separates from crude oils at low temperatures, a process that can lead to a sol-gel transition when the mass of wax solids exceeds 1-2%. Attractive interactions between the micron-size wax solids suspended in the non-polar medium have been suggested to be responsible for gel formation. The present study reports an optically transparent model oil system, based on a mixture of linear and branched paraffins. Rheological measurements and optical microscopy show that the model system reproduces essential features of crude oil gels. Small-angle light scattering studies conducted at temperatures intermediate between the cloud point (58 °C) and sol-gel transition (39 °C) show that phase separation and wax solid aggregation are rapid processes, leading to the formation of dynamically arrested structures well above the sol-gel transition determined rheologically. Analysis of gravity settling effects has provided a rough estimate for the yield stress of the wax particle network formed (greater than 0.7 Pa at 45 °C and 0.07 Pa at 55 °C). Clusters formed by the aggregated wax solids possess a fractal dimension of about 1.8, consistent with diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation.

  13. Scaling in the aggregation dynamics of a magnetorheological fluid.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-García, P; Melle, Sonia; Pastor, J M; Rubio, M A

    2007-11-01

    We present experimental results on the aggregation dynamics of a magnetorheological fluid, namely, an aqueous suspension of micrometer-sized superparamagnetic particles, under the action of a constant uniaxial magnetic field using video microscopy and image analysis. We find a scaling behavior in several variables describing the aggregation kinetics. The data agree well with the Family-Vicsek scaling ansatz for diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation. The kinetic exponents z and z' are obtained from the temporal evolution of the mean cluster size S(t) and the number of clusters N(t), respectively. The crossover exponent Delta is calculated in two ways: first, from the initial slope of the scaling function; second, from the evolution of the nonaggregated particles, n1(t). We report on results of Brownian two-dimensional dynamics simulations and compare the results with the experiments. Finally, we discuss the differences obtained between the kinetic exponents in terms of the variation in the crossover exponent and relate this behavior to the physical interpretation of the crossover exponent. PMID:18233655

  14. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  15. A competitive aggregation model for flash nanoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Janine Chungyin; Vigil, R D; Fox, R O

    2010-11-15

    Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP) is a novel approach for producing functional nanoparticles stabilized by amphiphilic block copolymers. FNP involves the rapid mixing of a hydrophobic active (organic) and an amphiphilic di-block copolymer with a non-solvent (water) and subsequent co-precipitation of nanoparticles composed of both the organic and copolymer. During this process, the particle size distribution (PSD) is frozen and stabilized by the hydrophilic portion of the amphiphilic di-block copolymer residing on the particle surface. That is, the particle growth is kinetically arrested and thus a narrow PSD can be attained. To model the co-precipitation process, a bivariate population balance equation (PBE) has been formulated to account for the competitive aggregation of the organic and copolymer versus pure organic-organic or copolymer-copolymer aggregation. Aggregation rate kernels have been derived to account for the major aggregation events: free coupling, unimer insertion, and aggregate fusion. The resulting PBE is solved both by direct integration and by using the conditional quadrature method of moments (CQMOM). By solving the competitive aggregation model under well-mixed conditions, it is demonstrated that the PSD is controlled primarily by the copolymer-copolymer aggregation process and that the energy barrier to aggregate fusion plays a key role in determining the PSD. It is also shown that the characteristic aggregation times are smaller than the turbulent mixing time so that the FNP process is always mixing limited. PMID:20800847

  16. Formation of Tethers from Spreading Cellular Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Beaune, Grégory; Winnik, Françoise M; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    Membrane tubes are commonly extruded from cells and vesicles when a point-like force is applied on the membrane. We report here the unexpected formation of membrane tubes from lymph node cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell aggregates in the absence of external applied forces. The spreading of LNCaP aggregates deposited on adhesive glass substrates coated with fibronectin is very limited because cell-cell adhesion is stronger than cell-substrate adhesion. Some cells on the aggregate periphery are very motile and try to escape from the aggregate, leading to the formation of membrane tubes. Tethered networks and exchange of cargos between cells were observed as well. Growth of the tubes is followed by either tube retraction or tube rupture. Hence, even very cohesive cells are successful in escaping aggregates, which may lead to epithelial mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis. We interpret the dynamics of formation and retraction of tubes in the framework of membrane mechanics. PMID:26509898

  17. [The equation for platelet aggregation rate].

    PubMed

    Vrzheshch, P V; Verkhusha, V V; Varfolomeev, S D

    1990-01-01

    A platelet aggregation model in shear flow taking into account the kinetics of intercellular fibrinogen bond formation limited by aggregated platelets rotation time was considered. For this consideration the average duration of platelets interaction in flow with shear rate value G is shown to be pi/4G. One fibrinogen bond is sufficient to form a solid aggregate between two platelets. The equation for single platelets disappearance rate concerned with intercellular fibrinogen bond formation, stochastic character of bond distribution in collided platelets and hydrodynamically controlled interaction time was obtained. The Hill's approximation for the obtained aggregation rate dependences was suggested and appropriate constants were determined. The qualitative criterion of platelets aggregating systems behavior was introduced. PMID:2245229

  18. Relationship between the initial rate of protein aggregation and the lag period for amorphous aggregation.

    PubMed

    Borzova, Vera A; Markossian, Kira A; Kurganov, Boris I

    2014-07-01

    Lag period is an inherent characteristic of the kinetic curves registered for protein aggregation. The appearance of a lag period is connected with the nucleation stage and the stages of the formation of folding or unfolding intermediates prone to aggregation (for example, the stage of protein unfolding under stress conditions). Discovering the kinetic regularities essential for elucidation of the protein aggregation mechanism comprises deducing the relationship between the lag period and aggregation rate. Fändrich proposed the following equation connecting the duration of the lag phase (tlag) and the aggregate growth rate (kg) in the amyloid fibrillation: kg=const/tlag. To establish the relationship between the initial rate of protein aggregation (v) and the lag period (t0) in the case of amorphous aggregation, the kinetics of dithithreitol-induced aggregation of holo-α-lactalbumin from bovine milk was studied (0.1M Na-phosphate buffer, pH 6.8; 37°C). The order of aggregation with respect to protein (n) was calculated from the dependence of the initial rate of protein aggregation on the α-lactalbumin concentration (n=5.3). The following equation connecting v and t0 has been proposed: v(1/n)=const/(t0-t0,lim), where t0,lim is the limiting value of t0 at high concentrations of the protein. PMID:24794200

  19. Controlled aggregation of primary human pancreatic islet cells leads to glucose-responsive pseudoislets comparable to native islets

    PubMed Central

    Hilderink, Janneke; Spijker, Siebe; Carlotti, Françoise; Lange, Lydia; Engelse, Marten; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Koning, Eelco; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart

    2015-01-01

    Clinical islet transplantation is a promising treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatic islets vary in size and shape affecting their survival and function after transplantation because of mass transport limitations. To reduce diffusion restrictions and improve islet cell survival, the generation of islets with optimal dimensions by dispersion followed by reassembly of islet cells, can help limit the length of diffusion pathways. This study describes a microwell platform that supports the controlled and reproducible production of three-dimensional pancreatic cell clusters of human donor islets. We observed that primary human islet cell aggregates with a diameter of 100–150 μm consisting of about 1000 cells best resembled intact pancreatic islets as they showed low apoptotic cell death (<2%), comparable glucose-responsiveness and increasing PDX1, MAFA and INSULIN gene expression with increasing aggregate size. The re-associated human islet cells showed an a-typical core shell configuration with beta cells predominantly on the outside unlike human islets, which became more randomized after implantation similar to native human islets. After transplantation of these islet cell aggregates under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice, human C-peptide was detected in the serum indicating that beta cells retained their endocrine function similar to human islets. The agarose microwell platform was shown to be an easy and very reproducible method to aggregate pancreatic islet cells with high accuracy providing a reliable tool to study cell–cell interactions between insuloma and/or primary islet cells. PMID:25782016

  20. Controlled aggregation of primary human pancreatic islet cells leads to glucose-responsive pseudoislets comparable to native islets.

    PubMed

    Hilderink, Janneke; Spijker, Siebe; Carlotti, Françoise; Lange, Lydia; Engelse, Marten; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Koning, Eelco; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart

    2015-08-01

    Clinical islet transplantation is a promising treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatic islets vary in size and shape affecting their survival and function after transplantation because of mass transport limitations. To reduce diffusion restrictions and improve islet cell survival, the generation of islets with optimal dimensions by dispersion followed by reassembly of islet cells, can help limit the length of diffusion pathways. This study describes a microwell platform that supports the controlled and reproducible production of three-dimensional pancreatic cell clusters of human donor islets. We observed that primary human islet cell aggregates with a diameter of 100-150 μm consisting of about 1000 cells best resembled intact pancreatic islets as they showed low apoptotic cell death (<2%), comparable glucose-responsiveness and increasing PDX1, MAFA and INSULIN gene expression with increasing aggregate size. The re-associated human islet cells showed an a-typical core shell configuration with beta cells predominantly on the outside unlike human islets, which became more randomized after implantation similar to native human islets. After transplantation of these islet cell aggregates under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice, human C-peptide was detected in the serum indicating that beta cells retained their endocrine function similar to human islets. The agarose microwell platform was shown to be an easy and very reproducible method to aggregate pancreatic islet cells with high accuracy providing a reliable tool to study cell-cell interactions between insuloma and/or primary islet cells. PMID:25782016

  1. Response of Microbial Soil Carbon Mineralization Rates to Oxygen Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiluweit, M.; Denney, A.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is known to be controlled by climatic factors as well as molecular structure, mineral-organic associations, and physical protection. What remains elusive is to what extent oxygen (O2) limitations impact overall rates of microbial SOM mineralization (oxidation) in soils. Even within upland soils that are aerobic in bulk, factors limiting O2 diffusion such as texture and soil moisture can result in an abundance of anaerobic microsites in the interior of soil aggregates. Variation in ensuing anaerobic respiration pathways can further impact SOM mineralization rates. Using a combination of (first) aggregate model systems and (second) manipulations of intact field samples, we show how limitations on diffusion and carbon bioavailability interact to impose anaerobic conditions and associated respiration constraints on SOM mineralization rates. In model aggregates, we examined how particle size (soil texture) and amount of dissolved organic carbon (bioavailable carbon) affect O2 availability and distribution. Monitoring electron acceptor profiles (O2, NO3-, Mn and Fe) and SOM transformations (dissolved, particulate, mineral-associated pools) across the resulting redox gradients, we then determined the distribution of operative microbial metabolisms and their cumulative impact on SOM mineralization rates. Our results show that anaerobic conditions decrease SOM mineralization rates overall, but those are partially offset by the concurrent increases in SOM bioavailability due to transformations of protective mineral phases. In intact soil aggregates collected from soils varying in texture and SOM content, we mapped the spatial distribution of anaerobic microsites. Optode imaging, microsensor profiling and 3D tomography revealed that soil texture regulates overall O2 availability in aggregate interiors, while particulate SOM in biopores appears to control the fine-scale distribution of anaerobic microsites. Collectively, our

  2. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  3. Aggregation behaviour of biohybrid microgels from elastin-like recombinamers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Smriti; Demco, Dan Eugen; Rahimi, Khosrow; Fechete, Radu; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos; Möller, Martin

    2016-07-20

    Investigation of the aggregation behavior of biohybrid microgels, which can potentially be used as drug carriers, is an important topic, because aggregation not only causes loss of activity, but also toxicity and immunogenicity. To study this effect we synthesized microgels from elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs) using the miniemulsion technique. The existence of aggregation for such biohybrid microgels at different concentrations and temperatures was studied by different methods which include dynamic light scattering (DLS), (1)H high-resolution magic angle sample spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy, relaxometry and diffusometry. A hysteresis effect was detected in the process of aggregation by DLS as a function of temperature that strongly depends on ELR microgel concentration. The aggregation process was further quantitatively analyzed by the concentration dependence of the (1)H amino-acid residue chemical shifts and microgel diffusivity measured by NMR methods using the population balance kinetic aggregation model. PMID:27378252

  4. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  5. Macromolecular Crowding Studies of Amino Acids Using NMR Diffusion Measurements and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Amninder; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Willis, Scott; Torres, Allan; Price, William

    2015-02-01

    Molecular crowding occurs when the total concentration of macromolecular species in a solution is so high that a considerable proportion of the volume is physically occupied and therefore not accessible to other molecules. This results in significant changes in the solution properties of the molecules in such systems. Macromolecular crowding is ubiquitous in biological systems due to the generally high intracellular protein concentrations. The major hindrance to understanding crowding is the lack of direct comparison of experimental data with theoretical or simulated data. Self-diffusion is sensitive to changes in the molecular weight and shape of the diffusing species, and the available diffusion space (i.e., diffusive obstruction). Consequently, diffusion measurements are a direct means for probing crowded systems including the self-association of molecules. In this work, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of the self-diffusion of four amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine and phenylalanine) up to their solubility limit in water were compared directly with molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental data were then analyzed using various models of aggregation and obstruction. Both experimental and simulated data revealed that the diffusion of both water and the amino acids were sensitive to the amino acid concentration. The direct comparison of the simulated and experimental data afforded greater insights into the aggregation and obstruction properties of each amino acid.

  6. Thermal Aggregation of Recombinant Protective Antigen: Aggregate Morphology and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Daniel J.; Miller, Aline F.

    2013-01-01

    The thermal aggregation of the biopharmaceutical protein recombinant protective antigen (rPA) has been explored, and the associated kinetics and thermodynamic parameters have been extracted using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopies (ESEMs) and ultraviolet light scattering spectroscopy (UV-LSS). Visual observations and turbidity measurements provided an overall picture of the aggregation process, suggesting a two-step mechanism. Microscopy was used to examine the structure of aggregates, revealing an open morphology formed by the clustering of the microscopic aggregate particles. UV-LSS was used and developed to elucidate the growth rate of these particles, which formed in the first stage of the aggregation process. Their growth rate is observed to be high initially, before falling to converge on a final size that correlates with the ESEM data. The results suggest that the particle growth rate is limited by rPA monomer concentration, and by obtaining data over a range of incubation temperatures, an approach was developed to model the aggregation kinetics and extract the rate constants and the temperature dependence of aggregation. In doing so, we quantified the susceptibility of rPA aggregation under different temperature and environmental conditions and moreover demonstrated a novel use of UV spectrometry to monitor the particle aggregation quantitatively, in situ, in a nondestructive and time-resolved manner. PMID:23476645

  7. Insights into asphaltene aggregation in the Na-montmorillonite interlayer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinzhe; Chen, Daoyi; Wu, Guozhong

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to provide insights into the diffusion and aggregation of asphaltenes in the Na-montmorillonite (MMT) interlayer with different water saturation, salinity, interlayer space and humic substances. The molecular configuration, density profile, diffusion coefficient and aggregation intensity were determined by molecular dynamic simulation, while the 3D topography and particle size of the aggregates were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Results indicated that the diffusivity of asphaltenes was up to 5-fold higher in the MMT interlayer filled with fresh water than with saline water (salinity: 35‰). However, salinity had little impact on the asphaltene aggregation. This study also showed a marked decrease in the mobility of asphaltenes with decrease in the pore water content and the interlayer space of MMT. This was more pronounced in the organo-MMT where the humic substances were present. The co-aggregation process resulted in the sequestration of asphaltenes in the hollow cone-shaped cavity of humic substances in the MMT interlayer, which decreased the asphaltene diffusion by up to one-order of magnitude and increased the asphaltene aggregation by about 33%. These findings have important ramifications for evaluating the fate and transport of heavy fractions of the residual oil in the contaminated soils. PMID:27362529

  8. The Effect of Limited Diffusion and Wet-Dry Cycling on Reversible Polymerization Reactions: Implications for Prebiotic Synthesis of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing problem for the origins of life is that polymerization of many biopolymers, including nucleic acids and peptides, is thermodynamically unfavourable in aqueous solution. If bond making and breaking is reversible, monomers and very short oligomers predominate. Recent experiments have shown that wetting and drying cycles can overcome this problem and drive the formation of longer polymers. In the dry phase, bond formation is favourable, but diffusion is restricted, and bonds only form between monomers that are initially close together. In the wet phase, some of the bonds are hydrolyzed. However, repositioning of the molecules allows new bonds to form in the next dry phase, leading to an increase in mean polymer length. Here, we consider a simple theoretical model that explains the effect of cycling. There is an equilibrium length distribution with a high mean length that could be achieved if diffusion occurred freely in the dry phase. This equilibrium is inaccessible without diffusion. A single dry cycle without diffusion leads to mean lengths much shorter than this. Repeated cycling leads to a significant increase in polymerization relative to a single cycle. In the most favourable case, cycling leads to the same equilibrium length distribution as would be achieved if free diffusion were possible in the dry phase. These results support the RNA World scenario by explaining a potential route to synthesis of long RNAs; however, they also imply that cycling would be beneficial to the synthesis of other kinds of polymers, including peptides, where bond formation involves a condensation reaction. PMID:27338479

  9. The Effect of Limited Diffusion and Wet–Dry Cycling on Reversible Polymerization Reactions: Implications for Prebiotic Synthesis of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing problem for the origins of life is that polymerization of many biopolymers, including nucleic acids and peptides, is thermodynamically unfavourable in aqueous solution. If bond making and breaking is reversible, monomers and very short oligomers predominate. Recent experiments have shown that wetting and drying cycles can overcome this problem and drive the formation of longer polymers. In the dry phase, bond formation is favourable, but diffusion is restricted, and bonds only form between monomers that are initially close together. In the wet phase, some of the bonds are hydrolyzed. However, repositioning of the molecules allows new bonds to form in the next dry phase, leading to an increase in mean polymer length. Here, we consider a simple theoretical model that explains the effect of cycling. There is an equilibrium length distribution with a high mean length that could be achieved if diffusion occurred freely in the dry phase. This equilibrium is inaccessible without diffusion. A single dry cycle without diffusion leads to mean lengths much shorter than this. Repeated cycling leads to a significant increase in polymerization relative to a single cycle. In the most favourable case, cycling leads to the same equilibrium length distribution as would be achieved if free diffusion were possible in the dry phase. These results support the RNA World scenario by explaining a potential route to synthesis of long RNAs; however, they also imply that cycling would be beneficial to the synthesis of other kinds of polymers, including peptides, where bond formation involves a condensation reaction. PMID:27338479

  10. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  11. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  12. Multinomial diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced fluctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete particles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N→∞, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  13. Multinomial diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-24

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced uctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete par- ticles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N ! 1, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  14. Cluster-Cluster Aggregation Calculations of Fractal Haze Particles: Titan and the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell-Martinez, Bernice; Boness, David

    2010-10-01

    The atmosphere of the Archean Earth (3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago) is thought to have been dominated by a thick hydrocarbon haze similar to that of Titan's current atmosphere. To understand radiative transport in the atmospheres of the early Earth and of Titan, it is necessary to compute light scattering in UV, visible, and IR wavelength ranges for realistic fractal aggregate hydrocarbon aerosol particles. We report preliminary work on MATLAB, True BASIC, and Fortran programs to simulate the growth of fractal aggregate aerosols through diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) and cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) physical processes. The results of these computations are being used with a T-Matrix light scattering program to test recently published, widely-reported conclusions about the early Earth and the faint young Sun paradox [E. T. Wolf and O. B. Toon, Science 328, 1266 (2010)]. This modeling is also relevant to understanding atmospheric carbonaceous soot aerosol anthropogenic and natural effects on climate change of Earth today.

  15. Hindered diffusion of coal liquids. Quarterly report No. 10, December 18, 1994--March 17, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M.; Webster, I.A.

    1995-09-01

    The design of industrial catalysts requires that the diffusivity of the reacting species within the catalyst be accurately known. Nowhere is this more important than in the area of coal liquefaction and upgrading of coal liquids. In this area one is faced with the task of processing a number of heavy oils, containing metals and other contaminants, in a variety of process dependent solvents. It is important, therefore, on the basis of predicting catalyst activity, selectivity, and optimizing reactor performance, that the diffusivities of these oil species be accurately known. Throughout the experimental runs we will utilize a high pressure, high temperature diffusion of cell system. This diffusion system has been tested through the measurement of the diffusivity of a number of model coal liquids. The following were accomplished this quarter: During this quarter, we have initiated a series of transport investigations under high temperature (360{degrees}) high pressure (500 psi, H{sub 2}) reactive conditions. We have also continued our studies of formation and precipitation of fractal molecular aggregates in porous media. Small-angle scattering as well as precipitation data are analyzed to delineate the structure of the molecular colloidal aggregates that are formed, when a fluid is injected into the pore space of a porous medium to react with, or displace the in-place fluid. The results suggest that these colloidal structures are diffusion-limited particle and cluster aggregates. This is the first conclusive evidence for fractality of such molecular aggregates, which has important implications for their stability and molecular weight distribution, as well as modelling their flow and precipitation in a porous medium.

  16. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  17. Mechanisms and Rates of Bacterial Colonization of Sinking Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Ploug, Helle; Tang, Kam

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the rate at which bacteria colonize aggregates is a key to understanding microbial turnover of aggregates. We used encounter models based on random walk and advection-diffusion considerations to predict colonization rates from the bacteria's motility patterns (swimming speed, tumbling frequency, and turn angles) and the hydrodynamic environment (stationary versus sinking aggregates). We then experimentally tested the models with 10 strains of bacteria isolated from marine particles: two strains were nonmotile; the rest were swimming at 20 to 60 μm s−1 with different tumbling frequency (0 to 2 s−1). The rates at which these bacteria colonized artificial aggregates (stationary and sinking) largely agreed with model predictions. We report several findings. (i) Motile bacteria rapidly colonize aggregates, whereas nonmotile bacteria do not. (ii) Flow enhances colonization rates. (iii) Tumbling strains colonize aggregates enriched with organic substrates faster than unenriched aggregates, while a nontumbling strain did not. (iv) Once on the aggregates, the bacteria may detach and typical residence time is about 3 h. Thus, there is a rapid exchange between attached and free bacteria. (v) With the motility patterns observed, freely swimming bacteria will encounter an aggregate in <1 day at typical upper-ocean aggregate concentrations. This is faster than even starving bacteria burn up their reserves, and bacteria may therefore rely solely on aggregates for food. (vi) The net result of colonization and detachment leads to a predicted equilibrium abundance of attached bacteria as a function of aggregate size, which is markedly different from field observations. This discrepancy suggests that inter- and intraspecific interactions among bacteria and between bacteria and their predators may be more important than colonization in governing the population dynamics of bacteria on natural aggregates. PMID:12147501

  18. Laser light scattering as a probe of fractal colloid aggregates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David A.; Lin, M. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The extensive use of laser light scattering is reviewed, both static and dynamic, in the study of colloid aggregation. Static light scattering enables the study of the fractal structure of the aggregates, while dynamic light scattering enables the study of aggregation kinetics. In addition, both techniques can be combined to demonstrate the universality of the aggregation process. Colloidal aggregates are now well understood and therefore represent an excellent experimental system to use in the study of the physical properties of fractal objects. However, the ultimate size of fractal aggregates is fundamentally limited by gravitational acceleration which will destroy the fractal structure as the size of the aggregates increases. This represents a great opportunity for spaceborne experimentation, where the reduced g will enable the growth of fractal structures of sufficient size for many interesting studies of their physical properties.

  19. Public Policy, Technology Adoption, and Aggregate Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, W.; Kopp, R.J.; Morgenstern, R.D.; Pizer, W.A.; Shih, J.S.

    1999-04-01

    This research examines the factors that influence the adoption of new energy-saving technologies among U.S. manufacturing plants and explores their potential impact on aggregate energy efficiency. We conduct this analysis using two models: a conventional diffusion model and a stand-alone model of new technology adoption we develop in this paper. The latter model allows us to compute effects on aggregate efficiency based solely on adoption data.

  20. Modeling of pickup ion distributions in the Halley cometosheath: Empirical limits on rates of ionization, diffusion, loss and creation of fast neutral atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1994-01-01

    The shape of the velocity distribution of water group ions observed by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer on its approach to comet Halley is modeled to derive empirical values for the rates of ionization, energy diffusion, and loss in the midcometosheath. The model includes the effect of rapid pitch angle scattering into a bispherical shell distribution as well as the effect of the magnetization of the plasma on the charge exchange loss rate. It is found that the average rate of ionization of cometary neutrals in this region of the cometosheath appears to be of the order of a factor 3 faster than the `standard' rates approx. 1 x 10(exp -6)/s that are generally assumed to model the observations in most regions of the comet environment. For the region of the coma studied in the present work (approx. 1 - 2 x 10(exp 5) km from the nucleus), the inferred energy diffusion coefficient is D(sub 0) approx. equals 0.0002 to 0.0005 sq km/cu s, which is generally lower than values used in other models. The empirically obtained loss rate appears to be about an order of magnitude greater than can be explained by charge exchange with the `standard' cross section of approx. 2 x 10(exp -15)sq cm. However such cross sections are not well known and for water group ion/water group neutral interactions, rates as high as 8 x 10(exp -15) sq cm have previously been suggested in the literature. Assuming the entire loss rate is due to charge exchange yields a rate of creation of fast neutral atoms of the order of approx. 10(exp -4)/s or higher, depending on the level of velocity diffusion. The fast neutrals may, in turn, be partly responsible for the higher-than-expected ionization rate.

  1. Osmostress-Induced Cell Volume Loss Delays Yeast Hog1 Signaling by Limiting Diffusion Processes and by Hog1-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Roja; Adiels, Caroline Beck; Smedh, Maria; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission progresses via a series of transient protein-protein interactions and protein movements, which require diffusion within a cell packed with different molecules. Yeast Hog1, the effector protein kinase of the High Osmolarity Glycerol pathway, translocates transiently from the cytosol to the nucleus during adaptation to high external osmolarity. We followed the dynamics of osmostress-induced cell volume loss and Hog1 nuclear accumulation upon exposure of cells to different NaCl concentrations. While Hog1 nuclear accumulation peaked within five minutes following mild osmotic shock it was delayed up to six-fold under severe stress. The timing of Hog1 nuclear accumulation correlated with the degree of cell volume loss and the cells capacity to recover. Also the nuclear translocation of Msn2, the transcription factor of the general stress response pathway, is delayed upon severe osmotic stress suggesting a general phenomenon. We show by direct measurements that the general diffusion rate of Hog1 in the cytoplasm as well as its rate of nuclear transport are dramatically reduced following severe volume reduction. However, neither Hog1 phosphorylation nor Msn2 nuclear translocation were as much delayed as Hog1 nuclear translocation. Our data provide direct evidence that signaling slows down during cell volume compression, probably as a consequence of molecular crowding. Hence one purpose of osmotic adaptation is to restore optimal diffusion rates for biochemical and cell biological processes. In addition, there may be mechanisms slowing down especially Hog1 nuclear translocation under severe stress in order to prioritize Hog1 cytosolic targets. PMID:24278344

  2. Three-dimensional chemotaxis-driven aggregation of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Puliafito, Alberto; De Simone, Alessandro; Seano, Giorgio; Gagliardi, Paolo Armando; Di Blasio, Laura; Chianale, Federica; Gamba, Andrea; Primo, Luca; Celani, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important steps in tumor progression involves the transformation from a differentiated epithelial phenotype to an aggressive, highly motile phenotype, where tumor cells invade neighboring tissues. Invasion can occur either by isolated mesenchymal cells or by aggregates that migrate collectively and do not lose completely the epithelial phenotype. Here, we show that, in a three-dimensional cancer cell culture, collective migration of cells eventually leads to aggregation in large clusters. We present quantitative measurements of cluster velocity, coalescence rates, and proliferation rates. These results cannot be explained in terms of random aggregation. Instead, a model of chemotaxis-driven aggregation – mediated by a diffusible attractant – is able to capture several quantitative aspects of our results. Experimental assays of chemotaxis towards culture conditioned media confirm this hypothesis. Theoretical and numerical results further suggest an important role for chemotactic-driven aggregation in spreading and survival of tumor cells. PMID:26471876

  3. Three-dimensional chemotaxis-driven aggregation of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Puliafito, Alberto; De Simone, Alessandro; Seano, Giorgio; Gagliardi, Paolo Armando; Di Blasio, Laura; Chianale, Federica; Gamba, Andrea; Primo, Luca; Celani, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important steps in tumor progression involves the transformation from a differentiated epithelial phenotype to an aggressive, highly motile phenotype, where tumor cells invade neighboring tissues. Invasion can occur either by isolated mesenchymal cells or by aggregates that migrate collectively and do not lose completely the epithelial phenotype. Here, we show that, in a three-dimensional cancer cell culture, collective migration of cells eventually leads to aggregation in large clusters. We present quantitative measurements of cluster velocity, coalescence rates, and proliferation rates. These results cannot be explained in terms of random aggregation. Instead, a model of chemotaxis-driven aggregation - mediated by a diffusible attractant - is able to capture several quantitative aspects of our results. Experimental assays of chemotaxis towards culture conditioned media confirm this hypothesis. Theoretical and numerical results further suggest an important role for chemotactic-driven aggregation in spreading and survival of tumor cells. PMID:26471876

  4. Mixed weak-perturbative solution method for Maxwell's equations of diffusion with Müller's partial stress tensor in the low velocity limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faliagas, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    Maxwell's theory of multicomponent diffusion and subsequent extensions are based on systems of mass and momentum conservation equations. The partial stress tensor, which is involved in these equations, is expressed in terms of the gradients of velocity fields by statistical and continuum mechanical methods. We propose a method for the solution of Maxwell's equations of diffusion coupled with Müller's expression for the partial stress tensor. The proposed method consists in a singular perturbation process, followed by a weak (finite element) analysis of the resulting PDE systems. The singularity involved in the obtained equations was treated by a special technique, by which lower-order systems were supplemented by proper combinations of higher-order equations. The method proved particularly efficient for the solution of the Maxwell-Müller system, eventually reducing the number of unknown fields to that of the classical Navier-Stokes/Fick system. It was applied to the classical Stefan tube problem and the Hagen-Poiseuille flow in a hollow-fiber membrane tube. Numerical results for these problems are presented, and compared with the Navier-Stokes/Fick approximation. It is shown that the 0-th order term of the Maxwell-Müller equations differs from a properly formulated Navier-Stokes/Fick system, by a numerically insignificant amount. Numerical results for 1st-order terms indicate a good agreement of the classical approximation (with properly formulated Navier-Stokes and Fick's equations) with the Maxwell-Müller system, in the studied cases.

  5. Aggregation of commercial heparin samples in storage.

    PubMed

    Racey, T J; Rochon, P; Awang, D V; Neville, G A

    1987-04-01

    The size distribution of heparin aggregates in commercial heparin preparations was examined with the technique of quasi-elastic light scattering. The size distributions were initially examined to determine if any relationship existed between the physical state of the heparin preparation, its age, and its biological activity. It was found that commercial heparin samples change their aggregation state in storage. The amount of aggregation appears to be related to the amount of time in storage and to the storage history. Storage of the samples under conditions of refrigeration and handling represents the storage history that most noticeably increases the aggregation state of the heparin preparations. These aggregates, once formed, appear to be stable. The biological activity of the heparin samples (as measured by the official test) was found to still fall within the accepted limits, independent of the aggregation state of the samples. It is not known what effect, if any, a change in the physical state of the commercial preparation should have on its biological activity. PMID:3598891

  6. Multiparticle sintering dynamics: from fractal-like aggregates to compact structures.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, Max L; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2011-05-17

    Multiparticle sintering is encountered in almost all high temperature processes for material synthesis (titania, silica, and nickel) and energy generation (e.g., fly ash formation) resulting in aggregates of primary particles (hard- or sinter-bonded agglomerates). This mechanism of particle growth is investigated quantitatively by mass and energy balances during viscous sintering of amorphous aerosol materials (e.g., SiO(2) and polymers) that typically have a distribution of sizes and complex morphology. This model is validated at limited cases of sintering between two (equally or unequally sized) particles, and chains of particles. The evolution of morphology, surface area and radii of gyration of multiparticle aggregates are elucidated for various sizes and initial fractal dimension. For each of these structures that had been generated by diffusion limited (DLA), cluster-cluster (DLCA), and ballistic particle-cluster agglomeration (BPCA) the surface area evolution is monitored and found to scale differently than that of the radius of gyration (moment of inertia). Expressions are proposed for the evolution of fractal dimension and the surface area of aggregates undergoing viscous sintering. These expressions are important in design of aerosol processes with population balance equations (PBE) and/or fluid dynamic simulations for material synthesis or minimization and even suppression of particle formation. PMID:21488641

  7. The cell aggregating propensity of probiotic actinobacterial isolates: isolation and characterization of the aggregation inducing peptide pheromone.

    PubMed

    Muthu Selvam, Ramu; Vinothini, Gopal; Palliyarai Thaiyammal, Sethuramalingam; Latha, Selvanathan; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Ali Alharbi, Sulaiman; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2016-01-01

    The auto-aggregating ability of a probiotic is a prerequisite for colonization and protection of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas co-aggregation provides a close interaction with pathogenic bacteria. Peptide pheromone mediated signaling has been studied in several systems. However, it has not yet been explored in prokaryotes, especially actinobacteria. Hence, in the present study, the diffusible aggregation promoting factor was purified from the culture supernatant of a potent actinobacterial probiont and characterized using 20 different actinobacterial cultures isolated from the gut region of chicken and goat. The results showed that the pheromone-like compound induces the aggregation propensity of treated isolates. The factor was found to be a heat stable, acidic pH resistant, low molecular weight peptide which enhances the biofilm forming ability of other actinobacterial isolates. The aggregation promoting factor represents a bacterial sex factor (pheromone) and its characterization confirms its usage in the probiotic formulation. PMID:26754920

  8. Non-Trivial Feature Derivation for Intensifying Feature Detection Using LIDAR Datasets Through Allometric Aggregation Data Analysis Applying Diffused Hierarchical Clustering for Discriminating Agricultural Land Cover in Portions of Northern Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, Ricardo G.; Pelayo, Jigg L.; Mozo, Ray Mari N.; Salig, James B., Jr.; Bantugan, Jojemar

    2016-06-01

    Leaning on the derived results conducted by Central Mindanao University Phil-LiDAR 2.B.11 Image Processing Component, the paper attempts to provides the application of the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived products in arriving quality Landcover classification considering the theoretical approach of data analysis principles to minimize the common problems in image classification. These are misclassification of objects and the non-distinguishable interpretation of pixelated features that results to confusion of class objects due to their closely-related spectral resemblance, unbalance saturation of RGB information is a challenged at the same time. Only low density LiDAR point cloud data is exploited in the research denotes as 2 pts/m2 of accuracy which bring forth essential derived information such as textures and matrices (number of returns, intensity textures, nDSM, etc.) in the intention of pursuing the conditions for selection characteristic. A novel approach that takes gain of the idea of object-based image analysis and the principle of allometric relation of two or more observables which are aggregated for each acquisition of datasets for establishing a proportionality function for data-partioning. In separating two or more data sets in distinct regions in a feature space of distributions, non-trivial computations for fitting distribution were employed to formulate the ideal hyperplane. Achieving the distribution computations, allometric relations were evaluated and match with the necessary rotation, scaling and transformation techniques to find applicable border conditions. Thus, a customized hybrid feature was developed and embedded in every object class feature to be used as classifier with employed hierarchical clustering strategy for cross-examining and filtering features. This features are boost using machine learning algorithms as trainable sets of information for a more competent feature detection. The product classification in this

  9. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  10. Tracking Hypoxic Signaling within Encapsulated Cell Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Skiles, Matthew L.; Sahai, Suchit; Blanchette, James O.

    2011-01-01

    nutrients, notably oxygen, is therefore reduced and limited by diffusion. This reduced oxygen availability may especially impact β-cells whose insulin secretory function is highly dependent on oxygen11-13. Capsule composition and geometry will also impact diffusion rates and lengths for oxygen. Therefore, we also describe a technique for identifying hypoxic cells within our PEG capsules. Infection of the cells with a recombinant adenovirus allows for a fluorescent signal to be produced when intracellular hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathways are activated14. As HIFs are the primary regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, they represent an ideal target marker for detection of hypoxic signaling15. This approach allows for easy and rapid detection of hypoxic cells. Briefly, the adenovirus has the sequence for a red fluorescent protein (Ds Red DR from Clontech) under the control of a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) trimer. Stabilization of HIF-1 by low oxygen conditions will drive transcription of the fluorescent protein (Figure 1). Additional details on the construction of this virus have been published previously15. The virus is stored in 10% glycerol at -80° C as many 150 μL aliquots in 1.5 mL centrifuge tubes at a concentration of 3.4 x 1010 pfu/mL. Previous studies in our lab have shown that MIN6 cells encapsulated as aggregates maintain their viability throughout 4 weeks of culture in 20% oxygen. MIN6 aggregates cultured at 2 or 1% oxygen showed both signs of necrotic cells (still about 85-90% viable) by staining with ethidium bromide as well as morphological changes relative to cells in 20% oxygen. The smooth spherical shape of the aggregates displayed at 20% was lost and aggregates appeared more like disorganized groups of cells. While the low oxygen stress does not cause a pronounced drop in viability, it is clearly impacting MIN6 aggregation and function as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion15. Western blot analysis of encapsulated

  11. Tracking hypoxic signaling within encapsulated cell aggregates.

    PubMed

    Skiles, Matthew L; Sahai, Suchit; Blanchette, James O

    2011-01-01

    , is therefore reduced and limited by diffusion. This reduced oxygen availability may especially impact β-cells whose insulin secretory function is highly dependent on oxygen. Capsule composition and geometry will also impact diffusion rates and lengths for oxygen. Therefore, we also describe a technique for identifying hypoxic cells within our PEG capsules. Infection of the cells with a recombinant adenovirus allows for a fluorescent signal to be produced when intracellular hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathways are activated. As HIFs are the primary regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, they represent an ideal target marker for detection of hypoxic signaling. This approach allows for easy and rapid detection of hypoxic cells. Briefly, the adenovirus has the sequence for a red fluorescent protein (Ds Red DR from Clontech) under the control of a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) trimer. Stabilization of HIF-1 by low oxygen conditions will drive transcription of the fluorescent protein (Figure 1). Additional details on the construction of this virus have been published previously. The virus is stored in 10% glycerol at -80° C as many 150 μL aliquots in 1.5 mL centrifuge tubes at a concentration of 3.4 x 10(10) pfu/mL. Previous studies in our lab have shown that MIN6 cells encapsulated as aggregates maintain their viability throughout 4 weeks of culture in 20% oxygen. MIN6 aggregates cultured at 2 or 1% oxygen showed both signs of necrotic cells (still about 85-90% viable) by staining with ethidium bromide as well as morphological changes relative to cells in 20% oxygen. The smooth spherical shape of the aggregates displayed at 20% was lost and aggregates appeared more like disorganized groups of cells. While the low oxygen stress does not cause a pronounced drop in viability, it is clearly impacting MIN6 aggregation and function as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Western blot analysis of encapsulated cells in 20% and 1% oxygen also

  12. Wheat roots and residue effects on soil aggregation and carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues have been identified for a number of off-field uses. Poor understanding of the role of crop residues in key soil processes limits our ability to predict sustainable crop residue removal rates. A study was conducted to compare aggregate size distribution, aggregate stability, and soil ...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from all aggregate batch vent streams in the compliance demonstration required for reactor batch... comply with the mass emission limit for reactor batch process vents. ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream...

  14. An Aggregate IRT Procedure for Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory; Fox, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    An aggregation strategy is proposed to potentially address practical limitation related to computing resources for two-level multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models with large data sets. The aggregate model is derived by integration of the normal ogive model, and an adaptation of the stochastic approximation expectation maximization…

  15. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  16. Hydrodynamic effects and receptor interactions of platelets and their aggregates in linear shear flow.

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, P; Diamond, S L

    1997-01-01

    We have modeled platelet aggregation in a linear shear flow by accounting for two body collision hydrodynamics, platelet activation and receptor biology. Considering platelets and their aggregates as unequal-sized spheres with DLVO interactions (psi(platelet) = -15 mV, Hamaker constant = 10(-19) J), detailed hydrodynamics provided the flow field around the colliding platelets. Trajectory calculations were performed to obtain the far upstream cross-sectional area and the particle flux through this area provided the collision frequency. Only a fraction of platelets brought together by a shearing fluid flow were held together if successfully bound by fibrinogen cross-bridging GPIIb/IIIa receptors on the platelet surfaces. This fraction was calculated by modeling receptor-mediated aggregation using the formalism of Bell (Bell, G. I. 1979. A theoretical model for adhesion between cells mediated by multivalent ligands. Cell Biophys. 1:133-147) where the forward rate of bond formation dictated aggregation during collision and was estimated from the diffusional limited rate of lateral association of receptors multiplied by an effectiveness factor, eta, to give an apparent rate. For a value of eta = 0.0178, we calculated the overall efficiency (including both receptor binding and hydrodynamics effects) for equal-sized platelets with 50,000 receptors/platelet to be 0.206 for G = 41.9 s(-1), 0.05 for G = 335 s(-1), and 0.0086 for G = 1920 s(-1), values which are in agreement with efficiencies determined from initial platelet singlet consumption rates in flow through a tube. From our analysis, we predict that bond formation proceeds at a rate of approximately 0.1925 bonds/microm2 per ms, which is approximately 50-fold slower than the diffusion limited rate of association. This value of eta is also consistent with a colloidal stability of unactivated platelets at low shear rates. Fibrinogen was calculated to mediate aggregation quite efficiently at low shear rates but not at

  17. Contrasting effects of nanoparticle-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Radic, Slaven; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been experimentally found to either promote or inhibit amyloid aggregation of proteins, but the molecular mechanisms for such complex behaviors remain unknown. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the effects of varying the strength of nonspecific NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation of a model protein, the amyloid-beta peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, with increasing NP-peptide attraction, amyloid aggregation on the NP surface was initially promoted due to increased local protein concentration on the surface and destabilization of the folded state. However, further increase of NP-peptide attraction decreased the stability of amyloid fibrils and reduced their lateral diffusion on the NP surface necessary for peptide conformational changes and self-association, thus prohibiting amyloid aggregation. Moreover, we found that the relative concentration between protein and NPs also played an important role in amyloid aggregation. With a high NP/protein ratio, NPs that intrinsically promote protein aggregation may display an inhibitive effect by depleting the proteins in solution while having a low concentration of the proteins on each NP's surface. Our coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study offers a molecular mechanism for delineating the contrasting and seemingly conflicting effects of NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation and highlights the potential of tailoring anti-aggregation nanomedicine against amyloid diseases. PMID:26989481

  18. Holographic diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadle, Stephen; Wuest, Daniel; Cantalupo, John; Lakes, Roderic S.

    1994-01-01

    Holographic diffusers are prepared using silver halide (Agfa 8E75 and Kodak 649F) and photopolymer (Polaroid DMP 128 and DuPont 600, 705, and 150 series) media. It is possible to control the diffusion angle in three ways: by selection of the properties of the source diffuser, by control of its subtended angle, and by selection of the holographic medium. Several conventional diffusers based on refraction or scattering of light are examined for comparison.

  19. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  20. Cellular pattern formation during Dictyostelium aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfer, Thomas; Sherratt, Jonathan A.; Maini, Philip K.

    The development of multicellularity in the life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum provides a paradigm model system for biological pattern formation. Previously, mathematical models have shown how a collective pattern of cell communication by waves of the messenger molecule cyclic adenosine 3‧5‧-monophosphate (cAMP) arises from excitable local cAMP kinetics and cAMP diffusion. Here we derive a model of the actual cell aggregation process by considering the chemotactic cell response to cAMP and its interplay with the cAMP dynamics. Cell density, which previously has been treated as a spatially homogeneous parameter, is a crucial variable of the aggregation model. We find that the coupled dynamics of cell chemotaxis and cAMP reaction-diffusion lead to the break-up of the initially uniform cell layer and to the formation of the striking cell stream morphology which characterizes the aggregation process in situ. By a combination of stability analysis and two-dimensional simulations of the model equations, we show cell streaming to be the consequence of the growth of a small-amplitude pattern in cell density forced by the large-amplitude cAMP waves, thus representing a novel scenario of spatial patterning in a cell chemotaxis system. The instability mechanism is further analysed by means of an analytic caricature of the model, and the condition for chemotaxis-driven instability is found to be very similar to the one obtained for the standard (non-oscillatory) Keller-Segel system. The growing cell stream pattern feeds back into the cAMP dynamics, which can explain in some detail experimental observations on the time evolution of the cAMP wave pattern, and suggests the characterization of the Dictyostelium aggregation field as a self-organized excitable medium.

  1. Characterization of Ovine Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dermal papilla (DP) is a condensation of mesenchymal cells at the proximal end of the hair follicle, which determines hair shaft size and regulates matrix cell proliferation and differentiation. DP cells have the ability to regenerate new hair follicles. These cells tend to aggregate both in vitro and in vivo. This tendency is associated with the ability of papilla cells to induce hair growth. However, human papilla cells lose their hair-inducing activity in later passage number. Ovine DP cells are different from human DP cells since they do not lose their aggregative behavior or hair-inducing activity in culture. Nonetheless, our understanding of ovine DP cells is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the expression of established DP markers in ovine cells and their association with aggregation. Subjects and Methods: Ovine DP cells from three different sheep were compared. Histochemistry, immunoflourescence, and polymerase chain reaction experiments were done to analyze the DP markers. Results: We found that ovine DP aggregates expressed all the 16 markers evaluated, including alkaline phosphatase and versican. Expression of the versican V0 and V3 isoforms, neural cell adhesion molecule, and corin was increased significantly with aggregation, while hey-1 expression was significantly decreased. Conclusions: Overall, the stable expression of numerous markers suggests that aggregating ovine DP cells have a similar phenotype to papillae in vivo. The stability of their molecular phenotype is consistent with their robust aggregative behavior and retained follicle-inducing activity after prolonged culture. Their phenotypic stability in culture contrasts with DP cells from other species, and suggests that a better understanding of ovine DP cells might provide opportunities to improve the hair-inducing activity and therapeutic potential of human cells. PMID:27625564

  2. Aggregation kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirito, M. De; Chiappini, R.; Bassi, F. Andreasi; Stasio, E. Di; Giardina, B.; Arcovito, G.

    2002-02-01

    Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients affected by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Aggregation and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the aggregation kinetics and of the final macromolecular structure of the aggregates is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius Rg and the fractal dimension Dm of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial aggregation mechanism could be described using the universal reaction-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (RLCCA) theory, at longest times from the beginning of the process, the RLCCA theory fails and a restructuring of clusters is observed together with an increase of the cluster fractal dimension Dm up to a value Dm∼3. The time tn, at which the restructuring takes place, and the final cluster size can be modulated by varying the quenching temperature.

  3. Photophoretic force on aggregate grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Kimery, Jesse B.; Wurm, Gerhard; de Beule, Caroline; Kuepper, Markus; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-01-01

    The photophoretic force may impact planetary formation by selectively moving solid particles based on their composition and structure. This generates collision velocities between grains of different sizes and sorts the dust in protoplanetary discs by composition. This numerical simulation studied the photophoretic force acting on fractal dust aggregates of μm-scale radii. Results show that aggregates tend to have greater photophoretic drift velocities than spheres of similar mass or radii, though with a greater spread in the velocity. While the drift velocities of compact aggregates continue to increase as the aggregates grow larger in size, fluffy aggregates have drift velocities which are relatively constant with size. Aggregates formed from an initially polydisperse size distribution of dust grains behave differently from aggregates formed from a monodisperse population, having smaller drift velocities with directions which deviate substantially from the direction of illumination. Results agree with microgravity experiments which show the difference of photophoretic forces with aggregation state.

  4. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.

    2012-06-01

    This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for the DOE Paducah C-746-U Landfill. A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines. The ORISE-derived soil guidelines are specifically applicable to the Landfill at the end of its operational life. A suggested 'upper bound' multiple of the derived soil guidelines for individual shipments is provided.

  5. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-15

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  6. Collisional Aggregation Due to Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumir, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars and to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favored by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modeling such processes. These advances lead to a semiquantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  7. Diffusion limitations and metabolic factors associated with inhibition and recovery of photosynthesis from drought stress in a C perennial grass species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longxing; Wang, Zhaolong; Huang, Bingru

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal closure and metabolic impairment under drought stress limits photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to determine major stomatal and metabolic factors involved in photosynthetic responses to drought and recovery upon re-watering in a C(3) perennial grass species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Two genotypes differing in drought resistance, 'Midnight' (tolerant) and 'Brilliant' (sensitive), were subjected to drought stress for 15 days and then re-watered for 10 days in growth chambers. Single-leaf net photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased during drought, with a less rapid decline in 'Midnight' than in 'Brilliant'. Photochemical efficiency, Rubisco activity and activation state declined during drought, but were significantly higher in 'Midnight' than in 'Brilliant'. The relationship between A and internal leaf CO(2) concentration (A/Ci curve) during drought and re-watering was analyzed to estimate the relative influence of stomatal and non-stomatal components on photosynthesis. Stomatal limitation (Ls %), non-stomatal limitation (Lns %), CO(2) compensation point (CP) and dark respiration (Rd) increased with stress duration in both genotypes, but to a lesser extent in 'Midnight'. Maximum CO(2) assimilation rate (A(max)), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) declined, but 'Midnight' had significantly higher levels of A(max), CE and g(m) than 'Brilliant'. Maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (V(cmax)) and ribulose-1,5-bisphospate (RuBP) regeneration capacity mediated by maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) decreased from moderate to severe drought stress in both genotypes, but to a greater extent in 'Brilliant' than in 'Midnight'. After re-watering, RWC restored to about 90% of the control levels in both genotypes, whereas A, g(s), Tr and Fv/Fm was only partially recovered, with a higher recovery level in 'Midnight' than in 'Brilliant'. Rubisco activity and

  8. Tungsten diffusion in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    De Luca, A.; Texier, M.; Burle, N.; Oison, V.; Pichaud, B.; Portavoce, A.; Grosjean, C.

    2014-01-07

    Two doses (10{sup 13} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}) of tungsten (W) atoms were implanted in different Si(001) wafers in order to study W diffusion in Si. The samples were annealed or oxidized at temperatures between 776 and 960 °C. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and defect formation was studied by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. W is shown to reduce Si recrystallization after implantation and to exhibit, in the temperature range investigated, a solubility limit close to 0.15%–0.2%, which is higher than the solubility limit of usual metallic impurities in Si. W diffusion exhibits unusual linear diffusion profiles with a maximum concentration always located at the Si surface, slower kinetics than other metals in Si, and promotes vacancy accumulation close to the Si surface, with the formation of hollow cavities in the case of the higher W dose. In addition, Si self-interstitial injection during oxidation is shown to promote W-Si clustering. Taking into account these observations, a diffusion model based on the simultaneous diffusion of interstitial W atoms and W-Si atomic pairs is proposed since usual models used to model diffusion of metallic impurities and dopants in Si cannot reproduce experimental observations.

  9. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Soot formation in unstrained diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Etienne; Olofsson, Nils-Erik; Johnsson, Jonathan; Bladh, Henrik; Bengtsson, Per-Erik

    2011-11-01

    The formation of soot particles has been investigated in CH4/O2 diffusion flames using a burner which allows the creation of a nearly unstrained planar reaction sheet. The sooting limits, soot volume fraction and particle size were measured as a function of bulk flow across the flame mixture strength and transport properties of the reactants. Mass spectrometry was used to measure the effective mixture composition close to the flame and Laser Induced Incandescence (LII)for the soot volume fraction and particle size. The parameter space was mapped as follows: Starting from a stable non-sooting baseline flame, the mixture strength was progressively increased by raising the fuel volume fraction while keeping other parameters constant (bulk flow across the flame, oxidant and inert composition). As the mixture strength was increased, the soot volume fraction and particle size increased up to a point where very big soot particle aggregates became visible to the naked eye on the flame side of the sooting layer. The exact mechanism by which these super aggregates arise is unknown but it is postulated that the absence of strain in the flow field and the thermophoretic effect allows soot particles to remain in a region of the burning chamber suitable for growth for an extended period of time.

  11. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments...

  12. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments...

  13. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments...

  14. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments...

  15. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments...

  16. Amino acid induced fractal aggregation of gold nanoparticles: Why and how.

    PubMed

    Doyen, Matthieu; Goole, Jonathan; Bartik, Kristin; Bruylants, Gilles

    2016-02-15

    Gold colloids are the object of many studies as they are reported to have potential biological sensing, imaging and drug delivery applications. In the presence of certain amino acids the aggregation of the gold nanoparticles into linear structures is observed, as highlighted by the appearance of a second plasmon band in the UV-Vis spectra of the colloid. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is still under debate. In order to help elucidate this issue, the interaction between gold colloids and different amino acids, modified amino acids and molecules mimicking their side-chain was monitored by UV-Vis absorption, DLS and TEM. The results show that phenomenon can be rationalized in terms of the Diffusion Limited Colloid Aggregation (DLCA) model which gives rise to the fractal aggregation colloids. The global charge of the compound, which influences the ionic strength of the solution, and the ease with which the compound can interact with the GNPs and affect their surface potential, are, the two parameters which control the DLCA regime. Calculations based on the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory confirm all the experimental observations. PMID:26613335

  17. The Harrison Diffusion Kinetics Regimes in Solute Grain Boundary Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, Irina; Fiedler, T; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Murch, Prof. Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the limits of the principal Harrison kinetics regimes (Type-A, B and C) for grain boundary diffusion is very important for the correct analysis of the depth profiles in a tracer diffusion experiment. These regimes for self-diffusion have been extensively studied in the past by making use of the phenomenological Lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) method with the result that the limits are now well established. The relationship of those self-diffusion limits to the corresponding ones for solute diffusion in the presence of solute segregation to the grain boundaries remains unclear. In the present study, the influence of solute segregation on the limits is investigated with the LMC method for the well-known parallel grain boundary slab model by showing the equivalence of two diffusion models. It is shown which diffusion parameters are useful for identifying the limits of the Harrison kinetics regimes for solute grain boundary diffusion. It is also shown how the measured segregation factor from the diffusion experiment in the Harrison Type-B kinetics regime may differ from the global segregation factor.

  18. Dynamics of cell aggregates fusion: Experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gilberto L.; Mironov, Vladimir; Nagy-Mehez, Agnes; Mombach, José C. M.

    2014-02-01

    Fusion of cell tissues is an ubiquitous phenomenon and has important technological applications including tissue biofabrication. In this work we present experimental results of aggregates fusion using adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) and a three dimensional computer simulation of the process using the cellular Potts model with aggregates reaching 10,000 cells. We consider fusion of round aggregates and monitor the dimensionless neck area of contact between the two aggregates to characterize the process, as done for the coalescence of liquid droplets and polymers. Both experiments and simulations show that the evolution of this quantity obeys a power law in time. We also study quantitatively individual cell motion with the simulation and it corresponds to an anomalous diffusion.

  19. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-01

    , where intragranular diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that had been previously described using a semiempirical, multirate model. Compared with the multirate model, the diffusion models have the advantage to provide spatiotemporal speciation evolution within the diffusion domains.

  20. Dynamics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Fire ant aggregations are an inherently active system. Each ant harvests its own energy and can convert it into motion. The motion of individual ants contributes non-trivially to the bulk material properties of the aggregation. We have measured some of these properties using plate-plate rheology, where the response to an applied external force or deformation is measured. In this talk, we will present data pertaining to the aggregation behavior in the absence of any external force. We quantify the aggregation dynamics by monitoring the rotation of the top plate and by measuring the normal force. We then compare the results with visualizations of 2D aggregations.

  1. Short- and long-range topological correlations in two-dimensional aggregation of dense colloidal suspensions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Toledano, J C; Moncho-Jordá, A; Martínez-López, F; González, A E; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

    2005-04-01

    We have studied the average properties and the topological correlations of computer-simulated two-dimensional (2D) aggregating systems at different initial surface packing fractions. For this purpose, the centers of mass of the growing clusters have been used to build the Voronoi diagram, where each cell represents a single cluster. The number of sides (n) and the area (A) of the cells are related to the size of the clusters and the number of nearest neighbors, respectively. We have focused our paper in the study of the topological quantities derived from number of sides, n , and we leave for a future work the study of the dependence of these magnitudes on the area of the cells, A . In this work, we go beyond the adjacent cluster correlations and explore the organization of the whole system of clusters by dividing the space in concentric layers around each cluster: the shell structure. This method allows us to analyze the time behavior of the long-range intercluster correlations induced by the aggregation process. We observed that kinetic and topological properties are intimately connected. Particularly, we found a continuous ordering of the shell structure from the earlier stages of the aggregation process, where clusters positions approach a hexagonal distribution in the plane. For long aggregation times, when the dynamic scaling regime is achieved, the short- and long-range topological properties reached a final stationary state. This ordering is stronger for high particle densities. Comparison between simulation and theoretical data points out the fact that 2D colloidal aggregation in the absence of interactions (diffusion-limited cluster aggregation regimen) is only able to produce short-range cluster-cluster correlations. Moreover, we showed that the correlation between adjacent clusters verifies the Aboav-Weaire law, while all the topological properties for nonadjacent clusters are mainly determined by only two parameters: the second central moment of number

  2. Aggregate Morphology Evolution by Sintering: Number & Diameter of Primary Particles

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, Max L.; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of fractal-like agglomerates (physically-bonded) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded) is important in aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles, and in monitoring combustion emissions and atmospheric particles. It influences also particle mobility, scattering, and eventually performance of nanocomposites, suspensions and devices made with such particles. Here, aggregate sintering by viscous flow of amorphous materials (silica, polymers) and grain boundary diffusion of crystalline ceramics (titania, alumina) or metals (Ni, Fe, Ag etc.) is investigated. A scaling law is found between average aggregate projected area and equivalent number of constituent primary particles during sintering: from fractal-like agglomerates to aggregates and eventually compact particles (e.g. spheres). This is essentially a relation independent of time, material properties and sintering mechanisms. It is used to estimate the equivalent primary particle diameter and number in aggregates. The evolution of aggregate morphology or structure is quantified by the effective fractal dimension (Df) and mass-mobility exponent (Dfm) and the corresponding prefactors. The Dfm increases monotonically during sintering converging to 3 for a compact particle. Therefore Dfm and its prefactor could be used to gauge the degree or extent of sintering of agglomerates made by a known collision mechanism. This analysis is exemplified by comparison to experiments of silver nanoparticle aggregates sintered at different temperatures in an electric tube furnace. PMID:23658467

  3. Mechanism of flow-induced biomolecular and colloidal aggregate breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conchúir, Breanndán Ó.; Zaccone, Alessio

    2013-03-01

    The drift-diffusion equation is first solved analytically for the dissociation rate and lifetime of a biomolecular or colloidal dimer bonded by realistic intermolecular potentials, under shear flow. Then we show using rigidity percolation concepts that the lifetime of a generic cluster formed under shear is controlled by the typical lifetime of a single bond in its interior. The latter, however, is also affected by collective stress transmission from other bonds in the aggregate, which we account for by introducing a semiempirical, analytical stress transmission efficiency 0⩽Γ⩽1 calibrated on several simulation data sets. We show that aggregate breakup is a thermally activated process in which the activation energy is controlled by the interplay between intermolecular forces and the shear drift. The collective contribution to the overall shear drift term is dominant for large enough fractal aggregates, while surface erosion prevails for small and compact aggregates. The crossover between the two regimes occurs when ΓN≃2, where both the number of particles in the cluster N and the stress transmission efficiency Γ depend on the aggregate structure through the fractal dimension df. The analytical framework for the aggregate breakup rate is in quantitative agreement with experiments and can be used in future studies in the population balance modeling of colloidal and protein aggregation.

  4. Lysine221 is the general base residue of the isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) in a reaction that is diffusion limited.

    PubMed

    Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Lamb, Audrey L

    2013-10-01

    The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from Escherichia coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid-general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid-general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step. PMID:23942051

  5. Hot moments in spawning aggregations: implications for ecosystem-scale nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Stephanie K.; Allgeier, Jacob E.; Semmens, Brice X.; Heppell, Scott A.; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V.; Rosemond, Amy D.; Bush, Phillippe G.; McCoy, Croy M.; Johnson, Bradley C.; Layman, Craig A.

    2015-03-01

    Biogeochemical hot moments occur when a temporary increase in availability of one or more limiting reactants results in elevated rates of biogeochemical reactions. Many marine fish form transient spawning aggregations, temporarily increasing their local abundance and thus nutrients supplied via excretion at the aggregation site. In this way, nutrients released by aggregating fish could create a biogeochemical hot moment. Using a combination of empirical and modeling approaches, we estimate nitrogen and phosphorus supplied by aggregating Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Data suggest aggregating grouper supply up to an order-of-magnitude more nitrogen and phosphorus than daily consumer-derived nutrient supply on coral reefs without aggregating fish. Comparing current and historic aggregation-level excretion estimates shows that overfishing reduced nutrients supplied by aggregating fish by up to 87 %. Our study illustrates a previously unrecognized ecosystem viewpoint regarding fish spawning aggregations and provides an additional perspective on the repercussions of their overexploitation.

  6. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Implementation of the Authorized Limits Process for Waste Acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1414) for the proposed implementation of the authorized limits process for waste acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, which is incorporated herein by this reference, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  7. Aggregate-scale heterogeneity in iron (hydr)oxide reductive transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Tufano, K.J.; Benner, S.G.; Mayer, K.U.; Marcus, M.A.; Nico, P.S.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-06-15

    There is growing awareness of the complexity of potential reaction pathways and the associated solid-phase transformations during the reduction of Fe (hydr)oxides, especially ferrihydrite. An important observation in static and advective-dominated systems is that microbially produced Fe(II) accelerates Ostwald ripening of ferrihydrite, thus promoting the formation of thermodynamically more stable ferric phases (lepidocrocite and goethite) and, at higher Fe(II) surface loadings, the precipitation of magnetite; high Fe(II) levels can also lead to green rust formation, and with high carbonate levels siderite may also be formed. This study expands this emerging conceptual model to a diffusion-dominated system that mimics an idealized micropore of a ferrihydrite-coated soil aggregate undergoing reduction. Using a novel diffusion cell, coupled with micro-x-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopies, we determined that diffusion-controlled gradients in Fe{sup 2+}{sub (aq)} result in a complex array of spatially distributed secondary mineral phases. At the diffusive pore entrance, where Fe{sup 2+} concentrations are highest, green rust and magnetite are the dominant secondary Fe (hydr)oxides (30 mol% Fe each). At intermediate distances from the inlet, green rust is not observed and the proportion of magnetite decreases from approximately 30 to <10%. Across this same transect, the proportion of goethite increases from undetectable up to >50%. At greater distances from the advective-diffusive boundary, goethite is the dominant phase, comprising between 40 and 95% of the Fe. In the presence of magnetite, lepidocrocite forms as a transient-intermediate phase during ferrihydrite-to-goethite conversion; in the absence of magnetite, conversion to goethite is more limited. These experimental observations, coupled with results of reactive transport modeling, confirm the conceptual model and illustrate the potential importance of diffusion-generated concentration gradients in

  8. Making Graphene Resist Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiayan

    Graphene-based sheets have stimulated great interest in many scientific disciplines and shown promise for wide potential applications. Among various ways of creating single atomic layer carbon sheets, a promising route for bulk production is to first chemically exfoliate graphite powders to graphene oxide (GO) sheets, followed by reduction to form chemically modified graphene (CMG). Due to the strong van der Waals attraction between graphene sheets, CMG tends to aggregate. The restacking of sheets is largely uncontrollable and irreversible, thus it reduces their processability and compromises properties such as accessible surface area. Strategies based on colloidal chemistry have been applied to keep CMG dispersed in solvents by introducing electrostatic repulsion to overcome the van der Waals attraction or adding spacers to increase the inter-sheet spacing. In this dissertation, two very different ideas that can prevent CMG aggregation without extensively modifying the material or introducing foreign spacer materials are introduced. The van der Waals potential decreases with reduced overlapping area between sheets. For CMG, reducing the lateral dimension from micrometer to nanometer scale should greatly enhance their colloidal stability with additional advantages of increased charge density and decreased probability to interact. The enhanced colloidal stability of GO and CMG nanocolloids makes them especially promising for spectroscopy based bio-sensing applications. For potential applications in a compact bulk solid form, the sheets were converted into paper-ball like structure using capillary compression in evaporating aerosol droplets. The crumpled graphene balls are stabilized by locally folded pi-pi stacked ridges, and do not unfold or collapse during common processing steps. They can tightly pack without greatly reducing the surface area. This form of graphene leads to scalable performance in energy storage. For example, planer sheets tend to aggregate and

  9. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  10. Formation and Growth of Stacking Fault Tetrahedra in Ni via Vacancy Aggregation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Lumin; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, the formation and growth of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) are captured by vacancy cluster diffusion and aggregation mechanisms in Ni. The vacancytetrahedron acts as a nucleation point for SFT formation. Simulations show that perfect SFT can grow to the next size perfect SFT via a vacancy aggregation mechanism. The stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) calculations and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that SFT can form farther away from the initial cascade-event locations, indicating the operation of diffusion-based vacancy-aggregation mechanism.

  11. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation studies of diffusion in crowded environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigrami, Prithviraj; Grove, Brandy; Konya, Andrew; Selinger, Robin

    Anomalous diffusion has been observed in protein solutions and other multi-component systems due to macromolecular crowding. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate mechanisms that govern anomalous diffusive transport and pattern formation in a crowded mixture. We consider a multi-component lattice gas model with ``tracer'' molecules diffusing across a density gradient in a solution containing sticky ``crowder'' molecules that cluster to form dynamically evolving obstacles. The dependence of tracer flux on crowder density shows an intriguing re-entrant behavior as a function of temperature with three distinct temperature regimes. At high temperature, crowders segregate near the tracer sink but, for low enough overall crowder density, remain sufficiently disordered to allow continuous tracer flux. At intermediate temperature, crowders segregate and block tracer flux entirely, giving rise to complex pattern formation. At low temperature, crowders aggregate to form small, slowly diffusing obstacles. The resulting tracer flux shows scaling behavior near the percolation threshold, analogous to the scenario when the obstacles are fixed and randomly distributed. Our simulations predict distinct quantitative dependence of tracer flux on crowder density in these temperature limits.

  13. Multinomial Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a novel stochastic, space/time discrete representation of particle diffusion (e.g. Brownian motion) based on discrete probability distributions. We show that in the limit of both very small time step and large concentration, our description is equivalent to the space/time continuous stochastic diffusion equation. Being discrete in both time and space, our model can be used as an extremely accurate, efficient, and stable stochastic finite-difference diffusion algorithm when concentrations are so small that computationally expensive particle-based methods are usually needed. Through numerical simulations, we show that our method can generate realizations that capture the statistical properties of particle simulations. While our method converges converges to both the correct ensemble mean and ensemble variance very quickly with decreasing time step, but for small concentration, the stochastic diffusion PDE does not, even for very small time steps.

  14. Soot Volume Fraction Maps for Normal and Reduced Gravity Laminar Acetylene Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1997-01-01

    The study of soot particulate distribution inside gas jet diffusion flames is important to the understanding of fundamental soot particle and thermal radiative transport processes, as well as providing findings relevant to spacecraft fire safety, soot emissions, and radiant heat loads for combustors used in air-breathing propulsion systems. Compared to those under normal gravity (1-g) conditions, the elimination of buoyancy-induced flows is expected to significantly change the flow field in microgravity (O g) flames, resulting in taller and wider flames with longer particle residence times. Work by Bahadori and Edelman demonstrate many previously unreported qualitative and semi-quantitative results, including flame shape and radiation, for sooting laminar zas jet diffusion flames. Work by Ku et al. report soot aggregate size and morphology analyses and data and model predictions of soot volume fraction maps for various gas jet diffusion flames. In this study, we present the first 1-g and 0-g comparisons of soot volume fraction maps for laminar acetylene and nitrogen-diluted acetylene jet diffusion flames. Volume fraction is one of the most useful properties in the study of sooting diffusion flames. The amount of radiation heat transfer depends directly on the volume fraction and this parameter can be measured from line-of-sight extinction measurements. Although most Soot aggregates are submicron in size, the primary particles (20 to 50 nm in diameter) are in the Rayleigh limit, so the extinction absorption) cross section of aggregates can be accurately approximated by the Rayleigh solution as a function of incident wavelength, particles' complex refractive index, and particles' volume fraction.

  15. In Situ Observation of Hematite Nanoparticle Aggregates Using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Zhiwei; Sheng, Anxu; Liu, Feng; Qin, Fuyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-01

    Aggregation of nanoparticles impacts their reactivity, stability, transport, and fate in aqueous environments, but limited methods are available to characterize structural features and movement of aggregates in liquid. Here, liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) was utilized to directly observe the size, morphology, and motion of aggregates that were composed of 9 and 36 nm hematite nanoparticles, respectively, in water or NaCl solution. When mass concentrations were same, the aggregates of 9 nm nanoparticles were statistically more compact and slightly larger than those of 36 nm nanoparticles. Aggregates in both samples were typically nonspherical. Increasing ionic strength resulted in larger aggregates, and also enhanced the stability of aggregates under electron-beam irradiation. In water, small aggregates moved randomly and approached repeatedly to large aggregates before final attachment. In NaCl solution, small aggregates moved directly toward large aggregates and attached to the latter quickly. This observation provided a direct confirmation of the DLVO theory that the energy barrier to aggregation is higher in water than in salt solutions. This study not only presented the influences of particle size and ionic strength on aggregation state, but also demonstrated that LCTEM is a promising method to link aggregation state to dynamic processes of nanoparticles. PMID:27127831

  16. Spreading and spontaneous motility of multicellular aggregates on soft substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2013-03-01

    We first describe the biomechanics of multicellular aggregates, a model system for tissues and tumors. We first characterize the tissue mechanical properties (surface tension, elasticity, viscosity) by a new pipette aspiration technique. The aggregate exhibits a viscoelastic response but, unlike an inert fluid, we observe aggregate reinforcement with pressure, which for a narrow range of pressures results in pulsed contractions or shivering. We interpret this reinforcement as a mechanosensitive active response of the acto-myosin cortex. Such an active behavior has previously been found to cause tissue pulsation during dorsal closure of Drosophila embryo. We then describe the spreading of aggregates on rigid glass substrates, varying both intercellular and substrate adhesion. We find both partial and complete wetting regimes. For the dynamics, we find a universal spreading law at short time, analogous to that of a viscoelastic drop. At long time, we observe, for strong substrate adhesion, a precursor film spreading around the aggregate. Depending on aggregate cohesion, this precursor film can be a dense cellular monolayer (liquid state) or consist of individual cells escaping from the aggregate body (gas state). The transition from liquid to gas state appears also to be present in the progression of a tumor from noninvasive to metastatic, known as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Finally, we describe the effect of the substrate rigidity on the phase diagram of wetting. On soft gels decorated with fibronectin and strongly cohesive aggregates, we have observed a wetting transition induced by the substrate rigidity: on ultra soft gels, below an elastic modulus Ec the aggregates do not spread, whereas above Ec we observe a precursor film expending with a diffusive law. The diffusion coefficient D(E) present a maximum for E =Em. A maximum of mobility versus the substrate rigidity had also been observed for single cells. Near Em, we observe a new phenomenon: a cell

  17. The single scattering properties of the aerosol particles as aggregated spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Gu, X.; Cheng, T.; Xie, D.; Yu, T.; Chen, H.; Guo, J.

    2012-08-01

    The light scattering and absorption properties of anthropogenic aerosol particles such as soot aggregates are complicated in the temporal and spatial distribution, which introduce uncertainty of radiative forcing on global climate change. In order to study the single scattering properties of anthorpogenic aerosol particles, the structures of these aerosols such as soot paticles and soot-containing mixtures with the sulfate or organic matter, are simulated using the parallel diffusion limited aggregation algorithm (DLA) based on the transmission electron microscope images (TEM). Then, the single scattering properties of randomly oriented aerosols, such as scattering matrix, single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP), are computed using the superposition T-matrix method. The comparisons of the single scattering properties of these specific types of clusters with different morphological and chemical factors such as fractal parameters, aspect ratio, monomer radius, mixture mode and refractive index, indicate that these different impact factors can respectively generate the significant influences on the single scattering properties of these aerosols. The results show that aspect ratio of circumscribed shape has relatively small effect on single scattering properties, for both differences of SSA and AP are less than 0.1. However, mixture modes of soot clusters with larger sulfate particles have remarkably important effects on the scattering and absorption properties of aggregated spheres, and SSA of those soot-containing mixtures are increased in proportion to the ratio of larger weakly absorbing attachments. Therefore, these complex aerosols come from man made pollution cannot be neglected in the aerosol retrievals. The study of the single scattering properties on these kinds of aggregated spheres is important and helpful in remote sensing observations and atmospheric radiation balance computations.

  18. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  19. Implications of epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced egf receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Wofsy, C; Goldstein, B; Lund, K; Wiley, H S

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the role of receptor aggregation in EGF binding, we construct a mathematical model describing receptor dimerization (and higher levels of aggregation) that permits an analysis of the influence of receptor aggregation on ligand binding. We answer two questions: (a) Can Scatchard plots of EGF binding data be analyzed productively in terms of two noninteracting receptor populations with different affinities if EGF induced receptor aggregation occurs? No. If two affinities characterize aggregated and monomeric EGF receptors, we show that the Scatchard plot should have curvature characteristic of positively cooperative binding, the opposite of that observed. Thus, the interpretation that the high affinity population represents aggregated receptors and the low affinity population nonaggregated receptors is wrong. If the two populations are interpreted without reference to receptor aggregation, an important determinant of Scatchard plot shape is ignored. (b) Can a model for EGF receptor aggregation and EGF binding be consistent with the "negative curvature" (i.e., curvature characteristic of negatively cooperative binding) observed in most Scatchard plots of EGF binding data? Yes. In addition, the restrictions on the model parameters required to obtain negatively curved Scatchard plots provide new information about binding and aggregation. In particular, EGF binding to aggregated receptors must be negatively cooperative, i.e., binding to a receptor in a dimer (or higher oligomer) having one receptor already bound occurs with lower affinity than the initial binding event. A third question we consider is whether the model we present can be used to detect the presence of mechanisms other than receptor aggregation that are contributing to Scatchard plot curvature. For the membrane and cell binding data we analyzed, the best least squares fits of the model to each of the four data sets deviate systematically from the data, indicating that additional factors are

  20. Creep of dry clinopyroxene aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, Misha; Mackwell, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We have determined diffusional and dislocation creep rheologies for clinopyroxenite Ca1.0Mg0.8Fe0.2Si2O6 under dry conditions by deforming natural and hot-pressed samples at confining pressures of 300-430 MPa and temperatures of 1100°-1250°C with the oxygen fugacity buffered by either nickel-nickel oxide or iron-wüstite powders. The coarse-grained natural Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite yielded a stress exponent of n = 4.7 ± 0.2 and an activation energy for creep of Q = 760 ± 40 kJ mol-1, consistent with deformation in the dislocation creep regime. The strength of the natural clinopyroxenite is consistent with previous high-temperature measurements of dislocation creep behavior of Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite by Kirby and Kronenberg [1984] and Boland and Tullis [1986]. Fine-grained clinopyroxenite was prepared from ground powders of the natural clinopyroxenite. Hot-pressed samples were deformed under similar conditions to the natural samples. Mixed-mode deformation behavior was observed, with diffusional creep (n = 1) at lower differential stresses and dislocation creep (with n and Q similar to those of the natural samples) at higher differential stresses. Within the dislocation creep field the predried hot-pressed samples generally yielded creep rates that were about an order of magnitude faster than the natural samples. Thus, even at the highest differential stresses, a component of strain accommodation by grain boundary diffusion was present in the hot-pressed samples. Optical and electron microscope investigations of the deformation microstructures of the natural and hot-pressed samples show evidence for mechanical twinning and activation of dislocation slip systems. When extrapolated to geological conditions expected in the deep crust and upper mantle on Earth and other terrestrial planets, the strength of dry single-phase clinopyroxene aggregates is very high, exceeding that of dry olivine-rich rocks.

  1. Unusual sintering behavior of porous chromatographic zirconia produced by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzano-Porras, C.F.; Reeder, D.H.; Annen, M.J.; Carr, P.W.; McCormick, A.V.

    1995-08-01

    The effects of sintering temperature and duration on the pore structure of chromatographic zirconia particles produced by the controlled polymerization-induced aggregation of 1,000 {angstrom} colloids are studied with an eye toward optimally strengthening the aggregates and eliminating small pores while preserving large pores. Nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry are used to estimate the surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution. Pulsed field gradient NMR measurements of solvent diffusion are used to estimate the diffusion tortuosity of the pore space. Initially of course, the pore volume and surface area decrease significantly, the decrease being more pronounced at higher temperatures. With prolonged sintering, the pore size, pore volume, and surface area change much more slowly, but the diffusion tortuosity seems to be minimized at a sintering temperature and time at which pores are allowed to redistribute so as to optimize large pores. The aggregates synthesized by this aggregation method apparently produce metastable large pores which are not easily collapsed.

  2. Pilot trial of yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation following rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone chemotherapy in patients with limited-stage, bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Jin Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Chung, Joo Seop; Oh, Sung Yong; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2012-05-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation treatment following rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy was investigated in patients with limited-stage and bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This prospective, multi-center, pilot trial included 21 patients who were newly diagnosed with stage I/II, bulky DLBCL and achieved a complete or partial response after six cycles of R-CHOP. The median size of bulky disease was 10.0 × 7.0 cm. After a median follow-up of 28.8 months, the overall response rate after (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation treatment was 80.9%, including 4.8% partial response. However, six patients (28.6%) experienced a progression or relapse. The 3-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 85.0 ± 8.0% and 75.0 ± 9.7%, respectively. Grade 3-4 adverse events were mainly hematologic toxicities, such as thrombocytopenia (35%) and neutropenia (60%). One patient experienced grade 3 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. Thus, (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation following six cycles of R-CHOP resulted in an acceptable response with tolerable toxicity in patients with limited-stage and bulky DLBCL. PMID:22035417

  3. Thorium Diffusion in Monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-05-01

    Diffusion of thorium has been characterized in synthetic monazite under dry conditions. The synthetic monazites (either pure CePO4, NdPO4, or a mixed LREE phosphate containing Ce, Nd, and Sm) were grown via a Na2CO3-MoO3 flux method. The source of diffusant for the experiments were either synthesized ThSiO4 or CaTh(PO4)2 powders. Experiments were performed by placing source and monazite in Pt capsules and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 10 days to a few hours, at temperatures from 1400 to 1550C. The Th distributions in the monazite were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for diffusion in monazite: DSm = 7.2x103 exp(-814 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1 The diffusivity of Th was similar for monazites containing a single REE and the mixed LREE phosphates. Th diffusion was also similar for experiments run using the Th silicate and Ca-Th phosphate sources, suggesting that the substitutional mechanism for Th in monazite, i.e, Th+4 + Si+4 for REE+3 + P+5 with the ThSiO4 source, and Th+4 + Ca+2 for 2REE+3 with the CaTh(PO4)2 source, does not significantly affect Th diffusivities, and that Th is likely the rate-limiting species. Th diffusion in monazite is about 4 orders of magnitude slower than Pb diffusion (Cherniak et al., 2004). This contrasts with findings of Gardes et al. (2005) who determined that Pb, Th and REE diffusivities in monazite are similar. Th diffusion in zircon (Cherniak et al., 1997) is about an order of magnitude slower than in monazite, but with similar activation energy for diffusion. The smaller diffusivities in zircon may be a consequence of the larger disparity in size between Th and the Zr site in zircon as compared with Th and the REE site in monazite. Nonetheless, Th is essentially immobile in monazite with respect to exchange by volume diffusion under most geologic conditions; these findings may have implications for containment of high- level actinide

  4. Emission, Structure and Optical Properties of Overfire Soot from Buoyant Turbulent Diffusion Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koylu, Umit Ozgur

    The present study investigated soot and carbon monoxide emissions, and evaluated the optical properties of soot, in the overfire region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames burning in still air. Soot and carbon monoxide emissions, and the corresponding correlation between these emissions, were studied experimentally. The optical properties of soot were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The experiments involved gas (acetylene, propylene, ethylene, propane, methane) and liquid (toluene, benzene, n-heptane, iso-propanol, ethanol, methanol) fuels. The investigation was limited to the fuel-lean (overfire) region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames burning in still air. Measurements included flame heights, characteristic flame residence times, carbon monoxide and soot concentrations, mixture fractions, ex-situ soot structure parameters (primary particle sizes, number of primary particles in aggregates, fractal dimensions), and in-situ optical cross sections (differential scattering, total scattering, and absorption) of soot in the overfire region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames, emphasizing conditions in the long residence time regime where these properties are independent of position in the overfire region and flame residence time. The predictions of optical cross sections for polydisperse aggregates were based on Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for fractal aggregates; the predictions of this theory were evaluated by combining the TEM structure and the light scattering/extinction measurements. Carbon monoxide concentrations and mixture fractions were correlated in the overfire region of gas- and liquid -fueled turbulent diffusion flames. Soot volume fraction state relationships were observed for liquid fuels, supporting earlier observations for gas fuels. A strong correlation between carbon monoxide and soot concentrations was established in the fuel-lean region of both gas- and liquid-fueled turbulent diffusion flames. The structure and emission

  5. Frequency Factors in a Landscape Model of Filamentous Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, Alexander K.; Jamie R. Blundell; Dobson, Christopher M.; Welland, Mark E.; Terentjev, Eugene M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2010-06-01

    Using quantitative measurements of protein aggregation rates, we develop a kinetic picture of protein conversion from a soluble to a fibrillar state which shows that a single free energy barrier to aggregation controls the addition of protein molecules into amyloid fibrils, while the characteristic sublinear concentration dependence emerges as a natural consequence of finite diffusion times. These findings suggest that this reaction does not follow a simple chemical mechanism, but rather operates in a way analogous to the landscape models of protein folding defined by stochastic dynamics on a characteristic energy surface.

  6. Vaneless diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  7. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated. A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  8. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm) (Fig. 1, left). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated (Fig. 1, right). A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  9. Rheology of fine-grained forsterite aggregate at deep upper mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Yu; Ohuchi, Tomohiro; Kawazoe, Takaaki; Spengler, Dirk; Tasaka, Miki; Kikegawa, Takumi; Suzuki, Akio; Ohtani, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure and high-temperature deformation experiments on fine-grained synthetic dunite (forsterite aggregate) were conducted to determine the dominant deformation mechanism in the deep upper mantle. The sintered starting material has 90% forsterite, 10% enstatite, and an average grain size of ~1 µm. Deformation experiments were performed using a deformation-DIA apparatus at pressures of 3.03-5.36 GPa, temperatures of 1473-1573 K, and uniaxial strain rates of 0.91 × 10-5 to 18.6 × 10-5 s-1 at dry circumstances <50 H/106Si. The steady state flow stress was determined at each deformation condition. Derived stress-strain rate data is analyzed together with that reported from similar but low-pressure deformation experiments using flow law equations for diffusion creep (stress exponent of n = 1, grain-size exponent of p = 2) and for dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (GBS-disl, n = 3, p = 1). The activation volume for diffusion creep (V*dif) and for GBS-disl (V*GBS) of dunite is determined to be 8.2 ± 0.9 and 7.5 ± 1.0 cm3/mol, respectively. Calculations based on these results suggest that both diffusion creep and dislocation creep play an important role for material flow at typical deformation conditions in the Earth's asthenospheric upper mantle whereas the contribution of GBS-disl is very limited, and dislocation creep is the dominant deformation mechanism during the deformation of olivine in sheared peridotite xenolith. Though these conclusions are not definitive, these are the first results on potential deformation mechanisms of forsterite aggregate based on extrapolation in the pressure, temperature, stress, and grain-size space.

  10. Identifying protein aggregation mechanisms and quantifying aggregation rates from combined monomer depletion and continuous scattering.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Gregory V; Drenski, Michael; Razinkov, Vladimir; Reed, Wayne F; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-10-15

    Parallel temperature initial rates (PTIR) from chromatographic separation of aggregating protein solutions are combined with continuous simultaneous multiple sample light scattering (SMSLS) to make quantitative deductions about protein aggregation kinetics and mechanisms. PTIR determines the rates at which initially monomeric proteins are converted to aggregates over a range of temperatures, under initial-rate conditions. Using SMSLS for the same set of conditions provides time courses of the absolute Rayleigh scattering ratio, IR(t), from which a potentially different measure of aggregation rates can be quantified. The present report compares these measures of aggregation rates across a range of solution conditions that result in different aggregation mechanisms for anti-streptavidin (AS) immunoglobulin gamma-1 (IgG1). The results illustrate how the two methods provide complementary information when deducing aggregation mechanisms, as well as cases where they provide new mechanistic details that were not possible to deduce in previous work. Criteria are presented for when the two techniques are expected to give equivalent results for quantitative rates, the potential limitations when solution non-idealities are large, as well as a comparison of the temperature dependence of AS-IgG1 aggregation rates with published data for other antibodies. PMID:27510552

  11. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  12. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  13. Quantitative fluorescence loss in photobleaching for analysis of protein transport and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) is a widely used imaging technique, which provides information about protein dynamics in various cellular regions. In FLIP, a small cellular region is repeatedly illuminated by an intense laser pulse, while images are taken with reduced laser power with a time lag between the bleaches. Despite its popularity, tools are lacking for quantitative analysis of FLIP experiments. Typically, the user defines regions of interest (ROIs) for further analysis which is subjective and does not allow for comparing different cells and experimental settings. Results We present two complementary methods to detect and quantify protein transport and aggregation in living cells from FLIP image series. In the first approach, a stretched exponential (StrExp) function is fitted to fluorescence loss (FL) inside and outside the bleached region. We show by reaction–diffusion simulations, that the StrExp function can describe both, binding/barrier–limited and diffusion-limited FL kinetics. By pixel-wise regression of that function to FL kinetics of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), we determined in a user-unbiased manner from which cellular regions eGFP can be replenished in the bleached area. Spatial variation in the parameters calculated from the StrExp function allow for detecting diffusion barriers for eGFP in the nucleus and cytoplasm of living cells. Polyglutamine (polyQ) disease proteins like mutant huntingtin (mtHtt) can form large aggregates called inclusion bodies (IB’s). The second method combines single particle tracking with multi-compartment modelling of FL kinetics in moving IB’s to determine exchange rates of eGFP-tagged mtHtt protein (eGFP-mtHtt) between aggregates and the cytoplasm. This method is self-calibrating since it relates the FL inside and outside the bleached regions. It makes it therefore possible to compare release kinetics of eGFP-mtHtt between different cells and experiments. Conclusions We

  14. Peptide aggregation in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Regina M

    2002-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, insoluble aggregated protein was considered as uninteresting and bothersome as yesterday's trash. More recently, protein aggregates have enjoyed considerable scientific interest, as it has become clear that these aggregates play key roles in many diseases. In this review, we focus attention on three polypeptides: beta-amyloid, prion, and huntingtin, which are linked to three feared neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's, "mad cow," and Huntington's disease, respectively. These proteins lack any significant primary sequence homology, yet their aggregates possess very similar features, specifically, high beta-sheet content, fibrillar morphology, relative insolubility, and protease resistance. Because the aggregates are noncrystalline, secrets of their structure at nanometer resolution are only slowly yielding to X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR, and other techniques. Besides structure, the aggregates may possess similar pathways of assembly. Two alternative assembly pathways have been proposed: the nucleation-elongation and the template-assisted mode. These two modes may be complementary, not mutually exclusive. Strategies for interfering with aggregation, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches, are under development. The structural similarities between protein aggregates of dissimilar origin suggest that therapeutic strategies successful against one disease may have broad utility in others. PMID:12117755

  15. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  16. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  17. Distributed microbially- and chemically-mediated redox processes controlling arsenic dynamics within Mn-/Fe-oxide constructed aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Samantha C.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Griffis, Sarah D.; Webb, Samuel; Marcus, Matthew A.; Francis, Christopher A.; Fendorf, Scott

    2013-03-01

    The aggregate-based structure of soils imparts physical heterogeneity that gives rise to variation in microbial and chemical processes which influence the speciation and retention of trace elements such as As. To examine the impact of distributed redox conditions on the fate of As in soils, we imposed various redox treatments upon constructed soil aggregates composed of ferrihydrite- and birnessite-coated sands presorbed with As(V) and inoculation with the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella sp. ANA-3. Aeration of the advecting solution surrounding the aggregates was varied to simulate environmental conditions. We find that diffusion-limited transport within high dissolved organic carbon environments allows reducing conditions to persist in the interior of aggregates despite aerated advecting external solutes, causing As, Mn, and Fe to migrate from the reduced aggregate interiors to the aerated exterior region. Upon transitioning to anoxic conditions in the external solutes, pulses of As, Mn and Fe are released into the advecting solution, while, conversely, a transition to aerated conditions in the exterior resulted in a cessation of As, Mn, and Fe release. Importantly, we find that As(III) oxidation by birnessite is appreciable only in the presence of O2; oxidation of As(III) to As(V) by Mn-oxides ceases under anaerobic conditions apparently as a result of microbially mediated Mn(IV/III) reduction. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering redox conditions and the physical complexity of soils in determining As dynamics, where redox transitions can either enhance or inhibit As release due to speciation shifts in both sorbents (solubilization versus precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides) and sorbates (As).

  18. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks.

  19. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations.

    PubMed

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks. PMID:26501413

  20. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.