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Sample records for diffusion source approximation

  1. Generalized diffusion approximation for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dan; Wu, Guiling; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion approximation to the transport equation is commonly used in biomedical optical diagnostic techniques, but constrains its applicability to highly scattering system. The generalized diffusion approximation was developed by Venugopalan can be used to quantify optical properties of turbid media using small source detector separations and allow the measurement of media with highly absorption. Unfortunately, the simulated result from this theory was larger than the real value because δ-Eddington phase function contained too much forward scattering. Here a new independent control parameter is introduced to δ-Eddington phase function so as to modify the generalized diffusion approximation presented. The solution is presented in the stationary case for infinite media with a collimated source of finite size exhibiting spherical symmetry. The solution is compared to results given by the conventional diffusion theory, the generalized diffusion approximation as well as to the Monte-Carlo simulation in steady state diffusion equation for slab boundary condition. The simulation results show that the modified generalized diffusion approximation with an appropriate control parameter is more closed to Monte-Carlo simulation. The modified generalized formulation of diffusion theory presented here may enable the quantitative application of present optical diagnostic techniques to turbid systems which are more highly absorbing and allow these systems to be probed using smaller source-detector separations.

  2. Multiple-source optical diffusion approximation for a multilayer scattering medium.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Joseph L; Wang, Lihong V

    2007-08-10

    A method for improving the accuracy of the optical diffusion theory for a multilayer scattering medium is presented. An infinitesimally narrow incident light beam is replaced by multiple isotropic point sources of different strengths that are placed in the scattering medium along the incident beam. The multiple sources are then used to develop a multilayer diffusion theory. Diffuse reflectance is then computed using the multilayer diffusion theory and compared with accurate data computed by the Monte Carlo method. This multisource method is found to be significantly more accurate than the previous single-source method. PMID:17694156

  3. Two-dimensional Core-collapse Supernova Simulations with the Isotropic Diffusion Source Approximation for Neutrino Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Hempel, Matthias; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mechanism of core-collapse supernova is investigated via non-relativistic, two-dimensional (2D), neutrino radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. For the transport of electron flavor neutrinos, we use the interaction rates defined by Bruenn and the isotropic diffusion source approximation (IDSA) scheme, which decomposes the transported particles into trapped-particle and streaming-particle components. Heavy neutrinos are described by a leakage scheme. Unlike the “ray-by-ray” approach in some other multidimensional supernova models, we use cylindrical coordinates and solve the trapped-particle component in multiple dimensions, improving the proto-neutron star resolution and the neutrino transport in angular and temporal directions. We provide an IDSA verification by performing one-dimensional (1D) and 2D simulations with 15 and 20 M⊙ progenitors from Woosley et al. and discuss the difference between our IDSA results and those existing in the literature. Additionally, we perform Newtonian 1D and 2D simulations from prebounce core collapse to several hundred milliseconds postbounce with 11, 15, 21, and 27 M⊙ progenitors from Woosley et al. with the HS(DD2) equation of state. General-relativistic effects are neglected. We obtain robust explosions with diagnostic energies Edia ≳ 0.1-0.5 B (1 B ≡ 1051 erg) for all considered 2D models within approximately 100-300 ms after bounce and find that explosions are mostly dominated by the neutrino-driven convection, although standing accretion shock instabilities are observed as well. We also find that the level of electron deleptonization during collapse dramatically affects the postbounce evolution, e.g., the neglect of neutrino-electron scattering during collapse will lead to a stronger explosion.

  4. Approximate Solutions Of Equations Of Steady Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Larry D.

    1992-01-01

    Rigorous analysis yields reliable criteria for "best-fit" functions. Improved "curve-fitting" method yields approximate solutions to differential equations of steady-state diffusion. Method applies to problems in which rates of diffusion depend linearly or nonlinearly on concentrations of diffusants, approximate solutions analytic or numerical, and boundary conditions of Dirichlet type, of Neumann type, or mixture of both types. Applied to equations for diffusion of charge carriers in semiconductors in which mobilities and lifetimes of charge carriers depend on concentrations.

  5. Approximate factorization with source terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Chyu, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is made of three methodologies with a view to that which offers the best approximate factorization error. While two of these methods are found to lead to more efficient algorithms in cases where factors which do not contain source terms can be diagonalized, the third method used generates the lowest approximate factorization error. This method may be preferred when the norms of source terms are large, and transient solutions are of interest.

  6. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  7. 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for arc calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowke, J. J.; Tanaka, M.

    2006-08-01

    This paper proposes the use of the 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for predicting the properties of electric arcs. Under this approximation, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is assumed, with a particular mesh size near the electrodes chosen to be equal to the 'diffusion length', based on De/W, where De is the electron diffusion coefficient and W is the electron drift velocity. This approximation overcomes the problem that the equilibrium electrical conductivity in the arc near the electrodes is almost zero, which makes accurate calculations using LTE impossible in the limit of small mesh size, as then voltages would tend towards infinity. Use of the LTE-diffusion approximation for a 200 A arc with a thermionic cathode gives predictions of total arc voltage, electrode temperatures, arc temperatures and radial profiles of heat flux density and current density at the anode that are in approximate agreement with more accurate calculations which include an account of the diffusion of electric charges to the electrodes, and also with experimental results. Calculations, which include diffusion of charges, agree with experimental results of current and heat flux density as a function of radius if the Milne boundary condition is used at the anode surface rather than imposing zero charge density at the anode.

  8. Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Extending the diffusion approximation to the boundary using an integrated diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang

    2015-06-01

    The widely used diffusion approximation is inaccurate to describe the transport behaviors near surfaces and interfaces. To solve such stochastic processes, an integro-differential equation, such as the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), is typically required. In this work, we show that it is possible to keep the simplicity of the diffusion approximation by introducing a nonlocal source term and a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. We apply the proposed integrated diffusion model (IDM) to a benchmark problem of heat conduction across a thin film to demonstrate its feasibility. We also validate the model when boundary reflections and uniform internal heat generation are present.

  10. A diffuse-interface approximation for surface diffusion including adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rätz, Andreas; Voigt, A.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a diffuse-interface approximation for solving partial differential equations on evolving surfaces. The model of interest is a fourth-order geometric evolution equation for a growing surface with an additional diffusive adatom density on the surface. Such models arise in the description of epitaxial growth, where the surface of interest is the solid-vapour interface. The model allows us to handle complex geometries in an implicit manner, by considering an evolution equation for a phase-field variable describing the surface and an evolution equation for an extended adatom concentration on a time-independent domain. Matched asymptotic analysis shows the formal convergence towards the sharp interface model and numerical results based on adaptive finite elements demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  11. An asymptotic homogenized neutron diffusion approximation. II. Numerical comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, T. J.; Larsen, E. W.

    2012-07-01

    In a companion paper, a monoenergetic, homogenized, anisotropic diffusion equation is derived asymptotically for large, 3-D, multiplying systems with a periodic lattice structure [1]. In the present paper, this approximation is briefly compared to several other well known diffusion approximations. Although the derivation is different, the asymptotic diffusion approximation matches that proposed by Deniz and Gelbard, and is closely related to those proposed by Benoist. The focus of this paper, however, is a numerical comparison of the various methods for simple reactor analysis problems in 1-D. The comparisons show that the asymptotic diffusion approximation provides a more accurate estimate of the eigenvalue than the Benoist diffusion approximations. However, the Benoist diffusion approximations and the asymptotic diffusion approximation provide very similar estimates of the neutron flux. The asymptotic method and the Benoist methods both outperform the standard homogenized diffusion approximation, with flux weighted cross sections. (authors)

  12. Multivariate Padé Approximations For Solving Nonlinear Diffusion Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turut, V.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, multivariate Padé approximation is applied to power series solutions of nonlinear diffusion equations. As it is seen from tables, multivariate Padé approximation (MPA) gives reliable solutions and numerical results.

  13. Capturing correlations in chaotic diffusion by approximation methods.

    PubMed

    Knight, Georgie; Klages, Rainer

    2011-10-01

    We investigate three different methods for systematically approximating the diffusion coefficient of a deterministic random walk on the line that contains dynamical correlations that change irregularly under parameter variation. Capturing these correlations by incorporating higher-order terms, all schemes converge to the analytically exact result. Two of these methods are based on expanding the Taylor-Green-Kubo formula for diffusion, while the third method approximates Markov partitions and transition matrices by using a slight variation of the escape rate theory of chaotic diffusion. We check the practicability of the different methods by working them out analytically and numerically for a simple one-dimensional map, study their convergence, and critically discuss their usefulness in identifying a possible fractal instability of parameter-dependent diffusion, in the case of dynamics where exact results for the diffusion coefficient are not available. PMID:22181115

  14. Integral approximations to classical diffusion and smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Q.; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2015-04-01

    The contribution of the paper is the approximation of a classical diffusion operator by an integral equation with a volume constraint. A particular focus is on classical diffusion problems associated with Neumann boundary conditions. By exploiting this approximation, we can also approximate other quantities such as the flux out of a domain. Our analysis of the model equation on the continuum level is closely related to the recent work on nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic mechanics. In particular, we elucidate the role of a volumetric constraint as an approximation to a classical Neumann boundary condition in the presence of physical boundary. The volume-constrained integral equation then provides the basis for accurate and robust discretization methods. An immediate application is to the understanding and improvement of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.

  15. Integral approximations to classical diffusion and smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Du, Qiang; Lehoucq, R. B.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2014-12-31

    The contribution of the paper is the approximation of a classical diffusion operator by an integral equation with a volume constraint. A particular focus is on classical diffusion problems associated with Neumann boundary conditions. By exploiting this approximation, we can also approximate other quantities such as the flux out of a domain. Our analysis of the model equation on the continuum level is closely related to the recent work on nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic mechanics. In particular, we elucidate the role of a volumetric constraint as an approximation to a classical Neumann boundary condition in the presence of physical boundary.more » The volume-constrained integral equation then provides the basis for accurate and robust discretization methods. As a result, an immediate application is to the understanding and improvement of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.« less

  16. Integral approximations to classical diffusion and smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Qiang; Lehoucq, R. B.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2014-12-31

    The contribution of the paper is the approximation of a classical diffusion operator by an integral equation with a volume constraint. A particular focus is on classical diffusion problems associated with Neumann boundary conditions. By exploiting this approximation, we can also approximate other quantities such as the flux out of a domain. Our analysis of the model equation on the continuum level is closely related to the recent work on nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic mechanics. In particular, we elucidate the role of a volumetric constraint as an approximation to a classical Neumann boundary condition in the presence of physical boundary. The volume-constrained integral equation then provides the basis for accurate and robust discretization methods. As a result, an immediate application is to the understanding and improvement of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.

  17. Comparison of the Radiative Two-Flux and Diffusion Approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuckler, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    Approximate solutions are sometimes used to determine the heat transfer and temperatures in a semitransparent material in which conduction and thermal radiation are acting. A comparison of the Milne-Eddington two-flux approximation and the diffusion approximation for combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in a ceramic material was preformed to determine the accuracy of the diffusion solution. A plane gray semitransparent layer without a substrate and a non-gray semitransparent plane layer on an opaque substrate were considered. For the plane gray layer the material is semitransparent for all wavelengths and the scattering and absorption coefficients do not vary with wavelength. For the non-gray plane layer the material is semitransparent with constant absorption and scattering coefficients up to a specified wavelength. At higher wavelengths the non-gray plane layer is assumed to be opaque. The layers are heated on one side and cooled on the other by diffuse radiation and convection. The scattering and absorption coefficients were varied. The error in the diffusion approximation compared to the Milne-Eddington two flux approximation was obtained as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The percent difference in interface temperatures and heat flux through the layer obtained using the Milne-Eddington two-flux and diffusion approximations are presented as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The largest errors occur for high scattering and low absorption except for the back surface temperature of the plane gray layer where the error is also larger at low scattering and low absorption. It is shown that the accuracy of the diffusion approximation can be improved for some scattering and absorption conditions if a reflectance obtained from a Kubelka-Munk type two flux theory is used instead of a reflection obtained from the Fresnel equation. The Kubelka-Munk reflectance accounts for surface reflection and

  18. Accuracy of the non-relativistic approximation for momentum diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shiuan-Ni; Lan, Boon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of the non-relativistic approximation, which is calculated using the same parameter and the same initial ensemble of trajectories, to relativistic momentum diffusion at low speed is studied numerically for a prototypical nonlinear Hamiltonian system -the periodically delta-kicked particle. We find that if the initial ensemble is a non-localized semi-uniform ensemble, the non-relativistic approximation to the relativistic mean square momentum displacement is always accurate. However, if the initial ensemble is a localized Gaussian, the non-relativistic approximation may not always be accurate and the approximation can break down rapidly.

  19. Diffusion from a line source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The problem with predicting pollutant diffusion from a line source of arbitrary geometry is treated. The concentration at the line source may be arbitrarily varied with time. Special attention is given to the meteorological inputs which act as boundary conditions for the problem, and a mixing layer of arbitrary depth is assumed. Numerical application of the derived theory indicates the combinations of meteorological parameters that may be expected to result in high pollution concentrations.

  20. Comparison of diffusion approximation and higher order diffusion equations for optical tomography of osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Qizhi; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-09-01

    In this study, a simplified spherical harmonics approximated higher order diffusion model is employed for 3-D diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints. We find that the use of a higher-order diffusion model in a stand-alone framework provides significant improvement in reconstruction accuracy over the diffusion approximation model. However, we also find that this is not the case in the image-guided setting when spatial prior knowledge from x-rays is incorporated. The results show that the reconstruction error between these two models is about 15 and 4%, respectively, for stand-alone and image-guided frameworks.

  1. The diffusion approximation. An application to radiative transfer in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arduini, R. F.; Barkstrom, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown how the radiative transfer equation reduces to the diffusion equation. To keep the mathematics as simple as possible, the approximation is applied to a cylindrical cloud of radius R and height h. The diffusion equation separates in cylindrical coordinates and, in a sample calculation, the solution is evaluated for a range of cloud radii with cloud heights of 0.5 km and 1.0 km. The simplicity of the method and the speed with which solutions are obtained give it potential as a tool with which to study the effects of finite-sized clouds on the albedo of the earth-atmosphere system.

  2. Least-squares streamline diffusion finite element approximations to singularly perturbed convection-diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarov, R D; Vassilevski, P S

    1999-05-06

    In this paper we introduce and study a least-squares finite element approximation for singularly perturbed convection-diffusion equations of second order. By introducing the flux (diffusive plus convective) as a new unknown, the problem is written in a mixed form as a first order system. Further, the flux is augmented by adding the lower order terms with a small parameter. The new first order system is approximated by the least-squares finite element method using the minus one norm approach of Bramble, Lazarov, and Pasciak [2]. Further, we estimate the error of the method and discuss its implementation and the numerical solution of some test problems.

  3. The Approximate Number System Acuity Redefined: A Diffusion Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonkoo; Starns, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    While all humans are capable of non-verbally representing numerical quantity using so-called the approximate number system (ANS), there exist considerable individual differences in its acuity. For example, in a non-symbolic number comparison task, some people find it easy to discriminate brief presentations of 14 dots from 16 dots while others do not. Quantifying individual ANS acuity from such a task has become an essential practice in the field, as individual differences in such a primitive number sense is thought to provide insights into individual differences in learned symbolic math abilities. However, the dominant method of characterizing ANS acuity—computing the Weber fraction (w)—only utilizes the accuracy data while ignoring response times (RT). Here, we offer a novel approach of quantifying ANS acuity by using the diffusion model, which accounts both accuracy and RT distributions. Specifically, the drift rate in the diffusion model, which indexes the quality of the stimulus information, is used to capture the precision of the internal quantity representation. Analysis of behavioral data shows that w is contaminated by speed-accuracy tradeoff, making it problematic as a measure of ANS acuity, while drift rate provides a measure more independent from speed-accuracy criterion settings. Furthermore, drift rate is a better predictor of symbolic math ability than w, suggesting a practical utility of the measure. These findings demonstrate critical limitations of the use of w and suggest clear advantages of using drift rate as a measure of primitive numerical competence. PMID:26733929

  4. Extended source model for diffusive coupling.

    PubMed

    González-Ochoa, Héctor O; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Reyes, Luz M; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the prevailing approach to diffusion coupling phenomena which considers point-like diffusing sources, we derived an analogous expression for the concentration rate of change of diffusively coupled extended containers. The proposed equation, together with expressions based on solutions to the diffusion equation, is intended to be applied to the numerical solution of systems exclusively composed of ordinary differential equations, however is able to account for effects due the finite size of the coupled sources. PMID:26802012

  5. Full time-resolved diffuse fluorescence tomography accelerated with parallelized Fourier-series truncated diffusion approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xi; Wang, Bingyuan; Wan, Wenbo; Wang, Yihan; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Of the three measurement schemes established for diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT), the time-domain scheme is well known to provide the richest information about the distribution of the targeting fluorophore in living tissues. However, the explicit use of the full time-resolved data usually leads to a considerably lengthy time for image reconstruction, limiting its applications to three-dimensional or small-volume imaging. To cope with the adversity, we propose herein a computationally efficient scheme for DFT image reconstruction where the time-dependent photon density is expanded to a Fourier-series and calculated by solving the independent frequency-domain diffusion equations at multiple sampling frequencies with the support of a combined multicore CPU-based coarse-grain and multithread GPU-based fine-grain parallelization strategy. With such a parallelized Fourier-series truncated diffusion approximation, both the time- and frequency-domain inversion procedures are developed and validated for their effectiveness and accuracy using simulative and phantom experiments. The results show that the proposed method can generate reconstructions comparable to the explicit time-domain scheme, with significantly reduced computational time.

  6. Explicit approximations to estimate the perturbative diffusivity in the presence of convectivity and damping. III. Cylindrical approximations for heat waves traveling inwards

    SciTech Connect

    Berkel, M. van; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Zwart, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Baar, M. R. de

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a number of new explicit approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based on the heat equation in cylindrical geometry using the symmetry (Neumann) boundary condition at the plasma center. This means that the approximations derived here should be used only to estimate transport coefficients between the plasma center and the off-axis perturbative source. If the effect of cylindrical geometry is small, it is also possible to use semi-infinite domain approximations presented in Part I and Part II of this series. A number of new approximations are derived in this part, Part III, based upon continued fractions of the modified Bessel function of the first kind and the confluent hypergeometric function of the first kind. These approximations together with the approximations based on semi-infinite domains are compared for heat waves traveling towards the center. The relative error for the different derived approximations is presented for different values of the frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. Moreover, it is shown how combinations of different explicit formulas can be used to estimate the transport coefficients over a large parameter range for cases without convection and damping, cases with damping only, and cases with convection and damping. The relative error between the approximation and its underlying model is below 2% for the case, where only diffusivity and damping are considered. If also convectivity is considered, the diffusivity can be estimated well in a large region, but there is also a large region in which no suitable approximation is found. This paper is the third part (Part III) of a series of three papers. In Part I, the semi-infinite slab approximations have been treated. In Part II

  7. Diffusion approximation in turbulent two-particle dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Benveniste, Damien

    2013-10-01

    We solve an inverse problem for fluid particle pair statistics: we show that a time sequence of probability density functions (PDFs) of separations can be exactly reproduced by solving the diffusion equation with a suitable time-dependent diffusivity. The diffusivity tensor is given by a time integral of a conditional Lagrangian velocity structure function, weighted by a ratio of PDFs. Physical hypotheses for hydrodynamic turbulence (sweeping, short memory, mean-field) yield simpler integral formulas, including one of Kraichnan and Lundgren (K-L). We evaluate the latter using a space-time database from a numerical Navier-Stokes solution for driven turbulence. The K-L formula reproduces PDFs well at root-mean-square separations, but growth rate of mean-square dispersion is overpredicted due to neglect of memory effects. More general applications of our approach are sketched.

  8. An asymptotic homogenized neutron diffusion approximation. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, T. J.; Larsen, E. W.

    2012-07-01

    A monoenergetic, homogenized, anisotropic diffusion equation is derived asymptotically for large, 3-D, multiplying systems with a periodic lattice structure. The primary assumption is that the system is slightly perturbed from an infinite, periodic lattice, and that the length scale of a lattice element is small relative to the total system size. The perturbed flux is slightly buckled, and the leading order term is the product of a slowly varying amplitude component, and a rapidly varying periodic component. The amplitude function is the solution to the homogenized diffusion equation, while the periodic component is the solution to the unperturbed, infinite system, and can be found using any high-order transport method. The first order term acts as a correction term, and makes it possible to obtain a zero flux extrapolation distance for the diffusion equation by applying the Marshak boundary condition. (authors)

  9. Multiple Scattering in Random Mechanical Systems and Diffusion Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feres, Renato; Ng, Jasmine; Zhang, Hong-Kun

    2013-10-01

    This paper is concerned with stochastic processes that model multiple (or iterated) scattering in classical mechanical systems of billiard type, defined below. From a given (deterministic) system of billiard type, a random process with transition probabilities operator P is introduced by assuming that some of the dynamical variables are random with prescribed probability distributions. Of particular interest are systems with weak scattering, which are associated to parametric families of operators P h , depending on a geometric or mechanical parameter h, that approaches the identity as h goes to 0. It is shown that ( P h - I)/ h converges for small h to a second order elliptic differential operator on compactly supported functions and that the Markov chain process associated to P h converges to a diffusion with infinitesimal generator . Both P h and are self-adjoint (densely) defined on the space of square-integrable functions over the (lower) half-space in , where η is a stationary measure. This measure's density is either (post-collision) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution or Knudsen cosine law, and the random processes with infinitesimal generator respectively correspond to what we call MB diffusion and (generalized) Legendre diffusion. Concrete examples of simple mechanical systems are given and illustrated by numerically simulating the random processes.

  10. Linear method of fluorescent source reconstruction in a diffusion medium.

    PubMed

    Janunts, Edgar; Pöschinger, Thomas; Brünner, Holger; Langenbucher, Achim

    2008-01-01

    A new method is described for obtaining a 2D reconstruction of a fluorescent source distribution inside a diffusion medium from planar measurements of the emission light at the surface after excitation by a plane wave. Point sources are implanted at known locations of a rectangular phantom. The forward model of the photon transport is based on the diffusion approximation of the radiative transport equation (RTE) for homogeneous media. This can be described by a hierarchical system of two time-independent RTE's, one for the excitation plane wave originating from the external light source to the medium and another one for the fluorescence emission originating from the fluorophore marker to the detector. A linear inverse source problem was solved for image reconstruction. The applicability of the theoretical method is demonstrated in some representative working examples. For an optimization of the problem we used least squares minimization technique. PMID:18826162

  11. Explicit approximations to estimate the perturbative diffusivity in the presence of convectivity and damping. II. Semi-infinite cylindrical approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Berkel, M. van; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Zwart, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Baar, M. R. de

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a number of new explicit approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in a cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based upon the heat equation in a semi-infinite cylindrical domain. The approximations are based upon continued fractions, asymptotic expansions, and multiple harmonics. The relative error for the different derived approximations is presented for different values of frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. Moreover, it is shown how combinations of different explicit formulas can yield good approximations over a wide parameter space for different cases, such as no convection and damping, only damping, and both convection and damping. This paper is the second part (Part II) of a series of three papers. In Part I, the semi-infinite slab approximations have been treated. In Part III, cylindrical approximations are treated for heat waves traveling towards the center of the plasma.

  12. Explicit approximations to estimate the perturbative diffusivity in the presence of convectivity and damping. I. Semi-infinite slab approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Berkel, M. van; Zwart, H. J.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Inagaki, S.; Baar, M. R. de

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a number of new approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based on semi-infinite slab approximations of the heat equation. The main result is the approximation of χ under the influence of V and τ based on the phase of two harmonics making the estimate less sensitive to calibration errors. To understand why the slab approximations can estimate χ well in cylindrical geometry, the relationships between heat transport models in slab and cylindrical geometry are studied. In addition, the relationship between amplitude and phase with respect to their derivatives, used to estimate χ, is discussed. The results are presented in terms of the relative error for the different derived approximations for different values of frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. The approximations show a significant region in which χ, V, and τ can be estimated well, but also regions in which the error is large. Also, it is shown that some compensation is necessary to estimate V and τ in a cylindrical geometry. On the other hand, errors resulting from the simplified assumptions are also discussed showing that estimating realistic values for V and τ based on infinite domains will be difficult in practice. This paper is the first part (Part I) of a series of three papers. In Part II and Part III, cylindrical approximations based directly on semi-infinite cylindrical domain (outward propagating heat pulses) and inward propagating heat pulses in a cylindrical domain, respectively, will be treated.

  13. Local isotropic diffusion approximation for coupled internal and overall molecular motions in NMR spin relaxation.

    PubMed

    Gill, Michelle L; Palmer, Arthur G

    2014-09-25

    The present work demonstrates that NMR spin relaxation rate constants for molecules interconverting between states with different diffusion tensors can be modeled theoretically by combining orientational correlation functions for exchanging spherical molecules with locally isotropic approximations for the diffusion anisotropic tensors. The resulting expressions are validated by comparison with correlation functions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations and are accurate for moderate degrees of diffusion anisotropy typically encountered in investigations of globular proteins. The results are complementary to an elegant, but more complex, formalism that is accurate for all degrees of diffusion anisotropy [Ryabov, Y.; Clore, G. M.; Schwieters, C. D. J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 136, 034108]. PMID:25167331

  14. Diffusion approximations to the chemical master equation only have a consistent stochastic thermodynamics at chemical equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2015-07-01

    The stochastic thermodynamics of a dilute, well-stirred mixture of chemically reacting species is built on the stochastic trajectories of reaction events obtained from the chemical master equation. However, when the molecular populations are large, the discrete chemical master equation can be approximated with a continuous diffusion process, like the chemical Langevin equation or low noise approximation. In this paper, we investigate to what extent these diffusion approximations inherit the stochastic thermodynamics of the chemical master equation. We find that a stochastic-thermodynamic description is only valid at a detailed-balanced, equilibrium steady state. Away from equilibrium, where there is no consistent stochastic thermodynamics, we show that one can still use the diffusive solutions to approximate the underlying thermodynamics of the chemical master equation.

  15. Diffusion approximations to the chemical master equation only have a consistent stochastic thermodynamics at chemical equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2015-07-28

    The stochastic thermodynamics of a dilute, well-stirred mixture of chemically reacting species is built on the stochastic trajectories of reaction events obtained from the chemical master equation. However, when the molecular populations are large, the discrete chemical master equation can be approximated with a continuous diffusion process, like the chemical Langevin equation or low noise approximation. In this paper, we investigate to what extent these diffusion approximations inherit the stochastic thermodynamics of the chemical master equation. We find that a stochastic-thermodynamic description is only valid at a detailed-balanced, equilibrium steady state. Away from equilibrium, where there is no consistent stochastic thermodynamics, we show that one can still use the diffusive solutions to approximate the underlying thermodynamics of the chemical master equation.

  16. S{sub N} Schemes, Linear Infinite-Medium Solutions, and the Diffusion Approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, E.W.

    2001-06-17

    It is standard practice to require an S{sub N} spatial discretization scheme to preserve the ''flat infinite-medium'' solution of the transport equation. This solution consists of a spatially independent source that gives rise to a spatially independent flux. However, there exist many other exact solutions of the transport equation that are typically not preserved by approximation schemes. Here, we discuss one of these: a source that is linear in space giving rise to an angular flux that is linear in space and angle. For one-group, planar-geometry S{sub N} problems, we show that (a) among the class of weighted-diamond schemes, only one - the diamond-difference scheme - preserves this exact ''linear'' solution; (b) consequently, only the diamond scheme preserves the correct Fick's Law; and (c) as a further consequence, nondiamond schemes can produce significant errors (not observed in the diamond solution) for diffusive problems with spatial cells that are not optically thin. These results demonstrate that it is advantageous for S{sub N} discretization schemes to preserve the ''flat'' and ''linear'' infinite-medium solutions.

  17. The Heavy-Ion Approximation for Ambipolar Diffusion Calcuations for Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, P; McKee, C; Klein, R

    2006-07-27

    Ambipolar diffusion redistributes magnetic flux in weakly ionized plasmas and plays a critical role in star formation. Simulations of ambipolar diffusion using explicit MHD codes are prohibitively expensive for the level of ionization observed in molecular clouds ({approx}< 10{sup -6}) since an enormous number of time steps is required to represent the dynamics of the dominant neutral component with a time step determined by the trace ion component. Here we show that ambipolar diffusion calculations can be significantly accelerated by the 'heavy-ion approximation', in which the mass density of the ions is increased and the collisional coupling constant with the neutrals decreased such that the product remains constant. In this approximation, the ambipolar diffusion time and the ambipolar magnetic Reynolds number remain unchanged. We present three tests of the heavy-ion approximation: C-type shocks, the Wardle instability, and the 1D collapse of a magnetized slab. We show that this approximation is quite accurate provided that (1) the square of the Alfven Mach number is small compared to the ambipolar diffusion Reynolds number for dynamical problems, and that (2) the ion mass density is negligible for quasi-static problems; a specific criterion is given for the magnetized slab problem. The first condition can be very stringent for turbulent flows with large density fluctuations.

  18. Evaluation of a radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation hybrid forward solver for fluorescence molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    The solution of the forward problem in fluorescence molecular imaging strongly influences the successful convergence of the fluorophore reconstruction. The most common approach to meeting this problem has been to apply the diffusion approximation. However, this model is a first-order angular approximation of the radiative transfer equation, and thus is subject to some well-known limitations. This manuscript proposes a methodology that confronts these limitations by applying the radiative transfer equation in spatial regions in which the diffusion approximation gives decreased accuracy. The explicit integro differential equations that formulate this model were solved by applying the Galerkin finite element approximation. The required spatial discretization of the investigated domain was implemented through the Delaunay triangulation, while the azimuthal discretization scheme was used for the angular space. This model has been evaluated on two simulation geometries and the results were compared with results from an independent Monte Carlo method and the radiative transfer equation by calculating the absolute values of the relative errors between these models. The results show that the proposed forward solver can approximate the radiative transfer equation and the Monte Carlo method with better than 95% accuracy, while the accuracy of the diffusion approximation is approximately 10% lower. PMID:23208221

  19. Test particle propagation in magnetostatic turbulence. 1. Failure of the diffusion approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, A. J.; Sandri, G.; Scudder, J. D.; Howell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The equation which governs the quasi-linear approximation to the ensemble and gyro-phase averaged one-body probability distribution function is constructed from first principles. This derived equation is subjected to a thorough investigation in order to calculate the possible limitations of the quasi-linear approximation. It is shown that the reduction of this equation to a standard diffusion equation in the Markovian limit can be accomplished through the application of the adiabatic approximation. A numerical solution of the standard diffusion equation in the Markovian limit is obtained for the narrow parallel beam injection. Comparison of the diabatic and adiabatic results explicitly demonstrates the failure of the Markovian description of the probability distribution function. Through the use of a linear time-scale extension the failure of the adiabatic approximation, which leads to the Markovian limit, is shown to be due to mixing of the relaxation and interaction time scales in the presence of the strong mean field.

  20. Numerical approximation of Lévy-Feller fractional diffusion equation via Chebyshev-Legendre collocation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweilam, N. H.; Abou Hasan, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a new spectral algorithm for obtaining an approximate solution for the Lévy-Feller diffusion equation depending on Legendre polynomials and Chebyshev collocation points. The Lévy-Feller diffusion equation is obtained from the standard diffusion equation by replacing the second-order space derivative with a Riesz-Feller derivative. A new formula expressing explicitly any fractional-order derivatives, in the sense of Riesz-Feller operator, of Legendre polynomials of any degree in terms of Jacobi polynomials is proved. Moreover, the Chebyshev-Legendre collocation method together with the implicit Euler method are used to reduce these types of differential equations to a system of algebraic equations which can be solved numerically. Numerical results with comparisons are given to confirm the reliability of the proposed method for the Lévy-Feller diffusion equation.

  1. Metal Accretion onto White Dwarfs. I. The Approximate Approach Based on Estimates of Diffusion Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dufour, P.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2015-06-01

    The accretion-diffusion picture is the model par excellence for describing the presence of planetary debris polluting the atmospheres of relatively cool white dwarfs. Some important insights into the process may be derived using an approximate approach which combines static stellar models with estimates of diffusion timescales at the base of the outer convection zone or, in its absence, at the photosphere. Until recently, and to our knowledge, values of diffusion timescales in white dwarfs have all been obtained on the basis of the same physics as that developed initially by Paquette et al., including their diffusion coefficients and thermal diffusion coefficients. In view of the recent exciting discoveries of a plethora of metals (including some never seen before) polluting the atmospheres of an increasing number of cool white dwarfs, we felt that a new look at the estimates of settling timescales would be worthwhile. We thus provide improved estimates of diffusion timescales for all 27 elements from Li to Cu in the periodic table in a wide range of the surface gravity-effective temperature domain and for both DA and non-DA stars.

  2. Milstein Approximation for Advection-Diffusion Equations Driven by Multiplicative Noncontinuous Martingale Noises

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, Andrea Lang, Annika

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, the strong approximation of a stochastic partial differential equation, whose differential operator is of advection-diffusion type and which is driven by a multiplicative, infinite dimensional, cadlag, square integrable martingale, is presented. A finite dimensional projection of the infinite dimensional equation, for example a Galerkin projection, with nonequidistant time stepping is used. Error estimates for the discretized equation are derived in L{sup 2} and almost sure senses. Besides space and time discretizations, noise approximations are also provided, where the Milstein double stochastic integral is approximated in such a way that the overall complexity is not increased compared to an Euler-Maruyama approximation. Finally, simulations complete the paper.

  3. Ballistic-diffusive approximation for the thermal dynamics of metallic nanoparticles in nanocomposite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel-Havar, A. H. Masoudian Saadabad, R.

    2015-03-21

    Based on ballistic-diffusive approximation, a method is presented to model heat transfer in nanocomposites containing metal nanoparticles. This method provides analytical expression for the temperature dynamics of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric medium. In this study, nanoparticles are considered as spherical shells, so that Boltzmann equation is solved using ballistic-diffusive approximation to calculate the electron and lattice thermal dynamics in gold nanoparticles, while thermal exchange between the particles is taken into account. The model was used to investigate the influence of particle size and metal concentration of the medium on the electron and lattice thermal dynamics. It is shown that these two parameters are crucial in determining the nanocomposite thermal behavior. Our results showed that the heat transfer rate from nanoparticles to the matrix decreases as the nanoparticle size increases. On the other hand, increasing the metal concentration of the medium can also decrease the heat transfer rate.

  4. The effects of hyper-spherical approximation of Yukawa potential to diffusion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In Gee; Murillo, Michael S.

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Yukawa potential to the diffusion properties of binary ionic mixtures are investigated in terms of both the classical molecular dynamics and the kinetic theory. The Yukawa interatomic potential is treated by means of the hyper-spherical approximation, which replaces the Ewald summation by a multiple of the hyperbolic trigonometric functions and the lattice summation of screening. The influence of the hyper-spherical approximation of the Yukawa potential is able to be understood through the calculations of transport coefficients with the relationship to Coulomb logarithm. Numerical studies over a various range of the Debye-Hückel screening parameter and of the plasma coupling parameter to binary ionic mixtures will be provided. We consider primarily the interdiffusion coefficients and then discuss about the mixing properties of self-diffusion coefficients.

  5. Approximations of the operator exponential in a periodic diffusion problem with drift

    SciTech Connect

    Pastukhova, Svetlana E

    2013-02-28

    A Cauchy problem for a parabolic diffusion equation with 1-periodic coefficients containing first order terms is studied. For the corresponding semigroup we construct approximations in the L{sup 2}-operator norm on sections t=const of order O(t{sup -m/2}) as t{yields}{infinity} for m=1 or m=2. The spectral method based on the Bloch representation of an operator with periodic coefficients is used. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  6. Spectral approximation to advection-diffusion problems by the fictitious interface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frati, A.; Pasquarelli, F.; Quarteroni, A.

    1993-08-01

    The algorithmic aspects of the 'fictitious interface' method used in numerical approximations of convection-dominated flows are discussed. The solution algorithm presented alternates the advection-equation solution with that of the advection-diffusion equation within complementary subdomains. For the problems presently considered, spatial discretization is obtained by the spectral collocation method via Legendre-Gaussian modes. Attention is given to the the fictitious interface method's application to the Burgers equation.

  7. A Diffusion Approximation Based on Renewal Processes with Applications to Strongly Biased Run-Tumble Motion.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2016-03-01

    We consider organisms which use a renewal strategy such as run-tumble when moving in space, for example to perform chemotaxis in chemical gradients. We derive a diffusion approximation for the motion, applying a central limit theorem due to Anscombe for renewal-reward processes; this theorem has not previously been applied in this context. Our results extend previous work, which has established the mean drift but not the diffusivity. For a classical model of tumble rates applied to chemotaxis, we find that the resulting chemotactic drift saturates to the swimming velocity of the organism when the chemical gradients grow increasingly steep. The dispersal becomes anisotropic in steep gradients, with larger dispersal across the gradient than along the gradient. In contrast to one-dimensional settings, strong bias increases dispersal. We next include Brownian rotation in the model and find that, in limit of high chemotactic sensitivity, the chemotactic drift is 64% of the swimming velocity, independent of the magnitude of the Brownian rotation. We finally derive characteristic timescales of the motion that can be used to assess whether the diffusion limit is justified in a given situation. The proposed technique for obtaining diffusion approximations is conceptually and computationally simple, and applicable also when statistics of the motion is obtained empirically or through Monte Carlo simulation of the motion. PMID:27012850

  8. Neutron diffusion in a randomly inhomogeneous multiplying medium with random phase approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Kaya; Akcasu, A. Ziya

    2012-06-01

    Neutron diffusion in a randomly inhomogeneous multiplying medium is studied. By making use of a random phase assumption we show that the average neutron density approximately satisfies an integral equation in Fourier space, which is solved using Kummer functions. We used multi-dimensional formulation. In the case of one dimension, we obtain the result of Rosenbluth and Tao for the mean total density for large t. In the three-dimensional case, a closed form of solution is derived for the mean total neutron density. Its asymptotic behavior is also investigated for large t.

  9. Neutron diffusion in a randomly inhomogeneous multiplying medium with random phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Imre, Kaya; Akcasu, A. Ziya

    2012-06-15

    Neutron diffusion in a randomly inhomogeneous multiplying medium is studied. By making use of a random phase assumption we show that the average neutron density approximately satisfies an integral equation in Fourier space, which is solved using Kummer functions. We used multi-dimensional formulation. In the case of one dimension, we obtain the result of Rosenbluth and Tao for the mean total density for large t. In the three-dimensional case, a closed form of solution is derived for the mean total neutron density. Its asymptotic behavior is also investigated for large t.

  10. A Diffusion Approximation and Numerical Methods for Adaptive Neuron Models with Stochastic Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the spiking statistics of neurons receiving noisy synaptic input is a central problem in computational neuroscience. Monte Carlo approaches to this problem are computationally expensive and often fail to provide mechanistic insight. Thus, the field has seen the development of mathematical and numerical approaches, often relying on a Fokker-Planck formalism. These approaches force a compromise between biological realism, accuracy and computational efficiency. In this article we develop an extension of existing diffusion approximations to more accurately approximate the response of neurons with adaptation currents and noisy synaptic currents. The implementation refines existing numerical schemes for solving the associated Fokker-Planck equations to improve computationally efficiency and accuracy. Computer code implementing the developed algorithms is made available to the public. PMID:27148036

  11. A Diffusion Approximation and Numerical Methods for Adaptive Neuron Models with Stochastic Inputs.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the spiking statistics of neurons receiving noisy synaptic input is a central problem in computational neuroscience. Monte Carlo approaches to this problem are computationally expensive and often fail to provide mechanistic insight. Thus, the field has seen the development of mathematical and numerical approaches, often relying on a Fokker-Planck formalism. These approaches force a compromise between biological realism, accuracy and computational efficiency. In this article we develop an extension of existing diffusion approximations to more accurately approximate the response of neurons with adaptation currents and noisy synaptic currents. The implementation refines existing numerical schemes for solving the associated Fokker-Planck equations to improve computationally efficiency and accuracy. Computer code implementing the developed algorithms is made available to the public. PMID:27148036

  12. Asymptotic solutions of neutron transport equation and the limits of correct use of diffusion approximation for rocks.

    PubMed

    Dworak, D; Loskiewicz, J; Janik, M

    2001-05-01

    The diffusion approximation solution for neutron transport has been used in well-logging geophysics for calculating tool responses in boreholes, sometimes with success. The problem of the dimension of different materials to which it can be applied with success is important for the borehole environment. The results obtained show that the diffusion approximation can be used for distances greater than a few millimetre in some rock types. For iron, barium, and other highly absorbing media the use of the diffusion approximation is inappropriate even for large distances. PMID:11258535

  13. Approximating edges of source bodies from magnetic or gravity anomalies.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Simpson, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Cordell and Grauch (1982, 1985) discussed a technique to estimate the location of abrupt lateral changes in magnetization or mass density of upper crustal rocks. The final step of their procedure is to identify maxima on a contoured map of horizontal gradient magnitudes. Attempts to automate their final step. The method begins with gridded magnetic or gravity anomaly data and produces a plan view of inferred boundaries of magnetic or gravity sources. The method applies to both local surveys and to continent-wide compilations of magnetic and gravity data.-from Authors

  14. Approximate solution of two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph models arising in mathematical physics using optimal homotopy asymptotic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, S.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the analytical approximate solutions for two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph equations. The fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], (1,2), and [1,2], respectively. In this paper, we extended optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) for two-term fractional-order wave-diffusion equations. Highly approximate solution is obtained in series form using this extended method. Approximate solution obtained by OHAM is compared with the exact solution. It is observed that OHAM is a prevailing and convergent method for the solutions of nonlinear-fractional-order time-dependent partial differential problems. The numerical results rendering that the applied method is explicit, effective, and easy to use, for handling more general fractional-order wave diffusion, diffusion, and telegraph problems.

  15. Diffusion filter eliminates fringe effects of coherent laser light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsasky, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    Diffusion filter comprised of small particles in colloidal suspension reduces the coherence of a laser beam used as a photographic light source. Interference patterns which obscure details in photographic film are eliminated, the intensity and collimation are moderately affected.

  16. Diffusive superconductors beyond the Usadel approximation: Electron-hole asymmetry and large photoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenkov, Mikhail S.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-07-01

    We extend the quasiclassical formalism for diffusive superconductors by deriving anisotropic (gradient) corrections to the Usadel equation. We demonstrate that in a number of physical situations such corrections may play a crucial role, being responsible for the effects which cannot be recovered within the standard Usadel approximation. One of them is the so-called photoelectric effect in superconductors and superconducting-normal (SN) hybrid structures. Provided a superconducting part of the system is irradiated by an external ac electromagnetic field, the charge imbalance develops and a nonvanishing dc voltage is induced across the SN interface. In the presence of magnetic impurities in a superconductor the magnitude of this effect becomes large and can easily be detected in modern experiments.

  17. Nonlinear Solver Approaches for the Diffusive Wave Approximation to the Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, N.; Knepley, M.

    2015-12-01

    The diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations (DSW) is a doubly-degenerate, nonlinear, parabolic partial differential equation used to model overland flows. Despite its challenges, the DSW equation has been extensively used to model the overland flow component of various integrated surface/subsurface models. The equation's complications become increasingly problematic when ponding occurs, a feature which becomes pervasive when solving on large domains with realistic terrain. In this talk I discuss the various forms and regularizations of the DSW equation and highlight their effect on the solvability of the nonlinear system. In addition to this analysis, I present results of a numerical study which tests the applicability of a class of composable nonlinear algebraic solvers recently added to the Portable, Extensible, Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc).

  18. The discrete maximum principle for finite element approximations of anisotropic diffusion problems on arbitrary meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Svyatskiy, Daniil; Shashkov, Mikhail; Kuzmin, D

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the design of constrained finite element approximations to second-order elliptic problems is introduced. This approach guarantees that the finite element solution satisfies the discrete maximum principle (DMP). To enforce these monotonicity constrains the sufficient conditions for elements of the stiffness matrix are formulated. An algebraic splitting of the stiffness matrix is employed to separate the contributions of diffusive and antidiffusive numerical fluxes, respectively. In order to prevent the formation of spurious undershoots and overshoots, a symmetric slope limiter is designed for the antidiffusive part. The corresponding upper and lower bounds are defined using an estimate of the steepest gradient in terms of the maximum and minimum solution values at surrounding nodes. The recovery of nodal gradients is performed by means of a lumped-mass L{sub 2} projection. The proposed slope limiting strategy preserves the consistency of the underlying discrete problem and the structure of the stiffness matrix (symmetry, zero row and column sums). A positivity-preserving defect correction scheme is devised for the nonlinear algebraic system to be solved. Numerical results and a grid convergence study are presented for a number of anisotropic diffusion problems in two space dimensions.

  19. A diffusion approximation model of light transport in multilayered skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makropoulou, M.; Kaselouris, E.; Drakaki, E.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Sianoudis, J. A.

    2007-07-01

    In dermatology, biophotonic methods offer high sensitivity and non-invasive measurements of skin tissue optical properties, in various physiological and pathological conditions. There are numerous skin processes, which can be examined and characterized using diagnostic optical spectroscopy, as the monitoring of skin aging, diagnosis of benign and malignant cutaneous lesions, dosimetry in photodynamic therapy (PDT), etc. Several mathematical models have been used to calculate the tissue optical properties from experimental measurements and to predict the light propagation in soft tissues, like skin, based on transport theory or Monte Carlo modeling. This work analyses the phenomena which are observed experimentally during the irradiation of skin, such as the absorption, reflectance, scattering, fluorescence and transmission of laser light. The study was carried out on animal skin samples, extracted post-mortem. In this work we also tried to evaluate the utility of diffusion approximation modeling for measuring the light intensity distribution in the skin samples with cw visible laser beam (λ=632.8 nm). The diffusion theory model was tested for the simulation results of the spatial light distribution within a five-layer model of animal skin tissue. We have studied the dependence towards the depth and the radial distance of the photon density of the incident radiation.

  20. Accurate and Fast Simulation of Channel Noise in Conductance-Based Model Neurons by Diffusion Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Linaro, Daniele; Storace, Marco; Giugliano, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic channel gating is the major source of intrinsic neuronal noise whose functional consequences at the microcircuit- and network-levels have been only partly explored. A systematic study of this channel noise in large ensembles of biophysically detailed model neurons calls for the availability of fast numerical methods. In fact, exact techniques employ the microscopic simulation of the random opening and closing of individual ion channels, usually based on Markov models, whose computational loads are prohibitive for next generation massive computer models of the brain. In this work, we operatively define a procedure for translating any Markov model describing voltage- or ligand-gated membrane ion-conductances into an effective stochastic version, whose computer simulation is efficient, without compromising accuracy. Our approximation is based on an improved Langevin-like approach, which employs stochastic differential equations and no Montecarlo methods. As opposed to an earlier proposal recently debated in the literature, our approximation reproduces accurately the statistical properties of the exact microscopic simulations, under a variety of conditions, from spontaneous to evoked response features. In addition, our method is not restricted to the Hodgkin-Huxley sodium and potassium currents and is general for a variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion currents. As a by-product, the analysis of the properties emerging in exact Markov schemes by standard probability calculus enables us for the first time to analytically identify the sources of inaccuracy of the previous proposal, while providing solid ground for its modification and improvement we present here. PMID:21423712

  1. Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kotlarchyk, M; Chen, S H; Asano, S

    1979-07-15

    The quasi-elastic light scattering has become an established technique for a rapid and quantitative characterization of an average motility pattern of motile bacteria in suspensions. Essentially all interpretations of the measured light scattering intensities and spectra so far are based on the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) approximation. Since the range of sizes of bacteria of interest is generally larger than the wavelength of light used in the measurement, one is not certain of the justification for the use of the RGD approximation. In this paper we formulate a method by which both the scattering intensity and the quasi-elastic light scattering spectra can be calculated from a rigorous scattering theory. For a specific application we study the case of bacteria Escherichia coli (about 1 microm in size) by using numerical solutions of the scattering field amplitudes from a prolate spheroid, which is known to simulate optical properties of the bacteria well. We have computed (1) polarized scattered light intensity vs scattering angle for a randomly oriented bacteria population; (2) polarized scattered field correlation functions for both a freely diffusing bacterium and for a bacterium undergoing a straight line motion in random directions and with a Maxwellian speed distribution; and (3) the corresponding depolarized scattered intensity and field correlation functions. In each case sensitivity of the result to variations of the index of refraction and size of the bacterium is investigated. The conclusion is that within a reasonable range of parameters applicable to E. coli, the accuracy of the RGD is good to within 10% at all angles for the properties (1) and (2), and the depolarized contributions in (3) are generally very small. PMID:20212685

  2. Revisiting the diffusion approximation to estimate evolutionary rates of gene family diversification.

    PubMed

    Gjini, Erida; Haydon, Daniel T; David Barry, J; Cobbold, Christina A

    2014-01-21

    Genetic diversity in multigene families is shaped by multiple processes, including gene conversion and point mutation. Because multi-gene families are involved in crucial traits of organisms, quantifying the rates of their genetic diversification is important. With increasing availability of genomic data, there is a growing need for quantitative approaches that integrate the molecular evolution of gene families with their higher-scale function. In this study, we integrate a stochastic simulation framework with population genetics theory, namely the diffusion approximation, to investigate the dynamics of genetic diversification in a gene family. Duplicated genes can diverge and encode new functions as a result of point mutation, and become more similar through gene conversion. To model the evolution of pairwise identity in a multigene family, we first consider all conversion and mutation events in a discrete manner, keeping track of their details and times of occurrence; second we consider only the infinitesimal effect of these processes on pairwise identity accounting for random sampling of genes and positions. The purely stochastic approach is closer to biological reality and is based on many explicit parameters, such as conversion tract length and family size, but is more challenging analytically. The population genetics approach is an approximation accounting implicitly for point mutation and gene conversion, only in terms of per-site average probabilities. Comparison of these two approaches across a range of parameter combinations reveals that they are not entirely equivalent, but that for certain relevant regimes they do match. As an application of this modelling framework, we consider the distribution of nucleotide identity among VSG genes of African trypanosomes, representing the most prominent example of a multi-gene family mediating parasite antigenic variation and within-host immune evasion. PMID:24120993

  3. Mean Field Approximation for Biased Diffusion on Japanese Inter-Firm Trading Network

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hayafumi

    2014-01-01

    By analysing the financial data of firms across Japan, a nonlinear power law with an exponent of 1.3 was observed between the number of business partners (i.e. the degree of the inter-firm trading network) and sales. In a previous study using numerical simulations, we found that this scaling can be explained by both the money-transport model, where a firm (i.e. customer) distributes money to its out-edges (suppliers) in proportion to the in-degree of destinations, and by the correlations among the Japanese inter-firm trading network. However, in this previous study, we could not specifically identify what types of structure properties (or correlations) of the network determine the 1.3 exponent. In the present study, we more clearly elucidate the relationship between this nonlinear scaling and the network structure by applying mean-field approximation of the diffusion in a complex network to this money-transport model. Using theoretical analysis, we obtained the mean-field solution of the model and found that, in the case of the Japanese firms, the scaling exponent of 1.3 can be determined from the power law of the average degree of the nearest neighbours of the network with an exponent of −0.7. PMID:24626149

  4. Mean field approximation for biased diffusion on Japanese inter-firm trading network.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hayafumi

    2014-01-01

    By analysing the financial data of firms across Japan, a nonlinear power law with an exponent of 1.3 was observed between the number of business partners (i.e. the degree of the inter-firm trading network) and sales. In a previous study using numerical simulations, we found that this scaling can be explained by both the money-transport model, where a firm (i.e. customer) distributes money to its out-edges (suppliers) in proportion to the in-degree of destinations, and by the correlations among the Japanese inter-firm trading network. However, in this previous study, we could not specifically identify what types of structure properties (or correlations) of the network determine the 1.3 exponent. In the present study, we more clearly elucidate the relationship between this nonlinear scaling and the network structure by applying mean-field approximation of the diffusion in a complex network to this money-transport model. Using theoretical analysis, we obtained the mean-field solution of the model and found that, in the case of the Japanese firms, the scaling exponent of 1.3 can be determined from the power law of the average degree of the nearest neighbours of the network with an exponent of -0.7. PMID:24626149

  5. Extracting spatial information from large aperture exposures of diffuse sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Moos, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The spatial properties of large aperture exposures of diffuse emission can be used both to investigate spatial variations in the emission and to filter out camera noise in exposures of weak emission sources. Spatial imaging can be accomplished both parallel and perpendicular to dispersion with a resolution of 5-6 arc sec, and a narrow median filter running perpendicular to dispersion across a diffuse image selectively filters out point source features, such as reseaux marks and fast particle hits. Spatial information derived from observations of solar system objects is presented.

  6. Diffuse scattering and phason fluctuations in the Zn-Mg-Sc icosahedral quasicrystal and its Zn-Sc periodic approximant.

    PubMed

    de Boissieu, M; Francoual, S; Kaneko, Y; Ishimasa, T

    2005-09-01

    We report on the absolute scale measurement of the x-ray diffuse scattering in the ZnMgSc icosahedral quasicrystal and its periodic approximant. Whereas the diffuse scattering in the approximant is purely accounted for by thermal diffuse scattering, an additional signal is observed in the quasicrystal. It is related to phason fluctuations as indicated by its Q(2)(per) dependence. Moreover, when compared to previous measurements carried out on the i-AlPdMn phase, we find that the amount of diffuse scattering is smaller in the i-ZnMgSc phase, in agreement with larger phason elastic constants in this phase. This is confirmed by the observation of a large number of weak Bragg peaks having a high Q(per) reciprocal space component. PMID:16196940

  7. An approximate algorithm for the flux from a rectangular volume source

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, O.J.

    1994-11-09

    An exact semi-analytic formula for the flux from a rectangular surface source with a slab shield has been derived and the required function table has been calculated. This formula is the basis for an algorithm which gives a good approximation for the flux from a rectangular volume source. No other hand calculation method for this source geometry is available in the literature.

  8. The narrow pulse approximation and long length scale determination in xenon gas diffusion NMR studies of model porous media.

    PubMed

    Mair, R W; Sen, P N; Hürlimann, M D; Patz, S; Cory, D G; Walsworth, R L

    2002-06-01

    We report a systematic study of xenon gas diffusion NMR in simple model porous media, random packs of mono-sized glass beads, and focus on three specific areas peculiar to gas-phase diffusion. These topics are: (i) diffusion of spins on the order of the pore dimensions during the application of the diffusion encoding gradient pulses in a PGSE experiment (breakdown of the narrow pulse approximation and imperfect background gradient cancellation), (ii) the ability to derive long length scale structural information, and (iii) effects of finite sample size. We find that the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times in small beads is significantly affected by the gas pressure. In particular, as expected, we find smaller deviations between measured D(t) and theoretical predictions as the gas pressure is increased, resulting from reduced diffusion during the application of the gradient pulse. The deviations are then completely removed when water D(t) is observed in the same samples. The use of gas also allows us to probe D(t) over a wide range of length scales and observe the long time asymptotic limit which is proportional to the inverse tortuosity of the sample, as well as the diffusion distance where this limit takes effect (approximately 1-1.5 bead diameters). The Padé approximation can be used as a reference for expected xenon D(t) data between the short and the long time limits, allowing us to explore deviations from the expected behavior at intermediate times as a result of finite sample size effects. Finally, the application of the Padé interpolation between the long and the short time asymptotic limits yields a fitted length scale (the Padé length), which is found to be approximately 0.13b for all bead packs, where b is the bead diameter. PMID:12165255

  9. The narrow pulse approximation and long length scale determination in xenon gas diffusion NMR studies of model porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Sen, P. N.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Patz, S.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    We report a systematic study of xenon gas diffusion NMR in simple model porous media, random packs of mono-sized glass beads, and focus on three specific areas peculiar to gas-phase diffusion. These topics are: (i) diffusion of spins on the order of the pore dimensions during the application of the diffusion encoding gradient pulses in a PGSE experiment (breakdown of the narrow pulse approximation and imperfect background gradient cancellation), (ii) the ability to derive long length scale structural information, and (iii) effects of finite sample size. We find that the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times in small beads is significantly affected by the gas pressure. In particular, as expected, we find smaller deviations between measured D(t) and theoretical predictions as the gas pressure is increased, resulting from reduced diffusion during the application of the gradient pulse. The deviations are then completely removed when water D(t) is observed in the same samples. The use of gas also allows us to probe D(t) over a wide range of length scales and observe the long time asymptotic limit which is proportional to the inverse tortuosity of the sample, as well as the diffusion distance where this limit takes effect (approximately 1-1.5 bead diameters). The Pade approximation can be used as a reference for expected xenon D(t) data between the short and the long time limits, allowing us to explore deviations from the expected behavior at intermediate times as a result of finite sample size effects. Finally, the application of the Pade interpolation between the long and the short time asymptotic limits yields a fitted length scale (the Pade length), which is found to be approximately 0.13b for all bead packs, where b is the bead diameter. c. 2002 Elsevier Sciences (USA).

  10. Approximate series solution of multi-dimensional, time fractional-order (heat-like) diffusion equations using FRDTM

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brajesh K.; Srivastava, Vineet K.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present a new approximate series solution of the multi-dimensional (heat-like) diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative in Caputo form using a semi-analytical approach: fractional-order reduced differential transform method (FRDTM). The efficiency of FRDTM is confirmed by considering four test problems of the multi-dimensional time fractional-order diffusion equation. FRDTM is a very efficient, effective and powerful mathematical tool which provides exact or very close approximate solutions for a wide range of real-world problems arising in engineering and natural sciences, modelled in terms of differential equations. PMID:26064639

  11. Multi-source information diffusion in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2015-07-01

    Individual spreading behavior in online social networks is closely related to user activity, tie strength, and other user and network features. The results concentrate on personal spreading decisions; however, whether these features promote the global information diffusion and increase the macroscopic density of infected agents, remains unclear to us. In this paper, we propose a multi-source diffusion model in which agents may create new messages and spread other agents’ messages. Agents receive many messages, and each time they select a certain message preferentially to spread in consideration of different features. Simulation results show the density of infected agents for different messages follows a power-law distribution in both scale-free and small-world networks. Selecting the largest author degree, author activity and tie strength preferentially can advance the overall diffusion process. Weak tie bias is the least effective feature for multiple information diffusion, but it helps to diffuse a single message. Unexpectedly, the bias of interest similarity does not have an apparent effect. Integrated with the influence on individual diffusion behavior, strong tie bias is a significant feature both for local and global diffusion.

  12. Gas and solute diffusion in partially saturated porous media: Percolation theory and Effective Medium Approximation compared with lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Daigle, Hugh; Hunt, Allen G.; Ewing, Robert P.; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and accurate prediction of gas or liquid phase (solute) diffusion are essential to accurate prediction of contaminant transport in partially saturated porous media. In this study, we propose analytical equations, using concepts from percolation theory and the Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) to model the saturation dependence of both gas and solute diffusion in porous media. The predictions of our theoretical approach agree well with the results of nine lattice Boltzmann simulations. We find that the universal quadratic scaling predicted by percolation theory, combined with the universal linear scaling predicted by the EMA, describes diffusion in porous media with both relatively broad and extremely narrow pore size distributions.

  13. Application of diffusion approximation for risk assessments of sea turtle populations.

    PubMed

    Snover, Melissa L; Heppell, Selina S

    2009-04-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) to forecast extinction risk is a commonly used tool in decision- and policy-making processes of governments and conservation organizations. A drawback to PVA is the high degree of uncertainty in these forecasts due to both population stochasticity and parameter estimation uncertainty. With sparse or noisy data, extinction probabilities frequently have 95% confidence intervals ranging from 0 to 1. To make stochastic simulation results more interpretable, we present a new metric, susceptibility to quasi-extinction (SQE), to assess whether or not a population is at risk of declining to a prespecified level (quasi-extinction). Following standard methods for diffusion approximation of extinction risk, we use a parametric bootstrap to determine the 95% CI for the probability of quasi-extinction. SQE is the proportion of this parametric bootstrap that indicates a high (defined as > or = 0.90) probability of quasi-extinction, resulting in a point estimate that integrates both parameter uncertainty and stochasticity in extinction forecasting. We demonstrate the application of the metric with sea turtle nest census data, which have a high degree of year-to-year variance and represent only a small fraction of the total population. Using population simulations, we found that for these types of data a critical SQE value of 0.40 corresponds to populations that have a true risk of quasi-extinction. The metric has an accuracy of > 80%, which can be increased further by lowering the 0.40 threshold and trading off Type I error (considering a population to be "not at risk" when it actually is) and Type II error (considering a population to be "at risk" when it actually is not), giving managers a flexible and quantitative tool for assessments of population status. PMID:19425438

  14. Diffusion approximation-based simulation of stochastic ion channels: which method to use?

    PubMed Central

    Pezo, Danilo; Soudry, Daniel; Orio, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of stochastic ion channel fluctuations on neural dynamics, several numerical implementation methods have been proposed. Gillespie's method for Markov Chains (MC) simulation is highly accurate, yet it becomes computationally intensive in the regime of a high number of channels. Many recent works aim to speed simulation time using the Langevin-based Diffusion Approximation (DA). Under this common theoretical approach, each implementation differs in how it handles various numerical difficulties—such as bounding of state variables to [0,1]. Here we review and test a set of the most recently published DA implementations (Goldwyn et al., 2011; Linaro et al., 2011; Dangerfield et al., 2012; Orio and Soudry, 2012; Schmandt and Galán, 2012; Güler, 2013; Huang et al., 2013a), comparing all of them in a set of numerical simulations that assess numerical accuracy and computational efficiency on three different models: (1) the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, (2) a model with faster sodium channels, and (3) a multi-compartmental model inspired in granular cells. We conclude that for a low number of channels (usually below 1000 per simulated compartment) one should use MC—which is the fastest and most accurate method. For a high number of channels, we recommend using the method by Orio and Soudry (2012), possibly combined with the method by Schmandt and Galán (2012) for increased speed and slightly reduced accuracy. Consequently, MC modeling may be the best method for detailed multicompartment neuron models—in which a model neuron with many thousands of channels is segmented into many compartments with a few hundred channels. PMID:25404914

  15. The discovery of diffuse steep spectrum sources in Abell 2256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weeren, R. J.; Intema, H. T.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Clarke, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Hierarchical galaxy formation models indicate that during their lifetime galaxy clusters undergo several mergers. An example of such a merging cluster is Abell 2256. Here we report on the discovery of three diffuse radio sources in the periphery of Abell 2256, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). Aims: The aim of the observations was to search for diffuse ultra-steep spectrum radio sources within the galaxy cluster Abell 2256. Methods: We have carried out GMRT 325 MHz radio continuum observations of Abell 2256. V, R and I band images of the cluster were taken with the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT). Results: We have discovered three diffuse elongated radio sources located about 1 Mpc from the cluster center. Two are located to the west of the cluster center, and one to the southeast. The sources have a measured physical extent of 170, 140 and 240 kpc, respectively. The two western sources are also visible in deep low-resolution 115-165 MHz Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) images, although they are blended into a single source. For the combined emission of the blended source we find an extreme spectral index (α) of -2.05 ± 0.14 between 140 and 351 MHz. The extremely steep spectral index suggests these two sources are most likely the result of adiabatic compression of fossil radio plasma due to merger shocks. For the source to the southeast, we find that {α < -1.45} between 1369 and 325 MHz. We did not find any clear optical counterparts to the radio sources in the WHT images. Conclusions: The discovery of the steep spectrum sources implies the existence of a population of faint diffuse radio sources in (merging) clusters with such steep spectra that they have gone unnoticed in higher frequency (⪆1 GHz) observations. Simply considering the timescales related to the AGN activity, synchrotron losses, and the presence of shocks, we find that most massive clusters should possess similar sources. An exciting possibility

  16. Formulation of photon diffusion from spherical bioluminescent sources in an infinite homogeneous medium

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Lihong V; Wang, Ge

    2004-01-01

    Background The bioluminescent enzyme firefly luciferase (Luc) or variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transformed cells can be effectively used to reveal molecular and cellular features of neoplasia in vivo. Tumor cell growth and regression in response to various therapies can be evaluated by using bioluminescent imaging. In bioluminescent imaging, light propagates in highly scattering tissue, and the diffusion approximation is sufficiently accurate to predict the imaging signal around the biological tissue. The numerical solutions to the diffusion equation take large amounts of computational time, and the studies for its analytic solutions have attracted more attention in biomedical engineering applications. Methods Biological tissue is a turbid medium that both scatters and absorbs photons. An accurate model for the propagation of photons through tissue can be adopted from transport theory, and its diffusion approximation is applied to predict the imaging signal around the biological tissue. The solution to the diffusion equation is formulated by the convolution between its Green's function and source term. The formulation of photon diffusion from spherical bioluminescent sources in an infinite homogeneous medium can be obtained to accelerate the forward simulation of bioluminescent phenomena. Results The closed form solutions have been derived for the time-dependent diffusion equation and the steady-state diffusion equation with solid and hollow spherical sources in a homogeneous medium, respectively. Meanwhile, the relationship between solutions with a solid sphere source and ones with a surface sphere source is obtained. Conclusion We have formulated solutions for the diffusion equation with solid and hollow spherical sources in an infinite homogeneous medium. These solutions have been verified by Monte Carlo simulation for use in biomedical optical imaging studies. The closed form solution is highly accurate and more computationally efficient in

  17. Time-dependent modelling of pulsar wind nebulae: study on the impact of the diffusion-loss approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Jonatan; Torres, Diego F.; Rea, Nanda

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we present a leptonic, time-dependent model of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The model seeks a solution for the lepton distribution function considering the full time-energy-dependent diffusion-loss equation. The time-dependent lepton population is balanced by injection, energy losses and escape. We include synchrotron, inverse-Compton (IC; with the cosmic-microwave background as well as with IR/optical photon fields), self-synchrotron Compton, and bremsstrahlung processes, all devoid of any radiative approximations. With this model in place we focus on the Crab nebula as an example and present its time-dependent evolution. Afterwards, we analyse the impact of different approximations made at the level of the diffusion-loss equation, as can be found in the literature. Whereas previous models ignored the escape term, e.g. with the diffusion-loss equation becoming advective, others approximated the losses as catastrophic, so that the equation has only time derivatives. Additional approximations are also described and computed. We study what the impact of these approaches is on the determination of the PWN evolution. In particular, we find the time-dependent deviation of the multi-wavelength spectrum and the best-fitting parameters obtained with the complete and the approximate models.

  18. Asymptotic solution of the diffusion equation in slender impermeable tubes of revolution. I. The leading-term approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Traytak, Sergey D.

    2014-06-14

    The anisotropic 3D equation describing the pointlike particles diffusion in slender impermeable tubes of revolution with cross section smoothly depending on the longitudinal coordinate is the object of our study. We use singular perturbations approach to find the rigorous asymptotic expression for the local particles concentration as an expansion in the ratio of the characteristic transversal and longitudinal diffusion relaxation times. The corresponding leading-term approximation is a generalization of well-known Fick-Jacobs approximation. This result allowed us to delineate the conditions on temporal and spatial scales under which the Fick-Jacobs approximation is valid. A striking analogy between solution of our problem and the method of inner-outer expansions for low Knudsen numbers gas kinetic theory is established. With the aid of this analogy we clarify the physical and mathematical meaning of the obtained results.

  19. Green Functions for Diffuse Photon-Density Waves Generated by a Line Source in Two Nonabsorbing Turbid Media in Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendeleva, Margarita L.

    2004-03-01

    Diffuse photon-density waves generated by an instantaneous line source that is parallel to the interface between two semi-infinite turbid media are studied by use of the diffusion approximation. For two nonabsorbing media the Green functions for diffuse light are obtained based on the Green functions for temperature fields that were derived with the Cagniard-de Hoop method. The boundary conditions for diffuse light take into account the discontinuity in the specific intensity at the interface between two media with different refractive indices. The results of the calculations of the specific intensities and the gradient lines for different sets of parameters are presented.

  20. Quantum diffusion of electrons in quasiperiodic and periodic approximant lattices in the rare earth-cadmium system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, N. M. R.; Mortimer, K. D.; Kong, T.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Basov, D. N.; Timusk, T.

    2016-04-01

    Icosahedral quasicrystals are characterised by the absence of a distinct Drude peak in their low-frequency optical conductivity and the same is true of their crystalline approximants. We have measured the optical conductivity of i-GdCd?, an icosahedral quasicrystal, and two approximants, GdCd? and YCd?. We find that there is a significant difference in the optical properties of these compounds. The approximants have a zero frequency peak, characteristic of a metal, whereas the quasicrystal has a striking minimum. This is the first example where the transport properties of a quasicrystal and its approximant differ in such a fundamental way. Using a generalised Drude model introduced by Mayou, we find that our data are well described by this model. It implies that the quantum diffusion of electron wave packets through the periodic and quasiperiodic lattices is responsible for these dramatic differences: in the approximants, the transport is superdiffusive, whereas the quasicrystals show subdiffusive motion of the electrons.

  1. Diffusion of Heat from a Line Source in Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uberoi, Mahinder S; Corrsin, Stanley

    1953-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been made of some features of the turbulent heat diffusion behind a line heated wire stretched perpendicular to a flowing isotropic turbulence. The mean temperature distributions have been measured with systematic variations in wind speed, size of turbulence-producing grid, and downstream location of heat source. The nature of the temperature fluctuation field has been studied. A comparison of Lagrangian and Eulerian analyses for diffusion in a nondecaying turbulence yields an expression for turbulent-heat-transfer coefficient in terms of turbulence velocity and a Lagrangian "scale." the ratio of Eulerian to Lagrangian microscale has been determined theoretically by generalization of a result of Heisenberg and with arbitrary constants taken from independent sources, shows rough agreement with experimental results. A convenient form has been deduced for the criterion of interchangeability of instantaneous space and time derivatives in a flowing turbulence.

  2. Dual coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation for the solution of the forward problem in fluorescence molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2012-03-01

    The solution of the forward problem in fluorescence molecular imaging is among the most important premises for the successful confrontation of the inverse reconstruction problem. To date, the most typical approach has been the application of the diffusion approximation as the forward model. This model is basically a first order angular approximation for the radiative transfer equation, and thus it presents certain limitations. The scope of this manuscript is to present the dual coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for the solution of the forward problem in fluorescence molecular imaging. The integro-differential equations of its weak formalism were solved via the finite elements method. Algorithmic blocks with cubature rules and analytical solutions of the multiple integrals have been constructed for the solution. Furthermore, specialized mapping matrices have been developed to assembly the finite elements matrix. As a radiative transfer equation based model, the integration over the angular discretization was implemented analytically, while quadrature rules were applied whenever required. Finally, this model was evaluated on numerous virtual phantoms and its relative accuracy, with respect to the radiative transfer equation, was over 95%, when the widely applied diffusion approximation presented almost 85% corresponding relative accuracy for the fluorescence emission.

  3. Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging based on compressed sensing using joint sparsity and low-rank approximation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianping; Wang, Lihui; Chu, Chunyu; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Wanyu; Zhu, Yuemin

    2016-04-29

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (DTMR) imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been widely used to probe noninvasively biological tissue structures. However, DTI suffers from long acquisition times, which limit its practical and clinical applications. This paper proposes a new Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction method that employs joint sparsity and rank deficiency to reconstruct cardiac DTMR images from undersampled k-space data. Diffusion-weighted images acquired in different diffusion directions were firstly stacked as columns to form the matrix. The matrix was row sparse in the transform domain and had a low rank. These two properties were then incorporated into the CS reconstruction framework. The underlying constrained optimization problem was finally solved by the first-order fast method. Experiments were carried out on both simulation and real human cardiac DTMR images. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach had lower reconstruction errors for DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivities (MD), compared to the existing CS-DTMR image reconstruction techniques. PMID:27163322

  4. Diffusion and reaction for a spherical source and sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Nyrée; Strieder, William

    2003-03-01

    Two chemically active spheres in an infinite medium, one a zeroth-order reactant source and the other a first-order sink, are considered for various sphere size ratios, center-to-center distances, and sink strengths from chemical to diffusion controlled conditions. This source-sink model simulates some aspects of biological mutualism interactions between different cells. Infinite series expansions in a single index n are obtained for the sink reaction rate and reactant concentration profiles using the bispherical expansion. Each of the coefficients, generated exactly by a matrix elimination method, is expressed in terms of nested, continued fractions easily evaluated for the given n. At intermediate and larger sink-source separation distances the sink reaction rate decays harmonically. For smaller sink-source separations with a highly reactive small sink, a local maximum in the sink reaction rate is found.

  5. Diffusion in heterogeneous media: An iterative scheme for finding approximate solutions to fractional differential equations with time-dependent coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, Mauro; Svenkeson, Adam; West, Bruce J.; Grigolini, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Diffusion processes in heterogeneous media, and biological systems in particular, are riddled with the difficult theoretical issue of whether the true origin of anomalous behavior is renewal or memory, or a special combination of the two. Accounting for the possible mixture of renewal and memory sources of subdiffusion is challenging from a computational point of view as well. This problem is exacerbated by the limited number of techniques available for solving fractional diffusion equations with time-dependent coefficients. We propose an iterative scheme for solving fractional differential equations with time-dependent coefficients that is based on a parametric expansion in the fractional index. We demonstrate how this method can be used to predict the long-time behavior of nonautonomous fractional differential equations by studying the anomalous diffusion process arising from a mixture of renewal and memory sources.

  6. Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction Using Diffuse Source Models

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Michael A.; Viola, Francesco; Walker, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Image reconstruction is central to many scientific fields, from medical ultrasound and sonar to computed tomography and computer vision. While lenses play a critical reconstruction role in these fields, digital sensors enable more sophisticated computational approaches. A variety of computational methods have thus been developed, with the common goal of increasing contrast and resolution to extract the greatest possible information from raw data. This paper describes a new image reconstruction method named the Diffuse Time-domain Optimized Near-field Estimator (dTONE). dTONE represents each hypothetical target in the system model as a diffuse region of targets rather than a single discrete target, which more accurately represents the experimental data that arise from signal sources in continuous space, with no additional computational requirements at the time of image reconstruction. Simulation and experimental ultrasound images of animal tissues show that dTONE achieves image resolution and contrast far superior to those of conventional image reconstruction methods. We also demonstrate the increased robustness of the diffuse target model to major sources of image degradation, through the addition of electronic noise, phase aberration, and magnitude aberration to ultrasound simulations. Using experimental ultrasound data from a tissue-mimicking phantom containing a 3 mm diameter anechoic cyst, the conventionally reconstructed image has a cystic contrast of −6.3 dB whereas the dTONE image has a cystic contrast of −14.4 dB. PMID:20447760

  7. Super-resolution image reconstruction using diffuse source models.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael A; Viola, Francesco; Walker, William F

    2010-06-01

    Image reconstruction is central to many scientific fields, from medical ultrasound and sonar to computed tomography and computer vision. Although lenses play a critical reconstruction role in these fields, digital sensors enable more sophisticated computational approaches. A variety of computational methods have thus been developed, with the common goal of increasing contrast and resolution to extract the greatest possible information from raw data. This paper describes a new image reconstruction method named the Diffuse Time-domain Optimized Near-field Estimator (dTONE). dTONE represents each hypothetical target in the system model as a diffuse region of targets rather than a single discrete target, which more accurately represents the experimental data that arise from signal sources in continuous space, with no additional computational requirements at the time of image reconstruction. Simulation and experimental ultrasound images of animal tissues show that dTONE achieves image resolution and contrast far superior to those of conventional image reconstruction methods. We also demonstrate the increased robustness of the diffuse target model to major sources of image degradation through the addition of electronic noise, phase aberration and magnitude aberration to ultrasound simulations. Using experimental ultrasound data from a tissue-mimicking phantom containing a 3-mm-diameter anechoic cyst, the conventionally reconstructed image has a cystic contrast of -6.3 dB, whereas the dTONE image has a cystic contrast of -14.4 dB. PMID:20447760

  8. Relative contribution of DNAPL dissolution and matrix diffusion to the long-term persistence of chlorinated solvent source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedabbasi, Mir Ahmad; Newell, Charles J.; Adamson, David T.; Sale, Thomas C.

    2012-06-01

    The relative contribution of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) dissolution versus matrix diffusion processes to the longevity of chlorinated source zones was investigated. Matrix diffusion is being increasingly recognized as an important non-DNAPL component of source behavior over time, and understanding the persistence of contaminants that have diffused into lower permeability units can impact remedial decision-making. In this study, a hypothetical DNAPL source zone architecture consisting of several different sized pools and fingers originally developed by Anderson et al. (1992) was adapted to include defined low permeability layers. A coupled dissolution-diffusion model was developed to allow diffusion into these layers while in contact with DNAPL, followed by diffusion out of these same layers after complete DNAPL dissolution. This exercise was performed for releases of equivalent masses (675 kg) of three different compounds, including chlorinated solvents with solubilities ranging from low (tetrachloroethene (PCE)), moderate (trichloroethene (TCE)) to high (dichloromethane (DCM)). The results of this simple modeling exercise demonstrate that matrix diffusion can be a critical component of source zone longevity and may represent a longer-term contributor to source longevity (i.e., longer time maintaining concentrations above MCLs) than DNAPL dissolution alone at many sites. For the hypothetical TCE release, the simulation indicated that dissolution of DNAPL would take approximately 38 years, while the back diffusion from low permeability zones could maintain the source for an additional 83 years. This effect was even more dramatic for the higher solubility DCM (97% of longevity due to matrix diffusion), while the lower solubility PCE showed a more equal contribution from DNAPL dissolution vs. matrix diffusion. Several methods were used to describe the resulting source attenuation curves, including a first-order decay model which showed that half-life of

  9. An Approximate Markov Model for the Wright-Fisher Diffusion and Its Application to Time Series Data.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Admetlla, Anna; Leuenberger, Christoph; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Wegmann, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The joint and accurate inference of selection and demography from genetic data is considered a particularly challenging question in population genetics, since both process may lead to very similar patterns of genetic diversity. However, additional information for disentangling these effects may be obtained by observing changes in allele frequencies over multiple time points. Such data are common in experimental evolution studies, as well as in the comparison of ancient and contemporary samples. Leveraging this information, however, has been computationally challenging, particularly when considering multilocus data sets. To overcome these issues, we introduce a novel, discrete approximation for diffusion processes, termed mean transition time approximation, which preserves the long-term behavior of the underlying continuous diffusion process. We then derive this approximation for the particular case of inferring selection and demography from time series data under the classic Wright-Fisher model and demonstrate that our approximation is well suited to describe allele trajectories through time, even when only a few states are used. We then develop a Bayesian inference approach to jointly infer the population size and locus-specific selection coefficients with high accuracy and further extend this model to also infer the rates of sequencing errors and mutations. We finally apply our approach to recent experimental data on the evolution of drug resistance in influenza virus, identifying likely targets of selection and finding evidence for much larger viral population sizes than previously reported. PMID:27038112

  10. A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.

  11. Far-Infrared sources and diffuse emission in M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Cong; Helou, George

    1994-01-01

    A study on the far-infrared (FIR) emission of M31 has been carried out with the High Resolution (HiRes) maps (approx. 1 min) derived from IRAS data. Sixty-eight FIR sources are detected in M31, which in general coincide with optical HII regions, and contribute 15, 23, 29, and 23 percent to the fluxes in 12, 25, 60, and 100 micron bands, respectively. The remaining diffuse emission, which dominates the FIR emission of M31, is studied using a dust heating model which utilizes the UV and optical photometry maps and the HI maps available in the literature. It is found that the global dust-to-gas ratio in M31 disk is 6.5 10(exp -3), very close to the dust-to-gas ratio in the solar neighborhood. There is a significant galactocentric gradient of the dust-to-HI-gas ratio, with an e-folding scale length of 9 kpc. The diffuse dust correlates tightly with the HI gas. The model indicates that the non-ionizing UV (913-4000A) radiation from massive and intermediate massive stars contributes only about 30 percent of the heating of the diffuse dust, while the optical-NIR (4000-9000A) radiation from the old stellar population is responsible for the most of the heating.

  12. Modeling deep brain stimulation: point source approximation versus realistic representation of the electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianhe C.; Grill, Warren M.

    2010-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as an effective treatment for movement disorders; however, the fundamental mechanisms by which DBS works are not well understood. Computational models of DBS can provide insights into these fundamental mechanisms and typically require two steps: calculation of the electrical potentials generated by DBS and, subsequently, determination of the effects of the extracellular potentials on neurons. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of using a point source electrode to approximate the DBS electrode when calculating the thresholds and spatial distribution of activation of a surrounding population of model neurons in response to monopolar DBS. Extracellular potentials in a homogenous isotropic volume conductor were calculated using either a point current source or a geometrically accurate finite element model of the Medtronic DBS 3389 lead. These extracellular potentials were coupled to populations of model axons, and thresholds and spatial distributions were determined for different electrode geometries and axon orientations. Median threshold differences between DBS and point source electrodes for individual axons varied between -20.5% and 9.5% across all orientations, monopolar polarities and electrode geometries utilizing the DBS 3389 electrode. Differences in the percentage of axons activated at a given amplitude by the point source electrode and the DBS electrode were between -9.0% and 12.6% across all monopolar configurations tested. The differences in activation between the DBS and point source electrodes occurred primarily in regions close to conductor-insulator interfaces and around the insulating tip of the DBS electrode. The robustness of the point source approximation in modeling several special cases—tissue anisotropy, a long active electrode and bipolar stimulation—was also examined. Under the conditions considered, the point source was shown to be a valid approximation for predicting excitation

  13. Locating the Source of Diffusion in Large-Scale Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Pedro C.; Thiran, Patrick; Vetterli, Martin

    2012-08-01

    How can we localize the source of diffusion in a complex network? Because of the tremendous size of many real networks—such as the internet or the human social graph—it is usually unfeasible to observe the state of all nodes in a network. We show that it is fundamentally possible to estimate the location of the source from measurements collected by sparsely placed observers. We present a strategy that is optimal for arbitrary trees, achieving maximum probability of correct localization. We describe efficient implementations with complexity O(Nα), where α=1 for arbitrary trees and α=3 for arbitrary graphs. In the context of several case studies, we determine how localization accuracy is affected by various system parameters, including the structure of the network, the density of observers, and the number of observed cascades.

  14. Fast calculations of the spectral diffuse-to-global ratios for approximating spectral irradiance at the street canyon level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco-Hernandez, Roberto; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Webb, Ann R.

    2016-05-01

    Two radiative transfer models are presented that simplify calculations of street canyon spectral irradiances with minimum data input requirements, allowing better assessment of urban exposures than can be provided by standard unobstructed radiation measurements alone. Fast calculations improve the computational performance of radiation models, when numerous repetitions are required in time and location. The core of the models is the calculation of the spectral diffuse-to-global ratios (DGR) from an unobstructed global spectral measurement. The models are based on, and have been tested against, outcomes of the SMARTS2 algorithm (i.e. Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine). The modelled DGRs can then be used to partition global spectral irradiance values into their direct and diffuse components for different solar zenith angles. Finally, the effects of canyon obstructions can be evaluated independently on the direct and diffuse components, which are then recombined to give the total canyon irradiance. The first model allows ozone and aerosol inputs, while the second provides a further simplification, restricted to average ozone and aerosol contents but specifically designed for faster calculations. To assess the effect of obstructions and validate the calculations, a set of experiments with simulated obstructions (simulated canyons) were performed. The greatest source of uncertainty in the simplified calculations is in the treatment of diffuse radiation. The measurement-model agreement is therefore dependent on the region of the sky obscured and ranges from <5 % at all wavelengths to 20-40 % (wavelength dependent) when diffuse sky only is visible from the canyon.

  15. Nonlocal diffusion problems that approximate a parabolic equation with spatial dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino, Alexis; Rossi, Julio D.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that smooth solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the parabolic equation v_t(x,t)=sum_{i,j=1}N a_{ij}(x)partial2v(x,t)/partial{xipartial{x}j} + sum_{i =1}N bi(x)partial{v}(x,t)/partial{x_i} qquad x in Ω, with v( x, t) = g( x, t), {x in partial Ω,} can be approximated uniformly by solutions of nonlocal problems of the form ut^{\\varepsilon}(x,t)=int_{mathbb{R}n} K_{\\varepsilon}(x,y)(u^{\\varepsilon}(y,t)-u^{\\varepsilon}(x,t))dy, quad x in Ω, with {u^{\\varepsilon}(x,t)=g(x,t)}, {x notin Ω}, as {\\varepsilon to 0}, for an appropriate rescaled kernel {K_{\\varepsilon}}. In this way, we show that the usual local evolution problems with spatial dependence can be approximated by nonlocal ones. In the case of an equation in divergence form, we can obtain an approximation with symmetric kernels, that is, {K_{\\varepsilon}(x,y) = K_{\\varepsilon}(y,x)}.

  16. Approximately a Thousand Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Jin; Yagi, Masafumi; Yamanoi, Hitomi; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of 854 ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma cluster using deep R band images, with partial B, i, and Hα band coverage, obtained with the Subaru telescope. Many of them (332) are Milky Way (MW) sized with very large effective radii of {r}{e}\\gt 1.5 {kpc}. This study was motivated by the recent discovery of 47 UDGs by Dokkum et al.; our discovery suggests \\gt 1000 UDGs after accounting for the smaller Subaru field (4.1 {{degree}}2; about one-half of Dragonfly). The new Subaru UDGs show a distribution concentrated around the cluster center, strongly suggesting that the great majority are (likely longtime) cluster members. They are a passively evolving population, lying along the red sequence in the color-magnitude diagram with no signature of Hα emission. Star formation was, therefore, quenched in the past. They have exponential light profiles, effective radii {r}{e}˜ 800\\{pc}-5 {kpc}, effective surface brightnesses {μ }{e}({\\text{}}R) = 25-28 mag arcsec-2, and stellar masses ˜ 1× {10}7{\\text{}}{M}⊙ -5× {10}8{\\text{}}{M}⊙ . There is also a population of nucleated UDGs. Some MW-sized UDGs appear closer to the cluster center than previously reported; their survival in the strong tidal field, despite their large sizes, possibly indicates a large dark matter fraction protecting the diffuse stellar component. The indicated baryon fraction ≲ 1% is less than the cosmic average, and thus the gas must have been removed (from the possibly massive dark halo). The UDG population is elevated in the Coma cluster compared to the field, indicating that the gas removal mechanism is related primarily to the cluster environment.

  17. Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria. [Rayleigh-Gans-Debye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottarchyk, M.; Chen, S.-H.; Asano, S.

    1979-01-01

    The study tests the accuracy of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) approximation against a rigorous scattering theory calculation for a simplified model of E. coli (about 1 micron in size) - a solid spheroid. A general procedure is formulated whereby the scattered field amplitude correlation function, for both polarized and depolarized contributions, can be computed for a collection of particles. An explicit formula is presented for the scattered intensity, both polarized and depolarized, for a collection of randomly diffusing or moving particles. Two specific cases for the intermediate scattering functions are considered: diffusing particles and freely moving particles with a Maxwellian speed distribution. The formalism is applied to microorganisms suspended in a liquid medium. Sensitivity studies revealed that for values of the relative index of refraction greater than 1.03, RGD could be in serious error in computing the intensity as well as correlation functions.

  18. Continued Study on Hohlraum Radiation Source with Approximately Constant Radiation Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tianming; Yang, Jiamin; Zhu, Tuo; Li, Zhichao; Huang, Chengwu

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was performed on the Shenguang III prototype laser facility to continue the study on hohlraum radiation source with approximately constant radiation temperature using a continuously shaped laser pulse. A radiation source with a flattop temperature of about 130 eV that lasted about 5 ns was obtained. The previous analytical iteration method based on power balance and self-similar solution of ablation was modified taking into account the plasma movements and it was used to design the laser pulse shape for experiment. A comparison between experimental results and simulation is presented and better agreement was achieved using the modified method. Further improvements are discussed.

  19. Contribution to the diffuse radio background from extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernstrom, T.; Scott, Douglas; Wall, J. V.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the brightness of the cosmic radio background (CRB) by comparing the contribution from individual source counts to absolute measurements. We use a compilation of radio counts to estimate the contribution of detected sources to the CRB in several different frequency bands. Using a Monte Carlo Markov chain technique, we estimate the brightness values and uncertainties, paying attention to various sources of systematic error. At ν= 150, 325, 408, 610, 1.4, 4.8 and 8.4 GHz, our calculated contributions to the background sky temperature are 18, 2.8, 1.6, 0.71, 0.11, 0.0032 and 0.0059 K, respectively. We then compare our results to absolute measurements from the Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) experiment. If the ARCADE 2 measurements are correct and come from sources, then there must be an additional population of radio galaxies, fainter than where current data are probing. More specifically, the Euclidean-normalized counts at 1.4 GHz have to have an additional bump below about 10 μJy.

  20. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    SciTech Connect

    Verdu, G.; Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D.

    2012-07-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  1. Benchmarking the pseudopotential and fixed-node approximations in diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of molecules and solids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nazarov, Roman; Shulenburger, Luke; Morales, Miguel A.; Hood, Randolph Q.

    2016-03-28

    Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of the spectroscopic properties of a large set of molecules were performed, assessing the effect of different approximations. In systems containing elements with large atomic numbers, we show that the errors associated with the use of nonlocal mean-field-based pseudopotentials in DMC calculations can be significant and may surpass the fixed-node error. We suggest practical guidelines for reducing these pseudopotential errors, which allow us to obtain DMC-computed spectroscopic parameters of molecules and equation of state properties of solids in excellent agreement with experiment.

  2. Benchmarking the pseudopotential and fixed-node approximations in diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of molecules and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, R.; Shulenburger, L.; Morales, M.; Hood, Randolph Q.

    2016-03-01

    We performed diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of the spectroscopic properties of a large set of molecules, assessing the effect of different approximations. In systems containing elements with large atomic numbers, we show that the errors associated with the use of nonlocal mean-field-based pseudopotentials in DMC calculations can be significant and may surpass the fixed-node error. We suggest practical guidelines for reducing these pseudopotential errors, which allow us to obtain DMC-computed spectroscopic parameters of molecules and equation of state properties of solids in excellent agreement with experiment.

  3. An inverse time-dependent source problem for a time-fractional diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, T.; Li, X. L.; Li, Y. S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to identifying a time-dependent source term in a multi-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation from boundary Cauchy data. The existence and uniqueness of a strong solution for the corresponding direct problem with homogeneous Neumann boundary condition are firstly proved. We provide the uniqueness and a stability estimate for the inverse time-dependent source problem. Then we use the Tikhonov regularization method to solve the inverse source problem and propose a conjugate gradient algorithm to find a good approximation to the minimizer of the Tikhonov regularization functional. Numerical examples in one-dimensional and two-dimensional cases are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. This paper was supported by the NSF of China (11371181) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (lzujbky-2013-k02).

  4. Approximate analytical formulation of radial diffusion and whistler-induced losses from a preexisting flux peak in the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A. V.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2015-09-01

    Modeling the spatiotemporal evolution of relativistic electron fluxes trapped in the Earth's radiation belts in the presence of radial diffusion coupled with wave-induced losses should address one important question: how deep can relativistic electrons penetrate into the inner magnetosphere? However, a full modeling requires extensive numerical simulations solving the comprehensive quasi-linear equations describing pitch angle and radial diffusion of the electron distribution, making it rather difficult to perform parametric studies of the flux behavior. Here we consider the particular situation where a localized flux peak (or storage ring) has been produced at low L < 4 during a period of strong disturbances, through a combination of chorus-induced energy diffusion (or direct injection) at low L together with enhanced wave-induced losses and outward radial transport at higher L. Assuming that radial diffusion can be further described as the spatial broadening within the plasmasphere of this preexisting flux peak, simple approximate analytical solutions for the distribution of trapped relativistic electrons are derived. Such a simplified formalism provides a convenient means for easily determining whether radial diffusion actually prevails over atmospheric losses at any particular time for given electron energy E and location L. It is further used to infer favorable conditions for relativistic electron access to the inner belt, providing an explanation for the relative scarcity of such a feat under most circumstances. Comparisons with electron flux measurements on board the Van Allen Probes show a reasonable agreement between a few weeks and 4 months after the formation of a flux peak.

  5. Finite difference/spectral approximations for the distributed order time fractional reaction-diffusion equation on an unbounded domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hu; Lü, Shujuan; Chen, Wenping

    2016-06-01

    The numerical approximation of the distributed order time fractional reaction-diffusion equation on a semi-infinite spatial domain is discussed in this paper. A fully discrete scheme based on finite difference method in time and spectral approximation using Laguerre functions in space is proposed. The scheme is unconditionally stable and convergent with order O (τ2 + Δα2 +N (1 - m) / 2), where τ, Δα, N, and m are the time-step size, step size in distributed-order variable, polynomial degree, and regularity in the space variable of the exact solution, respectively. A pseudospectral scheme is also proposed and analyzed. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  6. Tramline wheelings as diffuse pollution sources: integrating across spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silgram, Martyn; Collins, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    Identifying the sources of diffuse pollution, characterising transport pathways, and understanding the factors controlling delivery to water bodies, are generic challenges faced by scientists and policymakers supporting the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and other water quality legislation. Land management is intrinsically field scale, which is the scale at which much fieldwork is focused. However, processes identified at plot or field scale may not be significant in terms of water quality at catchment scale, which poses the problem of how best to upscale relevant field-scale characterisations. A consistent framework is urgently needed which is capable of bringing together experimental techniques at these disparate spatial scales (plot, field and river catchment scale), to provide high resolution evidence to support catchment characterisations (which identify "hot spots") and the spatial targeting of mitigation measures aimed at diffuse pollution control. In the absence of such frameworks, comparing existing data from disparate projects represents a starting point for assessing scaling issues. The emerging evidence base is increasingly underscoring the importance of tramline wheelings as sources and pathways for diffuse pollution loss to the edge of cereal fields. Recent UK research has demonstrated that these compacted, unvegetated areas (which are used as markers in spraying operations) can account for over 80% of surface losses of runoff, sediment and phosphorus to edge-of-field. Current government and industry-funded projects are now exploring a range of novel practical land management techniques to minimise these field-scale losses. However, given the mitigating role of field headlands and boundaries, and riparian buffer strips in limiting connectivity and delivery to water bodies, it has not been clear whether such losses represent an important element of the net pollutant load reaching catchment outlets. Such scaling issues represent an

  7. Algorithms and analytical solutions for rapidly approximating long-term dispersion from line and area sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.

    Predicting long-term mean pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of airports, roads and other industrial sources are frequently of concern in regulatory and public health contexts. Many emissions are represented geometrically as ground-level line or area sources. Well developed modelling tools such as AERMOD and ADMS are able to model dispersion from finite (i.e. non-point) sources with considerable accuracy, drawing upon an up-to-date understanding of boundary layer behaviour. Due to mathematical difficulties associated with line and area sources, computationally expensive numerical integration schemes have been developed. For example, some models decompose area sources into a large number of line sources orthogonal to the mean wind direction, for which an analytical (Gaussian) solution exists. Models also employ a time-series approach, which involves computing mean pollutant concentrations for every hour over one or more years of meteorological data. This can give rise to computer runtimes of several days for assessment of a site. While this may be acceptable for assessment of a single industrial complex, airport, etc., this level of computational cost precludes national or international policy assessments at the level of detail available with dispersion modelling. In this paper, we extend previous work [S.R.H. Barrett, R.E. Britter, 2008. Development of algorithms and approximations for rapid operational air quality modelling. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 8105-8111] to line and area sources. We introduce approximations which allow for the development of new analytical solutions for long-term mean dispersion from line and area sources, based on hypergeometric functions. We describe how these solutions can be parameterized from a single point source run from an existing advanced dispersion model, thereby accounting for all processes modelled in the more costly algorithms. The parameterization method combined with the analytical solutions for long-term mean

  8. Diffuse optical tomography using multi-directional sources and detectors

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Takeaki; Ishii, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Yoichiro; Sugawara, Satoru; Sato, Masa-aki; Yamashita, Okito

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is an advanced imaging method used to visualize the internal state of biological tissues as 3D images. However, current continuous-wave DOT requires high-density probe arrays for measurement (less than 15-mm interval) to gather enough information for 3D image reconstruction, which makes the experiment time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a novel DOT measurement system using multi-directional light sources and multi-directional photodetectors instead of high-density probe arrays. We evaluated this system’s multi-directional DOT through computer simulation and a phantom experiment. From the results, we achieved DOT with less than 5-mm localization error up to a 15-mm depth with low-density probe arrays (30-mm interval), indicating that the multi-directional measurement approach allows DOT without requiring high-density measurement. PMID:27446694

  9. Diffuse optical tomography using multi-directional sources and detectors.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Takeaki; Ishii, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Yoichiro; Sugawara, Satoru; Sato, Masa-Aki; Yamashita, Okito

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is an advanced imaging method used to visualize the internal state of biological tissues as 3D images. However, current continuous-wave DOT requires high-density probe arrays for measurement (less than 15-mm interval) to gather enough information for 3D image reconstruction, which makes the experiment time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a novel DOT measurement system using multi-directional light sources and multi-directional photodetectors instead of high-density probe arrays. We evaluated this system's multi-directional DOT through computer simulation and a phantom experiment. From the results, we achieved DOT with less than 5-mm localization error up to a 15-mm depth with low-density probe arrays (30-mm interval), indicating that the multi-directional measurement approach allows DOT without requiring high-density measurement. PMID:27446694

  10. Evaluation of diffusion coefficients by means of an approximate steady-state condition in sedimentation velocity distributions.

    PubMed

    Scott, David J; Harding, Stephen E; Winzor, Donald J

    2015-12-01

    This investigation examined the feasibility of manipulating the rotor speed in sedimentation velocity experiments to spontaneously generate an approximate steady-state condition where the extent of diffusional spreading is matched exactly by the boundary sharpening arising from negative s-c dependence. Simulated sedimentation velocity distributions based on the sedimentation characteristics for a purified mucin preparation were used to illustrate a simple procedure for determining the diffusion coefficient from such steady-state distributions in situations where the concentration dependence of the sedimentation coefficient, s = s(0)/(1 + Kc), was quantified in terms of the limiting sedimentation coefficient as c → 0 (s(0)) and the concentration coefficient (K). Those simulations established that spontaneous generation of the approximate steady state could well be a feature of sedimentation velocity distributions for many unstructured polymer systems because the requirement that Kcoω(2)s(0)/D be between 46 and 183 cm(-2) is not unduly restrictive. Although spontaneous generation of the approximate steady state is also a theoretical prediction for structured macromolecular solutes exhibiting linear concentration dependence of the sedimentation coefficient, s = s(0)(1 - kc), the required value of k is far too large for any practical advantage to be taken of this approach with globular proteins. PMID:26321223

  11. Simple, Fast and Accurate Implementation of the Diffusion Approximation Algorithm for Stochastic Ion Channels with Multiple States

    PubMed Central

    Orio, Patricio; Soudry, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The phenomena that emerge from the interaction of the stochastic opening and closing of ion channels (channel noise) with the non-linear neural dynamics are essential to our understanding of the operation of the nervous system. The effects that channel noise can have on neural dynamics are generally studied using numerical simulations of stochastic models. Algorithms based on discrete Markov Chains (MC) seem to be the most reliable and trustworthy, but even optimized algorithms come with a non-negligible computational cost. Diffusion Approximation (DA) methods use Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) to approximate the behavior of a number of MCs, considerably speeding up simulation times. However, model comparisons have suggested that DA methods did not lead to the same results as in MC modeling in terms of channel noise statistics and effects on excitability. Recently, it was shown that the difference arose because MCs were modeled with coupled gating particles, while the DA was modeled using uncoupled gating particles. Implementations of DA with coupled particles, in the context of a specific kinetic scheme, yielded similar results to MC. However, it remained unclear how to generalize these implementations to different kinetic schemes, or whether they were faster than MC algorithms. Additionally, a steady state approximation was used for the stochastic terms, which, as we show here, can introduce significant inaccuracies. Main Contributions We derived the SDE explicitly for any given ion channel kinetic scheme. The resulting generic equations were surprisingly simple and interpretable – allowing an easy, transparent and efficient DA implementation, avoiding unnecessary approximations. The algorithm was tested in a voltage clamp simulation and in two different current clamp simulations, yielding the same results as MC modeling. Also, the simulation efficiency of this DA method demonstrated considerable superiority over MC methods, except when

  12. APPROXIMATION OF MULTIFLUID MIXTURE RESPONSE FOR SIMULATION OF SHARP AND DIFFUSE MATERIAL INTERFACES ON AN EULERIAN GRID

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, I; Liu, B

    2005-09-29

    Multimaterial Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagragian-Eulerian (ALE) codes usually use volume fractions of materials to track individual components in mixed cells. Material advection usually is calculated either by interface capturing, where a high-order van Leer-like slope reconstruction technique is applied, or interface tracking, where a normal reconstruction technique is applied. The former approach is more appropriate for gas-like substances, and the latter is ideal for solids and liquids, since it does not smear out material interfaces. A wide range of problems involves both diffuse and sharp interfaces between substances and demands a combination of these techniques. It is possible to treat all substances that can diffuse into each other as a single material and only keep mass fractions of the individual components of the mixture. The material response can be determined based on the assumption of pressure and temperature equilibrium between components of the mixture. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to solve the corresponding system of equations. In order to avoid these problems one can introduce an effective gamma and employ the ideal gas approximation to calculate mixture response. This method provides reliable results, is able to compute strong shock waves, and deals with complex equations of state. Results from a number of simulations using this scheme are presented.

  13. The effects of As overpressure and diffusion source on the diffusion of Mn in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. H.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1992-12-01

    Data are presented to show the effect of As overpressure on the diffusion of Mn in GaAs using four different Mn sources. These sources include solid Mn thin film deposited directly on the GaAs substrate and Mn vapors from pure Mn, MnAs, and Mn3As solids. In the circumstance for which a solid Mn film is used as the diffusion source, a nonuniform doping distribution and poor surface morphology is obtained due to a reaction between the Mn film and the GaAs matrix. The degraded surface consists of a layer of polycrystalline cubic alloy having a lattice constant of nearly 8.4 Å and a composition close to MnGa2 with a small amount of As. Of the remaining diffusion sources (Mn, MnAs, and Mn3As), only MnAs consistently produces a uniform doping distribution and smooth surface morphology. For diffusions at 800 °C, a uniform surface hole carrier concentration as high as 1020/cm3 can be obtained using MnAs as the source. The As overpressure is found to drastically alter the Mn diffusion profile, and Mn, like Zn, may diffuse in GaAs interstitial-substitutionally. Vapor from both the Mn and Mn3As solids degrade the GaAs surface. Mn3As, however, uncharacteristically degrades the surface more rapidly although the details of such are not well understood. With the presence of a high As overpressure, however, both surfaces of the Mn and Mn3As sources are converted to (Mn,As) compounds, the compositions being close to MnAs. High enough As overpressures are shown to completely suppress the GaAs surface degradation which is evident when Mn3As alone is used as the diffusion source.

  14. Analytical source term optimization for radioactive releases with approximate knowledge of nuclide ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Radek; Seibert, Petra; Kovalets, Ivan; Andronopoulos, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    We are concerned with source term retrieval in the case of an accident in a nuclear power with off-site consequences. The goal is to optimize atmospheric dispersion model inputs using inverse modeling of gamma dose rate measurements (instantaneous or time-integrated). These are the most abundant type of measurements provided by various radiation monitoring networks across Europe and available continuously in near-real time. Usually, a source term of an accidental release comprises of a mixture of nuclides. Unfortunately, gamma dose rate measurements do not provide a direct information on the source term composition; however, physical properties of respective nuclides (deposition properties, decay half-life) can yield some insight. In the method presented, we assume that nuclide ratios are known at least approximately, e.g. from nuclide specific observations or reactor inventory and assumptions on the accident type. The source term can be in multiple phases, each being characterized by constant nuclide ratios. The method is an extension of a well-established source term inversion approach based on the optimization of an objective function (minimization of a cost function). This function has two quadratic terms: mismatch between model and measurements weighted by an observation error covariance matrix and the deviation of the solution from a first guess weighted by the first-guess error covariance matrix. For simplicity, both error covariance matrices are approximated as diagonal. Analytical minimization of the cost function leads to a liner system of equations. Possible negative parts of the solution are iteratively removed by the means of first guess error variance reduction. Nuclide ratios enter the problem in the form of additional linear equations, where the deviations from prescribed ratios are weighted by factors; the corresponding error variance allows us to control how strongly we want to impose the prescribed ratios. This introduces some freedom into the

  15. Performance investigation of SP3 and diffusion approximation for three-dimensional whole-body optical imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Cao, Xu; Wang, Jing; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie

    2015-09-01

    The third-order simplified harmonic spherical approximation (SP3) and diffusion approximation (DA) equations have been widely used in the three-dimensional (3D) whole-body optical imaging of small animals. With different types of tissues, which were classified by the ratio of µ s'/µ ɑ, the two equations have their own application scopes. However, the classification criterion was blurring and unreasonable, and the scope has not been systematically investigated until now. In this study, a new criterion for classifying tissues was established based on the absolute value of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. Using the newly defined classification criterion, the performance and applicability of the SP3 and DA equations were evaluated with a series of investigation experiments. Extensive investigation results showed that the SP3 equation exhibited a better performance and wider applicability than the DA one in most of the observed cases, especially in tissues of low-scattering-low-absorption and low-scattering-high-absorption range. For the case of tissues with the high-scattering-low-absorption properties, a similar performance was observed for both the SP3 and the DA equations, in which case the DA was the preferred option for 3D whole-body optical imaging. Results of this study would provide significant reference for the study of hybrid light transport models. PMID:25850985

  16. Skyglow: a retrieval of the approximate radiant intensity function of ground-based light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H. A.

    2014-04-01

    The angular distribution of the light emitted from a city is an important source of information about public lighting systems and it also plays a key role in modelling the skyglow. Usually, the upwardly directed radiation is characterized through a parametrized emission function - a semi-empirical approach as a reasonable approximation that allows for fast computations. However, theoretical or experimental retrievals of emission characteristics are extremely difficult to obtain because of both the complexity of radiative transfer methods and/or the lack of highly specialized measuring devices. Our research has been conducted with the specific objective to identify an efficient theoretical technique for retrieval of the emission pattern of ground-based light sources in order to determine the optimum values of the scaling parameters of the Garstang function. In particular, the input data involve the zenith luminance or radiance with horizontal illuminance or irradiance. Theoretical ratios of zenith luminance LV(0) to horizontal illuminance DV are calculated for a set of distances d that separate a hypothetical observer from the light source (a city or town). This approach is advantageous because inexpensive traditional equipment can be used to obtain the mean values of the Garstang parameters. Furthermore, it can also be applied to other parametrizable emission functions and to any measuring site, even one with a masked horizon.

  17. Source-position transformation: an approximate invariance in strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Peter; Sluse, Dominique

    2014-04-01

    The main obstacle that gravitational lensing has in determining accurate masses of deflectors, or in determining precise estimates for the Hubble constant, is the degeneracy of lensing observables with respect to the mass-sheet transformation (MST). The MST is a global modification of the mass distribution which leaves all image positions, shapes, and flux ratios invariant, but which changes the time delay. Here we show that another global transformation of lensing mass distributions exists which leaves image positions and flux ratios almost invariant, and of which the MST is a special case. As is the case for the MST, this new transformation only applies if one considers only those source components that are at the same distance from us. Whereas for axi-symmetric lenses this source position transformation exactly reproduces all strong lensing observables, it does so only approximately for more general lens situations. We provide crude estimates for the accuracy with which the transformed mass distribution can reproduce the same image positions as the original lens model, and present an illustrative example of its performance. This new invariance transformation is most likely the reason why the same strong lensing information can be accounted for with rather different mass models.

  18. The Approximate Bayesian Computation methods in the localization of the atmospheric contamination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopka, P.; Wawrzynczak, A.; Borysiewicz, M.

    2015-09-01

    In many areas of application, a central problem is a solution to the inverse problem, especially estimation of the unknown model parameters to model the underlying dynamics of a physical system precisely. In this situation, the Bayesian inference is a powerful tool to combine observed data with prior knowledge to gain the probability distribution of searched parameters. We have applied the modern methodology named Sequential Approximate Bayesian Computation (S-ABC) to the problem of tracing the atmospheric contaminant source. The ABC is technique commonly used in the Bayesian analysis of complex models and dynamic system. Sequential methods can significantly increase the efficiency of the ABC. In the presented algorithm, the input data are the on-line arriving concentrations of released substance registered by distributed sensor network from OVER-LAND ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION (OLAD) experiment. The algorithm output are the probability distributions of a contamination source parameters i.e. its particular location, release rate, speed and direction of the movement, start time and duration. The stochastic approach presented in this paper is completely general and can be used in other fields where the parameters of the model bet fitted to the observable data should be found.

  19. Approximate analytical solutions for the trapped electron distribution due to quasi-linear diffusion by whistler mode waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A. V.; Agapitov, O. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of trapped energetic electrons inside the Earth's radiation belts is the focus of intense studies aiming at better describing the evolution of the space environment in the presence of various disturbances induced by the solar wind or by an enhanced lightning activity. Such studies are usually performed by means of comparisons with full numerical simulations solving the Fokker-Planck quasi-linear diffusion equation for the particle distribution function. Here we present for the first time approximate but realistic analytical solutions for the electron distribution, which are shown to be in good agreement with exact numerical solutions in situations where resonant scattering of energetic electrons by whistler mode hiss, lightning-generated or chorus waves, is the dominant process. Quiet time distributions are well recovered, as well as the evolution of energized relativistic electron distributions during disturbed geomagnetic conditions. It is further shown that careful comparisons between the analytical solutions and measured distributions may allow to infer important bounce- and drift-averaged wave characteristics (such as wave amplitude). It could also help to improve the global understanding of underlying physical phenomena.

  20. Probability distribution of haplotype frequencies under the two-locus Wright-Fisher model by diffusion approximation.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Simon; Loisel, Patrice

    2007-05-01

    The probability distribution of haplotype frequencies in a population, and the way it is influenced by genetical forces such as recombination, selection, random drift ...is a question of fundamental interest in population genetics. For large populations, the distribution of haplotype frequencies for two linked loci under the classical Wright-Fisher model is almost impossible to compute because of numerical reasons. However the Wright-Fisher process can in such cases be approximated by a diffusion process and the transition density can then be deduced from the Kolmogorov equations. As no exact solution has been found for these equations, we developed a numerical method based on finite differences to solve them. It applies to transient states and models including selection or mutations. We show by several tests that this method is accurate for computing the conditional joint density of haplotype frequencies given that no haplotype has been lost. We also prove that it is far less time consuming than other methods such as Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:17316725

  1. Location of the effective diffusing-photon source in a strongly scattering medium.

    PubMed

    Kostko, A F; Pavlov, V A

    1997-10-20

    When a narrow laser beam illuminates a strongly scattering medium, the effective pointlike source of diffusing photons appears inside the medium. By the method worked out, which is based on measurements of the diffusive intensity of light emerging from a turbid spherical sample, the depth of this source site (the penetration depth) is determined relatively to the sample diameter, which is known accurately. By using this method of locating the effective source, we have discovered that its position inside the medium is unexpectedly deep. We obtained the penetration depth D(0) = 4.6 l* +/- 0.7 l* instead of one transport mean free path, where l* is the value of D(0) in the standard diffusion theory. Information about this source dipping is useful in diffusing-photon correlation spectroscopy because of its influence on the geometric factor calculated from the diffusion equation. PMID:18264271

  2. Thermal diffusivity measurements of particulates using the differentiated line source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Fountain, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described in which thermal diffusivity measurements can be made on particulate materials using the identical instrumentation as described in previous papers for measuring thermal conductivity. The measurements for the two properties can be made simultaneously, thus eliminating the changes in conditions when they are made separately. This system has particular application for studies of simulated lunar, planetary, or asteroidal surfaces in which laboratory measurements can be correlated with astronomical observations of thermal inertia. A representative set of data is shown which gives thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity measurements on a particulate basalt in which the values for each temperature were taken simultaneously. A value for specific heat is calculated for measurements taken at each temperature.

  3. Effluent from diffuse hydrothermal venting. 1: A simple model of plumes from diffuse hydrothermal sources

    SciTech Connect

    Trivett, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    This paper focuses on modeling the fate of effluent from diffuse seafloor hydrothermal activity after it has been vented into the water column. The model was formulated using a number of simplifying assumptions which permit direct application of this model to field measurements. I have limited the configurations to those where the hydrothermal outflow velocities are smaller than horizontal current. I assume that the entrainment of ambient seawater into the plume is constant over the length of the plume. This permits formulation of a first-order relation for the rise height and dilution in a diffuse hydrothermal plume as a function of downstream distance. The analytic model is compared with a simple laboratory simulation of the hydrothermal flow. The results suggest that diffuse hydrothermal effluent will penetrate to a height in the water column that is proportional to the overall dimension of the diffuse vent patch, multiplied by a dimensionless plume intensity parameter. I also ahow relations for plume dilution which will be compared with field data in part 2 of this work.

  4. Astrophysical Sources of Statistical Uncertainty in Precision Radial Velocities and Their Approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2015-12-01

    We investigate various astrophysical contributions to the statistical uncertainty of precision radial velocity measurements of stellar spectra. We first analytically determine the intrinsic uncertainty in centroiding isolated spectral lines broadened by Gaussian, Lorentzian, Voigt, and rotational profiles, finding that for all cases and assuming weak lines, the uncertainty in the line centroid is σV ≈ C\\Theta3/2/(WI1/20), where Θ is the full-width at half-maximum of the line, W is the equivalent width, and I0 is the continuum signal-to-noise ratio, with C a constant of order unity that depends on the specific line profile. We use this result to motivate approximate analytic expressions to the total radial velocity uncertainty for a stellar spectrum with a given photon noise, resolution, wavelength, effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, macroturbulence, and stellar rotation. We use these relations to determine the dominant contributions to the statistical uncertainties in precision radial velocity measurements as a function of effective temperature and mass for main-sequence stars. For stars more massive than ~1.1 Msolar we find that stellar rotation dominates the velocity uncertainties for moderate and high-resolution spectra (R gsim 30,000). For less-massive stars, a variety of sources contribute depending on the spectral resolution and wavelength, with photon noise due to decreasing bolometric luminosity generally becoming increasingly important for low-mass stars at fixed exposure time and distance. In most cases, resolutions greater than 60,000 provide little benefit in terms of statistical precision, although higher resolutions would likely allow for better control of systematic uncertainties. We find that the spectra of cooler stars and stars with higher metallicity are intrinsically richer in velocity information, as expected. We determine the optimal wavelength range for stars of various spectral types, finding that the optimal region

  5. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David

    2015-04-01

    Entries of chemical pollutants in surface waters are a serious environmental problem. Among water pollutants plant protection products (ppp) from farming practice are of major concern not only for water suppliers and environmental agencies, but also for farmers and industrial manufacturers. Lost chemicals no longer fulfill their original purpose on the field, but lead to severe damage of the environment and surface waters. Besides point-source inputs of chemical pollutants, the diffuse-source inputs from agricultural procedures play an important and not yet sufficiently studied role concerning water quality. The two most important factors for diffuse inputs are erosion and runoff. The latter usually occurs before erosion begins, and is thus often not visible in hindsight. Only if it has come to erosion, it is obvious to expect runoff in foresight at this area, too. In addition to numerous erosion models, there are also few applications to model runoff processes available. However, these conventional models utilize approximations of catchment parameters based on long-term average values or theoretically calculated concentration peaks which can only provide indications to relative amounts. Our study aims to develop and validate a simplified spatially-explicit dynamic model with high spatiotemporal resolution that enables to measure current and forecast runoff potential not only at catchment scale but field-differentiated. This method allows very precise estimations of runoff risks and supports risk reduction measures to be targeted before fields are treated. By focusing on water pathways occurring on arable land, targeted risk reduction measures like buffer strips at certain points and adapted ppp use can be taken early and pollution of rivers and other surface waters through transported pesticides, fertilizers and their products could be nearly avoided or largely minimized. Using a SAGA-based physical-parametric modeling approach, major factors influencing runoff

  6. Mimicking diffuse supernova antineutrinos with the sun as a source

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, G. G.; Rashba, T. I.

    2010-04-15

    Measuring the {nu}-bar{sub e} component of the cosmic diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) is the next ambitious goal for low-energy neutrino astronomy. The largest flux is expected in the lowest accessible energy bin. However, for E {<=} 15 MeV a possible signal can be mimicked by a solar {nu}-bar{sub e} flux that originates from the usual {sup 8}B neutrinos by spin-flavor oscillations. We show that such an interpretation is possible within the allowed range of neutrino electromagnetic transition moments and solar turbulent field strengths and distributions. Therefore, an unambiguous detection of the DSNB requires a significant number of events at E {>=} 15 MeV.

  7. Eigensolution analysis of spectral/hp continuous Galerkin approximations to advection-diffusion problems: Insights into spectral vanishing viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, R. C.; Sherwin, S. J.; Peiró, J.

    2016-02-01

    This study addresses linear dispersion-diffusion analysis for the spectral/hp continuous Galerkin (CG) formulation in one dimension. First, numerical dispersion and diffusion curves are obtained for the advection-diffusion problem and the role of multiple eigencurves peculiar to spectral/hp methods is discussed. From the eigencurves' behaviour, we observe that CG might feature potentially undesirable non-smooth dispersion/diffusion characteristics for under-resolved simulations of problems strongly dominated by either convection or diffusion. Subsequently, the linear advection equation augmented with spectral vanishing viscosity (SVV) is analysed. Dispersion and diffusion characteristics of CG with SVV-based stabilization are verified to display similar non-smooth features in flow regions where convection is much stronger than dissipation or vice-versa, owing to a dependency of the standard SVV operator on a local Péclet number. First a modification is proposed to the traditional SVV scaling that enforces a globally constant Péclet number so as to avoid the previous issues. In addition, a new SVV kernel function is suggested and shown to provide a more regular behaviour for the eigencurves along with a consistent increase in resolution power for higher-order discretizations, as measured by the extent of the wavenumber range where numerical errors are negligible. The dissipation characteristics of CG with the SVV modifications suggested are then verified to be broadly equivalent to those obtained through upwinding in the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme. Nevertheless, for the kernel function proposed, the full upwind DG scheme is found to have a slightly higher resolution power for the same dissipation levels. These results show that improved CG-SVV characteristics can be pursued via different kernel functions with the aid of optimization algorithms.

  8. A comparison of theoretical solutions of the three-layer coaxial diffusion approximation of the borehole with measurements at the Zielona Góra calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Drabina, A; Dwora, D; Loskiewicz, J; Zorski, T

    2001-05-01

    Czubek has obtained a practically successful solution of a two-layer borehole geometry using the neutron diffusion approximation. Czubek and Woznicka solved the more realistic three-layer borehole model, which includes a middle layer consisting of mud-cake or steel tubing, in this approximation. The comparison with experimental data for 15-mm thick steel tubes shows some discrepancies. By using an exact Monte Carlo solution of the Boltzmann equation for calculating the migration length, measurements agree more closely with the "general calibration curve". This opens opportunities for cased borehole logging. PMID:11258536

  9. COS-B gamma ray sources beyond the predicted diffuse emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Simpson, G.

    1990-01-01

    COS-B data were reanalyzed using for background subtraction the modeled galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission based on HI- and CO-line surveys and the gamma-ray data itself. A methodology was developed for this purpose with the following three features: automatic generation of source catalogs using correlation analysis, simulation of trials to derive significance thresholds for source detection, and bootstrap sampling to drive error boxes and confidence intervals for source parameters. The analysis shows that about half of the 2CG sources are explained by concentrations in the distribution of molecular hydrogen. Indication for a few weak new sources is also obtained.

  10. Broadband signal generator for the approximation of a magnetotelluric source for indoor testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shuang-chao; Deng, Ming; Chen, Kai; Shi, Xin-yu

    2016-08-01

    To test the frequency response of a magnetotelluric (MT) receiver, a broadband source, especially white noise is more efficient and intuitive than single frequency signals. In view of the absence of an appropriate source generator for MT receiver indoor testing, we designed a broadband signal generator based on a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS). Firstly, we divided the whole MT band into two segments to avoid data redundancy and simplify calculation in data processing and designed a generator composed of several modules: a clock module, a PRBS logic module, and a voltage level conversion module. We conducted a detailed analysis of the optimal parameter selection methods for each module, and key parameters including clock frequency, order, the primitive polynomial and the original states of the linear registers were determined. The generator provides four-channel PRBS signals with two effective bandwidths of 5  ×  10‑4–714 Hz and 0.1 Hz–14 kHz which are broad enough to cover the frequency range for different MT methods. These four-channel signals were used to simulate two modes of sources (xy and yx) with strong auto-correlation and weak cross-correlation. The power spectral density is quite stable in the whole passband. The new generator is characterized by broadband output in low-frequency bands, low power consumption, simple operation and reliable performance. Indoor and field tests indicated that the generator can provide an analog MT source and is a practical tool for MT receiver indoor testing.

  11. Diffuse and point sources of silica in the Seine River watershed.

    PubMed

    Sferratore, Agata; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Conley, Daniel I; Pinault, Séverine

    2006-11-01

    Dissolved silica (DSi) is believed to enter aquatic ecosystems primarily through diffuse sources by weathering. Point sources have generally been considered negligible, although recent reports of DSi inputs from domestic and industrial sources suggest otherwise. In addition, particulate amorphous silica (ASi) inputs from terrestrial ecosystems during soil erosion and in vegetation can dissolve and also be a significant source of DSi. We quantify here both point and diffuse sources of DSi and particulate ASi to the Seine River watershed. The total per capita point source inputs of Si (DSi + ASi) were found to be 1.0 and 0.8 g Si inhabitant(-1) d(-1) in raw and treated waters of the Achères wastewater treatment plant, in agreement with calculations based on average food intake and silica-containing washing products consumption. A mass balance of Si inputs and outputs for the Seine drainage network was established for wet and dry hydrological conditions (2001 and 2003, respectively). Diffuse sources of Si are of 1775 kg Si km(-2) y(-1) in wet conditions and 762 kg Si km(-2) y(-1) in dry conditions, with the proportion of ASi around 6%. Point sources of Si from urban discharge can contribute to more than 8% of the total Si inputs at the basin scale in hydrologically dry years. An in-stream retention of 6% of total inputs in dry conditions and 12% in wet conditions is inferred from the budget. PMID:17144288

  12. Recovery of optical properties using interstitial cylindrical diffusers as source and detector fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Timothy M.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate recovery of optical properties using arrays of interstitial cylindrical diffusing fibers as sources and detectors. A single 1-cm diffuser delivered laser illumination at 665 nm, while seven 1- and 2-cm diffusers at 1-cm grid spacing acted as detectors. Extraction of optical properties from these measurements was based upon a diffusion model of emission and detection distributions for these diffuser fibers, informed by previous measurements of heterogeneous axial detection. Verification of the technique was performed in 15 liquid tissue-simulating phantoms consisting of deionized water, India ink as absorber, and Intralipid 20% as scatterer. For the range of optical properties tested, mean errors were 4.4% for effective attenuation coefficient, 12.6% for absorption coefficient, and 7.6% for reduced scattering coefficient. Error in recovery tended to increase with decreasing transport albedo. For therapeutic techniques involving the delivery of light to locations deep within the body, such as interstitial photodynamic and photothermal therapies, the methods described here would allow the treatment diffuser fibers also to be used as sources and detectors for recovery of optical properties. This would eliminate the need for separately inserted fibers for spectroscopy, reducing clinical complexity and improving the accuracy of treatment planning.

  13. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  14. Required distribution of noise sources for Green's function recovery in diffusive fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsalsadati, S.; Weiss, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    In the most general sense, noise is the part of the signal of little or no interest, due to a multitude of reasons such as operator error, imperfect instrumentation, experiment design, or inescapable background interference. Considering the latter, it has been shown that Green's function can be extracted from cross-correlation of the ambient, diffusive wavefields arising from background random noise sources. Pore pressure and low-frequency electromagnetic induction are two such examples of diffusive fields. In theory, applying Green's function method in geophysical exploration requires infinity of volumetrically distributed sources; however, in the real world the number of noise sources in an area is limited, and furthermore, unevenly distributed in time, space and spectral content. Hence, quantification of the requisite noise sources that enable us to calculate Green's function acceptably well remains an open research question. The purpose of this study is to find the area of noise sources that contribute most to the Green's function estimation in diffusive systems. We call such a region the Volume of Relevance (VoR). Our analysis builds upon recent work in 1D homogeneous system where it was shown that sources located between two receivers positions are the most important ones for the purpose of Green's function recovery. Our results confirm the previous finding but we also examine the effect of heterogeneity, dimensionality and receiver location in both 1D and 2D at a fixed frequency. We demonstrate that for receivers located symmetrically across an interface between regions of contrasting diffusivity, the VoR rapidly shifts from one side of the interface to the other, and back again, as receiver separation increases. We also demonstrate that where the receiver pair is located on the interface itself, the shifting is less rapid, and for moderate to high diffusivity contrasts, the VoR remains entirely on the more diffusive side. In addition, because classical

  15. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH MULTIPLE SOURCES AND HEIGHT-DEPENDENT WIND SPEED AND EDDY DIFFUSIVITIES. (R825689C072)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Three-dimensional analytical solutions of the atmospheric diffusion equation with multiple sources and height-dependent wind speed and eddy diffusivities are derived in a systematic fashion. For homogeneous Neumann (total reflection), Dirichlet (total adsorpti...

  16. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH MULTIPLE SOURCES AND HEIGHT-DEPENDENT WIND SPEED AND EDDY DIFFUSIVITIES. (R825689C048)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Three-dimensional analytical solutions of the atmospheric diffusion equation with multiple sources and height-dependent wind speed and eddy diffusivities are derived in a systematic fashion. For homogeneous Neumann (total reflection), Dirichlet (total adsorpti...

  17. Diffusion of alkali species in porous tungsten substrates used in contact ionization sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon-Golcher, E.; Kwan, J.; Morse, E. C.

    2002-01-01

    Contact ionization (doped) sources used in current Heavy Ion Fusion experiments consist of a porous tungsten substrate doped with an alkali carbonate. In the early stages of the heating cycle (T - 600 C), the carbonate breaks down and releases the alkali atoms that then diffuse through the substrate. At the emitter surface there is a balance between the fast desorption rate of the alkali atoms (mostly as neutrals) and the slower replenishment rate from the substrate by diffusion. Time-resolved measurements of neutral particle evaporation rates at the emitter surface have been used to estimate the effective diffusion coefficient (D) that characterizes the migration of alkali species in the substrate. These estimates are consistent with the observed source lifetimes (tens of hrs.) and establish the alkali migration in the bulk as a diffusion-limited process. The measurements suggest that the faster migration rates (D {approx} 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -6} cm2/s) occur early during the heating cycle when the dominant species are the neutral alkali atoms. At operating temperatures there is a slower migration rate (D x 10-7cm2/sd) ue to the dominance of ions, which difise by a slower surface diffusion process.

  18. Locating the source of diffusion in complex networks by time-reversal backward spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhesi; Cao, Shinan; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Locating the source that triggers a dynamical process is a fundamental but challenging problem in complex networks, ranging from epidemic spreading in society and on the Internet to cancer metastasis in the human body. An accurate localization of the source is inherently limited by our ability to simultaneously access the information of all nodes in a large-scale complex network. This thus raises two critical questions: how do we locate the source from incomplete information and can we achieve full localization of sources at any possible location from a given set of observable nodes. Here we develop a time-reversal backward spreading algorithm to locate the source of a diffusion-like process efficiently and propose a general locatability condition. We test the algorithm by employing epidemic spreading and consensus dynamics as typical dynamical processes and apply it to the H1N1 pandemic in China. We find that the sources can be precisely located in arbitrary networks insofar as the locatability condition is assured. Our tools greatly improve our ability to locate the source of diffusion in complex networks based on limited accessibility of nodal information. Moreover, they have implications for controlling a variety of dynamical processes taking place on complex networks, such as inhibiting epidemics, slowing the spread of rumors, pollution control, and environmental protection.

  19. Locating the source of diffusion in complex networks by time-reversal backward spreading.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhesi; Cao, Shinan; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Locating the source that triggers a dynamical process is a fundamental but challenging problem in complex networks, ranging from epidemic spreading in society and on the Internet to cancer metastasis in the human body. An accurate localization of the source is inherently limited by our ability to simultaneously access the information of all nodes in a large-scale complex network. This thus raises two critical questions: how do we locate the source from incomplete information and can we achieve full localization of sources at any possible location from a given set of observable nodes. Here we develop a time-reversal backward spreading algorithm to locate the source of a diffusion-like process efficiently and propose a general locatability condition. We test the algorithm by employing epidemic spreading and consensus dynamics as typical dynamical processes and apply it to the H1N1 pandemic in China. We find that the sources can be precisely located in arbitrary networks insofar as the locatability condition is assured. Our tools greatly improve our ability to locate the source of diffusion in complex networks based on limited accessibility of nodal information. Moreover, they have implications for controlling a variety of dynamical processes taking place on complex networks, such as inhibiting epidemics, slowing the spread of rumors, pollution control, and environmental protection. PMID:27078360

  20. Comparison of flat cleaved and cylindrical diffusing fibers as treatment sources for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, Timothy M. Foster, Thomas H.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: For interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) of bulky tumors, careful treatment planning is required in order to ensure that a therapeutic dose is delivered to the tumor, while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissue. In clinical contexts, iPDT has typically been performed with either flat cleaved or cylindrical diffusing optical fibers as light sources. Here, the authors directly compare these two source geometries in terms of the number of fibers and duration of treatment required to deliver a prescribed light dose to a tumor volume. Methods: Treatment planning software for iPDT was developed based on graphics processing unit enhanced Monte Carlo simulations. This software was used to optimize the number of fibers, total energy delivered by each fiber, and the position of individual fibers in order to deliver a target light dose (D{sub 90}) to 90% of the tumor volume. Treatment plans were developed using both flat cleaved and cylindrical diffusing fibers, based on tissue volumes derived from CT data from a head and neck cancer patient. Plans were created for four cases: fixed energy per fiber, fixed number of fibers, and in cases where both or neither of these factors were fixed. Results: When the number of source fibers was fixed at eight, treatment plans based on flat cleaved fibers required each to deliver 7180–8080 J in order to deposit 90 J/cm{sup 2} in 90% of the tumor volume. For diffusers, each fiber was required to deliver 2270–2350 J (333–1178 J/cm) in order to achieve this same result. For the case of fibers delivering a fixed 900 J, 13 diffusers or 19 flat cleaved fibers at a spacing of 1 cm were required to deliver the desired dose. With energy per fiber fixed at 2400 J and the number of fibers fixed at eight, diffuser fibers delivered the desired dose to 93% of the tumor volume, while flat cleaved fibers delivered this dose to 79%. With both energy and number of fibers allowed to vary, six diffusers delivering 3485–3600 J

  1. Turbulent diffusion from a heated line source in non-equilibrium grid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedic, Jovan; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated turbulent diffusion of heat injected passively from a line source in equilibrium and non-equilibrium grid-generated turbulence, which are, respectively, flows in which the value of the non-dimensional rate of kinetic energy dissipation is constant or changes with streamwise distance from the grid. We used three grids with uniform square meshes and one fractal square grid (FSG), all of the same solidity, to generate non-equilibrium and equilibrium turbulence in a wind-tunnel. The regular grids have mesh sizes that are comparable to the first (RG160), second (RG80) and fourth (RG18) iterations of the fractal grid. The heated line source was inserted on the centre-plane of the grids at either of two downstream locations or an upstream one and it spanned the entire width of the wind-tunnel. We found that RG160 produced the greatest heat diffusion, followed by FSG, RG80 and RG18, in this order. The apparent turbulent diffusivity produced by the four grids also decreased in the same order. These findings conform with Taylor's theory of diffusion by continuous movements. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that the fractal space-scale unfolding (SSU) mechanism does not apply to grids with the same solidity but different effective mesh sizes. Supported by NSERC.

  2. Comparison of laboratory methodologies for evaluating radiostrontium diffusion in soils: planar-source versus half-cell methods.

    PubMed

    Aldaba, D; García-Gutiérrez, M; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2010-11-01

    A planar-source method, initially designed to obtain diffusion coefficients in compacted clay, is adapted here to determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)) of radiostrontium in soils representative of the Spanish territory. Experiments were carried out by varying the moisture content (F(moist)), and bulk dry density (ρ(bulk)) of the soil samples, in order to study the influence of these soil packing parameters on D(a) values. The moisture in the soil samples was established as the percentage of occupancy of each soil's field capacity (OFC). For a similar OFC, D(a) values in the examined soils ranged by approximately one order of magnitude (e.g. from 6.2 × 10(-)(11) to 6.5 × 10(-)(12)m(2)s(-)(1), at 100% of OFC; from 3.0 × 10(-)(11) to 3.8 × 10(-)(12)m(2)s(-)(1), at 60% of OFC). For a given soil, D(a) values increased when water content was increased. F(moist), and tortuosity (τ) explained D(a) variability, with R(2) values usually over 0.9. However, no good simple or multiple regressions between the soil packing parameters and D(a) were obtained with the whole dataset of all soils, which indicated that soil sorption capacity affects the diffusion of reactive radionuclides in soils. The inclusion of calculated K(d) values in the multiple regressions improved the correlations in all cases. Finally, D(a) values were compared with those obtained by the application of a half-cell method. The values of D(a) obtained by the planar-source methods were systematically lower than the half-cell ones, with a good correlation between the D(a) derived from both methods (R(2)=0.98). PMID:20850167

  3. Anisotropies of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei diffusing from extragalactic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harari, Diego; Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    We obtain the dipolar anisotropies in the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei diffusing from nearby extragalactic sources. We consider mixed-composition scenarios in which different cosmic ray nuclei are accelerated up to the same maximum rigidity, so that E diffusion in extragalactic turbulent fields as well as the effects of photodisintegrations and other energy losses. Dipolar anisotropies at the level of 5% to 10% at energies ˜10 EeV are predicted for plausible values of the source density and magnetic fields.

  4. On the source function of the soft X-ray diffuse background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, David N.; Kraft, Ralph P.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation transfer theory has been used recently to derive the source function of the soft X-ray diffuse background, resulting in the claim of evidence for 10 exp 6 K gas in the Galactic halo. We show that this analysis has several errors that invalidate its conclusions. We argue that the case for an extensive hot halo remains open, pending further work, but may be settled by the continuing series of Rosat observations of high-latitude soft X-ray shadows.

  5. Nutrient pollution in central California rivers: a comparison of point and diffuse sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Harrison, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems resulting from nutrient pollution is a persistent problem in regions where agriculture and urban development are significant. An important question for ecosystem management in these areas is whether nutrient pollution originates from point sources (e.g., sewage effluent) or diffuse sources (e.g., runoff of fertilizers from agricultural fields). In this poster, we present spatially explicit estimates for the input of two key constituents of nutrient pollution, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), to 22 individual river basins in central California for the early 2000s using information on land cover, agricultural practices, and sewage treatment facilities. Net anthropogenic input (agricultural sources + urban sources - crop harvest) of N ranged from 194 to 11094 kg N km-2 yr-1 while net anthropogenic P inputs ranged from -22 to 346 kg P km-2 yr-1. We estimated that diffuse inputs of inorganic fertilizer and manure were the largest fraction of anthropogenic N and P inputs to these basins. Point source inputs from sewage effluent was nonexistent in 17 of the basins and contributed up to 2 and 15% of N and P inputs in the remaining 5 basins. Using measured data on riverine N and P export from these basins during the 2000 - 2003 water years, we estimate that these basins exported a median of 11 and 12% of their annual net anthropogenic N and P inputs. Among basins, export of net anthropogenic P inputs was on average 53% larger than export of net anthropogenic N inputs. This suggests either that N was retained more efficiently than P or it was lost from basins in gaseous form (e.g., N2 and N2O). Our results suggest that ecosystem management in these central California river basins should focus on diffuse agricultural sources of both N and P to reduce nutrient pollution of downstream aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  7. Discrete-continuous reaction-diffusion model with mobile point-like sources and sinks.

    PubMed

    Kondrat, Svyatoslav; Zimmermann, Olav; Wiechert, Wolfgang; von Lieres, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In many applications in soft and biological physics, there are multiple time and length scales involved but often with a distinct separation between them. For instance, in enzyme kinetics, enzymes are relatively large, move slowly and their copy numbers are typically small, while the metabolites (being transformed by these enzymes) are often present in abundance, are small in size and diffuse fast. It seems thus natural to apply different techniques to different time and length levels and couple them. Here we explore this possibility by constructing a stochastic-deterministic discrete-continuous reaction-diffusion model with mobile sources and sinks. Such an approach allows in particular to separate different sources of stochasticity. We demonstrate its application by modelling enzyme-catalysed reactions with freely diffusing enzymes and a heterogeneous source of metabolites. Our calculations suggest that using a higher amount of less active enzymes, as compared to fewer more active enzymes, reduces the metabolite pool size and correspondingly the lag time, giving rise to a faster response to external stimuli. The methodology presented can be extended to more complex systems and offers exciting possibilities for studying problems where spatial heterogeneities, stochasticity or discreteness play a role. PMID:26830760

  8. Implicit Solution of Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion Including Reactive Heating Source in Material Energy Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Shumaker, D E; Woodward, C S

    2005-05-03

    In this paper, the authors investigate performance of a fully implicit formulation and solution method of a diffusion-reaction system modeling radiation diffusion with material energy transfer and a fusion fuel source. In certain parameter regimes this system can lead to a rapid conversion of potential energy into material energy. Accuracy in time integration is essential for a good solution since a major fraction of the fuel can be depleted in a very short time. Such systems arise in a number of application areas including evolution of a star and inertial confinement fusion. Previous work has addressed implicit solution of radiation diffusion problems. Recently Shadid and coauthors have looked at implicit and semi-implicit solution of reaction-diffusion systems. In general they have found that fully implicit is the most accurate method for difficult coupled nonlinear equations. In previous work, they have demonstrated that a method of lines approach coupled with a BDF time integrator and a Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver could efficiently and accurately solve a large-scale, implicit radiation diffusion problem. In this paper, they extend that work to include an additional heating term in the material energy equation and an equation to model the evolution of the reactive fuel density. This system now consists of three coupled equations for radiation energy, material energy, and fuel density. The radiation energy equation includes diffusion and energy exchange with material energy. The material energy equation includes reaction heating and exchange with radiation energy, and the fuel density equation includes its depletion due to the fuel consumption.

  9. Radiometric calibration of a 100 cm sphere integrating source for VIIRS solar diffuser stability monitor bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene D.; Murgai, Vijay; Menzel, Reinhard W.

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Joint Polar-orbiting Satellite System (JPSS) mission has a solar diffuser as a reflective band calibrator. Due to UV solarization of the solar diffuser, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) is on-board to track the reflectance change of the solar diffuser in visible to near IR wavelengths. A 100 cm Sphere Integrating Source (SIS) has been used to configure and test the SDSM on the ground since MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) programs. Recent upgrades of the radiance transfer and BRDF measurement instruments in Raytheon have enabled more spectral data and faster measurement time with comparable uncertainty to the previous methods. The SIS has a Radiance Monitor, which has been mainly used as a SIS real-time health checker. It has been observed that the Radiance Monitor response is sufficiently linear and stable thus the Radiance Monitor can be used as a calibrator for ground tests. This paper describes the upgraded SIS calibration instruments, and the changes in the calibration philosophy of the SIS for the SDSM bands.

  10. Gamma-ray observations of Ophiuchus with EGRET: The diffuse emission and point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, S. D.; Digel, S. W.; De Geus, E. J.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the Ophiuchus region made with the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during the first 2 1/2 years of operation show the diffuse emission from the interstellar gas in Ophiuchus as well as variable emission from two point sources. The gamma-ray emission is modeled in terms of cosmic-ray interactions with atomic and molecular hydrogen in Ophiuchus and with low-energy photons along the line of sight. The model also includes the flux from the two point sources and an isotropic diffuse contribution. The cosmic-ray density is assumed to be uniform. The derived ratio of molecular hydrogen column density to integrated CO intensity is (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp 20) H-mols/sq cm (K km/s)(exp -1). At the sensitivity and resolution of the gamma-ray data, no variation of this ratio over the modeled region is discernible, nor are any regions of enhanced cosmic-ray density apparent. The model was fitted to seven narrow energy bands to obtain the energy depedence of the gamma-ray production function and the spectra of the point sources. The derived production function is in good agreement with theoretical calculations and the local cosmic-ray electron and proton spectra. The positions of the point sources were determined from maximum likelihood analysis of the gamma-ray emission observed in excess of the diffuse model. We identify one point source with the quasar PKS 1622-253, which has an average flux, E greater than 100 MeV, of (2.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm/s and photon spectral index -1.9 +/- 0.3. The other source, denoted GRO J1631-27, has not yet been identified at other wavelengths. Its average flux, E greater than 100 MeV, is (1.1 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm/s; however, its spectral index is poorly determined. The spectral index and intensity of the isotropic contribution to the model agree well with the extragalactic diffuse emission derived from the SAS 2 data.

  11. Si diffusion and intermixing in AlGaAs/GaAs structures using buried impurity sources

    SciTech Connect

    Beernink, K.J.; Thornton, R.L.; Anderson, G.B.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1995-05-08

    Si diffusion and impurity-induced layer intermixing from a buried impurity source have been studied by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy of isolated, Si-doped GaAs layers in an undoped Al{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/GaAs superlattice and by photoluminescence measurements on Si-doped GaAs quantum wells with undoped Al{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As barriers. In annealed samples, the Si profile suggests a Si diffusion process involving multiply ionized column III vacancies. The width of the resulting Si profile and the spatial extent and completeness of intermixing strongly depend on the initial Si concentration in the doped layer.

  12. Analytic solutions of the time-dependent quasilinear diffusion equation with source and loss terms

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, M.H.A. ); Hamza, E.A. )

    1993-08-01

    A simplified one-dimensional quasilinear diffusion equation describing the time evolution of collisionless ions in the presence of ion-cyclotron-resonance heating, sources, and losses is solved analytically for all harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency. Simple time-dependent distribution functions which are initially Maxwellian and vanish at high energies are obtained and calculated numerically for the first four harmonics of resonance heating. It is found that the strongest ion tail of the resulting anisotropic distribution function is driven by heating at the second harmonic followed by heating at the fundamental frequency.

  13. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 μg/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 μg/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 μg/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl

  14. Modeling the reversible, diffusive sink effect in response to transient contaminant sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Little, J C; Hodgson, A T

    2002-09-01

    A physically based diffusion model is used to evaluate the sink effect of diffusion-controlled indoor materials and to predict the transient contaminant concentration in indoor air in response to several time-varying contaminant sources. For simplicity, it is assumed the predominant indoor material is a homogeneous slab, initially free of contaminant, and the air within the room is well mixed. The model enables transient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations to be predicted based on the material/air partition coefficient (K) and the material-phase diffusion coefficient (D) of the sink. Model predictions are made for three scenarios, each mimicking a realistic situation in a building. Styrene, phenol, and naphthalene are used as representative VOCs. A styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) backed carpet, vinyl flooring (VF), and a polyurethane foam (PUF) carpet cushion are considered as typical indoor sinks. In scenarios involving a sinusoidal VOC input and a double exponential decaying input, the model predicts the sink has a modest impact for SBR/styrene, but the effect increases for VF/phenol and PUF/naphthalene. In contrast, for an episodic chemical spill, SBR is predicted to reduce the peak styrene concentration considerably. A parametric study reveals for systems involving a large equilibrium constant (K), the kinetic constant (D) will govern the shape of the resulting gasphase concentration profile. On the other hand, for systems with a relaxed mass transfer resistance, K will dominate the profile. PMID:12244748

  15. Identifiability for the pointwise source detection in Fisher’s reaction-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Belgacem, Faker

    2012-06-01

    We are interested in the detection of a pointwise source in a class of semi-linear advection-diffusion-reaction equations of Fisher type. The source is determined by its location, which may be steady or unsteady, and its time-dependent intensity. Observations recorded at a couple of points are the available data. One observing station is located upstream of the source and the other downstream. This is a severely ill-posed nonlinear inverse problem. In this paper, we pursue an identifiability result. The process we follow has been developed earlier for the linear model and may be sharpened to operate for the semi-linear equation. It is based on the uniqueness for a parabolic (semi-linear) sideways problem, which is obtained by a suitable unique continuation theorem. We state a maximum principle that turns out to be necessary for our proof. The identifiability is finally obtained for a stationary or a moving source. Many applications may be found in biology, chemical physiology or environmental science. The problem we deal with is the detection of pointwise organic pollution sources in rivers and channels. The basic equation to consider is the one-dimensional biochemical oxygen demand equation, with a nonlinear power growth inhibitor and/or the Michaelis-Menten reaction coefficient.

  16. Comparison of Implicit Schemes to Solve Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics with a Flux-limited Diffusion Approximation: Newton--Raphson, Operator Splitting, and Linearization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsu, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2016-03-01

    Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton-Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas & Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical.

  17. SaX: An open source package for electronic-structure and optical-properties calculations in the GW approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Samos, Layla; Bussi, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    We present here SaX (Self-energies and eXcitations), a plane-waves package aimed at electronic-structure and optical-properties calculations in the GW framework, namely using the GW approximation for quasi-particle properties and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the excitonic effects. The code is mostly written in FORTRAN90 in a modern style, with extensive use of data abstraction (i.e. objects). SaX employs state of the art techniques and can treat large systems. The package is released with an open source license and can be also download from http://www.sax-project.org/. Program summaryProgram title: SaX (Self-energies and eXcitations) Catalogue identifier: AEDF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 779 771 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 894 755 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN, plus some C utilities Computer: Linux PC, Linux clusters, IBM-SP5 Operating system: Linux, Aix Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: depending on the system complexity Classification: 7.3 External routines: Message-Passing Interface (MPI) to perform parallel computations. ESPRESSO ( http://www.quantum-espresso.org) Nature of problem: SaX is designed to calculate the electronic band-structure of semiconductors, including quasi-particle effects and optical properties including excitonic effects. Solution method: The electronic band-structure is calculated using the GW approximation for the self-energy operator. The optical properties are calculated solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the GW approximation. The wavefunctions are expanded on a plane-waves basis set, using norm-conserving pseudopotentials. Restrictions: Many objects are non-local matrix represented in plane wave basis

  18. The ionization sources of the diffuse ionized gas in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges, Erica Susan

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) has been shown to be an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM), with its large filling factor (>= 20%) and a mass that makes it the most massive component of the Galactic ionized ISM. Given that it has been found to be ubiquitous in both the Galaxy and external disk galaxies, the energy source to create and maintain the DIG must necessarily be large. Massive OB stars are the only known sources with enough energy to power the DIG, and DIG is also linked morphologically to OB stars as it is brightest near bright star forming regions. However, the details of the location and spectral types of the ionizing stars, as well as the relevance of other ionizing mechanisms, are still not clear. I present the results of three different studies aimed at exploring the ionization sources of the DIG. Optical spectroscopy of DIG in M33 and NGC 891 using the Gemini-North telescope has been obtained to compare diagnostic emission line ratios with photoionization models. The first detection of (O I] l6300 was made in the DIG of M33. In M33, models in which ionizing photons leaking from H II regions are responsible for the ionization of the DIG best fit our observed line ratios. In NGC 891, we found evidence that shock ionization may need to be included along with photoionization in order to explain our observed emission line ratios. The diffuse Ha fraction in eight nearby galaxies was studied as a function of radius and star formation rate per unit area. We found no correlation with radius, but we did find that regions with higher star formation rates have lower diffuse fractions. Neither of these results had any dependence on galaxy type. These results have implications regarding the circumstances under which H II regions may be leaking ionizing photons and thus ionizing DIG. We also compared observed and predicted ionizing photon emission rates for 39 H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our results indicate that five of the H II

  19. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-06-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ(15)NNO3(-) and δ(18)ONO3(-)) was applied to identify diffused NO3(-) inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO3(-) sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO3(-) derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO3(-) derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M&S) were identified. NO3(-) concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean±standard deviation (SD)=2.5±0.4mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean±SD=4.0±0.5mg/L), whereas the δ(18)ONO3(-) values during the rainy season (mean±SD=+12.3±3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean±SD=+0.9±1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO3(-) resulted in the high δ(18)O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M&S were the dominant NO3(-) sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO3(-) source to total stream NO3(-). Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO3(-) source throughout the year. M&S contributed more NO3(-) during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO3(-) in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO3(-) sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin. PMID:24686140

  20. Alignment of sources and detectors on breast surface for noncontact diffuse correlation tomography of breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chong; Lin, Yu; He, Lian; Irwin, Daniel; Szabunio, Margaret M.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) is an emerging technology for 3D imaging of deep tissue blood flow distribution without distorting hemodynamic properties. To adapt the ncDCT for imaging in vivo breast tumors, we designed a motorized ncDCT probe to scan over the breast surface. A computer-aided design (CAD)-based approach was proposed to create solid volume mesh from arbitrary breast surface obtained by a commercial 3D camera. The sources and detectors of ncDCT were aligned on the breast surface through ray tracing to mimic the ncDCT scanning with CAD software. The generated breast volume mesh along with the boundary data of ncDCT at the aligned source and detector pairs were used for finite-element-method-based flow image reconstruction. We evaluated the accuracy of source alignments on mannequin and human breasts; largest alignment errors were less than 10% in both tangential and radial directions of scanning. The impact of alignment errors (assigned 10%) on the tumor reconstruction was estimated using computer simulations. The deviations of simulated tumor location and blood flow contrast resulted from the alignment errors were 0.77 mm (less than the node distance of 1 mm) and 1%, respectively, which result in minor impact on flow image reconstruction. Finally, a case study on a human breast tumor was conducted and a tumor-to-normal flow contrast was reconstructed, demonstrating the feasibility of ncDCT in clinical application. PMID:26479823

  1. Pulsating Aurora: the Equatorial Source Population & Local Morphological Interplay with Diffuse Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Lessard, M.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Rychert, K. M.; Donovan, E.; Michell, R. G.; Samara, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pulsating aurora (PA) is a common ionospheric phenomenon and as such offers a unique opportunity to study the source of the precipitating particle populations. While the suggestion that the source of these electrons originates near the equator was made decades ago, this conjecture has not been confirmed until now. The dominant source of loss-cone scattering for energetic equatorial electrons, which can then precipitate as PA, has been explored, but not yet clearly identified. In this study, we compare the frequencies of equatorial electron flux pulsations out in space and pulsating aurora luminosity fluctuations in the corresponding magnetic footprint within the ionosphere. We use simultaneous satellite- and ground-based data from GOES 13 and THEMIS instrumentation to show that there is a direct correlation between diffuse luminosity fluctuations near the ground and particle pulsations in equatorial space. To study the local morphology of such instances, observations of a dynamic pulsating aurora event were taken with a pair of colocated allsky imagers at Poker Flat, one filtered at 4278 (blue) and one at 5577 (green). Here we show preliminary results of differences in the energy channels and the structure that emerges and disappears as pulsating starts and stops.;

  2. AN EFFECT OF PERPENDICULAR DIFFUSION ON THE ANISOTROPY OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES FROM UNCONNECTED SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, G.; He, H.-Q.; Zhang, M. E-mail: hqhe@spaceweather.ac.cn

    2011-09-01

    Recently, Tan and coworkers studied the 2001 September 24 solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed by the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU and found that there is a counter-streaming particle beam with a deep depression of flux at 90{sup 0} pitch angle during the beginning of the event. They suggested that it is a result of a reflecting boundary at some distance outside of 1 AU. While this scenario could be true under some specific configuration of an interplanetary magnetic field, in this paper we offer another possible explanation. We simulated the SEP event by solving the five-dimensional focused transport equation numerically for 40 keV electrons with perpendicular diffusion. We find that a counter-streaming particle beam with deep depression at 90{sup 0} pitch angle can form on Parker magnetic field lines that do not directly connect to the main particle source on the Sun in the beginning of an SEP event. It can happen when a significant number of observed particles come from adjacent field lines through parallel transport to large radial distance first, hopping across field lines through perpendicular diffusion, and then getting scattered back to 1 AU, where they combine with the particles directly coming from the Sun to form a counter-streaming beam.

  3. Non-contact time-resolved diffuse reflectance imaging at null source-detector separation.

    PubMed

    Mazurenka, M; Jelzow, A; Wabnitz, H; Contini, D; Spinelli, L; Pifferi, A; Cubeddu, R; Mora, A Dalla; Tosi, A; Zappa, F; Macdonald, R

    2012-01-01

    We report results of the proof-of-principle tests of a novel non-contact tissue imaging system. The system utilizes a quasi-null source-detector separation approach for time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy, taking advantage of an innovative state-of-the-art fast-gated single photon counting detector. Measurements on phantoms demonstrate the feasibility of the non-contact approach for the detection of optically absorbing perturbations buried up to a few centimeters beneath the surface of a tissue-like turbid medium. The measured depth sensitivity and spatial resolution of the new system are close to the values predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for the inhomogeneous medium and an ideal fast-gated detector, thus proving the feasibility of the non-contact approach for high density diffuse reflectance measurements on tissue. Potential applications of the system are also discussed. PMID:22274351

  4. Introducing Carbon Diffusion Barriers for Uniform, High-Quality Graphene Growth from Solid Sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carbon diffusion barriers are introduced as a general and simple method to prevent premature carbon dissolution and thereby to significantly improve graphene formation from the catalytic transformation of solid carbon sources. A thin Al2O3 barrier inserted into an amorphous-C/Ni bilayer stack is demonstrated to enable growth of uniform monolayer graphene at 600 °C with domain sizes exceeding 50 μm, and an average Raman D/G ratio of <0.07. A detailed growth rationale is established via in situ measurements, relevant to solid-state growth of a wide range of layered materials, as well as layer-by-layer control in these systems. PMID:24024736

  5. Electrosphere of macroscopic 'quark nuclei': A source for diffuse MeV emissions from dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Michael McNeil; Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2010-10-15

    Using a Thomas-Fermi model, we calculate the structure of the electrosphere of the quark antimatter nuggets postulated to comprise much of the dark matter. This provides a single self-consistent density profile from ultrarelativistic densities to the nonrelativistic Boltzmann regime that we use to present microscopically justified calculations of several properties of the nuggets, including their net charge, and the ratio of MeV to 511 keV emissions from electron annihilation. We find that the calculated parameters agree with previous phenomenological estimates based on the observational supposition that the nuggets are a source of several unexplained diffuse emissions from the Galaxy. As no phenomenological parameters are required to describe these observations, the calculation provides another nontrivial verification of the dark-matter proposal. The structure of the electrosphere is quite general and will also be valid at the surface of strange-quark stars, should they exist.

  6. Dust and gas jets: Evidence for a diffuse source in Halley's coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clairemidi, Jacques; Rousselot, Philippe; Vernotte, F.; Moreels, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of dust-scattered intensity in Halley's inner coma is measured with the Vega three-channel spectrometer at three selected wavelengths: 377, 482, and 607 nm. The variation along a cometo-centric radius may be described by a p(sup -s) law where p is the distance between nucleus and optical axis and s is an exponent which is equal to 1 except in an intermediate 3000 less than p less than 7000 km region where s = 1.5. The shape of the radial distribution may be explained with a model including solar radiation pressure effect and quantum scattering efficiencies calculated from Mie theory. Monochromatic images inside an angular sector having its apex at the nucleus show evidence of two dust jets which extend to 40,000 Km. The pixel-to-pixel ratio of two images of dust intensity at 377 and 482 nm shows that the scattered intensity presents an excess of blue coloration in a zone located around the jets between 10,000 and 25,000 km. This coloration is interpreted as being due to a population of sub-micronic grains which result of the fragmentation of dust particles transported in the jets. It is suggested that the diffuse source where an additional quantity of CO was detected might be connected with the presence of a dust jet. In the present scheme, grain particles with a size of several micron or 10 micron would be transported inside a dust jet to distances of several 10,000 km where they would suffer fragmentation and produce sub-micronic particles and a release of gas which would be at the origin of the diffuse source.

  7. sfDM: Open-Source Software for Temporal Analysis and Visualization of Brain Tumor Diffusion MR Using Serial Functional Diffusion Mapping.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Rafael; Panigrahy, Ashok; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors is tissue heterogeneity leading to mixed treatment response. Additionally, they are often difficult or at very high risk for biopsy, further hindering the clinical management process. To overcome this, novel advanced imaging methods are increasingly being adapted clinically to identify useful noninvasive biomarkers capable of disease stage characterization and treatment response prediction. One promising technique is called functional diffusion mapping (fDM), which uses diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to generate parametric maps between two imaging time points in order to identify significant voxel-wise changes in water diffusion within the tumor tissue. Here we introduce serial functional diffusion mapping (sfDM), an extension of existing fDM methods, to analyze the entire tumor diffusion profile along the temporal course of the disease. sfDM provides the tools necessary to analyze a tumor data set in the context of spatiotemporal parametric mapping: the image registration pipeline, biomarker extraction, and visualization tools. We present the general workflow of the pipeline, along with a typical use case for the software. sfDM is written in Python and is freely available as an open-source package under the Berkley Software Distribution (BSD) license to promote transparency and reproducibility. PMID:25673970

  8. On the convergence of diffusion Monte Carlo in non-Euclidean spaces. II. Diffusion with sources and sinks.

    PubMed

    Curotto, E; Mella, Massimo

    2015-03-21

    We test the second order Milstein method adapted to simulate diffusion in general compact Riemann manifolds on a number of systems characterized by nonconfining potential energy surfaces of increasing complexity. For the 2-sphere and more complex spaces derived from it, we compare the Milstein method with a number of other first and second order approaches. In each case tested, we find evidence that demonstrate the versatility and relative ease of implementation of the Milstein method derived in Part I. PMID:25796235

  9. Quantifying suspended sediment sources during flood events in headwater catchments using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legout, Cédric; Poulenard, Jérôme; Nemery, Julien; Navratil, Oldrich; Grangeon, Thomas; Evrard, Olivier; Esteves, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Increasing the understanding of the hydro-sedimentary dynamics at the catchment scale requires data on the origin of suspended sediments in addition to the classical measurements of suspended sediment concentrations and discharge. In mountainous environments the extremely high spatial and temporal variability of suspended sediment fluxes suggests that the proportions of suspended sediment sources transiting at outlets may also exhibit strong variations during flood events. However, conventional fingerprinting techniques based on geochemical and radionuclide measurements are time-consuming and rather expensive. They constitute a major limitation to conduct routine characterisation of the source of suspended sediment transiting at outlets that would require the analysis of a large number of samples. We investigated how visible or infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares chemometrics techniques could be used to predict the proportion of source material in suspended sediment samples and how it could help understanding the hydro-sedimentary processes occurring during floods. The studied catchment is located in the southern French Alps, draining an area of 22-km². It is composed of black marls, limestones, molasses, undifferentiated deposits and gypsum. Forty-eight source material samples were collected in badlands areas and 328 suspended sediment samples were collected at the outlet during 23 flood events. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out on dried samples. Given that the erosion processes are particle size selective, five size fractions of source material were measured in order to assess the potential alteration of the signatures. As the biogeochemical processes occurring in the river such as iron oxidation could also affect the signatures, source materials that were immersed in the river for durations ranging from 1 day to 9 weeks were analysed. Finally, partial least-squares regression models were constructed on 81

  10. Glass diffusion source for constraining BSF region of a solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Lesk, I.A.; Pryor, R.A.; Coleman, M.G.

    1982-08-27

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating a solar cell comprising simultaneous diffusion of the p and n dopant materials into the solar cell substrate. The simultaneous diffusion process is preceded by deposition of a capping layer impervious to doping by thermal diffusion processes.

  11. Monte Carlo dosimetric characterization of the Cs-137 selectron/LDR source: evaluation of applicator attenuation and superposition approximation effects.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Calatayud, J; Granero, D; Ballester, F; Puchades, V; Casal, E

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to calculate the dose rate distribution for the Amersham Cs-137 pellet source used in brachytherapy with the Selectron low-dose-rate remote afterloading system in gynaecological applications using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The absolute dose rate distribution for the pellet source was obtained and presented as a one-dimensional absolute dose rate table as well as in the Task Group 43 dose-calculation formalism. In this study, excellent agreement was found between the point source theoretical model using fitted polynomial values and Monte Carlo calculations of the dose rate distribution for the pellet source. A comparison study was also made between the dose rate distribution obtained from a complete Monte Carlo simulation (Cs-137 pellet sources + remote afterloading system plastic guide tube + gynaecological applicator) and that calculated by applying the superposition principle to Monte Carlo data of the individual pellet sources. The data were obtained for a portion of uterine tandem of typical train source configurations. Significant differences with a strong dependence on polar angle have been found that must be kept in mind for clinical dosimetry. PMID:15070245

  12. Efficient yet accurate solution of the linear transport equation in the presence of internal sources - The exponential-linear-in-depth approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kylling, Arve; Stamnes, Knut

    1992-01-01

    The present solutions to the linear transport equation pertain to monoenergetic particles' interaction with a multiple scattering/absorbing layered medium with a general anisotropic internal source term. Attention is given to a novel exponential-linear approximation to the internal source, as a function of scattering depth, which furnishes an at-once efficient and accurate solution to the linear transport equation through its reduction of the spatial mesh size. The great superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated by the numerical results obtained in the illustrative cases of (1) an embedded thermal source and (2) a rapidly varying beam pseudosource.

  13. Distinguishing Betwen Effects of Local Inputs (Contaminated Sediments, Point Sources) and Upstream Diffuse Nonpoint Source Input: Refinement of a Watershed Development Index for New England

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment tools are being developed to predict diffuse NPS effects from watershed development and distinguish these from local impacts (point sources, contaminated sediments). Using EMAP data from the New England Wadeable Stream Survey and two state datasets (CT, ME), we are de...

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Food and Agricultural Materials Using a Transient Plane-Source Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

  15. Water quality along a river continuum subject to point and diffuse sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P.; Love, Alison; Neal, Margaret; Wickham, Heather; Harman, Sarah

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe water quality along the River Kennet, in the Thames basin of southern England, was examined in terms of the influence of point- and diffuse-nutrient inputs. The river is supplied mainly from a Cretaceous Chalk aquifer and hence the waters are of a calcium bicarbonate type. The nitrate largely comes from agricultural sources, with concentrations decreasing downstream due to plant uptake and probable denitrification. In contrast, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) is largely associated with sewage inputs and concentrations increase downstream in line with effluents from major towns such as Newbury and Reading. Adjacent to the river in the lower half of the catchment is the Kennet and Avon Canal and the two are in places hydrologically connected. The canal inputs may influence calcium carbonate (calcite) precipitation and increase suspended sediment and particulate phosphorus concentrations in the river. Monitoring upstream and downstream of Marlborough sewage treatment works (STW) showed that SRP concentrations in the effluent were highly variable due to variable efficiency of P stripping and still sufficiently concentrated to dominate downstream river SRP with potential impacts on stream ecology. Biological recovery in this river following P stripping at STWs is complex and controlling those spikes in SRP that are above a threshold of 100 μg l -1 may be a critical requirement. More stringent effluent targets than are currently recommended may be needed (less than 800 μg RP l -1) to achieve good ecological status in this river depending on SRP concentrations upstream.

  16. Hα line measurements from ten diffuse galactic sources using the DEFPOS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, M.; Oflaz, F. M.; Yegingil, I.; Tel, E.

    2015-08-01

    The hydrogen Balmer-α emission line spectrum of ten diffuse ionization sources in the Milk Way - NGC 40 (WC8), NGC 2022, NGC 6210, NGC 6618 (M17, Sh2-45), NGC 6720 (M57), NGC 6781, NGC 6888 (Sh2-105), NGC 6992 (Sh2-103), NGC 7635 (Sh2-162,) and IC 1848 (Sh2-199) - has been investigated using a dual etalon Fabry-Pérot optical spectrometer (DEFPOS) aatached to the 150 cm RTT150 telescope at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG, Antalya, Turkey: 36° 51' N; 30° 20' E; elevation: 2547 m). All of our galactic Hα observations discussed in this paper were carried out during the nights of 2013 June 21-24 with exposure time of 3600 s. As main results the intensity, the full width at half maximum, and the radial velocity with respect to the LSR have been determined for each data set. The intensities, the radial velocities, and the line widths of the Hα emission line vary from 59.15 to 8923.44 R, -46.72 to +54.07 km s-1, and 31.4 to 48.01 km s-1, respectively. The radial velocities and the half-widths of the H II regions and planetary nebulae determined from our measurements are found to be consistent with values given in literature, especially with those in Schneider et al. (1983) and Fich et al. (1990).

  17. Fully quantum mechanical calculation of the diffusivity of hydrogen in iron using the tight-binding approximation and path integral theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzarov, Ivaylo H.; Pashov, Dimitar L.; Paxton, Anthony T.

    2013-08-01

    We present calculations of free energy barriers and diffusivities as functions of temperature for the diffusion of hydrogen in α-Fe. This is a fully quantum mechanical approach since the total energy landscape is computed using a self-consistent, transferable tight binding model for interstitial impurities in magnetic iron. Also the hydrogen nucleus is treated quantum mechanically and we compare here two approaches in the literature both based in the Feynman path integral formulation of statistical mechanics. We find that the quantum transition state theory which admits greater freedom for the proton to explore phase space gives result in better agreement with experiment than the alternative which is based on fixed centroid calculations of the free energy barrier. This will have an impact on future modeling and the simulation of hydrogen trapping and diffusion.

  18. Linking fluorescence spectroscopy to diffuse soil source for dissolved humic substances in the Daning River, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Zhang, Lei

    2013-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter collected in Daning River (China) in July 2009 was investigated with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and fluorescence spectroscopy with the aim of identifying the origin of dissolved humic substance (HS) components. Two HS-like fluorescence components (peak M and C) with excitation/emission (ex/em) maxima at 305/406 nm and 360/464 nm showed relatively uniform distribution in the vertical direction for each sampling site but a trend of accumulation down the river, independent of the highly heterogeneous water environment as implicated by water quality parameters (i.e., water temperature, algae density, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, pH, conductivity and turbidity), while an amino acid/protein-like component (peak T; ex/em = 280/334 nm) was quite variable in its spatial distribution, implying strong influence from point sources (e.g. sewage discharge) and local microbial activities. The fluorescence intensity (F max in Raman units) at these ex/em wavelength pairs fell in the range of 0.031-0.358, 0.051-0.224 and 0.026-0.115 for peak T, M and C, respectively. In addition, the F max values of peak C covaried with M (i.e. C = 0.503 ×M, p < 0.01, R (2) = 0.973). Taken together, these results indicate that peak M and C originated primarily and directly from the same soil sources that were diffusive in the catchment, but peak T was more influenced by local point sources (e.g. wastewater discharge) and in situ microbial activities. This study presents new insights into the currently controversial origin of some HS components (e.g."peak M", as commonly referred to in the literature). This study highlights that natural water samples should be collected at various depths in addition to along a river/stream flow path so as to better evaluate the origin of HS fluorescence components. PMID:25208714

  19. FRETBursts: An Open Source Toolkit for Analysis of Freely-Diffusing Single-Molecule FRET

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Eitan; Chung, SangYoon; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) allows probing intermolecular interactions and conformational changes in biomacromolecules, and represents an invaluable tool for studying cellular processes at the molecular scale. smFRET experiments can detect the distance between two fluorescent labels (donor and acceptor) in the 3-10 nm range. In the commonly employed confocal geometry, molecules are free to diffuse in solution. When a molecule traverses the excitation volume, it emits a burst of photons, which can be detected by single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors. The intensities of donor and acceptor fluorescence can then be related to the distance between the two fluorophores. While recent years have seen a growing number of contributions proposing improvements or new techniques in smFRET data analysis, rarely have those publications been accompanied by software implementation. In particular, despite the widespread application of smFRET, no complete software package for smFRET burst analysis is freely available to date. In this paper, we introduce FRETBursts, an open source software for analysis of freely-diffusing smFRET data. FRETBursts allows executing all the fundamental steps of smFRET bursts analysis using state-of-the-art as well as novel techniques, while providing an open, robust and well-documented implementation. Therefore, FRETBursts represents an ideal platform for comparison and development of new methods in burst analysis. We employ modern software engineering principles in order to minimize bugs and facilitate long-term maintainability. Furthermore, we place a strong focus on reproducibility by relying on Jupyter notebooks for FRETBursts execution. Notebooks are executable documents capturing all the steps of the analysis (including data files, input parameters, and results) and can be easily shared to replicate complete smFRET analyzes. Notebooks allow beginners to execute complex workflows and advanced users to

  20. FRETBursts: An Open Source Toolkit for Analysis of Freely-Diffusing Single-Molecule FRET.

    PubMed

    Ingargiola, Antonino; Lerner, Eitan; Chung, SangYoon; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) allows probing intermolecular interactions and conformational changes in biomacromolecules, and represents an invaluable tool for studying cellular processes at the molecular scale. smFRET experiments can detect the distance between two fluorescent labels (donor and acceptor) in the 3-10 nm range. In the commonly employed confocal geometry, molecules are free to diffuse in solution. When a molecule traverses the excitation volume, it emits a burst of photons, which can be detected by single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors. The intensities of donor and acceptor fluorescence can then be related to the distance between the two fluorophores. While recent years have seen a growing number of contributions proposing improvements or new techniques in smFRET data analysis, rarely have those publications been accompanied by software implementation. In particular, despite the widespread application of smFRET, no complete software package for smFRET burst analysis is freely available to date. In this paper, we introduce FRETBursts, an open source software for analysis of freely-diffusing smFRET data. FRETBursts allows executing all the fundamental steps of smFRET bursts analysis using state-of-the-art as well as novel techniques, while providing an open, robust and well-documented implementation. Therefore, FRETBursts represents an ideal platform for comparison and development of new methods in burst analysis. We employ modern software engineering principles in order to minimize bugs and facilitate long-term maintainability. Furthermore, we place a strong focus on reproducibility by relying on Jupyter notebooks for FRETBursts execution. Notebooks are executable documents capturing all the steps of the analysis (including data files, input parameters, and results) and can be easily shared to replicate complete smFRET analyzes. Notebooks allow beginners to execute complex workflows and advanced users to

  1. Soils as sinks or sources for diffuse pollution of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous chemical compounds have been released into the environment by human activities and can nowadays be found everywhere, i.e. in the compartments water, soil, and air, at the poles and in high mountains. Examples for a global distribution of toxic compounds are the persistent organic pollutants (PCB, dioxins, PAH, fluorinated surfactants and flame retardants, etc.: "the Stockholm dirty dozen") but also mercury and other metals. Many of these compounds reached a global distribution via the atmo¬sphere; others have been and are still directly applied to top soils at the large scale by agriculture or are released into groundwater at landfill sites or by discharge of treated or untreated waste waters. Sooner or later such compounds end up in the water cycle - often via an intermediate storage in soils. Pollutants in soils are leached by seepage waters, transferred to ground¬water, and transported to rivers via groundwater flow. Adsorbed compounds may be transported from soils into surface waters by erosion processes and will end up in the sediments. Diffuse pollution of the subsurface environment not only reflects the history of the economic development of the modern society but it is still ongoing - e.g. the number of organic pollutants released into the environment is increasing even though the con¬centrations may decrease compared to the past. Evidence shows that many compounds are persistent in the subsurface environment at large time scales (up to centuries). Thus polluted soils already are or may become a future source for pollution of adjacent compartments such as the atmosphere and groundwater. A profound understanding on how diffuse pollutants are stored and processed in the subsurface environment is crucial to assess their long term fate and transport at large scales. Thus integrated studies e.g. at the catchment scale and models are needed which couple not only the relevant compartments (soil - atmosphere - groundwater/surface waters) but also flow

  2. Fractional diffusion analysis of the electromagnetic fields generated by a transient straight current source over a porous geological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Everett, M. E.; Weiss, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    An interpretation based on the Continuous Time Random Walk theory (CTRW) to the diffusion of electromagnetic fields generated by a transient straight current source over a porous geological media is presented here. The CTRW theory is demonstrated to be a powerful tool to concisely and more accurately model a transport process in a fractal medium with complex structures, comparing to the classical transport theory. In the controlled-source electromagnetic (EM) induction setting, the time dependent evolution of the EM field of some sources over a rough medium are governed by the fractional diffusion EM equation in a CTRW sense. The master equation can be solved for a uniform conducting half-space in the Laplace domain semi-analytically. We use 2D finite difference method to calculate the solution numerically for the assigned space and transform to time domain with Gaver-Stehfest algorithm. Here we adopt a spatially uniform roughness parameter β in the solution to characterize the complexity of the geoelectrical structure of the geological medium. To introduce the heterogeneity to our model, we set up the space as several 2 D blocks with different conductivities and βs. Then we compare our results with the synthetic data we got from the high resolution numerical simulations. We are able to show that by introducing the heterogeneity to the fractional diffusion perspective, our approach is competent for tracing the diffusion process with less model parameters.

  3. Mycotoxins: diffuse and point source contributions of natural contaminants of emerging concern to streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Schenzel, Judith; Meyer, Michael T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mycotoxins in streams, 116 water samples from 32 streams and three wastewater treatment plant effluents were collected in 2010 providing the broadest investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of mycotoxins in streams conducted in the United States to date. Out of the 33 target mycotoxins measured, nine were detected at least once during this study. The detections of mycotoxins were nearly ubiquitous during this study even though the basin size spanned four orders of magnitude. At least one mycotoxin was detected in 94% of the 116 samples collected. Deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (77%), followed by nivalenol (59%), beauvericin (43%), zearalenone (26%), β-zearalenol (20%), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (16%), α-zearalenol (10%), diacetoxyscirpenol (5%), and verrucarin A (1%). In addition, one or more of the three known estrogenic compounds (i.e. zearalenone, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) were detected in 43% of the samples, with maximum concentrations substantially higher than observed in previous research. While concentrations were generally low (i.e. < 50 ng/L) during this study, concentrations exceeding 1000 ng/L were measured during spring snowmelt conditions in agricultural settings and in wastewater treatment plant effluent. Results of this study suggest that both diffuse (e.g. release from infected plants and manure applications from exposed livestock) and point (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and food processing plants) sources are important environmental pathways for mycotoxin transport to streams. The ecotoxicological impacts from the long-term, low-level exposures to mycotoxins alone or in combination with complex chemical mixtures are unknown

  4. Development of a diffuse air-argon plasma source using a dielectric-barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jie; Jiang Weiman; Zhao Wei; Wang Yishan; Li Shibo; Wang Haojing; Duan Yixiang

    2013-01-21

    A stable diffuse large-volume air plasma source was developed by using argon-induced dielectric-barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure. This plasma source can be operated in a filamentary discharge with the average areal power density of 0.27 W/cm{sup 2} and the gas temperature of 315{+-}3 K. Spatial measurement of emission spectrum and temperature indicates that this plasma is uniform in the central region along the transverse direction. It is also found that the formation of diffuse air plasma mainly lies in the creation of sufficient seed electrons by the Penning effect through collisions between two argon or nitrogen metastables at low electric fields.

  5. An extended galactic population of low-luminosity x-ray sources (CVs?) and the diffuse x-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maoz, Eyal; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1995-01-01

    The incompatibility of the properties of the X-ray background (XRB) with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contributing approximately greater than 60% at energies of a few keV has often been interpreted as being due to a substantial contribution of a new population of yet unrecognized X-ray sources. The existence of such population has been recently suggested also by an analysis of very deep ROSAT observations which revealed a considerable excess of faint X-ray sources over that expected from QSO evolution models, and that the average spectrum of the resolved sources becomes harder with decreasing flux limit. These sources could be extragalactic in origin, but if they make a substantial contribution to the XRB then they must exhibit much weaker clustering than galaxies or QSOs in order to be consistent with the stringent constraints on source clustering imposed by autocorrelation analyses of the unresolved XRB. We investigate the possibility that the indicated new population of X-ray sources is Galactic in origin. Examining spherical halo and thick disk distributions, we derive the allowed properties of such populations which would resolve the discrepancy found in the number counts of faint sources and be consistent with observational constraints on the total background intensity, the XRB anisotropy, the number of unidentified bright sources, the Galaxy's total X-ray luminosity, and with the results of fluctuation analyses of the unresolved XRB. We find that a flattened Galactic halo (or a thick disk) distribution with a scale height of a few kpc is consistent with all the above requirements. The typical X-ray luminosity of the sources is approximately equal to 10(exp 30-31)ergs/s in the 0.5-2 keV band, the number density of sources in the solar vicinity is approximately 10(exp -4.5)pc(exp -3), their total number in the Galaxy is approximately 10(exp 8.5), and their total contribution to the Galaxy's X-ray luminosity is approximately 10(exp 39) ergs/s. We discuss the

  6. Optimal source to detector separation for extracting sub-dermal chromophores in fiber optic diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujatha, N.; Nivetha, K. Bala; Singhal, Akshay

    2014-05-01

    Localization and determination of blood region parameters in skin tissue can serve as a valuable supplement to standard non invasive techniques, especially in accessing the degree of depth of burns on skin and for the classification of vascular malformations. Quantitative optical examination of skin local blood region requires the use of depth sensitive techniques and preferential probing for assessment of data from specific layers of skin tissue. This work incorporates the depth sensitivity of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optimal source to detector fiber separation for maximum reflectance collection efficiency from local blood region in skin. Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance was performed on a multi layered skin tissue model consisting of epidermis, perfused dermis and localized blood region. It was found that the slope of the spatially resolved reflectance curve plotted with respect to the source to detector separation distance in semi log scale varies with the depth of the local blood region at specific wavelengths corresponding to the absorption wavelengths of hemoglobin. From the depth information obtained from the spatially resolved reflectance data, the optimum source to detector separation (SDS) is determined for maximum collection efficiency from the chromophore layer. The results obtained from simulation suggest the design of a linearly variable source to detector separation probe for preferential analysis of the depth of a specific tissue layer and subsequent determination of optimal source to detector separation for extracting the layer information.

  7. A compact, multi-wavelength, and high frequency response light source for diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoungsu; Lee, Minseok; Lee, Seung-ha; Cerussi, Albert E.; Chung, Phil-sang; Kim, Sehwan

    2015-03-01

    Many biomedical applications require an efficient combination and localization of multiple discrete light sources. In this paper, we present a compact six-channel combiner of optical sub-assembly type that couples the output of independent solid-state light sources into a single 400 μm diameter optical fiber. It is equipped with six discrete laser diodes, 658, 690, 705, 785, 830, and 850 nm for the measurement of the tissue optical properties from optical spectroscopy and imaging. We demonstrate coupling efficiencies ≥ 77% and output optical power ≥ 20 mW for each of the 6 laser diodes installed into the prototype. The design supports the use of continuous wave and intensity modulated laser diodes (with bandwidth ≥ 3 GHz). The developed light source could be used to construct custom multi-wavelength sources for tissue oximeters, diffuse optical imaging, and molecular imaging technologies.

  8. GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2011-11-01

    To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

  9. A diffusion source for sodium and potassium in the atmospheres of Mercury and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.

    1990-03-01

    Deep grain-boundary diffusion and regolith diffusion through a fractured crust and regolith can account not only for the Na/K ratios observed in the Mercurian and lunar atmospheres, but the large Na abundance enhancement of Mercury over lunar levels. A hot component of Na and K at Mercury is noted to be smaller in proportion to the total abundances of these two constituents than at the moon; this hot component is consistent with a population of meteoritic substances similar to lunar ones, as well as with a surface composition which has undergone no greater K depletion than that of the moon.

  10. A diffusion source for sodium and potassium in the atmospheres of Mercury and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, Ann L.

    1990-01-01

    Deep grain-boundary diffusion and regolith diffusion through a fractured crust and regolith can account not only for the Na/K ratios observed in the Mercurian and lunar atmospheres, but the large Na abundance enhancement of Mercury over lunar levels. A hot component of Na and K at Mercury is noted to be smaller in proportion to the total abundances of these two constituents than at the moon; this hot component is consistent with a population of meteoritic substances similar to lunar ones, as well as with a surface composition which has undergone no greater K depletion than that of the moon.

  11. Simulating Diffusive and Preferential Water Flow in Soils with a Coupled Source-Responsive/Richards-Equation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Water movement through soils is often dominated by preferential flow processes such as fingering and macropore flow. Traditional models of flow in the unsaturated zone are based on the diffusion or Richards equation and assume that diffusive (surface-tension viscous) flow is the only flow process. These models are incapable of accurately simulating preferential flow. Several alternative approaches, including kinematic wave, transfer function, and water-content wave models, have been suggested for simulating water movement through preferential flow paths. The source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010) and Nimmo and Mitchell (2013) is unique among such models in that water transfer from land surface to depth is controlled by the water-application rate at land surface. The source-responsive model has been coupled with a one-dimensional version of the Richards-equation based model of variably saturated flow, VS2DT. The new model, can simulate flow within the preferential (S) domain alone, within the diffuse (D) domain alone, or within both the S and D domains simultaneously. Water exchange between the two domains is treated as a first-order diffusive process, with the exchange coefficient being a function of soil-water content. The new model was used to simulate field and laboratory infiltration experiments described in the literature. Simulations were calibrated against measured soil water contents with the PEST parameter estimation package; values for hydraulic conductivity and 3 van Genuchten and 3 source-responsive parameters were optimized. Although exact matches between measured and simulated water contents were not obtained, the simulation results captured the salient characteristics of the published data sets, including features typical of preferential as well as diffusive flow. Results obtained from simulating flow simultaneously in both the S and D domain provided better matches to measured data than results obtained from simulating flow independently

  12. Chandra Observations of Diffuse Gas and Luminous X-Ray Sources around the X-Ray-bright Elliptical Galaxy NGC 1600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2004-12-01

    We observed the X-ray-bright E3 galaxy NGC 1600 and nearby members of the NGC 1600 group with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS-S3 to study their X-ray properties. Unresolved emission dominates the observation; however, we resolved some of the emission into 71 sources, most of which are low-mass X-ray binaries associated with NGC 1600. Twenty-one of the sources have LX>2×1039 ergs s-1 (0.3-10.0 keV; assuming they are at the distance of NGC 1600), marking them as ultraluminous X-ray point source (ULX) candidates; we expect that only 11+/-2 are unrelated foreground/background sources. NGC 1600 may have the largest number of ULX candidates in an early-type galaxy to date; however, cosmic variance in the number of background active galactic nuclei cannot be ruled out. The spectrum and luminosity function (LF) of the resolved sources are more consistent with sources found in other early-type galaxies than with sources found in star-forming regions of galaxies. The source LF and the spectrum of the unresolved emission both indicate that there are a large number of unresolved point sources. We propose that these sources are associated with globular clusters (GCs) and that NGC 1600 has a large GC specific frequency. Observations of the GC population in NGC 1600 would be very useful for testing this prediction. Approximately 50%-75% of the unresolved flux comes from diffuse gaseous emission. The spectral fits, hardness ratios, and X-ray surface brightness profile all point to two gas components. We interpret the soft inner component (a<~25'', kT~0.85 keV) as the interstellar medium of NGC 1600 and the hotter outer component (a>~25'', kT~1.5 keV) as the intragroup medium of the NGC 1600 group. The X-ray image shows several interesting structures. First, there is a central region of excess emission that is roughly cospatial with Hα and dust filaments immediately west of the center of NGC 1600. There appear to be holes in the X-ray emission to the north and south of the

  13. Diffusion of radon through concrete block walls: A significant source of indoor radon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Goldberg, L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Basement modules located in southern Minnesota have been the site of continuous radon and environmental measurements during heating seasons since 1993. Concentrations of radon within the basement modules ranged from 70 Bq.m-3 to over 4000 Bq.m-3 between November to April during the three measurement periods. In the soil gas for the same times, concentrations of radon ranged between 25,000 and 70,000 Bq.m-3. Levels of radon within the basement modules changed by factors of five or more within 24 h, in concert with pressure gradients of 4 to 20 Pa that developed between the basement modules and their surroundings. Diffusion is identified as the principal method by which radon is transferred into and out of the basement modules, and appears to be relatively independent of insulating materials and vapour retarders. The variability of radon and correlations with differential pressure gradients may be related to air currents in the block walls and soil that interrupt radon diffusing inward. This yields a net decrease of radon in the basement modules by decay and outward diffusion. Levels of radon within the basement modules increase when the pressure differential is zero and air flow ceases, allowing diffusion gradients to be re-established. Radon levels in both the soil and the basement modules then increase until an equilibrium is achieved.

  14. Holographic diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadle, Stephen; Wuest, Daniel; Cantalupo, John; Lakes, Roderic S.

    1994-01-01

    Holographic diffusers are prepared using silver halide (Agfa 8E75 and Kodak 649F) and photopolymer (Polaroid DMP 128 and DuPont 600, 705, and 150 series) media. It is possible to control the diffusion angle in three ways: by selection of the properties of the source diffuser, by control of its subtended angle, and by selection of the holographic medium. Several conventional diffusers based on refraction or scattering of light are examined for comparison.

  15. How Far Away Are the Sources of IceCube Neutrinos? Constraints from the Diffuse Teraelectronvolt Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xiao-Chuan; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-07-01

    The nearly isotropic distribution of teraelectronvolt to petaelectronvolt neutrinos recently detected by the IceCube Collaboration suggests that they come from sources at a distance beyond our Galaxy, but how far away they are is largely unknown because of a lack of any associations with known sources. In this paper, we propose that the cumulative TeV gamma-ray emission accompanying the production of neutrinos can be used to constrain the distance of these neutrino sources, since the opacity of TeV gamma rays due to absorption by the extragalactic background light depends on the distance these TeV gamma rays have traveled. As the diffuse extragalactic TeV background measured by Fermi is much weaker than the expected cumulative flux associated with IceCube neutrinos, the majority of IceCube neutrinos, if their sources are transparent to TeV gamma rays, must come from distances larger than the horizon of TeV gamma rays. We find that above 80% of the IceCube neutrinos should come from sources at redshift z > 0.5. Thus, the chance of finding nearby sources correlated with IceCube neutrinos would be small. We also find that, to explain the flux of neutrinos under the TeV gamma-ray emission constraint, the redshift evolution of neutrino source density must be at least as fast as the cosmic star formation rate.

  16. Isotropic diffuse and extragalactic γ-ray background: emission from extragalactic sources vs dark matter annihilating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Mattia; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB) has been detected by various experiments and recently the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has precisely measured its spectrum in a wide energy range. The origin of the IGRB is still unclear and we show in this paper the significative improvements that have been done, thanks to the new Fermi-LAT catalogs, to solve this mystery. We demonstrate that the γ-ray intensity and spectrum of the IGRB is fully consistent with the unresolved emission from extragalactic point sources, namely Active Galactic Nuclei and Star Forming Galaxies. We show also that the IGRB can be employed to derive sever constraints for the γ-ray emission from diffuse processes such as annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles. Our method is able to provide low bounds for the thermal annihilation cross section for a wide range of DM masses.

  17. Atoms in carbon cages as a source of interstellar diffuse lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballester, J. L.; Antoniewicz, P. R.; Smoluchowski, R.

    1990-01-01

    A model to describe the resonance absorption lines of various atoms trapped in closed carbon cages is presented. These systems may be responsible for some of the as yet unexplained diffuse interstellar bands. Model potentials for possible atom-C60 systems are obtained and used to calculate the resonance lines. The trapped atoms considered are O, N, Si, Mg, Al, Na, and S, and in all cases the resonance lines are shifted toward the red as compared to the isolated atoms. The calculated wavelengths are compared to the range of wavelengths observed for the diffuse interstellar bands, and good agreement is found for Mg and Si resonance lines. Other lines may be caused by other than resonance transitions or by trapped molecules. The oscillator strengths and the abundances are evaluated and compared with observation. Mechanisms to explain the observed band width of the lines and the existence of certain correlated pairs of lines are discussed.

  18. Joint derivation method for determining optical properties based on steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement at small source-detector separations and large reduced albedo range: theory and simulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Fan, Ying; Zhao, Huijuan; Xu, Kexin

    2012-06-01

    Accurate determination of the optical properties (the absorption coefficient μ(a) and the reduced scattering coefficient μ(s) (')) of tissues is very important in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Optical diffusion theory is frequently used as the forward model for describing the photon transfer in media with large reduced albedos (a(')) and in large source-detector separations (SDS). Several other methods (PN approximation, hybrid diffusion-P3 approximation) have also been published that describe photon transfer in media with low a(') or small SDSs. We studied the theoretical models for the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement to accurately determine μ(a) and μ(s) (') at large a(') range but small SDSs. Instead of using a single model, a joint derivation method is proposed. The developed method uses one of the best aforementioned theoretical methods separately in five ranges of a(') determined from several forward models. In the region of small SDSs (the range between 0.4 and 8 mm) and large a(') range (between 0.5 and 0.99), the best theoretical derivation model was determined. The results indicate that the joint derivation method can improve the derivation accuracy and that a(') range can be determined by the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement. PMID:22734782

  19. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Herr, A; Brodie, J; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria based tool for assessing the relative impact of diffuse-source pollution to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) from the river basins draining into the GBR lagoon. The assessment integrates biophysical and ecological data of water quality and pollutant concentrations with socio-economic information pertaining to non-point source pollution and (potential) pollutant impact. The tool generates scores for each river basin against four criteria, thus profiling the basins and enabling prioritization of management alternatives between and within basins. The results support policy development for pollution control through community participation, scientific data integration and expert knowledge contributed by people from across the catchment. The results specifically provided support for the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, released in October 2003. The aim of the plan is to provide a framework for reducing discharge of sediment, nutrient and other diffuse-source loads and (potential) impact of that discharge and for prioritising management actions both between and within river basins. PMID:15757715

  20. Passive Effluent Diffusion in a Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer: An Airborne Approach to Locating Sources and Estimating Their Emission Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suard, Maxime

    We studied the near field dispersion of natural gas plumes leaking from transmission lines and diffusing in a convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL), with the intent of providing an aerial system of leak detection and pinpointing, as well as quantitative leak rate estimation. We used high frequency measurements of methane and ethane concentrations on a fixed wing aircraft using high rate spectroscopic gas concentration measurements. We looked for characteristics of the effluent concentration field which can be related to the distance from the effluent source, and developed an empirical approach to effluent source position estimation from airborne effluent concentration measurements. From a mass-balance approach we developed a practical method of effluent leak rate estimation based on airborne effluent concentration measurements. Since gathering experimental data was costly and time-expensive, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) results were also investigated. Results showed that analysis of effluent concentration variability is likely to provide information about the position of the effluent source. The developed leak rate estimation method provided encouraging results showing that such an approach is able to yield relatively accurate leak rate estimates. LES results proved to be very useful as they helped to provide guidelines for experiments as well as to deepen our understanding of the diffusion dynamics of turbulent effluent plumes.

  1. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. 1: IRAS 21282+5050 and the diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Jones, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopy of the starlike optical counterpart to IRAS 21282+5050, a source with the hydrocarbon infrared emission band spectrum, shows an 07(f)-(WC11) planetary nebula nucleus suffering an extinction of 5.7 mag. Emission line widths in the WC spectrum are only approx. 100 km/s, indicating a very slow stellar wind. Optical diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are prominent. Five DIBs are strongly enhanced, namely lamda lamda 5797, 6196, 6203, 6283, and 6613. The presence of circumstellar hydrocarbon molecules may explain both the infrared emission bands and the enhanced DIBs.

  2. Repetitively pulsed UV radiation source based on a run-away electron preionised diffuse discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, E. Kh; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Panchenko, A. N.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-04-01

    An extended repetitively pulsed source of spontaneous UV radiation is fabricated, which may also be used for producing laser radiation. Voltage pulses with an incident wave amplitude of up to 30 kV, a half-amplitude duration of ~4 ns and a rise time of ~2.5 ns are applied to a gap with a nonuniform electric field. For an excitation region length of 35 cm and a nitrogen pressure of 30 - 760 Torr, a diffusive discharge up to a pulse repetition rate of 2 kHz is produced without using an additional system for gap preionisation. An investigation is made of the plasma of the run-away electron preionised diffuse discharge. Using a CCD camera it is found that the dense diffused plasma fills the gap in a time shorter than 1 ns. X-ray radiation is recorded from behind the foil anode throughout the pressure range under study; a supershort avalanche electron beam is recorded by the collector electrode at pressures below 100 Torr.

  3. Physical and plasmachemical aspects of diffuse coplanar barrier discharge as a novel atmospheric-pressure plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernak, M.; Kovacik, D.; Zahoranova, A.; Rahel, J.

    2008-07-01

    Collaborating Czech and Slovakian university teams have recently developed an innovative plasma source, the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD), which has the potential to move a step closer to the industry requirement for in-line treatment of low-added-value materials using a highly-nonequlibrium ambient air plasma (Simor et al. 2002, The idea is to generate a thin (on the order of 0.1 mm) layer of highly-nonequlibrium plasma with a high power density (up to 100 W/cm^3) in the immediate vicinity of the treated surface and bring it into a close contact with the treated surface. Comparing to atmospheric-pressure glow discharge, volume dielectric barrier discharge, and plasma jet plasmas, such a diffuse plasma layer is believed to provide substantial advantages in energy consumption, exposure time, and technical simplicity. A brief outline of physical mechanism and basic properties of DCSBD will given using the results of emission spectroscopy, high-speed camera, and spatially resolved cross-correlation spectroscopy studies. The presentation will review also a current state of the art in in-line plasma treatment of low-cost materials and opportunities for the use of the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DCSBD). The results obtained on the ambient air plasma treatments of textile, paper, wood, and glass illustrate that DCSBD offers outstanding performance with extremely low energy consumption for large area, uniform surface modifications of materials under continuous process conditions.

  4. Analysis of XMM-Newton Data from Extended Sources and the Diffuse X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of X-ray data from extended objects and the diffuse background is a complicated process that requires attention to the details of the instrumental response as well as an understanding of the multiple background components. We present methods and software that we have developed to reduce data from XMM-Newton EPIC imaging observations for both the MOS and PN instruments. The software has now been included in the Science Analysis System (SAS) package available through the XMM-Newton Science Operations Center (SOC).

  5. Influence of anomalous particle diffusion on the current system formation and coherence of Pi2 geomagnetic pulsation local ionospheric sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petlenko, A. V.; Kopytenko, Yu. A.

    2015-01-01

    The coherence conditions for local ionospheric sources of Pi2 high-latitude geomagnetic pulsations in the 6-8 mHz frequency band were studied with a method for representing their component spatial distributions by vertical magnetic dipole field integrals over random walk trajectories in the ionospheric horizontal plane. High-quality representations are reached when the field intensity is proportional to a self-intersection density that has spatial and time walk trajectory discontinuities. According to anomalous diffusion theory, the trajectory of the subordinate Levy process is characterized by the stabilization of turning points grouped near pulsation local ionospheric sources. This makes it possible to simulate disturbances of the Pi2 high-latitude pulsation field by a uniform motion along the Hall ionospheric source Levy trajectories with short-term pulsed current switching on-off. A coherent redistribution of the Pi2 local ionospheric source intensity and several observed specific features in the source field distribution dynamics are explained by the independent processes of local field-aligned current formation and intensification-weakening of pulsations caused by the current carrier shift relative to wandering Levy turning points and a stationary observer.

  6. Diffuse radio emission around FR II sources as exemplified by 3C452

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, Paul J.; Sirothia, S. K.; Gopal-Krishna, ..

    2014-01-01

    We have discovered a pair of megaparsec size radio lobes of extremely steep spectrum straddling the well-known classical double radio source 3C452. For the past several decades 3C452 has been regarded as a textbook example of an edge-brightened double radio source of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) but we show it to be a bonafide "double-double" radio galaxy (DDRG). The inner double fed by the jets has evolved into a perfectly normal FR II radio source. Thus, 3C452 presents a uniquely robust example of recurrent nuclear activity in which the restarted jets are expanding non-relativistically within the relic synchrotron plasma from an earlier active phase. This situation contrasts markedly with the strikingly narrow inner doubles observed in a few other DDRGs that have been interpreted in terms of compression of the synchrotron plasma of the relic outer lobes at the relativistic bow-shocks driven by the near ballistic propagation of the two inner jets through the relic plasma. We also present additional examples of the occurrence of faded outer lobes around well defined FRII sources, using our deep GMRT images at meter wavelengths processed with AIPS++ software. We also examine the statistics of the occurrence of such sources using a flux density limited sample. A key ramification of our findings are that they caution against the use of FR II classical double radio sources for testing cosmological models and unification schemes for active galactic nuclei.

  7. 2.5D Fractional Diffusion Analysis of The Electromagnetic Field Generated By A Transient Loop Source In Fractured Mediums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Everett, M. E.; Weiss, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    A 2.5D finite difference (FD) frequency-domain modeling based on the Continuous Time Random Walk theory (CTRW) to the diffusion of electromagnetic fields generated by a transient loop source over a porous geological media is presented. The CTRW theory is demonstrated to be a powerful tool to concisely describe a transport process in fractal mediums with complex structures (Scher and Lax 1973, Metzler and Klafter 2000). In the controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) induction setting, the diffusion of Eddy currents in a rough medium is governed by the fractional differential EM equations in a CTRW sense (Everett 2009). We use staggered finite difference (FD) approach to discretize the equations in frequency domain. The biconjugate gradient iterative solver is implemented to solve sparse matrix equations. We compare the FD solutions with analytical solutions to a half space model to verify the accuracy of our code. Then FD solutions are calculated for a model with a 2D block fractured structures included in a homogeneous space. Via displaying the high sensitivity of the spatial variation of Ey fields to the geoelectrical properties and roughness of the block, we are able to show the potential of combination of CTRW theory with CSEM method in detecting unknown fractured targets in subsurface.

  8. Interacting biochemical and diffusive controls on trace gas sources in unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubol, S.; Manzoni, S.; Bellin, A.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Microbes react to environmental conditions on different timescales. When conditions improve (e.g., rewetting, substrate amendment), the residing population exits the dormant state, becomes active and starts synthesizing extra-cellular enzymes. If substrate availability, and hence energy, is sufficient, microbes may start to reproduce and increase the size of their population. These dynamics make it complicated to interpret measured relationships between microbial activity (e.g., respiration, denitrification, N mineralization) and environmental conditions. In particular, the relationship between bacterial activity and soil moisture, which is derived by incubating soil samples at constant soil moisture levels, seems to vary under dynamic hydrological conditions. This may be related to both soil physical properties and the resilience of bacteria to adapt to rapid changes in soil moisture. We present a process-based model that includes both the above effects and test the hypothesis that the ratio of the time scale of biological versus physical factors determines the shape describing the relationship between microbial activity and soil moisture. In particular, we focus on the role of oxygen dynamics, which regulate the prevalence of aerobic versus anaerobic conditions and thus the prevalence of nitrification versus denitrification. We identify and compare the time scale of the biological oxygen consumption with the time scale of physical diffusion. Starting from well-aerated conditions, as bacteria consume O2 in solution, more oxygen dissolves from the atmosphere - depending on gas-filled porosity. If water dynamics or tillage limits re-aeration, this can affect the equilibrium between the aqueous and the gaseous phase and thus alter the time scale of the reactions. This balance between consumption and re-aeration by diffusion ultimately controls the water quality as well the production of trace gases.

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF UNRESOLVED POINT SOURCES TO THE DIFFUSE X-RAY BACKGROUND BELOW 1 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Galeazzi, M.

    2009-09-01

    We present here the analysis of X-ray point sources detected in several observations available in the XMM-Newton public archive. We focused, in particular, on energies below 1 keV, which are of particular relevance to the understanding of the diffuse X-ray background (DXB). The average field of all the exposures is 0.09 deg{sup -2}. We reached an average flux sensitivity of 5.8 x 10{sup -16}ergs{sup -1}cm{sup -2} in the soft band (0.5-2.0 keV) and 2.5 x 10{sup -16}ergs{sup -1}cm{sup -2} in the very soft band (0.4-0.6 keV). In this paper, we discuss the log N-log S results, the contribution to the integrated X-ray sky flux, and the properties of the cumulative spectrum from all sources. In particular, we found an excess flux at around 0.5 keV in the composite spectrum of faint sources. The excess seems to be a general property of all the fields observed suggesting an additional class of weak sources is contributing to the X-ray emission at these energies. Combining our results with previous investigations, we have also quantified the contribution of the individual components of the DXB in the 3/4 keV band.

  10. An Exploratory Investigation of Diffused Point Arrival Time and Source Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Leslie A.; Ward, Jean M.

    Because much conjecture (but limited empirical research) exists about the nonverbal variable to time, this exploratory study investigated the effects of differential arrival times on four dimensions of source credibility: sociability, dynamism, competence, and composure. Subjects were 84 educational secretaries with a mean age of 49 years. Each…

  11. Source term evaluation for UF{sub 6} release event in feed facility at gaseous diffusion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1997-01-30

    An assessment of UF{sub 6} release accidents was conducted for the feed facility of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP). Release rates from pig-tail connections were estimated from CYLIND code predictions, whereas, MELCOR was utilized for simulating reactions of UF{sub 6} with moisture and consequent transport of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and HF vapor through the building and to the environment. Two wind speeds were utilized. At the high end (Case 1) a wind speed of {approximately} 1 m/s (200 fpm) was assumed to flow parallel to the building length. At the low end (Case 2) to represent stagnant conditions a corresponding wind speed of 1 cm/s (2 fpm) was utilized. A further conservative assumption was made to specify no closure of crane and train doors at either end of the building. Relaxation of this assumption should provide for additional margins. Results indicated that, for the high (200 fpm) wind speed, close to 66% of the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and 100% of the HF gas get released to the environment over a 10-minute period. However, for the low (2 fpm) wind speed, negligible amount ({approximately} 1% UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) of aerosols get released even over a 2 hour period.

  12. Source stabilization for high quality time-domain diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Weirong; Chen, Nanguang

    2009-02-01

    We report a new close-loop feedback control method to keep a Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator (MZ-EOM) biased at the quadrature point and simultaneously correct the bias drift caused by the temperature changes as well as the inherent photorefractive effect. The modulator is a key part of our high speed time-domain diffuse optical tomography system. It modulates the dual-wavelength near-infrared light with the high speed pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) signal for the temporal point spread function (TPSF) measurements. Our method applies a periodical low frequency square wave with 50% duty cycle as the pilot tone upon the MZ-EOM together with the PRBS and sweep the bias voltage of the MZ-EOM in a self-adaptive step. A constant fraction of the modulated output power is measured by a photodiode via a tap coupler. After demodulation, the modulation depth versus the bias voltage can be measured from which the peak value corresponding to the quadrature point can be located quickly by curve fitting. Our stabilization technique is simple, fast and cost effective and is effective to correct the bias drift caused by the photorefractive and the change of ambient conditions. The experiment results show the TPSFs measurements can be stabilized to within +/-2% in an hour duration, which helps improved the image quality.

  13. Delayed plastic relaxation limit in SiGe islands grown by Ge diffusion from a local source

    SciTech Connect

    Vanacore, G. M.; Zani, M.; Tagliaferri, A.; Nicotra, G.; Bollani, M.; Bonera, E.; Montalenti, F.; Picco, A.; Boioli, F.; Capellini, G.; Isella, G.; Osmond, J.

    2015-03-14

    The hetero-epitaxial strain relaxation in nano-scale systems plays a fundamental role in shaping their properties. Here, the elastic and plastic relaxation of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by surface-thermal-diffusion from a local Ge solid source on Si(100) are studied by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, enabling the simultaneous investigation of the strain relaxation in different dynamical regimes. Islands grown by this technique remain dislocation-free and preserve a structural coherence with the substrate for a base width as large as 350 nm. The results indicate that a delay of the plastic relaxation is promoted by an enhanced Si-Ge intermixing, induced by the surface-thermal-diffusion, which takes place already in the SiGe overlayer before the formation of a critical nucleus. The local entropy of mixing dominates, leading the system toward a thermodynamic equilibrium, where non-dislocated, shallow islands with a low residual stress are energetically stable. These findings elucidate the role of the interface dynamics in modulating the lattice distortion at the nano-scale, and highlight the potential use of our growth strategy to create composition and strain-controlled nano-structures for new-generation devices.

  14. Single-layer model to predict the source/sink behavior of diffusion-controlled building materials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deept; Little, John C

    2003-09-01

    Building materials may act as both sources of and sinks forvolatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. A strategy to characterize the rate of absorption and desorption of VOCs by diffusion-controlled building materials is validated. A previously developed model that predicts mass transfer between a flat slab of material and the well-mixed air within a chamber or room is extended. The generalized model allows a nonuniform initial material-phase concentration and a transient influent gas-phase concentration to be simultaneously considered. An analytical solution to the more general model is developed. Experimental data are obtained by placing samples of vinyl flooring inside a small stainless steel chamber and exposing them to absorption/desorption cycles of n-dodecane and phenol. Measured values for the material-air partition coefficient and the material-phase diffusion coefficient were obtained previously in a series of completely independent experiments. The a priori model predictions are in close agreement with the observed experimental data. PMID:12967101

  15. Delayed plastic relaxation limit in SiGe islands grown by Ge diffusion from a local source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacore, G. M.; Nicotra, G.; Zani, M.; Bollani, M.; Bonera, E.; Montalenti, F.; Capellini, G.; Isella, G.; Osmond, J.; Picco, A.; Boioli, F.; Tagliaferri, A.

    2015-03-01

    The hetero-epitaxial strain relaxation in nano-scale systems plays a fundamental role in shaping their properties. Here, the elastic and plastic relaxation of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by surface-thermal-diffusion from a local Ge solid source on Si(100) are studied by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, enabling the simultaneous investigation of the strain relaxation in different dynamical regimes. Islands grown by this technique remain dislocation-free and preserve a structural coherence with the substrate for a base width as large as 350 nm. The results indicate that a delay of the plastic relaxation is promoted by an enhanced Si-Ge intermixing, induced by the surface-thermal-diffusion, which takes place already in the SiGe overlayer before the formation of a critical nucleus. The local entropy of mixing dominates, leading the system toward a thermodynamic equilibrium, where non-dislocated, shallow islands with a low residual stress are energetically stable. These findings elucidate the role of the interface dynamics in modulating the lattice distortion at the nano-scale, and highlight the potential use of our growth strategy to create composition and strain-controlled nano-structures for new-generation devices.

  16. Diffuse-source pesticide inputs in surface waters: online risk assessment at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenberger, S.; Röpke, B.; Bach, M.; Frede, H.-G.

    2003-04-01

    Diffuse pesticide input from agricultural fields into surface waters depends, apart from substance properties, also on soil properties, site hydrology, tillage and application practices, weather conditions, and distance to water bodies. A product which can be used safely at one site may pose unacceptable risk to aquatic life at another site. Thus, there is a great need for site-specific risk assessment approaches. Our objective is therefore to develop a tool for assessing pesticide inputs via runoff/erosion, drainflow, and spraydrift for single fields. The tool will be part of the web-based Information System for Integrated Plant Production (ISIP, www.isip.de), but also able to run independently. ISIP is an interactive portal for both farmers and advisors and will become the leading decision support system for plant production and plant protection in Germany over the next years. The aim is an approach which i) is applicable for the majority of European countries, ii) needs only input data readily available for large areas (such as provided by hydrological and soil maps), iii) predicts, with daily resolution, realistic (not worst-case) loads and resulting aquatic concentrations (PECsw), and iv) provides a substance-specific risk assessment on the basis of model results for consulting and management purposes. Special emphasis is laid on scientifically up-to-date model approaches and robust, but site-specific parameterization. For instance, drainage inputs will be calculated using the preferential flow model MACRO 5 (Nick Jarvis, SLU, Sweden). In the later stages of the project, the tool will provide a fully GIS-based risk assessment in ISIP for single fields in Germany.

  17. Numerical models for the diffuse ionized gas in galaxies. I. Synthetic spectra of thermally excited gas with turbulent magnetic reconnection as energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Lieb, S.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Lesch, H.; Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Birk, G. T.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to verify whether turbulent magnetic reconnection can provide the additional energy input required to explain the up to now only poorly understood ionization mechanism of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in galaxies and its observed emission line spectra. Methods: We use a detailed non-LTE radiative transfer code that does not make use of the usual restrictive gaseous nebula approximations to compute synthetic spectra for gas at low densities. Excitation of the gas is via an additional heating term in the energy balance as well as by photoionization. Numerical values for this heating term are derived from three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic two-fluid plasma-neutral-gas simulations to compute energy dissipation rates for the DIG under typical conditions. Results: Our simulations show that magnetic reconnection can liberate enough energy to by itself fully or partially ionize the gas. However, synthetic spectra from purely thermally excited gas are incompatible with the observed spectra; a photoionization source must additionally be present to establish the correct (observed) ionization balance in the gas.

  18. Diffusive fractionation complicates isotopic partitioning of autotrophic and heterotrophic sources of soil respiration.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Andrew B; Gaines, Sarah J; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Bowling, David R

    2010-11-01

    Carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) of heterotrophic and rhizospheric sources of soil respiration under deciduous trees were evaluated over two growing seasons. Fluxes and δ¹³C of soil respiratory CO₂ on trenched and untrenched plots were calculated from closed chambers, profiles of soil CO₂ mole fraction and δ¹³C and continuous open chambers. δ¹³C of respired CO₂ and bulk carbon were measured from excised leaves and roots and sieved soil cores. Large diel variations (>5‰) in δ¹³C of soil respiration were observed when diel flux variability was large relative to average daily fluxes, independent of trenching. Soil gas transport modelling supported the conclusion that diel surface flux δ¹³C variation was driven by non-steady state gas transport effects. Active roots were associated with high summertime soil respiration rates and around 1‰ enrichment in the daily average δ¹³C of the soil surface CO₂ flux. Seasonal δ¹³C variability of about 4‰ (most enriched in summer) was observed on all plots and attributed to the heterotrophic CO₂ source. PMID:20545887

  19. Experimental investigations of the swirling flow in the conical diffuser using flow-feedback control technique with additional energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tǎnasǎ, C.; Bosioc, A. I.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Muntean, S.

    2012-11-01

    The previous experimental and numerical investigations of decelerated swirling flows in conical diffusers have demonstrated that water injection along to the axis mitigates the pressure fluctuations associated to the precessing vortex rope [1]. However, for swirling flows similar to Francis turbines operated at partial discharge, the water jet becomes effective when the jet discharge is larger than 10% from the turbine discharge, leading to large volumetric losses when the jet is supplied from upstream the runner. As a result, it was introduced a new approach for supplying the jet by using a fraction of the discharge collected downstream the conical diffuser [2]. This is called flow-feedback control technique (FFCT) and it was investigated experimentally in order to assess its capability [3]. The FFCT approach not requires additional energy to supply the jet. Consequently, the turbine efficiency is not diminished due to the volumetric losses injected even if around 10% of the main flow is used. However, the equivalent amplitude of the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope decreases with 30% if 10% jet discharge is applied [3]. Using 12% water jet discharge from upstream then the equivalent amplitude of the pressure pulsations is mitigated with 70% according to Bosioc et al. [4]. In our case, an extra 2% jet discharge is required in order to obtain similar results with FFCT. This extra discharge is provided using an additional energy source. Therefore, the paper presents experimental investigation performed with FFCT with additional energy source. The experimental results obtained with this technique are compared against FFCT and the swirling flow with vortex rope, respectively.

  20. Beach Sands Along the California Coast are Diffuse Sources of Fecal Bacteria to Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, A. B.; Yamahara, K.; Layton, B.

    2007-05-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are nearly ubiquitous in California (CA) beach sands. Sands were collected from 55 beaches along the CA coast. Ninety-one percent of the beaches had detectable enterococci (ENT) while 62% had detectable E. coli (EC) in their sands. The presence of a putative bacterial source (such as a river), the degree of wave shelter, and surrounding land use explained a significant (p<0.05) fraction of the variation in both ENT and EC densities between beaches. Sand characteristics including moisture content, organic carbon, and percent fines, significantly (p<0.05) influenced only EC densities in beach sand. We assayed 34 of 163 sand samples for salmonellae, but did not detect this bacterial pathogen. The potential for FIB to be transported from the sand to sea was investigated at a single wave-sheltered beach with high densities of ENT in beach sand: Lovers Point, CA (LP). We collected samples of exposed and submerged sands as well as water over a 24 h period in order to compare the disappearance or appearance of ENT in sand and the water column. Exposed sands had significantly higher densities of ENT than submerged sands with the highest densities located near the high tide line. Water column ENT densities began low, increased sharply during the first flood tide and slowly decreased over the remainder of the study. During the first flood tide, the number of ENT that entered the water column was nearly equivalent to the number of ENT lost from exposed sands when they were submerged by seawater. The decrease in nearshore ENT concentrations after the initial influx can be explained by ENT die-off and dilution with clean ocean water. A source tracking study at LP indicated that ENT were likely of human origin because they were positive for the esp gene.

  1. Nutrient emissions from diffuse and point sources into the River Danube and its main tributaries for the period of 1998-2000--results and problems.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, H; Behrendt, H; Constantinescu, L T; Cvitanic, I; Drumea, D; Jabucar, D; Juran, S; Pataki, B; Snishko, S; Zessner, M

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient emissions by point and diffuse sources were estimated for 388 sub-catchments of the Danube river basin for the period 1998-2000 by means of the Model MONERIS. For nitrogen total emissions of 684 kt/a N were estimated for the Danube basin. 80% of these emissions were caused by diffuse sources (mainly groundwater, urban areas and tile drainage). For phosphorus the emission was 57 kt/a P, with a contribution of diffuse sources to this sum of 58%. The comparison of calculated and observed loads shows that the mean deviation for the investigated sub-catchments of the Danube river basin is 20% for dissolved inorganic nitrogen and 34% for phosphorus. The spatial resolution of the emission calculations allows the identification of regional hot spots and the derivation of specific regional measures to reduce the emissions into the Danube and consequently into the Western Black Sea. PMID:15850201

  2. HIREGS observations of the Galactic center and Galactic plane: Separation of the diffuse Galactic hard X-ray continuum from the point source spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, S. E.; Lin, R. P.; Coburn, W.; Feffer, P.; Pelling, R. M.; Schroeder, P.; Slassi-Sennou, S.

    1997-01-01

    The balloon-borne high resolution gamma ray and X-ray germanium spectrometer (HIREGS) was used to observe the Galactic center and two positions along the Galactic plane from Antarctica in January 1995. For its flight, the collimators were configured to measure the Galactic diffuse hard X-ray continuum between 20 and 200 keV by directly measuring the point source contributions to the wide field of view flux for subtraction. The hard X-ray spectra of GX 1+4 and GRO J1655-40 were measured with the diffuse continuum subtracted off. The analysis technique for source separation is discussed and the preliminary separated spectra for these point sources and the Galactic diffuse emission are presented.

  3. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making. PMID:2559844

  4. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, V.; Pekny, V.; Skorepa, J.; Vrba, J. )

    1989-11-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making.

  5. Coarse-mesh diffusion synthetic acceleration of the scattering source iteration scheme for one-speed slab-geometry discrete ordinates problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Frederico P.; Filho, Hermes Alves; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2013-10-01

    The scattering source iterative (SI) scheme is traditionally applied to converge fine-mesh numerical solutions to fixed-source discrete ordinates (SN) neutron transport problems. The SI scheme is very simple to implement under a computational viewpoint. However, the SI scheme may show very slow convergence rate, mainly for diffusive media (low absorption) with several mean free paths in extent (low leakage). In this work we describe an acceleration technique based on an improved initial guess for the scattering source distribution within the slab. In other words, we use as initial guess for the fine-mesh scattering source, the coarse-mesh solution of the neutron diffusion equation with special boundary conditions to account for the classical SN prescribed boundary conditions, including vacuum boundary conditions. Therefore, we first implement a spectral nodal method that generates coarse-mesh diffusion solution that is completely free from spatial truncation errors, then we reconstruct this coarse-mesh solution within each spatial cell of the discretization grid, to further yield the initial guess for the fine-mesh scattering source in the first SN transport sweep (forward and backward) across the spatial grid. We consider a number of numerical experiments to illustrate the efficiency of the offered diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) technique.

  6. Identifying hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs to mitigate critical source areas of diffuse pollution: development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ian; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.; Creamer, Rachel; McDonald, Noeleen; Dunlop, Paul; Murphy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants such as phosphorus (P). A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that identifies HSAs at the sub-field scale. It uses a soil topographic index (STI) and accounts for the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks such as hedgerows and depressions. High resolution (0.25-2 m) LiDAR Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are utilised to capture these microtopographic controls on flow pathways and hydrological connectivity. The HSA Index was applied to four agricultural catchments (~7.5-12 km2) with contrasting topography and soil types. Catchment HSA sizes were estimated using high resolution rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014, and mapped using the HSA Index. HSA sizes ranged from 1.6-3.4% of the catchment area during median storm events and 2.9-8.5% during upper quartile events depending on whether well or poorly drained soils dominated, which validated HSA Index value distributions. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8,298-59,584 m3 and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways where transported pollutants such as P are delivered to the open drainage network. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips (RBS) reduced costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5 years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. Considering that HSAs are often the dominant P CSA factor in agricultural catchments and can override

  7. Diffusion of monochromatic classical waves.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Sijmen; Bauer, Gerrit E W

    2006-01-01

    We study the diffusion of monochromatic classical waves in a disordered acoustic medium by scattering theory. In order to avoid artifacts associated with mathematical point scatterers, we model the randomness by small but finite insertions. We derive expressions for the configuration-averaged energy flux, energy density, and intensity for one-, two-, and three-dimensional (3D) systems with an embedded monochromatic source using the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We study the transition from ballistic to diffusive wave propagation and obtain results for the frequency dependence of the medium properties such as mean free path and diffusion coefficient as a function of the scattering parameters. We discover characteristic differences of the diffusion in 2D as compared to the conventional 3D case, such as an explicit dependence of the energy flux on the mean free path and quite different expressions for the effective transport velocity. PMID:16486306

  8. Characterization of Secondary Mineral Grain Coatings and their Role as Diffusion-controlled Sinks and Sources for Metal Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Guo, H.; Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Ercius, P.; Fox, P. M.; Singer, D. M.; Minor, A.; Waychunas, G.

    2012-12-01

    ) tomography, it can be seen that there are large numbers of pore throat sizes less than 10 nm within the coatings. We hypothesize that diffusion through these pores, which likely have electrically charged surfaces, controls the observed macroscopic rates of U(VI) sorption in batch experiments with sand grains. Evidence to support this hypothesis was observed by studying U and Fe fluorescence spatial variation within FIB samples (1 micron thick) at 200 nm spatial resolution. With this greater spatial resolution, it is possible to see U concentration variations within the coatings that are dependent on the time of sorption reaction, and illustrates how the coating environment constitutes a diffusion constraint to achieve adsorptive equilibrium between an aqueous phase and the mineral surfaces. Including this diffusion constraint within conceptual models for reactive contaminant transport may be significant at the field scale, because secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site. This is important in resolving long-term transport predictions at DOE sites, such as Hanford and Savannah River, where equilibrium versus kinetic reactive transport models are being evaluated.

  9. Implementation of cost-effective diffuse light source mechanism to reduce specular reflection and halo effects for resistor-image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Wang, Jeng-Yau

    2015-09-01

    Light source plays a significant role to acquire a qualified image from objects for facilitating the image processing and pattern recognition. For objects possessing specular surface, the phenomena of reflection and halo appearing in the acquired image will increase the difficulty of information processing. Such a situation may be improved by the assistance of valuable diffuse light source. Consider reading resistor via computer vision, due to the resistor's specular reflective surface it will face with a severe non-uniform luminous intensity on image yielding a higher error rate in recognition without a well-controlled light source. A measurement system including mainly a digital microscope embedded in a replaceable diffuse cover, a ring-type LED embedded onto a small pad carrying a resistor for evaluation, and Arduino microcontrollers connected with PC, is presented in this paper. Several replaceable cost-effective diffuse covers made by paper bowl, cup and box inside pasted with white paper are presented for reducing specular reflection and halo effects and compared with a commercial diffuse some. The ring-type LED can be flexibly configured to be a full or partial lighting based on the application. For each self-made diffuse cover, a set of resistors with 4 or 5 color bands are captured via digital microscope for experiments. The signal-to-noise ratio from the segmented resistor-image is used for performance evaluation. The detected principal axis of resistor body is used for the partial LED configuration to further improve the lighting condition. Experimental results confirm that the proposed mechanism can not only evaluate the cost-effective diffuse light source but also be extended as an automatic recognition system for resistor reading.

  10. Combining Land Use Information and Small Stream Sampling with PCR-Based Methods for Better Characterization of Diffuse Sources of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffuse sources of human fecal pollution allow for the direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment. Traditional culture-based methods are commonly used to characterize fecal pollution in ambient waters, however these methods do not discern between...

  11. In vivo imaging of epileptic foci in rats using a miniature probe integrating diffuse optical tomography and electroencephalographic source localization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The goal of this work is to establish a new dual-modal brain mapping technique based on diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and electroencephalographic source localization (ESL) that can chronically/intracranially record optical/EEG data to precisely map seizures and localize the seizure onset zone and associated epileptic brain network. Methods The dual-modal imaging system was employed to image seizures in an experimental acute bicuculline methiodide rat model of focal epilepsy. Depth information derived from DOT was used as constraint in ESL to enhance the image reconstruction. Groups of animals were compared based on localization of seizure foci, either at different positions or at different depths. Results This novel imaging technique successfully localized the seizure onset zone in rat induced by bicuculline methiodide injected at a depth of 1mm, 2mm and 3mm, respectively. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of the depth information from DOT into the ESL image reconstruction resulted in more accurate and reliable ESL images. Although the ESL images showed a horizontal shift of the source localization, the DOT identified the seizure focus accurately. In one case, when the BMI was injected at a site outside the field of view (FOV) of the DOT/ESL interface, ESL gives false positive detection of the focus while DOT shows negative detection. Significance This study represents the first to identify seizure onset zone using implantable DOT. In addition, the combination of DOT/ESL has never been documented in neuroscience and epilepsy imaging. This technology will enable us to precisely measure the neural activity and hemodynamic response at exactly the same tissue site and at both cortical and sub cortical levels. PMID:25524046

  12. An extension to the dynamic plane source technique for measuring thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of dielectric solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karawacki, Ernest; Suleiman, Bashir M.; ul-Haq, Izhar; Nhi, Bui-Thi

    1992-10-01

    The recently developed dynamic plane source (DPS) technique for simultaneous determination of the thermal properties of fast thermally conducting materials with thermal conductivities between 200 and 2 W/mK has now been extended for studying relatively slow conducting materials with thermal conductivities equal or below 2 W/mK. The method is self-checking since the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity specific heat, and effusivity of the material are obtained independently from each other. The theory of the technique and the experimental arrangement are given in detail. The data evaluation procedure is simple and makes it possible to reveal the distortions due to the nonideal experimental conditions. The extension to the DPS technique has been implemented at room temperature to study the samples of cordierite-based ceramic Cecorite 130P (thermal conductivity equal to 1.48 W/mK), rubber (0.403 W/mK), and polycarbonate (0.245 W/mK). The accuracy of the method is within ±5%.

  13. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  14. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuthbert, M.O.; Mackay, R.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is developed and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM) for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via macropore flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in the macropore system due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil, and a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010) is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  15. EFFECTS OF DIFFUSE BACKGROUND EMISSION AND SOURCE CROWDING ON PHOTOMETRIC COMPLETENESS IN SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE IRAC SURVEYS: THE GLIMPSE CATALOGS AND ARCHIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Alexander, Michael J.; Babler, Brian L.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Churchwell, Edward B. E-mail: malexan9@uwyo.edu E-mail: meade@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: ebc@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-07-01

    We characterize the completeness of point source lists from Spitzer Space Telescope surveys in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bandpasses, emphasizing the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) programs (GLIMPSE I, II, 3D, 360; Deep GLIMPSE) and their resulting point source Catalogs and Archives. The analysis separately addresses effects of incompleteness resulting from high diffuse background emission and incompleteness resulting from point source confusion (i.e., crowding). An artificial star addition and extraction analysis demonstrates that completeness is strongly dependent on local background brightness and structure, with high-surface-brightness regions suffering up to five magnitudes of reduced sensitivity to point sources. This effect is most pronounced at the IRAC 5.8 and 8.0 {mu}m bands where UV-excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission produces bright, complex structures (photodissociation regions). With regard to diffuse background effects, we provide the completeness as a function of stellar magnitude and diffuse background level in graphical and tabular formats. These data are suitable for estimating completeness in the low-source-density limit in any of the four IRAC bands in GLIMPSE Catalogs and Archives and some other Spitzer IRAC programs that employ similar observational strategies and are processed by the GLIMPSE pipeline. By performing the same analysis on smoothed images we show that the point source incompleteness is primarily a consequence of structure in the diffuse background emission rather than photon noise. With regard to source confusion in the high-source-density regions of the Galactic Plane, we provide figures illustrating the 90% completeness levels as a function of point source density at each band. We caution that completeness of the GLIMPSE 360/Deep GLIMPSE Catalogs is suppressed relative to the corresponding Archives as a consequence of rejecting stars that lie in the point

  16. Effects of Diffuse Background Emission and Source Crowding on Photometric Completeness in Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC Surveys: the GLIMPSE Catalogs and Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Babler, Brian L.; Alexander, Michael J.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Churchwell, Edward B.

    2013-07-01

    We characterize the completeness of point source lists from Spitzer Space Telescope surveys in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bandpasses, emphasizing the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) programs (GLIMPSE I, II, 3D, 360; Deep GLIMPSE) and their resulting point source Catalogs and Archives. The analysis separately addresses effects of incompleteness resulting from high diffuse background emission and incompleteness resulting from point source confusion (i.e., crowding). An artificial star addition and extraction analysis demonstrates that completeness is strongly dependent on local background brightness and structure, with high-surface-brightness regions suffering up to five magnitudes of reduced sensitivity to point sources. This effect is most pronounced at the IRAC 5.8 and 8.0 μm bands where UV-excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission produces bright, complex structures (photodissociation regions). With regard to diffuse background effects, we provide the completeness as a function of stellar magnitude and diffuse background level in graphical and tabular formats. These data are suitable for estimating completeness in the low-source-density limit in any of the four IRAC bands in GLIMPSE Catalogs and Archives and some other Spitzer IRAC programs that employ similar observational strategies and are processed by the GLIMPSE pipeline. By performing the same analysis on smoothed images we show that the point source incompleteness is primarily a consequence of structure in the diffuse background emission rather than photon noise. With regard to source confusion in the high-source-density regions of the Galactic Plane, we provide figures illustrating the 90% completeness levels as a function of point source density at each band. We caution that completeness of the GLIMPSE 360/Deep GLIMPSE Catalogs is suppressed relative to the corresponding Archives as a consequence of rejecting stars that lie in the point

  17. Monitoring the kinetic evolution of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by Ge surface thermal diffusion from a local source.

    PubMed

    Vanacore, G M; Zani, M; Bollani, M; Bonera, E; Nicotra, G; Osmond, J; Capellini, Giovanni; Isella, G; Tagliaferri, A

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we experimentally study the growth of self-assembled SiGe islands formed on Si(001) by exploiting the thermally activated surface diffusion of Ge atoms from a local Ge source stripe in the temperature range 600-700 °C. This new growth strategy allows us to vary continuously the Ge coverage from 8 to 0 monolayers as the distance from the source increases, and thus enables the investigation of the island growth over a wide range of dynamical regimes at the same time, providing a unique birds eye view of the factors governing the growth process and the dominant mechanism for the mass collection by a critical nucleus. Our results give experimental evidence that the nucleation process evolves within a diffusion limited regime. At a given annealing temperature, we find that the nucleation density depends only on the kinetics of the Ge surface diffusion resulting in a universal scaling distribution depending only on the Ge coverage. An analytical model is able to reproduce quantitatively the trend of the island density. Following the nucleation, the growth process appears to be driven mainly by short-range interactions between an island and the atoms diffusing within its vicinities. The islands volume distribution is, in fact, well described in the whole range of parameters by the Mulheran's capture zone model. The complex growth mechanism leads to a strong intermixing of Si and Ge within the island volume. Our growth strategy allows us to directly investigate the correlation between the Si incorporation and the Ge coverage in the same experimental conditions: higher intermixing is found for lower Ge coverage. This confirms that, besides the Ge gathering from the surface, also the Si incorporation from the substrate is driven by the diffusion kinetics, thus imposing a strict constraint on the initial Ge coverage, its diffusion properties and the final island volume. PMID:24594569

  18. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  19. An Updated Calibration of the ROSAT PSPC Particle Background for the Analysis of Diffuse and Extended Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucinsky, P. P.; Snowden, S. L.; Briel, U. G.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.

    1993-11-01

    In order to permit quantitative studies of the cosmic diffuse X-ray background (DXRB) and of extended X-ray sources, we present updated calibrations of the particle-induced background of the Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPCs) on board the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT). We present new parameterizations of the temporal, spectral, and spatial distributions of the particle-induced events following closely the analysis discussed in Snowden et al. (1992). The ROSAT Guest Observer (GO) may find a step-by-step method for applying these parameterizations to a GO observation in § 3.4. Except for a variable contamination which is present in channels ≤ 18 and a change in our understanding of the externally produced components, the current parameterizations are quite similar to the previous results. We have used the spectral information available on the variable contamination to formulate a method for determining the level of this contamination in a given observation. The PSPC rejection efficiency for particle background events in the pulse-height range 18 ≤ CH ≤ 249 is 99.90%, with a typical count rate of 4 × 10-6 counts s-1 arcmin-2 keV-1. During typical conditions, the count rate of residual events is well correlated with the Master Veto count rate. The spectrum in the pulse-height range 18 ≤ CH ≤ 249 is well described by a power law, a flat component, and an Al Kα line at 1.5 keV. The spatial distribution of counts with pulse heights ≥ 18 is uniform over the field of view except for a small radial gradient and shadowing of the Al Kα line and part of the flat continuum by the window support structure. During an astronomical observation in low-gain mode (after 1991 October 11), the particle background can also be monitored by the count rate in channels 260 ≤ CH ≤ 370, since in most cases all these events are produced by particles. We have used a 54 ks observation of the Ursa Major region to verify the accuracy of our model. We have also

  20. Selection of Common Items as an Unrecognized Source of Variability in Test Equating: A Bootstrap Approximation Assuming Random Sampling of Common Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Michalis P.; Haertel, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    The standard error of equating quantifies the variability in the estimation of an equating function. Because common items for deriving equated scores are treated as fixed, the only source of variability typically considered arises from the estimation of common-item parameters from responses of samples of examinees. Use of alternative, equally…

  1. p, He, and C to Fe cosmic-ray primary fluxes in diffusion models. Source and transport signatures on fluxes and ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putze, A.; Maurin, D.; Donato, F.

    2011-02-01

    Context. The source spectrum of cosmic rays is not well determined by diffusive shock acceleration models. The propagated fluxes of proton, helium, and heavier primary cosmic-ray species (up to Fe) are a means to indirectly access it. But how robust are the constraints, and how degenerate are the source and transport parameters? Aims: We check the compatibility of the primary fluxes with the transport parameters derived from the B/C analysis, but also ask whether they add further constraints. We study whether the spectral shapes of these fluxes and their ratios are mostly driven by source or propagation effects. We then derive the source parameters (slope, abundance, and low-energy shape). Methods: Simple analytical formulae are used to address the issue of degeneracies between source/transport parameters, and to understand the shape of the p/He and C/O to Fe/O data. The full analysis relies on the USINE propagation package, the MINUIT minimisation routines (χ2 analysis) and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. Results: Proton data are well described in the simplest model defined by a power-law source spectrum and plain diffusion. They can also be accommodated by models with, e.g., convection and/or reacceleration. There is no need for breaks in the source spectral indices below ~1 TeV/n. Fits to the primary fluxes alone do not provide physical constraints on the transport parameters. If we leave the source spectrum free, parametrised by the form dQ/dE = q βη_S R-α, and fix the diffusion coefficient K(R) = K_0βη_T Rδ so as to reproduce the B/C ratio, the MCMC analysis constrains the source spectral index α to be in the range 2.2-2.5 for all primary species up to Fe, regardless of the value of the diffusion slope δ. The values of the parameter ηS describing the low-energy shape of the source spectrum are degenerate with the parameter ηT describing the low-energy shape of the diffusion coefficient: we find ηS - ηT ≈ 0 for p and He data, but

  2. CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE DIFFUSION HYPOTHESIS IN THE THEORY OF POROUS MEDIA VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) SOURCES AND SINKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper proposes three alternative, diffusion-limited mathematical models to account for volatile organic compound (VOC) interactions with indoor sinks, using the linear isotherm model as a reference point. (NOTE: Recent reports by both the U.S. EPA and a study committee of the...

  3. Impact of legacy phosphorus sources on diffuse phosphorus pollution from agriculture: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legacy phosphorus (P), the accumulation of P in soils and sediments due to past agricultural management activities, represents an emerging challenge to ongoing efforts to mitigate diffuse P pollution from agriculture. Nutrient management programs, already tasked with minimizing the effects of today...

  4. Artificial neural networks for retrieving absorption and reduced scattering spectra from frequency-domain diffuse reflectance spectroscopy at short source-detector separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Huang, Po-Jung; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) based on the frequency-domain (FD) technique has been employed to investigate the optical properties of deep tissues such as breast and brain using source to detector separation up to 40 mm. Due to the modeling and system limitations, efficient and precise determination of turbid sample optical properties from the FD diffuse reflectance acquired at a source-detector separation (SDS) of around 1 mm has not been demonstrated. In this study, we revealed that at SDS of 1 mm, acquiring FD diffuse reflectance at multiple frequencies is necessary for alleviating the influence of inevitable measurement uncertainty on the optical property recovery accuracy. Furthermore, we developed artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained by Monte Carlo simulation generated databases that were capable of efficiently determining FD reflectance at multiple frequencies. The ANNs could work in conjunction with a least-square optimization algorithm to rapidly (within 1 second), accurately (within 10%) quantify the sample optical properties from FD reflectance measured at SDS of 1 mm. In addition, we demonstrated that incorporating the steady-state apparatus into the FD DRS system with 1 mm SDS would enable obtaining broadband absorption and reduced scattering spectra of turbid samples in the wavelength range from 650 to 1000 nm. PMID:27446671

  5. Fast and accurate Monte Carlo modeling of a kilovoltage X-ray therapy unit using a photon-source approximation for treatment planning in complex media

    PubMed Central

    Zeinali-Rafsanjani, B.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Faghihi, R.; Karbasi, S.; Mosalaei, A.

    2015-01-01

    To accurately recompute dose distributions in chest-wall radiotherapy with 120 kVp kilovoltage X-rays, an MCNP4C Monte Carlo model is presented using a fast method that obviates the need to fully model the tube components. To validate the model, half-value layer (HVL), percentage depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles were measured. Dose measurements were performed for a more complex situation using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed within a Rando phantom. The measured and computed first and second HVLs were 3.8, 10.3 mm Al and 3.8, 10.6 mm Al, respectively. The differences between measured and calculated PDDs and beam profiles in water were within 2 mm/2% for all data points. In the Rando phantom, differences for majority of data points were within 2%. The proposed model offered an approximately 9500-fold reduced run time compared to the conventional full simulation. The acceptable agreement, based on international criteria, between the simulations and the measurements validates the accuracy of the model for its use in treatment planning and radiobiological modeling studies of superficial therapies including chest-wall irradiation using kilovoltage beam. PMID:26170553

  6. Fast and accurate Monte Carlo modeling of a kilovoltage X-ray therapy unit using a photon-source approximation for treatment planning in complex media.

    PubMed

    Zeinali-Rafsanjani, B; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A; Faghihi, R; Karbasi, S; Mosalaei, A

    2015-01-01

    To accurately recompute dose distributions in chest-wall radiotherapy with 120 kVp kilovoltage X-rays, an MCNP4C Monte Carlo model is presented using a fast method that obviates the need to fully model the tube components. To validate the model, half-value layer (HVL), percentage depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles were measured. Dose measurements were performed for a more complex situation using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed within a Rando phantom. The measured and computed first and second HVLs were 3.8, 10.3 mm Al and 3.8, 10.6 mm Al, respectively. The differences between measured and calculated PDDs and beam profiles in water were within 2 mm/2% for all data points. In the Rando phantom, differences for majority of data points were within 2%. The proposed model offered an approximately 9500-fold reduced run time compared to the conventional full simulation. The acceptable agreement, based on international criteria, between the simulations and the measurements validates the accuracy of the model for its use in treatment planning and radiobiological modeling studies of superficial therapies including chest-wall irradiation using kilovoltage beam. PMID:26170553

  7. Suzaku observations of two diffuse hard X-ray source regions, G22.0+0.0 and G23.5+0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Shigeo; Sumita, Mayu; Bamba, Aya

    2016-06-01

    G22.0+0.0 and G23.5+0.1 are diffuse hard X-ray sources discovered in the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey. We present Suzaku results of spectral analysis for these sources. G22.0+0.0 is confirmed to be a largely extended emission. Its spectra were represented by a highly absorbed power-law model with a photon index of 1.7 ± 0.3 and a moderately absorbed thermal emission with a temperature of 0.34^{+0.11}_{-0.08}keV. The difference in the NH values between the two components suggests that the thermal component is unrelated to the power-law component and is a foreground emission located in the same line of sight. G23.5+0.1 is an extended source with a size of ˜3{^'.}5. Its spectra were fitted with an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of 2.4^{+0.5}_{-0.4}. The spatial and spectral properties show that both sources are candidates for old pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). In addition to the extended sources, we analyzed spectra of three point sources found in the observed fields. Based on the spectral features, we discuss the origin of the sources.

  8. Doping of ZnO nanowires using phosphorus diffusion from a spin-on doped glass source

    SciTech Connect

    Bocheux, A.; Robin, I. C.; Bonaimé, J.; Hyot, B.; Feuillet, G.; Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Mitrofanov, K. V.; Tominaga, J.; Tamenori, Y.

    2014-05-21

    In this article, we report on ZnO nanowires that were phosphorus doped using a spin on dopant glass deposition and diffusion method. Photoluminescence measurements suggest that this process yields p-doped ZnO. The spatial location of P atoms was studied using x-ray near-edge absorption structure spectroscopy and it is concluded that the doping is amphoteric with P atoms located on both Zn and O sites.

  9. Doping of ZnO nanowires using phosphorus diffusion from a spin-on doped glass source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocheux, A.; Robin, I. C.; Bonaimé, J.; Hyot, B.; Kolobov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, K. V.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.; Tamenori, Y.; Feuillet, G.

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we report on ZnO nanowires that were phosphorus doped using a spin on dopant glass deposition and diffusion method. Photoluminescence measurements suggest that this process yields p-doped ZnO. The spatial location of P atoms was studied using x-ray near-edge absorption structure spectroscopy and it is concluded that the doping is amphoteric with P atoms located on both Zn and O sites.

  10. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  11. Measurement of a long diffusion length in a GaAs film improved by metalorganic-chemical-vapor-deposition source purifications

    SciTech Connect

    Partain, L.D.; Cohen, M.J.; Cape, J.A.; Fraas, L.M.; McLeod, P.S.; Dean, C.S.; Ransom, R.A.

    1985-11-15

    The vacuum metalorganic-chemical-vapor-deposition (Vacuum MOCVD) process was combined with two source purifications to grow p-GaAs epitaxial films of high quality. Theoretical modeling of quantum yield spectra measured on a specially configured n/sup +/-p sample determined the minority-carrier electron diffusion length to be 10 ..mu..m to within a factor of 2 in the p layer. The p doping was reduced to the 5 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ level to avoid suppression of the diffusion length by Auger recombination. Multiple vacuum sublimations of dicyclopentadienyl magnesium (CP/sub 2/Mg), the source of Mg for p doping, reduced the contamination by air and by cyclopentadiene (CP) by an order of magnitude. A dry ice/acetone cold trap was operated at slightly below 180-Torr pressure to reduce the water vapor content of arsine, used as the As source, from the hundreds of ppm down level down to the 2 ppm range. The vacuum growth process reduced residual gas contamination. These techniques were combined to grow a p on n GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 24% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5).

  12. Estimation of diffuse and point source microbial pollution in the ribble catchment discharging to bathing waters in the north west of England.

    PubMed

    Wither, A; Greaves, J; Dunhill, I; Wyer, M; Stapleton, C; Kay, D; Humphrey, N; Watkins, J; Francis, C; McDonald, A; Crowther, J

    2005-01-01

    Achieving compliance with the mandatory standards of the 1976 Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC) is required at all U.K. identified bathing waters. In recent years, the Fylde coast has been an area of significant investments in 'point source' control, which have not proven, in isolation, to satisfactorily achieve compliance with the mandatory, let alone the guide, levels of water quality in the Directive. The potential impact of riverine sources of pollution was first confirmed after a study in 1997. The completion of sewerage system enhancements offered the potential for the study of faecal indicator delivery from upstream sources comprising both point sources and diffuse agricultural sources. A research project to define these elements commenced in 2001. Initially, a desk study reported here, estimated the principal infrastructure contributions within the Ribble catchment. A second phase of this investigation has involved acquisition of empirical water quality and hydrological data from the catchment during the 2002 bathing season. These data have been used further to calibrate the 'budgets' and 'delivery' modelling and these data are still being analysed. This paper reports the initial desk study approach to faecal indicator budget estimation using available data from the sewerage infrastructure and catchment sources of faecal indicators. PMID:15850190

  13. Relativistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  14. Relativistic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727

  15. Quantum diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, S.

    1994-10-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ``quantum diffusion`` terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source.

  16. Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon mimaging

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Shechao C.; Zeng, Fanan; Zhao, Hui-Lin

    1997-12-09

    Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue.

  17. Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon imaging

    DOEpatents

    Feng, S.C.; Zeng, F.; Zhao, H.L.

    1997-12-09

    Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue. 58 figs.

  18. Combined impacts of precipitation and temperature on diffuse phosphorus pollution loading and critical source area identification in a freeze-thaw area.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Gao, Xiang; Yu, Yongyong

    2016-05-15

    The loss of diffuse phosphorus (P) presented different characteristics in the freeze-thaw area due to the combined impacts of precipitation and temperature, which caused spatiotemporal variations of the critical source area of diffuse P (CSAP). The temperature and precipitation classification (TPC) method was proposed to identify the spatiotemporal characteristics of the CSAP in the cold area, and each year was divided into a freeze-thaw season and a growing season according to the average monthly temperature. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) provided the spatiotemporal patterns of the diffuse P loads. The years were also reclassified into dry, normal and wet years according to the annual precipitation levels. The CSAP with the 1st cumulative load level shared 9.68% of the same area between the two seasons, which had dry land as the dominant land use with direct P fertilization. The spatial distributions of the potential areas and the CSAP with the 2nd cumulative load level were more sensitive to the variation in temperature, which had 30.8%-46.1% of unvaried area between seasons. The cumulative load level analysis indicated that 14 subbasins in the freeze-thaw season and 7 subbasins in the growing season, which covered 61.2% and 48.6% of the total basin area, respectively, changed with the traditional CSAP identification among dry, normal and wet years. The fluctuation level analysis was carried out to compare the distributional difference of the CSAP and the potential areas between the TPC method and the traditional method, which highlighted the advantages of the TPC method. The results would be useful in identifying the distribution of the CSAP in cold areas, which improved the efficiency of diffuse pollution control. PMID:26970198

  19. Adaptive selection of minimally correlated data for optimization of source-detector configuration in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabir, Sohail; Kim, Keehyun; Heo, Duchang; Cho, Seungryong

    2016-03-01

    The optimization of experimental design prior to deployment, not only for cost effective solution but also for computationally efficient image reconstruction has taken up for this study. We implemented the iterative method also known as effective independence (EFI) method for optimization of source/detector pair configuration. The notion behind for adaptive selection of minimally correlated measurements was to evaluate the information content passed by each measurement for estimation of unknown parameter. The EFI method actually ranks measurements according to their contribution to the linear independence of unknown parameter basis. Typically, to improve the solvability of ill conditioned system, regularization parameter is added, which may affect the source/detector selection configuration. We show that the source/detector pairs selected by EFI method were least prone to vary with sub optimal regularization value. Moreover, through series of simulation studies we also confirmed that sparse source/detector pair measurements selected by EFI method offered similar results in comparison with the dense measurement configuration for unknown parameters qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Additionally, EFI method also allow us to incorporate the prior knowledge, extracted in multimodality imaging cases, to design source/detector configuration sensitive to specific region of interest. The source/detector ranking method was further analyzed to derive the automatic cut off number for iterative scheme.

  20. Determination of transport wind speed in the gaussian plume diffusion equation for low-lying point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, I. T.

    A general method for determining the effective transport wind speed, overlineu, in the Gaussian plume equation is discussed. Physical arguments are given for using the generalized overlineu instead of the often adopted release-level wind speed with the plume diffusion equation. Simple analytical expressions for overlineu applicable to low-level point releases and a wide range of atmospheric conditions are developed. A non-linear plume kinematic equation is derived using these expressions. Crosswind-integrated SF 6 concentration data from the 1983 PNL tracer experiment are used to evaluate the proposed analytical procedures along with the usual approach of using the release-level wind speed. Results of the evaluation are briefly discussed.

  1. Perpendicular Diffusion in the Transport of Solar Energetic Particles from Unconnected Sources: The Counter-streaming Particle Beams Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.-Q.

    2015-12-01

    In some solar energetic particle (SEP) events, a counter-streaming particle beam with a deep depression of flux at ∼ 90^\\circ pitch angle during the beginning phase is observed. Two different interpretations exist within the community to explain this interesting phenomenon. One explanation invokes the hypothesis of an outer reflecting boundary or a magnetic mirror beyond the observer. The other one considers the effect of perpendicular diffusion on the transport process of SEPs in interplanetary space. In this work, we revisit the problem of counter-streaming particle beams observed in SEP events and discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for the formation of this phenomenon. We clarify some results in previous works.

  2. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF 3C RADIO SOURCES WITH z < 0.3: NUCLEI, DIFFUSE EMISSION, JETS, AND HOTSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Harris, D. E.; Tremblay, G. R.; Axon, D.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.; Capetti, A.; Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W.; Gilli, R.; Giovannini, G.; Grandi, P.; Risaliti, G.

    2010-05-01

    We report on our Chandra Cycle 9 program to observe half of the 60 (unobserved by Chandra) 3C radio sources at z < 0.3 for 8 ks each. Here we give the basic data: the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and any features associated with radio structures such as hotspots and knots in jets. We have measured fluxes in soft, medium, and hard bands and are thus able to isolate sources with significant intrinsic column density. For the stronger nuclei, we have applied the standard spectral analysis which provides the best-fit values of X-ray spectral index and column density. We find evidence for intrinsic absorption exceeding a column density of 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} for one-third of our sources.

  3. Steady-state solution of the semi-empirical diffusion equation for area sources. [air pollution studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebedeff, S. A.; Hameed, S.

    1975-01-01

    The problem investigated can be solved exactly in a simple manner if the equations are written in terms of a similarity variable. The exact solution is used to explore two questions of interest in the modelling of urban air pollution, taking into account the distribution of surface concentration downwind of an area source and the distribution of concentration with height.

  4. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  5. Magnetoelectric charge states of matter-energy. A second approximation. Part VII. Diffuse relativistic superconductive plasma. Measurable and non-measurable physical manifestations. Kirlian photography. Laser phenomena. Cosmic effects on chemical and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Cope, F W

    1980-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that all objects, and especially living objects, contain and are surrounded by diffuse clouds of matter-energy probably best considered as a superconductive plasma state and best analyzed by application of an extended form of the Einstein special theory of relativity. Such a plasma state would have physical properties that for relativistic reasons the experimentalists could not expect to measure, and also those he could expect to measure. Not possible to measure should be (a) absorption or reflection of light, (b) electric charge mobilities of Hall effects, and (c) any particulate structure within the plasma. Possible to measure should be (a) channel formation ("arcing") in high applied electric fields (e.g., as in Kirlian photography), (b) effects of the plasma on temperatures and potentials of electrons in solid objects moving through that plasma, (c) facilitation of coupling between electromagnetic oscillations in sets of adjacent molecules, resulting in facilitation of laser and maser emissions of electromagnetic waves and in facilitation of geometrical alignment of adjacent molecules, and (d) magnetic and electric flux trapping with resultant magnetic and/or electric dipole moments. Experimental evidence suggests that diffuse superconductive plasma may reach the earth from the sun, resulting in diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in rates of antigen-antibody reactions as well as in rates of precipitation and crystallization of solids from solutions. PMID:7454856

  6. One sign ion mobile approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, G.

    2011-12-01

    The electrical response of an electrolytic cell to an external excitation is discussed in the simple case where only one group of positive and negative ions is present. The particular case where the diffusion coefficients of the negative ions, Dm, is very small with respect to that of the positive ions, Dp, is considered. In this framework, it is discussed under what conditions the one mobile approximation, in which the negative ions are assumed fixed, works well. The analysis is performed by assuming that the external excitation is sinusoidal with circular frequency ω, as that used in the impedance spectroscopy technique. In this framework, we show that there exists a circular frequency, ω*, such that for ω > ω*, the one mobile ion approximation works well. We also show that for Dm ≪ Dp, ω* is independent of Dm.

  7. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  8. Untangling hydrological pathways and nitrate diffusive sources by chemical appraisal in a stream network of a reservoir catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevenes-Burgos, M. A.; Mannaerts, C. M.

    2011-03-01

    Stable water isotopes and water hydrochemistry of a catchment in the Alentejo region, south Portugal, were analysed to investigate source origins of water and nitrate flows towards a reservoir. The 353 km2 headwater catchment of Roxo river, is strongly influenced by agricultural impacts, and high variations in water and chemical inflows into an important drinking and irrigation water supply (108 m3) are observed. This leads to regular disputes on water quantity and quality amongst local authorities and population. Three sampling campaigns in different seasons were used to address the temporal and spatial variations in stream and groundwater hydrochemistry and water isotopic signatures. A total of 27 sampling points from the stream network, shallow groundwater and reservoir were used. Isotopic signatures and chemistry of precipitation were obtained from local data of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAWSIS) network. Other meteorological, hydrological and environmental datasets were obtained from local authorities. The stable water isotopes deuterium (δ2H), oxygen-18 (δ18O) together with chloride (Cl-) and sulphate (SO42-) were used as environmental tracers in the hydrological pathways. Water pathways were then related with nitrate concentrations to elucidate potential relationships between the water and nutrient sources. Interpretation of isotope signatures showed a high degree of isotope enrichment in both surface (stream flow) and shallow groundwater. For the entire period, most of stream waters were located right of the global meteoric water line or GMWL and plotted along a local evaporation line (LEL) established for the study area. The LEL showed slopes similar to stream systems in other dry environments. Monthly stream flow and precipitation, seasonal isotope compositions and major ion chemistry data were used for an evaluation of the relative contribution of water sources using an end-member mixing

  9. Sulphate leaching from diffuse agricultural and forest sources in a large central European catchment during 1900-2010.

    PubMed

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Porcal, Petr; Posch, Maximilian

    2014-02-01

    Using dynamic, mass budget, and empirical models, we quantified sulphate-sulphur (SO4-S) leaching from soils in a large central European catchment (upper Vltava river, Czech Republic) over a 110-year period (1900-2010). SO4-S inputs to soils with synthetic fertilisers and atmospheric deposition increased in the 1950s-1980s, then rapidly decreased (~80%), and remained low since the middle 1990s. The proportion of drained agricultural land rapidly increased from 4 to 43% between the 1950s and 1990s; then the draining ability of the system slowly decreased due to its ageing. Sulphate concentrations in the Vltava exhibited similar trends as the external SO4-S inputs, suggesting that they could be explained by changes in atmospheric and fertiliser S inputs. The available data and modelling, however, showed that (i) internal SO4-S sources (mineralization of soil organic S in the drained agricultural land), (ii) a hysteresis in SO4-S leaching from forest soils (a net S retention at the high S inputs and then a net release at the lowered inputs), and (iii) hydrology must be taken into account. An empirical model was then employed, based on parameters representing hydrology (discharge), external SO4-S sources (inputs by synthetic fertilisers and atmospheric deposition), and internal SO4-S sources (mineralization related to soil drainage). The model explained 84% of the observed variability in annual SO4-S concentrations in the Vltava river during 1900-2010 and showed that forest soils were a net sink (105 kg ha(-1)) while agricultural land was a net source (55 kg ha(-1)) of SO4-S during 1960-2010. In the late 1980s, forest soils changed from a sink to a source of S, and the present release of SO4-S accumulated in forest soils thus delays recovery of surface waters from acidification, while S losses from agricultural soils increase the risk of future S deficiency in S-demanding crops. PMID:24176702

  10. Approximate Bayesian multibody tracking.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Oswald

    2006-09-01

    Visual tracking of multiple targets is a challenging problem, especially when efficiency is an issue. Occlusions, if not properly handled, are a major source of failure. Solutions supporting principled occlusion reasoning have been proposed but are yet unpractical for online applications. This paper presents a new solution which effectively manages the trade-off between reliable modeling and computational efficiency. The Hybrid Joint-Separable (HJS) filter is derived from a joint Bayesian formulation of the problem, and shown to be efficient while optimal in terms of compact belief representation. Computational efficiency is achieved by employing a Markov random field approximation to joint dynamics and an incremental algorithm for posterior update with an appearance likelihood that implements a physically-based model of the occlusion process. A particle filter implementation is proposed which achieves accurate tracking during partial occlusions, while in cases of complete occlusion, tracking hypotheses are bound to estimated occlusion volumes. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is efficient, robust, and able to resolve long-term occlusions between targets with identical appearance. PMID:16929730

  11. Distinguishing and characterising point-source mining dust and diffuse-source dust deposits in a semi-arid district of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattle, Stephen R.; Hemi, Karl; Pearson, Garry L.; Sanderson, Todd

    The routine monitoring of dust deposition around mines does not typically distinguish between allochthonous and locally-sourced dust. In this paper, contemporary aeolian dust deposition within a semi-arid part of eastern Australia is examined to determine the contribution of an open-pit gold mine to local dust dynamics. Over a 2.5 year period, monthly deposited dust samples were obtained from 12 sites located around the Cowal Gold Mine (CGM), and analysed for inorganic and organic proportions and granulometric properties. Although there was considerable variation in deposition between the gauges and sampling periods, there was a moderate and statistically significant seasonal trend, with mineral dust deposition lowest in winter. Imprinted over this seasonal pattern was a distinct spatial pattern of dust deposition, with gauges downwind of the CGM receiving significantly more dust than those gauges upwind (20 t/km2/yr). This effect was most pronounced adjacent to the mine (dust deposition of 60 t/km2/yr), where coarse-grained particles comprised a large proportion of the deposited dust, and diminished with distance east of the mine. Such a spatial trend is typical of a point source of dust. Average dust deposition at gauges located 8 km downwind of the mine was only slightly greater than that of gauges upwind of the mine. The 'background' dust populations captured at the upwind locations were dominated by fine particles, with modal particle diameters of 3-5 and 13-16 μm common. The macro-organic component of dust deposits also tended to vary seasonally, but the spatial distribution of this material was quite erratic.

  12. Tracing sediment sources during floods using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry (DRIFTS): A case study in a highly erosive mountainous catchment (Southern French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulenard, J.; Legout, C.; Némery, J.; Bramorski, J.; Navratil, O.; Douchin, A.; Fanget, B.; Perrette, Y.; Evrard, O.; Esteves, M.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIn mountainous catchments, large quantities of sediment are exported within very short periods leading to numerous environmental problems (e.g. reservoir siltation). The origin of suspended sediment during two distinct floods was determined by conducting an original fingerprinting method coupling Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and a chemometric technique (i.e. Partial Least Squares - PLS-analysis). Samples of the potential sediment sources were collected in badland areas developed on various substrates (i.e. molasse, marly limestones, black marls and gypsum) in the Galabre 20 km 2-catchment located in the French Southern Alps. DRIFTS spectra provided a way to discriminate between the different potential sediment sources. Furthermore, the use of mid-infrared spectra allowed the direct quantification of the gypsum proportion in sediment. This contribution was systematically null at the catchment outlet because of the rapid dissolution of gypsum in the river. A PLS model was then constructed to estimate the contribution of the three other potential sources to the sediment flux during the floods. This model was developed and validated using a set of 45 "experimental" samples that were prepared in the laboratory in order to contain various proportions of the three remaining sources. By introducing DRIFTS spectra into the PLS model, we could predict the proportions of those sources in the mixed 'experimental' samples with a confidence interval of ca. ±10%. The model was then applied to the sediment collected during the two selected floods in order to outline their origin. Black marls provided the highest contribution of sediment during both events, but the analysis also revealed a significant contribution of molasse. Results also showed the remobilisation of sediment originated from molassic substrates that deposited on the riverbed during a preceding event. Opportunities for improvement and further use of this method as an

  13. Code System to Solve the Few-Group Neutron Diffusion Equation Utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) for Eigenvalue, Adjoint, and Fixed-Source

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-21

    Version 04 NESTLE solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the NEM. The NESTLE code can solve the eigenvalue (criticality), eigenvalue adjoint, external fixed-source steady-state, and external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two- ormore » four-energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e., upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modeled include Cartesian and hexagonal. Three-, two-, and one-dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The thermal conditions predicted by the thermal-hydraulic model of the core are used to correct cross sections for temperature and density effects. Cross sections are parameterized by color, control rod state (i.e., in or out), and burnup, allowing fuel depletion to be modeled. Either a macroscopic or microscopic model may be employed.« less

  14. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: I. Measurement and reduction strategies with planar diffuse source.

    PubMed

    Granton, Patrick V; Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scanning of 3D radiochromic dosimeters may provide a practical method for 3D dose verification in radiation therapy. However, in cone-beam geometry stray light contaminates the projection images, degrading the accuracy of reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients. Stray light was measured using a beam pass aperture array (BPA) and structured illumination methods. The stray-to-primary ray ratio (SPR) along the central axis was found to be 0.24 for a 5% gelatin hydrogel, representative of radiochromic hydrogels. The scanner was modified by moving the spectral filter from the detector to the source, changing the light's spatial fluence pattern and lowering the acceptance angle by extending distance between the source and object. These modifications reduced the SPR significantly from 0.24 to 0.06. The accuracy of the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients for uniform carbon black liquids was compared to independent spectrometer measurements. Reducing the stray light increased the range of accurate transmission readings. In order to evaluate scanner performance for the more challenging application to small field dosimetry, a carbon black finger gel phantom was prepared. Reconstructions of the phantom from CBCT and fan-beam CT scans were compared. The modified source resulted in improved agreement. Subtraction of residual stray light, measured with BPA or structured illumination from each projection further improved agreement. Structured illumination was superior to BPA for measuring stray light for the smaller 1.2 and 0.5 cm diameter phantom fingers. At the costs of doubling the scanner size and tripling the number of scans, CBCT reconstructions of low-scattering hydrogel dosimeters agreed with those of fan-beam CT scans. PMID:26988028

  15. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: I. Measurement and reduction strategies with planar diffuse source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granton, Patrick V.; Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scanning of 3D radiochromic dosimeters may provide a practical method for 3D dose verification in radiation therapy. However, in cone-beam geometry stray light contaminates the projection images, degrading the accuracy of reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients. Stray light was measured using a beam pass aperture array (BPA) and structured illumination methods. The stray-to-primary ray ratio (SPR) along the central axis was found to be 0.24 for a 5% gelatin hydrogel, representative of radiochromic hydrogels. The scanner was modified by moving the spectral filter from the detector to the source, changing the light’s spatial fluence pattern and lowering the acceptance angle by extending distance between the source and object. These modifications reduced the SPR significantly from 0.24 to 0.06. The accuracy of the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients for uniform carbon black liquids was compared to independent spectrometer measurements. Reducing the stray light increased the range of accurate transmission readings. In order to evaluate scanner performance for the more challenging application to small field dosimetry, a carbon black finger gel phantom was prepared. Reconstructions of the phantom from CBCT and fan-beam CT scans were compared. The modified source resulted in improved agreement. Subtraction of residual stray light, measured with BPA or structured illumination from each projection further improved agreement. Structured illumination was superior to BPA for measuring stray light for the smaller 1.2 and 0.5 cm diameter phantom fingers. At the costs of doubling the scanner size and tripling the number of scans, CBCT reconstructions of low-scattering hydrogel dosimeters agreed with those of fan-beam CT scans.

  16. Power spectra of black holes (BH) and neutron stars (NS) as a probe of hydrodynamical structure of the source: Diffusion theory and its application to X-ray observations of NS and BH sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Arefiev, Vadim

    2007-06-01

    We present a model of Fourier Power Density Spectrum (PDS) formation in accretion powered X-ray binary systems derived from the first principles of the diffusion theory. Timing properties of X-ray emission are considered to be a result of diffusive propagation of the driving perturbations in a bounded medium. We prove that the integrated power of the resulting PDS, Px is only a small fraction of the integrated power of the driving oscillations, Pdr which is distributed over the disk. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the power Px is inversely proportional to the characteristic frequency of the driving oscillations vdr which is likely scaled with the frequency of the local gravity waves in the disk (Keplerian frequency). Keeping in mind that vdr increases towards soft states leads us to conclude that the power Px declines towards soft states. This dependence Px ~ vdr-1 explains the well-known observational phenomenon that the power of the X-ray variability decreases when the source evolves to softer states. The resulting PDS continuum is a sum of two components, a low frequency (LF) component which presumably originates in an extended accretion disk and a high frequency (HF) component which originates in the innermost part of the source [Compton cloud (CC)]. The LF PDS component has a power-law shape with index of 1.0 - 1.5 at higher frequencies (``red'' noise) and a flat spectrum below a characteristic (break) frequency (``white'' noise). This white-red noise (WRN) continuum spectrum holds information about the physical parameters of the bounded extended medium, diffusion time scale and the dependence law of viscosity vs radius. This LF PDS associated with the extended disk dominates in the soft states of the system, while the HF PDS characteristic of innermost CC component is dominant in the low/hard and intermediate states. These PDS LF and HF components directly correspond to the energy spectrum components. Namely: LF WRN is related to thermal emission from an

  17. Power Spectra of Black Holes (bh) and Neutron Stars (ns) as a Probe of Hydrodynamical Structure of the Source:. Diffusion Theory and its Application to X-Ray Observations of NS and BH Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Arefiev, Vadim

    2008-09-01

    We present a model of Fourier Power Density Spectrum (PDS) formation in accretion powered X-ray binary systems derived from the first principles of the diffusion theory. Timing properties of X-ray emission are considered to be a result of diffusive propagation of the driving perturbations in a bounded medium. We prove that the integrated power of the resulting PDS, Px is only a small fraction of the integrated power of the driving oscillations, Pdr which is distributed over the disk. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the power Px is inversely proportional to the characteristic frequency of the driving oscillations νdr which is likely scaled with the frequency of the local gravity waves in the disk (Keplerian frequency). Keeping in mind that νdr increases towards soft states leads us to conclude that the power Px declines towards soft states. This dependence Px ∝ ν dr-1 explains the well-known observational phenomenon that the power of the X-ray variability decreases when the source evolves to softer states. The resulting PDS continuum is a sum of two components, a low frequency (LF) component which presumably originates in an extended accretion disk and a high frequency (HF) component which originates in the innermost part of the source [Compton cloud (CC)]. The LF PDS component has a power-law shape with index of 1.0 - 1.5 at higher frequencies ("red" noise) and a flat spectrum below a characteristic (break) frequency ("white" noise). This white-red noise (WRN) continuum spectrum holds information about the physical parameters of the bounded extended medium, diffusion time scale and the dependence law of viscosity vs radius. This LF PDS associated with the extended disk dominates in the soft states of the system, while the HF PDS characteristic of innermost CC component is dominant in the low/hard and intermediate states. These PDS LF and HF components directly correspond to the energy spectrum components. Namely: LF WRN is related to thermal emission from an

  18. Modification of anisotropic plasma diffusion via auxiliary electrons emitted by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Malferrari, L; Odorici, F; Veronese, G P; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Castro, G; Miracoli, R; Serafino, T

    2012-02-01

    The diffusion mechanism in magnetized plasmas is a largely debated issue. A short circuit model was proposed by Simon, assuming fluxes of lost particles along the axial (electrons) and radial (ions) directions which can be compensated, to preserve the quasi-neutrality, by currents flowing throughout the conducting plasma chamber walls. We hereby propose a new method to modify Simon's currents via electrons injected by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun. We found this improves the source performances, increasing the output current for several charge states. The method is especially sensitive to the pumping frequency. Output currents for given charge states, at different auxiliary electron currents, will be reported in the paper and the influence of the frequency tuning on the compensation mechanism will be discussed. PMID:22380190

  19. Exact Solution of Fractional Diffusion Model with Source Term used in Study of Concentration of Fission Product in Uranium Dioxide Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Cao, Jian-Zhu; Sun, Li-Feng

    2011-05-01

    The exact solution of fractional diffusion model with a location-independent source term used in the study of the concentration of fission product in spherical uranium dioxide (UO2) particle is built. The adsorption effect of the fission product on the surface of the UO2 particle and the delayed decay effect are also considered. The solution is given in terms of Mittag—Leffler function with finite Hankel integral transformation and Laplace transformation. At last, the reduced forms of the solution under some special physical conditions, which is used in nuclear engineering, are obtained and corresponding remarks are given to provide significant exact results to the concentration analysis of nuclear fission products in nuclear reactor.

  20. Specific features of diffuse reflection of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light

    SciTech Connect

    Dolotov, L E; Sinichkin, Yu P; Tuchin, Valerii V; Al'tshuler, G B; Yaroslavskii, I V

    2011-04-30

    The specific features of diffuse reflection from different areas of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light have been investigated to localise the closed-eye (eyelid) region. In the visible spectral range the reflection from the eyelid skin surface can be differentiated by measuring the slope of the spectral dependence of the effective optical density of skin in the wavelength range from 650 to 700nm. In the near-IR spectral range the reflectances of the skin surface at certain wavelengths, normalised to the forehead skin reflectance, can be used as a criterion for differentiating the eyelid skin. In this case, a maximum discrimination is obtained when measuring the skin reflectances at laser wavelengths of 1310 and 1470nm, which correspond to the spectral ranges of maximum and minimum water absorption. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  1. Alternate methods of applying diffusants to silicon solar cells. [screen printing of thick-film paste materials and vapor phase transport from solid sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. W.; Field, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Low-melting phosphate and borate glasses were screen printed on silicon wafers and heated to form n and p junctions. Data on surface appearance, sheet resistance and junction depth are presented. Similar data are reported for vapor phase transport from sintered aluminum metaphosphate and boron-containing glass-ceramic solid sources. Simultaneous diffusion of an N(+) layer with screen-printed glass and a p(+) layer with screen-printed Al alloy paste was attempted. No p(+) back surface field formation was achieved. Some good cells were produced but the heating in an endless-belt furnace caused a large scatter in sheet resistance and junction depth for three separate lots of wafers.

  2. Stand-off detection of solid targets with diffuse reflection spectroscopy using a high-power mid-infrared supercontinuum source.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Malay; Islam, Mohammed N; Terry, Fred L; Freeman, Michael J; Chan, Allan; Neelakandan, Manickam; Manzur, Tariq

    2012-05-20

    We measure the diffuse reflection spectrum of solid samples such as explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN), fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea), and paints (automotive and military grade) at a stand-off distance of 5 m using a mid-infrared supercontinuum light source with 3.9 W average output power. The output spectrum extends from 750-4300 nm, and it is generated by nonlinear spectral broadening in a 9 m long fluoride fiber pumped by high peak power pulses from a dual-stage erbium-ytterbium fiber amplifier operating at 1543 nm. The samples are distinguished using unique spectral signatures that are attributed to the molecular vibrations of the constituents. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations demonstrate the feasibility of increasing the stand-off distance from 5 to ~150 m, with a corresponding drop in SNR from 28 to 10 dB. PMID:22614581

  3. Estimates of diffuse phosphorus sources in surface waters of the United States using a spatially referenced watershed model.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R B; Smith, R A; Schwarz, G E

    2004-01-01

    The statistical watershed model SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) was used to estimate the sources and transport of total phosphorus (TP) in surface waters of the United States. We calibrated the model using stream measurements of TP from 336 watersheds of mixed land use and spatial data on topography, soils, stream hydrography, and land use (agriculture, forest, shrub/grass, urban). The model explained 87% of the spatial variability in log transformed stream TP flux (kg yr(-1)). Predictions of stream yield (kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) were typically within 45% of the observed values at the monitoring sites. The model identified appreciable effects of soils, streams, and reservoirs on TP transport. The estimated aquatic rates of phosphorus removal declined with increasing stream size and rates of water flushing in reservoirs (i.e. areal hydraulic loads). A phosphorus budget for the 2.9 million km2 Mississippi River Basin provides a detailed accounting of TP delivery to streams, the removal of TP in surface waters, and the stream export of TP from major interior watersheds for sources associated with each land-use type. PMID:15053093

  4. Estimates of diffuse phosphorus sources in surface waters of the United States using a spatially referenced watershed model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical watershed model SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) was used to estimate the sources and transport of total phosphorus (TP) in surface waters of the United States. We calibrated the model using stream measurements of TP from 336 watersheds of mixed land use and spatial data on topography, soils, stream hydrography, and land use (agriculture, forest, shrub/grass, urban). The model explained 87% of the spatial variability in log transformed stream TP flux (kg yr-1). Predictions of stream yield (kg ha-1 yr-1) were typically within 45% of the observed values at the monitoring sites. The model identified appreciable effects of soils, streams, and reservoirs on TP transport, The estimated aquatic rates of phosphorus removal declined with increasing stream size and rates of water flushing in reservoirs (i.e. areal hydraulic loads). A phosphorus budget for the 2.9 million km2 Mississippi River Basin provides a detailed accounting of TP delivery to streams, the removal of TP in surface waters, and the stream export of TP from major interior watersheds for sources associated with each land-use type. ?? US Government 2004.

  5. Heat pipe transient response approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and concise routine that approximates the response of an alkali metal heat pipe to changes in evaporator heat transfer rate is described. This analytically based routine is compared with data from a cylindrical heat pipe with a crescent-annular wick that undergoes gradual (quasi-steady) transitions through the viscous and condenser boundary heat transfer limits. The sonic heat transfer limit can also be incorporated into this routine for heat pipes with more closely coupled condensers. The advantages and obvious limitations of this approach are discussed. For reference, a source code listing for the approximation appears at the end of this paper. .

  6. H{sub 2} MOLECULAR CLUSTERS WITH EMBEDDED MOLECULES AND ATOMS AS THE SOURCE OF THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, L. S.; Clark, F. O.; Lynch, D. K. E-mail: dave@thulescientific.com

    2013-05-01

    We suggest that the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) arise from absorption lines of electronic transitions in molecular clusters primarily composed of a single molecule, atom, or ion ({sup s}eed{sup )}, embedded in a single-layer shell of H{sub 2} molecules. Less abundant variants of the cluster, including two seed molecules and/or a two-layer shell of H{sub 2} molecules, may also occur. The lines are broadened, blended, and wavelength-shifted by interactions between the seed and surrounding H{sub 2} shell. We refer to these clusters as contaminated H{sub 2} clusters (CHCs). We show that CHC spectroscopy matches the diversity of observed DIB spectral profiles and provides good fits to several DIB profiles based on a rotational temperature of 10 K. CHCs arise from {approx}centimeter-sized, dirty H{sub 2} ice balls, called contaminated H{sub 2} ice macro-particles (CHIMPs), formed in cold, dense, giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and later released into the interstellar medium (ISM) upon GMC disruption. Attractive interactions, arising from Van der Waals and ion-induced dipole potentials, between the seeds and H{sub 2} molecules enable CHIMPs to attain centimeter-sized dimensions. When an ultraviolet (UV) photon is absorbed in the outer layer of a CHIMP, it heats the icy matrix and expels CHCs into the ISM. While CHCs are quickly destroyed by absorbing UV photons, they are replenished by the slowly eroding CHIMPs. Since CHCs require UV photons for their release, they are most abundant at, but not limited to, the edges of UV-opaque molecular clouds, consistent with the observed, preferred location of DIBs. An inherent property of CHCs, which can be characterized as nanometer size, spinning, dipolar dust grains, is that they emit in the radio-frequency region. We also show that the CHCs offer a natural explanation for the anomalous microwave emission feature in the {approx}10-100 GHz spectral region.

  7. Multigroup Complex Geometry Neutron Diffusion Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-12-18

    Version 01 SNAP-3D is based on SNAP2 and is a one- two- or three-dimensional multigroup diffusion code system. It is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations, but it can also carry out gamma-ray calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP-3D can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods in (x,y,z), (r,theta,z), (TRI,z), (HEX,z) or (spherical) coordinates.more » The one-dimensional slab and cylindrical geometries and the two-dimensional (x,y), (r,z), (r,theta), (HEX) and (TRI) are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. The problem classes are: 1) eigenvalue search for critical k-effective, 2) eigenvalue search for critical buckling, 3) eigenvalue search for critical time-constant, 4) fixed source problems in which the sources are functions of regions, 5) fixed source problems in which the sources are provided, on disc, for every mesh point and group.« less

  8. Retrieval of Green's function having coda from the cross-correlation function in a scattering medium illuminated by surrounding noise sources on the basis of the first order Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2009-10-01

    The peak lag time of the cross-correlation function (CCF) of random noise at two receivers give the wave propagation velocity. This idea has been widely used for the velocity tomography analysis. Recently, there were reports on the temporal change in the coda portion of CCF or autocorrelation function of ambient noise as a measure of the medium property. Here, we propose a simple concrete model for the retrieval of Green's function having a coda tail in a scattering medium without dissipation from the CCF of noise. The scattering medium is mathematically given by a distribution of velocity anomalies represented by delta functions. We suppose that waves are radiated from stationary noise sources, which are randomly distributed on a surrounding spherical shell with a large radius compared with the dimension of the scattering medium. Using the first order Born approximation, we show that the derivative of CCF with respect to lag time gives the antisymmetrized Green's function having a coda tail in the framework of the single scattering approximation.

  9. In vivo heterogeneous tomographic bioluminescence imaging via a higher-order approximation forward model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Tian, Jie, Sr.; Qin, Chenghu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Shouping; Han, Dong; Wu, Ping; Dai, Xiaoqian

    2011-03-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has played a more and more important role in biomedical research of small animals. Tomographic bioluminescence imaging (TBI) further translates the BLI optical information into three-dimensional bioluminescent source distribution, which could greatly facilitate applications in related studies. Although the diffusion approximation (DA) is one of the most widely-used forward models, higher-order approximations are still needed for in vivo small animal imaging. In this work, as a relatively accurate and higher-order approximation theory, a simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN) is applied for heterogeneous tomographic bioluminescence imaging in vivo. Furthermore, coupled with the SPN, a generalized graph cuts optimization approach is utilized, making BLT reconstructions fast and suit for the whole body of small animals. Heterogeneous in vivo experimental reconstructions via the higher-order approximation model demonstrate higher tomographic imaging quality, which is shown the capability for practical biomedical tomographic imaging applications.

  10. Diffuse CO2 Emanations from a Deep Magmatic Source-Multiphase Dynamics, Soil Impacts, and Lessons for Sequestration Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonestrom, D. A.; Werner, C. A.; Schulz, M. S.; Howle, J. F.; Farrar, C. D.; Smith, T. R.; Rogie, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring emissions of nearly pure CO2 at Mammoth Mountain, California, have been suggested as an analog of possible leakage from large-scale carbon capture and sequestration operations. Impacts of sustained elevated levels (>20%) of soil CO2 are greater than the observable forest dieback. Repeated soil-transect studies six and 22 years after onset of CO2 emissions demonstrate substantial degradation of base-cation status in the area of active emission. Detailed time series of soil-gas pressures, CO2 concentrations and fluxes, water contents, and snow-cover dynamics show large short-term (minutes-to-days) variability and switching between quasi-stable states, suggesting countercurrent gas and liquid movement within a shared fracture-pore network. Single fluid phase (Darcian-Fickian) approaches are inadequate to explain the gross features of the measured time series; engineering equations developed for two-fluid-phase flow reactors are more likely to apply. Micrometeorological data show that atmospheric forcing affects total CO2 fluxes. Data presented here show that interactions among the atmospheric boundary layer, water in all its forms (snowpack, percolating soil moisture, groundwater), and upward moving CO2 must be taken into account so that changes in surface CO2 concentrations and fluxes due to hydrologic perturbations can be differentiated from those due to changes in sources at depth.

  11. Galactic Diffuse Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

    2007-10-25

    Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

  12. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.

  13. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical

  14. Improving the identification of hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs for the delineation and mitigation of critical source areas of diffuse pollution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I A; Jordan, P; Mellander, P-E; Fenton, O; Shine, O; Ó hUallacháin, D; Creamer, R; McDonald, N T; Dunlop, P; Murphy, P N C

    2016-06-15

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants. A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that improves the identification of HSAs at the sub-field scale by accounting for microtopographic controls. The Index is based on high resolution LiDAR data and a soil topographic index (STI) and also considers the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks. The HSA Index was applied to four intensive agricultural catchments (~7.5-12km(2)) with contrasting topography and soil types, and validated using rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8298 to 59,584m(3) and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'breakthrough points' and 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways as vulnerable points where diffuse pollutants could be transported between fields or delivered to the open drainage network, respectively. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips reduced potential costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. The HSA Index can be used as a hydrologically realistic transport component within a fully evolved sub-field scale CSA model, and can also be used to guide the implementation of 'treatment-train' mitigation strategies concurrent with sustainable agricultural intensification. PMID:26974575

  15. Source term evaluation for postulated UF{sub 6} release accidents in gaseous diffusion plants -- Summer ventilation mode (non-seismic cases)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Wendel, M.W.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.; Carter, J.C.; Dyer, R.H.

    1996-12-30

    Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a postulated accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. For the current study, gaseous UF{sub 6} is assumed to get released in the cell housing atmosphere through B-line break at 58.97 kg/s for 10 min and 30 min duration at the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants. The released UF{sub 6} undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) while it disperses throughout the process building. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} as well as HF during a postulated UF{sub 6} release accident in a process building. UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. To characterize leakage flow through the cell housing wall, 3-D CFD tool (CFDS-FLOW3D) was used. About 57% of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} was predicted to be released into the environment. Since HF was treated as vapor, close to 100% was estimated to get released into the environment.

  16. Anaerobic degradation of DCM diffusing through clay

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, R.K.; Hrapovic, L.; Kosaric, N.; Cullimore, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    Two series of diffusion tests were performed to examine the degradation of dichloromethane (DCM) as it diffuses through clay. The first series showed the use of a synthetic leachate with no significant initial bacterial population diffusing through a plug of intact clay; there was an induction period of 95--135 d, during which diffusion was as expected in the absence of degradation, followed by a second stage, where degradation occurred with an apparent half-life of less than 55 d at a temperature of 24 C. The second series of tests examined the diffusion of an actual leachate from the Keele Valley Landfill (KVL) (which provided both nutrients and a source of bacteria), through a compacted clay. In these tests, the induction period was reduced to 40--60 d, after which the apparent half-life was 20 d or less at 27 C. The diffusion coefficient for DCM was approximately 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} m{sup 2}/s, with partitioning coefficient K{sub d} = 1.5 cm{sup 3}/g. Biological activity was confirmed by evaluating the change in the concentration of adenosine-5-triphosphate and the biological activity reaction test (BART). The degradation of DCM did not produce any detectable levels of chloromethane.

  17. Approximate analytic solutions to the NPDD: Short exposure approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Ciara E.; Sheridan, John T.

    2014-04-01

    There have been many attempts to accurately describe the photochemical processes that take places in photopolymer materials. As the models have become more accurate, solving them has become more numerically intensive and more 'opaque'. Recent models incorporate the major photochemical reactions taking place as well as the diffusion effects resulting from the photo-polymerisation process, and have accurately described these processes in a number of different materials. It is our aim to develop accessible mathematical expressions which provide physical insights and simple quantitative predictions of practical value to material designers and users. In this paper, starting with the Non-Local Photo-Polymerisation Driven Diffusion (NPDD) model coupled integro-differential equations, we first simplify these equations and validate the accuracy of the resulting approximate model. This new set of governing equations are then used to produce accurate analytic solutions (polynomials) describing the evolution of the monomer and polymer concentrations, and the grating refractive index modulation, in the case of short low intensity sinusoidal exposures. The physical significance of the results and their consequences for holographic data storage (HDS) are then discussed.

  18. Calculator Function Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelin, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    The general algorithm used in most hand calculators to approximate elementary functions is discussed. Comments on tabular function values and on computer function evaluation are given first; then the CORDIC (Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer) scheme is described. (MNS)

  19. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    Much of human reasoning is approximate in nature. Formal models of reasoning traditionally try to be precise and reject the fuzziness of concepts in natural use and replace them with non-fuzzy scientific explicata by a process of precisiation. As an alternate to this approach, it has been suggested that rather than regard human reasoning processes as themselves approximating to some more refined and exact logical process that can be carried out with mathematical precision, the essence and power of human reasoning is in its capability to grasp and use inexact concepts directly. This view is supported by the widespread fuzziness of simple everyday terms (e.g., near tall) and the complexity of ordinary tasks (e.g., cleaning a room). Spatial reasoning is an area where humans consistently reason approximately with demonstrably good results. Consider the case of crossing a traffic intersection. We have only an approximate idea of the locations and speeds of various obstacles (e.g., persons and vehicles), but we nevertheless manage to cross such traffic intersections without any harm. The details of our mental processes which enable us to carry out such intricate tasks in such apparently simple manner are not well understood. However, it is that we try to incorporate such approximate reasoning techniques in our computer systems. Approximate spatial reasoning is very important for intelligent mobile agents (e.g., robots), specially for those operating in uncertain or unknown or dynamic domains.

  20. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  1. Irradiance calibration with solar diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haring, Robert E. (Inventor); Roeder, Herbert A. (Inventor); Hartmann, Ulli G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The sun's energy is used in combination of movable and fixed diffuser plates, windows and apertures which are positioned in a series of test sequences (modes) for reflectance monitoring and calibration without the use of man-made sources. There are three embodiments, or implementations, of the invention--one embodiment uses two diffusers--a working diffuser and a secondary diffuser--the second embodiment uses three diffusers, a working diffuser, a secondary diffuser and a reference diffuser--and the third embodiment uses two diffusers--a working diffuser and a secondary diffuser, the latter also functioning as a cover for the working diffuser. The movable diffusers are mounted on rotatable cones and, in all embodiments, the sun is blocked from reaching the diffusers when not in use. Thus, the sun is used as a stable source for calibration and monitoring and the sun/diffuser combination is used in such a way that the response of all elements of the optical subsystem of the TOMS can be unambiguously and efficiently characterized with high accuracy and precision.

  2. Analysis of a five-year high resolution phosphorus dataset for signals of diffuse and point source pollution change in rural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Julie; Jordan, Phil

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of phosphorus (P) mitigation measures for both diffuse and point sources is difficult due to sample resolution and processes related to seasonality and hydrology. High-resolution monitoring by bankside analysers has increased in catchment studies, capturing the variation of P signals in flowing water from multiple sources and hydrological dependencies. However, while these high-resolution data can offer new insights into P patterns related to process, there is no theory on how these data should be used to investigate catchment change influences on stream P chemistry over time. Here we demonstrate the analysis of a five-year sub-hourly dataset of total P spanning a period of voluntary and mandatory mitigation measures to reduce soil P in high status fields and also replacement of defective septic systems. These two mitigation measures were deemed to have influences on both diffuse, storm dependent P transfers during high flows, and point, storm-independent P transfers during low flows. The data were gathered by Hach-Lange Phosphax systems linked to hydrometric stations in two 5km2 rural catchments (in the Irish border region) so that P concentration and discharge were measured synchronously. A series of ranked percentile high flow and low flow discharge ranges (e.g. Q5-Q10 and Q90-Q95, respectively) were determined for the five year period and, in each year, the P concentration data were extracted, which corresponded to these ranges. Each discharge percentile range was associated with several hundred mean hourly total P concentrations in each year and were compared using ANOVA to determine the magnitude and significance of change on a year-by-year basis. Over the five year period, the high flow analysis indicated that diffuse stream P concentrations had increased in both catchments (0.152 to 0.280 mg l-1, and 0.228 to 0.391 mg l-1), despite efforts to reduce soil P status. Subsequently, it was shown that the potency of high flow P transfers

  3. Diffusion on strained surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1997-03-01

    The change of diffusion kinetics when elastic fields are present is discussed for diffusion on (001) surfaces of simple cubic, fcc and bcc lattices. All particles interact pairwise with a Lennard-Jones potential. The simple cubic lattice was stabilized by an anisotropic prefactor. It is found that generically compressive strain enhances diffusion whereas tensile strain increases the activation barrier. An approximately linear dependence of the barrier in a wide range of misfits is found. In heteroepitaxy, diffusion on top of large clusters is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. The kinetics close to edges and centers of islands are remarkably different. In many cases changes of binding energies are small compared to those of saddle point energies. Thermodynamic arguments (minimization of free energy) are not appropriate to describe diffusion on strained surfaces in these cases.

  4. Covariant approximation averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  5. Fast approximate motif statistics.

    PubMed

    Nicodème, P

    2001-01-01

    We present in this article a fast approximate method for computing the statistics of a number of non-self-overlapping matches of motifs in a random text in the nonuniform Bernoulli model. This method is well suited for protein motifs where the probability of self-overlap of motifs is small. For 96% of the PROSITE motifs, the expectations of occurrences of the motifs in a 7-million-amino-acids random database are computed by the approximate method with less than 1% error when compared with the exact method. Processing of the whole PROSITE takes about 30 seconds with the approximate method. We apply this new method to a comparison of the C. elegans and S. cerevisiae proteomes. PMID:11535175

  6. The Guiding Center Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Sunn

    The guiding center approximation for charged particles in strong magnetic fields is introduced here. This approximation is very useful in situations where the charged particles are very well magnetized, such that the gyration (Larmor) radius is small compared to relevant length scales of the confinement device, and the gyration is fast relative to relevant timescales in an experiment. The basics of motion in a straight, uniform, static magnetic field are reviewed, and are used as a starting point for analyzing more complicated situations where more forces are present, as well as inhomogeneities in the magnetic field -- magnetic curvature as well as gradients in the magnetic field strength. The first and second adiabatic invariant are introduced, and slowly time-varying fields are also covered. As an example of the use of the guiding center approximation, the confinement concept of the cylindrical magnetic mirror is analyzed.

  7. Monotone Boolean approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, B.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a theory of approximation of arbitrary Boolean functions by simpler, monotone functions. Monotone increasing functions can be expressed without the use of complements. Nonconstant monotone increasing functions are important in their own right since they model a special class of systems known as coherent systems. It is shown here that when Boolean expressions for noncoherent systems become too large to treat exactly, then monotone approximations are easily defined. The algorithms proposed here not only provide simpler formulas but also produce best possible upper and lower monotone bounds for any Boolean function. This theory has practical application for the analysis of noncoherent fault trees and event tree sequences.

  8. Thorium Diffusion in Monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-05-01

    Diffusion of thorium has been characterized in synthetic monazite under dry conditions. The synthetic monazites (either pure CePO4, NdPO4, or a mixed LREE phosphate containing Ce, Nd, and Sm) were grown via a Na2CO3-MoO3 flux method. The source of diffusant for the experiments were either synthesized ThSiO4 or CaTh(PO4)2 powders. Experiments were performed by placing source and monazite in Pt capsules and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 10 days to a few hours, at temperatures from 1400 to 1550C. The Th distributions in the monazite were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for diffusion in monazite: DSm = 7.2x103 exp(-814 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1 The diffusivity of Th was similar for monazites containing a single REE and the mixed LREE phosphates. Th diffusion was also similar for experiments run using the Th silicate and Ca-Th phosphate sources, suggesting that the substitutional mechanism for Th in monazite, i.e, Th+4 + Si+4 for REE+3 + P+5 with the ThSiO4 source, and Th+4 + Ca+2 for 2REE+3 with the CaTh(PO4)2 source, does not significantly affect Th diffusivities, and that Th is likely the rate-limiting species. Th diffusion in monazite is about 4 orders of magnitude slower than Pb diffusion (Cherniak et al., 2004). This contrasts with findings of Gardes et al. (2005) who determined that Pb, Th and REE diffusivities in monazite are similar. Th diffusion in zircon (Cherniak et al., 1997) is about an order of magnitude slower than in monazite, but with similar activation energy for diffusion. The smaller diffusivities in zircon may be a consequence of the larger disparity in size between Th and the Zr site in zircon as compared with Th and the REE site in monazite. Nonetheless, Th is essentially immobile in monazite with respect to exchange by volume diffusion under most geologic conditions; these findings may have implications for containment of high- level actinide

  9. Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast. PMID:24860804

  10. Approximating Integrals Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…

  11. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C. |; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E. |

    1997-12-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  12. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C.; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  13. Role of pressure diffusion in non-homogeneous shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.; Lele, S. K.; Durbin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A non-local model is presented for approximating the pressure diffusion in calculations of turbulent free shear and boundary layer flows. It is based on the solution of an elliptic relaxation equation which enables local diffusion sources to be distributed over lengths of the order of the integral scale. The pressure diffusion model was implemented in a boundary layer code within the framework of turbulence models based on both the kappa-epsilon-(bar)upsilon(exp 2) system of equations and the full Reynolds stress equations. Model computations were performed for mixing layers and boundary layer flows. In each case, the pressure diffusion model enabled the well-known free-stream edge singularity problem to be eliminated. There was little effect on near-wall properties. Computed results agreed very well with experimental and DNS data for the mean flow velocity, the turbulent kinetic energy, and the skin-friction coefficient.

  14. Optimizing the Zeldovich approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Pellman, Todd F.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1994-01-01

    We have recently learned that the Zeldovich approximation can be successfully used for a far wider range of gravitational instability scenarios than formerly proposed; we study here how to extend this range. In previous work (Coles, Melott and Shandarin 1993, hereafter CMS) we studied the accuracy of several analytic approximations to gravitational clustering in the mildly nonlinear regime. We found that what we called the 'truncated Zeldovich approximation' (TZA) was better than any other (except in one case the ordinary Zeldovich approximation) over a wide range from linear to mildly nonlinear (sigma approximately 3) regimes. TZA was specified by setting Fourier amplitudes equal to zero for all wavenumbers greater than k(sub nl), where k(sub nl) marks the transition to the nonlinear regime. Here, we study the cross correlation of generalized TZA with a group of n-body simulations for three shapes of window function: sharp k-truncation (as in CMS), a tophat in coordinate space, or a Gaussian. We also study the variation in the crosscorrelation as a function of initial truncation scale within each type. We find that k-truncation, which was so much better than other things tried in CMS, is the worst of these three window shapes. We find that a Gaussian window e(exp(-k(exp 2)/2k(exp 2, sub G))) applied to the initial Fourier amplitudes is the best choice. It produces a greatly improved crosscorrelation in those cases which most needed improvement, e.g. those with more small-scale power in the initial conditions. The optimum choice of kG for the Gaussian window is (a somewhat spectrum-dependent) 1 to 1.5 times k(sub nl). Although all three windows produce similar power spectra and density distribution functions after application of the Zeldovich approximation, the agreement of the phases of the Fourier components with the n-body simulation is better for the Gaussian window. We therefore ascribe the success of the best-choice Gaussian window to its superior treatment

  15. Fissible Deposit Characterization at the Former Oak Ridge K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant by {sup 252}CF-Source-Driven Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, T.F.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.; Wyatt, M.S.

    1998-05-01

    The Deposit Removal Project was undertaken with the support of the U. S. Department of Energy at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) formerly the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The project team performed the safe removal of the hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits from the K-29 Building of the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The deposits had developed as a result of air leakage into UF{sub 6} gas process pipes; UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} became hydrated by moisture from the air and deposited inside the pipes. The mass, its distribution, and the hydrogen content [that is, the ratio of H to U (H/U)], were the key parameters that controlled the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Earlier gamma-ray spectrometry measurements in K-29 had identified the largest deposits in the building. The first and third largest deposits in the building were measured in this program. The first deposit, found in the Unit 2, Cell 7, B-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Hockey Stick'') was about 1,300 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.34 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-}50% uncertainty) and according to the gamma-ray spectroscopy was uniformly distributed. The second deposit (the third-largest deposit in the building), found in the Unit 2, Cell 6, A-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Tee-Pipe''), had a uranium deposit estimated to be about 240 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.4 wt % {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-} 20% uncertainty). Before deposit removal activities began, the Deposit Removal Project team needed to survey the inside of the pipes intrusively to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Therefore, the spatial distribution of the deposits, the total uranium deposit mass, and the moderation level resulting from hydration of the deposits, all of which affect nuclear criticality safety were required. To perform the task safely and effectively, the Deposit Removal Project team requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) characterize the two

  16. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-01

    Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A

  17. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  18. Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-19

    DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.

  19. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  20. Tungsten diffusion in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.

  1. Beyond the Kirchhoff approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto

    1989-01-01

    The three most successful models for describing scattering from random rough surfaces are the Kirchhoff approximation (KA), the small-perturbation method (SPM), and the two-scale-roughness (or composite roughness) surface-scattering (TSR) models. In this paper it is shown how these three models can be derived rigorously from one perturbation expansion based on the extinction theorem for scalar waves scattering from perfectly rigid surface. It is also shown how corrections to the KA proportional to the surface curvature and higher-order derivatives may be obtained. Using these results, the scattering cross section is derived for various surface models.

  2. PyFR: An open source framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the flux reconstruction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherden, F. D.; Farrington, A. M.; Vincent, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    High-order numerical methods for unstructured grids combine the superior accuracy of high-order spectral or finite difference methods with the geometric flexibility of low-order finite volume or finite element schemes. The Flux Reconstruction (FR) approach unifies various high-order schemes for unstructured grids within a single framework. Additionally, the FR approach exhibits a significant degree of element locality, and is thus able to run efficiently on modern streaming architectures, such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The aforementioned properties of FR mean it offers a promising route to performing affordable, and hence industrially relevant, scale-resolving simulations of hitherto intractable unsteady flows within the vicinity of real-world engineering geometries. In this paper we present PyFR, an open-source Python based framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the FR approach. The framework is designed to solve a range of governing systems on mixed unstructured grids containing various element types. It is also designed to target a range of hardware platforms via use of an in-built domain specific language based on the Mako templating engine. The current release of PyFR is able to solve the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on grids of quadrilateral and triangular elements in two dimensions, and hexahedral elements in three dimensions, targeting clusters of CPUs, and NVIDIA GPUs. Results are presented for various benchmark flow problems, single-node performance is discussed, and scalability of the code is demonstrated on up to 104 NVIDIA M2090 GPUs. The software is freely available under a 3-Clause New Style BSD license (see www.pyfr.org). Catalogue identifier: AETY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: New style BSD license No. of lines in

  3. Fabrication and characterization of GaSb based thermophotovoltaic cells using Zn diffusion from a doped spin-on glass source

    SciTech Connect

    Dakshinamurthy, S.; Shetty, S.; Bhat, I.; Hitchcock, C.; Gutmann, R.; Charache, G.; Freeman, M.

    1998-06-01

    The GaInSb material system is attractive for application in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells since its band gap can be tuned to match the radiation of the emitter. At present, most of the TPV cells are fabricated using epitaxial layers and hence are expensive. To reduce the cost, Zn diffusion using elemental vapors in a semi-closed diffusion system is being pursued by several laboratories. In this paper, the authors present studies carried out on Zn diffusion into n-type (Te-doped) GaSb substrates in an open tube diffusion furnace. The dopant precursor was a 2,000 {angstrom} thick, zinc doped spin-on glass. The diffusion was carried out at temperatures ranging from 550 to 600 C, for times from 1 to 10 hours. The diffused layers were characterized by Hall measurements using step-and-repeat etching by anodic oxidation, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements and TPV device fabrication. For diffusion carried out at 600 C, the junction depth was 0.3 {micro}m, and the hole concentration near the surface was 5 {times} 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3}. The external quantum efficiency, measured without any anti-reflection coating, of the TPV cells fabricated using mesa-etching had a maximum value of 38%. Masked diffusion was also carried out by opening windows in a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coated, GaSb wafer. TPV cells fabricated on these structures had similar quantum efficiency, but lower dark current.

  4. Countably QC-Approximating Posets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuxin; Xu, Luoshan

    2014-01-01

    As a generalization of countably C-approximating posets, the concept of countably QC-approximating posets is introduced. With the countably QC-approximating property, some characterizations of generalized completely distributive lattices and generalized countably approximating posets are given. The main results are as follows: (1) a complete lattice is generalized completely distributive if and only if it is countably QC-approximating and weakly generalized countably approximating; (2) a poset L having countably directed joins is generalized countably approximating if and only if the lattice σc(L)op of all σ-Scott-closed subsets of L is weakly generalized countably approximating. PMID:25165730

  5. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV—even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Key Points Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presented The coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m value The electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic PMID:26167440

  6. Approximation by hinge functions

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.

    1997-05-01

    Breiman has defined {open_quotes}hinge functions{close_quotes} for use as basis functions in least squares approximations to data. A hinge function is the max (or min) function of two linear functions. In this paper, the author assumes the existence of smooth function f(x) and a set of samples of the form (x, f(x)) drawn from a probability distribution {rho}(x). The author hopes to find the best fitting hinge function h(x) in the least squares sense. There are two problems with this plan. First, Breiman has suggested an algorithm to perform this fit. The author shows that this algorithm is not robust and also shows how to create examples on which the algorithm diverges. Second, if the author tries to use the data to minimize the fit in the usual discrete least squares sense, the functional that must be minimized is continuous in the variables, but has a derivative which jumps at the data. This paper takes a different approach. This approach is an example of a method that the author has developed called {open_quotes}Monte Carlo Regression{close_quotes}. (A paper on the general theory is in preparation.) The author shall show that since the function f is continuous, the analytic form of the least squares equation is continuously differentiable. A local minimum is solved for by using Newton`s method, where the entries of the Hessian are estimated directly from the data by Monte Carlo. The algorithm has the desirable properties that it is quadratically convergent from any starting guess sufficiently close to a solution and that each iteration requires only a linear system solve.

  7. Light reflection visualization to determine solute diffusion into clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D.; Jawitz, James W.

    2014-06-01

    Light reflection visualization (LRV) experiments were performed to investigate solute diffusion in low-permeability porous media using a well-controlled two-dimensional flow chamber with a domain composed of two layers (one sand and one clay). Two different dye tracers (Brilliant Blue FCF and Ponceau 4R) and clay domains (kaolinite and montmorillonite) were used. The images obtained through the LRV technique were processed to monitor two-dimensional concentration distributions in the low-permeability zone by applying calibration curves that related light intensity to equilibrium concentrations for each dye tracer in the clay. One dimensional experimentally-measured LRV concentration profiles in the clay were found to be in very good agreement with those predicted from a one-dimensional analytical solution, with coefficient of efficiency values that exceeded 0.97. The retardation factors (R) for both dyes were relatively large, leading to slow diffusive penetration into the clays. At a relative concentration C/C0 = 0.1, Brilliant Blue FCF in kaolinite (R = 11) diffused approximately 10 mm after 21 days of source loading, and Ponceau 4R in montmorillonite (R = 7) diffused approximately 12 mm after 23 days of source loading. The LRV experimentally-measured two-dimensional concentration profiles in the clay were also well described by a simple analytical solution. The results from this study demonstrate that the LRV approach is an attractive non-invasive tool to investigate the concentration distribution of dye tracers in clays in laboratory experiments.

  8. Light reflection visualization to determine solute diffusion into clays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

    2014-06-01

    Light reflection visualization (LRV) experiments were performed to investigate solute diffusion in low-permeability porous media using a well-controlled two-dimensional flow chamber with a domain composed of two layers (one sand and one clay). Two different dye tracers (Brilliant Blue FCF and Ponceau 4R) and clay domains (kaolinite and montmorillonite) were used. The images obtained through the LRV technique were processed to monitor two-dimensional concentration distributions in the low-permeability zone by applying calibration curves that related light intensity to equilibrium concentrations for each dye tracer in the clay. One dimensional experimentally-measured LRV concentration profiles in the clay were found to be in very good agreement with those predicted from a one-dimensional analytical solution, with coefficient of efficiency values that exceeded 0.97. The retardation factors (R) for both dyes were relatively large, leading to slow diffusive penetration into the clays. At a relative concentration C/C0=0.1, Brilliant Blue FCF in kaolinite (R=11) diffused approximately 10 mm after 21 days of source loading, and Ponceau 4R in montmorillonite (R=7) diffused approximately 12 mm after 23 days of source loading. The LRV experimentally-measured two-dimensional concentration profiles in the clay were also well described by a simple analytical solution. The results from this study demonstrate that the LRV approach is an attractive non-invasive tool to investigate the concentration distribution of dye tracers in clays in laboratory experiments. PMID:24657742

  9. The Influence of Spatial Variations of Diffusion Length on Charge Collected by Diffusion from Ion Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Charge collected by diffusion from ion tracks in a semiconductor substrate may be influenced by the substrate diffusion length, which is related to recombination losses. A theoretical analysis shows that, excluding some extreme cases, charge collection is insensitive to spatial variations in the diffusion length funciton, so it is possible to define an effective diffusion length having the property that collected charge can be approximated by assuming a uniform diffusion length equal to this effective value.

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Use of Communications Sources: An Intercultural Investigation of Practices in the US and Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Anderson, Claire J.; Glassman, Myron

    1997-01-01

    effective innovation diffusion which, according to Fischer (1979), is essentially information exchange. And, third, studies of innovative project management have found that information availability was a critical factor in project success or failure (e.g., Link & Zmud, 1987; Tushman, 1978, 1979). We propose that a gap in the literature exists that centers on whether U.S. paradigms of commnunications behavior apply to other cultures. First, we will explore early findings in the U.S. that held that the choice of an information source was a function of the 'law of least effort' rather than quality (e.g., Allen, 1977; Cuinan, 1983; DeWhirst, 1971; Hardy, 1982; O'Reilly, 1982; Rosenberg, 1967). Second, we will explore the contingency approaches such as that of Tushman (1979) and the later work of Daft and Lengel (1984, 1987), Huber and Daft (1987) and Lengel and Daft (1988) who held that information choice was a function of the nature of the task at hand. A third issue to be addressed is the confounding problem of presumed differences between scientists and engineers in information gathering behavior (Allen, 1977). Finally, we will investigate whether cultural differences cast doubt on the applicability of findings from U.S. situations to other cultures.

  11. Ti Diffusion in Pyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D.; Liang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Diffusion of titanium has been characterized in natural enstatite and diopside under buffered conditions and in air. The sources of diffusant for the enstatite experiments were mixtures of Mg, Si and Ti oxide powders, which were combined and heated at 1300°C overnight, and then thoroughly mixed with synthesized enstatite powder and heated for an additional day at 1300°C. Sources for diopside experiments were prepared similarly, using Ca, Mg, Si, and Ti oxide powders combined with synthesized diopside powder, with heating of source materials at 1200°C. Buffered experiments were prepared by enclosing source material and pyroxene (polished and pre-annealed under conditions comparable to those to be experienced in the experiment) in AgPd or platinum capsules, placing the metal capsule in a silica glass capsule with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO or IW) and sealing the assembly under vacuum. Some experiments on enstatite were run in air; sample and source were placed in Pt capsules and crimped shut. Prepared capsules were then annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 8 hours to a few months, at temperatures from 950 to 1200°C. The Ti distributions in the pyroxene were profiled with Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for Ti diffusion in a natural enstatite, for diffusion normal to the (210) cleavage face (950 - 1150°C, experiments run in air): DTi = 1.9×10-10 exp(-300 ± 44 kJ mol-1/RT) m2 sec-1. Diffusion under NNO and IW-buffered conditions is similar to that for experiments run in air, suggesting little dependence of Ti diffusion on oxygen fugacity. There is also little evidence of anisotropy, as diffusion normal to (001) does not differ significantly from diffusion for the other orientation. Preliminary findings for Ti diffusion in diopside suggest diffusivities similar to those for enstatite. Ti diffusivities in enstatite are similar to those of the trivalent REEs (Cherniak and Liang, 2007

  12. Vaneless diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  13. Relativistic diffusive motion in random electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2011-08-01

    We show that the relativistic dynamics in a Gaussian random electromagnetic field can be approximated by the relativistic diffusion of Schay and Dudley. Lorentz invariant dynamics in the proper time leads to the diffusion in the proper time. The dynamics in the laboratory time gives the diffusive transport equation corresponding to the Jüttner equilibrium at the inverse temperature β-1 = mc2. The diffusion constant is expressed by the field strength correlation function (Kubo's formula).

  14. Identification of a time-varying point source in a system of two coupled linear diffusion-advection- reaction equations: application to surface water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Adel

    2009-11-01

    This paper deals with the identification of a point source (localization of its position and recovering the history of its time-varying intensity function) that constitutes the right-hand side of the first equation in a system of two coupled 1D linear transport equations. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove the identifiability of the sought point source from recording the state relative to the second coupled transport equation at two observation points framing the source region. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that uses these records to identify the source position as the root of a continuous and strictly monotonic function. Whereas the source intensity function is recovered using a recursive formula without any need of an iterative process. Some numerical experiments on a variant of the surface water pollution BOD-OD coupled model are presented.

  15. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Price, Hannah C; Mattsson, Johan; Murray, Benjamin J

    2016-07-28

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes-Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  16. Radon diffusion modelling.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P; Dimbylow, P J

    1985-10-01

    A mathematical model has been developed that examines the ingress of radon into houses, through a vertical crack in an otherwise impervious concrete floor. Initially, the model considered the diffusive flow of radon from its soil source and this simulation has highlighted the dependency of the flux of radon into the house on the magnitude of various parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of radon in soil. A preliminary investigation of the modelling of pressure-driven flow into a building is presented, and the potential of this type of analysis is discussed. PMID:4081719

  17. Cation Diffusion in Xenotime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2004-05-01

    Xenotime is an important mineral in metamorphic paragenesis, and useful in isotopic dating, garnet-xenotime thermometry, and monazite-xenotime thermometry, so diffusion data for xenotime of cations of geochronological and geochemical importance are of some interest. We report here on diffusion of the rare earth elements Sm, Dy and Yb in synthetic xenotime under dry conditions. The synthetic xenotime was grown via a Na2}CO{3}-MoO_{3 flux method. The source of diffusant for the experiments were REE phosphate powders, with experiments run with sources containing a single REE. Experiments were performed by placing source and xenotime in Pt capsules, and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from thirty minutes to a month, at temperatures from 1000 to 1400C. The REE distributions in the xenotime were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relations are obtained for diffusion in xenotime, normal to (101): DSm = 1.7x10-4 exp(-442 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1 DDy = 3.5x10-7 exp(-365 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1 DYb = 7.4x10-7 exp(-371 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1. Diffusivities of these REE do not differ greatly in xenotime, in contrast to the findings noted for the REE in zircon (Cherniak et al., 1997), where the LREE diffuse more slowly, and with higher activation energies for diffusion, than the heavier rare earths. In zircon, these differences among diffusion of the rare earths are attributed to the relatively large size of the REE with respect to Zr, for which they substitute in the zircon lattice. With the systematic increase in ionic radius from the heavy to lighter REE, this size mismatch becomes more pronounced and diffusivities of the LREE are as consequence slower. Although xenotime is isostructural with zircon, the REE are more closely matched in size to Y, so in xenotime this effect appears much smaller and the REE diffuse at similar rates. In addition, the process of diffusion in xenotime likely involves simple REE+3

  18. A high-order and unconditionally stable scheme for the modified anomalous fractional sub-diffusion equation with a nonlinear source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohebbi, Akbar; Abbaszadeh, Mostafa; Dehghan, Mehdi

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the high order difference scheme for the solution of modified anomalous fractional sub-diffusion equation. The time fractional derivative is described in the Riemann-Liouville sense. In the proposed scheme we discretize the space derivative with a fourth-order compact scheme and use the Grünwald-Letnikov discretization of the Riemann-Liouville derivative to obtain a fully discrete implicit scheme. We analyze the solvability, stability and convergence of the proposed scheme using the Fourier method. The convergence order of method is O(τ+h4). Numerical examples demonstrate the theoretical results and high accuracy of the proposed scheme.

  19. Effects of source conditions, vertical diffusivity and spatial resolution of wind data on simulation results based on the tephra-tracking model PUFF: a case study from the Kirishima 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyosugi, K.; Koyaguchi, T.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how pyroclasts disperse from volcanic plumes is a fundamental problem of volcanology to reconstruct eruption conditions from tephra fallout deposits. Tephra dispersion is not only a scientifically interesting but also socially and economically important problem (e.g., the air traffic disruption caused by the 2010 Eyjafjallaokull volcano eruption). PUFF is a tephra-tracking model developed by the University of Alaska for the use of aviation service alert. In this model, position vector of each particle at a time step is calculated with Lagrangian formulation using local wind velocity and terminal gravitational fallout vector at one time step before; diffusivity due to turbulent behavior is simulated by a random walk formulation. We applied this model to the sub-Plinian phase of the Kirishima 2011 eruption to test the effects of simulation parameters on the features of tephra dispersion and fallout deposits in the field. We systematically investigated the effects of two parameters of PUFF model to tephra dispersion: vertical diffusivity and spatial resolution of wind data. Our results show that, as the value of vertical diffusivity increases, the distribution of settled particles on the ground surface becomes a more elongated shape in the wind direction. This effect is more remarkable for finer particles. These results indicate that the simulation results of the diffusion advection models in general depend on the assumed vertical diffusivity and the spatial resolution of wind data as well as on the source condition (e.g., the release levels of particles and grain size distribution). During the 2011 Kirishima eruption, a sub-Plinian eruption plume of 8 km high was observed by weather radars. The plume extended southeastward around the vent (~60 km), and traveled in the higher altitudes eastward (about 900 km from the vent). The simulation results of PUFF reconstructed these qualitative features observed in the satellite images and the deposits near the

  20. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  1. Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64x64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system

    SciTech Connect

    Li Changqing; Zhao Hongzhi; Anderson, Bonnie; Jiang Huabei

    2006-03-15

    We describe a compact diffuse optical tomography system specifically designed for breast imaging. The system consists of 64 silicon photodiode detectors, 64 excitation points, and 10 diode lasers in the near-infrared region, allowing multispectral, three-dimensional optical imaging of breast tissue. We also detail the system performance and optimization through a calibration procedure. The system is evaluated using tissue-like phantom experiments and an in vivo clinic experiment. Quantitative two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are obtained from these experiments. The ten-wavelength spectra of the extracted reduced scattering coefficient enable quantitative morphological images to be reconstructed with this system. From the in vivo clinic experiment, functional images including deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and water concentration are recovered and tumors are detected with correct size and position compared with the mammography.

  2. The Chandra M10l Megasecond: Diffuse Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Because MIOl is nearly face-on, it provides an excellent laboratory in which to study the distribution of X-ray emitting gas in a typical late-type spiral galaxy. We obtained a Chandra observation with a cumulative exposure of roughly 1 Ms to study the diffuse X-ray emission in MlOl. The bulk of the X-ray emission is correlated with the star formation traced by the FUV emission. The global FUV/Xray correlation is non-linear (the X-ray surface brightness is roughly proportional to the square root of the FUV surface brightness) and the small-scale correlation is poor, probably due to the delay between the FUV emission and the X-ray production ill star-forming regions. The X-ray emission contains only minor contributions from unresolved stars (approximates less than 3%), unresolved X-ray point sources (approximates less than 4%), and individual supernova remnants (approximates 3%). The global spectrum of the diffuse emission can be reasonably well fitted with a three component thermal model, but the fitted temperatures are not unique; many distributions of emission measure can produce the same temperatures when observed with the current CCD energy resolution. The spectrum of the diffuse emission depends on the environment; regions with higher X-ray surface brightnesses have relatively stronger hard components, but there is no significant evidence that the temperatures of the emitting components increase with surface brightness.

  3. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P

  4. Diffusion of highly charged cations in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Liang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Diffusion of tungsten, titanium and phosphorus have been measured in natural iron-bearing olivine (~Fo90) and synthetic forsterite. Experiments were run under buffered conditions (with iron-wustite or Ni-NiO buffers) in 1-atm furnaces. The sources of diffusant for experiments were MgWO4 for tungsten diffusion, Mg2TiO4 for Ti diffusion, and AlPO4 for P diffusion; in all cases these compounds were pre-reacted at high temperature with Mg2SiO4 or Fe-bearing olivine prior to diffusion anneals. Samples were placed with the source materials in noble metal or silica capsules, which were sealed under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to measure depth profiles for all sets of experiments; measurements of P were also made with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the 31P(α,p)34S reaction. These new data suggest marked differences among diffusivities of these cations, with titanium diffusion faster than diffusion of tungsten, but slower than diffusion of phosphorus over the conditions investigated. Diffusivities of all of these elements appear significantly slower than those of divalent cations in olivine. These results will be discussed in context with extant diffusion data for major, trace and minor elements in olivine. The effects of oxygen fugacity and olivine composition on diffusion, and potential implications for diffusion mechanisms will also be considered.

  5. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  6. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  7. Approximation methods in gravitational-radiation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    The observation of gravitational-radiation damping in the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 and the ongoing experimental search for gravitational waves of extraterrestrial origin have made the theory of gravitational radiation an active branch of classical general relativity. In calculations of gravitational radiation, approximation methods play a crucial role. Recent developments are summarized in two areas in which approximations are important: (a) the quadrupole approxiamtion, which determines the energy flux and the radiation reaction forces in weak-field, slow-motion, source-within-the-near-zone systems such as the binary pulsar; and (b) the normal modes of oscillation of black holes, where the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation gives accurate estimates of the complex frequencies of the modes.

  8. Airborne detection of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    1999-01-01

    We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at ~2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at ~3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels ~1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of ~250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at approximately 2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at approximately 3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels approximately 1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of approximately 250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.

  9. TURBULENT DIFFUSION FROM A POINT SOURCE IN STRATIFIED AND NEUTRAL FLOWS AROUND A THREE-DIMENSIONAL HILL. 2. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF SURFACE CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Towing-tank and wind-tunnel measurements of the concentration distributions on the surface of a hill when a plume impinges from an upwind source are presented. The stability is varied between very stable and neutral. The results are compared with the theories developed in Part I....

  10. Thermal diffusivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gfroerer, Tim; Phillips, Ryan; Rossi, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The tip of a rod is heated with a torch and brought into contact with the center of a metal sheet. A thermal camera is then used to image the temperature profile of the surface as a function of time. The infrared camera is capable of recording radiometric data with 1 mK resolution in nearly 105 pixels, so thermal diffusion can be monitored with unprecedented precision. With a frame rate of approximately 10 Hz, the pace of the data acquisition minimizes the loss of accuracy due to inevitable cooling mechanisms. We report diffusivity constants equal to 1.23 ± 0.06 cm2/s in copper and 0.70 ± 0.05 cm2/s in aluminum. The behavior is modeled with a straightforward but oddly under-utilized one-dimensional finite difference method.

  11. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed.

  12. Ti Diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    Diffusion of Ti under anhydrous conditions at 1 atmosphere and under fluid-present conditions at 1.1-1.2 GPa has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was a ZrO2- TiO2-ZrSiO4 mixture, with experiments run in Pt capsules. Diffusion experiments conducted in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source of ground TiO2, ZrSiO4 and SiO2, with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 vapor and partially melt the solid source material, yielding an assemblage of rutile + zircon + melt + vapor. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the nuclear reaction ^{48}Ti(p,Γ)^{49}V was used to measure diffusion profiles for both sets of experiments. The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for Ti diffusion normal to c over the temperature range 1350-1550C at one atmosphere: DTi = 3.3x102 exp(-754 ± 56 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1 Ti diffusivities were found to be similar for experiments run under fluid-present conditions. A fit to all of the data yields the Arrhenius relation D = 1.3x103 exp(-741 ± 46 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1. These data suggest that zircon should be extremely retentive of Ti chemical signatures, indicating that the recently developed Ti-in-zircon crystallization geothermometer (Watson and Harrison, 2005; Watson et al., 2006) will be quite robust in preserving temperatures of zircon crystallization. Titanium diffuses somewhat faster in zircon than larger tetravalent cations U, Th, and Hf, but considerably more slowly than Pb, the REE, and oxygen; hence Ti crystallization temperatures may be retained under circumstances when radiometric ages or other types of geochemical information are lost. Watson EB, Harrison TM (2005) Science 308, 841-844. Watson EB, Wark DA, Thomas JB (2006) CMP(in press).

  13. Diffusion model for lightning radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.; Phanord, Dieudonne D.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    A one-speed Boltzmann transport theory, with diffusion approximations, is applied to study the radiative transfer properties of lightning in optically thick thunderclouds. Near-infrared (lambda = 0.7774 micrometers) photons associated with a prominent oxygen emission triplet in the lightning spectrum are considered. Transient and spatially complex lightning radiation sources are placed inside a rectangular parallelepiped thundercloud geometry and the effects of multiple scattering are studied. The cloud is assumed to be composed of a homogeneous collection of identical spherical water droplets, each droplet a nearly conservative, anisotropic scatterer. Conceptually, we treat the thundercloud like a nuclear reactor, with photons replaced by neutrons, and utilize standard one-speed neutron diffusion techniques common in nuclear reactor analyses. Valid analytic results for the intensity distribution (expanded in spherical harmonics) are obtained for regions sufficiently far from sources. Model estimates of the arrival-time delay and pulse width broadening of lightning signals radiated from within the cloud are determined and the results are in good agreement with both experimental data and previous Monte Carlo estimates. Additional model studies of this kind will be used to study the general information content of cloud top lightning radiation signatures.

  14. Cavity approximation for graphical models.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, T; Wemmenhove, B; Kappen, H J

    2007-07-01

    We reformulate the cavity approximation (CA), a class of algorithms recently introduced for improving the Bethe approximation estimates of marginals in graphical models. In our formulation, which allows for the treatment of multivalued variables, a further generalization to factor graphs with arbitrary order of interaction factors is explicitly carried out, and a message passing algorithm that implements the first order correction to the Bethe approximation is described. Furthermore, we investigate an implementation of the CA for pairwise interactions. In all cases considered we could confirm that CA[k] with increasing k provides a sequence of approximations of markedly increasing precision. Furthermore, in some cases we could also confirm the general expectation that the approximation of order k , whose computational complexity is O(N(k+1)) has an error that scales as 1/N(k+1) with the size of the system. We discuss the relation between this approach and some recent developments in the field. PMID:17677405

  15. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  16. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  17. Structural optimization with approximate sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, S. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Coroneos, R.

    1994-01-01

    Computational efficiency in structural optimization can be enhanced if the intensive computations associated with the calculation of the sensitivities, that is, gradients of the behavior constraints, are reduced. Approximation to gradients of the behavior constraints that can be generated with small amount of numerical calculations is proposed. Structural optimization with these approximate sensitivities produced correct optimum solution. Approximate gradients performed well for different nonlinear programming methods, such as the sequence of unconstrained minimization technique, method of feasible directions, sequence of quadratic programming, and sequence of linear programming. Structural optimization with approximate gradients can reduce by one third the CPU time that would otherwise be required to solve the problem with explicit closed-form gradients. The proposed gradient approximation shows potential to reduce intensive computation that has been associated with traditional structural optimization.

  18. Diffusion with chemical reaction: An attempt to explain number density anomalies in experiments involving alkali vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The mutual diffusion of two reacting gases is examined which takes place in a bath of inert gas atoms. Solutions are obtained between concentric spheres, each sphere acting as a source for one of the reactants. The calculational model is used to illustrate severe number density gradients observed in absorption experiments with alkali vapor. Severe gradients result when sq root k/D R is approximately 5 where k, D, and R are respectively the second order rate constant, the multicomponent diffusion constant, and the geometrical dimension of the experiment.

  19. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  20. Approximate Genealogies Under Genetic Hitchhiking

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffelhuber, P.; Haubold, B.; Wakolbinger, A.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid fixation of an advantageous allele leads to a reduction in linked neutral variation around the target of selection. The genealogy at a neutral locus in such a selective sweep can be simulated by first generating a random path of the advantageous allele's frequency and then a structured coalescent in this background. Usually the frequency path is approximated by a logistic growth curve. We discuss an alternative method that approximates the genealogy by a random binary splitting tree, a so-called Yule tree that does not require first constructing a frequency path. Compared to the coalescent in a logistic background, this method gives a slightly better approximation for identity by descent during the selective phase and a much better approximation for the number of lineages that stem from the founder of the selective sweep. In applications such as the approximation of the distribution of Tajima's D, the two approximation methods perform equally well. For relevant parameter ranges, the Yule approximation is faster. PMID:17182733

  1. Nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, L.

    1994-12-31

    Nonpoint source pollution remains the most pervasive water quality issue faced today. Unlike pollution from point sources, nonpoint source pollution is diffuse both in terms of its origin and the manner in which it enters ground and surface waters. It results from a great variety of human activities that take place over a wide geographic area perhaps many hundreds or even thousands of acres. And unlike pollutants from point sources--which enter the environment at well-defined locations and in relatively even, continuous discharges--pollutants from nonpoint sources usually find their way into surface and ground waters in sudden surges associated with rainfall, thunderstorms, or snowmelt. The author discusses some of the most significant sources of nonpoint source pollution.

  2. Toxic metal dispersion in mining areas: from point source to diffusion pollution. The case of the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district (Southern Tuscany - Italy): new results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colica, Antonella; Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario; Rinaldi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Rivers draining mining areas may contribute to the diffusion of contaminants through their dispersion and accumulation into different morphological river units. The Paglia River's catchment (southern Tuscany) hosts the SE portion of the Mt. Amiata mercury district, the third most important worldwide (exploited from 1880 to 1980 with a total production of 100,000 tonnes Hg) before becoming a tributary of the Tiber River, which directly flows into Mediterranean Sea. The goals of this study are: 1) to recognize and distinguish different morphological units along the Paglia River watercourse, 2) to determine spatial/temporal distribution and concentration of Hg (and other toxic elements, particularly As) in different units. The analysis of morphological units was made by mapping their evolution from the beginning of mining activity (1883) to present day along 43 km of the Paglia watercourse defining eleven morphological sections across this river, and one across one of its tributaries, the Siele Creek, which drains various Hg mines located upstream. Four fundamental morphological/sedimentary unit types have been distinguished: stream sediments, bar, floodplain, and terraces. The latter occur in various orders and age: Pleistocenic, pre-mining (i.e., dating before 1880), and coeval to the mining activity. A total of 100 samples were taken from the various units in the selected transects, georeferenced and then analyzed for their Hg and As contents by ICP-OES. Arsenic contents generally never exceed 10 mg/kg. The observed ranges are: stream sediments 4.1÷8.2 mg/kg; bars 4.1÷6.6 mg/kg; floodplains 3.8÷6.6 mg/kg; terrace coeval with mining activity 3.2÷10.1 mg/kg. Hg contents in present-day stream sediments and bars are extremely variable (0.2÷27.5 and 1.4÷22.4 mg/kg respectively), and show a sharp increase at the confluence with Siele Creek. Floodplain sediments may reach up to 98 mg/kg. Terraces coeval with mining activity also show variable Hg contents (0.1÷66

  3. Photon emission from melanoma cells during brief stimulation by patterned magnetic fields: is the source coupled to rotational diffusion within the membrane?

    PubMed

    Dotta, Blake T; Lafrenie, Robert M; Karbowski, Lukasz M; Persinger, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    If parameters for lateral diffusion of lipids within membranes are macroscopic metaphors of the angular magnetic moment of the Bohr magneton then the energy emission should be within the visible wavelength for applied ~1 µT magnetic fields. Single or paired digital photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) were placed near dishes of ~1 million B16 mouse melanoma cells that had been removed from incubation. In very dark conditions (10(-11) W/m(2)) different averaged (RMS) intensities between 5 nT and 3.5 µT were applied randomly in 4 min increments. Numbers of photons were recorded directly over or beside the cell dishes by PMTs placed in pairs within various planes. Spectral analyses were completed for photon power density. The peak photon emissions occurred around 1 µT as predicted by the equation. Spectra analyses showed reliable discrete peaks between 0.9 and 1.8 µT but not for lesser or greater intensities; these peak frequencies corresponded to the energy difference of the orbital-spin magnetic moment of the electron within the applied range of magnetic field intensities and the standard solution for Rydberg atoms. Numbers of photons from cooling cells can be modified by applying specific intensities of temporally patterned magnetic fields. There may be a type of "cellular" magnetic moment that, when stimulated by intensity-tuned magnetic fields, results in photon emissions whose peak frequencies reflect predicted energies for fundamental orbital/spin properties of the electron and atomic aggregates with large principal quantum numbers. PMID:23970034

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

    1992-01-01

    A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

  5. Brownian simulations and unidirectional flux in diffusion.

    PubMed

    Singer, A; Schuss, Z

    2005-02-01

    The prediction of ionic currents in protein channels of biological membranes is one of the central problems of computational molecular biophysics. Existing continuum descriptions of ionic permeation fail to capture the rich phenomenology of the permeation process, so it is therefore necessary to resort to particle simulations. Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations require the connection of a small discrete simulation volume to large baths that are maintained at fixed concentrations and voltages. The continuum baths are connected to the simulation through interfaces, located in the baths sufficiently far from the channel. Average boundary concentrations have to be maintained at their values in the baths by injecting and removing particles at the interfaces. The particles injected into the simulation volume represent a unidirectional diffusion flux, while the outgoing particles represent the unidirectional flux in the opposite direction. The classical diffusion equation defines net diffusion flux, but not unidirectional fluxes. The stochastic formulation of classical diffusion in terms of the Wiener process leads to a Wiener path integral, which can split the net flux into unidirectional fluxes. These unidirectional fluxes are infinite, though the net flux is finite and agrees with classical theory. We find that the infinite unidirectional flux is an artifact caused by replacing the Langevin dynamics with its Smoluchowski approximation, which is classical diffusion. The Smoluchowski approximation fails on time scales shorter than the relaxation time 1/gamma of the Langevin equation. We find that the probability of Brownian trajectories that cross an interface in one direction in unit time Deltat equals that of the probability of the corresponding Langevin trajectories if gammaDeltat=2 . That is, we find the unidirectional flux (source strength) needed to maintain average boundary concentrations in a manner consistent with the physics of Brownian particles. This

  6. Relativistic diffusive motion in thermal electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss relativistic dynamics in a random electromagnetic field which can be considered as a high temperature limit of the quantum electromagnetic field in a heat bath (cavity) moving with a uniform velocity w. We derive a diffusion approximation for the particle’s dynamics generalizing the diffusion of Schay and Dudley. It is shown that the Jüttner distribution is the equilibrium state of the diffusion.

  7. Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…

  8. Thermal properties of composite materials: a complex systems approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J. L.; Bonilla, Beatriz; Reyes, J. J.; Dossetti, Victor

    We propose an effective media approximation to describe the thermal diffusivity of composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy, the thermal diffusivity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal diffusivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a significant difference in the thermal properties of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed. We correlate some measures of the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal analysis. In this way, we are able to describe, and at some extent predict, the behavior of the thermal diffusivity in terms of the lacunarity and other measures of the complexity of these samples Partial Financial Support by CONACyT México and VIEP-BUAP.

  9. The diffuse source at the center of LMC SNR 0509–67.5 is a background galaxy at z = 0.031

    SciTech Connect

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Walker, Emma S.; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2014-06-20

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are well-known for their use in the measurement of cosmological distances, but our continuing lack of concrete knowledge about their progenitor stars is both a matter of debate and a source of systematic error. In our attempts to answer this question, we presented unambiguous evidence that LMC SNR 0509–67.5, the remnant of an SN Ia that exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud 400 ± 50 yr ago, did not have any point sources (stars) near the site of the original supernova explosion, from which we concluded that this particular supernova must have had a progenitor system consisting of two white dwarfs. There is, however, evidence of nebulosity near the center of the remnant, which could have been left over detritus from the less massive WD, or could have been a background galaxy unrelated to the supernova explosion. We obtained long-slit spectra of the central nebulous region using GMOS on Gemini South to determine which of these two possibilities is correct. The spectra show Hα emission at a redshift of z = 0.031, which implies that the nebulosity in the center of LMC SNR 0509–67.5 is a background galaxy, unrelated to the supernova.

  10. Imaging diffusive media using time-independent and time-harmonic sources: dependence of image quality on imaging algorithms, target volume, weight matrix, and view angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jenghwa; Aronson, Raphael; Graber, Harry L.; Barbour, Randall L.

    1995-05-01

    We present results examining the dependence of image quality for imaging in dense scattering media as influenced by the choice of parameters pertaining to the physical measurement and factors influencing the efficiency of the computation. The former includes the density of the weight matrix as affected by the target volume, view angle, and source condition. The latter includes the density of the weight matrix and type of algorithm used. These were examined by solving a one-step linear perturbation equation derived from the transport equation using three different algorithms: POCS, CGD, and SART algorithms with contraints. THe above were explored by evaluating four different 3D cylindrical phantom media: a homogeneous medium, an media containing a single black rod on the axis, a single black rod parallel to the axis, and thirteen black rods arrayed in the shape of an 'X'. Solutions to the forward problem were computed using Monte Carlo methods for an impulse source, from which was calculated time- independent and time harmonic detector responses. The influence of target volume on image quality and computational efficiency was studied by computing solution to three types of reconstructions: 1) 3D reconstruction, which considered each voxel individually, 2) 2D reconstruction, which assumed that symmetry along the cylinder axis was know a proiri, 3) 2D limited reconstruction, which assumed that only those voxels in the plane of the detectors contribute information to the detecot readings. The effect of view angle was explored by comparing computed images obtained from a single source, whose position was varied, as well as for the type of tomographic measurement scheme used (i.e., radial scan versus transaxial scan). The former condition was also examined for the dependence of the above on choice of source condition [ i.e., cw (2D reconstructions) versus time-harmonic (2D limited reconstructions) source]. The efficiency of the computational effort was explored

  11. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  12. Exponential approximations in optimal design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belegundu, A. D.; Rajan, S. D.; Rajgopal, J.

    1990-01-01

    One-point and two-point exponential functions have been developed and proved to be very effective approximations of structural response. The exponential has been compared to the linear, reciprocal and quadratic fit methods. Four test problems in structural analysis have been selected. The use of such approximations is attractive in structural optimization to reduce the numbers of exact analyses which involve computationally expensive finite element analysis.

  13. Diffuse Gamma Rays Galactic and Extragalactic Diffuse Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Reimer, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Diffuse gamma rays consist of several components: truly diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, the extragalactic background, whose origin is not firmly established yet, and the contribution from unresolved and faint Galactic point sources. One approach to unravel these components is to study the diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, which traces the interactions of high energy particles with interstellar gas and radiation fields. Because of its origin such emission is potentially able to reveal much about the sources and propagation of cosmic rays. The extragalactic background, if reliably determined, can be used in cosmological and blazar studies. Studying the derived average spectrum of faint Galactic sources may be able to give a clue to the nature of the emitting objects.

  14. Approximating random quantum optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, B.; Laumann, C. R.; Läuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2013-06-01

    We report a cluster of results regarding the difficulty of finding approximate ground states to typical instances of the quantum satisfiability problem k-body quantum satisfiability (k-QSAT) on large random graphs. As an approximation strategy, we optimize the solution space over “classical” product states, which in turn introduces a novel autonomous classical optimization problem, PSAT, over a space of continuous degrees of freedom rather than discrete bits. Our central results are (i) the derivation of a set of bounds and approximations in various limits of the problem, several of which we believe may be amenable to a rigorous treatment; (ii) a demonstration that an approximation based on a greedy algorithm borrowed from the study of frustrated magnetism performs well over a wide range in parameter space, and its performance reflects the structure of the solution space of random k-QSAT. Simulated annealing exhibits metastability in similar “hard” regions of parameter space; and (iii) a generalization of belief propagation algorithms introduced for classical problems to the case of continuous spins. This yields both approximate solutions, as well as insights into the free energy “landscape” of the approximation problem, including a so-called dynamical transition near the satisfiability threshold. Taken together, these results allow us to elucidate the phase diagram of random k-QSAT in a two-dimensional energy-density-clause-density space.

  15. Tunable Reflective Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer: A Technique for High Resolving Power, Wide Field Of View Observation Of Diffuse Emission Line Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Sona

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discuss the need for new technology in broadband high-resolution spectroscopy based on the emerging technique of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) and to propose new solutions that should enhance and generalize this technology to other fields. Spectroscopy is a proven tool for determining compositional and other properties of remote objects. Narrow band imaging and low resolving spectroscopic measurements provide information about composition, photochemical evolution, energy distribution and density. The extension to high resolving power provides further access to temperature, velocity, isotopic ratios, separation of blended sources, and opacity effects. In current high resolving power devices, the drawback of high-resolution spectroscopy is bound to the instrumental limitations of lower throughput, the necessity of small entrance apertures, sensitivity, field of view, and large physical instrumental size. These limitations quickly become handicapping for observation of faint and/or extended targets and for spacecraft encounters. A technique with promise for the study of faint and extended sources at high resolving power is the reflective format of the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS). SHS instruments are compact and naturally tailored for both high etendue (defined in section 2.2.5) and high resolving power. In contrast, to achieve similar spectral grasp, grating spectrometers require large telescopes. For reference, SHS is a cyclical interferometer that produces Fizeau fringe pattern for all other wavelengths except the tuned wavelength. The large etendue obtained by SHS instruments makes them ideal for observations of extended, low surface brightness, isolated emission line sources, while their intrinsically high spectral resolution enables one to study the dynamical and physical properties described above. This document contains four chapters. Chapter 1, introduces a class of scientific targets that formerly have

  16. New Monte Carlo model of cylindrical diffusing fibers illustrates axially heterogeneous fluorescence detection: simulation and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Timothy M.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo model of cylindrical diffusing fibers that is implemented with a graphics processing unit. Unlike previously published models that approximate the diffuser as a linear array of point sources, this model is based on the construction of these fibers. This allows for accurate determination of fluence distributions and modeling of fluorescence generation and collection. We demonstrate that our model generates fluence profiles similar to a linear array of point sources, but reveals axially heterogeneous fluorescence detection. With axially homogeneous excitation fluence, approximately 90% of detected fluorescence is collected by the proximal third of the diffuser for μs'/μa = 8 in the tissue and 70 to 88% is collected in this region for μs'/μa = 80. Increased fluorescence detection by the distal end of the diffuser relative to the center section is also demonstrated. Validation of these results was performed by creating phantoms consisting of layered fluorescent regions. Diffusers were inserted into these layered phantoms and fluorescence spectra were collected. Fits to these spectra show quantitative agreement between simulated fluorescence collection sensitivities and experimental results. These results will be applicable to the use of diffusers as detectors for dosimetry in interstitial photodynamic therapy. PMID:21895311

  17. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  18. Dynamics and evolution of the plumbing system source of three major pumiceous eruptions in Dominica (Lesser Antilles): crystal system analysis and diffusion modeling on orthopyroxenes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solaro, Clara; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Boudon, Georges; Martel, Caroline; Morgan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    significant magmatic environment. Occurrence of ME4 (En59-63) in the Roseau and Rosalie eruptions further suggests a progression toward a less-evolved composition. To assess timescales of these remobilization events, intra-crystalline diffusion has been modeled along the a- and b-axes of 22 zoned orthopyroxenes per eruption at the magmatic temperature of 850°C. Independently of the orthopyroxene zoning patterns, timescales for Layou and Roseau are of the same order of magnitude, showing that the crystal mobilization event occurred tens of years before each eruption. We propose that orthopyroxene crystals of ME2 (~80%, En52-53) represent the main crystallized mush body. About ten years before the Layou and Roseau eruptions, the intrusion in the system of a less evolved magma re-heats the system, extracting eruptible melt plus crystals from the mush and producing the zoning patterns in pyroxenes (En54-56 and En58-63 rims).

  19. Wavelet Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Tang, W.-P.; Wan, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using sparse approximate inverses as preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. Recent studies of Grote and Huckle and Chow and Saad also show that sparse approximate inverse preconditioner can be effective for a variety of matrices, e.g. Harwell-Boeing collections. Nonetheless a drawback is that it requires rapid decay of the inverse entries so that sparse approximate inverse is possible. However, for the class of matrices that, come from elliptic PDE problems, this assumption may not necessarily hold. Our main idea is to look for a basis, other than the standard one, such that a sparse representation of the inverse is feasible. A crucial observation is that the kind of matrices we are interested in typically have a piecewise smooth inverse. We exploit this fact, by applying wavelet techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse in the wavelet basis. We shall justify theoretically and numerically that our approach is effective for matrices with smooth inverse. We emphasize that in this paper we have only presented the idea of wavelet approximate inverses and demonstrated its potential but have not yet developed a highly refined and efficient algorithm.

  20. Approximate entropy of network parameters.

    PubMed

    West, James; Lacasa, Lucas; Severini, Simone; Teschendorff, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    We study the notion of approximate entropy within the framework of network theory. Approximate entropy is an uncertainty measure originally proposed in the context of dynamical systems and time series. We first define a purely structural entropy obtained by computing the approximate entropy of the so-called slide sequence. This is a surrogate of the degree sequence and it is suggested by the frequency partition of a graph. We examine this quantity for standard scale-free and Erdös-Rényi networks. By using classical results of Pincus, we show that our entropy measure often converges with network size to a certain binary Shannon entropy. As a second step, with specific attention to networks generated by dynamical processes, we investigate approximate entropy of horizontal visibility graphs. Visibility graphs allow us to naturally associate with a network the notion of temporal correlations, therefore providing the measure a dynamical garment. We show that approximate entropy distinguishes visibility graphs generated by processes with different complexity. The result probes to a greater extent these networks for the study of dynamical systems. Applications to certain biological data arising in cancer genomics are finally considered in the light of both approaches. PMID:22680542

  1. Approximate entropy of network parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, James; Lacasa, Lucas; Severini, Simone; Teschendorff, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    We study the notion of approximate entropy within the framework of network theory. Approximate entropy is an uncertainty measure originally proposed in the context of dynamical systems and time series. We first define a purely structural entropy obtained by computing the approximate entropy of the so-called slide sequence. This is a surrogate of the degree sequence and it is suggested by the frequency partition of a graph. We examine this quantity for standard scale-free and Erdös-Rényi networks. By using classical results of Pincus, we show that our entropy measure often converges with network size to a certain binary Shannon entropy. As a second step, with specific attention to networks generated by dynamical processes, we investigate approximate entropy of horizontal visibility graphs. Visibility graphs allow us to naturally associate with a network the notion of temporal correlations, therefore providing the measure a dynamical garment. We show that approximate entropy distinguishes visibility graphs generated by processes with different complexity. The result probes to a greater extent these networks for the study of dynamical systems. Applications to certain biological data arising in cancer genomics are finally considered in the light of both approaches.

  2. Relativistic regular approximations revisited: An infinite-order relativistic approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Dyall, K.G.; van Lenthe, E.

    1999-07-01

    The concept of the regular approximation is presented as the neglect of the energy dependence of the exact Foldy{endash}Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Expansion of the normalization terms leads immediately to the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and first-order regular approximation (FORA) Hamiltonians as the zeroth- and first-order terms of the expansion. The expansion may be taken to infinite order by using an un-normalized Foldy{endash}Wouthuysen transformation, which results in the ZORA Hamiltonian and a nonunit metric. This infinite-order regular approximation, IORA, has eigenvalues which differ from the Dirac eigenvalues by order E{sup 3}/c{sup 4} for a hydrogen-like system, which is a considerable improvement over the ZORA eigenvalues, and similar to the nonvariational FORA energies. A further perturbation analysis yields a third-order correction to the IORA energies, TIORA. Results are presented for several systems including the neutral U atom. The IORA eigenvalues for all but the 1s spinor of the neutral system are superior even to the scaled ZORA energies, which are exact for the hydrogenic system. The third-order correction reduces the IORA error for the inner orbitals to a very small fraction of the Dirac eigenvalue. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Impact of inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Smith, Kord; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis is investigated, and it is verified that the inflow transport approximation significantly improves the accuracy of the transport and transport/diffusion solutions. A methodology for an inflow transport approximation is implemented in order to generate an accurate transport cross section. The inflow transport approximation is compared to the conventional methods, which are the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations. The three transport approximations are implemented in the lattice physics code STREAM, and verification is performed for various verification problems in order to investigate their effects and accuracy. From the verification, it is noted that the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations cause significant error in calculating the eigenvalue and the power distribution. The inflow transport approximation shows very accurate and precise results for the verification problems. The inflow transport approximation shows significant improvements not only for the high leakage problem but also for practical large core problem analyses.

  4. Gadgets, approximation, and linear programming

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, L.; Sudan, M.; Sorkin, G.B.; Williamson, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    We present a linear-programming based method for finding {open_quotes}gadgets{close_quotes}, i.e., combinatorial structures reducing constraints of one optimization problems to constraints of another. A key step in this method is a simple observation which limits the search space to a finite one. Using this new method we present a number of new, computer-constructed gadgets for several different reductions. This method also answers a question posed by on how to prove the optimality of gadgets-we show how LP duality gives such proofs. The new gadgets improve hardness results for MAX CUT and MAX DICUT, showing that approximating these problems to within factors of 60/61 and 44/45 respectively is N P-hard. We also use the gadgets to obtain an improved approximation algorithm for MAX 3SAT which guarantees an approximation ratio of .801. This improves upon the previous best bound of .7704.

  5. Using hybrid implicit Monte Carlo diffusion to simulate gray radiation hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Mathew A.; Gentile, Nick

    2015-06-01

    This work describes how to couple a hybrid Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (HIMCD) method with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code to evaluate the coupled radiation hydrodynamics equations. This HIMCD method dynamically applies Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) [1] to regions of a problem that are opaque and diffusive while applying standard Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] to regions where the diffusion approximation is invalid. We show that this method significantly improves the computational efficiency as compared to a standard IMC/Hydrodynamics solver, when optically thick diffusive material is present, while maintaining accuracy. Two test cases are used to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of HIMCD as compared to IMC and IMD. The first is the Lowrie semi-analytic diffusive shock [3]. The second is a simple test case where the source radiation streams through optically thin material and heats a thick diffusive region of material causing it to rapidly expand. We found that HIMCD proves to be accurate, robust, and computationally efficient for these test problems.

  6. Using hybrid implicit Monte Carlo diffusion to simulate gray radiation hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, Mathew A. Gentile, Nick

    2015-06-15

    This work describes how to couple a hybrid Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (HIMCD) method with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code to evaluate the coupled radiation hydrodynamics equations. This HIMCD method dynamically applies Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) [1] to regions of a problem that are opaque and diffusive while applying standard Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] to regions where the diffusion approximation is invalid. We show that this method significantly improves the computational efficiency as compared to a standard IMC/Hydrodynamics solver, when optically thick diffusive material is present, while maintaining accuracy. Two test cases are used to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of HIMCD as compared to IMC and IMD. The first is the Lowrie semi-analytic diffusive shock [3]. The second is a simple test case where the source radiation streams through optically thin material and heats a thick diffusive region of material causing it to rapidly expand. We found that HIMCD proves to be accurate, robust, and computationally efficient for these test problems.

  7. Controllable uncertain opinion diffusion under confidence bound and unpredicted diffusion probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fuhan; Li, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Yichuan

    2016-05-01

    The issues of modeling and analyzing diffusion in social networks have been extensively studied in the last few decades. Recently, many studies focus on uncertain diffusion process. The uncertainty of diffusion process means that the diffusion probability is unpredicted because of some complex factors. For instance, the variety of individuals' opinions is an important factor that can cause uncertainty of diffusion probability. In detail, the difference between opinions can influence the diffusion probability, and then the evolution of opinions will cause the uncertainty of diffusion probability. It is known that controlling the diffusion process is important in the context of viral marketing and political propaganda. However, previous methods are hardly feasible to control the uncertain diffusion process of individual opinion. In this paper, we present suitable strategy to control this diffusion process based on the approximate estimation of the uncertain factors. We formulate a model in which the diffusion probability is influenced by the distance between opinions, and briefly discuss the properties of the diffusion model. Then, we present an optimization problem at the background of voting to show how to control this uncertain diffusion process. In detail, it is assumed that each individual can choose one of the two candidates or abstention based on his/her opinion. Then, we present strategy to set suitable initiators and their opinions so that the advantage of one candidate will be maximized at the end of diffusion. The results show that traditional influence maximization algorithms are not applicable to this problem, and our algorithm can achieve expected performance.

  8. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  9. Partially coherent contrast-transfer-function approximation.

    PubMed

    Nesterets, Yakov I; Gureyev, Timur E

    2016-04-01

    The contrast-transfer-function (CTF) approximation, widely used in various phase-contrast imaging techniques, is revisited. CTF validity conditions are extended to a wide class of strongly absorbing and refracting objects, as well as to nonuniform partially coherent incident illumination. Partially coherent free-space propagators, describing amplitude and phase in-line contrast, are introduced and their properties are investigated. The present results are relevant to the design of imaging experiments with partially coherent sources, as well as to the analysis and interpretation of the corresponding images. PMID:27140752

  10. In vivo experimental validation for a featured-data time-domain diffuse fluorescence tomography based on the radiative transfer equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Limin; Jin, Meng; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng; Li, Jiao

    2015-03-01

    In diffuse florescence tomography (DFT), the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and its P1 approximation, i.e. the diffuse equation (DE), have been used as the forward models. Since the assumptions of the diffusion approximation are not valid in particular regions of biological tissue which are close to the collimated light sources and boundaries, not scattering dominated or having void-like sub-domains, the RTE-based DFT methodology has become a focus of investigation. Therefore, we present a RTE-based featured-data scheme for time-domain DFT, which combines the discrete solidangle- element method and the finite element method to obtain numerical solutions of the Laplace-transformed 2D timedomain RTE, with the natural boundary condition and collimating light source model. The scheme is validated using the measurement data from phantom and in-vivo small-animal experiments compared to the DE-based scheme.

  11. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.

  12. RADIATION SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Brucer, M.H.

    1958-04-15

    A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

  13. PROX: Approximated Summarization of Data Provenance

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Eleanor; Bourhis, Pierre; Davidson, Susan B.; Deutch, Daniel; Milo, Tova

    2016-01-01

    Many modern applications involve collecting large amounts of data from multiple sources, and then aggregating and manipulating it in intricate ways. The complexity of such applications, combined with the size of the collected data, makes it difficult to understand the application logic and how information was derived. Data provenance has been proven helpful in this respect in different contexts; however, maintaining and presenting the full and exact provenance may be infeasible, due to its size and complex structure. For that reason, we introduce the notion of approximated summarized provenance, where we seek a compact representation of the provenance at the possible cost of information loss. Based on this notion, we have developed PROX, a system for the management, presentation and use of data provenance for complex applications. We propose to demonstrate PROX in the context of a movies rating crowd-sourcing system, letting participants view provenance summarization and use it to gain insights on the application and its underlying data. PMID:27570843

  14. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic micropolar fluid flow and heat transfer over a vertical porous plate through a porous medium in the presence of thermal and mass diffusion with a constant heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, F. S.; Hassanien, I. A.; Bakr, A. A.

    2004-10-01

    In this work, the effects of a temperature-dependent heat source on the hydromagnetic free-convective flow (set up due to temperature as well as species concentration) of an electrically conducting micropolar fluid past a steady vertical porous plate through a highly porous medium has been analyzed when the free stream oscillates in magnitude. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to the porous surface, which absorbs the micropolar fluid with constant suction velocity. The method of solution can be applied for a small perturbation approximation. The numerical results of velocity and temperature distributions of micropolar fluids are compared with the corresponding flow problems for a Newtonian fluid. The effects of the material parameters on velocity, angular momentum, concentration, and temperature fields across the boundary layer are investigated. In addition, the skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are shown in tabular form.

  15. Testing the frozen flow approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the frozen-flow approximation (FFA), recently proposed by Matarrese, et al. (1992), for following the nonlinear evolution of cosmological density fluctuations under gravitational instability. We compare a number of statistics between results of the FFA and n-body simulations, including those used by Melott, Pellman & Shandarin (1993) to test the Zel'dovich approximation. The FFA performs reasonably well in a statistical sense, e.g. in reproducing the counts-in-cell distribution, at small scales, but it does poorly in the crosscorrelation with n-body which means it is generally not moving mass to the right place, especially in models with high small-scale power.

  16. Approximate supernova remnant dynamics with cosmic ray production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voelk, H. J.; Dorfi, E. A.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Supernova explosions are the most violent and energetic events in the galaxy and have long been considered probably sources of Cosmic Rays. Recent shock acceleration models treating the Cosmic Rays (CR's) as test particles nb a prescribed Supernova Remnant (SNR) evolution, indeed indicate an approximate power law momentum distribution f sub source (p) approximation p(-a) for the particles ultimately injected into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). This spectrum extends almost to the momentum p = 1 million GeV/c, where the break in the observed spectrum occurs. The calculated power law index approximately less than 4.2 agrees with that inferred for the galactic CR sources. The absolute CR intensity can however not be well determined in such a test particle approximation.

  17. Delinating Thermohaline Double-Diffusive Rayleigh Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, T.; Walther, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liedl, R.

    2013-12-01

    In natural systems, convective flow induced from density differences may occur in near-coastal aquifers, atmospheric boundary layers, oceanic streams or within the earth crust. Whether an initially stable, diffusive regime evolves into a convective (stable or chaotic) regime, or vice versa, depends on the system's framing boundary conditions. A conventional parameter to express the relation between diffusive and convective forces of such a density-driven regime is Rayleigh number (Ra). While most systems are mainly dominated by only a single significant driving force (i.e. only temperature or salinity), some systems need to consider two boundary processes (e.g. deep, thus warm, haline flow in porous media). In that case, a two-dimensional, 'double-diffusive' Rayleigh system can be defined. Nield (1998) postulated a boundary between diffusive and convective regime at RaT + RaC = 4pi^2 in the first quadrant (Q1), with Rayleigh numbers for temperature and concentration respectively. The boundary in the forth quadrant (Q4) could not exactly be determined, yet the approximate position estimated. Simulations with HydroGeoSphere (Therrien, 2010) using a vertical, quadratic, homogeneous, isotropic setup confirmed the existence of the 4pi^2-boundary and revealed additional regimes (diffusive, single-roll, double-roll, chaotic) in Q1. Also, non-chaotic, oscillating patterns could be identified in Q4. More detailed investigations with OpenGeoSys (Kolditz, 2012) confirmed the preceding HGS results, and, using a 1:10-scaled domain (height:length), uncovered even more distinctive regimes (diffusive, minimum ten roles, supposely up to 25 roles, and chaotic?) in Q1, while again, oscillating patterns were found in the transition zone between diffusive and chaotic regimes in Q4. Output of numerical simulations from Q1 and Q4 show the mentioned regimes (diffusive, stable-convective, stable-oscillatory, chaotic) while results are displayed in context of a possible delination between

  18. Approximate Near-Field Blast Theory: A Generalized Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, G.J.

    1999-10-25

    A method for analyzing strong shock waves in arbitrary one-dimensional geometry is presented. An approximation to classical Taylor-Sedov theory is extended to the near-field case where source mass is not negligible, accounting for differences in the chemical properties of the source mass and ambient medium. Results from example calculations are compared with previously published analytical formulae.

  19. Can we approximate non-Newtonian rheology to model mantle convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüttig, Christian; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris

    2014-05-01

    convective planform and stress distribution differ substantially. In addition, for thermal evolution scenarios with decreasing internal heat sources, the reduction of activation parameter is not well constrained. We conclude that approximating dislocation creep with diffusion creep and a reduced activation enthalpy may strongly affect local temperature and stress distribution and thus influences partial melting and plastic yielding. REFERENCES [1] J. van Hunen et al., EPSL, 2005; [2] S. Karato and P. Wu, Science, 1993; [3] U. Christensen, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 1984; [4] J. Huang et al., EPSL, 2013; [5] Zhang et al. JGR 2013; [6] N. Tosi et al., EPSL, 2010; [7] C. Hüttig et al., PEPI, 2013.

  20. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  1. Computer Experiments for Function Approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A; Izmailov, I; Rizzo, S; Wynter, S; Alexandrov, O; Tong, C

    2007-10-15

    This research project falls in the domain of response surface methodology, which seeks cost-effective ways to accurately fit an approximate function to experimental data. Modeling and computer simulation are essential tools in modern science and engineering. A computer simulation can be viewed as a function that receives input from a given parameter space and produces an output. Running the simulation repeatedly amounts to an equivalent number of function evaluations, and for complex models, such function evaluations can be very time-consuming. It is then of paramount importance to intelligently choose a relatively small set of sample points in the parameter space at which to evaluate the given function, and then use this information to construct a surrogate function that is close to the original function and takes little time to evaluate. This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of comparing four sampling methods and two function approximation methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy for simple test functions. The sampling methods used were Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random LP{sub {tau}}, Maximin Latin Hypercubes, and Orthogonal-Array-Based Latin Hypercubes. The function approximation methods utilized were Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The second part of the study concerned adaptive sampling methods with a focus on creating useful sets of sample points specifically for monotonic functions, functions with a single minimum and functions with a bounded first derivative.

  2. Approximate reasoning using terminological models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Vaidya, Nitin

    1992-01-01

    Term Subsumption Systems (TSS) form a knowledge-representation scheme in AI that can express the defining characteristics of concepts through a formal language that has a well-defined semantics and incorporates a reasoning mechanism that can deduce whether one concept subsumes another. However, TSS's have very limited ability to deal with the issue of uncertainty in knowledge bases. The objective of this research is to address issues in combining approximate reasoning with term subsumption systems. To do this, we have extended an existing AI architecture (CLASP) that is built on the top of a term subsumption system (LOOM). First, the assertional component of LOOM has been extended for asserting and representing uncertain propositions. Second, we have extended the pattern matcher of CLASP for plausible rule-based inferences. Third, an approximate reasoning model has been added to facilitate various kinds of approximate reasoning. And finally, the issue of inconsistency in truth values due to inheritance is addressed using justification of those values. This architecture enhances the reasoning capabilities of expert systems by providing support for reasoning under uncertainty using knowledge captured in TSS. Also, as definitional knowledge is explicit and separate from heuristic knowledge for plausible inferences, the maintainability of expert systems could be improved.

  3. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  4. Diffuse flow from hydrothermal vents. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Trivett, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    The effluent from a collection of diffuse hydrothermal vents was modelled to determine the fate of the source of flow under typical environmental conditions at seafloor spreading centers. A laboratory simulation was conducted to test an analytic model of diffuse plume rise. The results showed that diffuse plumes are likely to remain near the seafloor, with their maximum rise height scaled with the diameter of the source of diffuse flow. The entrainment of ambient seawater into these plumes is limited by the proximity to the seafloor, thus slowing the rate of dilution. The model of diffuse plume behaviour was used to guide the design and implementation of a scheme for monitoring the flow from diffuse hydrothermal vents in the ocean. A deployment of an array at the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge yielded measurements of a variety of diffuse plume properties, including total heat output. Two distinct sources of hydrothermal flow were detected during the field deployment. The larger source was 1-1.5km north of the instrument array, and its energy output was 450 + or - 270MW. A smaller source was located 100m east of one instrument in the array. The energy output of the source was 12 + or - 8MW. The rise heights of the centerlines of these plumes were 45m and 10m, respectively.

  5. Using the thermal Gaussian approximation approximation for theBoltzmann Operator in Semiclassical Initial Value Time CorrelationFunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.

    2006-09-06

    The thermal Gaussian approximation (TGA) recently developed by Mandelshtam et al has been demonstrated to be a practical way for approximating the Boltzmann operator exp(-{beta}H) for multidimensional systems. In this paper the TGA is combined with semiclassical (SC) initial value representations (IVRs) for thermal time correlation functions. Specifically, it is used with the linearized SC-IVR (LSC-IVR, equivalent to the classical Wigner model), and the 'forward-backward semiclassical dynamics' (FBSD) approximation developed by Makri et al. Use of the TGA with both of these approximate SC-IVRs allows the oscillatory part of the IVR to be integrated out explicitly, providing an extremely simple result that is readily applicable to large molecular systems. Calculation of the force-force autocorrelation for a strongly anharmonic oscillator demonstrates its accuracy, and of the velocity autocorrelation function (and thus the diffusion coefficient) of liquid neon demonstrates its applicability.

  6. Role of diffusion in irreversible deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Luthi, P.O.; Ramsden, J.J.; Chopard, B.

    1997-03-01

    The adsorption of spheres onto solid surfaces is investigated using a cellular automaton model of diffusion deposition. Unlike previous models, the diffusive transport of the particles from the bulk to the surface as well as their interaction with adsorbed particles are explicitly considered at a microscopic level. We study the initial time regime, which determines the subsequent evolution and during which the particle flux at the surface is not constant. We observe that diffusion-driven adsorption differs significantly from random sequential adsorption (RSA) when particles diffuse in a two-dimensional bulk and are adsorbed on a one-dimensional substrate. We also find that the microscopic details of the diffusive motion influence both the kinetics of deposition and the jamming limit of the coverage. The RSA model appears to be a good approximation, especially for two-dimensional deposition, but cannot generally represent diffusion deposition. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  8. Various phase-field approximations for Epitaxial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rätz, Andreas; Voigt, Axel

    2004-05-01

    We present diffuse interface approximations for a step flow model in epitaxial growth. In this model, the motion of step edges of discrete atomic layers is determined by the time evolution of an introduced phase-field variable. In order to incorporate the attachment-detachment kinetics at step edges into the phase-field model a degenerate mobility-function is established. The model is used to simulate the evolution of a step train.

  9. Numerical Test of Different Approximations Used in the Transport Theory of Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, G.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently developed theories for perpendicular diffusion work remarkably well. The diffusion coefficients they provide agree with test-particle simulations performed for different turbulence setups ranging from slab and slab-like models to two-dimensional and noisy reduced MHD turbulence. However, such theories are still based on different analytical approximations. In the current paper we use a test-particle code to explore the different approximations used in diffusion theory. We benchmark different guiding center approximations, simplifications of higher-order correlations, and the Taylor–Green–Kubo formula. We demonstrate that guiding center approximations work very well as long as the particle's unperturbed Larmor radius is smaller than the perpendicular correlation length of the turbulence. Furthermore, the Taylor–Green–Kubo formula and the definition of perpendicular diffusion coefficients via mean square displacements provide the same results. The only approximation that was used in the past in nonlinear diffusion theory that fails is to replace fourth-order correlations by a product of two second-order correlation functions. In more advanced nonlinear theories, however, this type of approximation is no longer used. Therefore, we confirm the validity of modern diffusion theories as a result of the work presented in the current paper.

  10. Approximate methods to calculate radionuclide discharges for performance assessment of HLW repositories in fractured rock

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, K.L.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Siegel, M.D.; Beyeler, W.

    1986-12-31

    Three approximate methods appear useful for calculating radionuclide discharges in fractured, porous rock: (1) a semi-infinite-medium approximation where radionuclide diffusion rates into the matrix are calculated assuming a semi-infinite matrix; (2) a linear-driving-force approximation where radionuclide diffusion rates into the matrix are assumed to be proportional to the difference between bulk concentrations in the fracture fluid and in the matrix pore water; and (3) an equivalent-porous-medium approximation where radionuclide diffusion rates into the matrix are calculated assuming that the time rate of change of the bulk radionuclide concentration in the matrix is proportional to the time rate of change of the radionuclide concentration in the fracture fluid. A preliminary evaluation of these approximations was made by considering transport of a single radionuclide in saturated, porous rock containing uniform, parallel fractures.

  11. Nitrate concentrations and fluxes in the River Thames, London UK 1868 to 2008: catchment-scale modelling of diffuse agricultural sources and groundwater response using the world's longest water quality time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howden, N. J.; Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Mathias, S.; Whelan, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents analyses of the world's longest water quality record: 140 years of monthly-average nitrate concentrations (1868 to 2008) and fluxes (1883 to 2008) for the River Thames north of London. We show how short- and long- term patterns in these time series are influenced by both climatic and anthropogenic pressures, in the case of the latter, particularly land use and land management practices. Climate change does not play a significant role in controlling annual average concentrations or fluxes, rather large-scale land conversions from permanent grassland to arable farming have created sustained diffuse sources of nitrate that have caused (almost four-fold) increases in concentrations and fluxes that persist for many decades after the initial changes. Our analyses of this unique time series highlight four areas of particular interest: (1) Despite several layers of regulation and source control, fluvial concentrations and fluxes remain in- tractably high - no decrease has been observed since the early 1970s; (2) Catchment response to changing nitrogen inputs from land use and land management is subject to considerable lag: present conditions in the river reflect land practices from some years ago; (3) Following (2), we suggest that current changes to land use and land management practices will not be reflected in river water quality for some time to come; (4) Overall, the long-term view afforded by this record questions the derivation of "baseline conditions" that are formulated from records that do not reflect the massive changes in land use and land management in the mid-20th century. Overall, a better understanding of the links, and time delays, between cause (i.e. changing land use / land management) and fluvial response (i.e. concentration increase/decrease) will improve our ability both to predict changes in the coming decades, and inform management decision making now, to ensure the appropriate balance between agricultural development and

  12. APPROXIMATING SYMMETRIC POSITIVE SEMIDEFINITE TENSORS OF EVEN ORDER*

    PubMed Central

    BARMPOUTIS, ANGELOS; JEFFREY, HO; VEMURI, BABA C.

    2012-01-01

    Tensors of various orders can be used for modeling physical quantities such as strain and diffusion as well as curvature and other quantities of geometric origin. Depending on the physical properties of the modeled quantity, the estimated tensors are often required to satisfy the positivity constraint, which can be satisfied only with tensors of even order. Although the space P02m of 2mth-order symmetric positive semi-definite tensors is known to be a convex cone, enforcing positivity constraint directly on P02m is usually not straightforward computationally because there is no known analytic description of P02m for m > 1. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for enforcing the positivity constraint on even-order tensors by approximating the cone P02m for the cases 0 < m < 3, and presenting an explicit characterization of the approximation Σ2m ⊂ Ω2m for m ≥ 1, using the subset Ω2m⊂P02m of semi-definite tensors that can be written as a sum of squares of tensors of order m. Furthermore, we show that this approximation leads to a non-negative linear least-squares (NNLS) optimization problem with the complexity that equals the number of generators in Σ2m. Finally, we experimentally validate the proposed approach and we present an application for computing 2mth-order diffusion tensors from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images. PMID:23285313

  13. Improved non-approximability results

    SciTech Connect

    Bellare, M.; Sudan, M.

    1994-12-31

    We indicate strong non-approximability factors for central problems: N{sup 1/4} for Max Clique; N{sup 1/10} for Chromatic Number; and 66/65 for Max 3SAT. Underlying the Max Clique result is a proof system in which the verifier examines only three {open_quotes}free bits{close_quotes} to attain an error of 1/2. Underlying the Chromatic Number result is a reduction from Max Clique which is more efficient than previous ones.

  14. Quantum tunneling beyond semiclassical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Ranjan Majhi, Bibhas

    2008-06-01

    Hawking radiation as tunneling by Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond semiclassical approximation is analysed. We compute all quantum corrections in the single particle action revealing that these are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We show that a simple choice of the proportionality constants reproduces the one loop back reaction effect in the spacetime, found by conformal field theory methods, which modifies the Hawking temperature of the black hole. Using the law of black hole mechanics we give the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law following from the modified Hawking temperature. Some examples are explicitly worked out.

  15. Fermion tunneling beyond semiclassical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2009-02-01

    Applying the Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond the semiclassical approximation prescribed in R. Banerjee and B. R. Majhi, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 06 (2008) 09510.1088/1126-6708/2008/06/095 for the scalar particle, Hawking radiation as tunneling of the Dirac particle through an event horizon is analyzed. We show that, as before, all quantum corrections in the single particle action are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We also compute the modifications to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the Schwarzschild black hole. Finally, the coefficient of the logarithmic correction to entropy is shown to be related with the trace anomaly.

  16. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    SciTech Connect

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-10-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA{close_quote}s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. The structural physical approximation conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    It was conjectured that the structural physical approximation (SPA) of an optimal entanglement witness is separable (or equivalently, that the SPA of an optimal positive map is entanglement breaking). This conjecture was disproved, first for indecomposable maps and more recently for decomposable maps. The arguments in both cases are sketched along with important related results. This review includes background material on topics including entanglement witnesses, optimality, duality of cones, decomposability, and the statement and motivation for the SPA conjecture so that it should be accessible for a broad audience.

  18. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  19. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 m at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as

  20. Thermal diffusivity of some crystalline rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity data at room temperature and uniaxial pressure of 1 MPa are reported for five sets of crystalline rocks - granite, granodiorite, gabbro, basalt and gneiss. Diffusivity ranges between approximately 0.6 and 1.9 mm/sup 2//s, the lower end of the range being appropriate for basic rocks and the upper end for quartz-bearing acidic rocks. The scatter in diffusivity for each data set is significantly more than that of thermal conductivity, because the diffusivity of water is typically less than 10% of the diffusivity of most common minerals, whereas water conductivity is 25 - 30% of the conductivity of the minerals. For a sample set of uniform mineralogy in which porosity varies, a greater variation of diffusivity than of conductivity is therefore expected. For three of the sets sufficient mineralogical data were available to permit the assessment of methods of estimating thermal diffusivity from mineral content. All models tested yielded higher mean values of diffusivity than the means of the measured values. No model was found to be able to predict diffusivity to better than approximately 20%, but if that accuracy is sufficient, a simple geometrical model, for which only quartz content must be known, is adequate. The diffusivity data have been combined with measurements of thermal conductivity and density to provide estimates of specific heat. These all tend to be higher than those reported in the literature. For some rocks, such as the basalts, this can be explained in terms of relatively high water content and the very high specific heat of water compared with that of most common minerals. For the granites and granodiorites, the new specific heat data redefine the previously published means and ranges, by increasing the data base by approximately an order of magnitude.

  1. Wavelet Approximation in Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of the state of the atmosphere with the Kalman filter remains a distant goal because of high computational cost of evolving the error covariance for both linear and nonlinear systems. Wavelet approximation is presented here as a possible solution that efficiently compresses both global and local covariance information. We demonstrate the compression characteristics on the the error correlation field from a global two-dimensional chemical constituent assimilation, and implement an adaptive wavelet approximation scheme on the assimilation of the one-dimensional Burger's equation. In the former problem, we show that 99%, of the error correlation can be represented by just 3% of the wavelet coefficients, with good representation of localized features. In the Burger's equation assimilation, the discrete linearized equations (tangent linear model) and analysis covariance are projected onto a wavelet basis and truncated to just 6%, of the coefficients. A nearly optimal forecast is achieved and we show that errors due to truncation of the dynamics are no greater than the errors due to covariance truncation.

  2. Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares

    SciTech Connect

    Managan, R. A.

    2015-01-08

    Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, Fn( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e μ/θ ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for Aα (ζ ),Aβ (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e-μ/θ)F1/2(μ/θ), F1/2'/F1/2, Fcα, and Fcβ. In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.

  3. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  4. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  5. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  6. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  7. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  8. Interplay of approximate planning strategies.

    PubMed

    Huys, Quentin J M; Lally, Níall; Faulkner, Paul; Eshel, Neir; Seifritz, Erich; Gershman, Samuel J; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2015-03-10

    Humans routinely formulate plans in domains so complex that even the most powerful computers are taxed. To do so, they seem to avail themselves of many strategies and heuristics that efficiently simplify, approximate, and hierarchically decompose hard tasks into simpler subtasks. Theoretical and cognitive research has revealed several such strategies; however, little is known about their establishment, interaction, and efficiency. Here, we use model-based behavioral analysis to provide a detailed examination of the performance of human subjects in a moderately deep planning task. We find that subjects exploit the structure of the domain to establish subgoals in a way that achieves a nearly maximal reduction in the cost of computing values of choices, but then combine partial searches with greedy local steps to solve subtasks, and maladaptively prune the decision trees of subtasks in a reflexive manner upon encountering salient losses. Subjects come idiosyncratically to favor particular sequences of actions to achieve subgoals, creating novel complex actions or "options." PMID:25675480

  9. Approximating metal-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Carlo; Rayanov, Kristian; Pavlov, Boris; Martin, Gaven; Flach, Sergej

    2015-12-01

    We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step, the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate Metal-Insulator Transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges, which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-André model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase, similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

  10. Strong shock implosion, approximate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Mishkin, E. A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1983-01-01

    The self-similar, center-bound motion of a strong spherical, or cylindrical, shock wave moving through an ideal gas with a constant, γ= cp/ cv, is considered and a linearized, approximate solution is derived. An X, Y phase plane of the self-similar solution is defined and the representative curved of the system behind the shock front is replaced by a straight line connecting the mappings of the shock front with that of its tail. The reduced pressure P(ξ), density R(ξ) and velocity U1(ξ) are found in closed, quite accurate, form. Comparison with numerically obtained results, for γ= {5}/{3} and γ= {7}/{5}, is shown.

  11. Cubic zirconia as a species permeable coating for zinc diffusion in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Bisberg, J.E.; Dabkowski, F.P.; Chin, A.K.

    1988-10-31

    Diffusion of zinc into GaAs through an yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) passivation layer has been demonstrated with an open-tube diffusion method. Pure zinc or GaAs/Zn/sub 2/As/sub 3/ sources produced high quality planar p-n junctions. The YSZ layer protects the GaAs surface from excessive loss of arsenic, yet is permeable to zinc, allowing its diffusion into the semiconductor. The YSZ films, deposited by electron beam evaporation, were typically 2000 A thick. Zinc diffusion coefficients (D/sub T/) at 650 /sup 0/C in the YSZ passivated GaAs ranged from 3.6 x 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 2//min for the GaAs/Zn/sub 2/As/sub 3/ source to 1.9 x 10/sup -9/ cm/sup 2//min for the pure zinc source. Doping concentrations for both YSZ passivated and uncapped samples were approximately 5 x 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -3/.

  12. Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Patrick Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    2014-07-28

    We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.

  13. Binaural signal analysis of diffuse sound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo, Pedro A.

    2004-10-01

    The simulation and the binaural recording of sounds produced by large crowds and rain impact sounds has produced an unexpected result. The listeners have reported that the auditory events were mainly concentrated to the left and to right, although the sound sources were equally distributed around the listeners. A similar result was reported with binaural recordings of applause. The results of a binaural signal analysis suggest that the key aspect regarding the lateral position dominance of the auditory events is connected to the sections where the cross-correlation coefficient assumes negative values. A comparison between normalized and non-normalized cross-correlation function predictions indicates that the latter is a better predictor for the cases studied. An adaptation period of several seconds was reported by several listeners. It is suggested that this adaptation period is related to the variations of the cross-correlation, which only average out after, approximately 2 s. The binaural impulse responses of a concert hall at two different listener positions have been analyzed in the light of the previous findings. In particular the diffuse sound field buildup will be analyzed in detail. Implications for the auditory source width and listener envelopment will be discussed.

  14. Implicit lower-upper/approximate-factorization schemes for incompressible flows

    SciTech Connect

    Briley, W.R.; Neerarambam, S.S.; Whitfield, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    A lower-upper/approximate-factorization (LU/AF) scheme is developed for the incompressible Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. The LU/AF scheme contains an iteration parameter that can be adjusted to improve iterative convergence rate. The LU/AF scheme is to be used in conjunction with linearized implicit approximations and artificial compressibility to compute steady solutions, and within sub-iterations to compute unsteady solutions. Formulations based on time linearization with and without sub-iteration and on Newton linearization are developed using spatial difference operators. The spatial approximation used includes upwind differencing based on Roe`s approximate Riemann solver and van Leer`s MUSCL scheme, with numerically computed implicit flux linearizations. Simple one-dimensional diffusion and advection/diffusion problems are first studied analytically to provide insight for development of the Navier-Stokes algorithm. The optimal values of both time step and LU/AF parameter are determined for a test problem consisting of two-dimensional flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil, with a highly stretched grid. The optimal parameter provides a consistent improvement in convergence rate for four test cases having different grids and Reynolds numbers and, also, for an inviscid case. The scheme can be easily extended to three dimensions and adapted for compressible flows. 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Fluid diffusion in porous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Lowell I.

    Fluid motion in porous media has received a great deal of theoretical and experimental attention due to its importance in systems as diverse as ground water aquifers, catalytic processes, and size separation schemes. Often, the motion of interest is the random thermal motion of molecules in a fluid undergoing no net flow. This diffusive motion is particularly important when the size of the pores is nearly the same as the size of the molecules. In this study, fluid diffusion is measured in several varieties of porous silica whose pore structure is determined by the process by which it is made. The samples in this study have porosities (φ, the ratio of the pore volume to the total sample volume) that vary from 0.3 to 0.75 and average pore radii that range from approximately 15 to 120 A. Determining the effect of the pore structure on the diffusion of a liquid in a porous material is complicated by the chemical interactions between the diffusing molecules and the pore surface. In this study, ions in a hydrophilic fluid are used to block the adsorption of the diffusing dye molecules to the hydroxyl groups covering the silica surface. This technique is unlike typical surface treatments of silica in that it does not permanently alter the pore geometry. In this work, fluid diffusion is measured with a transient holographic grating technique where interfering laser beams create a periodic refractive index modulation in the fluid. The diffraction of a third laser off this grating is monitored to determine how quickly the grating relaxes, thereby determining the diffusion coefficient of the molecules in the fluid. Varying the grating periodicity controls the length scale of the diffusion measurement from 1.2 to 100 μm which is much larger than the average pore sizes of the samples. Therefore, over these large scales, we measure 'normal' diffusion, where the mean squared displacement of a diffusing particle varies linearly with time. In one particular type of porous silica

  16. Method of successive approximations for the solution of certain problems in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvets, M E

    1951-01-01

    A method of successive approximations for the solution of problems in the fields of diffusion, boundary-layer flow, and heat-transfer is illustrated by solving problems in each of these fields. In most of the examples, the approximate solutions are compared with known accurate solutions and the agreement is shown to be good.

  17. Modeling of Diffuse-Diffuse Photon Coupling via a Nonscattering Region: a Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Youn Tae

    2004-06-01

    It is well established that diffusion approximation is valid for light propagation in highly scattering media, but it breaks down in nonscattering regions. The previous methods that manipulate nonscattering regions are essentially boundary-to-boundary coupling (BBC) methods through a nonscattering void region based on the radiosity theory. We present a boundary-to-interior coupling (BIC) method. BIC is based on the fact that the collimated pencil beam incident on the medium can be replaced by an isotropic point source positioned at one reduced scattering length inside the medium from an illuminated point. A similar replacement is possible for the nondiffuse lights that enter the diffuse medium through the void, and it is formulated as the BIC method. We implemented both coupling methods using the finite element method (FEM) and tested for the circle with a void gap and for a four-layer adult head model. For mean time of flight, the BIC shows better agreement with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results than BBC. For intensity, BIC shows a comparable match with MC data compared with that of BBC. The effect of absorption of the clear layer in the adult head model was investigated. Both mean time and intensity decrease as absorption of the clear layer increases.

  18. Modeling of diffuse-diffuse photon coupling via a nonscattering region: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Youn Tae

    2004-06-20

    It is well established that diffusion approximation is valid for light propagation in highly scattering media, but it breaks down in nonscattering regions. The previous methods that manipulate nonscattering regions are essentially boundary-to-boundary coupling (BBC) methods through a nonscattering void region based on the radiosity theory. We present a boundary-to-interior coupling (BIC) method. BIC is based on the fact that the collimated pencil beam incident on the medium can be replaced by an isotropic point source positioned at one reduced scattering length inside the medium from an illuminated point. A similar replacement is possible for the nondiffuse lights that enter the diffuse medium through the void, and it is formulated as the BIC method. We implemented both coupling methods using the finite element method (FEM) and tested for the circle with a void gap and for a four-layer adult head model. For mean time of flight, the BIC shows better agreement with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results than BBC. For intensity, BIC shows a comparable match with MC data compared with that of BBC. The effect of absorption of the clear layer in the adult head model was investigated. Both mean time and intensity decrease as absorption of the clear layer increases. PMID:15218604

  19. Statistical model semiquantitatively approximates arabinoxylooligosaccharides' structural diversity.

    PubMed

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Nielsen, Michael Krogsgaard; Lange, Lene

    2016-05-13

    A statistical model describing the random distribution of substituted xylopyranosyl residues in arabinoxylooligosaccharides is suggested and compared with existing experimental data. Structural diversity of arabinoxylooligosaccharides of various length, originating from different arabinoxylans (wheat flour arabinoxylan (arabinose/xylose, A/X = 0.47); grass arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.24); wheat straw arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.15); and hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.05)), is semiquantitatively approximated using the proposed model. The suggested approach can be applied not only for prediction and quantification of arabinoxylooligosaccharides' structural diversity, but also for estimate of yield and selection of the optimal source of arabinoxylan for production of arabinoxylooligosaccharides with desired structural features. PMID:27043469

  20. An n log n Generalized Born Approximation.

    PubMed

    Anandakrishnan, Ramu; Daga, Mayank; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2011-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the generalized Born (GB) model of implicit solvation offer a number of important advantages over the traditional explicit solvent based simulations. Yet, in MD simulations, the GB model has not been able to reach its full potential partly due to its computational cost, which scales as ∼n(2), where n is the number of solute atoms. We present here an ∼n log n approximation for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent model. The approximation is based on the hierarchical charge partitioning (HCP) method (Anandakrishnan and Onufriev J. Comput. Chem. 2010 , 31 , 691 - 706 ) previously developed and tested for electrostatic computations in gas-phase and distant dependent dielectric models. The HCP uses the natural organization of biomolecular structures to partition the structures into multiple hierarchical levels of components. The charge distribution for each of these components is approximated by a much smaller number of charges. The approximate charges are then used for computing electrostatic interactions with distant components, while the full set of atomic charges are used for nearby components. To apply the HCP concept to the GB model, we define the equivalent of the effective Born radius for components. The component effective Born radius is then used in GB computations for points that are distant from the component. This HCP approximation for GB (HCP-GB) is implemented in the open source MD software, NAB in AmberTools, and tested on a set of representative biomolecular structures ranging in size from 632 atoms to ∼3 million atoms. For this set of test structures, the HCP-GB method is 1.1-390 times faster than the GB computation without additional approximations (the reference GB computation), depending on the size of the structure. Similar to the spherical cutoff method with GB (cutoff-GB), which also scales as ∼n log n, the HCP-GB is relatively simple. However, for the structures considered here, we show

  1. Function approximation in inhibitory networks.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Bryan; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-05-01

    In performance-optimized artificial neural networks, such as convolutional networks, each neuron makes excitatory connections with some of its targets and inhibitory connections with others. In contrast, physiological neurons are typically either excitatory or inhibitory, not both. This is a puzzle, because it seems to constrain computation, and because there are several counter-examples that suggest that it may not be a physiological necessity. Parisien et al. (2008) showed that any mixture of excitatory and inhibitory functional connections could be realized by a purely excitatory projection in parallel with a two-synapse projection through an inhibitory population. They showed that this works well with ratios of excitatory and inhibitory neurons that are realistic for the neocortex, suggesting that perhaps the cortex efficiently works around this apparent computational constraint. Extending this work, we show here that mixed excitatory and inhibitory functional connections can also be realized in networks that are dominated by inhibition, such as those of the basal ganglia. Further, we show that the function-approximation capacity of such connections is comparable to that of idealized mixed-weight connections. We also study whether such connections are viable in recurrent networks, and find that such recurrent networks can flexibly exhibit a wide range of dynamics. These results offer a new perspective on computation in the basal ganglia, and also perhaps on inhibitory networks within the cortex. PMID:26963256

  2. Interplay of approximate planning strategies

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J. M.; Lally, Níall; Faulkner, Paul; Eshel, Neir; Seifritz, Erich; Gershman, Samuel J.; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Humans routinely formulate plans in domains so complex that even the most powerful computers are taxed. To do so, they seem to avail themselves of many strategies and heuristics that efficiently simplify, approximate, and hierarchically decompose hard tasks into simpler subtasks. Theoretical and cognitive research has revealed several such strategies; however, little is known about their establishment, interaction, and efficiency. Here, we use model-based behavioral analysis to provide a detailed examination of the performance of human subjects in a moderately deep planning task. We find that subjects exploit the structure of the domain to establish subgoals in a way that achieves a nearly maximal reduction in the cost of computing values of choices, but then combine partial searches with greedy local steps to solve subtasks, and maladaptively prune the decision trees of subtasks in a reflexive manner upon encountering salient losses. Subjects come idiosyncratically to favor particular sequences of actions to achieve subgoals, creating novel complex actions or “options.” PMID:25675480

  3. Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Zablotskiy, Sergey V; Ivanov, Victor A; Paul, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g(E), of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g(E_{1},E_{2}). We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g(E_{1}+E_{2}) from g(E_{1},E_{2}). PMID:27415383

  4. Decision analysis with approximate probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    This paper concerns decisions under uncertainty in which the probabilities of the states of nature are only approximately known. Decision problems involving three states of nature are studied. This is due to the fact that some key issues do not arise in two-state problems, while probability spaces with more than three states of nature are essentially impossible to graph. The primary focus is on two levels of probabilistic information. In one level, the three probabilities are separately rounded to the nearest tenth. This can lead to sets of rounded probabilities which add up to 0.9, 1.0, or 1.1. In the other level, probabilities are rounded to the nearest tenth in such a way that the rounded probabilities are forced to sum to 1.0. For comparison, six additional levels of probabilistic information, previously analyzed, were also included in the present analysis. A simulation experiment compared four criteria for decisionmaking using linearly constrained probabilities (Maximin, Midpoint, Standard Laplace, and Extended Laplace) under the eight different levels of information about probability. The Extended Laplace criterion, which uses a second order maximum entropy principle, performed best overall.

  5. Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskiy, Sergey V.; Ivanov, Victor A.; Paul, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g (E ) , of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g (E1,E2) . We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g (E1+E2) from g (E1,E2) .

  6. The passive diffusion of Leptospira interrogans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koens, Lyndon; Lauga, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent experimental measurements, the passive diffusion of the bacterium Leptospira interrogans is investigated theoretically. By approximating the cell shape as a straight helix and using the slender-body-theory approximation of Stokesian hydrodynamics, the resistance matrix of Leptospira is first determined numerically. The passive diffusion of the helical cell is then obtained computationally using a Langevin formulation which is sampled in time in a manner consistent with the experimental procedure. Our results are in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental results with no adjustable parameters.

  7. Mapping biological entities using the longest approximately common prefix method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The significant growth in the volume of electronic biomedical data in recent decades has pointed to the need for approximate string matching algorithms that can expedite tasks such as named entity recognition, duplicate detection, terminology integration, and spelling correction. The task of source integration in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) requires considerable expert effort despite the presence of various computational tools. This problem warrants the search for a new method for approximate string matching and its UMLS-based evaluation. Results This paper introduces the Longest Approximately Common Prefix (LACP) method as an algorithm for approximate string matching that runs in linear time. We compare the LACP method for performance, precision and speed to nine other well-known string matching algorithms. As test data, we use two multiple-source samples from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and two SNOMED Clinical Terms-based samples. In addition, we present a spell checker based on the LACP method. Conclusions The Longest Approximately Common Prefix method completes its string similarity evaluations in less time than all nine string similarity methods used for comparison. The Longest Approximately Common Prefix outperforms these nine approximate string matching methods in its Maximum F1 measure when evaluated on three out of the four datasets, and in its average precision on two of the four datasets. PMID:24928653

  8. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOEpatents

    Nierenberg, William A.

    1976-08-10

    1. A diffuser separator apparatus which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage, each of said channels having an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports, at least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels being a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels having a different cross sectional area, means for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series, a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area.

  9. Nonadiabatic charged spherical evolution in the postquasistatic approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosales, L.; Barreto, W.; Peralta, C.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.

    2010-10-15

    We apply the postquasistatic approximation, an iterative method for the evolution of self-gravitating spheres of matter, to study the evolution of dissipative and electrically charged distributions in general relativity. The numerical implementation of our approach leads to a solver which is globally second-order convergent. We evolve nonadiabatic distributions assuming an equation of state that accounts for the anisotropy induced by the electric charge. Dissipation is described by streaming-out or diffusion approximations. We match the interior solution, in noncomoving coordinates, with the Vaidya-Reissner-Nordstroem exterior solution. Two models are considered: (i) a Schwarzschild-like shell in the diffusion limit; and (ii) a Schwarzschild-like interior in the free-streaming limit. These toy models tell us something about the nature of the dissipative and electrically charged collapse. Diffusion stabilizes the gravitational collapse producing a spherical shell whose contraction is halted in a short characteristic hydrodynamic time. The streaming-out radiation provides a more efficient mechanism for emission of energy, redistributing the electric charge on the whole sphere, while the distribution collapses indefinitely with a longer hydrodynamic time scale.

  10. Assessment of the zinc diffusion rate in estuarine zones.

    PubMed

    Sámano, María Luisa; Pérez, María Luisa; Claramunt, Inigo; García, Andrés

    2016-03-15

    Industrial pressures suffered by estuarine zones leave a pollution record in their sediment. Thus, high concentrations of many heavy metals and some organic compounds are often found in estuarine sediment. This work aims to contribute to the enhancement of water quality management strategies in these zones by studying in detail the diffusive processes that take place between the water and sediment using a two-pronged approach: experimental practice and numerical simulation. To provide an example of the practical application of the methodologies proposed in this paper, the Suances Estuary (northern Spain) was selected as the study zone. This estuary exhibits significant historical pollution and its sediment acts as a continuous internal source of zinc, mainly due to diffusive processes derived from the concentration gradient between the interstitial water at the solid particles of the sediment and the bottom of the water column. The experimentally obtained results, based on 6 case studies, demonstrated the buffering capacity of the system and allowed the determination of the required time for the mass transfer processes to reach an equilibrium state. Furthermore, the diffusion rate of zinc was approximately modeled taking into consideration the high concentration variability observed in sediment along the entire estuary. The convergence between the modeled and the experimental results indicated the required contact time to reach an equilibrium state in a real field situation. PMID:26851870

  11. Ballistic diffusion induced by non-Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Li; Li, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, we have analyzed the diffusive behavior of a Brownian particle subject to both internal Gaussian thermal and external non-Gaussian noise sources. We discuss two time correlation functions C(t) of the non-Gaussian stochastic process, and find that they depend on the parameter q, indicating the departure of the non-Gaussian noise from Gaussian behavior: for q <= 1, C(t) is fitted very well by the first-order exponentially decaying curve and approaches zero in the long-time limit, whereas for q > 1, C(t) can be approximated by a second-order exponentially decaying function and converges to a non-zero constant. Due to the properties of C(t), the particle exhibits a normal diffusion for q <= 1, while for q > 1 the non-Gaussian noise induces a ballistic diffusion, i.e., the long-time mean square displacement of the free particle reads <[x(t) - ]2> ∝ t2.

  12. Anisotropies in the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background Measured by the Fermi LAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, E. C.; McEnery, J. E.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of unresolved sources to the diffuse gamma-ray background could induce anisotropies in this emission on small angular scales. We analyze the angular power spectrum of the diffuse emission measured by the Fermi LAT at Galactic latitudes absolute value of b > 30 deg in four energy bins spanning 1 to 50 GeV. At multipoles l >= 155, corresponding to angular scales approx < 2 deg, angular power above the photon noise level is detected at > 99.99% CL in the 1-2 GeV, 2- 5 GeV, and 5- 10 GeV energy bins, and at > 99% CL at 10-50 GeV. Within each energy bin the measured angular power takes approximately the same value at all multipoles l >= 155, suggesting that it originates from the contribution of one or more unclustered source populations. The amplitude of the angular power normalized to the mean intensity in each energy bin is consistent with a constant value at all energies, C(sub p) / (I)(exp 2) = 9.05 +/- 0.84 x 10(exp -6) sr, while the energy dependence of C(sub p) is consistent with the anisotropy arising from one or more source populations with power-law photon spectra with spectral index Gamma (sub s) = 2.40 +/- 0.07. We discuss the implications of the measured angular power for gamma-ray source populations that may provide a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background.

  13. Analytical approximations for spatial stochastic gene expression in single cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2016-05-01

    Gene expression occurs in an environment in which both stochastic and diffusive effects are significant. Spatial stochastic simulations are computationally expensive compared with their deterministic counterparts, and hence little is currently known of the significance of intrinsic noise in a spatial setting. Starting from the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) describing stochastic reaction-diffusion processes, we here derive expressions for the approximate steady-state mean concentrations which are explicit functions of the dimensionality of space, rate constants and diffusion coefficients. The expressions have a simple closed form when the system consists of one effective species. These formulae show that, even for spatially homogeneous systems, mean concentrations can depend on diffusion coefficients: this contradicts the predictions of deterministic reaction-diffusion processes, thus highlighting the importance of intrinsic noise. We confirm our theory by comparison with stochastic simulations, using the RDME and Brownian dynamics, of two models of stochastic and spatial gene expression in single cells and tissues. PMID:27146686

  14. Analytical approximations for spatial stochastic gene expression in single cells and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression occurs in an environment in which both stochastic and diffusive effects are significant. Spatial stochastic simulations are computationally expensive compared with their deterministic counterparts, and hence little is currently known of the significance of intrinsic noise in a spatial setting. Starting from the reaction–diffusion master equation (RDME) describing stochastic reaction–diffusion processes, we here derive expressions for the approximate steady-state mean concentrations which are explicit functions of the dimensionality of space, rate constants and diffusion coefficients. The expressions have a simple closed form when the system consists of one effective species. These formulae show that, even for spatially homogeneous systems, mean concentrations can depend on diffusion coefficients: this contradicts the predictions of deterministic reaction–diffusion processes, thus highlighting the importance of intrinsic noise. We confirm our theory by comparison with stochastic simulations, using the RDME and Brownian dynamics, of two models of stochastic and spatial gene expression in single cells and tissues. PMID:27146686

  15. Statistical analysis of diffuse ion events upstream of the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trattner, K. J.; Mobius, E.; Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.; Hilchenbach, M.; Luehr, H.

    1994-01-01

    A statistical study of diffuse energetic ion events and their related waves upstream of the Earth's bow shock was performed using data from the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Ion Release Module (AMPTE/IRM) satellite over two 5-month periods in 1984 and 1985. The data set was used to test the assumption in the self-consistent model of the upstream wave and particle populations by Lee (1982) that the particle acceleration through hydromagnetic waves and the wave generation are directly coupled. The comparison between the observed wave power and the wave power predicted on the observed energetic particle energy density and solar wind parameters results in a high correlation coefficient of about 0.89. The intensity of diffuse ions falls off approximately exponentially with the distance upstream from the bow shock parallel to the magnetic field with e-folding distances which vary from approximately 3.3 R(sub E) to approximately 11.7 R(sub E) over the energy range from 10 keV/e to 67.3 keV/e for both protons and alpha particles. After normalizing the upstream particle densities to zero bow shock distance by using these exponential variations, a good correlation (0.7) of the density of the diffuse ions with the solar wind density was found. This supports the suggestion that the solar wind is the source of the diffuse ions. Furthermore, the spectral slope of the diffuse ions correlates well with the solar wind velocity component in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (0.68 and 0.66 for protons and alpha particles) which concurs with the notion that the solar wind plays an important role in the acceleration of the upstream particles.

  16. Improved diffusion coefficients generated from Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, B. R.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.; Aviles, B. N.

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo codes are becoming more widely used for reactor analysis. Some of these applications involve the generation of diffusion theory parameters including macroscopic cross sections and diffusion coefficients. Two approximations used to generate diffusion coefficients are assessed using the Monte Carlo code MC21. The first is the method of homogenization; whether to weight either fine-group transport cross sections or fine-group diffusion coefficients when collapsing to few-group diffusion coefficients. The second is a fundamental approximation made to the energy-dependent P1 equations to derive the energy-dependent diffusion equations. Standard Monte Carlo codes usually generate a flux-weighted transport cross section with no correction to the diffusion approximation. Results indicate that this causes noticeable tilting in reconstructed pin powers in simple test lattices with L2 norm error of 3.6%. This error is reduced significantly to 0.27% when weighting fine-group diffusion coefficients by the flux and applying a correction to the diffusion approximation. Noticeable tilting in reconstructed fluxes and pin powers was reduced when applying these corrections. (authors)

  17. Non-Gaussian dynamics from a simulation of a short peptide: Loop closure rates and effective diffusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portman, John J.

    2003-02-01

    Intrachain contact formation rates, fundamental to the dynamics of biopolymer self-organization such as protein folding, can be monitored in the laboratory through fluorescence quenching measurements. The common approximations for the intrachain contact rate given by the theory of Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten (SSS) [J. Chem. Phys. 72, 4350 (1980)] and Wilemski-Fixman (WF) [J. Chem. Phys. 60, 878 (1973)] are shown to be complementary variational bounds: The SSS and WF approximations are lower and upper bounds, respectively, on the mean first contact times. As reported in the literature, the SSS approximation requires an effective diffusion coefficient 10 to 100 times smaller than expected to fit experimentally measured quenching rates. An all atom molecular dynamics simulation of an eleven residue peptide sequence in explicit water is analyzed to investigate the source of this surprising parameter value. The simulated diffusion limited contact time is ≈6 ns for a reaction radius of 4 Å for solvent viscosity corresponding to that of water at 293 K and 1 atm (η=1.0 cP). In analytical work, the polymer is typically modeled by a Gaussian chain of effective monomers. Compared to Gaussian dynamics, the simulated end-to-end distance autocorrelation has a much slower relaxation. The long time behavior of the distance autocorrelation function can be approximated by a Gaussian model in which the monomer diffusion coefficient D0 is reduced to D0/6. This value of the diffusion coefficient brings the mean end-to-end contact time from analytical approximations and simulation into agreement in the sense that the SSS and WF approximations bracket the simulated mean first contact time.

  18. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed. PMID:26026319

  19. Producing approximate answers to database queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrbsky, Susan V.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a query processor, called APPROXIMATE, that makes approximate answers available if part of the database is unavailable or if there is not enough time to produce an exact answer. The accuracy of the approximate answers produced improves monotonically with the amount of data retrieved to produce the result. The exact answer is produced if all of the needed data are available and query processing is allowed to continue until completion. The monotone query processing algorithm of APPROXIMATE works within the standard relational algebra framework and can be implemented on a relational database system with little change to the relational architecture. We describe here the approximation semantics of APPROXIMATE that serves as the basis for meaningful approximations of both set-valued and single-valued queries. We show how APPROXIMATE is implemented to make effective use of semantic information, provided by an object-oriented view of the database, and describe the additional overhead required by APPROXIMATE.

  20. Temperature Diffusion Waves in Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, M. A.; Morales, G. J.; Maggs, J. E.

    2002-11-01

    Fluctuations of localized heat sources manifest themselves as temperature diffusion waves throughout the plasma surrounding the source, with anisotropic propagation characteristics due to the anisotropic nature of the thermal conductivity. In fact, fluctuations in electron temperature have been observed experimentally in studies of heat transport in magnetized temperature filaments (Burke et al., Phys. Plasmas, 7, 1397, 2000) where the anisotropic nature was of paramount interest. Here, the theory of temperature diffusion waves in a magnetized plasma is presented, and the properties of these waves are investigated both analytically and numerically. Results from the one-dimensional (parallel), linear theory of diffusion waves are used to shed light on the results obtained by a two-dimensional (parallel and perpendicular) transport code. Features that are investigated include the spatial structure of wave amplitude and phase, the effect that the size of the source region has on the spatial structure (i.e., radial localization), and the strongly nonlinear (large amplitude source fluctuations) limit.

  1. A combined kick-out and dissociative diffusion mechanism of grown-in Be in InGaAs and InGaAsP. A new finite difference-Bairstow method for solution of the diffusion equations

    SciTech Connect

    Koumetz, Serge D. Martin, Patrick; Murray, Hugues

    2014-09-14

    Experimental results on the diffusion of grown-in beryllium (Be) in indium gallium arsenide (In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As) and indium gallium arsenide phosphide (In{sub 0.73}Ga{sub 0.27}As{sub 0.58}P{sub 0.42}) gas source molecular beam epitaxy alloys lattice-matched to indium phosphide (InP) can be successfully explained in terms of a combined kick-out and dissociative diffusion mechanism, involving neutral Be interstitials (Be{sub i}{sup 0}), singly positively charged gallium (Ga), indium (In) self-interstitials (I{sub III}{sup +}) and singly positively charged Ga, In vacancies (V{sub III}{sup +}). A new numerical method of solution to the system of diffusion equations, based on the finite difference approximations and Bairstow's method, is proposed.

  2. NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

  3. Self diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional version of the generalized Smoluchowski equation is used to analyze the time (or distance) dependent self diffusion of interacting membrane proteins in concentrated membrane systems. This equation provides a well established starting point for descriptions of the diffusion of particles that interact through both direct and hydrodynamic forces; in this initial work only the effects of direct interactions are explicitly considered. Data describing diffusion in the presence of hard-core repulsions, soft repulsions, and soft repulsions with weak attractions are presented. The effect that interactions have on the self-diffusion coefficient of a real protein molecule from mouse liver gap junctions is also calculated. The results indicate that self diffusion is always inhibited by direct interactions; this observation is interpreted in terms of the caging that will exist at finite protein concentration. It is also noted that, over small distance scales, the diffusion coefficient is determined entirely by the very strong Brownian forces; therefore, as a function of displacement the self-diffusion coefficient decays (rapidly) from its value at infinite dilution to its steady-state interaction-averaged value. The steady-state self-diffusion coefficient describes motion over distance scales that range from approximately 10 nm to cellular dimensions and is the quantity measured in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. The short-ranged behavior of the diffusion coefficient is important on the interparticle-distance scale and may therefore influence the rate at which nearest-neighbor collisional processes take place. The hard-disk theoretical results presented here are in excellent agreement with lattice Monte-Carlo results obtained by other workers. The concentration dependence of experimentally measured diffusion coefficients of antibody-hapten complexes bound to the membrane surface is consistent with that predicted by the theory. The

  4. Electrolyte diffusion in compacted montmorillonite engineered barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, F.M.; Radke, C.J.

    1985-09-01

    The bentonite-based engineered barrier or packing is a proposed component of several designs conceived to dispose of high-level nuclear waste in geologic repositories. Once radionuclides escape the waste package, they must first diffuse through the highly impermeable clay-rich barrier before they reach the host repository. To determine the effectiveness of the packing as a sorption barrier in the transient release period and as a mass-transfer barrier in the steady release period over the geologic time scales involved in nuclear waste disposal, a fundamental understanding of the diffusion of electrolytes in compacted clays is required. We present, and compare with laboratory data, a model quantifying the diffusion rates of cationic cesium and uncharged tritium in compacted montmorillonite clay. Neutral tritium characterizes the geometry (i.e., tortuosity) of the particulate gel. After accounting for cation exchange, we find that surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism of cation transport, with an approximate surface diffusion coefficient of 2 x 10 W cmS/s for cesium. This value increases slightly with increasing background ionic strength. The implications of this work for the packing as a migration barrier are twofold. During the transient release period, K/sub d/ values are of little importance in retarding ion migration. This is because sorption also gives rise to a surface diffusion path, and it is surface diffusion which controls the diffusion rate of highly sorbing cations in compacted montmorillonite. During the steady release period, the presence of surface diffusion leads to a flux through the packing which is greatly enhanced. In either case, if surface diffusion is neglected, the appropriate diffusion coefficient of ions in compacted packing will be in considerable error relative to current design recommendations. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Diffusion on spatial network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zi; Tang, Xiaoyue; Li, Wei; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we study the problem of diffusing a product (idea, opinion, disease etc.) among agents on spatial network. The network is constructed by random addition of nodes on the planar. The probability for a previous node to be connected to the new one is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of α. The diffusion rate between two connected nodes is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of β as well. Inspired from the Fick's first law, we introduce the diffusion coefficient to measure the diffusion ability of the spatial network. Using both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, we get the fact that the diffusion coefficient always decreases with the increasing of parameter α and β, and the diffusion sub-coefficient follows the power-law of the spatial distance with exponent equals to -α-β+2. Since both short-range diffusion and long-range diffusion exist, we use anomalous diffusion method in diffusion process. We get the fact that the slope index δ in anomalous diffusion is always smaller that 1. The diffusion process in our model is sub-diffusion.

  6. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1996-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

  7. A new indirect measure of diffusion model error

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Morel, J. E.; Adams, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    We define a new indirect measure of the diffusion model error called the diffusion model error source. When this model error source is added to the diffusion equation, the transport solution for the angular-integrated intensity is obtained. This source represents a means by which a transport code can be used to generate information relating to the adequacy of diffusion theory for any given problem without actually solving the diffusion equation. The generation of this source does not relate in any way to acceleration of the iterative convergence of transport solutions. Perhaps the most well-known indirect measure of the diffusion model error is the variable-Eddington tensor. This tensor provides a great deal of information about the angular dependence of the angular intensity solution, but it is not always simple to interpret. In contrast, our diffusion model error source is a scalar that is conceptually easy to understand. In addition to defining the diffusion model error source analytically, we show how to generate this source numerically relative to the S{sub n} radiative transfer equations with linear-discontinuous spatial discretization. This numerical source is computationally tested and shown to reproduce the Sn solution for a Marshak-wave problem. (authors)

  8. Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bill D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…

  9. Calculation of thermal diffuse scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, N.; Nicklow, R. M.; Katano, S.; Ishii, Y.; Child, H. R.; Smith, H. G.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.

    We have developed a computer program to calculate the thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) intensity distribution for single-crystal specimens in a diffractometer with no energy analysis. We assumed that the phonon frequencies are approximated by those of elastic waves and that the elastic constants, density and lattice parameters of the system under study are known. The results of the calculations were compared to experimental data obtain for single crystals of Si, diamond and NiAl at the wide-angle neutron diffractometer (WAND) at the HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Excellent agreement was found between the calculations and the experimental observations.

  10. Energetic electrons at Uranus: Bimodal diffusion in a satellite limited radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Selesnick, R.S.; Stone, E.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The Voyager 2 cosmic ray experiment observed intense electron fluxes in the middle magnetosphere of Uranus. High counting rates in several of the solid-state detectors precluded in the normal multiple coincidence analysis used for cosmic ray observations, and the authors have therefore performed laboratory measurements of the single-detector response to electrons. These calibrations allow a deconvolution from the counting rate data of the electron energy spectrum between energies of about 0.7 and 2.5 MeV. They present model fits to the differential intensity spectra from observations between L values of 6 and 15. The spectra are well represented by power laws in kinetic energy with spectral indices between 5 and 7. The phase space density at fixed values of the first two adiabatic invariants generally increases with L, indicative of an external source. However, there are also local minima associated with the satellites Ariel and Umbriel, indicating either a local source or an effective source due to nonconservation of the first two adiabatic invariants. For electrons which mirror at the highest magnetic latitudes, the local minimum associated with Ariel is radically displaced from the minimum L of that satellite by {approximately}0.5. The latitude variation of the satellite absorption efficiency predicts that if satellite losses are replenished primarily by radial diffusion there should be an increasing pitch angle anisotropy with decreasing L. The uniformity in the observed anisotropy outside the absorption regions then suggests that it is maintained by pitch angle diffusion. The effective source due to pitch angle diffusion is insufficient to cause the phase space density minimum associated with Ariel. Model solutions of the simultaneous radial and pitch angle diffusion equation show that the displacement of the high-latitude Ariel signature is also consistent with a larger effective source.

  11. Comptonization of X-rays by low-temperature electrons. [photon wavelength redistribution in cosmic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illarionov, A.; Kallman, T.; Mccray, R.; Ross, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for calculating the spectrum that results from the Compton scattering of a monochromatic source of X-rays by low-temperature electrons, both for initial-value relaxation problems and for steady-state spatial diffusion problems. The method gives an exact solution of the inital-value problem for evolution of the spectrum in an infinite homogeneous medium if Klein-Nishina corrections to the Thomson cross section are neglected. This, together with approximate solutions for problems in which Klein-Nishina corrections are significant and/or spatial diffusion occurs, shows spectral structure near the original photon wavelength that may be used to infer physical conditions in cosmic X-ray sources. Explicit results, shown for examples of time relaxation in an infinite medium and spatial diffusion through a uniform sphere, are compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculations and by solving the appropriate Fokker-Planck equation.

  12. UPDATING APPLIED DIFFUSION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Socie...

  13. Theory of fractional-ordered thermoelastic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Soumen; Mukhopadhyay, Basudeb

    2016-06-01

    In this note, the traditional theory of thermoelastic diffusion is replaced by fractional ordered thermoelasticity based on fractional conservation of mass, fractional Taylor series and fractional divergence theorem. We replace the integer-order Taylor series approximation for flux with the fractional-order Taylor series approximation which can remove the restriction that the flux has to be linear, or piece-wise linear and the restriction that the control volume must be infinitesimal. There are two important distinctions between the traditional thermoelastic diffusion, and its fractional equivalent. The first is that the divergence term in the heat conduction and mass diffusion equations are the fractional divergence, and the second is the appearance of strain tensor term in the fractional equation is in the form of "incomplete fractional-strain measures".

  14. FAST DISPLACEMENT PROBABILITY PROFILE APPROXIMATION FROM HARDI USING 4TH-ORDER TENSORS.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C; Forder, John R

    2008-05-14

    Cartesian tensor basis have been widely used to approximate spherical functions. In Medical Imaging, tensors of various orders have been used to model the diffusivity function in Diffusion-weighted MRI data sets. However, it is known that the peaks of the diffusivity do not correspond to orientations of the underlying fibers and hence the displacement probability profiles should be employed instead. In this paper, we present a novel representation of the probability profile by a 4(th) order tensor, which is a smooth spherical function that can approximate single-fibers as well as multiple-fiber structures. We also present a method for efficiently estimating the unknown tensor coefficients of the probability profile directly from a given high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted (HARDI) data set. The accuracy of our model is validated by experiments on synthetic and real HARDI datasets from a fixed rat spinal cord. PMID:20046536

  15. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  16. Superluminal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, R C

    1995-01-01

    Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, or quasars. Apparent velocities betaapp in the range 1-5 h-1, where h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 megaparsec (Mpc) = 3.09 x 10(22) m], occur with roughly equal frequency; higher values, up to betaapp = 10 h-1, are rather more scarce than appeared to be the case from earlier work, which evidently concentrated on sources that are not representative of the general population. The betaapp distribution suggests that there might be a skewed distribution of Lorentz factors over the sample, with a peak at gammab approximately 2 h-1 and a tail up to at least gammab approximately 10 h-1. There appears to be a clearly rising upper envelope to the betaapp distribution when plotted as a function of observed 5-GHz luminosity; a combination of source counts and the apparent velocity statistics in a larger sample could provide much insight into the properties of radio jet sources. PMID:11607604

  17. Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Knapek, S.

    1996-12-31

    We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.

  18. Stress diffusion in models for shear banding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnada, Elian; Olmsted, Peter

    Understanding shear banding is of utmost importance from both theoretical and experimental point of view and consequently it has been studied for several decades. Despite this study numerous aspects of shear banding remains poorly understood. Because of the intrinsic inhomogeneity in the shear banded state, applicable constitutive models must be include spatial inhomogeneities, leading to a so-called 'diffusive' term in the equation of motion for the slow variables that carry stress. Such terms are also vital in describing the interaction of bulk shear banding flows with walls and incorporation of wall slip. In this work, we consider different sources of 'diffusion' in polymer models in which concentration degrees of freedom are negligible. The simplest models used are consistent with diffusive terms whose origin is intrinsically dissipative, such as due to hydrodynamic interactions. By contrast, models in which elastic effects such as finite chain stiffness contribute to stress diffusion are inconsistent with simple diffusive models, and we propose alternative consistent models

  19. MAGNETIC ADVECTION DUE TO DIFFUSIVITY GRADIENTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zita, E. J.

    2009-12-01

    We derive and discuss an important source of advection of magnetic fields in plasmas, for a completely general case. Magnetic diffusivity is proportional to electrical resistivity: where the value this parameter is high, it is well known that magnetic fields can leak (or diffuse) rapidly into (or out) of the plasma. Magnetohydrodynamic lore has it that where gradients, or changes in space, of the value of the diffusivity are high, magnetic fields can have enhanced flow (or advection). We derive this phenomenon rigorously, compare our results to other work in the literature, and discuss its implications, especially for kinematic dynamos. As an extra mathematical bonus, we find that the magnetic advection due to diffusivity gradients can be expressed in terms of a diffusion equation within the induction equation, making its computational implementation especially simple.

  20. An approximation technique for jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, Mahmoud; Fincher, Donald; Rahni, Taeibi; Javadi, KH.; Massah, H.

    2015-03-10

    The analytical approximate solution of a non-linear jet impingement flow model will be demonstrated. We will show that this is an improvement over the series approximation obtained via the Adomian decomposition method, which is itself, a powerful method for analysing non-linear differential equations. The results of these approximations will be compared to the Runge-Kutta approximation in order to demonstrate their validity.

  1. Comparison of two Pareto frontier approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezkin, V. E.; Lotov, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    A method for comparing two approximations to the multidimensional Pareto frontier in nonconvex nonlinear multicriteria optimization problems, namely, the inclusion functions method is described. A feature of the method is that Pareto frontier approximations are compared by computing and comparing inclusion functions that show which fraction of points of one Pareto frontier approximation is contained in the neighborhood of the Edgeworth-Pareto hull approximation for the other Pareto frontier.

  2. Analysis of Multipoint-Multitime Correlations and Diffusion in Decaying Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert G.

    1961-01-01

    Two-point, two-time correlation equations are obtained by considering the Navier-Stokes equations for two points in a fluid at two time. By neglecting the triple correlations in the equations, a solution is obtained for the final period of decay. The analysis is extended to earlier times by considering three points at three different times. The set of equations is made determinate by neglecting the quadruple correlations in comparison with the triple correlations. The diffusion of particles from a source in a decaying turbulent field is calculated approximately by assuming that the velocity fluctuations are small.

  3. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  4. Diffusion of uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of uranium hexafluoride

  5. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  6. Fractal Trigonometric Polynomials for Restricted Range Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, A. K. B.; Navascués, M. A.; Viswanathan, P.; Katiyar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    One-sided approximation tackles the problem of approximation of a prescribed function by simple traditional functions such as polynomials or trigonometric functions that lie completely above or below it. In this paper, we use the concept of fractal interpolation function (FIF), precisely of fractal trigonometric polynomials, to construct one-sided uniform approximants for some classes of continuous functions.

  7. Magnetic field generation and diffusion by a laser-produced blast wave propagating in non-homogenous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we discuss the magnetic field self generation, via the so-called Biermann battery effect, and its diffusion for a blast wave (BW) expanding in a perturbed background medium. A series of simulations verify the bi-linear behavior of the Biermann battery source term both in amplitude and in wavenumber. Such a behavior is valid in the limit of no diffusivity. When diffusivity is also considered, we observe an inverse proportionality with the wavenumber: for large wavenumber perturbation magnetic diffusivity plays a key role. Writing the induction equation in a dimensionless form we discuss how, in terms of magnetic properties, the BW can be subdivided into three main regions: the remnant where the frozen-in-flow approximation holds, the thin shell where the magnetic field is in fact generated but at the same time begins to diffuse, and the shock front where the magnetic field diffuses away. A possible experimental scenario that could induce magnetic fields of about 100 gauss is finally investigated. Simulations have been performed with the code DUED.

  8. Imaging complex structures with diffuse light

    PubMed Central

    Konecky, Soren D.; Panasyuk, George Y.; Lee, Kijoon; Markel, Vadim; Yodh, Arjun G.; Schotland, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We use diffuse optical tomography to quantitatively reconstruct images of complex phantoms with millimeter sized features located centimeters deep within a highly-scattering medium. A non-contact instrument was employed to collect large data sets consisting of greater than 107 source-detector pairs. Images were reconstructed using a fast image reconstruction algorithm based on an analytic solution to the inverse scattering problem for diffuse light. PMID:18542605

  9. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sorour, M.M. ); Saleh, M.M.; Mahmoud, R.A. )

    1990-03-01

    The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of soil has been experimentally measured using the line heat source transient method. Representative samples of different textures were collected and analyzed from different localities and depths. The effect of temperatures, in the range of {minus}10{degrees}C {yields} 35{degrees}C and moisture content up to 40% on the conductivity and diffusivity were investigated. The results of this investigation indicate some interesting results and confirm some previously published data.

  10. Irregular diffusion in the bouncing ball billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, L.; Klages, R.

    2004-01-01

    We call a system bouncing ball billiard if it consists of a particle that is subject to a constant vertical force and bounces inelastically on a one-dimensional vibrating periodically corrugated floor. Here we choose circular scatterers that are very shallow, hence this billiard is a deterministic diffusive version of the well-known bouncing ball problem on a flat vibrating plate. Computer simulations show that the diffusion coefficient of this system is a highly irregular function of the vibration frequency exhibiting pronounced maxima whenever there are resonances between the vibration frequency and the average time of flight of a particle. In addition, there exist irregularities on finer scales that are due to higher-order dynamical correlations pointing towards a fractal structure of this curve. We analyze the diffusive dynamics by classifying the attracting sets and by working out a simple random walk approximation for diffusion, which is systematically refined by using a Green-Kubo formula.

  11. Simultaneous P and B diffusion, in-situ surface passivation, impurity filtering and gettering for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krygowski, T.; Rohatgi, A.; Ruby, D.

    1997-11-01

    A technique is presented to simultaneously diffuse boron and phosphorus in silicon, and grow an in-situ passivating oxide in a single furnace step. It is shown that limited solid doping sources made from P and B Spin-On Dopant (SOD) films can produce optimal n{sup +} and p{sup +} profiles simultaneously without the deleterious effects of cross doping. A high quality passivating oxide is grown in-situ beneath the thin ({approximately} 60 {angstrom}) diffusion glass, resulting in low J{sub o} values below 100 fA/cm{sup 2} for transparent ({approximately} 100 {Omega}/{open_square}) phosphorus and boron diffusions. For the first time it is shown that impurities present in the boron SOD film can be effectively filtered out by employing separate source wafers, resulting in bulk lifetimes in excess of 1 ms for the sample wafers. The degree of lifetime degradation in the sources is related to the gettering efficiency of boron in silicon. This novel simultaneous diffusion, in-situ oxidation, impurity filtering and gettering technique was successfully used to produce 20.3% Fz, and 19.1% Cz solar cells, in one furnace step.

  12. A fiber optic probe to measure spatially resolved diffuse reflectance in the sub-diffusion regime for in-vivo use (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshein, Adam; Wu, Wenli; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    We present an ultra-simple miniature fiber optic probe to measure spatially and spectrally resolved diffuse reflectance in the sub-diffuse regime (i.e. measurements with source-detector separation less than a transport mean free path) in-vivo. This probe has a robust and simple design with a small footprint (<.5 mm diameter). We show that our probe has sensitivity to structures scattering light an order of magnitude smaller than the diffraction limit, and thus can be used to quantify alterations in the very smallest structures in tissue (e.g. organelles, chromatin, collagen fibers, etc.). Specifically, the probe samples the spatial profile of diffuse reflectance in the sub-diffusion regime (P(r), r<<1 mm). P(r) can be used to quantify the entire shape of the phase function, F(θ). The shape of the refractive index correlation function Bn(rd) (through which the spatial distribution of mass is defined) can be analytically derived from the shape of F(θ) through application of the Born approximation. Therefor measurements of P(r) can elucidate F(θ) and Bn(rd). This ability has tremendous potential for use as a diagnostic tool and broad applications for probing the nanoscale environment of tissue in-vivo.

  13. Asymptotic Diffusion-Limit Accuracy of Sn Angular Differencing Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T S; Morel, J E; Chang, J H

    2009-11-05

    In a previous paper, Morel and Montry used a Galerkin-based diffusion analysis to define a particular weighted diamond angular discretization for S{sub n}n calculations in curvilinear geometries. The weighting factors were chosen to ensure that the Galerkin diffusion approximation was preserved, which eliminated the discrete-ordinates flux dip. It was also shown that the step and diamond angular differencing schemes, which both suffer from the flux dip, do not preserve the diffusion approximation in the Galerkin sense. In this paper we re-derive the Morel and Montry weighted diamond scheme using a formal asymptotic diffusion-limit analysis. The asymptotic analysis yields more information than the Galerkin analysis and demonstrates that the step and diamond schemes do in fact formally preserve the diffusion limit to leading order, while the Morel and Montry weighted diamond scheme preserves it to first order, which is required for full consistency in this limit. Nonetheless, the fact that the step and diamond differencing schemes preserve the diffusion limit to leading order suggests that the flux dip should disappear as the diffusion limit is approached for these schemes. Computational results are presented that confirm this conjecture. We further conjecture that preserving the Galerkin diffusion approximation is equivalent to preserving the asymptotic diffusion limit to first order.

  14. Hydrodynamic theory of diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Detailed numerical simulations of multicomponent plasmas require tractable expressions for species diffusion fluxes, which must be consistent with the given plasma current density J{sub q} to preserve local charge neutrality. The common situation in which J{sub q} = 0 is referred to as ambipolar diffusion. The use of formal kinetic theory in this context leads to results of formidable complexity. We derive simple tractable approximations for the diffusion fluxes in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas by means of a generalization of the hydrodynamical approach used by Maxwell, Stefan, Furry, and Williams. The resulting diffusion fluxes obey generalized Stefan-Maxwell equations that contain driving forces corresponding to ordinary, forced, pressure, and thermal diffusion. The ordinary diffusion fluxes are driven by gradients in pressure fractions rather than mole fractions. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are systematically exploited and lead to a general expression for the ambipolar electric field in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity. We present a self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation for the diffusion fluxes. This approximation is well suited to numerical implementation and is currently in use in our LAVA computer code for simulating multicomponent thermal plasmas. Applications to date include a successful simulation of demixing effects in an argon-helium plasma jet, for which selected computational results are presented. Generalizations of the diffusion theory to finite electrical conductivity and nonzero magnetic field are currently in progress.

  15. A unified approach to the Darwin approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Todd B.; Apte, A.; Morrison, P. J.

    2007-10-15

    There are two basic approaches to the Darwin approximation. The first involves solving the Maxwell equations in Coulomb gauge and then approximating the vector potential to remove retardation effects. The second approach approximates the Coulomb gauge equations themselves, then solves these exactly for the vector potential. There is no a priori reason that these should result in the same approximation. Here, the equivalence of these two approaches is investigated and a unified framework is provided in which to view the Darwin approximation. Darwin's original treatment is variational in nature, but subsequent applications of his ideas in the context of Vlasov's theory are not. We present here action principles for the Darwin approximation in the Vlasov context, and this serves as a consistency check on the use of the approximation in this setting.

  16. Image-based color ink diffusion rendering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Ming; Wang, Ren-Jie

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an image-based painterly rendering algorithm for automatically synthesizing an image with color ink diffusion. We suggest a mathematical model with a physical base to simulate the phenomenon of color colloidal ink diffusing into absorbent paper. Our algorithm contains three main parts: a feature extraction phase, a Kubelka-Munk (KM) color mixing phase, and a color ink diffusion synthesis phase. In the feature extraction phase, the information of the reference image is simplified by luminance division and color segmentation. In the color mixing phase, the KM theory is employed to approximate the result when one pigment is painted upon another pigment layer. Then, in the color ink diffusion synthesis phase, the physically-based model that we propose is employed to simulate the result of color ink diffusion in absorbent paper using a texture synthesis technique. Our image-based ink diffusing rendering (IBCIDR) algorithm eliminates the drawback of conventional Chinese ink simulations, which are limited to the black ink domain, and our approach demonstrates that, without using any strokes, a color image can be automatically converted to the diffused ink style with a visually pleasing appearance. PMID:17218741

  17. Aqueous diffusion in repository and backfill environments

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, J.L.; Apted, M.; Arthur, R.

    1993-12-31

    Aqueous diffusion coefficients have been experimentally determined in a variety of porous/fractured geologic and engineered media. For performance assessment applications, the purely diffusive flux must be separated from retardation effects. The simple diffusion coefficient, D, does not include any transient chemical effects, e.g., sorption, which lower the diffusion coefficient for some finite time period until equilibrium is reached. D is primarily a function of volumetric water content, {theta}, and not material characteristics. At high water contents, D gradually declines as water content decreases, from 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/sec at {theta} {approximately}0.5%. Although surface diffusion has a strong experimental basis in the transport of gases along metal surfaces experimental evidence for aqueous geologic/backfill/engineered systems strongly indicates that surface diffusion is not important, even in bentonite, because of the extremely poor connectivity among electric double-layers and the extremely low diffusivities and high {partial_derivative}C/{partial_derivative}x at small area/point contacts which more than negate the increased flux along intragrain surfaces.

  18. Counterstreaming suprathermal electron events upstream of corotating shocks in the solar wind beyond [approximately]2 AU: Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Mcomas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L. ); Goldstein, B.E. )

    1993-11-05

    Enhanced fluxes of suprathermal electrons are commonly observed upstream of corotating forward and reverse shocks in the solar wind at heliocentric distances beyond [approximately]2 AU by the Los Alamos plasma experiment on Ulysses. The average duration of these events, which are most intense immediately upstream from the shocks and which fade with increasing distance from them, is [approximately]2.4 days near 5 AU. These events are caused by the leakage of shock-heated electrons into the upstream region. The upstream regions of these shocks face back toward the SUN along the interplanetary magnetic field, so these leaked electrons commonly counterstream relative to the normal solar wind electron heat flux. The observations suggest that conservation of magnetic moment and scattering typically limit the sunward propagation of these electrons as beams to field-aligned distances of [approximately]15 AU. Although it seems unlikely that these shock-associated events are an important source of counterstreaming events near 1 AU, remnants of the backstreaming beams may contribute importantly to the diffuse solar wind halo electron population there. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Counterstreaming suprathermal electron events upstream of corotating shocks in the solar wind beyond approximately 2 AU: Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1993-01-01

    Enhanced fluxes of suprathermal electrons are commonly observed upstream of corotating forward and reverse shocks in the solar wind at heliocentric distances beyond approximately 2 AU by the Los Alamos plasma experiment on Ulysses. The average duration of these events, which are most intense immediately upstream from the shocks and which fade with increasing distance from them, is approximately 2.4 days near 5 AU. These events are caused by the leakage of shock-heated electrons into the upstream region. The upstream regions of these shocks face back toward the Sun along the interplanetary magnetic field, so these leaked electrons commonly counterstream relative to the normal solar wind electron heat flux. The observations suggest that conservation of magnetic moment and scattering typically limit the sunward propagation of these electrons as beams to field-aligned distances of approximately 15 AU. Although it seems unlikely that these shock-associated events are an important source of counterstreaming events near 1 AU, remnants of the backstreaming beams may contribute importantly to the diffuse solar wind halo electron population there.

  20. Monte Carlo analysis of obstructed diffusion in three dimensions: application to molecular diffusion in organelles.

    PubMed

    Olveczky, B P; Verkman, A S

    1998-05-01

    Molecular transport in the aqueous lumen of organelles involves diffusion in a confined compartment with complex geometry. Monte Carlo simulations of particle diffusion in three dimensions were carried out to evaluate the influence of organelle structure on diffusive transport and to relate experimental photobleaching data to intrinsic diffusion coefficients. Two organelle structures were modeled: a mitochondria-like long closed cylinder containing fixed luminal obstructions of variable number and size, and an endoplasmic reticulum-like network of interconnected cylinders of variable diameter and density. Trajectories were computed in each simulation for >10(5) particles, generally for >10(5) time steps. Computed time-dependent concentration profiles agreed quantitatively with analytical solutions of the diffusion equation for simple geometries. For mitochondria-like cylinders, significant slowing of diffusion required large or wide single obstacles, or multiple obstacles. In simulated spot photobleaching experiments, a approximately 25% decrease in apparent diffusive transport rate (defined by the time to 75% fluorescence recovery) was found for a single thin transverse obstacle occluding 93% of lumen area, a single 53%-occluding obstacle of width 16 lattice points (8% of cylinder length), 10 equally spaced 53% obstacles alternately occluding opposite halves of the cylinder lumen, or particle binding to walls (with mean residence time = 10 time steps). Recovery curve shape with obstacles showed long tails indicating anomalous diffusion. Simulations also demonstrated the utility of measurement of fluorescence depletion at a spot distant from the bleach zone. For a reticulum-like network, particle diffusive transport was mildly reduced from that in unobstructed three-dimensional space. In simulated photobleaching experiments, apparent diffusive transport was decreased by 39-60% in reticular structures in which 90-97% of space was occluded. These computations provide