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1

Effective optical path length for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as gas absorption cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tandem diffuse cubic cavities designed by connecting two single diffuse cubic-shaped cavities, A and B, with an aperture (port fraction fap) in the middle of the connecting baffle was developed as a gas absorption cell. The effective optical path length (EOPL) was evaluated by comparing the oxygen absorption signal in the cavity and in air based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Experimental results manifested an enhancement of EOPL for the tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of fap and can be expressed as the sum of EOPL of two single cubic cavities at fap < 0.01, which coincided well with theoretical analysis. The simulating EOPL was smaller than experimental results at fap > 0.01, which indicated that back scattering light from cavity B to cavity A cannot be ignored at this condition.

Yu, J.; Gao, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wu, S. H.

2014-12-01

2

Diffuse interface model of diffusion-limited crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general approach to diffusion-limited crystal growth is proposed. It consists of a modified (nonequilibrium) Cahn-Hilliard representation of the interface coupled to a diffusion equation. Arguments are given as to its superiority over previous models. These are illlustrated in a one-dimensional solution which shows how the system selects a unique interface velocity. The selection can be interpreted as the requirement

Joseph B. Collins; Herbert Levine

1985-01-01

3

Calculation of the Effective Emissivities of Specular-Diffuse Cavities by the Monte Carlo Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm of the Monte Carlo method is described which allows evaluation of the effective emissivities of isothermal and nonisothermal specular-diffuse black-body cavities for use in radiometry, photometry and optical pyrometry. The calculation provides estimates of normal spectral effective emissivity for black-body cavities, formed by cone surfaces and a cylinder. It does this for an isothermal cavity and for a

V. I. Sapritsky; A. V. Prokhorov

1992-01-01

4

The growth of prebreakdown cavities in silicone fluids and the frequency of the accompanying discharge pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been made of prebreakdown cavities in silicone fluids, and of the current pulses that accompany cavity growth. These experiments were carried out in silicone fluids of 0.65, 10, 100 and 1000 cS viscosity. Cavity growth, driven by the electrostatic field, is limited at low viscosities by inertia, and at high viscosities by viscous drag. The electrostatic force on

P. Keith Watson; M. Iqbal Qureshi; W. G. Chadband

1998-01-01

5

Knowledge Diffusion and Industry Growth By Serguey Braguinsky  

E-print Network

, and the specific channels through which such innovations and their diffusion occur are not explicitly considered 1 Knowledge Diffusion and Industry Growth By Serguey Braguinsky Department of Social diffusion, proceeding not as a disembodied neoclassical "externality" but through direct firm

Braguinsky, Serguey

6

The growth of pre-breakdown cavities in silicone fluids, and the accompanying discharge pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been made of pre-breakdown cavities in silicone fluids, and of the current pulses that accompany cavity growth. These experiments were carried out in silicone fluids of 0.65, 10, 100 and 1000 cSt viscosity. Cavity growth is driven by the electrostatic force on the cavity wall, which is related to the local field and to the space charge density

P. K. Watson; M. I. Qureshi; W. G. Chadband

1998-01-01

7

A simplified model for thermal-wave cavity self-consistent measurement of thermal diffusivity.  

PubMed

A simplified theoretical model was developed for the thermal-wave cavity (TWC) technique in this study. This model takes thermal radiation into account and can be employed for absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivity of gas and liquid samples without any knowledge of geometrical and thermal parameters of the components of the TWC. Using this model and cavity-length scans, thermal diffusivities of air and distilled water were accurately and precisely measured as (2.191 ± 0.004) × 10(-5) and (1.427 ± 0.009) × 10(-7) m(2) s(-1), respectively, in very good agreement with accepted literature values. PMID:24387453

Shen, Jun; Zhou, Jianqin; Gu, Caikang; Neill, Stuart; Michaelian, Kirk H; Fairbridge, Craig; Astrath, Nelson G C; Baesso, Mauro L

2013-12-01

8

Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.

Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan

1998-01-01

9

Comparisons of hybrid radiosity-diffusion model and diffusion equation for bioluminescence tomography in cavity cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has been successfully applied to the detection and therapeutic evaluation of solid cancers. However, the existing BLT reconstruction algorithms are not accurate enough for cavity cancer detection because of neglecting the void problem. Motivated by the ability of the hybrid radiosity-diffusion model (HRDM) in describing the light propagation in cavity organs, an HRDM-based BLT reconstruction algorithm was provided for the specific problem of cavity cancer detection. HRDM has been applied to optical tomography but is limited to simple and regular geometries because of the complexity in coupling the boundary between the scattering and void region. In the provided algorithm, HRDM was first applied to three-dimensional complicated and irregular geometries and then employed as the forward light transport model to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues. Combining HRDM with the sparse reconstruction strategy, the cavity cancer cells labeled with bioluminescent probes can be more accurately reconstructed. Compared with the diffusion equation based reconstruction algorithm, the essentiality and superiority of the HRDM-based algorithm were demonstrated with simulation, phantom and animal studies. An in vivo gastric cancer-bearing nude mouse experiment was conducted, whose results revealed the ability and feasibility of the HRDM-based algorithm in the biomedical application of gastric cancer detection.

Chen, Xueli; Yang, Defu; Qu, Xiaochao; Hu, Hao; Liang, Jimin; Gao, Xinbo; Tian, Jie

2012-06-01

10

ORIGINAL PAPER Diffusion-controlled spherulite growth in obsidian inferred  

E-print Network

crystals that occur naturally in rhyolitic obsidian. The growth of spherulites requires diffusion and uptake of crystal forming components from the host rhyolite melt or glass, and rejection of non these profiles to models of water diffusion in rhyolite to estimate timescales for spherulite growth. Using

Martin, Michael C.

11

Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

We report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, we can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%.

Chalmers, Scott A. (Albuquerque, NM); Killeen, Kevin P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

12

On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes  

SciTech Connect

An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

2010-03-09

13

Diffusion processes in Al2O3 scales - Void growth, grain growth, and scale growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The internal microstructure and growth kinetics of Al2O3 scales on Ni-15Cr-13Al (wt percent) are investigated by TEM and analyzed in relation to models of diffusivity. Polished arc-melted specimens were oxidized in 1-atm air at 1100 C for 0.1, 1.0, and 20 hours and ion-thinned for TEM at 100 kV. The frequency distribution of void size and grain size is determined for different oxidation times and scale depths. The kinetics of microvoid growth and of grain and scale growth are plotted and related via simplified models to lattice and grain-boundary oxygen diffusivity, respectively. Good agreement is found between model predictions and data obtained by Oishi and Kingery (1960) on oxygen diffusion in bulk Al2O3. The further implications and limitations of these findings are discssed.

Smialek, J. L.; Gibala, R.

1983-01-01

14

Diffusion-limited aggregation as a deterministic growth process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of deterministic continuum equations is proposed to represent diffusion-limited aggregation. A solution using a Green's-function method gives growth very similar to discrete simulations. The growth equations have no external noise. The relationship to viscous fingering and other growth processes is explored.

L. M. Sander; P. Ramanlal; E. Ben-Jacob

1985-01-01

15

Germanium nanowire growth controlled by surface diffusion effects  

SciTech Connect

Germanium nanowires (NWs) were grown onto Ge(111) substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid process using gold droplets. The growth was carried out in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber at substrate temperatures between 370 Degree-Sign C and 510 Degree-Sign C. The resulting nanowire growth rate turns out to be highly dependent on the substrate temperature exhibiting the maximum at T = 430 Degree-Sign C. The temperature dependence of growth rate can be attributed to surface diffusion both along the substrate and nanowire sidewalls. Analyzing the diffusive material transport yields a diffusion length of 126 nm at a substrate temperature of 430 Degree-Sign C.

Schmidtbauer, Jan; Bansen, Roman; Heimburger, Robert; Teubner, Thomas; Boeck, Torsten; Fornari, Roberto [Leibniz-Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung, Max-Born-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2012-07-23

16

Thermal-wave resonator cavity design and measurements of the thermal diffusivity of liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid-ambient-compatible thermal wave resonant cavity (TWRC) has been constructed for the measurement of the thermal diffusivity of liquids. The thermal diffusivities of distilled water, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and olive oil were determined at room temperature (25 °C), with four-significant-figure precision as follows: (0.1445±0.0002)×10-2 cm2/s (distilled water); (0.0922±0.0002)×10-2 cm2/s (glycerol); (0.0918±0.0002)×10-2 cm2/s (ethylene glycol); and (0.0881±0.0004)×10-2 cm2/s (olive oil). The liquid-state TWRC sensor was found to be highly sensitive to various mixtures of methanol and salt in distilled water with sensitivity limits 0.5% (v/v) and 0.03% (w/v), respectively. The use of the TWRC to measure gas evolution from liquids and its potential for environmental applications has also been demonstrated.

Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, A.; Garcia, J. A.

2000-07-01

17

Motion of an atom in a weakly driven fiber-Bragg-grating cavity: Force, friction, and diffusion  

SciTech Connect

We study the translational motion of an atom in the vicinity of a weakly driven nanofiber with two fiber-Bragg-grating mirrors. We calculate numerically and analytically the force, the friction coefficients, and the momentum diffusion. We find that the spatial dependences of the force, the friction coefficients, and the momentum diffusion are very complicated due to the evanescent-wave nature of the atom-field coupling as well as the effect of the van der Waals potential. We show that the time development of the mean number of photons in the cavity closely follows the translational motion of the atom through the nodes and antinodes of the fiber-guided cavity standing-wave field even though the cavity finesse is moderate, the cavity is long, and the probe field is weak.

Le Kien, Fam; Hakuta, K. [Center for Photonic Innovations and Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

2010-06-15

18

Diffusion-limited aggregation at multiple growth sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two models have been developed to investigate the effects of multiple growth sites and finite particle concentrations on diffusion-limited aggregation. In one of these models (model A), all of the mobile particles are added to a lattice containing one or more growth sites at the start of the simulation. This model generates structures which have a fractal geometry on short

T. A. Witten Jr.; Paul Meakin

1983-01-01

19

Development of Nb{sub 3}Sn Cavity Vapor Diffusion Deposition System  

SciTech Connect

Nb{sub 3}Sn is a BCS superconductors with the superconducting critical temperature higher than that of niobium, so theoretically it surpasses the limitations of niobium in RF fields. The feasibility of technology has been demonstrated at 1.5 GHz with Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor deposition technique at Wuppertal University. The benefit at these frequencies is more pronounced at 4.2 K, where Nb{sub 3}Sn coated cavities show RF resistances an order of magnitude lower than that of niobium. At Jefferson Lab we started the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor diffusion deposition system within an R\\&D development program towards compact light sources. Here we present the current progress of the system development.

Eremeev, Grigory V.; Macha, Kurt M.; Clemens, William A.; Park, HyeKyoung; Williams, R. Scott

2014-02-01

20

Neuronal growth as diffusion in an effective potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current understanding of neuronal growth is mostly qualitative, as the staggering number of physical and chemical guidance cues involved prohibit a fully quantitative description of axonal dynamics. We report on a general approach that describes axonal growth in vitro, on poly-D-lysine-coated glass substrates, as diffusion in an effective external potential, representing the collective contribution of all causal influences on the growth cone. We use this approach to obtain effective growth rules that reveal an emergent regulatory mechanism for axonal pathfinding on these substrates.

Rizzo, Daniel J.; White, James D.; Spedden, Elise; Wiens, Matthew R.; Kaplan, David L.; Atherton, Timothy J.; Staii, Cristian

2013-10-01

21

Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation on Discrete Groups Having Exponential Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) has been introduced by Diaconis and Fulton [Rend. Sem. Mat. Univ. Pol. Torino\\u000a 49, 95–119 (1991)]. It is a growth model defined on an infinite set and associated to a Markov chain on this set. We focus here\\u000a on sets which are finitely generated groups with exponential growth. We prove a shape theorem for

Sébastien Blachère; Sara Brofferio

2007-01-01

22

Grain Growth in Niobium for Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities  

E-print Network

Research Advisor: Dr. K. T. Hartwig Department of Mechanical Engineering This project explores the grain growth characteristics and grain morphology of bulk niobium (Nb) processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD). This report deals with factors... did not know or understand the next step, he took the time to explain what needed to happen and what direction I should go to make the most progress. I must also thank Dr. Hartwig, my faculty advisor, for allowing me the opportunity to use his...

Vernon, Joshua A.

2009-06-09

23

Further development of an axisymmetric global UCG (underground coal gasification) cavity growth simulator  

SciTech Connect

Development has continued on the global underground coal gasification (UCG) cavity simulation model CAVSMII, first described at the 12th UCG symposium, with the result that it now treats essentially all major processes that occur during a UCG operation. To a large extent these modifications were motivated by insight into UCG cavity growth gained from observation of the excavated Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) UCG site. A submodel for water influx has been formulated and added, based on gravity drainage and water reflux, including compressibility effects of the medium. A submodel empirically describing the growth of an outflow channel from a horizontal uncased production borehole in the coal seam has been developed as well. The settling of solids in the rubble pile caused by removal of carbon from spalled char has been reformulated more realistically. Another major modeling reformulation is the addition of a resistance to gas flow through the overburden rubble, which was previously assumed negligible in comparison to the ash pile flow resistance. Also, the submodel describing dynamics of the reaction zone between the ash rubble and the competent coal wall, which previously consisted of an empirical two-parameter model, is now fully integrated into the global cavity evolution model and solved for each time step. At the same time, more efficient algorithms for computing flow of injection gas through the rubble pile have reduced both total CPU time and code memory requirements by more than a factor of two. The present state of the simulator is presented and the effect of some key physical and process parameters is explored. Finally, results are presented for the simulation of UCG cavity growth for the PSC test, the upcoming Rocky Mountain I test and a test of a high-ash, relatively thin seam coal proposed for Brazil. 13 refs.

Britten, J.A.; Thorsness, C.B.

1987-07-15

24

Numerical study of double-diffusion convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity filled with a participating grey gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents numerical solutions for the coupled radiation and natural convection heat transfer by double diffusion in a square cavity. The governing differential equations are solved by a finite-volume method, by adopting the SIMPLER algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. The discrete ordinate method is used in modelling the radiative transfer equation. The working fluid is considered as grey, absorbing, emitting and not scattering. The walls of the enclosure are assumed to be opaque, diffuse and grey. A parametric study is performed to illustrate the influence of the Rayleigh number, the buoyancy number, the Lewis number and the optical thickness on the flow structure, the heat and mass transfer. The results obtained can be used as benchmark solutions for the validation of the codes treating the combined natural convection heat transfer by double diffusion and radiation.

Mezrhab, A.; Lemonnier, D.; Meftah, S.; Benbrik, A.

2008-10-01

25

Structure of S-shaped growth in innovation diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic question on innovation diffusion is why the growth curve of the adopter population in a large society is often S shaped. From macroscopic, microscopic, and mesoscopic viewpoints, the growth of the adopter population is observed as the growth curve, individual adoptions, and differences among individual adoptions, respectively. The S shape can be explained if an empirical model of the growth curve can be deduced from models of microscopic and mesoscopic structures. However, even the structure of growth curve has not been revealed yet because long-term extrapolations by proposed models of S-shaped curves are unstable and it has been very difficult to predict the long-term growth and final adopter population. This paper studies the S-shaped growth from the viewpoint of social regularities. Simple methods to analyze power laws enable us to extract the structure of the growth curve directly from the growth data of recent basic telecommunication services. This empirical model of growth curve is singular at the inflection point and a logarithmic function of time after this point, which explains the unstable extrapolations obtained using previously proposed models and the difficulty in predicting the final adopter population. Because the empirical S curve can be expressed in terms of two power laws of the regularity found in social performances of individuals, we propose the hypothesis that the S shape represents the heterogeneity of the adopter population, and the heterogeneity parameter is distributed under the regularity in social performances of individuals. This hypothesis is so powerful as to yield models of microscopic and mesoscopic structures. In the microscopic model, each potential adopter adopts the innovation when the information accumulated by the learning about the innovation exceeds a threshold. The accumulation rate of information is heterogeneous among the adopter population, whereas the threshold is a constant, which is the opposite of previously proposed models. In the mesoscopic model, flows of innovation information incoming to individuals are organized as dimorphic and partially clustered. These microscopic and mesoscopic models yield the empirical model of the S curve and explain the S shape as representing the regularities of information flows generated through a social self-organization. To demonstrate the validity and importance of the hypothesis, the models of three level structures are applied to reveal the mechanism determining and differentiating diffusion speeds. The empirical model of S curves implies that the coefficient of variation of the flow rates determines the diffusion speed for later adopters. Based on this property, a model describing the inside of information flow clusters can be given, which provides a formula interconnecting the diffusion speed, cluster populations, and a network topological parameter of the flow clusters. For two recent basic telecommunication services in Japan, the formula represents the variety of speeds in different areas and enables us to explain speed gaps between urban and rural areas and between the two services. Furthermore, the formula provides a method to estimate the final adopter population.

Shimogawa, Shinsuke; Shinno, Miyuki; Saito, Hiroshi

2012-05-01

26

A New Diffuse Reflecting Material with Applications Including Integrating Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

ever produced. The material is a high-purity fumed silica, or quartz powder. We demonstrate the application of this new material to several areas of integrating cavity enhanced spectroscopy, including absorption, Raman, and fluorescence spectroscopy...

Cone, Michael Thomas

2014-04-16

27

Transition in the fractal properties from diffusion-limited aggregation to Laplacian growth via their generalization  

E-print Network

Transition in the fractal properties from diffusion-limited aggregation to Laplacian growth via diffusion-limited aggregation DLA and Laplacian growth patterns in two dimensions. The two parameters- limited aggregation DLA 3 and Laplacian growth patterns 4,5 , and employed this model to show

Levermann, Anders

28

Coordinated Development of Yeast Colonies: Quantitative Modeling of Diffusion-Limited Growth Part 2  

E-print Network

Coordinated Development of Yeast Colonies: Quantitative Modeling of Diffusion-Limited Growth ± Part the diffusion-limited growth (DLG) was the major construction principle in yeast co- lonies. Simulations were limitation. They showed that nutrient-controlled growth of the individual cells resulted in DLG

Montresor, Alberto

29

Formal asymptotic limit of a diffuse-interface tumor-growth  

E-print Network

Formal asymptotic limit of a diffuse-interface tumor-growth model Danielle Hilhorst , Johannes-interface tumor-growth model, which has the form of a phase-field system. We discuss the singular limit perturbation, interface mo- tion, matched asymptotic expansion, tumor-growth model. 1 Introduction Diffuse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Diffusion in immobilized-cell agar layers: influence of bacterial growth on the diffusivity of potassium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusitivity of potassium chloride in composite agar slab\\/microporous membrane structures loaded with various amounts of Escherichia coli whole cells was determined using both time-lag and steady-state methods. The diffusion coefficient of KCl decreased linearly with the logarithm of the immobilized-cells content. The effect exerted by bacterial growth inside the immobilization matrices on KCl diffusivity was then investigated. The diffusion

Laurent Mignot; Guy-Alain Junter

1990-01-01

31

Three-dimensional double-diffusive Marangoni convection in a cubic cavity with horizontal temperature and concentration gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional double-diffusive Marangoni convection in a cubic cavity is studied in the present paper. Both the temperature and solute concentration gradients are applied horizontally. Direct numerical simulations are carried out for surface-tension Reynolds number 10?Re?500 , surface-tension ratio -2?R??1 , and Lewis number 1diffusive Marangoni convection in three-dimensional confined cavities with horizontal temperature and concentration gradients.

Zhan, Jie-Min; Chen, Zhi-Wu; Li, Yok-Sheung; Nie, Yu-Hua

2010-12-01

32

Two-dimensional diffusion limited system for cell growth  

SciTech Connect

A new cell system, the ''sandwich'' system, was developed to supplement multicellular spheroids as tumor analogues. Sandwiches allow new experimental approaches to questions of diffusion, cell cycle effects and radiation resistance in tumors. In this thesis the method for setting up sandwiches is described both theoretically and experimentally followed by its use in x-ray irradiation studies. In the sandwich system, cells are grown in a narrow gap between two glass slides. Where nutrients and waste products can move into or out of the local environment of the cells only by diffusing through the narrow gap between the slides. Due to the competition between cells, self-created gradients of nutrients and metabolic products are set up resulting in a layer of cells which resembles a living spheroid cross section. Unlike the cells of the spheroid, however, cells in all regions of the sandwich are visible. Therefore, the relative sizes of the regions and their time-dependent growth can be monitored visually without fixation or sectioning. The oxygen and nutrient gradients can be ''turned off'' at any time without disrupting the spatial arrangement of the cells by removing the top slide of the assembly and subsequently turned back on if desired. Removal of the top slide also provides access to all the cells, including those near the necrotic center, of the sandwich. The cells can then be removed for analysis outside the sandwich system. 61 refs., 17 figs.

Hlatky, L.

1985-11-01

33

Scaling in nonlinear growth and diffusion-limited reaction system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaling has been a fascinating research area in statistical physics for decades since the pioneering work of L. Kadanoff. Recently the focus of research has shifted to complicated, nonlinear and far from equilibrium physical systems. With the aid of large scale computer simulations, we have studied scaling phenomenon in nonlinear growth models and in a diffusion-limited reaction system. First we investigate a particular growth equation-the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. We use the inverse method to study the renormalization group flow of that equation. We show how scaling occurs and how deterministic chaos at small scales develops into noisy dynamics at large scales, and how a small scale pattern becomes a large scale disordered fractal via an intermediate scaling regime. For the first time we obtain the dynamical renormalization flow of the system and find some interesting properties of the renormalized coefficients. As a second example of scaling, we propose a point island model to describe a Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) experiment. We study the cases of various critical island sizes i for nucleation as a function of initial coverage. A many body random walk theory is presented to explain the anomalous property of island size distribution. Using a version of mean-field theory we also obtain a closed form for the spatial correlation function. We also study the model using a mean field rate equation. Lastly we study the diffusion-limited reactions A + A /to /emptyset, A + B /to /emptyset and the number of distinct sites visited by a random walker on a d dimensional tubular lattice: a square lattice of sizes L × Wd-l with L /gg W. We are interested in the crossover time at which the system changes its behavior from that in high dimension to that in one dimension. We analytically solve the random walk problem on the tubular lattice and use it to explain the anomalous scaling of the crossover time for reaction A + A /to /emptyset on the tubular lattice.

Li, Ji

1997-11-01

34

The roles of hope and optimism on posttraumatic growth in oral cavity cancer patients.  

PubMed

To investigate the association of the positive coping strategies, hope and optimism, on posttraumatic growth (PTG) in oral cavity (OC) cancer patients. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted and performed in the outpatient station of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China. Fifty patients successfully treated for OC cancer were recruited after their informed consents had been obtained during the review clinic. During their regular follow-up controls in the outpatient clinic, the patients compiled the posttraumatic growth inventory (PTGI) questionnaire, hope scale (HS) and the life orientation scale-revised (LOT-R). Hope and optimism correlated significantly positive with PTG and accounting together for a 25% variance of posttraumatic growth. Hope positively correlated with posttraumatic growth (r=.49, p<.001) as well as optimism (r=.31, p<.05). When compared to unmarried patients, married patients showed high levels of PTG and hope (married participants: mean=53.15, SD=11.04; unmarried participants: mean=41.00, SD=6.36; t (48)=2.403, p<.05). Hope and optimism represent important indicators for PTG in OC cancer patients. An intact dyad relationship seems to be important for hope and consecutive higher levels of PTG when compared to unmarried patients. Supportive psychological treatment strategies related to these two coping factors might be beneficial for OC cancer patients. PMID:21183398

Ho, Samuel; Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Chan, Natalie; Samman, Nabil; McGrath, Colman; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

2011-02-01

35

Influence of island diffusion on submonolayer epitaxial growth P. L. Krapivsky  

E-print Network

to irreversible aggregation of islands. We also account for the effective diffusion of islands, which originates onto a substrate, and diffusion of these adatoms monomers leading to aggregation of islands of everInfluence of island diffusion on submonolayer epitaxial growth P. L. Krapivsky Center for Polymer

Redner, Sidney

36

Interferometric measurements of a dendritic growth front solutal diffusion layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was undertaken to measure solutal distributions in the diffusion layer produced during the vertical directional solidification (VDS) of an ammonium chloride - water (NH4Cl-H2O) solution. Interferometry was used to obtain concentration measurements in the 1-2 millimeter region defining the diffusion layer. These measurements were fitted to an exponential form to extract the characteristic diffusion parameter for various times after the start of solidification. The diffusion parameters are within the limits predicted by steady state theory and suggest that the effective solutal diffusivity is increasing as solidification progresses.

Hopkins, John A.; Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

1991-01-01

37

The effect of photo-generated carriers on the spectral diffusion of a quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal cavity  

E-print Network

We experimentally observe the effect of photo-generated carriers on the spectral diffusion of a quantum dot (QD) coupled to a photonic crystal (PC) cavity. In this system, spectral diffusion arises in part from charge fluctuations on the etched surfaces of the PC. We find that these fluctuations may be suppressed by photo-generated carriers, leading to a reduction of the measured QD linewidth by a factor of ~2 compared to the case where the photo-generated carriers are not present. This result demonstrates a possible means of countering the effects of spectral diffusion in QD-PC cavity systems and thus may be useful for quantum information applications where narrow QD linewidths are desired.

Arka Majumdar; Erik D. Kim; Jelena Vuckovic

2011-07-24

38

Sucrose Release into the Endosperm Cavity of Wheat Grains Apparently Occurs by Facilitated Diffusion across the Nucellar Cell Membranes.  

PubMed Central

Nutrients required for the growth of the embryo and endosperm of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains are released into the endosperm cavity from the maternal tissues across the nucellar cell plasma membranes. We followed the uptake and efflux of sugars into and out of the nucellus by slicing grains longitudinally through the endosperm cavity to expose the nucellar surface to experimental solutions. Sucrose uptake and efflux are passive processes. Neither was sensitive to metabolic inhibitors, pH, or potassium concentration. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate, however, strongly inhibited both uptake and efflux, although not equally. Except for p-chloromercuribenzene sensitivity, these characteristics of efflux and the insensitivity of Suc movement to turgor pressure are similar to those of sucrose release from maize pedicels, but they contrast with legume seed coats. Although the evidence is incomplete, movement appears to be carrier mediated rather than channel mediated. In vitro rates of sucrose efflux were similar to or somewhat less than in vivo rates, suggesting that transport across the nucellar cell membranes could be a factor in the control of assimilate import into the grain. PMID:12228614

Wang, N.; Fisher, D. B.

1995-01-01

39

Scaling structure of the growth-probability distribution in diffusion-limited aggregation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nonequilibrium growth such as diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), the growth-site probability distribution characterizes these growth processes. By solving the Laplace equation numerically, we calculate the growth probability Pg(x) at the perimeter site x of clusters for the DLA and its generalized version called the eta model, and obtain the generalized dimension D(q) and the f-alpha spectrum proposed by Halsey et

Y. Hayakawa; S. Sato; M. Matsushita

1987-01-01

40

Growth of Diffusion Chamber Hematopoietic Colonies Derived from Spleen Cells of Rats Administered Hydroxyurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donor rats of the Hebrew University strain were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of hydroxyurea (400 mg\\/kg body weight). 1–3 h following the administration of the drug, a suspension of spleen cells, the majority of which consisted of lymphocytes, was prepared. Spleen cells were placed in diffusion chambers and these were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of preirradiated mice. 5–8

Zina Ben-Ishay; Sara Sharon; Fanny Reichert

1978-01-01

41

Theory of multiple bubble growth in porous media by solute diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theoretical analysis of bubble growth in porous media by solute diffusion. Based on visualization experiments, a theoretical model is developed for bubble growth driven by a constant or a time-varying supersaturation in the far-field. It is shown that in porous media, gas evolution (patterns and rates) is much different than in the bulk. Patterns and rates of

X. Li; Y. C. Yortsos

1995-01-01

42

Predicting Global Internet Growth Using Augmented Diffusion, Fuzzy Regression and Neural Network Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative models explaining and forecasting the growth of new technology like the Internet in global business operation appear infrequently in the literature. This paper introduces two artificial intelligence (AI) models such as the neural network and fuzzy regression along with an augmented diffusion model to study and predict the Internet growth in several OECD nations. First, a linear version of

Kallol Kumar Bagchi; Somnath Mukhopadhyay

2006-01-01

43

From snowflake formation to growth of bacterial colonies. Diffusive patterning in azoic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many phenomena display the emergence of patterns during diffusive growth, ranging from the growth of snowflake s to the aggregation of a soot particle, from oil recovery by fluid injection to solidification of metals and from the formation of a coral reef to cell differentiation during embryonic development. Is the diversity of patterns found in Nature a result of different

Eshel Ben-Jacob

1993-01-01

44

Soft bounds on diffusion produce skewed distributions and Gompertz growth.  

PubMed

Constraints can affect dramatically the behavior of diffusion processes. Recently, we analyzed a natural and a technological system and reported that they perform diffusion-like discrete steps displaying a peculiar constraint, whereby the increments of the diffusing variable are subject to configuration-dependent bounds. This work explores theoretically some of the revealing landmarks of such phenomenology, termed "soft bound." At long times, the system reaches a steady state irreversibly (i.e., violating detailed balance), characterized by a skewed "shoulder" in the density distribution, and by a net local probability flux, which has entropic origin. The largest point in the support of the distribution follows a saturating dynamics, expressed by the Gompertz law, in line with empirical observations. Finally, we propose a generic allometric scaling for the origin of soft bounds. These findings shed light on the impact on a system of such "scaling" constraint and on its possible generating mechanisms. PMID:25314480

Mandrà, Salvatore; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino; Gherardi, Marco

2014-09-01

45

Soft bounds on diffusion produce skewed distributions and Gompertz growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constraints can affect dramatically the behavior of diffusion processes. Recently, we analyzed a natural and a technological system and reported that they perform diffusion-like discrete steps displaying a peculiar constraint, whereby the increments of the diffusing variable are subject to configuration-dependent bounds. This work explores theoretically some of the revealing landmarks of such phenomenology, termed "soft bound." At long times, the system reaches a steady state irreversibly (i.e., violating detailed balance), characterized by a skewed "shoulder" in the density distribution, and by a net local probability flux, which has entropic origin. The largest point in the support of the distribution follows a saturating dynamics, expressed by the Gompertz law, in line with empirical observations. Finally, we propose a generic allometric scaling for the origin of soft bounds. These findings shed light on the impact on a system of such "scaling" constraint and on its possible generating mechanisms.

Mandrà, Salvatore; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino; Gherardi, Marco

2014-09-01

46

Influence of stochastic domain growth on pattern nucleation for diffusive systems with internal noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous mathematical models exploring the emergence of complexity within developmental biology incorporate diffusion as the dominant mechanism of transport. However, self-organizing paradigms can exhibit the biologically undesirable property of extensive sensitivity, as illustrated by the behavior of the French-flag model in response to intrinsic noise and Turing’s model when subjected to fluctuations in initial conditions. Domain growth is known to be a stabilizing factor for the latter, though the interaction of intrinsic noise and domain growth is underexplored, even in the simplest of biophysical settings. Previously, we developed analytical Fourier methods and a description of domain growth that allowed us to characterize the effects of deterministic domain growth on stochastically diffusing systems. In this paper we extend our analysis to encompass stochastically growing domains. This form of growth can be used only to link the meso- and macroscopic domains as the “box-splitting” form of growth on the microscopic scale has an ill-defined thermodynamic limit. The extension is achieved by allowing the simulated particles to undergo random walks on a discretized domain, while stochastically controlling the length of each discretized compartment. Due to the dependence of diffusion on the domain discretization, we find that the description of diffusion cannot be uniquely derived. We apply these analytical methods to two justified descriptions, where it is shown that, under certain conditions, diffusion is able to support a consistent inhomogeneous state that is far removed from the deterministic equilibrium, without additional kinetics. Finally, a logistically growing domain is considered. Not only does this show that we can deal with nonmonotonic descriptions of stochastic growth, but it is also seen that diffusion on a stationary domain produces different effects to diffusion on a domain that is stationary “on average.”

Woolley, Thomas E.; Baker, Ruth E.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Maini, Philip K.

2011-10-01

47

A creep cavity growth model for creep-fatigue life prediction of a unidirectional W/Cu composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microstructural model was developed to predict creep-fatigue life in a (0)(sub 4), 9 volume percent tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite at the temperature of 833 K. The mechanism of failure of the composite is assumed to be governed by the growth of quasi-equilibrium cavities in the copper matrix of the composite, based on the microscopically observed failure mechanisms. The methodology uses a cavity growth model developed for prediction of creep fracture. Instantaneous values of strain rate and stress in the copper matrix during fatigue cycles were calculated and incorporated in the model to predict cyclic life. The stress in the copper matrix was determined by use of a simple two-bar model for the fiber and matrix during cyclic loading. The model successfully predicted the composite creep-fatigue life under tension-tension cyclic loading through the use of this instantaneous matrix stress level. Inclusion of additional mechanisms such as cavity nucleation, grain boundary sliding, and the effect of fibers on matrix-stress level would result in more generalized predictions of creep-fatigue life.

Kim, Young-Suk; Verrilli, Michael J.; Halford, Gary R.

1992-01-01

48

Diffusion limited growth of metal patches on colloid particles Patchy particles comprise regions of different functionality on an  

E-print Network

Diffusion limited growth of metal patches on colloid particles Patchy particles comprise regions particles with gold patches. In our case, the growth of these patches is limited by the diffusion of the gold precursor on the surface of the polystyrene particle. We study this growth process on such a small

Potsdam, Universität

49

Diffusion-limited growth in bacterial colony formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonies of bacterial species called Bacillus subtilis have been found to grow two-dimensionally and self-similarly on agar plates through diffusion-limited processes in a nutrient concentration field. We obtained a fractal dimension of the colony patterns of D=1.73+\\/-0.02, very close to that of the two-dimensional DLA model, and confirmed the existence of the screening effect of protruding main branches against inner

Mitsugu Matsushita; Hiroshi Fujikawa

1990-01-01

50

In situ observation of interfacial fatigue crack growth in diffusion bonded joints of austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-fatigue tests were performed on 316LSS vacuum diffusion bonded joints to investigate the interfacial fatigue crack growth behavior with discrete micro-voids located ahead of a pre-existing crack tip. In situ observation of the interfacial fatigue crack propagation and micro-voids evolution was carried out during the whole fatigue testing. SEM of the fracture surface was analyzed. The results showed that the interface failure mechanism of similar diffusion bonded joints is different from that of dissimilar materials joints. A brittle mode is observed in the main crack growth. And the ridge interface formed in diffusion bonded joints due to surface roughness can be a resistance to the crack growth. The location of the fatigue crack initiation and the crack propagation direction derived from SEM observation of the fracture surface of the specimen are in consistent with those obtained from the in situ observation by using the optical microscope.

Li, Shu-xin; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Tu, Shan-Tung

2007-06-01

51

Grain boundary diffusion and growth of titanium silicide layers on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetics study of titanium silicide formation is described. The results show that a fine grained precursor layer exist in between the well developed C-54 silicide layer and the unreacted titanium film. This layer is a mixture of C49-TiSiV2 and unreacted titanium. The fact that no C54-TiSi2 formed directly from the Ti-Si reaction suggests that the nucleation of C49-TiSi2 is easier than that of C54-TiSi2 under our annealing conditions. The silicide layer growth has a non-t1/2 dependence and is much better described by a grain boundary diffusion limited model giving different kinetics. This indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the major atomic transportation mechanism. The growth rate depends on both the grain boundary diffusion coefficient and the silicide grain growth rate.

Corcoran, Yunji L.; King, Alexander H.; de Lanerolle, Nimal; Kim, Bonggi

1990-11-01

52

Morphological Instability and Dynamics of Fronts in Bacterial Growth Models with Nonlinear Diffusion  

E-print Network

It has been argued that there is biological and modeling evidence that a non-linear diffusion coefficient of the type D(b) = D_0 b^{k} underlies the formation of a number of growth patterns of bacterial colonies. We study a reaction-diffusion system with a non-linear diffusion coefficient introduced by Ben-Jacob et al. Due to the fact that the bacterial diffusion coefficient vanishes when the bacterial density b -> 0, the standard linear stability analysis for fronts cannot be used. We introduce an extension of the stability analysis which can be applied to such singular fronts, map out the region of stability in the D-k-plane and derive an interfacial approximation in some limits. Our linear stability analysis and sharp interface formulation will also be applicable to other examples of interface formation due to nonlinear diffusion, like in porous media or in the problem of vortex motion in superconductors.

J. Mueller; W. van Saarloos

2002-11-21

53

Soot Surface Growth in Laminar Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames. Appendix B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure and soot surface growth properties of round laminar jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally. Measurements were made along the axes of ethylene-, propylene-propane- and acetylene-benzene-fueled flames burning in coflowing air at atmospheric pressure with the reactants at normal temperature. The measurements included soot structure, soot concentrations, soot temperatures, major gas species concentrations, some radial species (H, OH and O) concentrations, and gas velocities. These measurements yielded the local flame properties that are thought to affect soot surface growth as well as local soot surface growth rates. When present results were combined with similar earlier observations of acetylene-fueled laminar jet diffusion flames, the results suggested that soot surface growth involved decomposition of the original fuel to form acetylene and H, which were the main reactants for soot surface growth, and that the main effect of the parent fuel on soot surface growth involved its yield of acetylene and H for present test conditions. Thus, as the distance increased along the axes of the flames, soot formation (which was dominated by soot surface growth) began near the cool core of the flow once acetylene and H appeared together and ended near the flame sheet when acetylene disappeared. Species mainly responsible for soot oxidation - OH and O2 were present throughout the soot formation region so that soot surface growth and oxidation proceeded at the same time. Present measurements of soot surface growth rates (corrected for soot surface oxidation) in laminar jet diffusion flames were consistent with earlier measurements of soot surface growth rates in laminar premixed flames and exhibited good agreement with existing Hydrogen-Abstraction/Carbon-Addition (HACA) soot surface growth mechanisms in the literature with steric factors in these mechanisms having values on the order of unity, as anticipated.

El-Leathy, A. M.; Xu, F.; Kim, C. H.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

54

Soot Surface Growth in Laminar Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames. Appendix J  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure and soot surface growth properties of round laminar jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally. Measurements were made along the axes of ethylene-, propylene-propane- and acetylene-benzene-fueled flames burning in coflowing air at atmospheric pressure with the reactants at normal temperature. The measurements included soot structure, soot concentrations, soot temperatures, major gas species concentrations, some radial species (H, OH and 0) concentrations, and gas velocities. These measurements yielded the local flame properties that are thought to affect soot surface growth as well as local soot surface growth rates. When present results were combined with similar earlier observations of acetylene-fueled laminar jet diffusion flames, the results suggested that soot surface growth involved decomposition of the original fuel to form acetylene and H, which were the main reactants for soot surface growth, and that the main effect of the parent fuel on soot surface growth involved its yield of acetylene and H for present test conditions. Thus, as the distance increased along the axes of the flames, soot formation (which was dominated by soot surface growth) began near the cool core of the flow once acetylene and H appeared together and ended near the flame sheet when acetylene disappeared. Species mainly responsible for soot oxidation - OH and 02 were present throughout the soot formation region so that soot surface growth and oxidation proceeded at the same time. Present measurements of soot surface growth rates (corrected for soot surface oxidation) in laminar jet diffusion flames were consistent with earlier measurements of soot surface growth rates in laminar premixed flames and exhibited good agreement with existing Hydrogen-Abstraction/Carbon-Addition (HACA) soot surface growth mechanisms in the literature with steric factors in these mechanisms having values on the order of unity, as anticipated.

El-Leathy, A. M.; Xu, F.; Kim, C. H.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

55

Urban growth and form: scaling, fractal geometry, and diffusion-limited aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a model of growth and form in which the processes of growth are intimately linked to the resulting geometry of the system. The model, first developed by Witten and Sander and referred to as the diffusion-limited aggregation or DLA model, generates highly ramified tree-like clusters of particles, or populations, with evident self-similarity about a fixed

M Batty; P Longley; S Fotheringham

1989-01-01

56

Diffusion-limited aggregation and the fractal nature of urban growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the mechanism of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) as a new basis for understanding urban growth. Through DLA, urban form is related to the processes of rural-to-urban migration and contiguous growth. However, despite being based on very simple principles, DLA simulations are shown to have properties found in most urban areas such as negative density gradients and ordered chaotic

A. Stewart Fotheringham; Michael Batty; Paul A. Longley

1989-01-01

57

Large interface diffusion in endotaxial growth of MnP films on GaP substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metal organic vapor deposition of MnP films on GaP (100) substrates is shown to have a substantial endotaxial component. A study of the growth time evolution of the endotaxial depths of MnP grains reveals a diffusion-controlled growth with a relatively large diffusion coefficient of Mn in GaP. The value (2.2 ± 1.5) × 10-15 (cm2/s) obtained at 650 °C is at least two orders of magnitude larger than the reported Mn diffusion in bulk GaP. GaP surface mounds provide further indirect evidence that this large diffusion coefficient is concurrent with the out-diffusion of Ga atoms at the growing MnP/GaP interface. No trace of dislocations could be observed at or near this interface, which strongly suggests that Mn diffusion occurs through vacant sites generated by the difference between the crystallographic structures of MnP and GaP.

Nateghi, N.; Ménard, D.; Masut, R. A.

2014-10-01

58

Spectral and angular dependence of mid-infrared diffuse scattering from explosives residues for standoff detection using external cavity quantum cascade lasers  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the spectral and angular dependence of scattered mid-infrared light from surfaces coated with explosives residues (TNT, RDX, and tetryl) detected at a 2 meter standoff distance. An external cavity quantum cascade laser provided tunable illumination between 7 and 8 µm. Important differences were identified in the spectral features between specular reflection and diffuse scattering which will impact most practical testing scenarios and complicate material identification. We discuss some of the factors influencing the dependence of observed spectra on the experimental geometry.

Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.

2012-09-01

59

Experimental techniques for determination of the role of diffusion and convection in crystal growth from solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various studies of the concentration of the solution around a growing crystal using interferometric techniques are reviewed. A holographic interferometric technique used in laboratory experiments shows that a simple description of the solution based on the assumption of a purely diffusive mechanism appears inadequate since the convection, effective even in reduced columns, always affects the growth.

Zefiro, L.

1980-01-01

60

Analytical model of transient compressive stress evolution during growth of high diffusivity thin films on substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analytical model of transient compressive stress evolution during growth of thin films with high surface and grain boundary diffusivities on substrates. The model provides a closed-form analytical solution which compares well with numerical analysis as well as recent experimental data on transient stress evolution during electrodeposition of Sn films on substrates.

Tanmay K. Bhandakkar; Eric Chason; Huajian Gao

2010-01-01

61

Diffusion and growth of aluminum adatoms on magnesium clusters with hexahedral structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface diffusion and growth of Al atoms on Mg clusters with hexahedral structure was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The diffusion pathways and the corresponding energy barriers were determined via the nudged elastic band method. Two diffusion paths from a (0001) facet to a neighboring (1 1 bar 01) facet and between two adjacent (1 1 bar 01) facets were considered. The energy barriers on the (1 1 bar 01) facets and between the two (1 1 bar 01) facets were remarkably increased. As such, the adatom's mobility became limited at low temperatures. The growth of small Al-Mg nanoclusters was modeled via the one-by-one atom deposition technique to form an anomalous core-shell structure. The Mg atoms with lower surface energy and larger atomic radius occupied the core and the Al atoms with higher surface energy and smaller atomic radius occupied the shell.

Dai, Xiongying; Hu, Wangyu; Yang, Jianyu; Chen, Chuanpin

2015-02-01

62

Non-linear resonance of fluids in a crystal growth cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the microgravity environment, the effect of gravity on fluid motion is much reduced. Hence, secondary effects such as vibrations, jitters, surface tension, capillary effects, and electromagnetic forces become the dominant mechanism of fluid convection. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate fluid behavior in microgravity with the ultimate goal of developing processes with minimal influence from convection. Industrial applications such as crystal growth from solidification of melt and protein growth for pharmatheutical application are just a few examples of the vast potential benefit that can be reaped from material processing in space. However, a space laboratory is not immune from all undesirable disturbances and it is imperative that such disturbances be well understood, quantifiable, and controlled. Non-uniform and transient accelerations such as vibrations, jitters, and impulsive accelerations exist as a result of crew activities, space vehicle maneuvering, and the operations of on-board equipment. Measurements conducted on-board a U.S. Spacelab showed the existence of vibrations in the frequency range of 1 to 100 Hz with a dominant mode of 17 Hz and harmonics of 54 Hz. The observed vibration is not limited to any coordinate plane but exists in all directions. Similar situation exists on-board the Russian MIR space station. Due to the large structure of its design, the future International Space Station will have its own characteristic vibration spectrum. It is well known that vibration can exert substantial influence on heat and mass transfer processes, thus hindering any attempts to achieve a diffusion-limited process. Experiments on vibration convection for a liquid-filled enclosure under one-g environment showed the existence of different flow regimes as vibration frequency and intensity changes. Results showed the existence of a resonant frequency, near which the enhancement is the strongest, and the existence of a high frequency asymptote. Numerical simulations of vibration convection have been conducted by Yurkov, Fu and Shieh, and by Wang. These analyses considered a two-dimensional air-filled cell under weightlessness condition and showed results similar to those of the experiments. It is not yet known whether resonance convection can be triggered by jitter alone or whether it requires the interaction of jitter with other convective forces in low gravity. An order of magnitude analysis, however, can be used to show the dependence of the resonance frequency on the fluid Prandtl number. Even though the onset of resonance convection may depend on other factors, results indicates that fluids with low Prandtl numbers are more susceptible to resonance than those with high Prandtl numbers. The current study is aimed at gaining additional insights to this problem using germanium as working fluid. Germanium was chosen for this analysis because of its common usage in solidification process and its relatively low Prandtl number (Pr = 0.02).

Wang, Francis C.

1996-01-01

63

Accelerated kinetics and mechanism of growth of boride layers on titanium under isothermal and cyclic diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tendency of titanium (Ti) and its alloys to wear, gall and seize during high contact stresses between sliding surfaces severely limits their applications in bearings, gears etc. One way to mitigate these problems is to modify their surfaces by applying hard and wear resistant surface coatings. Boriding, which involves solid state diffusion of boron (B) into Ti, thereby forming hard surface layers consisting of TiB2 and TiB compounds has been shown to produce extremely high wear resistant surfaces in Ti and its alloys. The growth kinetics of these layers are, however, limited by the low diffusivities of B in the high melting TiB2 and TiB compounds. On the basis of the fact that HCP metals such as Ti show enhanced (anomalous) self-diffusion near the phase transition temperature, the first hypothesis of this work has been that the diffusivity enhancement should cause rapid ingress of B atoms, thereby accelerating the growth of the hard boride layers. Isothermal boriding experiments were performed close to phase transition temperature (890, 910, and 915°C) for time periods ranging from 3 to 24 hours. It was found that indeed a much deeper growth of TiB into the Ti substrate (˜75 mum) occurred at temperatures very close to the transition temperature (910°C), compared to that obtained at 1050°C. A diffusion model based on error-function solutions of Fick's second law was developed to quantitatively illustrate the combined effects of the normal B diffusion in the TiB phase and the anomalous B diffusion in Ti phase in accelerating TiB layer growth. Furthermore, isothermal boriding experiments close to transition temperature (900°C) for a period of 71 hours resulted in coating thickness well above 100 mum, while at 1050°C, the layer growth saturated after about 24 hours of treatment time. In the second part of this work, a novel approach named "cyclic-phase-changediffusion, (CPCD)," to create deeper TiB2 and TiB coating layers on CP-Ti by cyclic thermal processing, has been investigated. It was found that thermal cyclic B diffusion in Ti across the alpha(alpha)-beta(beta) phase transition temperature led to highly hardened surface layers enriched with TiB whiskers that grow to depths exceeding 120 mum. By solving the transient heat transport problem for cyclic changes in surface temperatures, it was found that there is a "heat-packet" that travels back and forth from the surface to the interior of the material. This heat-packet appears to transport B dissolved in beta-Ti into interior causing increased coating depths.

Sarma, Biplab

2011-12-01

64

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration (number of particles per unit area) to low concentration. In this activity, students use a molecular dynamics model to view the behavior of diffusion in gases and liquids.

2012-07-19

65

A finite volume method for trace element diffusion and partitioning during crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite volume method on a uniform grid is presented to compute the polythermal diffusion and partitioning of a trace element during the growth of a porphyroblast crystal in a uniform matrix and in linear, cylindrical and spherical geometry. The motion of the crystal-matrix interface and the thermal evolution are prescribed functions of time. The motion of the interface is discretized and it advances from one cell boundary to next as the prescribed interface position passes the cell center. The appropriate conditions for the flux across the crystal-matrix interface are derived from discrete mass conservation. Numerical results are benchmarked against steady and transient analytic solutions for isothermal diffusion with partitioning and growth. Two applications illustrate the ability of the model to reproduce observed rare-earth element patterns in garnets (Skora et al., 2006) and water concentration profiles around spherulites in obsidian (Watkins et al., 2009). Simulations with diffusion inside the growing crystal show complex concentration evolutions for trace elements with high diffusion coefficients, such as argon or hydrogen, but demonstrate that rare-earth element concentrations in typical metamorphic garnets are not affected by intracrystalline diffusion.

Hesse, Marc A.

2012-09-01

66

Solute Layers and Double-Diffusive Interfaces during the Solidification of NH4Cl-H2O in Rectangular Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow and temperature fields during the solidification of hypereutectic and hypoeutectic NH4Cl-H2O solution in rectangular cavities were measured by a particle image velocimetry(PIV) and a weak perturbation thermocouple network, respectively. Double-diffusive convections caused by the coupling effects of temperature and solute gradients were studied by the experiment. During the solidification of hypereutectic solution, the rejected water near the solidification interface will lead to dilute solute layers and double-diffusive interfaces. As the continued rejection of water, the layer and interface will evolve into instability and a multi-layer and multi-interface structure will be formed. To the hypoeutectic solution, the rejection of NH4Cl near the solidification interface will form a dense solute layer. When the thickness of the dense solute layer is large enough, the coupling effects of stabilizing solute gradient and unstable temperature gradient will lead to new solute layers. The solute layers and double-diffusive interfaces will evolve stably and have no breakup of the double-diffusive interfaces during the solidification of hypoeutectic solution.

Wen, Z. X.; Lu, J.; Bai, B. F.

2010-03-01

67

Efficacy and safety of selenium nanoparticles administered intraperitoneally for the prevention of growth of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity.  

PubMed

Peritoneal implantation of cancer cells, particularly postoperative seeding metastasis, frequently occurs in patients with primary tumors in the stomach, colon, liver, and ovary. Peritoneal carcinomatosis is associated with poor prognosis. In this work, we evaluated the prophylactic effect of intraperitoneal administration of selenium (Se), an essential trace element and a putative chemopreventive agent, on peritoneal implantation of cancer cells. Elemental Se nanoparticles were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice, into which highly malignant H22 hepatocarcinoma cells had previously been inoculated. Se concentrations in the cancer cells and tissues, as well as the efficacy of proliferation inhibition and safety, were evaluated. Se was mainly concentrated in cancer cells compared to Se retention in normal tissues, showing at least an order of magnitude difference between the drug target cells (the H22 cells) and the well-recognized toxicity target of Se (the liver). Such a favorable selective distribution resulted in strong proliferation suppression without perceived host toxicity. The mechanism of action of the Se nanoparticle-triggered cytotoxicity was associated with Se-mediated production of reactive oxygen species, which impaired the glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Our results suggest that intraperitoneal administration of Se is a safe and effective means of preventing growth of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity for the above-mentioned high-risk populations. PMID:24727439

Wang, Xin; Sun, Kang; Tan, Yanping; Wu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jinsong

2014-07-01

68

Diffusion and growth of metal clusters in nanocomposites: a Kinetic Monte Carlo study  

E-print Network

Nobel metals that are deposited on a polymer surface exhibit surface diffusion and diffusion into the bulk. At the same time the metal atoms tend to form clusters because their cohesive energy is about two orders of magnitude higher than the cohesive energy of polymers. To selfconsistently simulate these coupled processes, we present in this paper a Kinetic Monte Carlo approach. Using a simple model with diffusion coefficients taken as input parameters allows us to perform a systematic study of the behavior of a large ensemble of metal atoms on a polymer surface eventually leading to polymer nanocomposites. Special emphasis is placed on the cluster growth, cluster size distribution and the penetration of clusters into the substrate. We also study the influence of surface defects and analyze how the properties of the resulting material can be controlled by variation of the deposition rate.

Rosenthal, L; Bonitz, M; Zaporojtchenko, V; Faupel, F

2011-01-01

69

Transition in the Fractal Properties from Diffusion Limited Aggregation to Laplacian Growth via their Generalization  

E-print Network

We study the fractal and multifractal properties (i.e. the generalized dimensions of the harmonic measure) of a 2-parameter family of growth patterns that result from a growth model that interpolates between Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) and Laplacian Growth Patterns in 2-dimensions. The two parameters are \\beta which determines the size of particles accreted to the interface, and C which measures the degree of coverage of the interface by each layer accreted to the growth pattern at every growth step. DLA and Laplacian Growth are obtained at \\beta=0, C=0 and \\beta=2, C=1, respectively. The main purpose of this paper is to show that there exists a line in the \\beta-C phase diagram that separates fractal (Dgrowth patterns. Moreover, Laplacian Growth is argued to lie in the non-fractal part of the phase diagram. Some of our arguments are not rigorous, but together with the numerics they indicate this result rather strongly. We first consider the family of models obtained for \\beta=0, C>0, and derive for them a scaling relation D=2 * D_3. We then propose that this family has growth patterns for which D=2 for some C>C_{cr}, where C_{cr} may be zero. Next we consider the whole \\beta-C phase diagram and define a line that separates 2-dimensional growth patterns from fractal patterns with DGrowth lies in the region belonging to 2-dimensional growth patterns, motivating the main conjecture of this paper, i.e. that Laplacian Growth patterns are 2-dimensional. The meaning of this result is that the branches of Laplacian Growth patterns have finite (and growing) area on scales much larger than any ultra-violet cut-off length.

H. George E. Hentschel; Anders Levermann; Itamar Procaccia

2001-11-29

70

Growth inhibition of Streptococcus from the oral cavity by ?-amyrin esters.  

PubMed

Five terpenoids were tested by the macrodilution broth method to determine their inhibition activity on cariogenic bacterial growth. In general, ?-, ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin phenylacetate proved to be active, reducing the bacterial viability to less than 20%. PMID:23099616

Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Hernández-Vázquez, Liliana; Luna, Héctor; Wacher-Rodarte, María del Carmen; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo

2012-01-01

71

Atomic self-diffusion behaviors relevant to 2D homoepitaxy growth on stepped Pd(001) surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using molecular dynamics, nudged elastic band and modified analytic embedded atom methods, the diffusion behaviors of Pd adatom on stepped Pd(001) surface have been investigated. Lower than 975 K, Pd adatom just hops along the perfect [110]-direction step. The diffusion dynamics equation is derived from the Arrhenius law between 875 and 975 K, and the corresponding migration energy and prefactor are 0.76 eV and 5.2 × 10- 2 cm2/s respectively, which shows that they adhere to the step in case of adatom moving to the step. The adatom diffuses across the perfect step with an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier of 0.09 eV by exchange mechanism. Our calculations show the kink at step can markedly decrease the static energy barrier across the step with a negative Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, and it contributes to form layer-by-layer growth model in the epitaxial experiment. Our calculations show that the kink can also markedly improve the adatom's mass transport of interlayer, contributing to the formation of the compact film. Lastly, a quantitative result at 300 K shows that the kink affects tremendously the diffusion mobility of adatom near it, which indicates that the kink plays a key role in the formation of the compact and uniform film on Pd(001) surface in an epitaxial growth experiment.

Liu, Fusheng; Hu, Wangyu; Chen, Yifeng; Deng, Huiqiu; Chen, Han; Yang, Xiyuan; Luo, Wenhua

2014-06-01

72

In situ observation of interfacial fatigue crack growth in diffusion bonded joints of austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-fatigue tests were performed on 316LSS vacuum diffusion bonded joints to investigate the interfacial fatigue crack growth behavior with discrete micro-voids located ahead of a pre-existing crack tip. In situ observation of the interfacial fatigue crack propagation and micro-voids evolution was carried out during the whole fatigue testing. SEM of the fracture surface was analyzed. The results showed that the

Shu-Xin Li; Fu-Zhen Xuan; Shan-Tung Tu

2007-01-01

73

On the stability of radiation-pressure-dominated cavities  

E-print Network

Context: When massive stars exert a radiation pressure onto their environment that is higher than their gravitational attraction, they launch a radiation-pressure-driven outflow. It has been claimed that a radiative Rayleigh-Taylor instability should lead to the collapse of the outflow cavity and foster the growth of massive stars. Aims: We investigate the stability of idealized radiation-pressure-dominated cavities, focusing on its dependence on the radiation transport approach for the stellar radiation feedback. Methods: We compare two different methods for stellar radiation feedback: gray flux-limited diffusion (FLD) and ray-tracing (RT). We also derive simple analytical models to support our findings. Results: Only the FLD cases lead to prominent instability in the cavity shell. The RT cases do not show such instability. The gray FLD method underestimates the opacity at the location of the cavity shell and leads to extended epochs of marginal Eddington equilibrium in the cavity shell, making them prone to...

Kuiper, Rolf; Beuther, Henrik; Henning, Thomas

2011-01-01

74

Extracellular distribution of diffusible growth factors controlled by heparan sulfate proteoglycans during mammalian embryogenesis.  

PubMed

During mouse embryogenesis, diffusible growth factors, i.e. fibroblast growth factors, Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein and Hedgehog family members, emanating from localized areas can travel through the extracellular space and reach their target cells to specify the cell fate and form tissue architectures in coordination. However, the mechanisms by which these growth factors travel great distances to their target cells and control the signalling activity as morphogens remain an enigma. Recent studies in mice and other model animals have revealed that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) located on the cell surface (e.g. syndecans and glypicans) and in the extracellular matrix (ECM; e.g. perlecan and agrin) play crucial roles in the extracellular distribution of growth factors. Principally, the function of HSPGs depends primarily on the fine features and localization of their heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains. Cell-surface-tethered HSPGs retain growth factors as co-receptors and/or endocytosis mediators, and enzymatic release of HSPGs from the cell membrane allows HSPGs to transport or move multiple growth factors. By contrast, ECM-associated HSPGs function as a reservoir or barrier in a context-dependent manner. This review is focused on our current understanding of the extracellular distribution of multiple growth factors controlled by HSPGs in mammalian development. PMID:25349453

Matsuo, Isao; Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu

2014-12-01

75

Streptococcus pneumoniae PstS production is phosphate responsive and enhanced during growth in the murine peritoneal cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential display-PCR (DDPCR) was used to identify a Streptococcus pneumoniae gene with enhanced transcription during growth in the murine peritoneal cavity. Northern dot blot analysis and comparative densitometry confirmed a 1.8-fold increase in expression of the encoded sequence following murine peritoneal culture (MPC) versus laboratory culture or control culture (CC). Sequencing and basic local alignment search tool analysis identified the DDPCR fragment as pstS, the phosphate-binding protein of a high-affinity phosphate uptake system. PCR amplification of the complete pstS gene followed by restriction analysis and sequencing suggests a high level of conservation between strains and serotypes. Quantitative immunodot blotting using antiserum to recombinant PstS (rPstS) demonstrated an approximately twofold increase in PstS production during MPC from that during CCs, a finding consistent with the low levels of phosphate observed in the peritoneum. Moreover, immunodot blot and Northern analysis demonstrated phosphate-dependent production of PstS in six of seven strains examined. These results identify pstS expression as responsive to the MPC environment and extracellular phosphate concentrations. Presently, it remains unclear if phosphate concentrations in vivo contribute to the regulation of pstS. Finally, polyclonal antiserum to rPstS did not inhibit growth of the pneumococcus in vitro, suggesting that antibodies do not block phosphate uptake; moreover, vaccination of mice with rPstS did not protect against intraperitoneal challenge as assessed by the 50% lethal dose.

Orihuela, C. J.; Mills, J.; Robb, C. W.; Wilson, C. J.; Watson, D. A.; Niesel, D. W.

2001-01-01

76

Streptococcus pneumoniae PstS production is phosphate responsive and enhanced during growth in the murine peritoneal cavity.  

PubMed

Differential display-PCR (DDPCR) was used to identify a Streptococcus pneumoniae gene with enhanced transcription during growth in the murine peritoneal cavity. Northern dot blot analysis and comparative densitometry confirmed a 1.8-fold increase in expression of the encoded sequence following murine peritoneal culture (MPC) versus laboratory culture or control culture (CC). Sequencing and basic local alignment search tool analysis identified the DDPCR fragment as pstS, the phosphate-binding protein of a high-affinity phosphate uptake system. PCR amplification of the complete pstS gene followed by restriction analysis and sequencing suggests a high level of conservation between strains and serotypes. Quantitative immunodot blotting using antiserum to recombinant PstS (rPstS) demonstrated an approximately twofold increase in PstS production during MPC from that during CCs, a finding consistent with the low levels of phosphate observed in the peritoneum. Moreover, immunodot blot and Northern analysis demonstrated phosphate-dependent production of PstS in six of seven strains examined. These results identify pstS expression as responsive to the MPC environment and extracellular phosphate concentrations. Presently, it remains unclear if phosphate concentrations in vivo contribute to the regulation of pstS. Finally, polyclonal antiserum to rPstS did not inhibit growth of the pneumococcus in vitro, suggesting that antibodies do not block phosphate uptake; moreover, vaccination of mice with rPstS did not protect against intraperitoneal challenge as assessed by the 50% lethal dose. PMID:11705934

Orihuela, C J; Mills, J; Robb, C W; Wilson, C J; Watson, D A; Niesel, D W

2001-12-01

77

Matrix models for size-structured populations: unrealistic fast growth or simply diffusion?  

PubMed

Matrix population models are widely used to study population dynamics but have been criticized because their outputs are sensitive to the dimension of the matrix (or, equivalently, to the class width). This sensitivity is concerning for the population growth rate (?) because this is an intrinsic characteristic of the population that should not depend on the model specification. It has been suggested that the sensitivity of ? to matrix dimension was linked to the existence of fast pathways (i.e. the fraction of individuals that systematically move up a class), whose proportion increases when class width increases. We showed that for matrix population models with growth transition only from class i to class i + 1, ? was independent of the class width when the mortality and the recruitment rates were constant, irrespective of the growth rate. We also showed that if there were indeed fast pathways, there were also in about the same proportion slow pathways (i.e. the fraction of individuals that systematically remained in the same class), and that they jointly act as a diffusion process (where diffusion here is the movement in size of an individual whose size increments are random according to a normal distribution with mean zero). For 53 tree species from a tropical rain forest in the Central African Republic, the diffusion resulting from common matrix dimensions was much stronger than would be realistic. Yet, the sensitivity of ? to matrix dimension for a class width in the range 1-10 cm was small, much smaller than the sampling uncertainty on the value of ?. Moreover, ? could either increase or decrease when class width increased depending on the species. Overall, even if the class width should be kept small enough to limit diffusion, it had little impact on the estimate of ? for tree species. PMID:24905941

Picard, Nicolas; Liang, Jingjing

2014-01-01

78

Kinetic Monte Carlo study of fractal growth with edge diffusion and reversible aggregation on a bcc(1 1 0) surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-coverage growth of Cu islands deposited on W(110) is studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The model includes deposition, diffusion of monomers, diffusion along island edges and reversible aggregation on centered rectangular lattice with anisotropy of diffusion barriers. The simulations are performed at temperatures from 150 to 280K with fluxes changing from 10?7 to 10?3 Ml\\/s. Island morphology ranges

J. M. Rogowska; M. Maciejewski

2001-01-01

79

Relation between grain growth and grain-boundary diffusion in a pure material by molecular dynamics simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, due to the impurities inevitably present in real materials that limit the grain-boundary (GB) mobility, the processes of grain growth and GB diffusion are thought to involve similar activation barriers. However, recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of GB migration in bicrystals have suggested that, in pure materials, GB diffusion and GB migration involve distinct mechanisms and, hence, different activation

V. Yamakov; D. Moldovan; K. Rastogi; D. Wolf

2006-01-01

80

Modeling tumor growth in a complex evolving confinement using a diffuse domain approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of tumor growth represents an essential step towards engineering effective treatment for cancer patients. At the macroscopic scale, various biophysical models describing tumors as continuum fluids have been constructed, particularly on a Cartesian grid, where efficient numerical schemes are available to analyze the model for general tumor behaviors in a relatively unconfined space. For practical problems, however, tumors are often found in a confined sub-domain, which can even be dilated and distorted by the growing tumor within. To study such tumors, we adopt a novel diffuse domain approach that enables us to adapt a model to an evolving sub-domain and formulate the modified problem on a Cartesian grid to utilize existing numerical schemes. To demonstrate this approach, we adapt a diffuse-interface model presented in Wise et al. [2008, Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth - I Model and numerical method, J. Theor. Biol. 253, 524-543] to simulate lymphoma growth in a lymph node structure.

Chuang, Yao-Li; Lowengrub, John; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Cristini, Vittorio

2011-11-01

81

Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95°C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82°C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 µM with a H2 km of 100 µM. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on ?-1,4 and ?-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95°C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on ?-1,4 sugars, ?-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately 40 heterotroph cells to provide all of the H2 necessary to support the growth of a single methanogen. In contrast to methanogens, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers consume far less H2 during growth and reach cell concentrations similar to methanogens in pure culture. Thermodynamic predictions suggest that they would grow at H2 concentrations lower than those needed by methanogens.

Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

2009-12-01

82

Role of boundary layer diffusion in vapor deposition growth of chalcogenide nanosheets: the case of GeS.  

PubMed

We report a synthesis of single-crystalline two-dimensional GeS nanosheets using vapor deposition processes and show that the growth behavior of the nanosheet is substantially different from those of other nanomaterials and thin films grown by vapor depositions. The nanosheet growth is subject to strong influences of the diffusion of source materials through the boundary layer of gas flows. This boundary layer diffusion is found to be the rate-determining step of the growth under typical experimental conditions, evidenced by a substantial dependence of the nanosheet's size on diffusion fluxes. We also find that high-quality GeS nanosheets can grow only in the diffusion-limited regime, as the crystalline quality substantially deteriorates when the rate-determining step is changed away from the boundary layer diffusion. We establish a simple model to analyze the diffusion dynamics in experiments. Our analysis uncovers an intuitive correlation of diffusion flux with the partial pressure of source materials, the flow rate of carrier gas, and the total pressure in the synthetic setup. The observed significant role of boundary layer diffusions in the growth is unique for nanosheets. It may be correlated with the high growth rate of GeS nanosheets, ~3-5 ?m/min, which is 1 order of magnitude higher than other nanomaterials (such as nanowires) and thin films. This fundamental understanding of the effect of boundary layer diffusions may generally apply to other chalcogenide nanosheets that can grow rapidly. It can provide useful guidance for the development of general paradigms to control the synthesis of nanosheets. PMID:23009121

Li, Chun; Huang, Liang; Snigdha, Gayatri Pongur; Yu, Yifei; Cao, Linyou

2012-10-23

83

The influence of TiSi2 and CoSi2 growth on Si native point defects: The role of the diffusing species  

E-print Network

The influence of TiSi2 and CoSi2 growth on Si native point defects: The role of the diffusing species S. B. Hernera) and K. S. Jones Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University occurs by Co diffusion, this indicates that the diffusing species during film growth

Florida, University of

84

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The molecules move until equilibrium is reached. If a perfume is sprayed on one side of the room, the perfume molecules will eventually spread out all over the room until there are equal concentrations of the molecules throughout the space.

Christopher Thomas (None;)

2006-11-09

85

Thermal diffusion dominated dendritic growth — an analysis of the wall proximity effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is demonstrated that using a simple correction to the original Ivantsov solution to account for wall proximity effects is sufficient to describe the Peclet number microgravity data of Glicksman et al. [M.E. Glicksman, M.B. Koss and E.A. Winsa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 573; M.E. Glicksman, M.B. Koss, L.T. Bushnell, J.C. LaCombe and E.A. Winsa, ISLJ International 35 (1995) 1216; MRS Fall Meeting, Symp. P, Boston MA, 1995, in press] at low supercooling. The analytical correction provides for the enhanced diffusive heat transfer when the thermal diffusion length becomes comparable to the physical chamber dimension. The wall proximity effect is also responsible for the existence of a lower supercooling limit below which the dendrite cannot grow in a steady-state manner. It is concluded that Glicksman's USMP-2 microgravity data is thermal diffusion dominated and thus entirely appropriate for comparison with dendritic growth theories.

Pines, Vladimir; Chait, Arnon; Zlatkowski, Marianne

1996-09-01

86

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the advent of the internet, a number of artists and related organizations have become interested in utilizing the web to promulgate new forms of artistic creation and their subsequent dissemination. Supported by the Arts Council of England, these Diffusion eBooks are essentially pdf files that readers can download, print out and make into booklets. As the site suggests, "the Diffusion format challenges conventions of interactivity-blending the physical and the virtual and breaking the dominance of mouse and screen as the primary forms of human computer interaction...the format's aim is to take the reader away from the screen and computer and engage them in the process of production." There are a number of creative booklets available here for visitors, complete with instruction on how to assemble them for the desired effect. For anyone with even a remote interest in the possibilities afforded by this rather curious new form of expression, this website is worth a look.

87

Diffusion-controlled growth of bimineralic merwinite - diopside reaction rims between wollastonite - monticellite interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At temperatures of 800 °C to 900 °C and 1.2 GPa, monticellite and wollastonite react to form merwinite and diopside after the reaction: 2 monticellite (CaMgSiO4) + 2 wollastonite (CaSiO3) â?? merwinite (Ca3MgSi2O8) + diopside (CaMgSi2O6) We synthesized bimineralic merwinite - diopside reaction rims along the interfaces of cylindric crystals of monticellite and wollastonite. The samples were loaded in a platinum capsule and annealed at 800 °C to 900 °C and 1.2 GPa in a piston cylinder apparatus for 5 to 65 hours. Natural CaF2 was used as pressure medium and the charges were nominally dry. In all experiments, a single layer consisting of bimineralic aggregates of merwinite and diopside was produced in about equal molar amounts. Time series revealed that rim growth is parabolic, indicating that the reaction kinetics is controlled by component diffusion. SEM analysis of the microstructure showed that the original monticellite-wollastonite interface is located in the centre of the reaction rim. This implies that rim growth primarily occurred by transfer of the mobile component MgO from the rim-monticellite interface to the rim-wollastonite interface. The bulk reaction is thus divided into two half reactions occurring at the two reaction fronts. At the rim-monticellite interface the reaction is: 2 monticellite â?? 0.5 merwinite + 0.5 diopside + MgO, and at the rim-wollastonite interface, it is: 2 wollastonite + MgO â?? 0.5 merwinite + 0.5 diopside Using the model of Abart et al. (2009), the effective diffusion coefficients DMgO at 800 °C are estimated at 1.55×10-16± 2.18×10-17 m2/s, and at 900 °C at 2.46×10-16± 3.45×10-17 m2/s. This yields an activation energy of Ea= 45.6 ± 16.4 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor log D0 = -13.59 ± 1.26 for the Arrhenius relations to describe the temperature-dependent effective diffusivity of the MgO component in the bimineralic aggregate. IR-spectra revealed distinctive OH-contents in the nominally dry phases monticellite and wollastonite after the experiments, which had not been present in the reactants. Obviously, some hydrogen released by the natural, water-containing CaF2 pressure medium diffused into the capsule, thus producing traces of water inside. The presence of minute amounts of water may strongly enhance the kinetics of the reaction. In fact, if completely waterfree Al2O3-powder is used as pressure medium, no significant reaction occurred, and accordingly, reactants remain OH-free. An Al2O3-layer of 3 mm thickness between the capsule and the CaF2 surrounding delays the onset of rim growth for about one hour. However, once initiated, the reaction progress is the same in instantaneous and delayed reactions. References: Abart R., Petrishcheva E., Fischer F.D., Svoboda J. (2009), Thermodynamic model for diffusion controlled reaction rim growth in a binary system: application to the forsterite-enstatite-quartz system, American Journal of Science, Vol. 309, pp. 114-131

Joachim, B.; Gardes, E.; Heinrich, W.; Abart, R.

2009-04-01

88

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model  

PubMed Central

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086

Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg

2014-01-01

89

Relationship between Root Growth of Potato, Root Diffusate Production, and Hatching of Globodera rostochiensis  

PubMed Central

Hatching response of Globodera rostochiensis in potato root diffusate (PRD) collected by soaking individual potato, Solanum tuberosum, root systems in water for 2 hours was used to assess the relationship between root growth and PRD production. Resistant potato cultivars Hudson and Rosa were used as test plants. Maximum hatch occurred in PRD collected 3 weeks after plant emergence (AE) in the greenhouse, and declined after this time. Hatch was positively correlated with increased root weight only during the first 3 weeks AE. Hudson PRD was consistently more active than Rosa PRD in stimulating hatch, except when adjusted for root weight. Although the results indicated that cells at the root tip produced a more active PRD than cells located elsewhere, PRD appeared to be produced along the entire root. Differences in time length of the vegetative growth phase, extent of root growth, and volume of roots, rather than the production of a more active PRD per se, may explain why Hudson is more effective than Rosa in reducing G. rostochiensis population densities in soil. PMID:19294195

Rawsthorne, Denise; Brodie, B. B.

1986-01-01

90

Bayesian calibration, validation, and uncertainty quantification of diffuse interface models of tumor growth.  

PubMed

The idea that one can possibly develop computational models that predict the emergence, growth, or decline of tumors in living tissue is enormously intriguing as such predictions could revolutionize medicine and bring a new paradigm into the treatment and prevention of a class of the deadliest maladies affecting humankind. But at the heart of this subject is the notion of predictability itself, the ambiguity involved in selecting and implementing effective models, and the acquisition of relevant data, all factors that contribute to the difficulty of predicting such complex events as tumor growth with quantifiable uncertainty. In this work, we attempt to lay out a framework, based on Bayesian probability, for systematically addressing the questions of Validation, the process of investigating the accuracy with which a mathematical model is able to reproduce particular physical events, and Uncertainty quantification, developing measures of the degree of confidence with which a computer model predicts particular quantities of interest. For illustrative purposes, we exercise the process using virtual data for models of tumor growth based on diffuse-interface theories of mixtures utilizing virtual data. PMID:23053536

Hawkins-Daarud, Andrea; Prudhomme, Serge; van der Zee, Kristoffer G; Oden, J Tinsley

2013-12-01

91

Adhesion between cells, diffusion of growth factors, and elasticity of the AER produce the paddle shape of the chick limb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central question in developmental biology is how cells interact to organize into tissues? In this paper, we study the role of mesenchyme-ectoderm interaction in the growing chick limb bud using Glazier and Graner's cellular Potts model, a grid-based stochastic framework designed to simulate cell interactions and movement. We simulate cellular mechanisms including cell adhesion, growth, and division and diffusion of morphogens, to show that differential adhesion between the cells, diffusion of growth factors through the extracellular matrix, and the elastic properties of the apical ectodermal ridge together can produce the proper shape of the limb bud.

Pop?awski, Nikodem J.; Swat, Maciej; Scott Gens, J.; Glazier, James A.

2007-01-01

92

Adhesion between cells, diffusion of growth factors, and elasticity of the AER produce the paddle shape of the chick limb.  

PubMed

A central question in developmental biology is how cells interact to organize into tissues? In this paper, we study the role of mesenchyme-ectoderm interaction in the growing chick limb bud using Glazier and Graner's cellular Potts model, a grid-based stochastic framework designed to simulate cell interactions and movement. We simulate cellular mechanisms including cell adhesion, growth, and division and diffusion of morphogens, to show that differential adhesion between the cells, diffusion of growth factors through the extracellular matrix, and the elastic properties of the apical ectodermal ridge together can produce the proper shape of the limb bud. PMID:18167520

Pop?awski, Nikodem J; Swat, Maciej; Gens, J Scott; Glazier, James A

2007-01-01

93

The effects of plasma diffusion and viscosity on turbulent instability growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform two-dimensional simulations of strongly-driven compressible Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities with and without plasma transport phenomena, modeling plasma species diffusion, and plasma viscosity in order to determine their effects on the growth of the hydrodynamic instabilities. Simulations are performed in hydrodynamically similar boxes of varying sizes, ranging from 1 ?m to 1 cm in order to determine the scale at which plasma effects become important. Our results suggest that these plasma effects become noticeable when the box size is approximately 100 ?m, they become significant in the 10 ?m box, and dominate when the box size is 1 ?m. Results suggest that plasma transport may be important at scales and conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion, and that a plasma fluid model is capable of representing some of the kinetic transport effects.

Haines, Brian M.; Vold, Erik L.; Molvig, Kim; Aldrich, Charles; Rauenzahn, Rick

2014-09-01

94

The effects of plasma diffusion and viscosity on turbulent instability growth  

SciTech Connect

We perform two-dimensional simulations of strongly–driven compressible Rayleigh–Taylor and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities with and without plasma transport phenomena, modeling plasma species diffusion, and plasma viscosity in order to determine their effects on the growth of the hydrodynamic instabilities. Simulations are performed in hydrodynamically similar boxes of varying sizes, ranging from 1 ?m to 1?cm in order to determine the scale at which plasma effects become important. Our results suggest that these plasma effects become noticeable when the box size is approximately 100 ?m, they become significant in the 10 ?m box, and dominate when the box size is 1 ?m. Results suggest that plasma transport may be important at scales and conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion, and that a plasma fluid model is capable of representing some of the kinetic transport effects.

Haines, Brian M., E-mail: bmhaines@lanl.gov; Vold, Erik L.; Molvig, Kim; Aldrich, Charles; Rauenzahn, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T087, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2014-09-15

95

Unified moving-boundary model with fluctuations for unstable diffusive growth.  

PubMed

We study a moving-boundary model of nonconserved interface growth that implements the interplay between diffusive matter transport and aggregation kinetics at the interface. Conspicuous examples are found in thin-film production by chemical vapor deposition and electrochemical deposition. The model also incorporates noise terms that account for fluctuations in the diffusive and attachment processes. A small-slope approximation allows us to derive effective interface evolution equations (IEEs) in which parameters are related to those of the full moving-boundary problem. In particular, the form of the linear dispersion relation of the IEE changes drastically for slow or for instantaneous attachment kinetics. In the former case the IEE takes the form of the well-known (noisy) Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, showing a morphological instability at short times that evolves into kinetic roughening of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class. In the instantaneous kinetics limit, the IEE combines the Mullins-Sekerka linear dispersion relation with a KPZ nonlinearity, and we provide a numerical study of the ensuing dynamics. In all cases, the long preasymptotic transients can account for the experimental difficulties in observing KPZ scaling. We also compare our results with relevant data from experiments and discrete models. PMID:18850840

Nicoli, Matteo; Castro, Mario; Cuerno, Rodolfo

2008-08-01

96

Unified moving-boundary model with fluctuations for unstable diffusive growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a moving-boundary model of nonconserved interface growth that implements the interplay between diffusive matter transport and aggregation kinetics at the interface. Conspicuous examples are found in thin-film production by chemical vapor deposition and electrochemical deposition. The model also incorporates noise terms that account for fluctuations in the diffusive and attachment processes. A small-slope approximation allows us to derive effective interface evolution equations (IEEs) in which parameters are related to those of the full moving-boundary problem. In particular, the form of the linear dispersion relation of the IEE changes drastically for slow or for instantaneous attachment kinetics. In the former case the IEE takes the form of the well-known (noisy) Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, showing a morphological instability at short times that evolves into kinetic roughening of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class. In the instantaneous kinetics limit, the IEE combines the Mullins-Sekerka linear dispersion relation with a KPZ nonlinearity, and we provide a numerical study of the ensuing dynamics. In all cases, the long preasymptotic transients can account for the experimental difficulties in observing KPZ scaling. We also compare our results with relevant data from experiments and discrete models.

Nicoli, Matteo; Castro, Mario; Cuerno, Rodolfo

2008-08-01

97

Diffusion-driven precipitate growth and ripening of oxygen precipitates in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect

X-ray Pendellösung fringes from three silicon single crystals measured at 900?°C are analyzed with respect to density and size of oxygen precipitates within a diffusion-driven growth model and compared with TEM investigations. It appears that boron doped (p+) material shows a higher precipitate density and a higher strain than moderately (p-) boron crystals. In-situ diffraction reveals a diffusion-driven precipitate growth followed by a second growth regime in both materials. An interpretation of the second growth regime in terms of Ostwald ripening yields surface energy values (around 70?erg/cm{sup 2}) similar to published data. Further, an increased nucleation rate by a factor of ?13 is found in the p+ sample as compared to a p- sample at a nucleation temperature of 450?°C.

Will, J., E-mail: will@krist.uni-erlangen.de; Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Magerl, A. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Spiecker, E. [Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstr. 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2014-03-28

98

Random walk on lattices: Graph-theoretic approach to simulating long-range diffusion-attachment growth models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in thin-film fabrication for industrial applications have driven both theoretical and computational aspects of modeling its growth. One of the earliest attempts toward understanding the morphological structure of a film's surface is through a class of solid-on-solid limited-mobility growth models such as the Family, Wolf-Villain, or Das Sarma-Tamborenea models, which have produced fascinating surface roughening behaviors. These models, however, restrict the motion of an incidence atom to be within the neighborhood of its landing site, which renders them inept for simulating long-distance surface diffusion such as that observed in thin-film growth using a molecular-beam epitaxy technique. Naive extension of these models by repeatedly applying the local diffusion rules for each hop to simulate large diffusion length can be computationally very costly when certain statistical aspects are demanded. We present a graph-theoretic approach to simulating a long-range diffusion-attachment growth model. Using the Markovian assumption and given a local diffusion bias, we derive the transition probabilities for a random walker to traverse from one lattice site to the others after a large, possibly infinite, number of steps. Only computation with linear-time complexity is required for the surface morphology calculation without other probabilistic measures. The formalism is applied, as illustrations, to simulate surface growth on a two-dimensional flat substrate and around a screw dislocation under the modified Wolf-Villain diffusion rule. A rectangular spiral ridge is observed in the latter case with a smooth front feature similar to that obtained from simulations using the well-known multiple registration technique. An algorithm for computing the inverse of a class of substochastic matrices is derived as a corollary.

Limkumnerd, Surachate

2014-03-01

99

Expression of epidermal growth factor variant III (EGFRvIII) in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous clinical trials over the past 2 decades, the overall survival for children diagnosed with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains 9–10 months. Radiation therapy is the only treatment with proven effect and novel therapies are needed. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most common variant of the epidermal growth factor receptor and is expressed in many tumor types but is rarely found in normal tissue. A peptide vaccine targeting EGFRvIII is currently undergoing investigation in phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM), the tumor in which this variant receptor was first discovered. In this study, we evaluated EGFRvIII expression in pediatric DIPG samples using immunohistochemistry with a double affinity purified antibody raised against the EGFRvIII peptide. Staining of pediatric DIPG histological samples revealed expression in 4 of 9 cases and the pattern of staining was consistent with what has been seen in EGFRvIII transfected cells as well as GBMs from adult trials. In addition, analysis of tumor samples collected immediately post mortem and of DIPG cells in culture by RT-PCR, western blot analysis, and flow cytometry confirmed EGFRvIII expression. We were therefore able to detect EGFRvIII expression in 6 of 11 DIPG cases. These data suggest that EGFRvIII warrants investigation as a target for these deadly pediatric tumors. PMID:22382786

Mitra, Siddhartha S.; Monje, Michelle; Henrich, Kristy N.; Bangs, C. Dana; Nitta, Ryan T.

2012-01-01

100

Expression of epidermal growth factor variant III (EGFRvIII) in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.  

PubMed

Despite numerous clinical trials over the past 2 decades, the overall survival for children diagnosed with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains 9-10 months. Radiation therapy is the only treatment with proven effect and novel therapies are needed. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most common variant of the epidermal growth factor receptor and is expressed in many tumor types but is rarely found in normal tissue. A peptide vaccine targeting EGFRvIII is currently undergoing investigation in phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM), the tumor in which this variant receptor was first discovered. In this study, we evaluated EGFRvIII expression in pediatric DIPG samples using immunohistochemistry with a double affinity purified antibody raised against the EGFRvIII peptide. Staining of pediatric DIPG histological samples revealed expression in 4 of 9 cases and the pattern of staining was consistent with what has been seen in EGFRvIII transfected cells as well as GBMs from adult trials. In addition, analysis of tumor samples collected immediately post mortem and of DIPG cells in culture by RT-PCR, western blot analysis, and flow cytometry confirmed EGFRvIII expression. We were therefore able to detect EGFRvIII expression in 6 of 11 DIPG cases. These data suggest that EGFRvIII warrants investigation as a target for these deadly pediatric tumors. PMID:22382786

Li, Gordon; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Monje, Michelle; Henrich, Kristy N; Bangs, C Dana; Nitta, Ryan T; Wong, Albert J

2012-07-01

101

Travelling wave solutions of the reaction-diffusion mathematical model of glioblastoma growth: An Abel equation based approach  

E-print Network

We consider quasi-stationary (travelling wave type) solutions to a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with arbitrary, autonomous coefficients, describing the evolution of glioblastomas, aggressive primary brain tumors that are characterized by extensive infiltration into the brain and are highly resistant to treatment. The second order nonlinear equation describing the glioblastoma growth through travelling waves can be reduced to a first order Abel type equation. By using the integrability conditions for the Abel equation several classes of exact travelling wave solutions of the general reaction-diffusion equation that describes glioblastoma growth are obtained, corresponding to different forms of the product of the diffusion and reaction functions. The solutions are obtained by using the Chiellini lemma and the Lemke transformation, respectively, and the corresponding equations represent generalizations of the classical Fisher--Kolmogorov equation. The biological implications of two classes of solutions ...

Harko, Tiberiu

2014-01-01

102

Diffusion-controlled garnet growth in siliceous dolomites of the Adamello contact aureole, N-Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Texture forming processes are controlled by many factors, such as material transport through polycrystalline materials, surface kinetics, fluid flow, and many others. In metamorphic rocks, texture forming processes typically involve local reactions linked to net mass transfer which allows constraining the actual reaction path in more detail. In this study, we present geochemical data combined with textural modeling to constrain the conditions and reaction mechanism during contact metamorphic garnet growth in siliceous dolomites in the southern Adamello Massif, Italy. The metamorphic garnet porphyroblasts are poikiloblastic and idiomorphic in shape with a typical grain size ranging between 0.6-1 cm in diameter sitting in a matrix of calcite+diopside+anorthite+wollastonite. Inclusions in the grossular-rich garnets are almost uniquely diopside. On the hand specimen, garnets are surrounded by visible rims of about 0.6 mm indicating a diffusion-limited reaction mechanism to be responsible for the garnet formation. In the course of this study samples have been characterized by polarization microscopy, element x-ray maps using EMPA, cathodulominescence images and stable isotope analyses of carbon and oxygen of matrix carbonates. In addition, pseudosections have been calculated using the software package PerpleX (Connolly, 2005) based on the bulk chemistry of collected samples. Results indicate that the visible margin consists of a small rim (< 1 mm) purely consisting of recrystallized calcite adjacent to the garnet edge. The major part of the observed halo, however, is characterized by the absence of anorthite and wollastonite. The observed texture of garnet porphyroblasts growing and simultaneously forming an anorthite and wollastonite free margin can successfully be reproduced using the SEG program (Foster, 1993), which assumes diffusive mass transport. Therefore the model constrains the diffusive fluxes of Ca, Mg, Al and Si by mass balance and the local Gibbs-Duhem equations on the reaction site. Assuming that the pore fluid is not saturated in CO2, which is justified for the assumption of fluid-infiltration during contact metamorphism, the model predicts the wollastonite halo to be about the same size as the anorthite halo. Interestingly, the model also predicts the small diopside-free calcite margin surrounding the garnet interface, which is also observed in the thin section of the natural sample. Taken together, we interpret the garnet growth to be the consequence of the breakdown of anorthite + wollastonite + calcite at water-rich (XCO2 < 0.2) conditions around 600 °C. Preliminary modeling results suggest that the effective relative diffusion coefficients for Si, Mg and Al are not equal producing the diopside-free calcite rim surrounding the garnet edge. Connolly, J.A.D., 2005, Computation of phase equilibria by linear programming: A tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to subduction zone decarbonation. EPSL, 236 : p. 524-541. Foster, C.T., 1993, SEG93: A program to model metamorphic textures: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 25, no. 6, p. A264.

Muller, T.; Fiebich, E.; Foster, C. T.

2012-12-01

103

Hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and subcritical-crack growth in high strength steels and nickel base alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Embrittlement, or the enhancement of crack growth by gaseous hydrogen in high strength alloys, is of primary interest in selecting alloys for various components in the space shuttle. Embrittlement is known to occur at hydrogen gas pressures ranging from fractions to several hundred atmospheres, and is most severe in the case of martensitic high strength steels. Kinetic information on subcritical crack growth in gaseous hydrogen is sparse at this time. Corroborative information on hydrogen adsorption and diffusion is inadequate to permit a clear determination of the rate controlling process and possible mechanism in hydrogen enhanced crack growth, and for estimating behavior over a range of temperatures and pressures. Therefore, coordinated studies of the kinetics of crack growth, and adsorption and diffusion of hydrogen, using identical materials, have been initiated. Comparable conditions of temperature and pressure will be used in the chemical and mechanical experiments. Inconel 718 alloy and 18Ni(200) maraging steel have been selected for these studies. Results from these studies are expected to provide not only a better understanding of the gaseous hydrogen embrittlement phenomenon itself, but also fundamental information on hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and crack growth information that can be used directly for design.

Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.; Chornet, E.

1973-01-01

104

Growth behavior of intermetallic compounds during reactive diffusion between aluminum alloy 1060 and magnesium at 573-673 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potential new research reactor fuel design proposes to use U-Mo fuel in a Mg matrix clad with Al. Interdiffusion between the Mg containing fuel core and Al cladding can result in the formation of intermetallic compounds that can be detrimental to fuel element performance. The kinetics of the reactive diffusion in the binary Al-Mg system was experimentally studied. Layers of the intermetallic compounds, ? (Al3Mg2) and ? (Al12Mg17) phases, were formed between the Al alloy 1060 and Mg during annealing. The ? layer was observed to grow faster than the ? phase. The thickness of each layer can be expressed by a power function of the annealing time with the exponent n close to 0.5 for the ? phase and less than 0.5 for the ? phase. The results suggest that the growth of ? phase is controlled by lattice diffusion and that of the ? phase by grain boundary and lattice diffusion. Metallographic examination showed the grain boundary diffusion in the form of columnar growth of ? phase during annealing. Based on the reactive diffusion equation developed in this work, in the absence of irradiation effects, it will take more than 110 h to consume a half thickness of 400 ?m of the cladding.

Xiao, Lin; Wang, Ning

2015-01-01

105

A model for the diffusive growth of hydrate saturation anomalies in layered sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment particles affect the phase behavior of gas hydrates, both by increasing the surface energy where pore geometry forces hydrate crystals to attain high curvatures and through wetting interactions that cause aqueous films to coat particle surfaces. These effects produce only slight changes to the gas solubility through most of the hydrate stability zone, so the particle size has only a modest influence on the rate of hydrate accumulation when the sediments are homogeneous. In hydrate reservoirs, however, discontinuous changes in sediment properties are common and such stratigraphic boundaries often coincide with hydrate anomalies. These anomalies are a natural consequence of variations in subsurface sediment properties. By accounting for sediment-hydrate interactions, I show how compositional diffusion supplies the growth of hydrate spikes in coarse-grained sediments immediately adjacent to hydrate-free regions (HFRs) in more fine-grained sediments where the solubility is slightly elevated. Over timescales comparable with Milankovitch cycles, hydrate spikes are typically less than a meter in width and contain essentially all of the hydrate that would have otherwise occupied the much larger adjacent HFR if sediment heterogeneities were absent. Hydrate can form in the more fine-grained sediments only once the spike achieves a sufficiently high saturation level (often >90% of pore volume) that the solubility is continuous across the stratigraphic boundary. The wetting interactions that stabilize much of the residual liquid when hydrate forms an interconnected skeleton spanning many pore diameters can also partially unload sediment particle contacts, and lead to the growth of segregated hydrate nodules and lenses.

Rempel, A. W.

2011-10-01

106

Sliding-cavity fluid contactors in low-gravity fluids, materials, and biotechnology research.  

PubMed

The well-known method of sliding-cavity fluid contactors used by Gosting for diffusion measurements and by Tiselius in electrophoresis has found considerable use in low-gravity research. To date, sliding-cavity contactors have been used in liquid diffusion experiments, interfacial transport experiments, biomolecular crystal growth, biphasic extraction, multistage extraction, microencapsulation, seed germination, invertebrate development, and thin-film casting. Sliding-cavity technology has several advantages for spaceflight: it is simple, it accommodates small samples, samples can be fully enclosed, phases can be combined, multiple samples can be processed at high sample density, real-time observations can be made, and mixed and diffused samples can be compared. An analysis of the transport phenomena that govern the sliding-cavity method is offered. During sliding of one liquid over another flow rates between 0.001 and 0.1m/sec are developed, giving Reynolds numbers in the range 0.1-100. Assuming no slip at liquid-solid boundaries shear rates are of the order 1sec(-1). The measured consequence is the transfer of 2-5% of the content of a cavity to the opposite cavity. In the absence of gravity, buoyancy-driven transport is assumed absent. Transport processes are limited to (1) molecular diffusion, in which reactants diffuse toward one another at rates that depend on their diffusion coefficient and concentration gradient (Fick's second law), (2) solutocapillary (Marangoni) flow driven by surface-tension gradients, (3) capillary flow (drop spreading) at liquid-solid three-phase lines leading to immiscible phase demixing, and (4) vapor-phase diffusive mass transfer in evaporative processes. Quantitative treatment of these phenomena has been accomplished over the past few years in low-gravity research in space and on aircraft. PMID:12446349

Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C; Sengupta, Shramik; Sportiello, Michael G; Greenberg, Alan R; Krantz, William B

2002-10-01

107

Realistic Simulation of the 3D Growth of Brain Tumors in MR Images Coupling Diffusion with Biomechanical Deformation  

PubMed Central

We propose a new model to simulate the 3D growth of glioblastomas multiforma (GBMs), the most aggressive glial tumors. The GBM speed of growth depends on the invaded tissue: faster in white than in gray matter, it is stopped by the dura or the ventricles. These different structures are introduced into the model using an atlas matching technique. The atlas includes both the segmentations of anatomical structures and diffusion information in white matter fibers. We use the finite element method (FEM) to simulate the invasion of the GBM in the brain parenchyma and its mechanical interaction with the invaded structures (mass effect). Depending on the considered tissue, the former effect is modeled with a reaction-diffusion or a Gompertz equation, while the latter is based on a linear elastic brain constitutive equation. In addition, we propose a new coupling equation taking into account the mechanical influence of the tumor cells on the invaded tissues. The tumor growth simulation is assessed by comparing the in-silico GBM growth with the real growth observed on two magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of a patient acquired with six months difference. Results show the feasibility of this new conceptual approach and justifies its further evaluation. PMID:16229419

Clatz, Olivier; Sermesant, Maxime; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Delingette, Hervé; Warfield, Simon K.; Malandain, Grégoire; Ayache, Nicholas

2006-01-01

108

Elimination of gold diffusion in the heterostructure core/shell growth of high performance Ge/Si nanowire HFETs  

SciTech Connect

Radial heterostructure nanowires offer the possibility of surface, strain, band-edge and modulution-doped engineering for optimizing performance of nanowire transistors. Synthesis of such heterostructures is non-trivial and is typically accompanied with Au diffusion on the nanowire sidewalls that result in rough morphology and undesired whisker growth. Here, they report a novel growth procedure to synthesize Ge/Si core/multi-shell nanowires by engineering the growth interface between the Au seed and the nanowire sidewalls. Single crystal Ge/Si core/multi-shell nanowires are used to fabricate side-by-side FET transistors with and without Au diffusion. Elimination of Au diffusion in the synthesis of such structures led to {approx} 2X improvement in hole field-effect mobility, transconductances and currents. Initial prototype devices with a 10 nm PECVD nitride gate dielectric resulted in a record maximum on current of 430 {micro}A/V (I{sub DS}L{sub G}/{pi}DV{sub DS}), {approx} 2X higher than ever achieved before in a p-type FET.

Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

109

Diffusion suppression in vapor-liquid-solid Si nanowire growth by a barrier layer between the Au catalyst and substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanowires have attracted significant interest because of their unique characteristics. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is the standard method for fabricating nanowires and Au is the most commonly used catalyst. However, Au catalyst droplets diffuse over the Si substrate surface with a high migration velocity and agglomerate at relatively low temperatures. In our previous work, we reported a significant improvement in the positioning and diameter distribution of VLS-grown Si nanowires by inserting a diffusion barrier layer and concluded that the barrier layer suppressed the formation of AuSi eutectic droplets and prevented the droplets diffusing on the substrate surface during nucleation. In the present study, we analyzed the nucleation of the Au catalyst and examined its behavior during nucleation. Detailed multidirectional analysis and in situ observations confirmed that the formation and agglomeration of AuSi eutectic droplets was suppressed by the formation of a silicide layer. This because of the higher reaction temperatures between the diffusion barrier and the substrate silicon, and between the catalyst and the diffusion barrier, compared with the reaction between the Au catalyst and substrate silicon.

Koto, Makoto; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Sugawa, Etsuko; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso

2014-10-01

110

Morphological instability and dynamics of fronts in bacterial growth models with nonlinear diffusion  

E-print Network

Morphological instability and dynamics of fronts in bacterial growth models with nonlinear the growth of bacterial colonies under different growth conditions has been the focus of attention of several Leiden, The Netherlands Received 26 November 2001; published 28 June 2002 Depending on the growth

van Saarloos, Wim

111

Growth and testing of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for intracavity cooling of Yb:YLF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically-pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) have unique characteristics that make them attractive for use in intracavity optical cooling of rare earth doped crystals. We present the development of high power VECSELs at 1020 nm for cooling ytterbium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Yb:YLF). The VECSEL structures use AlAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors and InGaAs/GaAsP resonant periodic gain epitaxially grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. To achieve the necessary output power, we investigated thinning the substrate to improve the thermal characteristics. We demonstrated a VECSEL structure that was grown inverted, bonded to the heat sink, and the substrate removed by chemical etching. The inverted structure allows us to demonstrate 15 W output with 27% slope efficiency. Wavelength tuning of 30 nm around 1020 nm was achieved by inserting a birefringent quartz window into the cavity. The window also narrows the VECSEL emission, going from a FWHM of 5 nm to below 0.5 nm at a pump power of 40 W.

Cederberg, J. G.; Albrecht, A. R.; Ghasemkhani, M.; Melgaard, S. D.; Sheik-Bahae, M.

2014-05-01

112

Diffusion-controlled and ``diffusionless'' crystal growth near the glass transition temperature: Relation between liquid dynamics and growth kinetics of seven ROY polymorphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid dynamics of 5-methyl-2-[(2-nitrophenyl)amino]-3-thiophenecarbonitrile, named ROY for its red, orange, and yellow crystal polymorphs, was characterized by dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Four of these polymorphs show fast "diffusionless" crystal growth at low temperatures while three others do not. ROY was found to be a typical fragile organic liquid. Its ? relaxation process has time-temperature superposition symmetry across the viscous range (??=100 s-100 ns) with the width of the relaxation peak characterized by a constant ?KWW of 0.73. No secondary relaxation peak was observed, even with glasses made by fast quenching. For the polymorphs not showing fast crystal growth in the glassy state, the growth rate has a power-law relation with ??, u ???-?, where ? ?0.7. For the polymorphs showing fast crystal growth in the glassy state, the growth is so fast near and below the glass transition temperature Tg that thousands of molecular layers can be added to the crystalline phase during one structural relaxation time of the liquid. In the glassy state, this mode of growth slows slightly over time. This slowdown is not readily explained by the effect of physical aging on the thermodynamic driving force of crystallization, the glass vapor pressure, or the rate of structural relaxation. This study demonstrates that from the same liquid or glass, the growth of some polymorphs is accurately described as being limited by the rate of structural relaxation or bulk diffusion, whereas the growth of other polymorphs is too fast to be under such control.

Sun, Ye; Xi, Hanmi; Ediger, M. D.; Richert, Ranko; Yu, Lian

2009-08-01

113

Hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and subcritical-crack growth in high-strength steels and nickel base alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated studies of the kinetics of crack growth and of hydrogen adsorption and diffusion were initiated to develop information that is needed for a clearer determination of the rate controlling process and possible mechanism for hydrogen enhanced crack growth, and for estimating behavior over a range of temperatures and pressures. Inconel 718 alloy and 18Ni(200) maraging steel were selected for these studies. 18Ni(250) maraging steel, 316 stainless steel, and iron single crystal of (111) orientation were also included in the chemistry studies. Crack growth data on 18Ni(250) maraging steel from another program are included for comparison. No sustained-load crack growth was observed for the Inconel 718 alloy in gaseous hydrogen. Gaseous hydrogen assisted crack growth in the 18Ni maraging steels were characterized by K-independent (Stage 2) extension over a wide range of hydrogen pressures (86 to 2000 torr or 12 kN/m2 to 266 kN/m2) and test temperatures (-60 C to +100 C). The higher strength 18Ni(250) maraging steel was more susceptible than the lower strength 200 grade. A transition temperature was observed, above which crack growth rates became diminishingly small.

Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.

1974-01-01

114

Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

1984-01-01

115

Atomic mobilities, uphill diffusion and proeutectic ferrite growth in Fe–Mn–C alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the treatment in CALPHAD, experimental data on diffusivities in Fe–Mn and Fe–C binary systems are critically evaluated with the DICTRA software to derive atomic mobilities. The effect of magnetic ordering on diffusion in bcc phase is taken into account, and the obtained atomic mobilities are expressed as functions of temperature and compositions with the Redlick–Kister polynomials. Based on the

Yajun Liu; Lijun Zhang; Yong Du; Di Yu; Dong Liang

2009-01-01

116

Therapeutic effect of nerve growth factor on cerebral infarction in dogs using the hemisphere anomalous volume ratio of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging?  

PubMed Central

A model of focal cerebral ischemic infarction was established in dogs through middle cerebral artery occlusion of the right side. Thirty minutes after occlusion, models were injected with nerve growth factor adjacent to the infarct locus. The therapeutic effect of nerve growth factor against cerebral infarction was assessed using the hemisphere anomalous volume ratio, a quantitative index of diffusion-weighted MRI. At 6 hours, 24 hours, 7 days and 3 months after modeling, the hemisphere anomalous volume ratio was significantly reduced after treatment with nerve growth factor. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and neurological function scores showed that infarct defects were slightly reduced and neurological function significantly improved after nerve growth factor treatment. This result was consistent with diffusion-weighted MRI measurements. Experimental findings indicate that nerve growth factor can protect against cerebral infarction, and that the hemisphere anomalous volume ratio of diffusion-weighted MRI can be used to evaluate the therapeutic effect.

Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhe; Geng, Zuojun; Liu, Huaijun; Yang, Haiqing; Song, Peng; Liu, Qing

2012-01-01

117

Discerning crystal growth from diffusion profiles in zoned olivine by in situ Mg–Fe isotopic analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mineral zoning is used in diffusion-based geospeedometry to determine magmatic timescales. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge to discern mineral zoning produced by diffusion from concentration gradients inherited from crystal growth. A zoned olivine phenocryst from Kilauea Iki lava lake (Hawaii) was selected for this study to evaluate the potential of Mg and Fe isotopes for distinguishing these two processes. Microdrilling of the phenocryst (?300 ?m drill holes) followed by MC-ICPMS analysis of the powders revealed negatively coupled Mg and Fe isotopic fractionations (?26Mg from +0.1‰ to ?0.2‰ and ?56Fe from ?1.2‰ to ?0.2‰ from core to rim), which can only be explained by Mg–Fe exchange between melt and olivine. The data can be explained with ratios of diffusivities of Mg and Fe isotopes in olivine scaling as D2/D1 = (m1/m2)? with ?Mg ?0.16 and ?Fe ?0.27. LA-MC-ICPMS and MC-SIMS Fe isotopic measurements are developed and are demonstrated to yield accurate ?56Fe measurements within precisions of ?0.2‰ (1 SD) at spatial resolutions of ?50 ?m. ?56Fe and ?26Mg stay constant with Fo# in the rim (late-stage overgrowth), whereas in the core (original phenocryst) ?56Fe steeply trends toward lighter compositions and ?26Mg trends toward heavier compositions with higher Fo#. A plot of ?56Fe vs. Fo# immediately distinguishes growth-controlled from diffusion-controlled zoning in these two regions. The results are consistent with the idea that large isotopic fractionation accompanies chemical diffusion in crystals, whereas fractional crystallization induces little or no isotopic fractionation. The cooling timescale inferred from the chemical-isotope zoning profiles is consistent with the documented cooling history of the lava lake. In the absence of geologic context, in situ stable isotopic measurements may now be used to interpret the nature of mineral zoning. Stable isotope measurements by LA-MC-ICPMS and MC-SIMS can be used as standard petrologic tools to identify samples for diffusion-based geospeedometry.

Sio, Corliss Kin I.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Chaussidon, Marc; Helz, Rosalind T.; Roskosz, Mathieu

2013-01-01

118

Discerning crystal growth from diffusion profiles in zoned olivine by in situ Mg-Fe isotopic analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral zoning is used in diffusion-based geospeedometry to determine magmatic timescales. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge to discern mineral zoning produced by diffusion from concentration gradients inherited from crystal growth. A zoned olivine phenocryst from Kilauea Iki lava lake (Hawaii) was selected for this study to evaluate the potential of Mg and Fe isotopes for distinguishing these two processes. Microdrilling of the phenocryst (?300 ?m drill holes) followed by MC-ICPMS analysis of the powders revealed negatively coupled Mg and Fe isotopic fractionations (?26Mg from +0.1‰ to -0.2‰ and ?56Fe from -1.2‰ to -0.2‰ from core to rim), which can only be explained by Mg-Fe exchange between melt and olivine. The data can be explained with ratios of diffusivities of Mg and Fe isotopes in olivine scaling as D2/D1 = (m1/m2)? with ?Mg ?0.16 and ?Fe ?0.27. LA-MC-ICPMS and MC-SIMS Fe isotopic measurements are developed and are demonstrated to yield accurate ?56Fe measurements within precisions of ?0.2‰ (1 SD) at spatial resolutions of ?50 ?m. ?56Fe and ?26Mg stay constant with Fo# in the rim (late-stage overgrowth), whereas in the core (original phenocryst) ?56Fe steeply trends toward lighter compositions and ?26Mg trends toward heavier compositions with higher Fo#. A plot of ?56Fe vs. Fo# immediately distinguishes growth-controlled from diffusion-controlled zoning in these two regions. The results are consistent with the idea that large isotopic fractionation accompanies chemical diffusion in crystals, whereas fractional crystallization induces little or no isotopic fractionation. The cooling timescale inferred from the chemical-isotope zoning profiles is consistent with the documented cooling history of the lava lake. In the absence of geologic context, in situ stable isotopic measurements may now be used to interpret the nature of mineral zoning. Stable isotope measurements by LA-MC-ICPMS and MC-SIMS can be used as standard petrologic tools to identify samples for diffusion-based geospeedometry.

Sio, Corliss Kin I.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Chaussidon, Marc; Helz, Rosalind T.; Roskosz, Mathieu

2013-12-01

119

Computational diffusion model of reconstructed regions in Ag/Si epitaxial growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal decay of Ag islands, grown epitaxially in a Stranski-Krastanov mode on Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces, has been studied experimentally with photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). In a range of elevated temperatures the islands decay mainly by dissociation of Ag atoms from island edges, rather than by direct desorption into the gas phase. On the surrounding surface, the Ag atoms are subject to thermally-activated diffusion and desorption. The Ag surface concentration decreases with distance from the island edges. Where the local concentration is above a critical value, coverage-dependent reconstructed overlayers form surrounding the islands. The spread of the overlayers, relative to the position of the decaying island, depends on competition between diffusion and desorption. Previous quasi-static models [1] have shown that the observed reconstructed regions are related to the atomistic parameters describing surface diffusion, and have been applied to extract diffusion coefficients from the experimental data. Here we present results from a dynamic diffusion model that captures many of the qualitative and quantitative time- and temperature-dependent phenomena observed in the experiments. [4pt] [1] K.R. Roos et. al. PRL 100, 016103 (2008); D. Wall et. al. NJP 12 (2010) 103019

Driscoll, Joseph; Roos, Kelly; Wall, D.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.; Heringdorf, F.-J. Meyer Zu

2012-02-01

120

Double-diffusive convection during solidification of a metal analog system (NH 4Cl–H 2O) in a differentially heated cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study focused mainly on the solidification of a binary mixture of ammonium chloride and water (NH4Cl–H2O) in a differentially heated cavity. One vertical wall was cooled to temperature TC=?20 °C, and the other opposite vertical wall was kept at a constant temperature TH=+20 °C. The effect of the initial concentration of ammonium chloride on the solidification process was

C. Ghenai; A. Mudunuri; C. X. Lin; M. A. Ebadian

2003-01-01

121

Jet-discharge cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: progress in testing the PAH hypothesis for the diffuse interstellar band problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphthalene cations (C10H8+) were produced in a slit jet coupled with an electronic discharge, and cavity ring down was used to obtain its absorption spectrum in the region 645–680 nm. Two of the strongest C10H8+ bands previously characterized by matrix isolation spectroscopy were found, both with a fractional blue shift of about 0.5%. This is the first gas-phase electronic absorption

D. Romanini; L. Biennier; F. Salama; A. Kachanov; L. J. Allamandola; F. Stoeckel

1999-01-01

122

Precision Measurements of Binary and Multicomponent Diffusion Coefficients in Protein Solutions Relevant to Crystal Growth  

E-print Network

Vironmental Technologies, Lawrence LiVermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, LiVermore, California 94551, Department (1.4, 2.8, 3.7, 5.1, and 7.2 wt %), with the latter two compositions being supersaturated. One cross, diffusion of proteins is important in a number of in vivo, laboratory, medical, and manufacturing

Annunziata, Onofrio

123

Diffusion-controlled growth of hydrogen pores in aluminum-silicon castings: In situ observation and modeling  

SciTech Connect

In situ observations were made of the nucleation and growth kinetics of hydrogen porosity during the directional solidification of aluminium-7 wt% silicon (Al7Si) with TiB{sub 2} grain refiner added, using an X-ray temperature gradient stage (XTGS). The effect of altering the solidification velocity on the growth rate and morphology of the porosity formed was characterized by tracking individual pores with digital analysis of the micro-focal video images. It was found that increasing the solidification velocity caused the pore radius to decrease and pore density to increase. Insight gained from the experimental results was used to develop a computational model of the evolution of hydrogen pores during solidification of aluminum-silicon cast alloys. The model solves for the diffusion-limited growth of the pores in spherical coordinates, using a deterministic solution of the grain nucleation and growth as a sub-model to calculate the parameters that depend upon the fraction solid. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the effects of equiaxed grain density, pore density, initial hydrogen content and cooling rate. The model agrees with the experimental results within the resolution limits of the XTGS experiments performed.

Atwood, R.C.; Sridhar, S.; Zhang, W.; Lee, P.D.

2000-01-24

124

Study of coupled double diffusive convection-radiation in a tilted cavity via a hybrid multi-relaxation time-lattice Boltzmann-finite difference and discrete ordinate methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupled double diffusive natural convection and radiation in a tilted and differentially heated square cavity containing a non-gray air-CO2 (or air-H2O) mixtures was numerically investigated. The horizontal walls are insulated and impermeable and the vertical walls are maintained at different temperatures and concentrations. The hybrid lattice Boltzmann method with the multiple-relaxation time model is used to compute the hydrodynamics and the finite difference method to determine temperatures and concentrations. The discrete ordinates method combined to the spectral line-based weighted sum of gray gases model is used to compute the radiative term and its spectral aspect. The effects of the inclination angle on the flow, thermal and concentration fields are analyzed for both aiding and opposing cases. It was found that radiation gas modifies the structure of the velocity and thermal fields by generating inclined stratifications and promoting the instabilities in opposing flows.

Moufekkir, Fayçal; Moussaoui, Mohammed Amine; Mezrhab, Ahmed; Naji, Hassan

2014-09-01

125

On the growth and magnetic properties of flower-like nanostructures formed on diffusion of FePt with Si substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly equi-atomic FePt films were deposited on a silicon substrate with a native SiO2 layer by co-sputtering technique. Structural and magnetic properties of the films are influenced by the growth temperature. The native SiO2 layer acts as a diffusion barrier for the FePt film on Si. In the absence of diffusion of Fe and Pt with Si substrate, a high coercivity (˜8.2 kOe) L10 Fe50Pt50 phase is formed. Depending on the growth temperature and the thickness/quality (continuously or containing some pinholes) of SiO2 layer, diffusion of FePt film with Si substrate is observed. Diffusion results in the change in film composition, and formation of various Fe- and Pt-silicide phases along with the flower-like surface morphology. Growth of flower like nano-structures are shown to be governed by the accelerated diffusion of Fe on a dimpled surface of Si substrate. The detailed structural and magnetic characterization revealed that the flower-like patterns are composed of chemically ordered antiferromagnetic FePt3 phase (Q2-type). The Neel's temperature for these flowers-like nano-structures is ˜80 K and they are surrounded by a ferromagnetic matrix. Growth mechanism of flower-like patterns is identified. Site specific growth of antiferromagnetic nano-structures in a ferromagnetic matrix is also demonstrated.

Sharma, Parmanand; Kaushik, Neelam; Esashi, Masayoshi; Nishijima, Masahiko; Makino, Akihiro

2013-07-01

126

Spatially quantifying microscopic tumor invasion and proliferation using a voxel-wise solution to a glioma growth model and serial diffusion MRI.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a voxel-wise analytical solution to a glioma growth model using serial diffusion MRI. These cell invasion, motility, and proliferation level estimates (CIMPLE maps) provide quantitative estimates of microscopic tumor growth dynamics. After an analytical solution was found, noise simulations were performed to predict the effects that perturbations in apparent diffusion coefficient values and the time between apparent diffusion coefficient map acquisitions would have on the accuracy of CIMPLE maps. CIMPLE maps were then created for 53 patients with gliomas with WHO grades of II-IV. MR spectroscopy estimates of the choline-to-N-acetylaspartate ratio were compared to cell proliferation estimates in CIMPLE maps using Pearson's correlation analysis. Median differences in cell proliferation and diffusion rates between WHO grades were compared. A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9714) and good spatial correspondence were observed between MR spectroscopy measurements of the choline-to-N-acetylaspartate ratio and CIMPLE map cell proliferation rate estimates. Estimates of cell proliferation and diffusion rates appear to be significantly different between low- (WHO II) and high-grade (WHO III-IV) gliomas. Cell diffusion rate (motility) estimates are highly dependent on the time interval between apparent diffusion coefficient map acquisitions, whereas cell proliferation rate estimates are additionally influenced by the level of noise present in apparent diffusion coefficient maps. PMID:21413079

Ellingson, Benjamin M; LaViolette, Peter S; Rand, Scott D; Malkin, Mark G; Connelly, Jennifer M; Mueller, Wade M; Prost, Robert W; Schmainda, Kathleen M

2011-04-01

127

RHEED studies of interlayer diffusion in the submonolayer growth regime on Ag Ag(111)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) to study the growth of AgAg(111) as a function of temperature T = 150–315 K and flux rate F = 1125–14800ML\\/s by monitoring the decay of the specular beam intensity. No oscillations are observed, which is consistent with a 3D growth mode and the existence of a step edge barrier. The intensity

C. Papageorgopoulos; K. R. Roos; M. C. Tringides

1996-01-01

128

Improving of flow optical quality in COIL resonator cavity as result of operation of pressure recovery system developed on base of active diffuser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active diffuser- AD has been developed by blowing in the high pressure gas from small scale nozzles along the laser chamber walls. Blowing has stabilized boundary layers, decreased its thickness and prevented its separation. So AD operating has stabilized the gas flow parameters in resonator and localized the zone of slow down of laser flow - pseudoshock - after laser chamber. So regular shock - wave structures (X-type shocks) that could degrade the flow optical quality don't appear in resonator. The use of AD allows developing PRS on base of single-stage ejector with high ejection coefficient (usually ground -based COIL PRS consist from passive diffuser and two-stage ejector and has low ejection coefficient).

Malkov, V. M.; Kiselev, I. A.; Orlov, A. E.; Shatalov, I. V.

2010-09-01

129

Microfabricated diffusion source  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-15

130

Intermittent or Continuous Carbon Dioxide Insufflation for De-Airing of the Cardiothoracic Wound Cavity? An Experimental Study with a New Gas-Diffuser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufflation of carbon dioxide into the chest wound is used in open-heart surgery to de-air the heart and great vessels. In a cardiothoracic wound model, we com- pared the degree of air displacement achieved by a new insufflation device, a gas-diffuser, with that of a thin open-ended tube during steady-state and with carbon dioxide flows of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and

Peter Svenarud; Mikael Persson; Jan van der Linden

2003-01-01

131

Micropropagation of Potato: Evaluation of Closed, Diffusive and Forced Ventilation on Growth and Tuberization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of ventilation of the culture vessel headspace, each with and without the ethylene inhibitor AgNO3(3.0?M) or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) (2.0?M) in the culture medium, were investigated in terms of their effects on the growth of potato cuttings (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘cara’). Concentrations of CO2, O2and ethylene in the culture vessel headspaces were monitored during the

S. M. A. Zobayed; J. Armstrong; W. Armstrong

2001-01-01

132

Gas cluster growth by solute diffusion in porous media. Experiments and automaton simulation on pore network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented in this paper deals with the liquid–gas phase change by pressure decline of supersaturated CO2 solutions in 2D porous media. The growth of the gas phase is studied experimentally and numerically as a function of supersaturation, wettability and gravity. Experiments are performed on a transparent etched network (micromodel) and simulations with a specific numerical automaton.In the experiments,

A. Dominguez; S. Bories; M. Prat

2000-01-01

133

Modeling growth and dissemination of lymphoma in a co-evolving lymph node: a diffuse-domain approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While partial differential equation models of tumor growth have successfully described various spatiotemporal phenomena observed for in-vitro tumor spheroid experiments, one challenge towards taking these models to further study in-vivo tumors is that instead of relatively static tissue culture with regular boundary conditions, in-vivo tumors are often confined in organ tissues that co-evolve with the tumor growth. Here we adopt a recently developed diffuse-domain method to account for the co-evolving domain boundaries, adapting our previous in-vitro tumor model for the development of lymphoma encapsulated in a lymph node, which may swell or shrink due to proliferation and dissemination of lymphoma cells and treatment by chemotherapy. We use the model to study the induced spatial heterogeneity, which may arise as an emerging phenomenon in experimental observations and model analysis. Spatial heterogeneity is believed to lead to tumor infiltration patterns and reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy, leaving residuals that cause cancer relapse after the treatment. Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of in-vivo tumors can be an essential step towards more effective strategies of curing cancer.

Chuang, Yao-Li; Cristini, Vittorio; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Lowengrub, John

2013-03-01

134

Visualization of Hydrogen Diffusion in a Hydrogen-Enhanced Fatigue Crack Growth in Type 304 Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the influence of hydrogen on the fatigue strength of AISI type 304 metastable austenitic stainless steel, specimens were cathodically charged with hydrogen. Using tension-compression fatigue tests, the behavior of fatigue crack growth from a small drill hole in the hydrogen-charged specimen was compared with that of noncharged specimen. Hydrogen charging led to a marked increase in the crack growth rate. Typical characteristics of hydrogen effect were observed in the slip band morphology and fatigue striation. To elucidate the behavior of hydrogen diffusion microscopically in the fatigue process, the hydrogen emission from the specimens was visualized using the hydrogen microprint technique (HMT). In the hydrogen-charged specimen, hydrogen emissions were mainly observed in the vicinity of the fatigue crack. Comparison between the HMT image and the etched microstructure image revealed that the slip bands worked as a pathway for hydrogen to move preferentially. Hydrogen-charging resulted in a significant change in the phase transformation behavior in the fatigue process. In the noncharged specimen, a massive type ?' martensite was observed in the vicinity of the fatigue crack. On the other hand, in the hydrogen-charged specimen, large amounts of ? martensite and a smaller amount of ?' martensite were observed along the slip bands. The results indicated that solute hydrogen facilitated the ? martensitic transformation in the fatigue process. Comparison between the results of HMT and EBSD inferred that martensitic transformations as well as plastic deformation itself can enhance the mobility of hydrogen.

Matsunaga, Hisao; Noda, Hiroshi

2011-09-01

135

Homodimerization Controls the Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 Subfamily's Receptor Binding and Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Diffusion in the Extracellular Matrix  

SciTech Connect

Uncontrolled fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling can lead to human diseases, necessitating multiple layers of self-regulatory control mechanisms to keep its activity in check. Herein, we demonstrate that FGF9 and FGF20 ligands undergo a reversible homodimerization, occluding their key receptor binding sites. To test the role of dimerization in ligand autoinhibition, we introduced structure-based mutations into the dimer interfaces of FGF9 and FGF20. The mutations weakened the ability of the ligands to dimerize, effectively increasing the concentrations of monomeric ligands capable of binding and activating their cognate FGF receptor in vitro and in living cells. Interestingly, the monomeric ligands exhibit reduced heparin binding, resulting in their increased radii of heparan sulfate-dependent diffusion and biologic action, as evidenced by the wider dilation area of ex vivo lung cultures in response to implanted mutant FGF9-loaded beads. Hence, our data demonstrate that homodimerization autoregulates FGF9 and FGF20's receptor binding and concentration gradients in the extracellular matrix. Our study is the first to implicate ligand dimerization as an autoregulatory mechanism for growth factor bioactivity and sets the stage for engineering modified FGF9 subfamily ligands, with desired activity for use in both basic and translational research.

Kalinina, J.; Byron, S; Makarenkova, H; Olsen, S; Eliseenkova, A; Larochelle, W; Dhanabal, M; Blais, S; Mohammadi, M; et. al.

2009-01-01

136

Interface proliferation and the growth of labyrinths in a reaction-diffusion system  

SciTech Connect

In the bistable regime of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of reaction-diffusion systems, spatially homogeneous patterns may be nonlinearly unstable to the formation of compact {open_quote}{open_quote}localized states.{close_quote}{close_quote} The formation of space-filling patterns from instabilities of such structures in the context of a nonlocal contour dynamics model for the evolution of boundaries between high and low concentrations of the activator. An earlier heuristic derivation [D. M. Petrich and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 72}, 1120 (1994)] is made more systematic by an asymptotic analysis appropriate to the limits of fast inhibition, sharp activator interfaces, and small asymmetry in the bistable minima. The resulting contour dynamics is temporally local, with the normal component of the velocity involving a local contribution linear in the interface curvature and a nonlocal component having the form of a screened Biot-Savart interaction. The amplitude of the nonlocal interaction is set by the activator-inhibitor coupling and controls the {open_quote}{open_quote}lateral inhibition{close_quote}{close_quote} responsible for the destabilization of localized structures such as spots and stripes, and the repulsion of nearby interfaces in the later stages of those instabilities. The phenomenology of pattern formation exhibited by the contour dynamics is consistent with that seen by Lee, McCormick, Ouyang, and Swinney in experiments on the iodide-ferrocyanide-sulfite reaction in a gel reactor. Extensive numerical studies of the underlying partial differential equations are presented and compared in detail with the contour dynamics. The similarity of these phenomena (and their mathematical description) with those observed in amphiphilic monolayers, type I superconductors in the intermediate state, and magnetic fluids in Hele-Shaw geometry are emphasized. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Goldstein, R.E. [Department of Physics, Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Muraki, D.J. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)] [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Petrich, D.M. [Department of Physics, Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

1996-04-01

137

Pump cavities for compact pulsed Nd:YAG lasers: a comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Two elliptical cavities of different dimensions and eccentricity, one close-coupled diffusive cavity and one close-coupled reflecting cavity of our design, have been studied as a function of the type and geometry of the pumping cavity. A high efficiency is obtained with the two elliptical cavities, while a more uniform beam distribution is obtained with the two close-coupled cavities. The close-coupled reflective cavity gives comparable efficiency with respect to the diffusive type but a superior beam quality.

Docchio, F.; Pallaro, L.; Svelto, O.

1985-11-15

138

Void Nucleation, Growth and Coalescence in Irradiated Metals  

SciTech Connect

A novel computational treatment of dense, stiff, coupled reaction rate equations is introduced to study the nucleation, growth, and possible coalescence of cavities during neutron irradiation of metals. Radiation damage is modeled by the creation of Frenkel pair defects and helium impurity atoms. A multi-dimensional cluster size distribution function allows independent evolution of the vacancy and helium content of cavities, distinguishing voids and bubbles. A model with sessile cavities and no cluster-cluster coalescence can result in a bimodal final cavity size distribution with coexistence of small, high-pressure bubbles and large, low-pressure voids. A model that includes unhindered cavity diffusion and coalescence ultimately removes the small helium bubbles from the system, leaving only large voids. The terminal void density is also reduced and the incubation period and terminal swelling rate can be greatly altered by cavity coalescence. Temperature-dependent trapping of voids/bubbles by precipitates and alterations in void surface diffusion from adsorbed impurities and internal gas pressure may give rise to intermediate swelling behavior through their effects on cavity mobility and coalescence.

Surh, M P; Sturgeon, J B; Wolfer, W G

2008-01-11

139

Algal morphogenesis: modelling interspecific variation in Micrasterias with reaction--diffusion patterned catalysis of cell surface growth  

PubMed Central

Semi-cell morphogenesis in unicellular desmid algae of the genus Micrasterias generates a stellar shape by repeated dichotomous branching of growing tips of the cell surface. The numerous species of the genus display variations of the branching pattern that differ markedly in number of branchings, lobe width and lobe length. We have modelled this morphogenesis, following previous work by D. M. Harrison and M. Kolar (1988), on the assumptions that patterning occurs by chemical reaction-diffusion activity within the plasma membrane, leading to morphological expression by patterned catalysis of the extension of the cell surface. The latter has been simulated in simplified form by two-dimensional computations. Our results indicate that for generation of repeated branchings and for the control of diverse species-specific shapes, the loss of patterning activity and of rapid growth in regions separating the active growing tips is an essential feature. We believe this conclusion to be much more general than the specific details of our model. We discuss the limitations of the model especially in terms of what extra features might be addressed in three-dimensional computation.

Holloway, D. M.

1999-01-01

140

Growth patterns and nuclear distribution in white muscle fibers from black sea bass, Centropristis striata: evidence for the influence of diffusion  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study investigated the influence of fiber size on the distribution of nuclei and fiber growth patterns in white muscle of black sea bass, Centropristis striata, ranging in body mass from 0.45 to 4840 g. Nuclei were counted in 1 ?m optical sections using confocal microscopy of DAPIand Acridine-Orange-stained muscle fibers. Mean fiber diameter increased from 36±0.87 ?m in the 0.45 g fish to 280±5.47 ?m in the 1885 g fish. Growth beyond 2000 g triggered the recruitment of smaller fibers, thus significantly reducing mean fiber diameter. Nuclei in the smaller fibers were exclusively subsarcolemmal (SS), whereas in larger fibers nuclei were more numerous and included intermyofibrillar (IM) nuclei. There was a significant effect of body mass on nuclear domain size (F=118.71, d.f.=3, P<0.0001), which increased to a maximum in fish of medium size (282–1885 g) and then decreased in large fish (>2000 g). Although an increase in the number of nuclei during fiber growth can help preserve the myonuclear domain, the appearance of IM nuclei during hypertrophic growth seems to be aimed at maintaining short effective diffusion distances for nuclear substrates and products. If only SS nuclei were present throughout growth, the diffusion distance would increase in proportion to the radius of the fibers. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in nuclear distribution and fiber growth patterns are mechanisms for avoiding diffusion limitation during animal growth. PMID:21430198

Priester, Carolina; Morton, Lindsay C.; Kinsey, Stephen T.; Watanabe, Wade O.; Dillaman, Richard M.

2011-01-01

141

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 13 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 24 SEPTEMBER 2001 Laplacian Growth and Diffusion Limited Aggregation: Different Universality Classes  

E-print Network

limited aggregates and Laplacian growth patterns (with small surface tension) are in the same universality) shows a typical Laplacian growth pattern. Diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) [4] begins with fix- ingVOLUME 87, NUMBER 13 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 24 SEPTEMBER 2001 Laplacian Growth

Levermann, Anders

142

Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically find the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement.

Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leornardo

2014-12-01

143

Spectroscopic evaluation of photodynamic therapy of the intraperitoneal cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of spectroscopic measurements of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence before and after photodynamic therapy of healthy canine peritoneal cavity. Animals were treated intra-operatively after iv injection of the benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD). The small bowel was treated using a uniform light field projected by a microlens-tipped fiber. The cavity was then filled with scattering medium and the remaining organs were treated using a moving diffuser. Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence measurements were made using a multi-fiber optical probe positioned on the surface of various tissues within the cavity before and after illumination. The measured data were analyzed to quantify hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation and sensitizer concentration.

Finlay, Jarod C.; Sandell, Julia L.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Lewis, Robert; Cengel, Keith A.; Hahn, Stephen M.

2010-02-01

144

Dual frequency optical cavity  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Schipper, John F. (Palo Alto, CA)

1985-01-01

145

Island size evolution and molecular diffusion during growth of organic thin films followed by time-resolved specular and off-specular scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a combined off-specular and specular x-ray scattering growth study of ultrathin films of the prototypical organic semiconductor diindenoperylene (DIP, C32H16). We investigate the evolution of the in-plane correlation length and the growth kinetics of the films including their dependence on the substrate temperature and the growth rate. We observe a temperature-dependent collective rearrangement of DIP molecules from a transient surface induced to the thin-film phase, which can be rationalized by incorporating a thickness-dependent out-of-plane lattice parameter. We further observe that the nucleation behavior of DIP changes from the first to the second monolayer, which we relate to a difference in the diffusion length of the molecules.

Frank, C.; Novák, J.; Banerjee, R.; Gerlach, A.; Schreiber, F.; Vorobiev, A.; Kowarik, S.

2014-07-01

146

Segmented trapped vortex cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

2010-01-01

147

Fast Turnover of L1 Adhesions in Neuronal Growth Cones Involving Both Surface Diffusion and Exo/Endocytosis of L1 Molecules  

PubMed Central

We investigated the interplay between surface trafficking and binding dynamics of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule L1 at neuronal growth cones. Primary neurons were transfected with L1 constructs bearing thrombin-cleavable green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing visualization of newly exocytosed L1 or labeling of membrane L1 molecules by Quantum dots. Intracellular L1–GFP vesicles showed preferential centrifugal motion, whereas surface L1–GFP diffused randomly, revealing two pathways to address L1 to adhesive sites. We triggered L1 adhesions using microspheres coated with L1–Fc protein or anti-L1 antibodies, manipulated by optical tweezers. Microspheres coupled to the actin retrograde flow at the growth cone periphery while recruiting L1–GFP molecules, of which 50% relied on exocytosis. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed a rapid recycling of L1–GFP molecules at L1–Fc (but not anti-L1) bead contacts, attributed to a high lability of L1–L1 bonds at equilibrium. L1–GFP molecules truncated in the intracellular tail as well as neuronal cell adhesion molecules (NrCAMs) missing the clathrin adaptor binding sequence showed both little internalization and reduced turnover rates, indicating a role of endocytosis in the recycling of mature L1 contacts at the base of the growth cone. Thus, unlike for other molecules such as NrCAM or N-cadherin, diffusion/trapping and exo/endocytosis events cooperate to allow the fast renewal of L1 adhesions. PMID:17538021

Dequidt, Caroline; Danglot, Lydia; Alberts, Philipp; Galli, Thierry; Choquet, Daniel

2007-01-01

148

Creep cavity observation using liquid metal embrittlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain boundary cavities, which form during high-temperature deformation and which may be considered incipient intergranular cracks, have been difficult to observe at the early growth stages. To examine grain boundaries in unfailed specimans one is normally limited to metallographic or transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, the first having resolution limitations (r\\/sub cavity\\/approx.l..mu..m) and the second having limitations in the probability

T REILEY

1981-01-01

149

Diffusion Dynamics during the Nucleation and Growth of Ge=Si Nanostructures on Si(111) F. Ratto,1,*,  

E-print Network

, with a view to applications in micro- and optoe- lectronics. The growth of germanium on low index silicon simulations, three- dimensional islands are shown to display a substantial tendency towards self nuclei display a tendency towards self-ordering? (ii) What factors govern the relative growth

150

All about Cavities  

MedlinePLUS

All About Cavities What's in Your Mouth? How Your Teeth Decay Types of Decay Preventing Cavities What's ... candy and ice cream we're talking about. All carbohydrate foods eventually break down into simple sugars. ...

151

Aggregation growth in a gas of finite density: Velocity selection via fractal dimension of diffusion-limited aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and dynamics of an aggregation have been studied when the aggregate grows from a lattice gas with a nonzero gas density ng. At low ng and for a short length scale up to xi, the structure of the aggregation is fractal and similar to the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). For a large length scale it is compact and has

Makio Uwaha; Yukio Saito

1989-01-01

152

Measurements of Silica Aggregate Particle Growth Using Light Scattering and Thermophoretic Sampling in a Coflow Diffusion Flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of silica aggregate particles in a coflow diffusion flame has been studied experimentally using light scattering and thermophoretic sampling techniques. An attempt has been made to calculate the aggregate number density and volume fraction using the measurements of scattering cross section from 90° light scattering with combination of measuring the particle size and morphology from the localized sampling

M. Choi; J. Cho; J. Lee; H. W. Kim

1999-01-01

153

Beam-Cavity Interaction Circuit at W-Band  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design, fabrication and bench-study of a mm-wave cavity employed as a relativistic klystron output structure. The OFE copper cavity was prepared by electro-discharge machining and diffusion bonding, cleaned, and tuned to 91.4 GHz. Measured cavity characteristics are presented and compared with theory, including quality factor, Q, coupling parameter {beta}, scattering matrix S{sub 11}, and axial electric field profile E{sub z}. This work provides the basis for understanding of the cavity as a transfer structure.

Hill, Marc E

1999-07-14

154

Cavity turnover and equilibrium cavity densities in a cottonwood bottomland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A fundamental factor regulating the numbers of secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds is the number of extant cavities available for nesting. The number of available cavities may be thought of as being in an approximate equilibrium maintained by a very rough balance between recruitment and loss of cavities. Based on estimates of cavity recruitment and loss, we ascertained equilibrium cavity densities in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado. Annual cavity recruitment, derived from density estimates of primary cavity nesting (PCN) birds and cavity excavation rates, was estimated to be 71-86 new cavities excavated/100 ha. Of 180 active cavities of 11 species of cavity-nesting birds found in 1985 and 1986, 83 were no longer usable by 1990, giving an average instantaneous rate of cavity loss of r = -0.230. From these values of cavity recruitment and cavity loss, equilibrium cavity density along the South Platte is 238-289 cavities/100 ha. This range of equilibrium cavity density is only slightly above the minimum of 205 cavities/100 ha required by SCN's and suggests that cavity availability may be limiting SCN densities along the South Platte River. We submit that snag management alone does not adequately address SCN habitat needs, and that cavity management, expressed in terms of cavity turnover and cavity densities, may be more useful.

Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

1992-01-01

155

Diffusion-controlled growth of hydrogen pores in aluminum-silicon castings: In situ observation and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ observations were made of the nucleation and growth kinetics of hydrogen porosity during the directional solidification of aluminium-7 wt% silicon (Al7Si) with TiBâ grain refiner added, using an X-ray temperature gradient stage (XTGS). The effect of altering the solidification velocity on the growth rate and morphology of the porosity formed was characterized by tracking individual pores with digital

R. C. Atwood; S. Sridhar; W. Zhang; P. D. Lee

2000-01-01

156

Diffusion-controlled growth of hydrogen pores in aluminium–silicon castings: in situ observation and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ observations were made of the nucleation and growth kinetics of hydrogen porosity during the directional solidification of aluminium–7wt% silicon (Al7Si) with TiB2 grain refiner added, using an X-ray temperature gradient stage (XTGS). The effect of altering the solidification velocity on the growth rate and morphology of the porosity formed was characterized by tracking individual pores with digital analysis

R. C. Atwood; S. Sridhar; W. Zhang; P. D. Lee

2000-01-01

157

Cavity-controlled spectral singularity.  

PubMed

We study theoretically a parity-time (PT)-symmetric, saturable, balanced gain-loss system in a ring-cavity configuration. The saturable gain and loss are modeled by a two-level medium with or without population inversion. We show that the specifics of the spectral singularity can be fully controlled by the cavity and the atomic detuning parameters. The theory is based on the mean-field approximation, as in the standard theory of optical bistability. Further, in the linear regime we demonstrate the regularization of the singularity in detuned systems, while larger input power levels are shown to be adequate to limit the infinite growth in absence of detunings. PMID:25078237

Nireekshan Reddy, K; Dutta Gupta, S

2014-08-01

158

The importance of microclimate variation in determining size, growth and survival of avian offspring: experimental evidence from a cavity nesting passerine.  

PubMed

Organisms are expected to balance energy allocation in such a way that fitness is maximized. While much research has focussed on allocation strategies of reproducing parents, in particular birds, relatively little attention has been paid to how nestlings allocate energy while in the nest. Nestling birds are faced with a trade-off between devoting energy to growth or to thermoregulation, and in altricial species it is likely that the thermal environment of the nest site influences the nature of this trade-off. Here, we experimentally investigate how altering the microclimate of nests affects the growth, size and survival, as well as cell-mediated immune (CMI) response, of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) in a temperate environment. We place air-activated heating pads in nests of swallows when young were between 4 days and 16 days of age, and compared performance of offspring to control nests. Our manipulation raised temperatures of heated nests by approximately 5 degrees C compared to control nests. Offspring in heated nests had enhanced survival while in the nest, and we also found that they were heavier and had longer ninth primary feathers at 16 days of age. In addition, heating nest boxes resulted in significantly faster growth of primaries, and there was a trend for growth rates of mass to also be higher in heated nests. There were no significant differences between heated and control nests in growth rate or size of tarsus at age 16 days, and we speculate that this lack of response to elevated nest temperatures may be due to growth of skeletal structures being limited by other factors such as calcium availability. We also found no difference between heated and control nests in CMI response. Nonetheless, our results show overall that increasing temperatures of nests has significant benefits that enhance the fitness of offspring. As provisioning rates to offspring did not differ between heated and control nests, we suspect that the beneficial effects of heating were not the consequence of changes in parental behaviour. Our results provide insight into factors, other than food supply, that have important consequences in determining reproductive success of birds breeding in temperate environments. PMID:15891832

Dawson, Russell D; Lawrie, Cheyenne C; O'Brien, Erin L

2005-07-01

159

Analysis of island shape evolution from diffuse x-ray scattering of organic thin films and implications for growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the growth of organic semiconducting molecules with shape anisotropy is of high relevance to the processing of optoelectronic devices. This work provides insight into the growth of thin films of the prototypical rodlike organic semiconductor diindenoperylene on a microscopic level by analyzing in detail the film morphology. We model our data, which were obtained by high-resolution grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering, using a theoretical description from small-angle scattering theory derived for simple liquids. Based on form-factor calculations for different object types, we determine how the island shapes change in the respective layers. Atomic force microscopy measurements approve our findings.

Frank, C.; Banerjee, R.; Oettel, M.; Gerlach, A.; Novák, J.; Santoro, G.; Schreiber, F.

2014-11-01

160

Effects of electron-phonon coupling and electron diffusion on ripples growth on ultrafast-laser-irradiated metals  

SciTech Connect

Metals exposed to ultrafast laser irradiation close to ablative regimes show often a submicron-scale (near 0.5 {mu}m) periodic organization of the surface as ripples. Using two classes of metallic materials (transition and noble), we have determined that the ripples amplitude is strongly correlated to the material transport properties, namely electron-phonon relaxation strength, electronic diffusion, and to the energy band characteristics of the electronic laser excitation. This particularly depends on the topology of the electronic structure, including d-band effects on electronic excitation. Comparing the effects of electron-phonon nonequilibrium lifetimes for the different metals under similar irradiation conditions, we indicate how the electron-phonon coupling strength affects the electronic thermal diffusion, the speed of phase transformation and impacts on the ripples contrast. The highest contrast is observed for ruthenium, where the electron-phonon coupling is the strongest, followed by tungsten, nickel, and copper, the latter with the least visible contrast. The dependence of surface patterns contrast with fluence is linked to the dependence of the relaxation characteristics with the electronic temperature.

Colombier, J. P.; Garrelie, F.; Faure, N.; Reynaud, S.; Bounhalli, M.; Audouard, E.; Stoian, R.; Pigeon, F. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

2012-01-15

161

A two-dimensional model for stress driven diffusion in bone tissue.  

PubMed

The growth and resorption of bone are governed by interaction between several cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, osteocytes, lining cells and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The cells considered in this study reside in the periosteum. Furthermore, they are believed to be activated by certain substances to initiate bone growth. This study focuses on the role that stress driven diffusion plays in the transport of these substances from the medullary cavity to the periosteum. Calculations of stress driven diffusion are performed under steady state conditions using a finite element method with the concentration of nutrients in the cambium layer of the periosteum obtained for different choices of load frequencies. The results are compared with experimental findings, suggesting that increased bone growth occurs in the neighbourhood of relatively high nutrient concentration. PMID:23865643

Lindberg, Gustav; Banks-Sills, Leslie; Ståhle, Per; Svensson, Ingrid

2015-04-01

162

Crystal growth of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase, carboxypeptidase t, and thymidine phosphorylase on the international space station by the capillary counter-diffusion method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystals of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, thymidine phosphorylase from Escherichia coli, carboxypeptidase T from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and its mutant forms, and crystals of complexes of these proteins with functional ligands and inhibitors were grown by the capillary counter-diffusion method in the Japanese Experimental Module Kibo on the International Space Station. The high-resolution X-ray diffraction data sets suitable for the determination of high-resolution three-dimensional structures of these proteins were collected from the grown crystals on the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The conditions of crystal growth for the proteins and the data-collection statistics are reported. The crystals grown in microgravity diffracted to a higher resolution than crystals of the same proteins grown on Earth.

Kuranova, I. P.; Smirnova, E. A.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Chupova, L. A.; Esipov, R. S.; Akparov, V. Kh.; Timofeev, V. I.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

2011-09-01

163

Crystal growth of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase, carboxypeptidase t, and thymidine phosphorylase on the international space station by the capillary counter-diffusion method  

SciTech Connect

Crystals of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, thymidine phosphorylase from Escherichia coli, carboxypeptidase T from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and its mutant forms, and crystals of complexes of these proteins with functional ligands and inhibitors were grown by the capillary counter-diffusion method in the Japanese Experimental Module Kibo on the International Space Station. The high-resolution X-ray diffraction data sets suitable for the determination of high-resolution three-dimensional structures of these proteins were collected from the grown crystals on the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The conditions of crystal growth for the proteins and the data-collection statistics are reported. The crystals grown in microgravity diffracted to a higher resolution than crystals of the same proteins grown on Earth.

Kuranova, I. P., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru; Smirnova, E. A.; Abramchik, Yu. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Chupova, L. A.; Esipov, R. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Akparov, V. Kh. [Research Institute for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms, Scientific Center of Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Timofeev, V. I.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-09-15

164

Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation  

SciTech Connect

We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

Born, N., E-mail: norman.born@physik.uni-marburg.de [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, M. [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

2014-03-10

165

Megakaryocytic Potentiating Factor and Mature Mesothelin Stimulate the Growth of a Lung Cancer Cell Line in the Peritoneal Cavity of Mice  

PubMed Central

The mesothelin (MSLN) gene encodes a 71 kilodalton (kDa) precursor protein that is processed into megakaryocytic potentiating factor (MPF), a 31 kDa protein that is secreted from the cell, and mature mesothelin (mMSLN), a 40 kDa cell surface protein. The mMSLN binds to CA125, an interaction that has been implicated in the intra-cavitary spread of mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. To better define the role of MPF and mMSLN, growth of the lung cancer cell line A549 was evaluated in immuno-deficient mice with inactivation of the Msln gene. We observed that Msln–/– mice xenografted with intraperitoneal A549 tumors survive significantly long than tumor-bearing Msln+/+ mice. When tumor-bearing Msln–/– mice are supplemented with recombinant MPF (and to a lesser extent mMSLN), most of this survival advantage is lost. These studies demonstrate that MPF and mMSLN have an important role in the growth of lung cancer cells in vivo and raise the possibility that inactivation of MPF may be a useful treatment for lung and other MSLN expressing cancers. PMID:25118887

Liu, Wenhai; Du, Xing; Alewine, Christine; Hassan, Raffit; Pastan, Ira

2014-01-01

166

Diffusion-cooled transversally microwave-pumped CO2 laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a prototype of a diffusion-cooled, microwave-excited CO2 laser. The microwave power, generated by a 2.45 GHz CW magnetron, excites the CO2:N2:He mixture in a discharge cavity. The magnetron is linked up to the cavity through a launching guide and two cascaded horns that couple the microwave power to the cavity. The excess heat is mainly extracted by diffusive

Carlos F. Mosquera; Ignacio J. Rios; Guillermo D. Santiago

2004-01-01

167

Characterization of cavity wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. This research focused on flow over deep cavities at subsonic speeds with emphasis on the wake downstream of the cavity. Cavity wake behaviors have not been studied in detail and are a major concern for air vehicles with cavities and in particular for optical sensor systems installed in cavities. Other key behaviors for sensor survival and performance are cavity resonance and turbulence scales in the shear layer. A wind tunnel test apparatus was developed to explore cavity and wake characteristics. It consisted of a test section insert for the OSU Indraft Wind Tunnel with an additional contraction cone for significantly increased speed. The test section included a variable depth cavity in a boundary layer splitter plate/fairing assembly, a Y-Z traverse and pitot rake with in-situ pressure transducers for high frequency response. Flows were measured over clean cavities with length to depth (L/D) ratios of 4 to 1/2 and on cavities with a porous fence for resonance suppression. Measurements were taken in streamwise and cross-stream sections to three cavity lengths downstream of the cavity trailing edge. Flow visualization using laser sheet and smoke injection was also used. Findings and Conclusions. The high speed insert demonstrated a significant new capability for the OSU wind tunnel, reaching speeds of 0.35 Mach (390 feet/second) in a 14"x14" test section. Inlet room flow was found to be quite unsteady and recommendations are made for improved flow and quantitative visualization. Key findings for cavity wake flow include its highly three dimensional nature with asymmetric peaks in cross section with boundary layer thicknesses and integral length scales several times that of a normal flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Turbulent intensities (TI) of 35% to 55% of freestream speeds were measured for the clean configuration. Fence configuration TI's were 20% to 35% of free stream and, in both configurations, TI's decayed to approximately that of a flat plate TBL by 3 cavity lengths downstream from the cavity trailing edge. Fence flow visualization showed edge vortices and jets through the perforations that suggest the potential for minimizing turbulence intensity and scales while still suppressing cavity resonance.

Kidd, James A.

168

Spark to glow discharge transition in cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of spark, pseudoglow, and glow discharge in short gaps is discussed. The effect of gap spacing and overvoltage is examined in terms of both experimental observations and theoretical calculations. It is found that gaps or cavity diameters are more likely to undergo spark-type discharge, since the larger gas volume is more conductive to an uninterrupted exponential growth of

R. Bartnikas; J. P. Novak; Y. McNicoll

1990-01-01

169

Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000?C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) delivers high quality ZnMgO-ZnO quantum well structures. Other thin film techniques such as PLD or MOCVD are also widely used. The main problem at present is to consistently achieve reliable p-type doping. For this topic, see also Chap. 5. In the past years, there have been numerous publications on p-type doping of ZnO, as well as ZnO p-n junctions and light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, a lot of these reports are in one way or the other inconsistent or at least incomplete. It is quite clear from optical data that once a reliable hole injection can be achieved, high brightness ZnO LEDs should be possible. In contrast to that expectation, none of the LEDs reported so far shows efficient light emission, as would be expected from a reasonable quality ZnO-based LED. See also Chap. 13. As a matter of fact, there seems to be no generally accepted and reliable technique for p-type doping available at present. The reason for this is the unfavorable position of the band structure of ZnO relative to the vacuum level, with a very low lying valence band. See also Fig. 5.1. This makes the incorporation of electrically active acceptors difficult. Another difficulty is the huge defect density in ZnO. There are many indications that defects play a major role in transport and doping. In order to solve the doping problem, it is generally accepted that the quality of the ZnO material grown by the various techniques needs to be improved. Therefore, the optimization of ZnO epitaxy is thought to play a key role in the further development of this material system. Besides being used as an active material in optoelectronic devices, ZnO plays a major role as transparent contact material in thin film solar cells. Polycrystalline, heavily n-type doped ZnO is used for this, combining a high electrical conductivity with a good optical transparency. In this case, ZnO thin films are fabricated by large area growth techniques such as sputtering. For this and other applications, see also Chap. 13.

Waag, Andreas

170

Superconducting-Cavity Accelerometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resonant frequency of microwave superconducting cavity sensitive to gravitation and acceleration. Sensitive accelerometer assembled by combining superconducting microwave cavity and conventional microwave semiconductor oscillator circuit. Device measures acelerations as small as 10-10 cm/S2 (10-13 g's). Also configured to measure small gradients in gravitational field of Earth.

Reinhardt, V. S.; Von Bun, F.

1985-01-01

171

Liquid laser cavities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid laser cavities have plenum chambers at the ends of the capillary cell which are terminated in transparent optical flats. By use of these cavities, several new europium chelates and a terbium chelate can provide laser action in solution at room temperature.

Bjorklund, S.; Filipescu, N.; Kellermeyer, G. L.; Mc Avoy, N.

1969-01-01

172

Lattice Defects Diffuse Scattering from Thin Films of a Ge-Si System with Low-Energy Ar+ and Xe+ Bombardment During Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homo-Ge, homo-Si, and hetero-Si0.2Ge0.8 alloy epitaxial layers, using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), were grown on Ge and Si (001) substrates in order to study development of crystalline strains caused by ion bombardment during the growth of materials. Ion energies and ion/atom fluxes were used in the epitaxial growth, and significant lattice distortions along the growth direction developed. Using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), the form of distortion, caused by low-energy argon (Ar+) and xenon (Xe+) bombardment of the thin epitaxial films grown on the (001) substrates, were investigated. The isotropic point defects case (of spherical distortions) occurs in epitaxial thin films "as-grown" processes. The intensity distribution has two maxima, one from the distorted layer and the other from the original unaffected matrix. The significant changes in the 2? location, peak broadening and integrated intensity from the secondary (004)* reflections were obtained as a function of aging temperatures in the grown layers. Defects-induced diffuse scattering close to and between Bragg reflections supplies information on the strain and symmetry of the distortions fields and yields the atomic structure of point defects (self-interstitial, vacancies, and small clusters). First, aging heat treatment affects the distribution of distortions obtained in local regions at the "as-grown" layer, which develops to a special topography of continued distortions at higher aging temperatures. At aging temperatures above 923 K (650 °C), this extra diffraction peak disappears. The TEM observations reveal the appearance of dislocation lines with dark and bright contrasts around them, interdislocation strain contrasts, and disordered point defects atoms in the silicon region with semicoherent interfaces. The ion bombardment-induced formations and injection of the different types of pointlike defects and defects clusters.

Rozenak, Paul

2013-01-01

173

Suppression of Cavity-Driven Flow Separation in a Simulated Mixed Compression Inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test facility designed to simulate a bifurcated subsonic diffuser operating within a mixed compression inlet is described. The subsonic diffuser in this facility modeled a bypass cavity feature often used in mixed compression inlets for engine flow matching and normal shock control. A bypass cavity-driven flow separation was seen to occur in the subsonic diffuser without applied flow control. Flow control in the form of vortex generators and/or a partitioned bypass cavity cover plate were used to eliminate this flow separation, providing a 2% increase in area-averaged total pressure recovery, and a 70% reduction in circumferential distortion intensity.

Wendt, Bruce J.

2000-01-01

174

Design of plasmonic cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review paper, we introduce the unique optical properties of high-quality, fully three-dimensional, subwavelength-scale plasmonic cavities. Surface-plasmon-polaritons excited at dielectric-metal interfaces are strongly confined in such cavities. The field profiles of plasmonic modes, their temperature-dependent quality factors, and subwavelength mode volumes are calculated and analyzed systematically using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. Reasonable design of high-quality plasmonic cavities opens an opportunity to demonstrate novel plasmonic lasers enabling the further miniaturization of coherent light sources for use in ultra-compact photonic integrated circuits.

Kwon, Soon-Hong; No, You-Shin; Park, Hong-Gyu

2014-03-01

175

Growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during hot isostatic pressing of U-10 wt.% Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 cladding with Zr diffusion barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase constituents and microstructure changes in RERTR fuel plate assemblies as functions of temperature and duration of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) during fabrication were examined. The HIP process was carried out as functions of temperature (520, 540, 560 and 580 °C for 90 min) and time (45-345 min at 560 °C) to bond 6061 Al-alloy to the Zr diffusion barrier that had been co-rolled with U-10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) fuel monolith prior to the HIP process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were employed to examine the phase constituents, microstructure and layer thickness of interaction products from interdiffusion. At the interface between the U10Mo and Zr, following the co-rolling, the UZr2 phase was observed to develop adjacent to Zr, and the ?-U phase was found between the UZr2 and U10Mo, while the Mo2Zr was found as precipitates mostly within the ?-U phase. The phase constituents and thickness of the interaction layer at the U10Mo-Zr interface remained unchanged regardless of HIP processing variation. Observable growth due to HIP was only observed for the (Al,Si)3Zr phase found at the Zr/AA6061 interface, however, with a large activation energy of 457 ± 28 kJ/mole. Thus, HIP can be carried to improve the adhesion quality of fuel plate without concern for the excessive growth of the interaction layer, particularly at the U10Mo-Zr interface with the ?-U, Mo2Zr, and UZr2 phases.

Park, Y.; Yoo, J.; Huang, K.; Keiser, D. D.; Jue, J. F.; Rabin, B.; Moore, G.; Sohn, Y. H.

2014-04-01

176

Growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during hot isostatic pressing of U-10 wt.% Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 cladding with Zr diffusion barrier  

SciTech Connect

Phase constituents and microstructure changes in RERTR fuel plate assemblies as functions of temperature and duration of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) during fabrication were examined. The HIP process was carried out as functions of temperature (520, 540, 560 and 580 °C for 90 min) and time (45–345 min at 560 °C) to bond 6061 Al-alloy to the Zr diffusion barrier that had been co-rolled with U-10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) fuel monolith prior to the HIP process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were employed to examine the phase constituents, microstructure and layer thickness of interaction products from interdiffusion. At the interface between the U10Mo and Zr, following the co-rolling, the UZr2 phase was observed to develop adjacent to Zr, and the a-U phase was found between the UZr2 and U10Mo, while the Mo2Zr was found as precipitates mostly within the a-U phase. The phase constituents and thickness of the interaction layer at the U10Mo-Zr interface remained unchanged regardless of HIP processing variation. Observable growth due to HIP was only observed for the (Al,Si)3Zr phase found at the Zr/AA6061 interface, however, with a large activation energy of 457 ± 28 kJ/mole. Thus, HIP can be carried to improve the adhesion quality of fuel plate without concern for the excessive growth of the interaction layer, particularly at the U10Mo-Zr interface with the a-U, Mo2Zr, and UZr2 phases.

Y. Park; J. Yoo; K. Huang; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; J. F. Jue; B. Rabin; G. Moore; Y. H. Sohn

2014-04-01

177

Optical Microtube Ring Cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

By exploiting the self-rolling mechanism of strained layer systems we fabricate optical microtube ring cavities. In these\\u000a structures either self-assembled InAs quantum dots or InGaAs quantum wells are embedded as optically active material. The\\u000a optical properties of these microcavities are investigated by micro photoluminescence spectroscopy. We find spectra of sharp\\u000a polarized cavity modes. The measured mode spacing is in very

Tobias Kipp

2008-01-01

178

Superconducting TESLA cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron collider TESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with an accelerating gradient of Eacc>=25 MV\\/m at a quality factor Q0>=5×109. The design goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set to the more moderate value of Eacc>=15 MV\\/m. In a first series of 27

B. Aune; R. Bandelmann; D. Bloess; B. Bonin; A. Bosotti; M. Champion; C. Crawford; G. Deppe; B. Dwersteg; D. A. Edwards; H. T. Edwards; M. Ferrario; M. Fouaidy; P.-D. Gall; A. Gamp; A. Gössel; J. Graber; D. Hubert; M. Hüning; M. Juillard; T. Junquera; H. Kaiser; G. Kreps; M. Kuchnir; R. Lange; M. Leenen; M. Liepe; L. Lilje; A. Matheisen; W.-D. Möller; A. Mosnier; H. Padamsee; C. Pagani; M. Pekeler; H.-B. Peters; O. Peters; D. Proch; K. Rehlich; D. Reschke; H. Safa; T. Schilcher; P. Schmüser; J. Sekutowicz; S. Simrock; W. Singer; M. Tigner; D. Trines; K. Twarowski; G. Weichert; J. Weisend; J. Wojtkiewicz; S. Wolff; K. Zapfe

2000-01-01

179

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04

180

Computations predicting RF cavity characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The APS storage ring cavity is a single cell semi-spherical structure patterned along the lines of the KEK Photon Factory and the Daresbury cavities. The cavity was initially scaled to the APS frequency of 352.9 MHz using the computer code URMEL. Before construction of the prototype, it was considered essential to simulate the cavity as it would be measured in

Y. Jin; G. Nicholls

1988-01-01

181

Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

Zare, Richard N. (Stanford, CA); Martin, Juergen (Jena-Wogau, DE); Paldus, Barbara A. (Stanford, CA); Xie, Jinchun (Sunnyvale, CA)

1999-01-01

182

Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

1999-06-15

183

Reaction-diffusion processes with nonlinear diffusion.  

PubMed

We study reaction-diffusion processes with concentration-dependent diffusivity. First, the decay of the concentration in the single-species and two-species diffusion-controlled annihilation processes is determined. We then consider two natural inhomogeneous realizations. The two-species annihilation process is investigated in the situation when the reactants are initially separated, namely each species occupies a half space. In particular, we establish the growth law of the width of the reaction zone. The single-species annihilation process is studied in the situation when the spatially localized source drives the system toward the nonequilibrium steady state. Finally, we investigate a dissolution process with a localized source of diffusing atoms which react with the initially present immobile atoms forming immobile molecules. PMID:23214535

Krapivsky, P L

2012-10-01

184

Creation of X-ray cavities in galaxy clusters with cosmic rays  

E-print Network

We describe how AGN-produced cosmic rays form large X-ray cavities and radio lobes in the hot diffuse gas in galaxy groups and clusters. Cosmic rays are assumed to be produced in a small shocked region near the cavity center, such as at the working surface of a radio jet. The coupled equations for gasdynamics and cosmic ray diffusion are solved with various assumptions about the diffusion coefficient. To form large, long-lived cavities similar to those observed, the diffusion coefficient must not exceed kappa = 10^28 cm^2/s in the hot gas, very similar to values required in models of cosmic ray diffusion in the Milky Way. When kappa does not exceed 10^28, cosmic rays are confined within the cavities for times comparable to the cavity buoyancy time, as implied by observations of X-ray cavities and their radio synchrotron emission. Collisions of proton cosmic rays with thermal plasma nuclei followed by pion decay can result in enhanced gamma ray emission from the cavity walls.

W. G. Mathews; F. Brighenti

2007-01-24

185

Lithium diffusion at Si-C interfaces in Silicon-Graphene composites  

SciTech Connect

Models of intercalated Li and its diffusion in Si-Graphene interfaces are investigated using Density Functional Theory. Results suggest that the presence of interfaces alters the energetics of Li binding and diffusion significantly compared to bare Si or Graphene surfaces. Our results show that cavities along reconstructed Si surface provide diffusion paths for Li. Diffusion barriers calculated along these cavities are significantly lower than penetration barriers to bulk Si. Interaction with Si surface results in graphene defects, creating Li diffusion paths that are confined along the cavities but have still lower barrier than in bulk Si.

Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; McNutt, Nichiolas William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nicholson, Donald M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2014-01-01

186

Enhanced fluorescence diffuse optical tomography with indocyanine green-encapsulating liposomes targeted to receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor vasculature.  

PubMed

To develop an indocyanine green (ICG) tracer with slower clearance kinetics, we explored ICG-encapsulating liposomes (Lip) in three different formulations: untargeted (Lip/ICG), targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (scVEGF-Lip/ICG) by the receptor-binding moiety single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), or decorated with inactivated scVEGF (inactive-Lip/ICG) that does not bind to VEGF receptors. Experiments were conducted with tumor-bearing mice that were placed in a scattering medium with tumors located at imaging depths of either 1.5 or 2.0 cm. Near-infrared fluorescence diffuse optical tomography that provides depth-resolved spatial distributions of fluorescence in tumor was used for the detection of postinjection fluorescent signals. All liposome-based tracers, as well as free ICG, were injected intravenously into mice in the amounts corresponding to 5 nmol of ICG/mouse, and the kinetics of increase and decrease of fluorescent signals in tumors were monitored. A signal from free ICG reached maximum at 15-min postinjection and then rapidly declined with t1/2 of ~20 min. The signals from untargeted Lip/ICG and inactive-Lip/ICG also reached maximum at 15-min postinjection, however, declined somewhat slower than free ICG with t1/2 of ~30 min. By contrast, a signal from targeted scVEGF-Lip/ICG grew slower than that of all other tracers, reaching maximum at 30-min postinjection and declined much slower than that of other tracers with t1/2 of ~90 min, providing a more extended observation window. Higher scVEGF-Lip/ICG tumor accumulation was further confirmed by the analysis of fluorescence on cryosections of tumors that were harvested from animals at 400 min after injection with different tracers. PMID:24346856

Zanganeh, Saeid; Xu, Yan; Hamby, Carl V; Backer, Marina V; Backer, Joseph M; Zhu, Quing

2013-12-01

187

Precision tunable resonant microwave cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tunable microwave cavity containing ionizable metallic vapor or gases and an apparatus for precisely positioning a microwave coupling tip in the cavity and for precisely adjusting at least one dimension of the cavity are disclosed. With this combined structure, resonance may be achieved with various types of ionizable gases. A coaxial probe extends into a microwave cavity through a tube. One end of the tube is retained in a spherical joint attached in the cavity wall. This allows the coaxial probe to be pivotally rotated. The coaxial probe is slideable within the tube thus allowing the probe to be extended toward or retracted from the center of the cavity.

Nakanishi, Shigeo (inventor); Calco, Frank S. (inventor); Scarpelli, August R. (inventor)

1987-01-01

188

Vaneless diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser

Y. Senoo

1984-01-01

189

Diffusion /Osmosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is use to review the concepts of diffusion and osmosis 1. Watch the tutorials on diffusion and osmosis. Take the online quiz at the end of each one. Diffusion Animation Osmosis Animation 2. Do the interactive lab on diffusion. Stop when you get to the calculating water potential section. Diffusion/Osmosis Interactive Demo 3. Play the Quia review games. Quia Games- matching/concetration Quia Jeopardy 4. Check out the Elodea leaf cells. Be able to ...

Jensen

2007-11-26

190

Hopf bifurcation in the driven cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The algorithm employed in the present incompressible two-dimensional calculations of an impulsively-started lid-driven cavity has its basis in the time-dependent stream-function equation. While a Crank-Nicholson differencing scheme is used for the diffusion terms, the Adams-Bashforth scheme is used for the convection terms. The periodic asymptotic solutions obtained for Reynolds numbers of 5000 and 10,000 are found to be precisely periodic; it is demonstrated that they have reached asymptotic states. The indicators of that achievement are discussed.

Goodrich, John W.; Gustafson, Karl; Halasi, Kadosa

1990-01-01

191

Melatonin and oral cavity.  

PubMed

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

192

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

193

Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency  

SciTech Connect

Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

Wei Xiaogang [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Wang Yanhua [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); College of Physics and Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Zhang Jiepeng [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Physics Division P-23, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Zhu Yifu [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States)

2011-10-15

194

Effective Cavity Length of Gyrotrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators for electron cyclotron heating and non-inductive current drive (ECH&CD) in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas have relatively low cavity quality factors in the range of 1000 to 2000. The effective length of their cavities cannot be simply deduced from the cavity electric field profile, since this has by far not a Gaussian shape. The present paper presents a novel method to estimate the effective length of a gyrotron cavity just from the eigenvalue of the operating TEm,n mode, the cavity radius and the exact oscillation frequency which may be numerically computed or precisely measured. This effective cavity length then can be taken to calculate the Fresnel parameter in order to confirm that the cavity is not too short so that the transverse structure of any mode in the cavity is the same as that of the corresponding mode in a long circular waveguide with the same diameter.

Thumm, Manfred

2014-12-01

195

Wavelength tuning of VECSELs by cavity geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report on the wavelength tuning of a VECSEL by changing the cavity geometry. The development and demonstration of a tunable high power single frequency Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) operating at various wavelengths from the UV to the IR region of the spectrum have been reported in many papers. However, it is important to understand that in many instances a precise lasing wavelength is required for proper operation. For example, VECSELs have been designed to specifically interact with the sodium spectral lines. If the VECSEL growth is not adequate, it may not be possible to reach the desired wavelength in a traditional cavity where the intracavity mode interacts with the VECSEL chip at normal incidence. Here we notice that if a fold angle is introduced at the VECSEL chip, a spectral blue shift occurs, and extended tunability may be possible. Therefore, by altering the cavity geometry it may be possible to further optimize a VECSEL design to obtain maximum output power at a desired wavelength.

Hessenius, Chris; Lukowski, Michal; Moloney, Jerome; Fallahi, Mahmoud

2012-03-01

196

Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

197

Principal Component Analysis reveals correlation of cavities evolution and functional motions in proteins.  

PubMed

Protein conformation has been recognized as the key feature determining biological function, as it determines the position of the essential groups specifically interacting with substrates. Hence, the shape of the cavities or grooves at the protein surface appears to drive those functions. However, only a few studies describe the geometrical evolution of protein cavities during molecular dynamics simulations (MD), usually with a crude representation. To unveil the dynamics of cavity geometry evolution, we developed an approach combining cavity detection and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This approach was applied to four systems subjected to MD (lysozyme, sperm whale myoglobin, Dengue envelope protein and EF-CaM complex). PCA on cavities allows us to perform efficient analysis and classification of the geometry diversity explored by a cavity. Additionally, it reveals correlations between the evolutions of the cavities and structures, and can even suggest how to modify the protein conformation to induce a given cavity geometry. It also helps to perform fast and consensual clustering of conformations according to cavity geometry. Finally, using this approach, we show that both carbon monoxide (CO) location and transfer among the different xenon sites of myoglobin are correlated with few cavity evolution modes of high amplitude. This correlation illustrates the link between ligand diffusion and the dynamic network of internal cavities. PMID:25424655

Desdouits, Nathan; Nilges, Michael; Blondel, Arnaud

2015-02-01

198

Pb-Zn liquid metal diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lead-Zinc binary equilibrium system is currently being investigated. Ground based studies of this system were performed to examine the possibility of obtaining a couple which, after diffusion, could be examined continuously along the diffusion axis by quantitative metallography to determine the extent of diffusion. The specimens were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence in the scanning electron microscope to provide exact information on the chemical composition gradient. Two diffusion experiments were run simultaneously in the multipurpose furnace, each in its own isothermal cavity. Two flight samples, two flight backup samples, and two flight space samples were generated.

Pond, R. B., Sr.; Winter, J. M., Jr.

1988-01-01

199

RF Cavity Characterization with VORPAL  

SciTech Connect

When designing a radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity structure various figures of merit are considered before coming to a final cavity design. These figures of merit include specific field and geometry based quantities such as the ratio of the shunt impedance to the quality factor (R/Q) or the normalized peak fields in the cavity. Other important measures of cavity performance include the peak surface fields as well as possible multipacting resonances in the cavity. High fidelity simulations of these structures can provide a good estimate of these important quantities before any cavity prototypes are built. We will present VORPAL simulations of a simple pillbox structure where these quantities can be calculated analytically and compare them to the results from the VORPAL simulations. We will then use VORPAL to calculate these figures of merit and potential multipacting resonances for two cavity designs under development at Jefferson National Lab for Project X.

C. Nieter, C. Roark, P. Stoltz, C.D. Zhou, F. Marhauser

2011-03-01

200

CAVITY CONTROL ALGORITHM  

SciTech Connect

A digital low level radio frequency (RF) system typically incorporates either a heterodyne or direct sampling technique, followed by fast ADCs, then an FPGA, and finally a transmitting DAC. This universal platform opens up the possibilities for a variety of control algorithm implementations. The foremost concern for an RF control system is cavity field stability, and to meet the required quality of regulation, the chosen control system needs to have sufficient feedback gain. In this paper we will investigate the effectiveness of the regulation for three basic control system algorithms: I&Q (In-phase and Quadrature), Amplitude & Phase and digital SEL (Self Exciting Loop) along with the example of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV cavity field control system.

Tomasz Plawski, J. Hovater

2010-09-01

201

Gyromultiplier with sectioned cavity  

SciTech Connect

A novel scheme of a self-exciting single-cavity terahertz gyromultiplier is proposed and theoretically investigated. Simulations predict a possibility to obtain a power of 75 W at the frequency of 1.3 THz from the 80 kV/0.7 A electron beam when operating at the fourth cyclotron harmonic at the relatively low magnetic field of 14 T.

Bandurkin, I. V.; Mishakin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

2010-11-15

202

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

203

Between Scylla and Charybdis: Hydrophobic Graphene-Guided Water Diffusion on Hydrophilic Substrates  

PubMed Central

The structure of water confined in nanometer-sized cavities is important because, at this scale, a large fraction of hydrogen bonds can be perturbed by interaction with the confining walls. Unusual fluidity properties can thus be expected in the narrow pores, leading to new phenomena like the enhanced fluidity reported in carbon nanotubes. Crystalline mica and amorphous silicon dioxide are hydrophilic substrates that strongly adsorb water. Graphene, on the other hand, interacts weakly with water. This presents the question as to what determines the structure and diffusivity of water when intercalated between hydrophilic substrates and hydrophobic graphene. Using atomic force microscopy, we have found that while the hydrophilic substrates determine the structure of water near its surface, graphene guides its diffusion, favouring growth of intercalated water domains along the C-C bond zigzag direction. Molecular dynamics and density functional calculations are provided to help understand the highly anisotropic water stripe patterns observed. PMID:23896759

Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Jin Sik; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Bae Ho; Bukhvalov, Danil; Son, Young-Woo; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Yun, Jun-Nyeong; Jung, Yousung; Park, Jeong Young; Salmeron, Miquel

2013-01-01

204

Superconducting cavities and modulated RF  

SciTech Connect

If a cavity has an infinite Q/sub o/, 81.5% of the energy contained in a pulse incident upon the cavity is transferred into the cavity by the end of the pulse if the cavity Q/sub e/ is chosen so that the cavity time constant is 0.796 pulse width (T/sub a/). As Q/sug o/ decreases, the energy in the cavity at the end of the pulse decreases very slowly as long as T/sub a/ is much less than the unloaded cavity time constant, T/sub co/. SC cavities with very high Q/sub o/ enable one to obtain very high gradients with a low power cw source. At high gradients, however, one often does not attain the high Q/sub o/ predicted by theory. Therefore, if one is inteerested in attaining maximum energy in the cavity, as is the case for RF processing and diagnostics, for a given available source energy there is no point in keeping the power on for longer than 0.1 T/sub co/ because the energy expended after 0.1 T/sub co/ is wasted. Therefore, to attain high fields at moderate Q/sub o/, pulsed operation is indicated. This note derives the fields and energy stored and dissipated in the cavity when Q/sub e/ is optimized for a given T/sub a/. It shows how to use this data to measure Q/sub o/ of an SC cavity as a function of field level, how to process the cavity with high RF fields, how to operate SC cavities in the pulsed mode to obtain higher efficiencies and gradients. Experimental results are also reported.

Farkas, Z.D.

1981-02-01

205

High reflected cubic cavity as long path absorption cell for infrared gas sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One direct and efficient method to improve the sensitivity of infrared gas sensors is to increase the optical path length of gas cells according to Beer-Lambert Law. In this paper, cubic shaped cavities with high reflected inner coating as novel long path absorption cells for infrared gas sensing were developed. The effective optical path length (EOPL) for a single cubic cavity and tandem cubic cavities were investigated based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measuring oxygen P11 line at 763 nm. The law of EOPL of a diffuse cubic cavity in relation with the reflectivity of the coating, the port fraction and side length of the cavity was obtained. Experimental results manifested an increase of EOPL for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of port fraction of the connecting aperture f', and the EOPL equaled to the sum of that of two single cubic cavities at f'<0.01. The EOPL spectra at infrared wavelength range for different inner coatings including high diffuse coatings and high reflected metallic thin film coatings were deduced.

Yu, Jia; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiguo

2014-10-01

206

Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2014-01-13

207

Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

Saxton, Michael J.

1982-01-01

208

Hypersonic flow past open cavities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypersonic flow over a cavity is investigated. The time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations, in terms of mass averaged variables, are numerically solved. An implicit algorithm, with a subiteration procedure to recover time-accuracy, is used to perform the time-accurate computations. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of Reynolds number and cavity dimensions. The comparison of the computations with available experimental data, in terms of time mean static pressure, heat transfer, and Mach number show good agreement. In the computations large vortex structures, which adversely affect the cavity flow characteristics, are observed at the rear of the cavity. A self-sustained oscillatory motion occurs within the cavity over a range of Reynolds number and cavity dimensions. The frequency spectra of the oscillations show good agreement with a modified semi-empirical relation.

Morgenstern, Alagacyr, Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona

1993-01-01

209

Hypersonic flow past open cavities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypersonic flow over a cavity is investigated. The time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved. An implicit algorithm, with a subiteration procedure to recover time accuracy, is used to perform the time-accurate computations. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of Reynolds number and cavity dimensions. The comparsion of the computations with available experimental data, in terms of time mean static pressure, heat transfer, and Mach number, show good agreement. In the computations large vortex structures, which adversely affect the cavity flow characteristics, are observed at the rear of the cavity. A self-sustained oscillatory motion occurs within the cavity over a range of Reynolds number and cavity dimensions. The frequency spectra of the oscillations show good agreement with a modified semiempirical relation.

Morgenstern, Algacyr, Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona

1994-01-01

210

Cavity soliton billiards  

SciTech Connect

The motion of a self-propelled cavity soliton in a laser where the pump profile acts as a square billiard is investigated. In the long-term dynamics, only closed trajectories are possible, exhibiting nonspecular reflections with striking similarities to walking droplets in a vibrated liquid bath. Open orbits can be achieved either by introducing scattering defects in the pump profile or in the presence of more than two solitons, due to their interaction. Such dynamical properties can be exploited for applications such as a compact soliton-force microscope.

Prati, F.; Lugiato, L. A. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita dell'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Tissoni, G. [Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, UMR 6618, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis,1361 Route des Lucioles, F-06560 Valbonne (France); Brambilla, M. [CNISM and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita e Politecnico di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70123 Bari (Italy)

2011-11-15

211

Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting cavities have been operating routinely in a variety of accelerators with a range of demanding applications. With the success of completed projects, niobium cavities have become an enabling technology, offering upgrade paths for existing facilities and pushing frontier accelerators for nuclear physics, high-energy physics, materials science, and the life sciences. With continued progress in basic understanding of radio-frequency superconductivity, the performance of cavities has steadily improved to approach theoretical capabilities.

Padamsee, Hasan S.

2014-10-01

212

LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties  

DOEpatents

An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

2014-11-11

213

Isothermal cavity, blackbody radiation source.  

PubMed

A prototype blackbody radiation source has been developed which incorporates a double cone cavity of extremely uniform surface temperature. This uniformity of surface temperature is the result of a unique method of supplying heat to the cavity. The principle of operation is based on heat pipe techniques which transfer heat by change of phase and mass transfer. The cavity is heated by serving as the condenser section of the heat pipe which is inherently a nearly isothermal device. Optical tests show that the isothermal cavity has a lambertian distribution over an inclusive angle of better than 60 degrees while operating between 419 degrees C and 760 degrees C. PMID:20094191

Bliss, F E; Davis, S; Stein, B

1970-09-01

214

FORWARD MODELING CAVITY DENSITY: A MULTI-INSTRUMENT DIAGNOSTIC  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of coronal prominence cavities present a unique probe into the energy and mass budget of prominences. Using a three-dimensional morphological model, we forward model the polarization brightness and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) emission of a cavity and its surrounding streamer. Using a genetic algorithm, we find the best-fit density model by comparing the models to Mauna Loa Solar Observatory MK4 and Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer data. The effect of temperature variations on the derived density is also measured. We have measured the density inside a cavity down to 1.05 R{sub sun} with height-dependent error bars. Our forward modeling technique compensates for optically thin projection effects. This method provides a complementary technique to traditional line ratio diagnostics that is useful for diffuse off-limb coronal structures.

Schmit, D. J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Gibson, S. E. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

2011-05-20

215

Applications of cavity optomechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Cavity-optomechanics" aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

Metcalfe, Michael

2014-09-01

216

Multicolor cavity metrology.  

PubMed

Long-baseline laser interferometers used for gravitational-wave detection have proven to be very complicated to control. In order to have sufficient sensitivity to astrophysical gravitational waves, a set of multiple coupled optical cavities comprising the interferometer must be brought into resonance with the laser field. A set of multi-input, multi-output servos then lock these cavities into place via feedback control. This procedure, known as lock acquisition, has proven to be a vexing problem and has reduced greatly the reliability and duty factor of the past generation of laser interferometers. In this article, we describe a technique for bringing the interferometer from an uncontrolled state into resonance by using harmonically related external fields to provide a deterministic hierarchical control. This technique reduces the effect of the external seismic disturbances by 4 orders of magnitude and promises to greatly enhance the stability and reliability of the current generation of gravitational-wave detectors. The possibility for using multicolor techniques to overcome current quantum and thermal noise limits is also discussed. PMID:23201656

Izumi, Kiwamu; Arai, Koji; Barr, Bryan; Betzwieser, Joseph; Brooks, Aidan; Dahl, Katrin; Doravari, Suresh; Driggers, Jennifer C; Korth, W Zach; Miao, Haixing; Rollins, Jameson; Vass, Stephen; Yeaton-Massey, David; Adhikari, Rana X

2012-10-01

217

Substrate Adhesion of a Nongrafted Flexible Polymer in a Cavity  

E-print Network

In a contact density chain-growth study we investigate the solubility-temperature pseudo-phase diagram of a lattice polymer in a cavity with an attractive surface. In addition to the main phases of adsorbed and desorbed conformations we find numerous subphases of collapsed and expanded structures.

Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

2007-10-23

218

Grain boundary cavities and cracks during high temperature irradiation embrittlement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a possible role of grain boundary cavities in the high temperature irradiation embrittlement (HTIE) of reactor structural materials. It is demonstrated that grain boundary voids alone can hardly provide the dominance of intergranular fracture mode during HTIE. An alternative mechanism based on the growth of helium accumulating cracks is discussed and the resulting predictions for material failure parameters are presented.

Borodin, V. A.; Manichev, V. M.; Ryazanov, A. I.

1992-09-01

219

Formation of thermal decomposition cavities in physical vapor transport of silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between seed mounting and the formation of thermal decomposition cavities in physical vapor transport grown silicon carbide was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and optical microscopy were used to characterize thermal decomposition cavities at various stages of their development. The observations indicate that the attachment layer that holds the seed to the graphite crucible lid frequently contains voids. The seed locally decomposes at void locations and Si-bearing species are transported through the void. The decomposition produces a cavity in the seed; the silicon is deposited on and diffuses into the graphite lit. The formation of thermal decomposition cavities can be suppressed by the application of a diffusion barrier on the seed crystal backside.

Sanchez, E.K.; Kuhr, T.; Heydemann, V.D.; Snyder, D.W.; Rohrer, G.S.; Skowronski, M.

2000-03-01

220

Formation of thermal decomposition cavities in physical vapor transport of silicon carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between seed mounting and the formation of thermal decomposition cavities in physical vapor transport grown silicon carbide was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and optical microscopy were used to characterize thermal decomposition cavities at various stages of their development. The observations indicate that the attachment layer that holds the seed to the graphite crucible lid frequently contains voids. The seed locally decomposes at void locations and Si-bearing species are transported through the void. The decomposition produces a cavity in the seed; the silicon is deposited on and diffuses into the graphite lid. The formation of thermal decomposition cavities can be suppressed by the application of a diffusion barrier on the seed crystal backside.

Sanchez, Edward K.; Kuhr, Thomas; Heydemann, Volker D.; Snyder, David W.; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Skowronski, Marek

2000-03-01

221

Plasmid stability in immobilized and free recombinant Escherichia coli JM105(pKK223-200): importance of oxygen diffusion, growth rate, and plasmid copy number.  

PubMed Central

Stability of the plasmid pKK223-200 in Escherichia coli JM105 was studied for both free and immobilized cells during continuous culture. The relationship between plasmid copy number, xylanase activity, which was coded for by the plasmid, and growth rate and culture conditions involved complex interactions which determined the plasmid stability. Generally, the plasmid stability was enhanced in cultured immobilized cells compared with free-cell cultures. This stability was associated with modified plasmid copy number, depending on the media used. Hypotheses are presented concerning the different plasmid instability kinetics observed in free-cell cultures which involve the antagonistic effects of plasmid copy number and plasmid presence on the plasmid-bearing/plasmid-free cell growth rate ratio. Both diffusional limitation in carrageenan gel beads, which is described in Theoretical Analysis of Immobilized-Cell Growth, and compartmentalized growth of immobilized cells are proposed to explain plasmid stability in immobilized cells. PMID:3310880

de Taxis du Poët, P; Arcand, Y; Bernier, R; Barbotin, J N; Thomas, D

1987-01-01

222

Optical discharge in laser cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental investigations of the absorption of laser radiation in the optical discharge when placed in the laser cavity were conducted. A significant increase in the absorption until complete absorption was established. An optical schemes of the initiation and maintenance of the optical discharge in the cavity are proposed, which greatly extends the field of application of optical discharge in technology.

Chivel, Yuri

2013-12-01

223

Growth of superconducting NdFe0.88Co0.12AsO films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and post arsenic diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and post-deposition arsenic diffusion processes were successfully employed to grow superconducting NdFe0.88Co0.12AsO thin films. First, by employing iron, cobalt and neodymium metal-organic precursors, a precursor film is grown by MOCVD on (001)-oriented LaAlO3 substrates. Subsequently, the arsenic is incorporated during an annealing of these precursor films in the presence of a NdFe0.9Co0.1AsO pellet. The chemical composition and crystallographic results indicate the formation of the cobalt-doped NdFeAsO polycrystalline phase. The secondary ion mass spectroscopy indicates a homogeneous arsenic diffusion process. The resistance and magnetization measurements as a function of temperature indicate a superconducting transition ?15 \\text{K} .

Corrales-Mendoza, I.; Bartolo-Pèrez, P.; Sánchez-Reséndiz, V. M.; Gallardo-Hernández, S.; Conde-Gallardo, A.

2015-01-01

224

Superconducting Storage Cavity for RHIC  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a top-level description of a superconducting cavity designed to store hadron beams in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It refers to more detailed documents covering the various issues in designing, constructing and operating this cavity. The superconducting storage cavity is designed to operate at a harmonic of the bunch frequency of RHIC at a relatively low frequency of 56 MHz. The current storage cavities of RHIC operate at 197 MHz and are normal-conducting. The use of a superconducting cavity allows for a high gap voltage, over 2 MV. The combination of a high voltage and low frequency provides various advantages stemming from the resulting large longitudinal acceptance bucket.

Ben-Zvi,I.

2009-01-02

225

Temporary Sealing of Cavities for Leak Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wax Seals cavity openings to permit helium leak test of cavity welds. Technique facilitates leak testing of cavities in components of larger systems not otherwise sealed off at time leak testing done.

Little, J.

1984-01-01

226

2.5 D Cavity Balancing  

E-print Network

Cavity balancing is the process of altering the flow front within a cavity through thickness and design changes such that the desired fill pattern is achieved. The 2 dimensional (2D) cavity-balancing algorithm, developed ...

Jin, S.

227

A Scanning Cavity Microscope  

E-print Network

Imaging of the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1700-fold signal enhancement compared to diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity below 1 nm2, we show a method to improve spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for opt...

Mader, Matthias; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

2014-01-01

228

Enhanced diffusion welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surfaces of unrecrystallized alloys are sanded and polished. This is followed by a two-step welding process by which the strength of the parent metal is retained at the weld joint. The first step forces the surfaces into intimate contact at a temperature where the metal still has good ductility. The second step causes diffusion, recrystallization, and grain growth across the original weld interface.

Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J. (inventors)

1973-01-01

229

Dynamics of coupled cavity arrays embedded in a non-Markovian bath  

E-print Network

In this paper, the non-Markovian dynamics of a coupled $N$-cavity model is studied based on the quantum state diffusion (QSD) approach. The time-local Di\\'{o}si-Gisin-Strunz equation and the corresponding master equation are derived for a coupled cavity array. Non-Markovian effects are studied in two examples, two-cavity and three-cavity, under different boundary conditions. We have shown that the environment-memory can facilitate the cat-like state transfer from one cavity to another in the case of a strongly non-Markovian environment. We show that the non-Markovian QSD approach can be a valuable tool for the dynamics of a multi-partite continuous-variable (CV) system.

Zhao, Xinyu; You, J Q; Yu, Ting

2012-01-01

230

Hopf bifurcation in the driven cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incompressible two dimensional calculations are reported for the impulsively started lid driven cavity with aspect ratio two. The algorithm is based on the time dependent streamfunction equation, with a Crank-Nicolson differencing scheme for the diffusion terms, and with an Adams-Bashforth scheme for the convection terms. A multigrid method is used to solve the linear implicit equations at each time step. Periodic asymptotic solutions have been found for Re = 10000 and for Re = 5000. The Re = 5000 results are validated by grid refinement calculations. The solutions are shown to be precisely periodic, and care is taken to demonstrate that asymptotic states were reached. A discussion is included about the indicators that are used to show that an asymptotic state was reached, and to show that the asymptotic state is indeed periodic.

Goodrich, John W.; Gustafson, Karl; Halasi, Kadosa

1989-01-01

231

Diffusion-Limited Aggregation with Active Edge Diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion-limited aggregation of Ag on Pt(111) and Ag(111) has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. In both metal-on-metal systems fractal growth shapes are found in an extended range of deposition temperature and deposition flux. In contrast to classic hit-and-stick diffusion-limited aggregation simulations the average branch width of the ramified aggregates is not monatomic and increases with increasing deposition temperature, which

Holger Röder; Karsten Bromann; Harald Brune; Klaus Kern

1995-01-01

232

Diffusion tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion tube was designed to operate below about 0.25 percent of water supersaturation. It is simply a long tube lined on the inside with a damp chamois cloth, and heated isothermally to a few degrees centigrade above the incoming air. The diffusion coefficient for water vapor is slightly larger than that for heat, making it possible to supersaturate the airflow. This is the same principle by which transient supersaturations may occur in parallel plate cloud chambers. Only the diffusion of vapor and heat from the walls into the moving air are considered.

Leaitch, R.; Megaw, W. J.

1981-01-01

233

First-principles calculation of self-diffusion, arsenic diffusion, and surface segregation in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated circuit device densities have increased more than 2000 times since Gordon Moore's observation of exponential growth in 1965. Modern devices are thus sensitive to minute variations in diffusion, such as the transient-enhanced diffusivity resulting from ion implantation, concentration-dependent diffusivity of dopants due to changes in the Fermi level, and the effects of high stresses and stress gradients (resulting from

Scott A. Centoni

2003-01-01

234

Lateral diffusion of plasma membrane receptors labelled with either platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present investigation were (a) to compare the lateral mobility of membrane receptors of human fibroblasts and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) labelled with either platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), or the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and (b) to study effects of serum or PDGF on the mobility of these receptor molecules in human fibroblasts. Human foreskin fibroblasts (AG

Pia Ljungquist; Åke Wasteson; Karl-Eric Magnusson

1989-01-01

235

Potassium-Induced Cortical Spreading Depressions During Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats: Contribution to Lesion Growth Assessed by Diffusion-Weighted NMR and Biochemical Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In focal ischemia of rats, the volume of ischemic lesion correlates with the number of peri-infarct depolarizations. To test the hypothesis that depolarizations accelerate infarct growth, we combined focal ischemia with externally evoked spreading depression (SD) waves. Ischemic brain infarcts were produced in halothane-anaesthetized rats by intraluminal thread occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). In one group of animals,

Elmar Busch; Michael L. Gyngell; Manfred Eis; Mathias Hoehn-Berlage; Konstantin-Alexander Hossmann

1996-01-01

236

Shape Determination for Deformed Cavities  

SciTech Connect

A realistic superconducting RF cavity has its shape deformed comparing to its designed shape due to the loose tolerance in the fabrication process and the frequency tuning for its accelerating mode. A PDE-constrained optimization problem is proposed to determine the deformation of the cavity. A reduce space method is used to solve the PDE-constrained optimization problem where design sensitivities were computed using a continuous adjoint approach. A proof-of-concept example is given in which the deformation parameters of a single cavity-cell with two different types of deformation were computed.

Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Xiao, Liling; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC; Ghattas, Omar; /Texas U.

2006-10-04

237

Microwave cavity search for paraphotons  

SciTech Connect

In this proceeding we report the first results of a microwave cavity search for hidden sector photons. Using a pair of isolated resonant cavities we look for 'light shining through a wall' from photon--hidden sector photon oscillations. Our prototype experiment consists of two cylindrical, copper cavities stacked axially inside a single vacuum chamber. At a hidden sector photon mass of 39.58 mueV we place an upper limit on the kinetic mixing parameter chi at 7.8x10{sup -6}. Whilst this result is inside already established limits our experiment has great scope for improvement.

Povey, Rhys; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 WA (Australia)

2010-06-15

238

Diffuse radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

1981-01-01

239

Improved integrating cavity absorption meter  

E-print Network

combined with our uses of isotropic illumination. The latter is achieved by employing a high reflectivity (greater than 0.99) lambertian material to build the integrating cavity. We provide complete documentation of the apparatus, both the hardware...

Cui, Liqiu

2000-01-01

240

Critical oxide thickness for efficient single-walled carbon nanotube growth on silicon using thin SiO2 diffusion barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to integrate carbon nanotubes, especially single-walled carbon nanotubes, seamlessly onto silicon would expand their range of applications considerably. Though direct integration using chemical vapor deposition is the simplest method, the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on bare silicon and on ultrathin oxides is greatly inhibited due to the formation of a noncatalytic silicide. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we

Robert J. Hamers

2006-01-01

241

Polishing Difficult-To-Reach Cavities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Springy abrasive tool used to finish surfaces of narrow cavities made by electrical-discharge machining. Robot arm moves vibrator around perimeters of cavities, polishing walls of cavities as it does so. Tool needed because such cavities inaccessible or at least difficult to reach with most surface-finishing tools.

Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

1990-01-01

242

Creation of the X-ray Cavity Jet and its Radio Lobe in M87/Virgo with Cosmic Rays; Relevance to Relic Radio Sources  

E-print Network

Young cavities in the X-ray emitting hot gas in galaxy clusters are often filled with radio synchrotron emission and it is widely thought that the cavities are inflated by these cosmic rays. At a later stage of its evolution, when the cavity becomes buoyant, the converging flow of gas beneath the cavity results in a filament of thermal gas, a cavity jet, that moves radially outward at large subsonic velocities. As the cavity jet forms, the cosmic ray electrons may diffuse through the cavity walls, filling a large volume surrounding the cavity jet, as observed in M87/Virgo and elsewhere, sometimes referred to as relic radio sources. We compute the combined evolution of cosmic rays, cavities and cavity jets. The observed pattern in M87/Virgo can be reached in 100 Myrs, matching the synchrotron age of the extended radio source. A 20-30 kpc long cavity jet is surrounded by a quasi-spherical radio lobe 40 kpc in diameter, but the initial cavity has disappeared. At later times the cavity jet will fall back to the origin, leaving only the extended radio source. The combined jet-lobe evolution in M87/Virgo requires a total cosmic ray energy that is more than 10 times larger than that usually assumed, 4PV.

William G. Mathews; Fabrizio Brighenti

2007-12-06

243

MOCVD growth of highly strained InGaAs:Sb GaAs GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with 1.27 ?m emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1.27 ?m InGaAs:Sb-GaAs-GaAsP vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with superior performance. The threshold current changes between 1.8 and 1.1 mA and the slope efficiency drops below ˜35% when the temperature is raised from room temperature to 70 °C. With only 5 mA of bias current, the 3 dB modulation frequency response is measured to be 8.36 GHz which is suitable for 10 Gb/s operation. The maximal bandwidth is estimated to 10.7GHz with modulation current efficiency factor (MCEF) of ˜5.25 GHz/(mA) 1/2. The results of InGaAs:Sb-GaAs-GaAsP VCSELs can reach a performance level comparable to GaInAsN VCSELs with better thermal stability and should be considered as a very promising candidate for 1.3 ?m commercial applications.

Kuo, H. C.; Yao, H. H.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. A.; Tsai, M. Y.; Hsieh, J.; Chang, E. Y.; Wang, S. C.

2004-12-01

244

Slow-flow, diffusion-cooled, microwave-pumped CO2 laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a prototype of a diffusion-cooled microwave excited CO2 laser. The microwave power, generated by a 2.45 GHz CW magnetron, excites the CO2:N2:He mixture in a discharge cavity. The magnetron is coupled to the cavity through a launching guide and two cascaded horns that match the TE10 guide mode to the cavity. The excess heat is mainly extracted by

Ignacio J. Rios; Carlos F. Mosquera; Juan L. Ladaga; Gabino Colangelo; Guillermo D. Santiago

2003-01-01

245

The Growth of Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov., a Novel Agar-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Soil, is Enhanced by the Diffusible Metabolites Produced by Bacteria Belonging to Rhizobiales  

PubMed Central

An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from soil collected in a vegetable cropping field. The growth of this isolate was enhanced by supplying culture supernatants of bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the novel bacterium, strain KA5–BT, belonged to the genus Steroidobacter in Gammaproteobacteria, but differed from its closest relative, Steroidobacter denitrificans FST, at the species level with 96.5% similarity. Strain KA5–BT was strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, and had a straight to slightly curved rod shape. Cytochrome oxidase and catalase activities were positive. The strain grew on media containing culture supernatants in a temperature range of 15–37°C and between pH 4.5 and 9.0, with optimal growth occurring at 30°C and pH 6.0–8.0. No growth occurred at 10 or 42°C or at NaCl concentrations more than 3% (w/v). The main cellular fatty acids were iso–C15:0, C16:1?7c, and iso–C17:1?9c. The main quinone was ubiquinone-8 and DNA G+C content was 62.9 mol%. In contrast, strain FST was motile, did not grow on the agar plate, and its dominant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 and C17:1?8c. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain KA5–BT (JCM 18477T = KCTC 32107T) represents a novel species in genus Steroidobacter, for which the name Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24621511

Sakai, Masao; Hosoda, Akifumi; Ogura, Kenjiro; Ikenaga, Makoto

2014-01-01

246

Model based study of various configurations of jet crossing a cavity. Application to the CEPRA 19 wind tunnel of propulsion test center (CEPr)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale model study of a jet crossing the cavity made by the chamber of an anechoic wind tunnel was undertaken. The length of the free jet and the dimensions of the diffuser inlet were varied. Cavity resonances due to aeroacoustic coupling which can prevent measurements from being made, were investigated. Background noise was measured. The aerodynamic characteristics of the

P. Rebuffet; A. Guedel

1982-01-01

247

Defusing Diffusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

2013-01-01

248

Cavity flow control using a rod in cross flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a variety of aerodynamic conditions and geometric configurations fluid structure interactions give rise to a reverberant field. This phenomenon, referred to as resonant acoustics, has practical importance due to its undesirable effects such as noise, structural loading, and unsteady flow field. Several flow control technologies exist but they lose efficacy at off-design conditions. With the focus on expanding their operating envelope, the present work investigates the physics of the flow control using a combination of detailed experimental measurements and theoretical analysis. The model resonant acoustic flow problem that we chose for our study is cavity tones, i.e., the high intensity acoustic tones produced by high speed air moving over rectangular cavity. The flow control actuator is a rod in cross flow, i.e., a thin horizontal rod placed upstream of the cavity. In the present work, a detailed experimental study has been undertaken to characterize the acoustics, mean velocity field as well as the pressure perturbation field both inside and outside of the cavity. Control cases with contrasting suppression results are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the mean flow field. To investigate whether the cylinder, through its wake, changes the stability characteristics of the shear layer that develops over the cavity, stability analysis of the shear layer is undertaken. First, stability of artificial velocity profiles that are prototypical of the experimentally measured velocity profiles is investigated; in order to determine what parameters of the velocity profiles influence the stability of the shear layer the most. Next stability of experimentally measured velocity profiles is evaluated to calculate integrated growth rates along the length of the cavity. Mean velocity data is also used to elucidate the shear layer lift off mechanism of the rod. Both integrated growth range and shear layer lift off data are compared with the acoustic suppression results. Based on the trends it appears that shear layer lift off, which interferes with the acoustic interaction between the shear layer and the trailing edge of the cavity, is the dominant mechanism by which the rod controls flow over the cavity.

Sarpotdar, Shekhar

249

The ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules  

SciTech Connect

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. The superconducting section of the Linac accelerates the beam from 80 MeV to 2.0 GeV. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain four elliptical Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 704.42 MHz. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design, the prototyping and the expected operation of the ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules. An Elliptical Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator (ECCTD) will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

Darve, Christine [ESS, 22100, Lund (Sweden); Bosland, Pierre; Devanz, Guillaume; Renard, Bertrand [CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Olivier, Gilles; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre [CNRS/IN2P3, IPN Orsay (France)

2014-01-29

250

The ESS spoke cavity cryomodules  

SciTech Connect

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design and expected operation of the ESS spoke cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain two double spoke bulk Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 352.21 MHz. The superconducting section of the Spoke Linac accelerates the beam from 90 MeV to 220 MeV. A Spoke Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

Bousson, Sebastien; Duthil, Patxi; Reynet, Denis; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre [CNRS/IN2P3, IPN Orsay (France); Darve, Christine; Elias, Nuno; Molloy, Steve [ESS, 22100, Lund (Sweden)

2014-01-29

251

The ESS spoke cavity cryomodules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today's leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design and expected operation of the ESS spoke cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain two double spoke bulk Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 352.21 MHz. The superconducting section of the Spoke Linac accelerates the beam from 90 MeV to 220 MeV. A Spoke Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

Bousson, Sebastien; Darve, Christine; Duthil, Patxi; Elias, Nuno; Molloy, Steve; Reynet, Denis; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

252

The ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today's leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. The superconducting section of the Linac accelerates the beam from 80 MeV to 2.0 GeV. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain four elliptical Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 704.42 MHz. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design, the prototyping and the expected operation of the ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules. An Elliptical Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator (ECCTD) will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

Darve, Christine; Bosland, Pierre; Devanz, Guillaume; Olivier, Gilles; Renard, Bertrand; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

253

Experimental cavity pressure distributions at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to define pressure distributions for rectangular cavities over a range of free-stream Mach numbers and cavity dimensions. These pressure distributions together with schlieren photographs are used to define the critical values of cavity length-to-depth ratio that separate open type cavity flows from closed type cavity flows. For closed type cavity flow, the shear layer expands over the cavity leading edge and impinges on the cavity floor, whereas for open type cavity flow, the shear layer bridges the cavity. The tests were conducted by using a flat-plate model permitting the cavity length to be remotely varied from 0.5 to 12 in. Cavity depths and widths were varied from 0.5 to 2.5 in. The flat-plate boundary layer approaching the cavity was turbulent and had a thickness of approximately 0.2 in. at the cavity front face for the range of test Mach numbers from 1.5 to 2.86. Presented are a discussion of the results and a complete tabulation of the experimental data.

Stallings, Robert L., Jr.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

1987-01-01

254

Linewidth of the electromagnetic radiation from Josephson junctions near cavity resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The powerful terahertz emission from intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc cuprate superconductors has been detected recently. The synchronization of different junctions is enhanced by excitation of the geometrical cavity resonance. A key characteristic of the radiation is its linewidth. In this work, we study the intrinsic linewidth of the radiation near the internal cavity resonance. Surprisingly, this problem was never considered before, neither for a single Josephson junction nor for a stack of the intrinsic Josephson junctions realized in cuprate superconductors. The linewidth appears due to the slow phase diffusion, which is determined by the dissipation and amplitude of the noise. We found that both these parameters are resonantly enhanced when the cavity mode is excited but enhancement of the dissipation dominates leading to the net suppression of diffusion and dramatic narrowing of the linewidth. The line shape changes from Lorentzian to Gaussian when either the Josephson frequency is shifted away from the resonance or the temperature is increased.

Lin, Shi-Zeng; Koshelev, Alexei E.

2013-06-01

255

Maximum energy of cosmic-ray particles accelerated by supernova remnant shocks in stellar wind cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusive shock acceleration, balanced by adiabatic losses, leads readily to particle energies of more than 10 to the 15th eV in the case of a supernova shock freely expanding into a stellar wind cavity. This process accelerates particles early on out of stellar wind material which is often enriched in certain elements (isotopes), and may thus contribute to explain elemental

Heinrich J. Voelk; Peter L. Biermann

1988-01-01

256

Optimally accurate thermal-wave cavity photopyroelectric measurements of pressure-dependent thermophysical properties of air  

E-print Network

be evaluated. The first photo- thermal experimental device designed to measure heat propa- gation for liquids. This configuration has been widely used to measure thermal diffusivity of gases1­5 and liquids.6­10 Several otherOptimally accurate thermal-wave cavity photopyroelectric measurements of pressure

Mandelis, Andreas

257

Microscopic physics of quantum self-organisation of optical lattices in cavities  

E-print Network

We study quantum particles at zero temperature in an optical lattice coupled to a resonant cavity mode. The cavity field substantially modifies the particle dynamics in the lattice, and for strong particle-field coupling leads to a quantum phase with only every second site occupied. We study the growth of this new order out of a homogeneous initial distribution for few particles as the microscopic physics underlying a quantum phase transition. Simulations reveal that the growth dynamics crucially depends on the initial quantum many-body state of the particles and can be monitored via the cavity fluorescence. Studying the relaxation time of the ordering reveals inhibited tunnelling, which indicates that the effective mass of the particles is increased by the interaction with the cavity field. However, the relaxation becomes very quick for large coupling.

András Vukics; Christoph Maschler; Helmut Ritsch

2007-03-23

258

Thermodynamically reversible generalization of diffusion limited aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a lattice gas model of cluster growth via the diffusive aggregation of particles in a closed system obeying a local, deterministic, microscopically reversible dynamics. This model roughly corresponds to placing the irreversible diffusion limited aggregation model (DLA) in contact with a heat bath. Particles release latent heat when aggregating, while singly connected cluster members can absorb heat and

Raissa M. D'souza; Norman H. Margolus

1999-01-01

259

Measuring Thermal Diffusivity of Molten Semiconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal diffusivity of molten and solid mercury cadmium telluride measured with aid of new apparatus. Knowledge gained from such measurements help efforts to grow high-quality single crystals of this semiconductor for use in infrared detectors: Without knowledge of thermal diffusivity, difficult to control growth rate of solid from molten material.

Crouch, R.; Holland, L.; Taylor, R. E.

1986-01-01

260

Holographic Graphene in a Cavity  

E-print Network

The effective strength of EM interactions can be controlled by confining the fields to a cavity and these effects might be used to push graphene into a strongly coupled regime. We study the similar D3/probe D5 system on a compact space and discuss the gravity dual for a cavity between two mirrors. We show that the introduction of a conformal symmetry breaking length scale introduces a mass gap on a single D5 sheet. Bilayer configurations display exciton condensation between the sheets. There is a first order phase transition away from the exciton condensate if a strong enough magnetic field is applied. We finally map out the phase structure of these systems in a cavity with the presence of mirror reflections of the probes - a mass gap may form through exciton condensation with the mirror image.

Nick Evans; Peter A. R. Jones

2014-07-11

261

Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

Zare, Richard N. (Stanford, CA); Harb, Charles C. (Palo Alto, CA); Paldus, Barbara A. (Mountain View, CA); Spence, Thomas G. (Palo Alto, CA)

2001-05-15

262

Thermal properties of dental materials--cavity liner and pulp capping agent.  

PubMed

We studied the thermal properties of cavity liners that included calcium phosphate as inorganic filler, in contrast to the conventional pulp capping agents. Therefore, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal conductivity were measured. In addition, thermal conductivity results were compared with those of restorative materials and human dentin to examine thermal insulation effects. The thermal conductivity of cavity liners ranged from 0.23 to 0.28 W m(-1) K(-1), and that of pulp capping agents ranged from 0.44 to 0.48 W m(-1) K(-1). Test results indicated that the thermal conductivity of cavity liner was lower than those of human dentin, pulp capping agent, cast alloy, and composite resin for restoration, hence suggesting that cavity liner has a good thermal insulation effect. PMID:15510872

Saitoh, Masahiro; Masutani, Shigeyuki; Kojima, Taishi; Saigoh, Masataka; Hirose, Hideharu; Nishiyama, Minoru

2004-09-01

263

Numerical optimization of the radial dependence of effective emissivity in blackbody cylindrical cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective emissivity of a blackbody with cylindrical geometry has a definite radial dependence, at the bottom cavity, which is a function of the surface intrinsic emissivity, cavity geometry (L/D) and the temperature gradient along the cylinder walls. The optimal use of large aperture blackbody cavities, particularly in thermal imager calibration applications or for the characterization of size-of-source effect of radiation thermometers for example, requires quite precise control of the thermal gradient, in order to achieve sources as uniform as possible in effective emissivity, over the complete aperture. In this paper, we present a numerical model in which the radial profile of effective emissivity is optimized, by means of the theoretical modification of the temperature gradients in a cylindrical diffuse cavity. The distribution functions of secondary absorption impacts are defined and the criteria for a suitable choice of experimentally realizable temperature gradients are presented, including the uncertainty analysis.

De Lucas, Javier

2014-10-01

264

Detuning Enhanced Cavity Spin Squeezing  

E-print Network

The unconditionally squeezing of the collective spin of an atomic ensemble in a laser driven optical cavity (I. D. Leroux, M. H. Schleier-Smith, and V. Vuletic, Phys. Rev. Lett 104, 073602 (2010)) is studied and analyzed theoretically. Surprisingly, we find that the largely detuned driving laser can improve the scaling of cavity squeezing from $S^{-2/5}$ to $S^{-2/3}$, where S is the total atomic spin. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the experimental imperfection of photon scattering into free space can be efficiently suppressed by detuning.

Yan-Lei Zhang; Chang-Ling Zou; Xu-Bo Zou; Liang Jiang; Guang-Can Guo

2014-07-28

265

Spontaneously walking discrete cavity solitons.  

PubMed

We study the dynamics of oscillating discrete solitons in an array of coupled Kerr-nonlinear cavities. They emanate from stationary discrete cavity solitons due to Hopf instability and are very robust. We show that these oscillating solitons can spontaneously lose their spatial symmetry and start rocking around the equilibrium position. Moreover they can suddenly jump to adjacent resonators starting a chaotic motion along the array, resembling the Brownian motion of particles. We also identify the parameter domain where they move with constant velocity across the array. PMID:23546226

Egorov, O A; Lederer, F

2013-04-01

266

Monte Carlo Modeling of a Cavity Ion Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool, but is limited by sensitivity and precision, which are crucial for samples that contain low concentrations of the elements of interest. One way to increase this sensitivity and precision is with more efficient ion sources. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which yields some of the most sensitive and precise isotope ratio data, uses Re or Ta ribbon filaments as ion sources. These generally ionize material with <1% efficiency (percent of ions counted). The cavity ion source (CIS) has recently been explored as an alternative to filaments. In contrast to flat filaments, the CIS is a hollowed Re or W rod. The CIS ionizes refractory elements with much higher efficiency than TIMS filaments. For example, filaments ionize U with ~0.1% efficiency, whereas CIS studies have reported efficiencies up to 39%. The filament and the CIS use the same mechanism to ionize material (i.e., thermal ionization), but the CIS forces the sample to interact with the ionizing surface many times by confining the evaporated sample to a cavity. The CIS is heated by electron bombardment, evaporating the sample just as it would on a filament. However, before being lost to the environment, the sample diffuses to the cavity's opening. While diffusing, the sample collides with the walls of the hot cavity hundreds or thousands of times. Each collision is an opportunity to ionize the evaporated sample atoms. Typical probabilities for ionization (per collision) for actinides are <1%, but having thousands of collisions greatly raises the final ionization efficiency. However, each ionized atom has the potential to recombine (i.e., gain an electron and become neutral) with additional collisions in the CIS. The probability of recombination is much higher than the probability of ionization for a single collision. Therefore, a critical design feature of a CIS is to ensure that ions are extracted after they form. The subject of this study is how to design a CIS to maximize ionization and minimize recombination. This work models a CIS using SIMION 7.0 to determine how the ionization efficiency (and thus ionization and recombination rate) depends on the cavity's length, radius and extraction potential. The model assumes a Re cavity held at a steady-state temperature of 2750 K, with a circular extraction electrode. The study predicts that ionization efficiency is not strongly dependent on cavity dimensions or extraction potential (as long as it is >1kV), but wider cavities and higher extraction potentials increase the cavity's efficiency, while longer cavities do not. The most efficient CIS modeled had a length of ~3cm and an inner radius ~5mm. As such, a CIS can be fitted to a commercially available mass spectrometer with relative ease. Once operational, an instrument fitted with a CIS could dramatically change the field of mass spectrometry by facilitating analysis of pictogram quantities of elements using high precision Faraday cup detectors in place of secondary electron multipliers.

Lewis, L. A.; Borg, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.

2011-12-01

267

Vacuum effects in a vibrating cavity: time refraction, dynamical Casimir effect, and effective Unruh acceleration  

E-print Network

Two different quantum processes are considered in a perturbed vacuum cavity: time refraction and dynamical Casimir effect. They are shown to be physically equivalent, and are predicted to be unstable, leading to an exponential growth in the number of photons created in the cavity. The concept of an effective Unruh acceleration for these processes is also introduced, in order to make a comparison in terms of radiation efficiency, with the Unruh radiation associated with an accelerated frame in unbounded vacuum.

J. T. Mendonca; G. Brodin; M. Marklund

2008-06-04

268

Calculations of HOMs and coupled bunch instabilities due to the RHIC rf cavities  

SciTech Connect

The cavities for the two RHIC rf systems have been defined, a 26.7 MHz cavity developed by the RHIC rf group and the well documented CERN SPS 200 MHz cavity tuned to 196.1 MHz for operation in RHIC. Calculations of the shunt impedances and Q`s of the higher order modes (HOMs) are summarized along with beadpull measurements of R/Q of selected modes. Estimates of coupled bunch instability growth rates are calculated with both analytical techniques and using the code ZAP and used to make projections of mode damping requirements.

Rose, J.

1994-09-01

269

Potassium ions in the cavity of a KcsA channel model.  

PubMed

The high rate of ion flux and selectivity of potassium channels has been attributed to the conformation and dynamics of the ions in the filter which connects the channel cavity and the extracellular environment. The cavity serves as the reservoir for potassium ions diffusing from the intracellular medium. The cavity is believed to decrease the dielectric barrier for the ions to enter the filter. We study here the equilibrium and dynamic properties of potassium ions entering the water-filled cavity of a KcsA channel model. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that are supplemented by electrostatic calculations reveal the important role of water molecules and the partially charged protein helices at the bottom of the cavity in overcoming the energy barrier and stabilizing the potassium ion in the cavity. We further show that the average time for a potassium ion to enter the cavity is much shorter than the conduction rate of a potassium passing through the filter, and this time duration is insensitive over a wide range of the membrane potential. The conclusions drawn from the study of the channel model are applicable in generalized contexts, including the entry of ions in artificial ion channels and other confined geometries. PMID:24483491

Yao, Zhenwei; Qiao, Baofu; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

2013-12-01

270

A numerical study based on a weakly compressible formulation for thermosolutal convection in vertical cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminar thermosolutal convection in cavities with uniform, constant temperature and mass fraction profiles at the vertical side is studied numerically. The study is conducted in the case where an inert carrier gas (species “1”) present in the cavity is not soluble in species “2”, and do not diffuse into the walls. A mass flux of species “2” into the cavity occurs at the hot vertical wall and a mass flux out of the cavity occurs at the opposite cold wall. The weakly compressible model proposed in this work was used to investigate the flow fields, and heat and mass transfer in cavities filled with binary mixtures of ideal gases. The dimensionless form of the seven governing equations for constant thermophysical properties, except density, show that the problem formulation involves ten dimensionless parameters. The results were validated against numerical results published in the literature for purely thermal convection, and thermodynamic predictions for transient thermosolutal flows. A parametric study has been performed to investigate the effects of the initial conditions, molecular weight ratio, Lewis number, and aspect ratio of the cavity for aiding or opposing buoyancy forces. For the range of parameters considered, the results show that variations in the density field have larger effects on mass transfer than on heat transfer. For opposing buoyancy forces, the numerical simulations predict complex flow structures and possible chaotic behavior for rectangular vertical cavities according to the value of the molecular weight ratio.

Sun, Hua; Lauriat, Guy

2010-05-01

271

Potassium ions in the cavity of a KcsA channel model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high rate of ion flux and selectivity of potassium channels has been attributed to the conformation and dynamics of the ions in the filter which connects the channel cavity and the extracellular environment. The cavity serves as the reservoir for potassium ions diffusing from the intracellular medium. The cavity is believed to decrease the dielectric barrier for the ions to enter the filter. We study here the equilibrium and dynamic properties of potassium ions entering the water-filled cavity of a KcsA channel model. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that are supplemented by electrostatic calculations reveal the important role of water molecules and the partially charged protein helices at the bottom of the cavity in overcoming the energy barrier and stabilizing the potassium ion in the cavity. We further show that the average time for a potassium ion to enter the cavity is much shorter than the conduction rate of a potassium passing through the filter, and this time duration is insensitive over a wide range of the membrane potential. The conclusions drawn from the study of the channel model are applicable in generalized contexts, including the entry of ions in artificial ion channels and other confined geometries.

Yao, Zhenwei; Qiao, Baofu; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

2013-12-01

272

Field Fluctuation Spectroscopy in a Reverberant Cavity with Moving Scatterers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a study of transient ultrasonic waves inside a reverberant cavity containing moving scatterers. We show that the elastic mean free path and the dynamics of the scatterers govern the evolution of the autocorrelation of acoustic wave field. A parallel is established between these results and a closely related technique, diffusing acoustic wave spectroscopy. Excellent agreement is found between experiment and theory for a moving stainless steel ball in a water tank, thereby elucidating the underlying physics, and a potential application, fish monitoring inside aquariums, is demonstrated.

de Rosny, Julien; Roux, Philippe; Fink, Mathias; Page, J. H.

2003-03-01

273

Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

2014-06-01

274

"Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

1980-01-01

275

Long wavelength vertical cavity lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for low cost, high speed telecommunication sources demands the maturation of long wavelength vertical cavity lasers (VCLs). Both long haul fiber optic systems and gigabit ethernet links are potential markets for 1.3 and 1.55 micron VCLs. This past year has seen much progress to this end, but the emerging technology has yet to be determined. This paper overviews

K. A. Blacka; P. Abraham; A. Keating; Y. J. Chiu; E. L. Hu; J. E. Bowers

1999-01-01

276

Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing  

DOEpatents

An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

Sopori, Bhushan L.

2014-08-05

277

Boundary layer influence on cavity noise generation.  

E-print Network

]. Experiments were conducted in a open jet wind tunnel facility. The cavity took place in a flat plate such as the cavity geometry, the free stream velocity and the incoming boundary layer properties, [1]. In this paper

Lindken, Ralph

278

An economical wireless cavity-nest viewer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspection of cavity nests and nest boxes is often required during studies of cavity-nesting birds, and fiberscopes and pole-mounted video cameras are sometimes used for such inspection. However, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive for some potential users. We describe a user-built, wireless cavity viewer that can be used to access cavities as high as 15 m and

Daniel P. Huebner; Sarah R. Hurteau

2007-01-01

279

Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.

Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

280

The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and deposited these data in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Bioproject: PRJNA248297). In our initial analysis, we compared the bacterial communities of the nasal cavity and the oral cavity from ten of these subjects. The nasal cavity bacterial communities were dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria and were statistically distinct from those on the tongue and buccal mucosa. For example, the same Staphylococcaceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was present in all of the nasal cavity samples, comprising up to 55% of the community, but Staphylococcaceae was comparatively uncommon in the oral cavity. Conclusions There are clear differences between nasal cavity microbiota and oral cavity microbiota in healthy adults. This study expands our knowledge of the nasal cavity microbiota and the relationship between the microbiota of the nasal and oral cavities. PMID:25143824

2014-01-01

281

Microwave Discharge Cavities Operating at 2450 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five simple microwave cavities for producing discharges in gases were tested in He and H2 at pressures from 1 ? to 1 atm. Three of the cavities are commonly used, and two have been recently designed. One of the newly designed cavities offered a considerable improvement over early models with respect to compactness, ease of attachment to the system, and

F. C. Fehsenfeld; K. M. Evenson; H. P. Broida

1965-01-01

282

The PS 40 MHz bunching cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 40 MHz cavity has been designed and built at CERN as part of the preparation of the PS as injector for LHC. The cavity will provide the necessary bunch spacing of 25 ns prior to injection into SPS and subsequently LHC. The mechanical design of the copper coated steel cavity was dominated by space constraints in the PS tunnel

R. Garoby; D G Grier; E. Jensen; A. Mitra; R. L. Poirier

1997-01-01

283

THE PS 40 MHZ BUNCHING CAVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 40 MHz cavity has been designed and built at CERN as part of the preparation of the PS as injector for LHC. The cavity will provide the necessary bunch spacing of 25 ns prior to injection into SPS and subsequently LHC. The mechanical design of the copper coated steel cavity was dominated by space constraints in the PS tunnel

R. Garoby; D. Grier; E. Jensen; A. Mitra; R. L. Poirier

1998-01-01

284

Organized Oscillations of Initially-Turbulent Flow Past a Cavity  

SciTech Connect

Flow past an open cavity is known to give rise to self-sustained oscillations in a wide variety of configurations, including slotted-wall, wind and water tunnels, slotted flumes, bellows-type pipe geometries, high-head gates and gate slots, aircraft components and internal piping systems. These cavity-type oscillations are the origin of coherent and broadband sources of noise and, if the structure is sufficiently flexible, flow-induced vibration as well. Moreover, depending upon the state of the cavity oscillation, substantial alterations of the mean drag may be induced. In the following, the state of knowledge of flow past cavities, based primarily on laminar inflow conditions, is described within a framework based on the flow physics. Then, the major unresolved issues for this class of flows will be delineated. Self-excited cavity oscillations have generic features, which are assessed in detail in the reviews of Rockwell and Naudascher, Rockwell, Howe and Rockwell. These features, which are illustrated in the schematic of Figure 1, are: (i) interaction of a vorticity concentration(s) with the downstream corner, (ii) upstream influence from this corner interaction to the sensitive region of the shear layer formed from the upstream corner of the cavity; (iii) conversion of the upstream influence arriving at this location to a fluctuation in the separating shear layer; and (iv) amplification of this fluctuation in the shear layer as it develops in the streamwise direction. In view of the fact that inflow shear-layer in the present investigation is fully turbulent, item (iv) is of particular interest. It is generally recognized, at least for laminar conditions at separation from the leading-corner of the cavity, that the disturbance growth in the shear layer can be described using concepts of linearized, inviscid stability theory, as shown by Rockwell, Sarohia, and Knisely and Rockwell. As demonstrated by Knisely and Rockwell, on the basis of experiments interpreted with the aid of linearized theory, not only the fundamental component of the shear layer instability may be present, but a number of additional, primarily lower frequency components can exist as well. In fact, the magnitude of these components can be of the same order as the fundamental component. These issues have not been addressed for the case of a fully-turbulent in-flow and its separation from the leading corner of the cavity.

J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell

2002-09-17

285

Fisher equation for anisotropic diffusion: Simulating South American human dispersals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fisher equation is commonly used to model population dynamics. This equation allows describing reaction-diffusion processes, considering both population growth and diffusion mechanism. Some results have been reported about modeling human dispersion, always assuming isotropic diffusion. Nevertheless, it is well-known that dispersion depends not only on the characteristics of the habitats where individuals are but also on the properties of

Luis A. Martino; Ana Osella; Claudio Dorso; José L. Lanata

2007-01-01

286

Ambipolar Diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When magnetic forces are present in a partially ionized medium, the plasma drifts with respect to the neutrals. This plasma—neutral drift, which is known as ambipolar diffusion, occurs in all partially ionized astrophysical systems, including portions of the interstellar medium, protostellar accretion disks, and the chromosphere of the Sun and other cool stars. Ambipolar drift redistributes magnetic flux, which can trigger star formation. It affects short wavelength interstellar turbulence, the structure of interstellar shocks, flow driven instabilities, and the nature of magnetic reconnection. Energy dissipated by ion-neutral friction can be an important source of heat. This chapter reviews ambipolar drift as a process and discusses some of the implications.

Zweibel, Ellen G.

287

Stent hypersensitivity and infection in sinus cavities  

PubMed Central

Persistent mucosal inflammation, granulation tissue formation, hypersensitivity, and multifactorial infection are newly described complications of retained drug-eluting stents from endoscopic sinus surgery for refractory rhinosinusitis. In an important report published in Allergy and Rhinology, a 45-year-old male patient suffering from recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery and was found, for the first time, to have steroid-eluting catheters that were inadvertently left in the ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The retained catheters had caused persistent mucosal inflammation and formation of granulation tissue denoting hypersensitivity reaction. These consequences had induced perpetuation of symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Meticulous removal of the retained stents with the nitinol wings from inflamed tissues of the frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoethmoidal recesses in which they were completely imbedded was successfully performed without polypoid regrowth. Cultures of specimens taken from both left and right stents showed heavy growth of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and moderate growth of Klebsiella oxytoca, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus. Fungal infection was not detected. The current knowledge and experience regarding stent hypersensitivity and infection in relation with the use of stents in sinus cavities is reviewed. PMID:24498522

Soufras, George D.; Hahalis, George

2013-01-01

288

Modeling and cavity optimization of an external cavity semiconductor laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor external cavity lasers (ECL) have a wide range of applications in the field of DWDM and measurement systems. One of their most important features is the continuous tuning without mode hopping in a wide wavelength range. In this paper we present a modelling approach for an ECL in Littman-Metcalf configuration carried out for optimising: 1) the laser diode position inside the cavity in order to maximize the range of continuous wavelength tuning without mode hopping and without cavity-length adjustment and 2) the choice of the detuning of the operating wavelength respect to the Bragg condition in order to minimize the four-wave mixing (FWM) effects and the effect of a non-perfect antireflection coating (ARC). A realistic example has been analyzed and therefore we considered: the wavelength dependence of the modal gain, linewidth enhancement factor and grating selectivity, as well as the modal refractive index change with carrier injection, operating wavelength and temperature. The implemented numerical tools allow also to obtain some specifications on the grating selectivity and the ARC design.

Feies, Valentin I.; Montrosset, Ivo

2004-09-01

289

Selective advantage of diffusing faster.  

PubMed

We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability. PMID:24856726

Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

2014-05-01

290

Selective Advantage of Diffusing Faster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability.

Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

2014-05-01

291

Optical Material Characterization Using Microdisk Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Jack Kilby recorded his "Monolithic Idea" for integrated circuits in 1958, microelectronics companies have invested billions of dollars in developing the silicon material system to increase performance and reduce cost. For decades, the industry has made Moore's Law, concerning cost and transistor density, a self-fulfilling prophecy by integrating technical and material requirements vertically down their supply chains and horizontally across competitors in the market. At recent technology nodes, the unacceptable scaling behavior of copper interconnects has become a major design constraint by increasing latency and power consumption---more than 50% of the power consumed by high speed processors is dissipated by intrachip communications. Optical networks at the chip scale are a potential low-power high-bandwidth replacement for conventional global interconnects, but the lack of efficient on-chip optical sources has remained an outstanding problem despite significant advances in silicon optoelectronics. Many material systems are being researched, but there is no ideal candidate even though the established infrastructure strongly favors a CMOS-compatible solution. This thesis focuses on assessing the optical properties of materials using microdisk cavities with the intention to advance processing techniques and materials relevant to silicon photonics. Low-loss microdisk resonators are chosen because of their simplicity and long optical path lengths. A localized photonic probe is developed and characterized that employs a tapered optical-fiber waveguide, and it is utilized in practical demonstrations to test tightly arranged devices and to help prototype new fabrication methods. A case study in AlxGa1-xAs illustrates how the optical scattering and absorption losses can be obtained from the cavity-waveguide transmission. Finally, single-crystal Er2O3 epitaxially grown on silicon is analyzed in detail as a potential CMOS-compatable gain medium due to its high Er3+ density and the control offered by the precise epitaxy. The growth and fabrication methods are discussed. Spectral measurements at cryogenic and room temperatures show negligible background losses and resonant Er3+ absorption strong enough to produce cavity-polaritons that persist to above 361 K. Cooperative relaxation and upconversion limit the optical performance in the telecommunications bands by transferring the excitations to quenching sites or by further exciting the ions up to visible transitions. Future prospects and alternative applications for Er2O3 and other epitaxial rare-earth oxides are also considered.

Michael, Christopher P.

292

Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method  

DOEpatents

A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-05-16

293

Microwave energy storage in resonant cavities  

SciTech Connect

One method of generating short, high-power microwave pulses is to store rf energy in a resonant cavity over a relatively long fill time and extract is rapidly. A power gain roughly equal to the ratio of fill time to extraction time can be obtained. During the filling of a resonant cavity some of the energy is lost in heating the cavity walls, and some will generally be reflected at the input coupling of the cavity. In this paper we discuss the time dependence of the stored energy and related quantities and the way in which it depends on the coupling of the source to the cavity.

Alvarez, R.A.

1983-02-01

294

Lateral gas diffusion inside leaves.  

PubMed

Diffusion of CO2 inside leaves is generally regarded to be from the substomatal cavities to the assimilating tissues, i.e. in the vertical direction of the leaf blades. However, lateral gas diffusion within intercellular air spaces may be much more effective than hitherto considered. In a previous work it was demonstrated that, when 'clamp-on' leaf chambers are used, leaf internal 'CO2 leakage' beyond the leaf chamber gaskets may seriously affect gas exchange measurement. This effect has been used in the present paper to quantify gas conductance (g(leaf,l), mmol m(-2) s(-1)) in the lateral directions within leaves and significant differences between homo- and heterobaric leaves were observed. For the homobaric leaves, lateral gas conductance measured over a distance of 6 or 8 mm (the widths of the chamber gaskets) was 2-20% of vertical conductance taken from published data measured over much smaller distances of 108-280 microm (the thickness of the leaves). The specific internal gas diffusion properties of the leaves have been characterized by gas conductivities (g*(leaf), micromol m(-1) s(-1)). Gas conductivities in the lateral directions of heterobaric leaves were found to be small but not zero. In homobaric leaves, they were between 67 and 209 micromol m(-1) s(-1) and thus even larger than those in the vertical direction of the leaf blades (between 15 and 78 micromol m(-1) s(-1)). The potential implications for experimentalists performing gas exchange measurements are discussed. PMID:15668225

Pieruschka, Roland; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

2005-03-01

295

Control of Cavity Resonance Using Oscillatory Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The near-zero net mass oscillatory blowing control of a subsonic cavity flow has been experimentally investigated. An actuator was designed and fabricated to provide both steady and oscillatory blowing over a range of blowing amplitudes and forcing frequencies. The blowing was applied just upstream of the cavity front Wall through interchangeable plate configurations These configurations enabled the effects of hole size, hole shape, and blowing angle to be examined. A significant finding is that in terms of the blowing amplitude, the near zero net mass oscillatory blowing is much more effective than steady blowing; momentum coefficients Lip two orders of magnitude smaller than those required for steady blowing are sufficient to accomplish the same control of cavity resonance. The detailed measurements obtained in the experiment include fluctuating pressure data within the cavity wall, and hot-wire measurements of the cavity shear layer. Spectral and wavelet analysis techniques are applied to understand the dynamics and mechanisms of the cavity flow with control. The oscillatory blowing, is effective in enhancing the mixing in the cavity shear layer and thus modifying the feedback loop associated with the cavity resonance. The nonlinear interactions in the cavity flow are no longer driven by the resonant cavity modes but by the forcing associated with the oscillatory blowing. The oscillatory blowing does not suppress the mode switching behavior of the cavity flow, but the amplitude modulation is reduced.

Scarfe, Alison Lamp; Chokani, Ndaona

2000-01-01

296

Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity  

SciTech Connect

In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme but the frequency cannot be increased any higher due to the long bunch length of the LHC beam. This will require a novel compact crab cavity design. A superconducting version of a two rod coaxial deflecting cavity as a suitable design is proposed in this paper.

B. Hall, G. Burt, J.D.A. Smith, R. Rimmer, H. Wang, J. Delayen, R. Calaga

2009-05-01

297

Shape Determination for Deformed Electromagnetic Cavities  

SciTech Connect

The measured physical parameters of a superconducting cavity differ from those of the designed ideal cavity. This is due to shape deviations caused by both loose machine tolerances during fabrication and by the tuning process for the accelerating mode. We present a shape determination algorithm to solve for the unknown deviations from the ideal cavity using experimentally measured cavity data. The objective is to match the results of the deformed cavity model to experimental data through least-squares minimization. The inversion variables are unknown shape deformation parameters that describe perturbations of the ideal cavity. The constraint is the Maxwell eigenvalue problem. We solve the nonlinear optimization problem using a line-search based reduced space Gauss-Newton method where we compute shape sensitivities with a discrete adjoint approach. We present two shape determination examples, one from synthetic and the other from experimental data. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is very effective in determining the deformed cavity shape.

Akcelik, Volkan; Ko, Kwok; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zhenghai; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

2007-12-10

298

Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diode  

SciTech Connect

We report the operation of an electrically injected monolithic coupled resonator vertical cavity laser which consists of an active cavity containing In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As quantum wells optically coupled to a passive GaAs cavity. This device demonstrates novel modulation characteristics arising from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. A composite mode theory is used to model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser. It is shown that the laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. Under forward biasing, the modulation is due to carrier induced changes in the refractive index, while for reverse bias operation the modulation is caused by field dependent cavity enhanced absorption.

CHOQUETTE, KENT D.; CHOW, WENG W.; FISCHER, ARTHUR J.; GEIB, KENT M.; HOU, HONG Q.

1999-09-16

299

RF cavity vacuum interlock system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), a continuous wave (CW) 4 GeV Electron Accelerator is undergoing construction in Newport News, Virginia. When completed in 1994, the accelerator will be the largest installation of radio-frequency superconductivity. Production of cryomodules, the fundamental building block of the machine, has started. A cryomodule consists of four sets of pairs of 1497 MHz, 5 cell niobium cavities contained in separate helium vessels and mounted in a cryostat with appropriate end caps for helium supply and return. Beam vacuum of the cavities, the connecting beam piping, the waveguides, and the cryostat insulating vacuum are crucial to the performance of the machine. The design and initial experience of the vacuum systems for the first 2 1/4 cryomodules that makeup the 45 MEV injector are discussed.

Jordan, K.; Crawford, K.; Bundy, R.; Dylla, H. F.; Heckman, J.; Marshall, J.; Nichols, R.; Osullivan, S.; Preble, J.; Robb, J.

1992-03-01

300

A micropillar for cavity optomechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demonstrating the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical object is a major experimental challenge in physics, at the origin of the rapid emergence of cavity optomechanics. We have developed a new generation of optomechanical devices, based on a microgram quartz micropillar with a very high mechanical quality factor. The structure is used as end mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity with a high optical finesse, leading to ultra-sensitive interferometric measurement of the resonator displacement. We expect to reach the ground state of this optomechanical resonator by combining cryogenic cooling in a dilution fridge at 30 mK and radiation-pressure cooling. We have already carried out a quantum-limited measurement of the micropillar thermal noise at low temperature.

Kuhn, Aurélien; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Van Brackel, Emmanuel; Chartier, Claude; Ducloux, Olivier; Le Traon, Olivier; Michel, Christophe; Pinard, Laurent; Flaminio, Raffaele; Deléglise, Samuel; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine

2014-12-01

301

Spontaneous Photon Emission in Cavities  

E-print Network

We investigate spontaneous photon emission processes of two-level atoms in parabolic and ellipsoidal cavities thereby taking into account the full multimode scenario. In particular, we calculate the excitation probabilities of the atoms and the energy density of the resulting few-photon electromagnetic radiation field by using semiclassical methods for the description of the multimode scenario. Based on this approach photon path representations are developed for relevant transition probability amplitudes which are valid in the optical frequency regime where the dipole and the rotating-wave approximations apply. Comparisons with numerical results demonstrate the quality of these semiclassical results even in cases in which the wave length of a spontaneously emitted photon becomes comparable or even larger than characteristic length scales of the cavity. This is the dynamical regime in which diffraction effects become important so that geometric optical considerations are typically not applicable.

Gernot Alber; Nils Trautmann

2014-12-04

302

High dielectrics in microwave cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies three distinct types of losses associated with high dielectric materials in a rf electric field, specifically in a rectangular TE102 microwave cavity. Various orientations of high dielectric structures relative to the electric field polarization have been studied using ansoft high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) (version 9.0, Pittsburgh, PA) and Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio (version 5.0,

Jason W. Sidabras; Richard R. Mett; James S Hyde

2004-01-01

303

Abdominal Cavity and Laparoscopic Surgery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For students interested in studying biomechanical engineering, especially in the field of surgery, this lesson serves as an anatomy and physiology primer of the abdominopelvic cavity. Students are introduced to the abdominopelvic cavityâa region of the body that is the focus of laparoscopic surgeryâas well as the benefits and drawbacks of laparoscopic surgery. Understanding the abdominopelvic environment and laparoscopic surgery is critical for biomechanical engineers who design laparoscopic surgical tools.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

304

Grinding Inside A Toroidal Cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weld lines ground smooth within about 0.001 in. Grinding tool for smoothing longitudinal weld lines inside toroidal cavity includes curved tunnel jig to guide grinding "mouse" along weld line. Curvature of tunnel jig matched to shape of toroid so grinding ball in mouse follows circular arc of correct radius as mouse is pushed along tunnel. Tool enables precise control of grindout shape, yet easy to use.

Mayer, Walter; Adams, James F.; Burley, Richard K.

1987-01-01

305

Performance Capability of Single-Cavity Vortex Gaseous Nuclear Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was made to determine the maximum powerplant thrust-to-weight ratio possible with a single-cavity vortex gaseous reactor in which all the hydrogen propellant must diffuse through a fuel-rich region. An assumed radial temperature profile was used to represent conduction, convection, and radiation heat-transfer effects. The effect of hydrogen property changes due to dissociation and ionization was taken into account in a hydrodynamic computer program. It is shown that, even for extremely optimistic assumptions of reactor criticality and operating conditions, such a system is limited to reactor thrust-to-weight ratios of about 1.2 x 10(exp -3) for laminar flow. For turbulent flow, the maximum thrust-to-weight ratio is less than 10(exp -3). These low thrusts result from the fact that the hydrogen flow rate is limited by the diffusion process. The performance of a gas-core system with a specific impulse of 3000 seconds and a powerplant thrust-to-weight ratio of 10(exp -2) is shown to be equivalent to that of a 1000-second advanced solid-core system. It is therefore concluded that a single-cavity vortex gaseous reactor in which all the hydrogen must diffuse through the nuclear fuel is a low-thrust device and offers no improvement over a solid-core nuclear-rocket engine. To achieve higher thrust, additional hydrogen flow must be introduced in such a manner that it will by-pass the nuclear fuel. Obviously, such flow must be heated by thermal radiation. An illustrative model of a single-cavity vortex system employing supplementary flow of hydrogen through the core region is briefly examined. Such a system appears capable of thrust-to-weight ratios of approximately 1 to 10. For a high-impulse engine, this capability would be a considerable improvement over solid-core performance. Limits imposed by thermal radiation heat transfer to cavity walls are acknowledged but not evaluated. Alternate vortex concepts that employ many parallel vortices to achieve higher hydrogen flow rates offer the possibility of sufficiently high thrust-to-weight ratios, if they are not limited by short thermal-radiation path lengths.

Ragsdale, Robert G.

1963-01-01

306

Differential ultrafast all-optical switching of the resonances of a micropillar cavity  

SciTech Connect

We perform frequency- and time-resolved all-optical switching of a GaAs-AlAs micropillar cavity using an ultrafast pump-probe setup. The switching is achieved by two-photon excitation of free carriers. We track the cavity resonances in time with a high frequency resolution. The pillar modes exhibit simultaneous frequency shifts, albeit with markedly different maximum switching amplitudes and relaxation dynamics. These differences stem from the non-uniformity of the free carrier density in the micropillar, and are well understood by taking into account the spatial distribution of injected free carriers, their spatial diffusion and surface recombination at micropillar sidewalls.

Thyrrestrup, Henri, E-mail: h.t.nielsen@utwente.nl; Yüce, Emre; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L. [Complex Photonic Systems (COPS), MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Claudon, Julien; Gérard, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jean-michel.gerard@cea.fr [University Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, Nanophysics and Semiconductors Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SP2M, Nanophysics and Semiconductors Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

2014-09-15

307

Experimental determination of the critical cavity radius in Fe-10% Cr for ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

An ion bombardment experiment was designed to investigate the minimum critical radius, r/sub c/sup c*/, for the ferritic alloy Fe-10% Cr. Specimens were implanted with 300 appM Helium, annealed, and then irradiated to 30 dpa at 850K with 4-MeV Fe/sup 2 +/ ions. The specimens contained a bimodal cavity distribution consisting of a population of larger cavities (average radius 7.6 nm) and a population of smaller cavities (average radius 1.2 nm). The upper cut-off of the cavity radii for the smaller cavities, 2.5 nm, is interpreted as r/sub c/sup c*/. Theoretical calculations of r/sub c/sup c*/ for physically allowable combinations of bias, surface energy, vacancy migration energy, and vacancy formation energy and entropy were performed using the measured minimum critical radius and microstructural data. Thus, an indirect determination of these fundamental parameters was made for this alloy. The results suggest that a bias of approx. 0.2 is reasonable. An assessment of the possible values of the other fundamental parameters is given. In addition, the low irradiation-induced dislocation density (1 x 10/sup 13/m/sup -2/), which results in the ratio of the dislocation and cavity sink strengths, Q, being much less than unity, may be partially responsible for the low cavity growth rate in this alloy.

Horton, L.L.; Mansur, L.K.

1984-01-01

308

Comparing the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model. Study Design: Twenty-one human molars were divided into 3 groups. Cavities were then cut into the teeth (4 per tooth, 28 cavities per group). After sterilization, the teeth were left in broth cultures of 106 colony-forming units (CFU) ml-1 of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) at 36°C for 48 h. The appropriate treatment followed (group A, control; group B, 2% chlorhexidine solution; and group C, 80s of treatment with ozone, and the cavities were then filled with composite resin. After 72h, the restorations were removed, dentin chips were collected with an excavator, and the total number of microorganisms was determined. Results: Both of the treatments significantly reduced the number of S. mutans present compared with the control group and there was a significant difference between the all groups in terms of the amount of the microorganisms grown (p < 0.05). Group B was beter than group C; and group C was better than group A. Moreover, it was found that the amount of the growth in the group of chlorhexidine was significantly less than that of the ozone group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution was the antibacterial treatment most efficacious on S. mutans; however, ozone application could be an anlternative cavity disinfection method because of ozone’s cavity disinfection activity. Key words:Antibacterial activity, chlorhexidine, ozone, streptococcus mutans, tooth cavity. PMID:24455068

Özta?, Nurhan; Sümer, Zeynep

2013-01-01

309

Some Nuclear Calculations of U-235-D2O Gaseous-Core Cavity Reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a multigroup, diffusion theory study of spherical gaseous-core cavity reactors are presented in this report. The reactor cavity of gaseous U235 is enclosed by a region of hydrogen gas and is separated from an external D2O moderator-reflector by a zirconium structural shell. Some cylindrical reactors are also investigated. A parametric study of spherical reactors indicates that, for the range of variables studied, critical mass increases as: (1) Fuel region is compressed within the reactor cavity, (2) moderator thickness is decreased, (3) structural shell thickness is increased, and (4) moderator temperature is increased. A buckling analogy is used to estimate the critical mass of fully reflected cylindrical reactors from spherical results without fuel compression. For a reactor cavity of a 120-centimeter radius uniformly filled with fuel, no structural shell, a moderator temperature of 70 F, and a moderator thickness of 100 centimeters, the critical mass of a spherical reactor is 3.1 kilograms while that of a cylinder with a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.0 (L/D = 1) is approximately 3.8 kilograms and, with L/D = 2, 5.9 kilograms. For the range of variables considered for U235-D2O gaseous-core cavity reactors, the systems are characterized by 95 to 99 percent thermal absorptions, with the flux reaching a maximum in the moderator about 10 to 15 centimeters from the reactor cavity.

Ragsdale, Robert G.; Hyland, Robert E.

1961-01-01

310

Is Arnold diffusion relevant to global diffusion?  

E-print Network

Global diffusion of Hamiltonian dynamical systems is investigated by using a coupled standard maps. Arnold web is visualized in the frequency space, using local rotation numbers, while Arnold diffusion and resonance overlaps are distinguished by the residence time distributions at resonance layers. Global diffusion in the phase space is shown to be accelerated by diffusion across overlapped resonances generated by the coupling term, rather than Arnold diffusion along the lower-order resonances. The former plays roles of hubs for transport in the phase space, and accelerate the diffusion.

Seiichiro Honjo; Kunihiko Kaneko

2003-07-27

311

Analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena in simulant experiments investigating cavity interactions following postulated vessel meltthrough  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena in simulant experiments examining aspects of ex-vessel material interactions in a PWR reactor cavity following postulated core meltdown and localized breaching of the reactor vessel has been carried out. While previous analyses of the tests examined thresholds for the onset of sweepout of fluid from the cavity, the present analysis considers the progression of specific hydrodynamic phenomena involved in the dispersal process: crater formation due to gas jet impingement, radial wave motion and growth, entrainment and transport of liquid droplets, liquid layer formation due to droplet recombination, fluidization of liquid remaining in the cavity, removal of fluidized liquid droplets from the cavity, and the ultimate removal of the remaining liquid layer within the tunnel passageway. Phenomenological models which may be used to predict the phenomena are presented.

Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

1984-01-01

312

Manifestations and pathological features of solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer observed by CT and PET/CT imaging  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyze and improve the understanding of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging and the pathological features of solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer. A total of 16 patients with pathologically confirmed solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer were included in the present study. All of the patients received CT scans. Among these, two patients underwent an additional PET/CT examination. The CT and PET/CT images were analyzed and a cross-check analysis of the pathological results was conducted. In total, 16 cases of lesions demonstrated thin-walled cavities on the CT images. Among these cases, three presented with an uneven thickening of the cavity walls, 10 cases exhibited wall nodules and three cases presented with compartments in the cavity. The standard uptake value (SUV) of the cavity wall increased in two patients who underwent PET/CT examinations. The 16 cases of lesions were pathologically confirmed as adenocarcinomas. Light microscopy revealed that the tumor cells, which were observed in 12 cases of lesions, had diffused along the inner cavity wall and the tumor cells of four cases had invaded the bronchial wall. Images of the chest that demonstrated a single thin-walled cavity accompanied by uneven thickening of the cavity wall or wall nodules, in addition to an increase in the SUV and compartments in the cavity, indicated potential lung cancer. Valves formed as a result of bronchial wall damage may have led to the cavity. PMID:24959262

QI, YUANGANG; ZHANG, QING; HUANG, YONG; WANG, DAOQING

2014-01-01

313

Temperature Structure of a Coronal Cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

we analyze the temperature structure of a coronal cavity observed in Aug. 2007. coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and x-rays. when these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs. It is important to establish the temperature structure of cavities in order to understand the thermodynamics of cavities in relation to their three-dimensional magnetic structure. To analyze the temperature we compare temperature ratios of a series of iron lines observed by the Hinode/EUv Imaging spectrometer (EIS). We also use those lines to constrain a forward model of the emission from the cavity and streamer. The model assumes a coronal streamer with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel lenth. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. The general cavity morphology and the cavity and streamer density have already been modeled using data from STEREO's SECCHI/EUVI and Hinode/EIS (Gibson et al 2010 and Schmit & Gibson 2011).

Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

2011-01-01

314

Generation of a Dual-Functioning Antitumor Immune Response in the Peritoneal Cavity  

PubMed Central

Tumor cell metastasis to the peritoneal cavity is observed in patients with tumors of peritoneal organs, particularly colon and ovarian tumors. Following release into the peritoneal cavity, tumor cells rapidly attach to the omentum, a tissue consisting of immune aggregates embedded in adipose tissue. Despite their proximity to potential immune effector cells, tumor cells grow aggressively on these immune aggregates. We hypothesized that activation of the immune aggregates would generate a productive antitumor immune response in the peritoneal cavity. We immunized mice i.p. with lethally irradiated cells of the colon adenocarcinoma line Colon38. Immunization resulted in temporary enlargement of immune aggregates, and after challenge with viable Colon38 cells, we did not detect tumor growth on the omentum. When Colon38-immunized mice were challenged with cells from the unrelated breast adenocarcinoma line E0771 or the melanoma line B16, these tumors also did not grow. The nonspecific response was long-lived and not present systemically, highlighting the uniqueness of the peritoneal cavity. Cellular depletions of immune subsets revealed that NK1.1+ cells were essential in preventing growth of unrelated tumors, whereas NK1.1+ cells and T cells were essential in preventing Colon38 tumor growth. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the peritoneal cavity has a unique environment capable of eliciting potent specific and nonspecific antitumor immune responses. PMID:23933065

Sedlacek, Abigail L.; Gerber, Scott A.; Randall, Troy D.; van Rooijen, Nico; Frelinger, John G.; Lord, Edith M.

2014-01-01

315

Magnetic diffusion-limited aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extra degree of freedom is introduced in the well-known diffusion-limited aggregation model. The growth entities are ``spins'' taking, e.g., two states that are coupled via a physically relevant interaction potential responsible for a competition process between the two components. The presence of an external field favoring one spin species over the other is also considered. This model leads to

N. Vandewalle; M. Ausloos

1995-01-01

316

Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and analyzes a macroeconomic model in which aggregate growth and fluctuations arise from the discovery and diffusion of new technologies; there are no exogenous aggregate shocks. The temporal behavior of aggregates is driven by individuals' efforts to innovate and\\/or make use of others' innovations. Parameters describing preferences, production possibilities, and learning technologies are estimated using post-war U.S.

David Andolfatto; Glenn M. MacDonald

1998-01-01

317

CO Gas Inside the Protoplanetary Disk Cavity in HD 142527: Disk Structure from ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inner cavities and annular gaps in circumstellar disks are possible signposts of giant planet formation. The young star HD 142527 hosts a massive protoplanetary disk with a large cavity that extends up to 140 AU from the central star, as seen in continuum images at infrared and millimeter wavelengths. Estimates of the survival of gas inside disk cavities are needed to discriminate between clearing scenarios. We present a spatially and spectrally resolved carbon monoxide isotopologue observations of the gas-rich disk HD 142527, in the J = 2-1 line of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We detect emission coming from inside the dust-depleted cavity in all three isotopologues. Based on our analysis of the gas in the dust cavity, the 12CO emission is optically thick, while 13CO and C18O emissions are both optically thin. The total mass of residual gas inside the cavity is ~1.5-2 M Jup. We model the gas with an axisymmetric disk model. Our best-fit model shows that the cavity radius is much smaller in CO than it is in millimeter continuum and scattered light observations, with a gas cavity that does not extend beyond 105 AU (at 3?). The gap wall at its outer edge is diffuse and smooth in the gas distribution, while in dust continuum it is manifestly sharper. The inclination angle, as estimated from the high velocity channel maps, is 28 ± 0.5 deg, higher than in previous estimates, assuming a fix central star mass of 2.2 M ?.

Perez, S.; Casassus, S.; Ménard, F.; Roman, P.; van der Plas, G.; Cieza, L.; Pinte, C.; Christiaens, V.; Hales, A. S.

2015-01-01

318

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOEpatents

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

1984-01-01

319

Cavities  

MedlinePLUS

... decay. The most common decay-causing bacteria are Streptococcus mutans . Spotlight on Aging Only a generation ago, ... teeth. Whenever sugar comes in contact with plaque, Streptococcus mutans bacteria in the plaque produce acid. The ...

320

Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac  

DOEpatents

A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the {pi}-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is {beta}{lambda}, where {lambda} is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a {pi}/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range. 5 figs.

Billen, J.H.

1996-11-26

321

Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant flow injected into the disk cavities; (3) coolant density; (4) leakage flows through the seal between blades; and (5) the role that each of these various flows has in determining the adiabatic recovery temperature at all of the critical locations within the cavities. The model and the test apparatus provide close geometrical and aerodynamic simulation of all the two-stage cavity flow regions for the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and the ability to simulate the sources and sinks for each cavity flow.

Johnson, B. V.; Daniels, W. A.

1992-07-01

322

Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

2008-01-01

323

Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac  

DOEpatents

A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the .pi.-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is .beta..lambda., where .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a .pi./2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range.

Billen, James H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

324

Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant flow injected into the disk cavities; (3) coolant density; (4) leakage flows through the seal between blades; and (5) the role that each of these various flows has in determining the adiabatic recovery temperature at all of the critical locations within the cavities. The model and the test apparatus provide close geometrical and aerodynamic simulation of all the two-stage cavity flow regions for the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and the ability to simulate the sources and sinks for each cavity flow.

Johnson, B. V.; Daniels, W. A.

1992-01-01

325

An Experimental Investigation of Supersonic Cavity Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experiments were conducted on supersonic, Mach = 2, cavity flow over variable length / depth ratios, L/D=1 ˜5. Large-scale structures in the cavity shear layer were clearly captured by particle image velocimetry method. The convective velocities of the structures were measured around 60% of the freestream velocity. Supersonic microjets at the leading edge of the cavity were implemented to control the flow-induced resonance in the cavities. The size and strength of the large-scale structure were also significant altered by the microjets. More than 9 dB reduction in Prms and more than 20 dB reduction in cavity tones were obtained with an extremely low mass flux, the cavity blowing ratio Bc < 0.2%.

Zhuang, Ning; Alvi, Farrukh. S.; Shih, Chiang; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Alkislar, Mehmet. B.

2003-11-01

326

Test of quantum nonlocality for cavity fields  

E-print Network

There have been studies on formation of quantum-nonlocal states in spatially separate two cavities. We suggest a nonlocal test for the field prepared in the two cavities. We couple classical driving fields with the cavities where a nonlocal state is prepared. Two independent two-level atoms are then sent through respective cavities to interact off-resonantly with the cavity fields. The atomic states are measured after the interaction. Bell's inequality can be tested by the joint probabilities of two-level atoms being in their excited or ground states. We find that quantum nonlocality can also be tested using a single atom sequentially interacting with the two cavities. Potential experimental errors are also considered. We show that with the present experimental condition of 5% error in the atomic velocity distribution, the violation of Bell's inequality can be measured.

M. S. Kim; Jinhyoung Lee

2000-02-25

327

High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed and demonstrated the principle of optical decoupling of the AC modulation component in a lossmodulated Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) using a detuned duo-cavity device. This approach allows the VCSEL power to be modulated without changing the photon density in the active region. Analysis of reflectivity spectra of a Fabri-Perot cavity with absorber shows that at a certain detuning from the resonance wavelength, reflectivity is almost independent of absorption magnitude. At this spectral detuning between the active region cavity and modulator cavity, a feedback-free transmission modulation of the VCSEL output is possible. The use a multiple-double-QW (MDQW) electroabsorption modulator allows absorption swing between 0.2% and 2% per pass. Optical power modulation of transmission with contrasts up to 40% and chirp of less than 0.05 nm at 930 nm was demonstrated with our design. Initial cavity resonance detuning is controlled through growth and was determined to be ideally ~0.7 nm from analysis of stand-alone absorber cavities. Resonance coupling (splitting) was calculated to be less than 0.3 nm in case of matching resonances. Applying bias at the MDQW modulator section allows adjustment of detuning between cavities by changing the top cavity resonance wavelength mainly via Kramers-Kronig relations. The high frequency modulation characteristics can be tuned in this manner to show little or no sign of resonance, in which case the high frequency roll-off of the modulation response is entirely determined by parasitics of the modulator section. We have demonstrated a flat (+/-3db) response up to 20 GHz.

van Eisden, J.; Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Varanasi, M.; Rumyantsev, O.; Mohammed, E. M.; Young, I. A.; Oktyabrsky, S. R.

2008-02-01

328

FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS  

PubMed Central

Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

2013-01-01

329

Imaging of thoracic cavity tumors.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of most thoracic cavity tumors. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT has established itself as a supplementary tool to CT in lung cancer staging and in the assessment for distant metastases of many thoracic tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is an important adjunctive imaging modality in thoracic oncologic imaging and is used as a problem-solving tool to assess for chest wall invasion, intraspinal extension, and cardiac/vascular invasion. Imaging can facilitate minimally invasive biopsy of most thoracic tumors and is vital in the pretreatment planning of radiation therapy. PMID:25246047

Hayes, Sara A; Plodkowski, Andrew J; Ginsberg, Michelle S

2014-10-01

330

Broadband tuning of optomechanical cavities.  

PubMed

We demonstrate broadband tuning of an optomechanical microcavity optical resonance by exploring the large optomechanical coupling of a double-wheel microcavity and its uniquely low mechanical stiffness. Using a pump laser with only 13 mW at telecom wavelengths we show tuning of the silicon nitride microcavity resonances over 32 nm. This corresponds to a tuning power efficiency of only 400 mW/nm. By choosing a relatively low optical Q resonance (? 18,000) we prevent the cavity from reaching the regime of regenerative optomechanical oscillations. The static mechanical displacement induced by optical gradient forces is estimated to be as large as 60 nm. PMID:21369099

Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Lee, Sunwoo; Lipson, Michal

2011-01-31

331

Transient Diffusion of Beryllium and Silicon in Gallium Arsenide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient diffusion is an increasingly important phenomenon as thermal budgets for real processes decrease and diffusion during sample growth becomes more important. To fully characterize dopant diffusion in gallium arsenide, an understanding must be developed of the dominant atomistic processes for a given dopant, as well as the sources of transient effects under a given set of experimental conditions. Theoretical, experimental, and simulation results were obtained to understand transient diffusivities of beryllium and silicon in grown-in and implanted samples. In implanted samples, by understanding implant damage and modeling the evolution of point defect populations, the observed transient effects can be explained. Such phenomena cannot account for the time-dependent diffusivity observed when the dopant is introduced during molecular beam epitaxial growth. Transient diffusivities for grown-in beryllium were investigated and explained by modeling the evolution of point defect populations as they increase beyond their equilibrium levels at the growth temperature to achieve equilibrium at the anneal temperature.

Haddara, Yaser M.; Bravman, John C.

1998-08-01

332

Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a resonant coil cavity wave launcher for energizing a plasma immersed in a magnetic field. Energization includes launching fast Alfven waves to excite ion cyclotron frequency resonances in the plasma. The cavity includes inductive and capacitive reactive members spaced no further than one-quarter wavelength from a first wall confinement chamber of the plasma. The cavity wave launcher is energized by connection to a waveguide or transmission line carrying forward power from a remote radio frequency energy source.

Perkins, Jr., Francis W. (Princeton, NJ); Chiu, Shiu-Chu (San Diego, CA); Parks, Paul (San Diego, CA); Rawls, John M. (Del Mar, CA)

1987-01-01

333

Compact Superconducting Crabbing and Deflecting Cavities  

SciTech Connect

Recently, new geometries for superconducting crabbing and deflecting cavities have been developed that have significantly improved properties over those the standard TM{sub 110} cavities. They are smaller, have low surface fields, high shunt impedance and, more importantly for some of them, no lower-order-mode with a well-separated fundamental mode. This talk will present the status of the development of these cavities.

De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States) and Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States)

2012-09-01

334

Polariton Boxes in a Tunable Fiber Cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach for realizing confined quantum-well cavity polaritons that enables in situ tuning of the cavity length and thereby of the polariton energy and lifetime. Our setup is based on a versatile semi-integrated low-temperature fiber-cavity platform, which allows us to demonstrate the formation of strongly confined polaritons with unprecedented quality factors. At high pump powers, we observe signatures of polariton lasing.

Besga, Benjamin; Vaneph, Cyril; Reichel, Jakob; Estève, Jérôme; Reinhard, Andreas; Miguel-Sánchez, Javier; Imamo?lu, Ataç; Volz, Thomas

2015-01-01

335

Cavity-water interface is polar  

E-print Network

We present the results of numerical simulations of the electrostatics and dynamics of water hydration shells surrounding Kihara cavities given by a Lennard-Jones (LJ) layer at the surface of a hard-sphere cavity. The local dielectric response of the hydration layer substantially exceeds that of bulk water, with the magnitude of the dielectric constant peak in the shell increasing with the growing cavity size. The polar shell propagates into bulk water to approximately the cavity radius. The statistics of the electrostatic fluctuations produced by the interfacial waters do not follow the predictions of continuum electrostatics and the continuum limit is not reached for hydrated nano-size solutes.

Friesen, Allan D

2010-01-01

336

Rapid CME Cavity Formation and Expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cavity is supposed to be a general feature of well-developed CMEs at the stage they can be imaged by white-light coronagraphs (in the outer corona and solar wind). The cavity is interpreted as the cross section of the CME flux rope in the plane of sky. Preexisting cavities are observed around some quiescent erupting prominences, but usually not in active regions. Observations of CME cavities in the inner corona, where most of them appear to form, have become possible only with the STEREO and SDO missions. These reveal a very rapid formation and expansion of "EUV cavities" in fast and impulsively commencing eruptions early in the phase of main CME acceleration and impulsive flare rise. Different from the white-light observations, the EUV cavity initially appears to be larger than the CME flux rope. However, it evolves into the white-light cavity subsequently. MHD simulations of flux rope eruptions conform to this picture of initially larger cavity but subsequently approaching cavity and flux rope size. The initial expansion of ambient flux can be understood as a "reverse pinch effect", driven by decreasing flux rope current as the rope rises.

Kliem, Bernhard; Forbes, Terry G.; Patsourakos, Spiros; Vourlidas, Angelos

2014-06-01

337

Cavity-locked ring down spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

Distinct locking and sampling light beams are used in a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system to perform multiple ring-down measurements while the laser and ring-down cavity are continuously locked. The sampling and locking light beams have different frequencies, to ensure that the sampling and locking light are decoupled within the cavity. Preferably, the ring-down cavity is ring-shaped, the sampling light is s-polarized, and the locking light is p-polarized. Transmitted sampling light is used for ring-down measurements, while reflected locking light is used for locking in a Pound-Drever scheme.

Zare, Richard N. (Stanford, CA); Paldus, Barbara A. (Stanford, CA); Harb, Charles C. (Palo Alto, CA); Spence, Thomas (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01

338

Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System  

SciTech Connect

The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin,; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

2007-08-15

339

Mechanical Properties of Ingot Nb Cavities  

SciTech Connect

This contribution presents the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and of strain along the contour of a single-cell cavity made of ingot Nb subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. The data were used to infer mechanical properties of this material after cavity fabrication, by comparison with the results from simulation calculations done with ANSYS. The objective is to provide useful information about the mechanical properties of ingot Nb cavities which can be used in the design phase of SRF cavities intended to be built with this material.

Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Matalevich, Joseph; Rao Myneni, Ganapati

2014-07-01

340

Escape Kinetics of Self-Propelled Janus Particles from a Cavity: Numerical Simulations  

E-print Network

We numerically investigate the escape kinetics of elliptic Janus particles from narrow two-dimensional cavities with reflecting walls. The self-propulsion velocity of the Janus particle is directed along either their major (prolate) or minor axis (oblate). We show that the mean exit time is very sensitive to the cavity geometry, particle shape and self-propulsion strength. The mean exit time is found to be a minimum when the self-propulsion length is equal to the cavity size. We also find the optimum mean escape time as a function of the self-propulsion velocity, translational diffusion, and particle shape. Thus, effective transport control mechanisms for Janus particles in a channel can be implemented.

Pulak Kumar Ghosh

2014-08-09

341

Effective emissivity of a blackbody cavity formed by two coaxial tubes.  

PubMed

A blackbody cavity is developed for continuously measuring the temperature of molten steel, which consists of a cylindrical outer tube with a flat bottom, a coaxial inner tube, and an aperture diaphragm. The ray-tracing approach based on the Monte Carlo method was applied to calculate the effective emissivity for the isothermal cavity with the diffuse walls. And the dependences of the effective emissivity on the inner tube relative length were calculated for various inner tube radii, outer tube lengths, and wall emissivities. Results indicate that the effective emissivity usually has a maximum corresponding to the inner tube relative length, which can be explained by the impact of the inner tube relative length on the probability of the rays absorbed after two reflections. Thus, these results are helpful to the optimal design of the blackbody cavity. PMID:24787424

Mei, Guohui; Zhang, Jiu; Zhao, Shumao; Xie, Zhi

2014-04-10

342

Confined diffusion in periodic porous nanostructures.  

PubMed

We performed fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements to assess the long-time self-diffusion of a variety of spherical tracer particles in periodic porous nanostructures. Inverse opal structures with variable cavity sizes and openings in the nanometer domain were employed as the model system. We obtained both the exponent of the scaling relation between mean-square displacement and time and the slow-down factors due to the periodic confinement for a number of particle sizes and confining characteristics. In addition, we carried out Brownian dynamics simulations to model the experimental conditions. Good agreement between experimental and simulation results has been obtained regarding the slow-down factor. Fickian diffusion is predicted and seen in almost all experimental systems, while apparent non-Fickian exponents that show up for two strongly confined systems are attributed to polydispersity of the cavity openings. The utility of confining periodic porous nanostructures holds promise toward understanding of constrained diffusion with a wide range of applications ranging from water purification and drug delivery to tissue engineering. PMID:21548605

Raccis, Riccardo; Nikoubashman, Arash; Retsch, Markus; Jonas, Ulrich; Koynov, Kaloian; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Likos, Christos N; Fytas, George

2011-06-28

343

Growth Kinetics in Epitaxial Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth kinetics in heteroepitaxial growth are related to the nucleation and growth of atomic-height islands during the deposition of a material on a dissimilar substrate. Experimental measurements of the initial morphology of CaF_2 films deposited on Si(111) substrates were performed. These measurements consisted of photoemission spectroscopy and diffraction, which give sub-nanometer scale information averaged over the entire sample, and plan-view transmission electron microscopy, which gives localized information on a scale of several nanometers. These results, combined with others in the literature, revealed four distinct growth morphologies dependent on the deposition rate, substrate temperature and spacing between atomic-height steps on the surface, two of which had not been previously explained. A model based on two extant theories of homoepitaxial growth kinetics was developed to explain the different observed growth morphologies for the heteroepitaxial system CaF_2/Si(111). The first theory deals with whether the initial nucleation will occur at substrate steps or through adatom collisions on flat terraces, while the second deals with the nucleation of subsequent layers as these initial atomic islands increase in size. In extending these theories to heteroepitaxy, very different rates of upper-layer nucleation for the different size islands that nucleated at steps and on terraces are predicted. By applying this theory to CaF_2/Si(111), the diffusion barriers for CaF_2 molecule migration both on the reacted Si-Ca-F interface layer and on subsequent CaF_2 layers was extracted. The four different growth morphologies are explained within a common framework. The theory is quite general, and should apply to most heteroepitaxial systems. These theories were extended to predict a means by which the upper-layer nucleation may be inhibited while the underlying layer is completed. This method involves initiating the growth at conditions favoring many, small islands on atomic terraces, and then completing the growth at conditions inhibiting upper-layer nucleation (lower flux and/or higher temperature). A general formula for either homoepitaxy or heteroepitaxy was developed for the optimal flux and temperature variation during each monolayer to fabricate a flat film in the minimum amount of time.

Hessinger, Uwe

344

Supersonic diffuser for pressure recovery in SCOIL system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical supersonic chemical oxygen iodine laser (SCOIL) systems operate under a low total pressure of nearly 18 Torr (2400 Pa) with cavity pressure being in the range 3 Torr (400 Pa) and Mach number of 1.7. These systems handle high flow rates and hence an efficient supersonic diffuser (SD) is a critical first step towards an open-cycle operation, which may be followed by a multi-stage ejector system. The present study discusses the various aspects in the design of a supersonic diffuser for a twin 10 kW COIL module source which employs flow rates of 100 gs -1 in each module. The results of computational studies based on 3-D, viscos compressible flow, k- ? turbulence formulation for the supersonic diffuser geometry have also been discussed. The experimental results from a single-module test of the supersonic diffuser show that a total recovered pressure of nearly 7 Torr is achieved at the diffuser exit.

Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R.; Tyagi, R. K.; Dawar, A. L.

2010-02-01

345

Atom number counting and cavity optomechanics on an integrated atom chip - cavity QED apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an atom chip based cavity QED apparatus. Atoms have been cooled, trapped, and transported to cavities on the atom chip. The cavities, a pair of high-finesse optical resonators in the single-atom, strong-coupling regime of cavity QED, sandwich an atom waveguide on the chip. A pair of holes were micromachined through the silicon chip substrate for the optical

Daniel Brooks; Thomas Purdy; Thierry Botter; Dan Stamper-Kurn

2009-01-01

346

Thermodynamically reversible generalization of diffusion limited aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a lattice gas model of cluster growth via the diffusive\\u000aaggregation of particles in a closed system obeying a local, deterministic,\\u000amicroscopically reversible dynamics. This model roughly corresponds to placing\\u000athe irreversible Diffusion Limited Aggregation model (DLA) in contact with a\\u000aheat bath. Particles release latent heat when aggregating, while singly\\u000aconnected cluster members can absorb heat and

Raissa M. D'Souza; Norman H. Margolus

1999-01-01

347

Pattern Formation in Diffusion-Limited Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion-limited-aggregation model is generalized in order to take into account the surface effects playing an essential role during most of the growth processes. With variation of a parameter of the model the geometry of the clusters generated in the Monte Carlo simulations gradually changes from the randomly branched diffusion-limited-aggregation clusters into compact, nearly regular, snowflakelike patterns. The deposition of

Tamás Vicsek

1984-01-01

348

SPINNING MOTIONS IN CORONAL CAVITIES  

SciTech Connect

In movies made from Fe XII 19.5 nm images, coronal cavities that graze or are detached from the solar limb appear as continually spinning structures, with sky-plane projected flow speeds in the range 5-10 km s{sup -1}. These whirling motions often persist in the same sense for up to several days and provide strong evidence that the cavities and the immediately surrounding streamer material have the form of helical flux ropes viewed along their axes. A pronounced bias toward spin in the equatorward direction is observed during 2008. We attribute this bias to the poleward concentration of the photospheric magnetic flux near sunspot minimum, which leads to asymmetric heating along large-scale coronal loops and tends to drive a flow from higher to lower latitudes; this flow is converted into an equatorward spinning motion when the loops pinch off to form a flux rope. As sunspot activity increases and the polar fields weaken, we expect the preferred direction of the spin to reverse.

Wang, Y.-M. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Stenborg, G., E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mi, E-mail: guillermo.stenborg.ctr.ar@nrl.navy.mi [Also at Interferometrics, Inc., Herndon, VA 20171, USA. (United States)

2010-08-20

349

Multi-color Cavity Metrology  

E-print Network

Long baseline laser interferometers used for gravitational wave detection have proven to be very complicated to control. In order to have sufficient sensitivity to astrophysical gravitational waves, a set of multiple coupled optical cavities comprising the interferometer must be brought into resonance with the laser field. A set of multi-input, multi-output servos then lock these cavities into place via feedback control. This procedure, known as lock acquisition, has proven to be a vexing problem and has reduced greatly the reliability and duty factor of the past generation of laser interferometers. In this article, we describe a technique for bringing the interferometer from an uncontrolled state into resonance by using harmonically related external fields to provide a deterministic hierarchical control. This technique reduces the effect of the external seismic disturbances by four orders of magnitude and promises to greatly enhance the stability and reliability of the current generation of gravitational wave detector. The possibility for using multi-color techniques to overcome current quantum and thermal noise limits is also discussed.

Kiwamu Izumi; Koji Arai; Bryan Barr; Joseph Betzwieser; Aidan Brooks; Katrin Dahl; Suresh Doravari; Jennifer C. Driggers; W. Zach Korth; Haixing Miao; Jameson Rollins; Stephen Vass; David Yeaton-Massey; Rana X. Adhikari

2012-05-24

350

Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity  

ScienceCinema

Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

Ciovati, Gianluigi

2014-05-21

351

Galactic civilizations: Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations is reexamined by potential theory; both numerical and analytical solutions are derived for the nonlinear partial differential equations which specify a range of relevant models, drawn from blast wave physics, soil science, and, especially, population biology. An essential feature of these models is that, for all civilizations, population growth must be limited by the carrying capacity of the environment. Dispersal is fundamentally a diffusion process; a density-dependent diffusivity describes interstellar emigration. Two models are considered: the first describing zero population growth (ZPG), and the second which also includes local growth and saturation of a planetary population, and for which an asymptotic traveling wave solution is found.

Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

1978-01-01

352

Knowledge diffusion in the collaboration hypernetwork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As knowledge constitutes a primary productive force, it is important to understand the performance of knowledge diffusion. In this paper, we present a knowledge diffusion model based on the local-world non-uniform hypernetwork, which introduces the preferential diffusion mechanism and the knowledge absorptive capability ?j, where ?j is correlated with the hyperdegree dH(j) of node j. At each time step, we randomly select a node i as the sender; a receiver node is selected from the set of nodes that the sender i has published with previously, with probability proportional to the number of papers they have published together. Applying the average knowledge stock V bar(t) , the variance ?2(t) and the variance coefficient c(t) of knowledge stock to measure the growth and diffusion of knowledge and the adequacy of knowledge diffusion, we have made 3 groups of comparative experiments to investigate how different network structures, hypernetwork sizes and knowledge evolution mechanisms affect the knowledge diffusion, respectively. As the diffusion mechanisms based on the hypernetwork combine with the hyperdegree of node, the hypernetwork is more suitable for investigating the performance of knowledge diffusion. Therefore, the proposed model could be helpful for deeply understanding the process of the knowledge diffusion in the collaboration hypernetwork.

Yang, Guang-Yong; Hu, Zhao-Long; Liu, Jian-Guo

2015-02-01

353

Modeling partial discharges in a cavity at different applied frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of partial discharges (PD) in an insulated disc-shaped cavity is presented. The flat cavity walls are covered with copper foil and each PD is assumed to affect the whole cavity. The discharge process in the cavity is simulated dynamically and the model is charge consistent. The model is used to simulate the sequence of PDs in the cavity

C. Forssen; H. Edin

2007-01-01

354

Use of experimental crystallographic phases to examine the hydration of polar and nonpolar cavities in T4 lysozyme  

PubMed Central

There is conflicting evidence as to whether cavities in proteins that are nonpolar and large enough to accommodate solvent are empty or are occupied by disordered water molecules. Here, we use multiple-wavelength x-ray data collected from crystals of the selenomethionine-substituted L99A/M102L mutant of T4 lysozyme to obtain a high-resolution electron density map free of bias that is unavoidably associated with conventional model-based structure determination and refinement. The mutant, L99A/M102L, has four cavities, two being polar in character and the other two nonpolar. Cavity 1 (polar, volume 45.2 ?3) was expected to contain two well ordered water molecules, and this is confirmed in the experimental electron density map. Likewise, cavity 2 (polar, 16.9 ?3) is confirmed to contain a single water molecule. Cavity 3 (nonpolar, 21.4 ?3) was seen to be empty in conventional x-ray refinement, and this is confirmed in the experimental map. Unexpectedly, however, cavity 4 (nonpolar, volume 133.5 ?3) was seen to contain diffuse electron density equivalent to ?1.5 water molecules. Although cavity 4 is largely nonpolar, it does have some polar character, and this apparently contributes to the presence of solvent. The cavity is large enough to accommodate four to five water molecules, and it appears that a hydrogen-bonded chain of three or more solvent molecules could occupy the cavity at a given time. The results are consistent with theoretical predictions that cavities in proteins that are strictly nonpolar will not contain solvent until the volume is large enough to permit mutually satisfying water–water hydrogen bonds. PMID:18780783

Liu, Lijun; Quillin, Michael L.; Matthews, Brian W.

2008-01-01

355

Exploring cavity dynamics in biomolecular systems  

PubMed Central

Background The internal cavities of proteins are dynamic structures and their dynamics may be associated with conformational changes which are required for the functioning of the protein. In order to study the dynamics of these internal protein cavities, appropriate tools are required that allow rapid identification of the cavities as well as assessment of their time-dependent structures. Results In this paper, we present such a tool and give results that illustrate the applicability for the analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories. Our algorithm consists of a pre-processing step where the structure of the cavity is computed from the Voronoi diagram of the van der Waals spheres based on coordinate sets from the molecular dynamics trajectory. The pre-processing step is followed by an interactive stage, where the user can compute, select and visualize the dynamic cavities. Importantly, the tool we discuss here allows the user to analyze the time-dependent changes of the components of the cavity structure. An overview of the cavity dynamics is derived by rendering the dynamic cavities in a single image that gives the cavity surface colored according to its time-dependent dynamics. Conclusion The Voronoi-based approach used here enables the user to perform accurate computations of the geometry of the internal cavities in biomolecules. For the first time, it is possible to compute dynamic molecular paths that have a user-defined minimum constriction size. To illustrate the usefulness of the tool for understanding protein dynamics, we probe the dynamic structure of internal cavities in the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump. PMID:24564434

2013-01-01

356

Basic Electropolishing Process Research and Development in Support of Improved Reliable Performance SRF Cavities for the Future Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Future accelerators require unprecedented cavity performance, which is strongly influenced by interior surface nanosmoothness. Electropolishing is the technique of choice to be developed for high-field superconducting radiofrequency cavities. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and related techniques point to the electropolishing mechanism of Nb in a sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid electrolyte of controlled by a compact surface salt film under F- diffusion-limited mass transport control. These and other findings are currently guiding a systematic characterization to form the basis for cavity process optimization, such as flowrate, electrolyte composition and temperature. This integrated analysis is expected to provide optimum EP parameter sets for a controlled, reproducible and uniform surface leveling for Nb SRF cavities.

H. Tian, C.E. Reece,M.J. Kelley

2009-05-01

357

High-temperature morphological evolution of lithographically introduced cavities in silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

Internal cavities of controlled geometry and crystallography were introduced in 6H silicon carbide single crystals by combining lithographic methods, ion beam etching, and solid-state diffusion bonding. The morphological evolution of these internal cavities (negative crystals) in response to anneals of up to 128 h duration at 1900 degrees C was examined using optical microscopy. Surface energy anisotropy and faceting have a strong influence on both the geometric and kinetic characteristics of evolution. Decomposition of 12{bar 1}0 cavity edges into 101{bar 0} facets was observed after 16 h anneals, indicating that 12{bar 1}0 faces are not components of the Wulff shape. The shape evolution kinetics of penny-shaped cavities were also investigated. Experimentally observed evolution rates decreased much more rapidly with those predicted by a model in which surface diffusion is assumed to be rate-limiting. This suggests that the development of facets, and the associated loss of ledges and terraces during the initial stages of evolution results in an evolution process limited by the nucleation rate of attachment/detachment sites (ledges) on the facets.

Narushima, Takayuki; Glaeser, Andreas M.

2000-12-01

358

Intrauterine device for laser light diffusion and method of using the same  

DOEpatents

An improved device for delivery of photoenergy from a light source, such as a laser, into a uterine cavity for photodynamic therapy is comprised of a plurality of optic fibers, which are bundled together and inserted into the uterine cavity by means of a uterine cannula. The cannula is positioned within the uterine cavity at a preferred location and then withdrawn thereby allowing the plurality of optic fibers to splay or diverge one from the other within the cavity. Different portions of the distal tip of the optic fiber is provided with a light diffusing tip, the remainder being provided with a nondiffusing tip portion. The fiber optic shape, as well as the segment which is permitted to actively diffuse light through the tip, is selected in order to provide a more uniform exposure intensity of the photo energy or at least sufficient radiation directed to each segment of the uterine walls.

Tadir, Yona (Irvine, CA); Berns, Michael W. (Trabuco Canyon, CA); Svaasand, Lars O. (Trondheim, NO); Tromberg, Bruce J. (Irvine, CA)

1995-01-01

359

Method of varying a characteristic of an optical vertical cavity structure formed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

DOEpatents

A process for forming an array of vertical cavity optical resonant structures wherein the structures in the array have different detection or emission wavelengths. The process uses selective area growth (SAG) in conjunction with annular masks of differing dimensions to control the thickness and chemical composition of the materials in the optical cavities in conjunction with a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) process to build these arrays.

Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Coltrin, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Choquette, Kent D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

360

Gain Measurements in a Non-Self-Sustained Electric Discharge Pumped Oxygen-Iodine Laser Cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of singlet delta oxygen (SDO) yield measurements in a high-pressure, non-self-sustained crossed discharge and small signal gain measurement on the iodine atom transition in the M=3 supersonic cavity downstream of the discharge. The results demonstrate operation of a stable and diffuse crossed discharge in O2 -- He mixtures at pressures of up to P0=120 torr and

Igor Adamovich; Adam Hicks; Yurii Utkin; Walter Lempert; J. William Rich

2006-01-01

361

Survival analysis of a critical resource for cavity-nesting communities: patterns of tree cavity longevity.  

PubMed

Tree cavities are a vital multi-annual resource used by cavity-nesting birds and mammals for nesting and shelter. The abundance of this resource will be influenced by the rates at which cavities are created and destroyed. We applied the demographic concepts of survival and longevity to populations of tree holes to investigate rates of loss for cavities in three tree species, as well as how characteristics of nest trees, habitat type, and species of excavator affected the persistence of tree cavities in trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides (95% of cavities were in aspen trees), in interior British Columbia, Canada. By modeling survival of 1635 nesting cavities in aspen over a time span of 16 years, we found that the decay stage of the nest tree was the most important factor determining cavity longevity. Cavities in trees with advanced decay had a relatively short median longevity of 7 years (95% CI 6-9 years), whereas those in living trees had a median longevity of more than 15 years. We found that cavity longevity was greater in continuous forest than in aspen grove habitat. Interestingly, cavities formed by weak excavators survived as long as those created by Northern Flickers (Colaptes auratus), despite occurring in more decayed tree stems. Thus, weak excavators may be selecting for characteristics that make a tree persistent, such as a broken top. Our results indicate that retention of cavities in large, live aspen trees is necessary to conserve persistent cavities, and that cavity longevity will have a large effect on the structure and function of cavity-using vertebrate communities. PMID:23092011

Edworthy, Amanda B; Wiebe, Karen L; Martin, Kathy

2012-09-01

362

Diffusion tensor MRI phantom exhibits anomalous diffusion.  

PubMed

This paper reports diffusion weighted MRI measurements of cyclohexane in a novel diffusion tensor MRI phantom composed of hollow coaxial electrospun fibers (average diameter 10.2 ?m). Recent studies of the phantom demonstrated its potential as a calibration standard at low b values (less than 1000 s/mm<;sup>2<;/sup>) for mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy. In this paper, we extend the characterization of cyclohexane diffusion in this heterogeneous, anisotropic material to high b values (up to 5000 s/mm<;sup>2<;/sup>), where the apparent diffusive motion of the cyclohexane exhibits anomalous behavior (i.e., the molecular mean squared displacement increases with time raised to the fractional power 2?/?). Diffusion tensor MRI was performed at 9.4 T using an Agilent imaging scanner and the data fit to a fractional order Mittag-Leffler (generalized exponential) decay model. Diffusion along the fibers was found to be Gaussian (2?/?=l), while diffusion across the fibers was sub-diffusive (2?/?<;l). Fiber tract reconstruction of the data was consistent with scanning electron micrograph images of the material. These studies suggest that this phantom material may be used to calibrate MR systems in both the normal (Gaussian) and anomalous diffusion regimes. PMID:25570066

Ye, Allen Q; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L; Feng-Lei Zhou; Ziying Yin; Parker, Geoff J M; Magin, Richard L

2014-08-01

363

Tunable-Cavity QED with Phase Qubits  

E-print Network

We describe a tunable-cavity QED architecture with an rf SQUID phase qubit inductively coupled to a single-mode, resonant cavity with a tunable frequency that allows for both microwave readout of tunneling and dispersive measurements of the qubit. Dispersive measurement is well characterized by a three-level model, strongly dependent on qubit anharmonicity, qubit-cavity coupling and detuning. A tunable cavity frequency provides a way to strongly vary both the qubit-cavity detuning and coupling strength, which can reduce Purcell losses, cavity-induced dephasing of the qubit, and residual bus coupling for a system with multiple qubits. With our qubit-cavity system, we show that dynamic control over the cavity frequency enables one to avoid Purcell losses during coherent qubit evolutions and optimize state readout during qubit measurements. The maximum qubit decay time $T_1$ = 1.5 $\\mu$s is found to be limited by surface dielectric losses from a design geometry similar to planar transmon qubits.

J. D. Whittaker; F. C. S. da Silva; M. S. Allman; F. Lecocq; K. Cicak; A. J. Sirois; J. D. Teufel; J. Aumentado; R. W. Simmonds

2014-08-08

364

Performance Of Superconducting-Cavity Maser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments on operation of superconducting-cavity maser - all-cryogenic oscillator. Operates with degree of stability, at short measuring times, superior to that achievable by any other means. All components designed for cryogenic operation and stabilizing cavity very rigid, consisting of sapphire filling coated with lead.

Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.

1991-01-01

365

An Overfilled Cavity Problem for Maxwell's Equations  

E-print Network

cavity scattering problem by increasing either the PML medium parameter or the PML layer thickness. .... Figure 1: The problem geometry. An open ... where ? is the angular frequency, E and H are denoted as the electric field and the magnetic field, ...... micro strip patch antennas and arrays residing in a cavity, IEEE Trans.

2011-12-23

366

Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant

B. V. Johnson; W. A. Daniels

1992-01-01

367

Tunable-cavity QED with phase qubits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a tunable-cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) architecture with an rf SQUID phase qubit inductively coupled to a single-mode, resonant cavity with a tunable frequency that allows for both microwave readout of tunneling and dispersive measurements of the qubit. Dispersive measurement is well characterized by a three-level model, strongly dependent on qubit anharmonicity, qubit-cavity coupling, and detuning. A tunable-cavity frequency provides a way to strongly vary both the qubit-cavity detuning and coupling strength, which can reduce Purcell losses, cavity-induced dephasing of the qubit, and residual bus coupling for a system with multiple qubits. With our qubit-cavity system, we show that dynamic control over the cavity frequency enables one to avoid Purcell losses during coherent qubit evolutions and optimize state readout during qubit measurements. The maximum qubit decay time T1=1.5?s is found to be limited by surface dielectric losses from a design geometry similar to planar transmon qubits.

Whittaker, J. D.; da Silva, F. C. S.; Allman, M. S.; Lecocq, F.; Cicak, K.; Sirois, A. J.; Teufel, J. D.; Aumentado, J.; Simmonds, R. W.

2014-07-01

368

Hydrogen masers with cavity frequency switching servos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of the free-running hydrogen maser is limited by pulling of the unperturbed hydrogen transition frequency due to instability of the cavity resonance frequency. While automatic spin-exchange tuning is in principle the more basic and accurate method, the required beam intensity switching and the long servo time constant result in reduced stability for measuring intervals up to 10(exp 6) seconds. More importantly, the spin-exchange tuning method requires a second stable frequency source as a reference, ideally a second hydrogen maser, to get the best results. The cavity frequency switching servo, on the other hand, has very little effect on the maser short term stability, and is fast enough to correct for cavity drift while maintaining the cavity at the spin-exchange tuned offset required to minimize instability due to beam intensity fluctuations. Not only does the cavity frequency switching servo not require a second stable frequency source, but the frequency reference is the atomic hydrogen radiated beam signal, so that no extra RF connections need be made to the cavity, and externally generated signals that would perturb the hydrogen atom need not be transmitted through the cavity. The operation of the cavity frequency switching stabilization method is discussed and the transient response of the servo and certain other aspects of the technique that have potential for achieving improved basic accuracy are illustrated.

Peters, Harry E.; Owings, H. B.; Koppang, Paul A.

1990-01-01

369

Plasmonic band gap cavities on biharmonic gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated the formation of plasmonic band gap cavities in infrared and visible wavelength range. The cavity structure is based on a biharmonic metallic grating with selective high dielectric loading. A uniform metallic grating structure enables strong surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation and a superimposed second harmonic component forms a band gap for the propagating

Askin Kocabas; S. Seckin Senlik; Atilla Aydinli

2008-01-01

370

Cavity-based single-photon sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the basic concepts and characteristic properties of single-photon emitters based on resonator effects in optical cavities, and provide a review of the most prominent implementations. First we discuss the elementary principles of cavity quantum electrodynamics, which determine how single quantum systems couple to the quantised field modes of optical resonators, and then show how to exploit these principles

Axel Kuhn; Daniel Ljunggren

2010-01-01

371

Cavity dumping for free electron lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the cavity dumping technique to free electron lasers (FEL) is described. Particular attention is given to the problem of the switching time of the dumper. Electrooptic and acoustooptic configurations are described and the change in the extraction efficiency is discussed. The basic design criteria are discussed with reference to the cavity dumping experiment in progress on the

Antonello Cutolo; Stephen V. Benson; John F. Schultz; John M. Madey

1989-01-01

372

Cavity dumping for free electron lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cavity dumping technique, applied to free electron lasers (FEL), is described. Taking advantage of both numerical simulations and experimental results on the Mark III FEL, a fairly exhaustive analysis is reported. In particular, we show that the output peak power can be increased by a factor even higher than one hundred. The cavity dumping experiment, under way on the

Antonello Cutolo; Stephen V. Benson; John F. Schultz; John M. Madey

1989-01-01

373

Cavity Enhancement by Madtoms (Genus Noturus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of madtoms (Noturus flavus, N. funebris, and N. gyrinus) were observed enlarging cavities beneath rocks by moving gravel in their mouths. This behavioral trait is probably widespread within the genus Noturus and occurs in other ictalurids. An experiment with N. gyrinus failed to demonstrate creation of new cavities beneath tiles laid flat on the bottom.

Philip A. Cochran

1996-01-01

374

Tunable Microwave Cavity For Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Movable probe and tuning wall adjusted to obtain resonance at microwave frequency used to generate plasma in cell at one end of microwave cavity. Electroless discharge without disadvantages of dc-cathode-discharge and RF-induction methods. To achieve precise positioning, coaxial probe extends into microwave cavity through tube.

Nakanishi, Shigeo; Calco, Frank S.; Scarpelli, August R.

1988-01-01

375

Body cavities as bioreactors to grow arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Artificial blood vessels’ were grown in the peritoneal or pleural cavities of the dog for autologous transplantation as arterial interposition grafts. Tubing up to 250 mm long, either bare or wrapped in biodegradable polyglycolic acid (Dexon) mesh, was inserted into the body cavities using minimally invasive techniques. After 3 weeks, the tubes and their tissue capsules were harvested then the

Julie H. Campbell; Philip Walker; Wai-Leng Chue; Christopher Daly; Hong-Liang Cong; Lina Xiang; Gordon R. Campbell

2004-01-01

376

Combining Cavity QED and Atom Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have integrated the magnetic trapping technology of atom chips with high finesse optical cavities. Our high current capacity atom chip, consisting of a micromachined silicon substrate with thick, buried copper wires, can confine clouds of cold atoms to dimensions much less than an optical wavelength. Multiple Fabry-Perot optical resonators in the single-atom strong coupling regime of cavity QED are

Thomas Purdy; Daniel Brooks; Dan Stamper-Kurn

2008-01-01

377

High-current SRF cavity design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high current applications, it is desirable for the cavity shape to have a low longitudinal loss factor and to have a high beam-breakup threshold current. This paper briefly describes three different cavities designed for this purpose: a six-cell elliptical cavity for particles traveling at the speed of light, a two-cell elliptical cavity for subluminal particle speeds, and a single cell cavity which uses the TM012 mode for acceleration. SUPERFISH simulations predict the peak fields in both of the elliptical cavities will not exceed the TeSLA values by more than 10% but both will have 28.7% larger apertures. The elliptical designs assume the bunch frequency equals the accelerating mode frequency. The beam pipe radius is chosen so that the cutoff frequency is less than twice that of the accelerating mode. Hence all of the monopole and dipole higher-order modes (HOMs) that can be driven by the beam have low loaded Q values. This simplifies the problem of HOM damping. The TM012 cavity is predicted to have much higher peak fields than a ?-mode elliptical cavity, but offers potential advantages from its simplified shape; it is essentially a circular waveguide with curved end plates. This basic shape results in easier fabrication and simplified tuning.

Meidlinger, D.; Grimm, T. L.; Hartung, W.

2006-07-01

378

Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing  

SciTech Connect

Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

379

Performance of 3-cell Seamless Niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

In the last several months we have surface treated and cryogenically tested three TESLA-type 3-cell cavities, which had been manufactured at DESY as seamless assemblies by hydroforming. The cavities were completed at JLab with beam tube/flange assemblies. All three cavities performed very well after they had been post-purified with titanium at 1250C for 3 hrs. The cavities, two of which consisted of an end cell and 2 center cells and one was a center cell assembly, achieved gradients of Eacc = 32 MV/m, 34 MV/m and 35 MV/m without quenches. The performance was limited by the appearance of the “Q-drop” in the absence of field emission. This contribution reports about the various measurements undertaken with these cavities.

Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLBA; Jelezov, I. [DESY, Hamburg; Singer, W. [DESY, Hamburg; Singer, X. [DESY, Hamburg

2009-11-01

380

Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this ‘photon see-saw’, are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

Li, Huan; Li, Mo

2014-11-01

381

A gas jet impacting a cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subsonic jet impinging upon a cavity is studied to explain the resultant heating phenomenon. Flow visualization within the cavity shows a large central vortex dominating the flow pattern. Velocity measurements inside the cavity are made using a hot-wire anemometer. Temperature is measured with a copper-constantan thermocouple. The velocity field within the cavity is described by a modified Rankine combined vortex. An uncommon form of the energy equation is used to account for turbulent heating in adverse pressure gradients. A theoretical solution is developed to model the temperature field in the cavity. There is a good agreement between the calculated and measured temperatures. The heating effect is related to Ranque-Hilsch tubes.

Stiffler, A. Kent; Bakhsh, Hazoor

1986-11-01

382

Automated Hydroforming of Seamless Superconducting RF Cavity  

SciTech Connect

We are studying the possibility of automated hydroforming process for seamless superconducting RF cavities. Preliminary hydroforming tests of three-cell cavities from seamless tubes made of C1020 copper have been performed. The key point of an automated forming is to monitor and strictly control some parameters such as operation time, internal pressure and material displacements. Especially, it is necessary for our studies to be able to control axial and radial deformation independently. We plan to perform the forming in two stages to increase the reliability of successful forming. In the first stage hydroforming by using intermediate constraint dies, three-cell cavities were successfully formed in less than 1 minute. In parallel, we did elongation tests on cavity-quality niobium and confirmed that it is possible to achieve an elongation of >64% in 2 stages that is required for our forming of 1.3 GHz cavities.

Nagata, Tomohiko [ULVAC, Inc.; Shinozawa, Seiichi [ULVAC, Inc.; Abe, Noriyuki [ULVAC, Inc.; Nagakubo, Junki [ULVAC, Inc.; Murakami, Hirohiko [ULVAC, Inc.; Tajima, Tsuyoshi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Inoue, Hitoshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK; Yamanaka, Masashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK; Ueno, Kenji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK

2012-07-31

383

Experimental investigation of combustion mechanisms of kerosene-fueled scramjet engines with double-cavity flameholders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scramjet combustor with double cavitybased flameholders was experimentally studied in a directconnected test bed with the inflow conditions of M = 2.64, P t = 1.84MPa, T t = 1 300 K. Successful ignition and self-sustained combustion with room temperature kerosene was achieved using pilot hydrogen, and kerosene was vertically injected into the combustor through 4×?0.5mm holes mounted on the wall. For different equivalence ratios and different injection schemes with both tandem cavities and parallel cavities, flow fields were obtained and compared using a high speed camera and a Schlieren system. Results revealed that the combustor inside the flow field was greatly influenced by the cavity installation scheme, cavities in tandem easily to form a single side flame distribution, and cavities in parallel are more likely to form a joint flame, forming a choked combustion mode. The supersonic combustion flame was a kind of diffusion flame and there were two kinds of combustion modes. In the unchoked combustion mode, both subsonic and supersonic combustion regions existed. While in the choked mode, the combustion region was fully subsonic with strong shock propagating upstream. Results also showed that there was a balance point between the boundary separation and shock enhanced combustion, depending on the intensity of heat release.

Pan, Yu; Tan, Jian-Guo; Liang, Jian-Han; Liu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Zhen-Guo

2011-12-01

384

Luminescent photonic crystal cavities for fiber-optic sensors, coupled dissimilar cavities and optofluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonic crystal (PhC) cavities made in broadband luminescent material offer attractive possibilities for flexible active devices. The luminescence enables the cavity to operate as an autonomous entity. New applications of this property are demonstrated for cavities made in the InGaAsP underetched semiconductor membrane with embedded InAs Quantum Dots that emit in the range of 1400-1600 nm. Planar photonic crystal membrane nanocavities were released from the parent chip by mechanical nanomanipulation. The released cavity particle could be bonded on an arbitrary surface, which was exploited to make a novel fiber-optic tip sensor with a PhC cavity attached to the tip. A single mode from a short cavity is shown to couple simultaneously to at least three cavity modes of a long cavity, as concluded from level anticrossing data when the small cavity was photothermally tuned. Reconfigurable and movable cavities were created by locally varying the infiltration status by liquid oil near a PhC waveguide or defect cavity. Liquid was displaced locally on a micron scale using capillary force effects or laser-induced evaporation and condensation phenomena.

Dündar, Mehmet A.; Wang, Bowen; Siahaan, Timothy; Voorbraak, Joost A. M.; Speijcken, Noud W. L.; Nötzel, Richard; van der Hoek, Marinus J.; He, Sailing; Fiore, Andrea; Van der Heijden, Rob W.

2012-06-01

385

Mini-cavity-dumped laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lasers for use in high precision satellite ranging systems consist typically of an oscillator followed by several amplifier stages. While the shortest optical pulses are achieved by using a mode locked oscillator, such an oscillator is incompatible with the compact design needed in future, highly mobile systems. The laser oscillator achieves pulse lengths approaching those obtainable by mode locking, but in a much more compact and stable design. The oscillator uses two LiNbO3 Pockels cells inside the resonator. One Q-switches the oscillator, and the other is used in a pulse slicing scheme to cavity dump a portion of the circulating optical energy. The length of the optical output pulse measured at 425 + or - 50 picoseconds.

Reed, E.

1981-01-01

386

Primary Leiomyosarcoma of Peritoneal Cavity  

PubMed Central

Leiomyosarcomas of soft tissue are the rare tumors and the retroperitoneum is the most common site involved. We report a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the peritoneal cavity which clinically presented with suprapubic, freely mobile, nontender mass which measured 10×10 cm in size. Contrast enhanced computed tomography revealed well defined heterogenous hypodense solid cystic mass. The mass was surgically excised out in its entirety. The histopathological examination revealed spindle cells arranged in alternating fascicles having pleomorphic nuclei, indistinct margin and eosinophilic cytoplasm with foci of haemorrhage, necrosis and 5-6 mitosis/HPF. The spindle cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, desmin and negative for S-100, CD-34 and c-kit. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were helpful in making the final confirmatory diagnosis. Leiomyosarcomas are aggressive tumors, with poor prognosis and often difficult to treat. The survival rates are lowest among all soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:24711906

Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Dey, Biswajit; Desai, Parth; Gupta, Richa; Khurana, Nita; Gandhi, Gauri

2014-01-01

387

The Heliosphere as Resonant Cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If a disturbance in the supersonic solar wind reaches the heliospheric shock, a number of events ensue. First, the shock itself responds with inward or outward motion. Secondly, the disturbance propagates outward through the heliosheath as a sound or magnetoacoustic wave; eventually it reaches the heliopause and is (partially) reflected back toward the termination shock. The reflected wave can return to the shock, affecting the shock's motion, and be reflected yet again. The repetition of these processes can produce a 'ringing' in the heliosheath. This suggests that it may be useful to regard the heliosheath as a resonant acoustic cavity with inner and outer boundaries at the termination shock and heliopause, respectively. To evaluate this concept we have developed a simple model of small-amplitude resonant oscillations in an outwardly flowing gas, with appropriate boundary conditions (shock on the interior, tangential discontinuity on the exterior boundary). The fundamental mode of oscillation has a period of order T approx. 2D/C, where C is the speed of sound in the heliosheath and D is the distance between the two boundaries. Typical numerical models of the heliosphere give C approx. 200-500 km/s and D approx. 20 - 100 AU, giving T approx. 0.5 - 2.5 years. Hence we suggest that motions of the heliosheath and termination shock will occur with time scales of the order of a year, and are the consequence of the resonant nature of the heliospheric cavity rather than the history of variation at the Sun and/or in the solar wind. In particular, we suggest that the motion of the termination shock may be unrelated to solar variations over the time scale of the sunspot cycle.

Bames, Aaron

1999-01-01

388

The Effect of Cosmic Ray Diffusion on the Parker Instability  

E-print Network

The Parker instability, which has been considered as a process governing the structure of the interstellar medium, is induced by the buoyancy of magnetic field and cosmic rays. In previous studies, while the magnetic field has been fully incorporated in the context of isothermal magnetohydrodynamics, cosmic rays have been normally treated with the simplifying assumption of infinite diffusion along magnetic field lines but no diffusion across them. The cosmic ray diffusion is, however, finite. In this work, we take into account fully the diffusion process of cosmic rays in a linear stability analysis of the Parker instability. Cosmic rays are described with the diffusion-convection equation. With realistic values of cosmic ray diffusion coefficients expected in the interstellar medium, we show that the result of previous studies with the simplifying assumption on cosmic ray diffusion applies well. Finiteness of parallel diffusion decreases the growth rate of the Parker instability, while the relatively smaller...

Ryu, D; Hong, S S; Jones, T W; Ryu, Dongsu; Kim, Jongsoo; Hong, Seung Soo

2003-01-01

389

The effect of artificial diffusivity on the flute instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sometimes, in order to improve the performance of magnetohydrodynamical codes, artificial diffusivity (D) is introduced in the mass continuity equation. In this communication, an analysis of the effect of the artificial diffusivity on the low-? plasma stability in a simple geometry is presented. It is shown that, at low diffusivity, one recovers classical results, whereas at high diffusivity the plasma becomes more unstable. Dependence of the stability on D is suppressed if the volume of the flux tube varies insignificantly in the course of the perturbation growth. These observations may help the code developers and users to identify the regimes where the artificial diffusivity is not affecting the results (or vice versa).

Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, B. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.

2005-08-01

390

Design of half-reentrant SRF cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape of a TeSLA inner cell can be improved to lower the peak surface magnetic field at the expense of a higher peak surface electric field by making the cell reentrant. Such a single-cell cavity was designed and tested at Cornell, setting a world record accelerating gradient [V. Shemelin et al., An optimized shape cavity for TESLA: concept and fabrication, 11th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, Travemünde, Germany, September 8-12, 2003; R. Geng, H. Padamsee, Reentrant cavity and first test result, Pushing the Limits of RF Superconductivity Workshop, Argonne National Laboratory, September 22-24, 2004]. However, the disadvantage to a cavity is that liquids become trapped in the reentrant portion when it is vertically hung during high pressure rinsing. While this was overcome for Cornell’s single-cell cavity by flipping it several times between high pressure rinse cycles, this may not be feasible for a multi-cell cavity. One solution to this problem is to make the cavity reentrant on only one side, leaving the opposite wall angle at six degrees for fluid drainage. This idea was first presented in 2004 [T.L. Grimm et al., IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 15(6) (2005) 2393]. Preliminary designs of two new half-reentrant (HR) inner cells have since been completed, one at a high cell-to-cell coupling of 2.1% (high- kcc HR) and the other at 1.5% (low- kcc HR). The parameters of a HR cavity are comparable to a fully reentrant cavity, with the added benefit that a HR cavity can be easily cleaned with current technology.

Meidlinger, M.; Grimm, T. L.; Hartung, W.

2006-07-01

391

CAVITY-NEST WEBS IN A LONGLEAF PINE ECOSYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavity-nesting communities can be viewed as interconnected webs that interact through the creation of and competition for cavities as nest sites. Using a web approach, we depicted the flow of cavity creation and use in the cavity-nesting bird community of a Florida longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem to examine the relationship between cavity-nesting bird abundance and cavity resources, and to

LORI A. BLANC; JEFFREY R. WALTERS

2008-01-01

392

Verruciform Xanthoma of the Oral Cavity – A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Verruciform Xanthoma (VX) is a relatively rare benign mucocutaneous lesion of unknown aetiology. VX occurs predominantly in oral cavity which also occasionally affects skin and genital mucosa. It was first reported in the oral cavity in 1971. This rare harmless lesion usually presents as sessile or pedunculated, appear as a papule or single plaque showing verrucous or papillomatous mucosal growth with variable color from reddish pink to gray. In majority of oral cases, it affects gingiva and alveolar mucosa that may be mistaken for benign, premalignant and malignant conditions. VX is diagnosed with certainly only on histopathologic examination. Histologically VX is characterized by the presence of parakeratinized epithelium showing papillary or verrucous growth with thin rete ridges and connective tissue papillae extending up to the surface. The papillae characteristically consist of foam cells also called xanthoma cells. Here we describe a case report of verruciform xanthoma occurring on the buccal mucosa in a 42–years old male patient along with its clinical, pathogenesis, histological features and treatment modalities discussed. PMID:24086918

Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Anuja; Sherlyn, Herald J

2013-01-01

393

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour in the nasal cavity of a dog.  

PubMed

A 4·5-year-old, female neutered Leonberger was presented with a 2-month history of sneezing, nasal discharge and epistaxis. A presumptive diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was made based on a suspected (fungal) granuloma on rhinoscopic examination and fungal hyphae on cytological examination. A poor response to targeted therapy was observed and computed tomography 16 months after initial presentation revealed a progressive, locally invasive mass lesion. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of deep surgical biopsies revealed a spindle cell population and a plasma cell rich inflammatory infiltrate, with diffuse expression of vimentin, supporting a diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour. Complete resolution of the nasal discharge and reduced sneezing frequency was reported 9 months post-surgical debridement via rhinotomy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of IMT in the nasal cavity of a dog. IMT should be considered when presented with a nasal mass lesion, particularly if histopathological features and clinical course are inconsistent. PMID:24117751

Swinbourne, F; Kulendra, E; Smith, K; Leo, C; Ter Haar, G

2013-10-01

394

1.3 ?m emitting GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well resonant cavity LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical and optical characteristics of a set of MBE-grown 1.3 ?m emitting GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes (RCLEDs) have been analyzed as a function of the growth temperature of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and the contact alloying. The RCLEDs consist of a ?-long microcavity delimited on one side by an 8-pair AlAs/GaAs DBR and on the opposite side by a metallic mirror, with the QW located at one of the antinodes of the standing wave. The structures are designed for extraction of the light through the substrate. Room-temperature electroluminescence at 1.3 ?m is demonstrated with 38% In and 1.3% N in the quantum well. It is found that the RCLEDs with the DBR grown at the lowest temperature of 670 °C show a lower differential slope efficiency and degraded current-voltage characteristics, i.e. higher ideality factor, lower shunt resistance and lower threshold voltage. This degradation can be explained to arise from the higher roughness observed in the DBRs grown at 670 °C, which likely enhance the formation of point defects and compositional inhomogeneities in the quantum well. Alloying of the ohmic contacts also results in a widening of the electroluminescence emission, probably due to the degradation of the top metallic mirror sharpness caused by the diffusion of the metal into the GaAs. The best results in terms of differential slope efficiency and electrical characteristics are obtained when the DBRs are grown at 750 °C and the contacts are left non-alloyed.

Montes, M.; Guzmán, A.; Trampert, A.; Hierro, A.

2010-04-01

395

Surveying Diffusion in Complex Geometries. An Essay  

E-print Network

The surrounding world surprises us by the beauty and variety of complex shapes that emerge from nanometric to macroscopic scales. Natural or manufactured materials (sandstones, sedimentary rocks and cement), colloidal solutions (proteins and DNA), biological cells, tissues and organs (lungs, kidneys and placenta), they all present irregularly shaped "scenes" for a fundamental transport "performance", that is, diffusion. Here, the geometrical complexity, entangled with the stochastic character of diffusive motion, results in numerous fascinating and sometimes unexpected effects like diffusion screening or localization. These effects control many diffusion-mediated processes that play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis, biochemical mechanisms, electrochemistry, growth phenomena, oil recovery, or building industry. In spite of a long and rich history of academic and industrial research in this field, it is striking to see how little we know about diffusion in complex geometries, especially the one which occurs in three dimensions. We present our recent results on restricted diffusion. We look into the role of geometrical complexity at different levels, from boundary microroughness to hierarchical structure and connectivity of the whole diffusion-confining domain. We develop a new approach which consists in combining fast random walk algorithms with spectral tools. The main focus is on studying diffusion in model complex geometries (von Koch boundaries, Kitaoka acinus, etc.), as well as on developing and testing spectral methods. We aim at extending this knowledge and at applying the accomplished arsenal of theoretical and numerical tools to structures found in nature and industry.

Denis Grebenkov

2009-09-08

396

Nd3+ ion diffusion during sintering of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Using an electron microprobe, we measured and characterized the Nd{sup 3+} ion diffusion across a boundary between Nd doped and undoped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) for different temperature ramps and hold times and temperatures. The results show significant Nd ion diffusion on the order of micrometers to tens of micrometers depending on the time and temperature of sintering. The data fit well a model including bulk diffusion, grain boundary diffusion and grain growth. Grain boundary diffusion dominates and grain growth limits grain boundary diffusion by reducing the total cross sectional area of grain boundaries.

Hollingsworth, J P; Kuntz, J D; Soules, T F

2008-10-24

397

Buffered Electropolishing – A New Way for Achieving Extremely Smooth Surface Finish on Nb SRF Cavities to be Used in Particle Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Future accelerators require unprecedented cavity performance, which is strongly influenced by interior surface nano-smoothness. Electropolishing (EP) is the technique of choice to be developed for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and related techniques point to the electropolishing mechanism of Nb in a sulphuric and hydrofluoric acid electrolyte controlled by a compact surface salt film under F- diffusion-limited mass transport control. These and other findings are guiding a systematic characterization to form the basis for cavities process optimization.

Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley

2009-05-01

398

Uncoupled achromatic condition of a dog-leg system with the presence of RF cavities  

E-print Network

To merge the beam from either of the two injectors to the main linac, a dog-leg system will be employed in the second Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT2) line of the China ADS driving accelerator. The achromatic condition has to be guaranteed to avoid beam center excursion against energy jitter. RF cavities were found indispensable to control the bunch length growth in the dog-leg system of MEBT2. The full uncoupling between transverse and longitudinal plane is desired to minimize the growth of projected rms emittances. The uncoupled achromatic condition of this dogleg system with the presence of RF bunching cavities will be deduced using the method of transfer matrixes. It is found that to fulfil the uncoupling condition, the distance between the bunching cavities is uniquely determined by the maximum energy gain of the RF cavities. The theoretical analysis is verified by the simulation code TraceWin. The space charge effect on the uncoupled achromatic condition and the beam emittance growth will also be di...

Geng, Huiping

2013-01-01

399

Uncoupled achromatic condition of a dog-leg system with the presence of RF cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To merge the beam from either of the two injectors to the main linac, a dog-leg system will be employed in the second Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT2) line of the China ADS driving accelerator. The achromatic condition has to be guaranteed to avoid beam center excursion against energy jitter. RF cavities were found to be indispensable to control the bunch length growth in the dog-leg system of MEBT2. The full uncoupling between transverse and longitudinal plane is desired to minimize the growth of projected rms emittances. The uncoupled achromatic condition of this dogleg system with the presence of RF bunching cavities will be deduced using the transfer matrices method. It is found that, to fulfill the uncoupling condition, the distance between the bunching cavities is uniquely determined by the maximum energy gain of the RF cavities. The theoretical analysis is verified by the simulation code TraceWin. The space charge effect on the uncoupled achromatic condition and the beam emittance growth will also be discussed.

Geng, Hui-Ping; Guo, Zhen

2014-06-01

400

Cavity solitons in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.  

PubMed

We investigate a control of the motion of localized structures (LSs) of light by means of delay feedback in the transverse section of a broad area nonlinear optical system. The delayed feedback is found to induce a spontaneous motion of a solitary LS that is stationary and stable in the absence of feedback. We focus our analysis on an experimentally relevant system, namely the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). We first present an experimental demonstration of the appearance of LSs in a 80??m aperture VCSEL. Then, we theoretically investigate the self-mobility properties of the LSs in the presence of a time-delayed optical feedback and analyse the effect of the feedback phase and the carrier lifetime on the delay-induced spontaneous drift instability of these structures. We show that these two parameters affect strongly the space-time dynamics of two-dimensional LSs. We derive an analytical formula for the threshold associated with drift instability of LSs and a normal form equation describing the slow time evolution of the speed of the moving structure. PMID:25246674

Vladimirov, A G; Pimenov, A; Gurevich, S V; Panajotov, K; Averlant, E; Tlidi, M

2014-10-28

401

Forward Modeling of a Coronal Cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We apply a forward model of emission from a coronal cavity in an effort to determine the temperature and density distribution in the cavity. Coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and X-rays. When these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs The model consists of a coronal streamer model with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. We apply this model to a cavity observed in Aug. 2007 by a wide array of instruments including Hinode/EIS, STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/EIT. Studies such as these will ultimately help us understand the the original structures which erupt to become CMEs and ICMES, one of the prime Solar Orbiter objectives.

Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

2011-01-01

402

Atomic hydrogen maser active oscillator cavity and bulb design optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance characteristics and reliability of the active oscillator atomic hydrogen maser depend upon oscillation parameters which characterize the interaction region of the maser, the resonant cavity and atom storage bulb assembly. With particular attention to use of the cavity frequency switching servo (1) to reduce cavity pulling, it is important to maintain high oscillation level, high atomic beam flux utilization efficiency, small spin exchange parameter and high cavity quality factor. It is also desirable to have a small and rigid cavity and bulb structure and to minimize the cavity temperature sensitivity. Curves for a novel hydrogen maser cavity configuration which is partially loaded with a quartz dielectric cylinder and show the relationships between cavity length, cavity diameter, bulb size, dielectric thickness, cavity quality factor, filling factor and cavity frequency temperature coefficient are presented. The results are discussed in terms of improvement in maser performance resulting from particular design choices.

Peters, H. E.; Washburn, P. J.

1984-01-01

403

Multicolor quadripartite entanglement from an optomechanical cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the generation of multicolor quadripartite entangled beams of light with continuous variables via optomechanical coupling in an optical cavity. It is found that the genuine quadripartite entanglement can be achieved among the Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands of two driven cavity fields. This entanglement still exists for the environment temperature up to about 50K. We also show that the obtained genuine quadripartite entanglement actually results from concurrent four-wave-mixing processes in the system, which can, in principle, be generalized to obtain a genuine 2N-partite entangled state of light from a generic N-mode cavity optomechanical system.

Tan, Hua-Tang; Li, Gao-Xiang

2011-08-01

404

Strongly coupled magnons and cavity microwave photons  

E-print Network

We realize a cavity magnon-microwave photon system in which magnetic dipole interaction mediates strong coupling between collective motion of large number of spins in a ferrimagnet and the microwave field in a three-dimensional cavity. By scaling down the cavity size and increasing number of spins, an ultrastrong coupling regime is achieved with a cooperativity reaching 12600. Interesting dynamic features including classical Rabi oscillation, magnetically induced transparency, and Purcell effect are demonstrated in this highly versatile platform, highlighting its great potential for coherent information processing.

Xufeng Zhang; Chang-Ling Zou; Liang Jiang; Hong X. Tang

2014-05-27

405

Clamshell microwave cavities having a superconductive coating  

DOEpatents

A microwave cavity including a pair of opposing clamshell halves, such halves comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, or a silver-based alloy, wherein the cavity is further characterized as exhibiting a dominant TE.sub.011 mode is provided together with an embodiment wherein the interior concave surfaces of the clamshell halves are coated with a superconductive material. In the case of copper clamshell halves, the microwave cavity has a Q-value of about 1.2.times.10.sup.5 as measured at a temperature of 10K and a frequency of 10 GHz.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Piel, Helmut (Wuppertal, DE)

1994-01-01

406

Design of a main ring cavity  

SciTech Connect

The design of a main ring rf cavity discussed here is part of a Los Alamos-TRIUMF collaboration. Out of three of the recent proposals for advanced hadron facilities (the Los Alamos AHF, TRIUMF KAON, and the European Hadron Facility proposals), the rf cavity requirements for the TRIUMF proposed Driver ring are the most severe. We attempt to meet as many of the TRIUMF requirements as possible in a preliminary cavity version that could be tested in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) with a coasting beam. 8 refs., 14 figs.

Swain, G.R.

1988-01-01

407

Piezoelectric voltage coupled reentrant cavity resonator.  

PubMed

A piezoelectric voltage coupled microwave reentrant cavity has been developed. The central cavity post is bonded to a piezoelectric actuator allowing the voltage control of small post displacements over a high dynamic range. We show that such a cavity can be implemented as a voltage tunable resonator, a transducer for exciting and measuring mechanical modes of the structure, and a transducer for measuring comparative sensitivity of the piezoelectric material. Experiments were conducted at room and cryogenic temperatures with results verified using Finite Element software. PMID:25362432

Carvalho, N C; Fan, Y; Le Floch, J-M; Tobar, M E

2014-10-01

408

Piezoelectric voltage coupled reentrant cavity resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piezoelectric voltage coupled microwave reentrant cavity has been developed. The central cavity post is bonded to a piezoelectric actuator allowing the voltage control of small post displacements over a high dynamic range. We show that such a cavity can be implemented as a voltage tunable resonator, a transducer for exciting and measuring mechanical modes of the structure, and a transducer for measuring comparative sensitivity of the piezoelectric material. Experiments were conducted at room and cryogenic temperatures with results verified using Finite Element software.

Carvalho, N. C.; Fan, Y.; Le Floch, J.-M.; Tobar, M. E.

2014-10-01

409

Hybrid Diffusion Imaging  

PubMed Central

Diffusion measurements in the human central nervous system are complex to characterize and a broad spectrum of methods have been proposed. In this study, a comprehensive diffusion encoding and analysis approach, Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI), is described. The HYDI encoding scheme is composed of multiple concentric “shells” of constant diffusion-weighting, which may be used to characterize the signal behavior with low, moderate and high diffusion-weighting. HYDI facilitates the application of multiple data-analyses strategies including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multi-exponential diffusion measurements, diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) and q-ball imaging (QBI). These different analysis strategies may provide complementary information. DTI measures (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) may be estimated from either data in the inner shells or the entire HYDI data. Fast and slow diffusivities were estimated using a nonlinear least-squares bi-exponential fit on geometric means of the HYDI shells. DSI measurements from the entire HYDI data yield empirical model-independent diffusion information and are well-suited for characterizing tissue regions with complex diffusion behavior. DSI measurements were characterized using the zero displacement probability and the mean squared displacement. The outermost HYDI shell was analyzed using QBI analysis to estimate the orientation distribution function (ODF), which is useful for characterizing the directions of multiple fiber groups within a voxel. In this study, a HYDI encoding scheme with 102 diffusion-weighted measurements was obtained over most of the human cerebrum in under 30 minutes. PMID:17481920

Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L.

2007-01-01

410

Growth Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... a more normal growth pattern. Continue What Are Growth Disorders? Teens may have growth problems for other ... Most cases of dwarfism are genetic. Back Continue Growth Hormone Deficiency One growth disorder that is specific ...

411

H 2O diffusion in rhyolitic melts and glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

H2O diffusion plays a major role in bubble growth and volcanic eruption. We report a comprehensive study of H2O diffusion in rhyolitic melts and glasses. This new study and previous investigations together cover a wide range of conditions: 400–1200°C, 0.1–810 MPa, and 0.1–7.7 wt.% total H2O content (H2Ot). In order to constrain how the diffusivity depends on H2Ot, both the

Youxue Zhang; Harald Behrens

2000-01-01

412

Scaling of single-bubble growth in a porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass-transfer driven growth of a single gas cluster in a porous medium under the application of a supersaturation in the far field is examined. We discuss the growth pattern and its growth rate. Contrary to compact (spherical) growth in the bulk, growth patterns in porous media are disordered and vary from percolation to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) as the cluster size

C. Satik; X. Li; Y. C. Yortsos

1995-01-01

413

Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas: CT appearance in diffuse invasion  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe 2 diffusely invasive prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas which produced marked destruction of the base of the skull thought to be diagnostic of chordoma on computed tomography (CT). Failure to recognize this pattern led to biopsy, which was diagnostic. The authors emphasize the need to recognize this rare growth pattern of diffusely invasive pituitary adenoma on CT.

Virapongse, C.; Bhimani, S.; Sarwar, M.; Greenberg, A.; Jung, K.

1984-08-01

414

Exhibiting cross-diffusion-induced patterns for reaction-diffusion systems on evolving domains and surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this manuscript is to present for the first time the application of the finite element method for solving reaction-diffusion systems with cross-diffusion on continuously evolving domains and surfaces. Furthermore we present pattern formation generated by the reaction-diffusion system with cross-diffusion on evolving domains and surfaces. A two-component reaction-diffusion system with linear cross-diffusion in both u and v is presented. The finite element method is based on the approximation of the domain or surface by a triangulated domain or surface consisting of a union of triangles. For surfaces, the vertices of the triangulation lie on the continuous surface. A finite element space of functions is then defined by taking the continuous functions which are linear affine on each simplex of the triangulated domain or surface. To demonstrate the role of cross-diffusion to the theory of pattern formation, we compute patterns with model kinetic parameter values that belong only to the cross-diffusion parameter space; these do not belong to the standard parameter space for classical reaction-diffusion systems. Numerical results exhibited show the robustness, flexibility, versatility, and generality of our methodology; the methodology can deal with complicated evolution laws of the domain and surface, and these include uniform isotropic and anisotropic growth profiles as well as those profiles driven by chemical concentrations residing in the domain or on the surface.

Madzvamuse, A.; Barreira, R.

2014-10-01

415

Exhibiting cross-diffusion-induced patterns for reaction-diffusion systems on evolving domains and surfaces.  

PubMed

The aim of this manuscript is to present for the first time the application of the finite element method for solving reaction-diffusion systems with cross-diffusion on continuously evolving domains and surfaces. Furthermore we present pattern formation generated by the reaction-diffusion system with cross-diffusion on evolving domains and surfaces. A two-component reaction-diffusion system with linear cross-diffusion in both u and v is presented. The finite element method is based on the approximation of the domain or surface by a triangulated domain or surface consisting of a union of triangles. For surfaces, the vertices of the triangulation lie on the continuous surface. A finite element space of functions is then defined by taking the continuous functions which are linear affine on each simplex of the triangulated domain or surface. To demonstrate the role of cross-diffusion to the theory of pattern formation, we compute patterns with model kinetic parameter values that belong only to the cross-diffusion parameter space; these do not belong to the standard parameter space for classical reaction-diffusion systems. Numerical results exhibited show the robustness, flexibility, versatility, and generality of our methodology; the methodology can deal with complicated evolution laws of the domain and surface, and these include uniform isotropic and anisotropic growth profiles as well as those profiles driven by chemical concentrations residing in the domain or on the surface. PMID:25375623

Madzvamuse, A; Barreira, R

2014-10-01

416

Multiple pathways guide oxygen diffusion into flavoenzyme active sites  

PubMed Central

Dioxygen (O2) and other gas molecules have a fundamental role in a variety of enzymatic reactions. However, it is only poorly understood which O2 uptake mechanism enzymes employ to promote efficient catalysis and how general this is. We investigated O2 diffusion pathways into monooxygenase and oxidase flavoenzymes, using an integrated computational and experimental approach. Enhanced-statistics molecular dynamics simulations reveal spontaneous protein-guided O2 diffusion from the bulk solvent to preorganized protein cavities. The predicted protein-guided diffusion paths and the importance of key cavity residues for oxygen diffusion were verified by combining site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics experiments, and high-resolution X-ray structures. This study indicates that monooxygenase and oxidase flavoenzymes employ multiple funnel-shaped diffusion pathways to absorb O2 from the solvent and direct it to the reacting C4a atom of the flavin cofactor. The difference in O2 reactivity among dehydrogenases, monooxygenases, and oxidases ultimately resides in the fine modulation of the local environment embedding the reactive locus of the flavin. PMID:19541622

Baron, Riccardo; Riley, Conor; Chenprakhon, Pirom; Thotsaporn, Kittisak; Winter, Remko T.; Alfieri, Andrea; Forneris, Federico; van Berkel, Willem J. H.; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea; McCammon, J. Andrew

2009-01-01

417

Multiple pathways guide oxygen diffusion into flavoenzyme active sites.  

PubMed

Dioxygen (O(2)) and other gas molecules have a fundamental role in a variety of enzymatic reactions. However, it is only poorly understood which O(2) uptake mechanism enzymes employ to promote efficient catalysis and how general this is. We investigated O(2) diffusion pathways into monooxygenase and oxidase flavoenzymes, using an integrated computational and experimental approach. Enhanced-statistics molecular dynamics simulations reveal spontaneous protein-guided O(2) diffusion from the bulk solvent to preorganized protein cavities. The predicted protein-guided diffusion paths and the importance of key cavity residues for oxygen diffusion were verified by combining site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics experiments, and high-resolution X-ray structures. This study indicates that monooxygenase and oxidase flavoenzymes employ multiple funnel-shaped diffusion pathways to absorb O(2) from the solvent and direct it to the reacting C4a atom of the flavin cofactor. The difference in O(2) reactivity among dehydrogenases, monooxygenases, and oxidases ultimately resides in the fine modulation of the local environment embedding the reactive locus of the flavin. PMID:19541622

Baron, Riccardo; Riley, Conor; Chenprakhon, Pirom; Thotsaporn, Kittisak; Winter, Remko T; Alfieri, Andrea; Forneris, Federico; van Berkel, Willem J H; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Fraaije, Marco W; Mattevi, Andrea; McCammon, J Andrew

2009-06-30

418

Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.

Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.

1989-01-01

419

NESTING SUCCESS OF CAVITY-NESTING BIRDS USING NATURAL TREE CAVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new data on the nesting success of House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) using natural nest sites (tree cavities) in north-central Wyoming, and summarizes information on the nesting success of other North American cavity-nesting birds using natural nest sites. Of 99 House Wren nests in natural cavities observed over a 4-yr period, an estimated 63% of nests produced at

L. SCOTT JOHNSON; L. HENRY KERMOTT

420

Cavity QED on a nanofiber using a composite photonic crystal cavity  

E-print Network

We demonstrate cavity QED conditions in the Purcell regime for single quantum emitters on the surface of an optical nanofiber. The cavity is formed by combining an optical nanofiber and a nanofabricated grating to create a composite photonic crystal cavity. Using this technique, significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate into the nanofiber guided modes is observed for single quantum dots. Our results pave the way for enhanced on-fiber light-matter interfaces with clear applications to quantum networks.

Yalla, Ramachandrarao; Nayak, Kali P; Hakuta, Kohzo

2014-01-01

421

Cavity QED on a nanofiber using a composite photonic crystal cavity  

E-print Network

We demonstrate cavity QED conditions in the Purcell regime for single quantum emitters on the surface of an optical nanofiber. The cavity is formed by combining an optical nanofiber and a nanofabricated grating to create a composite photonic crystal cavity. Using this technique, significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate into the nanofiber guided modes is observed for single quantum dots. Our results pave the way for enhanced on-fiber light-matter interfaces with clear applications to quantum networks.

Ramachandrarao Yalla; Mark Sadgrove; Kali P. Nayak; Kohzo Hakuta

2014-09-11

422

Design studies of SSC coupled cavity linac  

SciTech Connect

The SSC coupled cavity linac (CCL) will be a side coupled structure operating at 1284 MHz to accelerate a nominal 25 mA H{sup {minus}} beam from 70 MeV to 600 MeV. We present results of both cavity design and beam dynamic studies. Each accelerating cavity is optimized by SUPERFISH; coupled cavity characteristics in the region of low-, mid- and high-energies are checked by MAFIA-3D. MAFIA-3D was also used to design the bridge coupler systems. The beam dynamics and error analysis are simulated by CCLDYN and CCLTRACE. Possible future upgrade of the CCL to 1 GeV is also discussed. 2 refs., 6 figs.

Chang, C.R.; Bhandari, R.; Funk, W.; Raparia, D.; Watson, J.

1991-05-01

423

Detecting Hydrogen Leaking Into A Purged Cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrogen content of mixture of hydrogen and helium gases computed from measurements of pressure, density, and temperature of mixture. Here purpose is to estimate size of leak of combustible gas into cavity purged by pressurized inert gas.

Stinson, William M.

1992-01-01

424

Constant field gradient planar cavity structure  

SciTech Connect

A cavity structure is described having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.

Kang, Yoon W.; Kustom, R.L.

1997-12-01

425

Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure  

DOEpatents

A cavity structure having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.

Kang, Yoon W. (Naperville, IL); Kustom, Robert L. (Oswego, IL)

1999-01-01

426

Deflecting light into resonant cavities for spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

Light is coupled into a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) resonant cavity using an acousto-optic modulator. The AOM allows in-coupling efficiencies in excess of 40%, which is two to three orders of magnitude higher than in conventional systems using a cavity mirror for in-coupling. The AOM shutoff time is shorter than the roundtrip time of the cavity. The higher light intensities lead to a reduction in shot noise, and allow the use of relatively insensitive but fast-responding detectors such as photovoltaic detectors. Other deflection devices such as electro-optic modulators or elements used in conventional Q-switching may be used instead of the AOM. The method is particularly useful in the mid-infrared, far-infrared, and ultraviolet wavelength ranges, for which moderately reflecting input mirrors are not widely available.

Zare, Richard N. (Stanford, CA); Martin, Juergen (Harxheim, DE); Paldus, Barbara A. (Stanford, CA)

1998-01-01

427

Deflecting light into resonant cavities for spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

Light is coupled into a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) resonant cavity using an acousto-optic modulator. The AOM allows in-coupling efficiencies in excess of 40%, which is two to three orders of magnitude higher than in conventional systems using a cavity mirror for in-coupling. The AOM shutoff time is shorter than the roundtrip time of the cavity. The higher light intensities lead to a reduction in shot noise, and allow the use of relatively insensitive but fast-responding detectors such as photovoltaic detectors. Other deflection devices such as electro-optic modulators or elements used in conventional Q-switching may be used instead of the AOM. The method is particularly useful in the mid-infrared, far-infrared, and ultraviolet wavelength ranges, for which moderately reflecting input mirrors are not widely available. 5 figs.

Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.

1998-09-29

428

Resonant-cavity enhanced thermal emission  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a vertical-cavity enhanced resonant thermal emitter—a highly directional, narrow-band, tunable, partially coherent thermal source. This device enhances thermal emittance of a metallic or any other ...

Celanovic, Ivan

429

Thermodynamic cycle in a cavity optomechanical system  

E-print Network

A cavity optomechanical system is initiated by a radiation pressure of a cavity field onto a mirror element acting as a quantum resonator. This radiation pressure can control the thermodynamic character of the mirror to some extent, such as cooling its effective temperature. Here we show that by properly engineering the spectral density of a thermal heat bath that interacts with a quantum system, the evolution of the quantum system can be effectively turned on and off. Inside a cavity optomechanical system, when the heat bath is realized by a multi-mode oscillator modeling of the mirror, this on-off effect translates to infusion or extraction of heat energy in and out of the cavity field, facilitating a four-stroke thermodynamic cycle.

Hou Ian

2014-02-16

430

Thermodynamic cycle in a cavity optomechanical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cavity optomechanical system is initiated by the radiation pressure of a cavity field onto a mirror element acting as a quantum resonator. This radiation pressure can control the thermodynamic character of the mirror to some extent, such as by cooling its effective temperature. Here, we show that by properly engineering the spectral density of a thermal heat bath that interacts with a quantum system, the evolution of the quantum system can be effectively turned on and off. Inside a cavity optomechanical system, when the heat bath is realized by a multi-mode oscillator modelling of the mirror, this on-off effect translates to infusion or extraction of heat energy in and out of the cavity field, facilitating a four-stroke thermodynamic cycle.

Ian, Hou

2014-07-01

431

Cavity Predictor: Is Your Child at Risk?  

MedlinePLUS

... that can cause cavities. These bacteria are called Streptococcus mutans . A parent or caregiver of a child ... bacteria in your mouth. These bacteria are called Streptococcus mutans . A parent or caregiver who has a ...

432

Visual cavity analysis in molecular simulations  

PubMed Central

Molecular surfaces provide a useful mean for analyzing interactions between biomolecules; such as identification and characterization of ligand binding sites to a host macromolecule. We present a novel technique, which extracts potential binding sites, represented by cavities, and characterize them by 3D graphs and by amino acids. The binding sites are extracted using an implicit function sampling and graph algorithms. We propose an advanced cavity exploration technique based on the graph parameters and associated amino acids. Additionally, we interactively visualize the graphs in the context of the molecular surface. We apply our method to the analysis of MD simulations of Proteinase 3, where we verify the previously described cavities and suggest a new potential cavity to be studied. PMID:24564409

2013-01-01

433

Cavity Resonances in Plasmonic Patch Nanoantennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmonic nanoantennas allow for confining and detecting photons at very small length scales. This work presents our recent experimental and theoretical studies of two dimensional periodic arrays of elliptical metal nano-patches on a silver film with a dielectric gap layer. Simulation and theoretical results shows that various cavity modes can be excited with tilted or normal incident light, and that the azimuthal symmetry breaking makes the nanoantennas polarization sensitive due to different resonant frequencies of the even and odd cavity modes. Particularly, it is shown that the cavity modes can be well described by a product of Mathieu functions, providing good agreements with both simulations and experiments. The effects of coupling between the cavity modes and the propagating plasmons will be discussed.

Chakrabarty, Ayan; Wang, Feng; Minkowski, Fred; Wei, Qi-Huo

2012-02-01

434

Variable power microwave discharge and cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of a variable power electrodeless microwave discharge and cavity using a microwave oven magnetron and power supply is demonstrated. The apparatus is convenient to use, durable, and inexpensive.

Joseph W. Bozzelli; Robert Barat

1981-01-01

435

Plasma Treatment of Niobium SRF Cavity Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Plasma based surface modification provides an excellent opportunity to eliminate non- superconductive pollutants in the penetration depth region of the SRF cavity surface and to remove mechanically damaged surface layer improving surface roughness. We have demonstrated on flat samples that plasma etching in Ar / Cl2 of bulk Nb is a viable alternative surface preparation technique to BCP and EP methods, with comparable etching rates. The geometry of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb defines the use of asymmetric RF discharge configuration for plasma etching. In a specially designed single cell cavity with sample holders, discharge parameters are combined with etched surface diagnostics to obtain optimum combination of etching rates, roughness and homogeneity in a variety of discharge types, conditions, and sequences. The optimized experimental conditions will ultimately be applied to single cell SRF cavities.

J. Upadhyay, M. Raskovic, L. Vuskovic, S. Popovic, A.-M. Valente-Feliciano, L. Phillips

2010-05-01

436

Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure  

DOEpatents

A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

1999-07-27

437

Wakefield Damping for the CLIC Crab Cavity  

SciTech Connect

A crab cavity is required in the CLIC to allow effective head-on collision of bunches at the IP. A high operating frequency is preferred as the deflection voltage required for a given rotation angle and the RF phase tolerance for a crab cavity are inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The short bunch spacing of the CLIC scheme and the high sensitivity of the crab cavity to dipole kicks demand very high damping of the inter-bunch wakes, the major contributor to the luminosity loss of colliding bunches. This paper investigates the nature of the wakefields in the CLIC crab cavity and the possibility of using various damping schemes to suppress them effectively.

Ambattu, P.K.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Carter, R.G.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Lancaster U.; Khan, V.; Jones, R.M.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Manchester U.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

2011-12-01

438

Handbook on atmospheric diffusion  

SciTech Connect

Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

1982-01-01

439

New Developments on PBG RF Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance and design features of metal PBG and rod-loaded cavities for single-beam and multi-beam acceleration and rf power generation devices are considered. Fundamental differences of the performance between single-defect and multi-defect structures are identified. Rod-loaded cavity designs are considered for a 6-beam klystron. Preliminary design of the X-band MBK demonstrates feasibility of generating high power with high efficiency in a very compact construction.

Smirnov, A. V.; Yu, D.

2004-12-01

440

Exploration of very high gradient cavities  

SciTech Connect

Several of the 9-cell ILC cavities processed at Jlab within ongoing ILC R&D program have shown interesting behavior at high fields, such as mode mixing and sudden field emission turn-on during quench. Equipped with thermometry and oscillating superleak transducer (OST) system for quench detection, we couple our RF measurements with local dissipation measurements. In this contribution we report on our findings with high gradient SRF cavities.

Grigory Eremeev

2011-07-01

441

Hybrid cavity mechanics with doped systems  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of a mechanical resonator in which is embedded an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with an optical cavity field. We show that this hybrid approach to optomechanics allows for enhanced effective interactions between the mechanics and the cavity field, leading for instance to ground state cooling of the mechanics, even in regimes, like the unresolved sideband regime, in which standard radiation pressure cooling would be inefficient.

Aurelien Dantan; Bhagya Nair; Guido Pupillo; Claudiu Genes

2014-06-27

442

Cavity dumping for free electron lasers.  

PubMed

The cavity dumping technique, applied to free electron lasers (FEL), is described. Taking advantage of both numerical simulations and experimental results on the Mark III FEL, a fairly exhaustive analysis is reported. In particular, we show that the output peak power can be increased by a factor even higher than one hundred. The cavity dumping experiment, under way on the Mark III FEL, is discussed in some detail. PMID:20555667

Cutolo, A; Benson, S V; Schultz, J F; Madey, J M

1989-08-01

443

Cavity dumping for free electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the cavity dumping technique to free electron lasers (FEL) is described. Particular attention is given to the problem of the switching time of the dumper. Electrooptic and acoustooptic configurations are described and the change in the extraction efficiency is discussed. The basic design criteria are discussed with reference to the cavity dumping experiment in progress on the Mark III FEL at Stanford.

Cutolo, Antonello; Benson, Stephen V.; Schultz, John F.; Madey, John M.

1989-08-01

444

Cavity dumping for free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

The cavity dumping technique, applied to free electron lasers (FEL), is described. Taking advantage of both numerical simulations and experimental results on the Mark III FEL, a fairly exhaustive analysis is reported. In particular, we show that the output peak power can be increased by a factor even higher than one hundred. The cavity dumping experiment, under way on the Mark III FEL, is discussed in some detail.

Cutolo, A.; Benson, S. V.; Schultz, J. F.; Madey, J. M.

1989-08-01

445

Graphene-based photodetector with two cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an efficient graphene-based photodetector with two Fabri-Pérot cavities. It is shown that the absorption can reach almost 100% around a given frequency, which is determined by the two-cavity lengths. It is also shown that hysteresis in the absorbance is possible, with the transmittance amplitude of the mirrors working as an external driving field. The role of nonlinear contributions to the optical susceptibility of graphene is discussed.

Ferreira, Aires; Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, R. M.; Stauber, T.

2012-03-01

446

Cavity formation from inclusions in ductile fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously proposed conditions for cavity formation from equiaxed inclusions in ductile fracture have been examined. Critical\\u000a local elastic energy conditions are found to be necessary but not sufficient for cavity formation. The interfacial strength\\u000a must also be reached on part of the boundary. For inclusions larger than about 100Å the energy condition is always satisfied\\u000a when the interfacial strength

A. S. Argon; J. Im; R. Safoglu

1975-01-01

447

Optical cavity resonator in an expanding universe  

E-print Network

We study evolution of frequency of a standing electromagnetic (EM) wave in a resonant optical cavity placed to the expanding manifold described by the Robertson-Walker metric. One builds a local coordinate system in which spacetime is locally Minkowskian. However, due to the conformal nature of the Robertson-Walker metric the conventional transformation to the local inertial coordinates introduces ambiguity in the physical interpretation of the local time coordinate. Therefore, contrary to a common-sense expectation, a straightforward implementation of EEP alone does not allow us to decide whether atomic clocks ticks at the same rate as the clocks based on EM modes of a cavity. To resolve the ambiguity we analyzed the cavity rigidity and the oscillation of its EM modes in an expanding universe by employing the Maxwell equations. We found out that both the size of the cavity and the EM frequency experience an adiabatic drift in conformal coordinates as the universe expands. We set up the oscillation equation for the EM modes, solve it by the WKB approximation, and reduce the coordinate-dependent quantities to their counterparts measured by a local observer who counts time with atomic clock. The solution shows that there is a perfect cancellation of the adiabatic drift of cavity's frequency by the transformation to local coordinates, and the time counted by the clocks based on EM modes of cavity has the same rate as that of atomic clocks. We conclude that there should be no cosmological drift of frequency of a standing EM wave oscillating in the cavity resonator as compared to the frequency of atomic clocks. Continuous comparison of the frequency of the optical cavity resonator against that of atomic clock yields a powerful null test of the local isotropy of the Hubble expansion and the Einstein equivalence principle in cosmology.

Sergei Kopeikin

2014-12-02

448

Spindle cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an extremely rare case of spindle cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavity. A 75-year-old man was admitted to our\\u000a hospital because of right nasal obstruction. Nasal endoscopy showed a polypoid tumor measuring 3 × 3 cm at the nasal septum\\u000a in the right nasal cavity, and an excisional biopsy was performed. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the nasal tumor extended\\u000a to the

Tadashi Terada; Taiji Kawasaki

2011-01-01

449

Cavity cooling a trapped nanosphere in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe recent experiments that have demonstrated cavity optomechanical cooling of the center-of-mass motion of nanospheres. The naturally charged silica spheres are levitated within vacuum using an overlapping optical and electrodynamical trap. Using this system we have cavity cooled trapped nano-spheres of radius 200nm from above room temperature to less than 10K in a vacuum of 10-4 mbar.

Barker, P. F.; Millen, J.; Fonseca, P. G. Z.; Mavrogordatos, T.; Monteiro, T. S.

2014-09-01

450

Hybrid cavity mechanics with doped systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of a mechanical resonator in which is embedded an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with an optical cavity field. We show that this hybrid approach to optomechanics allows for enhanced effective interactions between the mechanics and the cavity field, leading, for instance, to ground-state cooling of the mechanics, even in regimes, like the unresolved sideband regime, in which standard radiation pressure cooling would be inefficient.

Dantan, Aurélien; Nair, Bhagya; Pupillo, Guido; Genes, Claudiu

2014-09-01

451

Materials Analysis of CED Nb Films Being Coated on Bulk Nb Single Cell SRF Cavities  

SciTech Connect

This study is an on-going research on depositing a Nb film on the internal wall of bulk Nb single cell SRF cavities, via a cathodic arc Nb plasma ions source, an coaxial energetic condensation (CED) facility at AASC company. The motivation is to firstly create a homoepitaxy-like Nb/Nb film in a scale of a ~1.5GHz RF single cell cavity. Next, through SRF measurement and materials analysis, it might reveal the baseline properties of the CED-type homoepitaxy Nb films. Literally, a top-surface layer of Nb films which sustains SRF function, always grows up in homo-epitaxy mode, on top of a Nb nucleation layer. Homo-epitaxy growth of Nb must be the final stage (a crystal thickening process) of any coatings of Nb film on alternative cavity structure materials. Such knowledge of Nb-Nb homo-epitaxy is useful to create future realistic SRF cavity film coatings, such as hetero-epitaxy Nb/Cu Films, or template-layer-mitigated Nb films. One large-grain, and three fine grain bulk Nb cavities were coated. They went through cryogenic RF measurement. Preliminary results show that the Q0 of a Nb film could be as same as the pre-coated bulk Nb surface (which received a chemically-buffered polishing plus a light electro-polishing); but quality factor of two tested cavities dropped quickly. We are investigating if the severe Q-slope is caused by hydrogen incorporation before deposition, or is determined by some structural defects during Nb film growth.

Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles; Palczewski, Ari; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Krishnan, Mahadevan; James, Colt; Irfan, Irfan

2013-09-01

452

Step dynamics and spiral growth on calcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present novel in situ observations of the dynamics of monomolecular growth steps on calcite. Steps do not interact at separations of [approximately]10 nm and above, indicating that surface diffusion does not control calcite growth. Instead, steps advance by material addition from solution onto step sites or a narrow adjacent zone. Step nucleation is primarily at growth spirals, and

A. J. Gratz; P. E. Hillner; P. K. Hansma

1993-01-01

453

Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities  

E-print Network

Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave-mixing between photons and phonons and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong nonlocal effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a novel multi-cavity optomechanical device: a "photon see-saw", in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The