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Sample records for digested dairy cow

  1. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  2. Effect of grain source and exogenous phytase on phosphorus digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, R L; Garikipati, D K; Nennich, T D; Harrison, J H

    2005-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine P digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed corn or barley as grain sources. The first experiment utilized a replicated incomplete 5 x 4 Latin square design with 8 lactating Holstein cows fed diets containing either corn alone or corn in combination with one of 4 barley varieties that differed in chemical composition. Total tract digestibility of P ranged from 11 to 29% for diets containing the barley varieties and was approximately 35% for the corn diet. A second experiment compared P digestibility in cows fed diets containing corn or barley when exogenous phytase was added to the diets. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 16) were arranged in 4 replications of a Latin square with 2 grains (barley or corn), fed separately or with added exogenous phytase (427 phytase units/kg of total mixed ration and 4 periods of 21 d. Phytate P comprised about 50% of the total P (0.46% P) in the total mixed ration. The concentration of serum inorganic P was higher in cows fed diets with exogenous phytase (5.8 vs. 6.5 mg/dL in cows fed barley diets and 5.5 vs 6.0 mg/dL in cows fed corn diets). Using acid detergent lignin as an internal marker, hydrolysis of phytate P was increased by the exogenous phytase, and total P digestibility tended to be increased. In contrast to Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 there was no effect of grain source on P digestibility and total fecal P. Dry matter intake and efficiency of milk production were not affected by exogenous phytase or grain type. Although phytase activity occurs in the rumen, physical properties of the diet and ruminal passage rates may prevent total hydrolysis of phytate in the rumen of lactating cows. Thus, exogenous dietary phytase might improve P digestibility in dairy cows in some dietary situations. PMID:16027204

  3. EFFECT OF RDP SOURCE ON RUMINAL DIGESTION IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight lactating dairy cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and averaging 116 DIM were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares to determine the effect of feeding diets differing in the proportions of RDP coming from urea and non-urea sources on ruminal digestion of nutrients. Diets contained (DM basis) 15% ...

  4. Effect of dietary phytate on phosphorus digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ray, P P; Jarrett, J; Knowlton, K F

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary phytate P (Pp) supply on ruminal and postruminal Pp digestion and net disappearance of P from the lower digestive tract of lactating cows. Six ruminally and ileally cannulated crossbred lactating cows were used in 2 incomplete Latin squares with four 21-d periods (17d of diet adaptation, 4d of total collection). Dietary treatments were low Pp, medium Pp, and high Pp, and a high inorganic P (Pi) diet with the same total P content as the highest Pp diet but with P mostly from inorganic sources. The diets contained 0.10, 0.18, 0.29, and 0.11% Pp and 0.43, 0.48, 0.54, and 0.53% total P on a dry matter basis, with cottonseed meal used to increase Pp content. Ytterbium-labeled corn silage and Co-EDTA were used as particulate and liquid phase markers to measure omasal and ileal digesta flow. Omasal and ileal digesta were collected every 6h on d 20 and 21 and rumen contents were collected on d 21. Samples were analyzed for total P (molybdovanadate yellow method), Pi (blue method), and Pp (high performance ion chromatography). Phytate P and total P intake increased linearly with increasing dietary Pp. Ruminal Pp disappearance also increased linearly with dietary Pp but the magnitude of change was small. Small intestinal net disappearance of Pi was not affected by dietary Pp. Phytate P was hydrolyzed in the large intestine but its hydrolysis was not influenced by dietary Pp. Net disappearance of Pi form the large intestine did not vary with dietary Pp. Dry matter digestibility decreased linearly with increasing dietary Pp, as did apparent digestion of P, and fecal P increased linearly. Dry matter digestibility was higher for high Pi than for high Pp, likely due to the effect of cottonseed meal in the latter diet. Replacing a portion of Pp with Pi resulted in decreased P excretion but this effect was confounded with increased fecal dry matter for the high-Pp (high-cottonseed meal) diet. In lactating cows Pp digestibility was

  5. Evaluation of external markers to estimate fecal excretion, intake, and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Welter, Katieli Caroline; Silva, Mateus Mendes; Costa, Diogo Fleury; Portela Santos, Flávio Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the use of an external marker titanium dioxide (TiO₂) as an alternative to chromic oxide (Cr₂O₃) in dairy cows. Four dairy cows were allocated in individual pens and fed concentrate supplement and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon cut daily. Fecal excretion, forage and total dry matter (DM) intakes, and digestibility were measured and estimated with TiO₂ and Cr₂O₃. Chromic oxide overestimated and TiO₂ tended to overestimate fecal excretion compared with total fecal collection. Forage and total DM intakes were overestimated by Cr₂O₃. The apparent DM digestibility was underestimated by Cr₂O₃ and TiO₂. The organic matter (OM) digestibility was underestimated by both markers. There were greater mean bias, mean squared prediction error, and root of the mean squared prediction errors for all parameters estimated with Cr₂O₃. In conclusion, estimates using TiO₂ were more precise and accurate indicating that it can replace Cr₂O₃ as an external marker for grazing dairy cows. PMID:25245114

  6. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. PMID:26453023

  7. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  8. Lactation performance and digestibility of forages and diets in dairy cows fed a hemicellulose extract.

    PubMed

    Herrick, K J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Anderson, J L; Ranathunga, S D; Patton, R S; Abdullah, M

    2012-06-01

    Inclusion of hemicellulose extract (HE) in cattle diets have shown potential for improving fiber digestibility and production efficiency. The objective of this research was to evaluate production and digestibility effects of a HE on midlactation cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (142 ± 44 d in milk, 685 ± 19 kg of body weight) including 4 with ruminal fistula were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed a control (CON) diet containing 55% forage [dry matter (DM) basis, 2/3 corn silage and 1/3 alfalfa hay] or a similar diet where 1.0% of the diet DM was replaced with HE (TRT). Dry matter intake averaged 27.1 and 26.9 kg/d, for CON and TRT respectively, and was not affected by addition of extract. The percentage of milk protein (3.40 vs. 3.29%) was greater, whereas the percentage of milk fat (3.91 vs. 3.80%) tended to be greater, for cows fed the CON compared with the TRT diet. Because of numerically greater milk production (38.8 vs. 39.2 kg/d) for cows fed the TRT diet, no differences were observed in component yields other than lactose (1.86 vs. 1.94 kg/d), which tended to be greater for cows fed the TRT ration. Treatment improved neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (38.6 vs. 48.1%) for the TRT diet compared with the CON diet but did not affect apparent total-tract DM (67.8 vs. 68.5%), crude protein (67.2 vs. 67.9%), acid detergent fiber (ADF; 37.1 vs. 43.3%), or starch (92.8 vs. 92.2%) digestibility. For in situ determinations, Dacron bags containing corn silage, alfalfa hay, and either the CON or TRT ration were incubated in triplicate in the rumens of the cannulated cows at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h on d 18 of each period. Each total mixed ration was incubated only in cows assigned to the corresponding diet. For corn silage, the rate of disappearance of NDF (1.70 vs. 4.27%) and ADF (1.79 vs. 4.66%) increased for cows fed the TRT diet. For alfalfa hay, the disappearance of fraction A of DM, NDF, and ADF decreased

  9. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. PMID:25465561

  10. Effect of direct-fed microbials on performance, diet digestibility, and rumen characteristics of Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding bacterial direct fed microbial (DFM) products containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and Propionibacteria freudenreichii (PF) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation of Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactati...

  11. EFFECT OF CORN SILAGE MATURITY AND MECHANICAL PROCESSING ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY BY LACTATING DAIRY COWS OF DIFFERENT LACTATION STAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch digestibility (StarchD) can decrease when corn silage is harvested at advanced stages of maturity. Processing corn silage through rollers during chopping typically increases StarchD. We hypothesized that corn silage processing increases StarchD in lactating dairy cows to a greater extent when...

  12. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China. PMID:25049816

  13. Effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance of Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance, nine lactating Holstein dairy cows (day in milk= 100±21 d; body weight=645.7 ± 26.5 kg) were allotted to a 3 × 3 Latin square design at three 23-d periods. The three treatments included 34.91% (B), 18.87% (BC), and 18.86% (BB) barley that in treatment B was partially replaced with only corn or corn plus beet pulp in treatments BC and BB, respectively. The concentration of starch and neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate varied (22.2, 20.2, and 14.5; 13.6, 15.9, and 20.1% of DM in treatments B, BC, and BB, respectively). Cows in treatment BB showed a higher DMI and improved digestibility of DM, NDF, and EE compared with treatments B or BC. Ruminal pH was higher in cows fed on BB (6.83) compared with those that received B or BC treatments (6.62 and 6.73, respectively). A lower proportion of propionate accompanied the higher pH in the BB group; however, a greater proportion of acetate and acetate: propionate ratio was observed compared with cows fed either on the B or BC diet. Moreover, cows fed on the BB diet showed the lowest ruminal passage rate and longest ruminal and total retention time. Eating time did not differ among treatments, rumination time was greater among cows fed on the BB diet compared with the others, whereas total chewing activity was greater than those fed on BC, but similar to those fed on B. The treatments showed no effect on milk yield. Partially replacing barley with corn or beet pulp resulted in an increase in milk fat and a lower protein concentration. Changing dietary NFC with that of a different degradability thus altered intake, chewing activity, ruminal environment, retention time or passage rate, and lactation performance. The results of this study showed that beet pulp with a higher NDF and a detergent-soluble carbohydrate or pectin established a more consistent ruminal mat than barley and corn, thus resulting in

  14. Corn silage hybrid effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Al-Jobeile, H; Coors, J G; Lauer, J G

    2000-12-01

    Three corn hybrids harvested as whole-plant silage were evaluated in three separate feeding trials with lactating dairy cows. In trial 1, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Treatments were conventional (Pioneer 3563) and leafy (Mycogen TMF 106) corn silage hybrids, each planted at low (59,000 plants/ha) and high (79,000 plants/ha) plant populations. There were no milk production differences between treatments. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was higher for leafy compared with conventional corn hybrids. In trial 2, 26 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to diets containing either conventional (48% forage diet) or brown-midrib (60% forage diet) corn silage in a crossover design with 8-wk periods. Milk yield was lower, but milk fat percentage and yield were higher, for the high-forage diet containing brown-midrib corn silage. In trial 3, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Treatments were corn silage at two concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (Garst 8751, 39.2% NDF; Cargill 3677, 32.8% NDF) each fed in normal- (53% of dry matter) and high- (61 to 67% of dry matter) forage diets. Milk production was not different between corn hybrids. Increased concentrate supplementation increased DMI and milk production. There were minimal benefits to the feeding of leafy or low-fiber corn silage hybrids. Feeding brown-midrib corn silage in a high-forage diet increased milk fat percentage and yield compared with conventional corn silage fed in a normal-forage diet. PMID:11132857

  15. Effect of anthocyanin-rich corn silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kenji; Eruden, Bayaru; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Shioya, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays L.) has been reported to show several functional and biological attributes, displaying antioxidant, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in monogastric animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays L., Choko C922) silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows. The cows were fed diets based on the control corn or the anthocyanin-rich corn silage (AR treatment) in a crossover design. The anthocyanin-rich corn silage-based diet had a lower starch content, nutrient digestibility and total digestible nutrients content when compared to the control diet. The milk yield, lactose and solids-not-fat contents in the AR-treatment cows were lower than in the control cows. The feeding of the anthocyanin-rich corn silage led to a reduction in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the plasma. These data suggest that the anthocyanin-rich corn has a lowering effect on AST activity with concomitant enhancement of SOD activity in lactating dairy cows. However, a new variety of anthocyanin-rich corn with good nutritional value is needed for practical use as a ruminant feed. PMID:22694328

  16. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  17. Effects of postruminal protein on fatty acid digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Goodling, L E; Grummer, R R

    1998-06-01

    Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (four multiparous and four primiparous) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with an extra period to determine the effects of postruminal protein on fatty acid digestibility. Samples were collected during the last 4 d of each 14-d period. Total mixed rations were composed of 41% alfalfa haylage, 42% corn silage, 12% concentrate based on corn, and 5% tallow. Cows were fed at 90% of ad libitum intake. Treatments were abomasal infusion of guar gum or guar gum plus urea, corn gluten meal, or blood meal in 12 L of water. The basal ration contained 12% crude protein (CP), and infusion of N sources increased CP to approximately 14%. Dry matter intake was similar for cows on all treatments. Milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk protein, and milk fat yields increased for cows receiving postruminal CP. Postruminal CP did not affect milk fat and protein percentages. Dry matter, organic matter, and CP digestibilities were greater in cows receiving postruminal CP. Total fatty acid and total C18 fatty acid digestibilities were not affected by treatment. Total C16 fatty acid and C18:0 fatty acid digestibilities were greater for cows receiving nonprotein N than for those receiving true protein. PMID:9684169

  18. Lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed ensiled total mixed ration containing steam-flaked or ground rice grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked (SF) or ground brown rice (Oryza satira L.; BR) on feed intake, lactation performance, digestion, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: diets containing either SF or fine ground (FG) BR at 24% of dietary dry matter. Dietary treatment did not affect dry matter intake or milk yield and composition. The whole-tract digestibility of organic matter and fiber decreased, and the digestibility of starch increased with the replacement of SF with FG in ensiled TMR, but these differences were small between diets. Crude protein digestibility was not different between diets. The processing method of BR did not affect ruminal pH, total volatile acid concentration, or volatile fatty acid proportion in cows. The N intake, milk N secretion, fecal and urinary N excretion and N retention were not influenced by dietary treatment. These results show that feeding ensiled TMR containing FG instead of SF reduces fiber digestibility but has little impact on lactation and N utilization when diets contained 24% on a dry matter basis. PMID:26353827

  19. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    PubMed

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    , owing to the different fiber content of the diets. No significant interactions between age and feeding regimen were found. Heifers spent more time eating and ruminating per unit of feed than cows, which resulted in a high fiber digestibility. Irrespective of the feeding regimen tested, older cows maintained intake and digestion efficiency with longer retention times and chewing rumination boluses more intensively. The results support efforts to extend the length of productive life in dairy cows. PMID:26923042

  20. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  1. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Huyen, N T; Desrues, O; Alferink, S J J; Zandstra, T; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-05-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow rations in northwestern Europe is still relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sainfoin silage on nutrient digestibility, animal performance, energy and N utilization, and CH4 production. Six rumen-cannulated, lactating dairy cows with a metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of 132.5±3.6kg were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or a sainfoin (SAIN)-based diet over 2 experimental periods of 25 d each in a crossover design. The CON diet was a mixture of grass silage, corn silage, concentrate, and linseed. In the SAIN diet, 50% of grass silage dry matter (DM) of the CON diet was exchanged for sainfoin silage. The cows were adapted to 95% of ad libitum feed intake for a 21-d period before being housed in climate-controlled respiration chambers for 4 d, during which time feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N and energy balance, and CH4 production was determined. Data were analyzed using a mixed model procedure. Total daily DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber intake did not differ between the 2 diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were, respectively, 5.7, 4.0, 15.7, and 14.8% lower for the SAIN diet. Methane production per kilogram of DM intake was lowest for the SAIN diet, CH4 production as a percentage of gross energy intake tended to be lower, and milk yield was greater for the SAIN diet. Nitrogen intake, N retention, and energy retained in body protein were greater for the SAIN than for the CON diet. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of N intake tended to be greater for the SAIN diet. These results suggest that inclusion of sainfoin

  2. Processing and chop length effects in brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G

    2002-03-01

    In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance. PMID:11949866

  3. Effects of alfalfa and cereal straw as a forage source on nutrient digestibility and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Mao, S Y; Yang, H J; Wu, Y M; Wang, J K; Li, S L; Shen, Z M; Liu, J X

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the nutrient digestibility and lactation performance when alfalfa was replaced with rice straw or corn stover in the diet of lactating cows. Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk (164 ± 24.8 d; mean ± standard deviation) and milk yield (29.7 ± 4.7 kg; mean ± standard deviation) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Diets were isonitrogenous, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained identical concentrate mixtures and 15% corn silage, with different forage sources (on a DM basis): 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH), 30% corn stover (CS), and 30% rice straw (RS). The experiment was conducted over a 14-wk period, with the first 2 wk for adaptation. The DM intake of the cows was not affected by forage source. Yield of milk, milk fat, protein, lactose, and total solids was higher in cows fed diets of AH than diets of RS or CS, with no difference between RS and CS. Contents of milk protein and total solids were higher in AH than in RS, with no difference between CS and AH or RS. Feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was highest for cows fed AH, followed by RS and CS. Cows fed AH excreted more urinary purine derivatives, indicating that the microbial crude protein yield may be higher for the AH diet than for RS and CS, which may be attributed to the higher content of fermentable carbohydrates in AH than in RS and CS. Total-tract apparent digestibilities of all the nutrients were higher in cows fed the AH diet than those fed CS and RS. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in the AH diet than in CS or RS diets, with no difference between CS and RS diets. When the cereal straw was used to replace alfalfa as a main forage source for lactating cows, the shortage of fermented energy may have reduced the rumen microbial protein synthesis, resulting in lower milk protein yield, and lower nutrient digestibility

  4. Methane output and diet digestibility in response to feeding dairy cows crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Rouel, J; Jouany, J P; Doreau, M; Chilliard, Y

    2008-10-01

    This experiment studied the effect of 3 forms of presentation of linseed fatty acids (FA) on methane output using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, total tract digestibility, and performance of dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (initial milk yield 23.4 +/- 2.2 kg/d) were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design: a control diet (C) consisting of corn silage (59%), grass hay (6%), and concentrate (35%) and the same diet with crude linseed (CLS), extruded linseed (ELS), or linseed oil (LSO) at the same FA level (5.7% of dietary DM). Each experimental period lasted 4 wk. All the forms of linseed FA significantly decreased daily CH(4) emissions (P < 0.001) but to different extents (-12% with CLS, -38% with ELS, -64% with LSO) compared with C. The same ranking among diets was observed for CH(4) output expressed as a percentage of energy intake (P < 0.001) or in grams per kilogram of OM intake (P < 0.001). Methane production per unit of digested NDF was similar for C, CLS, and ELS but was less for LSO (138 vs. 68 g/kg of digested NDF, respectively; P < 0.001). Measured as grams per kilogram of milk or fat-corrected milk yield, methane emission was similar for C and CLS and was less for ELS and LSO (P < 0.001), LSO being less than ELS (P < 0.01). Total tract NDF digestibility was significantly less (P < 0.001) for the 3 supplemented diets than for C (-6.8% on average; P < 0.001). Starch digestibility was similar for all diets (mean 93.5%). Compared with C, DMI was not modified with CLS (P > 0.05) but was decreased with ELS and LSO (-3.1 and -5.1 kg/d, respectively; P < 0.001). Milk yield and milk fat content were similar for LSO and ELS but less than for C and CLS (19.9 vs. 22.3 kg/d and 33.8 vs. 43.2 g/kg, on average, respectively; P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). Linseed FA offer a promising dietary means to depress ruminal methanogenesis. The form of presentation of linseed FA greatly influences methane output from

  5. Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy cow feces: Long-term operation

    SciTech Connect

    Massé, Daniel I. Cata Saady, Noori M.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces (CF) is feasible. • PDAD of CF is as efficient as mesophilic and thermophilic AD at TCL 21 days. • CF (13–16% TS at OLR 5.0 g TCOD{sub fed} kg{sup −1} inoculum d{sup −1}) yielded 222 ± 27 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} VS fed. - Abstract: This paper reports experimental results which demonstrate psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces during long-term operation in sequence batch reactor. Cow feces (13–16% total solids) has been anaerobically digested in 12 successive cycles (252 days) at 21 days treatment cycle length (TCL) and temperature of 20 °C using psychrotrophic anaerobic mixed culture. An average specific methane yield (SMY) of 184.9 ± 24.0, 189.9 ± 27.3, and 222 ± 27.7 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} of VS fed has been achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 g TCOD kg{sup −1} inoculum d{sup −1} and TCL of 21 days, respectively. The corresponding substrate to inoculum ratio (SIR) was 0.39 ± 0.06, 0.48 ± .02, 0.53 ± 0.05, respectively. Average methane production rate of 10 ± 1.4 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} VS fed d{sup −1} has been obtained. The low concentration of volatile fatty acids indicated that hydrolysis was the reaction limiting step.

  6. Nutrient demand interacts with forage family to affect digestion responses in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-06-01

    Effects of forage family on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI), an index of nutrient demand, were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 19.6 to 29.5 kg/d (mean=25.9 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 24.3 to 60.3 kg/d (mean=42.1 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing either a) alfalfa silage (AL) or b) orchardgrass silage (OG) as the sole forage. Alfalfa and orchardgrass contained 42.3 and 58.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 22.5 and 11.4% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratios were 60:40 and 43:57 for AL and OG, respectively; both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Preliminary DMI was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of forage family and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Forage family and its interaction with pDMI did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk composition. The AL diet increased indigestible NDF (iNDF) intake and decreased potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) intake compared with OG. The AL diet increased ruminal pH, digestion rates of pdNDF and starch, and passage rates of pdNDF and iNDF compared with OG, which affected ruminal digestibility. Passage rate of iNDF was related to pDMI; AL increased iNDF passage rate and OG decreased it as pDMI increased. The AL diet decreased ruminal pool sizes of pdNDF, starch, organic matter, dry matter, and rumen digesta wet weight and volume compared with OG. The AL diet decreased ruminating time per unit of forage NDF consumed compared with OG, indicating that alfalfa provided less physically effective

  7. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. PMID:26607997

  8. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  9. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  10. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  11. Effect of plants containing secondary compounds with palm oil on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial population in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75%) lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW) of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control), supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05). However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS) in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05) while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows. PMID:25049855

  12. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Anantasook, N.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75%) lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW) of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control), supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05). However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS) in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05) while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows. PMID:25049855

  13. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  14. Effects of nitrogen underfeeding and energy source on nitrogen ruminal metabolism, digestion, and nitrogen partitioning in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fanchone, A; Nozière, P; Portelli, J; Duriot, B; Largeau, V; Doreau, M

    2013-02-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effects of 2 levels of N (low or high) and 2 energy sources (starch or fiber) on N partitioning, N ruminal metabolism, and digestion in dairy cows. Four Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The 4 cows (on average, 662 ± 62 kg and at 71 ± 10 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment) were fitted with rumen, proximal duodenum, and terminal ileum cannula. The cows received 4 diets having the same forage proportion on a DM basis. The high level of N supply met 110% of the protein requirements of cows with an adequate supply in rumen-degradable N. The low level covered 80% of these requirements with a shortage in rumen-degradable N. Energy sources differed by their nature (i.e., starch from barley, corn, and wheat or fiber from soybean hulls and dehydrated beet pulp). Duodenal digesta flow was determined using YbCl3 as a marker. Microbial duodenal N flow was determined using purine and pyrimidine bases as markers from liquid-associated bacteria and mixed bacteria samples. Microbial N flow and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, calculated using mixed bacteria as a reference microbial sample, were not significantly modified by the N level (P = 0.19 and 0.29, respectively) and the energy source of the diet (P = 0.11 and 0.08, respectively). Total tract apparent digestibility of OM and total tact digestibility of NDF were lower at the low N level (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively). Total tract apparent digestibility of OM tended to be greater (P = 0.08) with high-starch diets than with high-fiber diets. Total tact digestibility of NDF was greater (P < 0.001) with high-fiber diets than with high-starch diets. Duodenal N flow was less (P = 0.001) at the low N level than high N level and tended to be greater (P = 0.06) with high-starch diets than with high-fiber diets. Daily output of N in urine was less (P < 0.001) at the low N level than at the high N level. Daily output of N in feces did not differ between

  15. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Zijderveld, S M; Fonken, B; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J; Perdok, H B; Fokkink, W; Newbold, J R

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when

  16. Effects of varying dietary ratios of corn silage to alfalfa silage on digestion of neutral detergent fiber in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26162794

  17. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source. PMID:26254527

  18. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  19. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  20. Effect of feeding ensiled mixture of pomegranate pulp and drier feeds on digestibility and milk performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shaani, Yoav; Eliyahu, Dana; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Yosef, Edith; Ben-Meir, Yehoshav; Nikbachat, Moshe; Solomon, Ran; Mabjeesh, Sameer Jermaya; Miron, Joshua

    2016-02-01

    Based on a previous ensiling study in glass silos of various pomegranate pulp (PP) mixtures, fresh pomegranate pulp (PP) was mixed with drier feeds including soy hulls and corn silage (40:35:25 on DM basis) and ensiled in 32 pressed bales (700 kg each) wrapped with stretch polyethylene film. This ensiled pomegranate pulp mixture (PPM) was included in lactating cow total mixed ration (TMR) at a level of 20% of DM (PPM-TMR). Performance and digestion experiment was conducted with two groups of 21 milking cows each, fed individually one of the two TMR: 1. Control TMR without ensiled PPM; 2. Experimental TMR which contained 20% ensiled PPM, including 8% PP as corn grain replacer. Voluntary DM intake of cows fed the control TMR was 5.04% higher than that of the PPM cows. In vivo digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, CP and fat were significantly higher in the control cows compared with the PPM group, but methane production in the rumen fluid was 25% lower in the PPM cows. A slightly higher milk yield (by 2.2%) observed in the control cows; however, milk fat content was 5.9% higher in the PPM cows. This was reflected in similar yield of energy corrected milk (ECM) and 3.97% increase in production efficiency (ECM/DM intake) of the PPM cows compared with the control ones. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was in the normal range for both groups. Body weight gain was also similar in both groups. Data suggest that the level of 8% PP in the PPM-TMR used in this study was probably too high for lactating cows and should be lowered to 4% in order to achieve better performance. PMID:26568514

  1. Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid on ruminal fermentation, bacterial distribution, digestibility, and performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Oh, J; Hristov, A N; Harvatine, K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Zanton, G I

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the effect of a Met analog, 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa), on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestibility, urinary N losses, and performance of dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 4 levels of HMTBa [0 (control), 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% (dry matter basis)] in a replicated 4×4 Latin square trial. Experimental periods were 28 d, including 21 d for adaptation. Ruminal ammonia and microbial N were labeled through a 6-d intraruminal infusion of (15)NH4Cl, and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen was estimated using the reticular sampling technique. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (28.4 to 29.8kg/d), milk yield (44.1 to 45.3kg/d), feed efficiency, and milk composition. Total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients was generally not affected by treatment, except digestibility of crude protein and starch decreased quadratically with HMTBa supplementation. Fecal, but not urinary, and total excreta N losses were increased quadratically by HMTBa. Ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, protozoal counts, and the major volatile fatty acids were not affected by treatment. Microbial N outflow from the rumen was linearly increased by HMTBa. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid linearly increased the proportion of Fecalibacterium and quadratically decreased the proportion of Eubacterium in ruminal contents. Of the individual bacterial species, HMTBa increased or tended to increase Prevotella loescheii and Prevotella oralis. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid linearly increased the concentration (and yield) of 15:0 in milk fat. In the conditions of this crossover experiment, HMTBa had no effect on feed intake and performance of dairy cows, decreased dietary crude protein digestibility, and increased microbial N outflow from the rumen. PMID:25434334

  2. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part I. Metabolic and digestive disorders.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metabolic and digestive disorders-including displaced abomasum, ketosis, and indigestion-based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of the disorders by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. A HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as a HIS of <86 during at least 1 d from -5 to 2 d after CD. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total calcium, and haptoglobin were determined in a subgroup of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The sensitivity of the HIS was 98% [95% confidence interval (CI): 93, 100] for displaced abomasum (n=41); 91% (95% CI: 83, 99) for ketosis (n=54); 89% (95% CI: 68, 100) for indigestion (n=9); and 93% (95% CI: 89, 98) for all metabolic and digestive disorders combined (n=104). Days (mean and 95% CI) from the first positive HIS <86 and CD were -3 (-3.7, -2.3), -1.6 (-2.3, -1.0), -0.5 (-1.5, 0.5), and -2.1 (-2.5, -1.6) for displaced abomasum, ketosis, indigestion, and all metabolic and digestive disorders, respectively. The patterns of rumination, activity, and HIS for cows flagged by the AHMS were characterized by lower levels than for cows without a health disorder and cows not flagged by the AHMS from -5 to 5 d after CD

  3. The effect of an exogenous amylase on performance and total-tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed a high-byproduct diet.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Engstrom, M A; Azem, E; Gressley, T F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the performance and digestibility response of lactating dairy cows fed a reduced-starch diet containing a commercial amylase product. Treatments consisted of a normal-starch total mixed ration (NS-), a reduced-starch total mixed ration (RS-), and a reduced-starch total mixed ration with exogenous amylase (RS+) added to the concentrate. Treatments were assigned according to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Twenty-three cows completed the study. Starch concentrations in NS-, RS-, and RS+ total mixed rations were 27.7, 23.5, and 22.7%, respectively. Effects of treatment on intake, milk production, milk composition, and total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility were evaluated during the last week of each period. Effects of amylase on in vitro starch digestibility of the NS- and RS- grain mixes were also measured. We hypothesized that the reduction in dietary starch in the RS- ration would decrease diet digestibility and limit milk production compared with NS- due to a decrease in available energy, and that RS+ would alleviate some of this decrease by increasing nutrient digestibility. Contrary to this hypothesis, the RS- diet did not affect intake or milk production relative to the NS- diet, except for increased milk urea nitrogen and a tendency for a decrease in milk protein yield. This lack of response is attributed to both low milk fat concentrations across treatments and greater than predicted dietary energy content preventing the energy deficit that was intended to occur with the reduced-starch rations. Cows fed the RS+ ration had the lowest production performance, with reduced milk, fat-corrected milk, protein, and lactose yields relative to cows fed NS-. Cows fed RS+ also had reduced lactose yield and tended to have reduced milk and fat-corrected milk relative to cows fed RS-. Despite the negative effects of the RS+ treatment on performance, exogenous amylase did increase both in vitro

  4. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration

  5. The effects of calcium hydroxide-treated whole-plant and fractionated corn silage on intake, digestion, and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cook, D E; Bender, R W; Shinners, K J; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate, in dairy cattle, the effects of calcium hydroxide treatment of whole-plant corn and a treatment applied to the bottom stalk fraction of the corn plant, achieved by harvesting corn in 2 crop streams. The treatments were calcium hydroxide-treated corn silage (TRTCS), toplage supplemented with calcium hydroxide-treated stalklage (TPL), a positive control of brown midrib corn silage (BMR), and a negative control of conventional whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). The toplage was harvested at a height of 82 cm with 2 of the 6 rows set as ear-snapping to incorporate higher tissues into the stalklage. Stalklage was harvested at 12 cm, and other corn silages were harvested at 27 cm. Sixteen pens, each with 8 Holstein cows averaging 70±25 d in milk and 46±11 kg of milk d(-1), were assigned 4 per treatment in a completely randomized design. The diet was approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate on a dry matter basis. A 2-wk covariate period with conventional corn silage was followed by an 8-wk treatment period in which the 4 corn silage treatments were the only effective difference in diets. Cows fed TPL and TRTCS consumed more (1.9 and 1.4 kg of organic matter d(-1), respectively) than did cows fed WPCS. Milk yield was greater for cows fed BMR, TPL, and TRTCS. Cows fed BMR and TPL produced 2.9 and 2.7 kg d(-1), respectively, more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed WPCS, and cows fed TRTCS had the greatest ECM production (4.8 kg of ECM d(-1) greater than cows fed WPCS). No differences in body weight or body condition scored were observed. Milk fat concentration was similar among treatments and milk protein concentration was reduced for TRTCS. Starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were greater for cows fed TRTCS. PMID:27157570

  6. Feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows: Repeatability, variation in digestion and metabolism of energy and nitrogen, and ruminal methanogens.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Crump, P M; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study repeatability and sources of variation in feed conversion efficiency [FCE, milk kg/kg dry matter intake (DMI)] of lactating cows in mid to late lactation. Trials 1 and 2 used 16 cows (106 to 368 d in milk) grouped in 8 pairs of 1 high- and 1 low-FCE cow less than 16 d in milk apart. Trial 1 determined the repeatability of FCE during a 12-wk period. Trial 2 quantified the digestive and metabolic partitioning of energy and N with a 3-d total fecal and urine collection and measurement of CH4 and CO2 emission. Trial 3 studied selected ruminal methanogens in 2 pairs of cows fitted with rumen cannulas. Cows received a single diet including 28% corn silage, 27% alfalfa silage, 17% crude protein, and 28% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). In trial 1, mean FCE remained repeatedly different and averaged 1.83 and 1.03 for high- and low-FCE cows, respectively. In trial 2, high-FCE cows consumed 21% more DMI, produced 98% more fat- and protein-corrected milk, excreted 42% less manure per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, but emitted the same daily amount of CH4 and CO2 compared with low-FCE cows. Percentage of gross energy intake lost in feces was higher (28.6 vs. 25.9%), but urinary (2.76 vs. 3.40%) and CH4 (5.23 vs. 6.99%) losses were lower in high- than low-FCE cows. Furthermore, high-FCE cows partitioned 15% more of gross energy intake toward net energy for maintenance, body gain, and lactation (37.5 vs. 32.6%) than low-FCE cows. Lower metabolic efficiency and greater heat loss in low-FCE cows might have been associated in part with greater energy demand for immune function related to subclinical mastitis, as somatic cell count was 3.8 fold greater in low- than high-FCE cows. As a percentage of N intake, high-FCE cows tended to have greater fecal N (32.4 vs. 30.3%) and had lower urinary N (32.2 vs. 41.7%) and greater milk N (30.3 vs. 19.1%) than low-FCE cows. In trial 3, Methanobrevibacter spp. strain AbM4 was less prevalent in

  7. Effects of feeding different amounts of supplemental glycerol on ruminal environment and digestibility of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of dietary glycerol on rumen environment, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Six rumen cannulated Holstein cows averaging 56 ± 18 DIM and 38.0 ± 8.2 kg/d of milk were used in the study. Experimental design was a replicat...

  8. Replacement of grass and maize silages with lucerne silage: effects on performance, milk fatty acid profile and digestibility in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, L A; Edwards, R; Errington, K A; Holdcroft, A M; Wright, M

    2015-12-01

    In total, 20 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received one of four diets in each of four periods of 28-day duration in a Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of lucerne in the ration of high-yielding dairy cows would improve animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. All dietary treatments contained 0.55 : 0.45 forage to concentrates (dry matter (DM) basis), and within the forage component the proportion of lucerne (Medicago sativa), grass (Lolium perenne) and maize silage (Zea mays) was varied (DM basis): control (C)=0.4 : 0.6 grass : maize silage; L20=0.2 : 0.2 : 0.6 lucerne : grass : maize silage; L40=0.4 : 0.6 lucerne : maize silage; and L60=0.6 : 0.4 lucerne : maize silage. Diets were formulated to contain a similar CP and metabolisable protein content, with the reduction of soya bean meal and feed grade urea with increasing content of lucerne. Intake averaged 24.3 kg DM/day and was lowest in cows when fed L60 (P0.05) by dietary treatment. Digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP and fibre decreased (P<0.01) with increasing content of lucerne in the diet, although fibre digestibility was similar in L40 and L60. It is concluded that first cut grass silage can be replaced with first cut lucerne silage without any detrimental effect on performance and an improvement in the milk FA profile, although intake and digestibility was lowest and plasma urea concentrations highest in cows when fed the highest level of inclusion of lucerne. PMID:26242305

  9. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    the omasal canal, did not differ among treatments. Results from this experiment have confirmed that dietary La is not a practical agent for suppressing RP population in dairy cows, mainly because of its negative effects on fiber digestion and ruminal fermentation. Intake of CO appeared to reduce ruminal and improve protein efficiency, but did not improve milk production, milk composition, or increase microbial outflow from the rumen. Based on the results of this study, a 40% reduction of RP population is not sufficient to improve N utilization in dairy cows. PMID:24931520

  10. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  11. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  12. Effect of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to determine the influence of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods, dietary starch, rumen-digestible starch, and forage NDF concentrations on intake, digestion, and lactation performance by dairy cows using a data set comprising 414 treatment means from 102 peer-reviewed journal reports from 2000 to 2011. Categories for corn processing were dry ground, cracked or rolled corn (DRY), high-moisture shelled or ear corn (ENS), and steam-flaked or -rolled corn (STM); categories for kernel mean particle size were 500 to 1,000, 1,000 to 1,500, 1,500 to 2,000, 3,000 to 3,500, and 3,500 to 4,000 µm for dry corn and <2,000 and ≥2,000 µm for ensiled corn. Dietary starch and forage NDF concentrations were used as continuous variables. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), with treatment as fixed and trial as random effects. Total-tract starch digestibility was reduced and milk fat content was greater for DRY compared with ENS or STM. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was reduced for both DRY and ENS as particle size increased. Increased dietary starch concentrations increased milk yield and protein content, but decreased ruminal and total-tract NDF digestibilities and milk fat content. Dry matter intake, total-tract starch digestibility, and milk protein concentration decreased as forage NDF in the diet increased. Total-tract starch digestibility was positively related to ruminal (percentage of starch intake) and postruminal (percentage of duodenal flow) starch digestibilities. PMID:23164230

  13. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  14. Effects of dehydrated lucerne and soya bean meal on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion, and methane and nitrogen losses in dairy cows receiving two different forages.

    PubMed

    Doreau, M; Ferlay, A; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

    2014-03-01

    Dehydrated lucerne is used as a protein source in dairy cow rations, but little is known about the effects of lucerne on greenhouse gas production by animals. Eight Holstein dairy cows (average weight: 582 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. They received diets based on either maize silage (M) or grass silage (G) (45% of diet on dry matter (DM) basis), with either soya bean meal (15% of diet DM) completed with beet pulp (15% of diet DM) (SP) or dehydrated lucerne (L) (30% of diet DM) as protein sources; MSP, ML, GSP and GL diets were calculated to meet energy requirements for milk production by dairy cows and degradable protein for rumen microbes. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not differ among diets (18.0 kg/day DMI); milk production was higher with SP diets than with L diets (26.0 v. 24.1 kg/day), but milk production did not vary with forage type. Milk fatty-acid (FA) composition was modified by both forage and protein sources: L and G diets resulted in less saturated FA, less linoleic acid, more trans-monounsaturated FA, and more linolenic acid than SP and M diets, respectively. Enteric methane (CH4) production, measured by the SF6 tracer method, was higher for G diets than for M diets, but did not differ with protein source. The same effects were observed when CH4 was expressed per kg milk. Minor effects of diets on rumen fermentation pattern were observed. Manure CH4 emissions estimated from faecal organic matter were negatively related to diet digestibility and were thus higher for L than SP diets, and higher for M than G diets; the resulting difference in total CH4 production was small. Owing to diet formulation constraints, N intake was higher for SP than for L diets; interaction between forage type and protein source was significant for N intake. The same statistical effects were found for N in milk. Faecal and urinary N losses were determined from total faeces and urine collection. Faecal N output was lower for M than for G diets but

  15. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  16. Nutrient demand interacts with legume particle length to affect digestion responses and rumen pool sizes in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Ying, Y; Allen, M S

    2012-05-01

    Effects of legume particle length on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, and digestion and passage kinetics, and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 19-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 22.8 to 32.4 kg/d (mean=26.5 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 22.9 to 62.4 kg/d (mean=35.1 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing alfalfa silage chopped to (1) 19 mm (long cut, LC) or (2) 10 mm (short cut, SC) theoretical length of cut as the sole forage. Alfalfa silages contained approximately 43% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diets contained approximately 47% forage and 20% forage NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period, when cows were fed a common diet, and used as a covariate. Main effects of legume particle length and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Alfalfa particle length and its interaction with pDMI did not affect milk yield or rumen pH. The LC diet decreased milk fat concentration more per kilogram of pDMI increase than the SC diet and increased yields of milk fat and fat-corrected milk less per kilogram of pDMI increase than the SC diet, resulting in a greater benefit for LC at low pDMI and for SC at high pDMI. The LC diet tended to decrease DMI compared with the SC diet. Ruminal digestion and passage rates of feed fractions did not differ between LC and SC and were not related to level of intake. The LC diet tended to decrease the rate of ruminal turnover for NDF but increased NDF rumen pools at a slower rate than the SC diet as pDMI increased. This indicated that the faster NDF turnover rate did not counterbalance the higher DMI for SC, resulting in larger NDF rumen pools for SC than LC. As p

  17. Crop processing and chop length of corn silage: effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Jirovec, A G; Shinners, K J; Coors, J G

    2000-06-01

    Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut without processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theoretical length of cut with processing at a 1-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 71 d in milk at trial initiation were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods; one square was comprised of ruminally cannulated cows for rumen measurements. Corn silage treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 50% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 50% corn and soybean meal based concentrate (dry matter basis). Dry matter intake (25.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d) and milk (46.0 vs. 44.8 kg/ d) and fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d) yields were higher for the processed corn silage treatments compared with the control corn silage. Within the processed corn silage treatments, there were no chop length effects on intake, milk production, or milk composition. Chewing activity was not different among the four corn silage treatments averaging 12 h/d. Total tract digestion of dietary starch was lower for control corn silage (95.1%) compared with fine, medium, and coarse processed corn silage treatments, which averaged 99.3%. Total tract digestion of dietary NDF was reduced for fine-processed corn silage compared with control corn silage and coarse-processed corn silage (28.4% vs. 33.9 and 33.7%, respectively). Processing corn silage improved dry matter intake, starch digestion, and lactation performance. Under the conditions of this study and with theoretical lengths of cut ranging from 0.95 to 1.90 cm, length of chop effects were minimal in processed corn silage. PMID:10877392

  18. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production. PMID:26289745

  19. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  20. Relationship between efficiency of nitrogen utilization and isotopic nitrogen fractionation in dairy cows: contribution of digestion v. metabolism?

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Fouillet, H; Huneau, J F; Fanchone, A; Doreau, M; Nozière, P; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-02-01

    Animal tissues are naturally 15N enriched relative to their diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet) has been correlated to the efficiency of N assimilation in different species. The rationale is that transamination and deamination enzymes, involved in amino acid metabolism are likely to preferentially convert amino groups containing 14N over 15N. However, in ruminants the contribution of rumen bacterial metabolism relative to animal tissues metabolism to naturally enrich animal proteins in terms of 15N has been not assessed yet. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of rumen and digestion processes on the relationship between Δ15Nanimal-diet and efficiency of N utilization for milk protein yield (milk N efficiency (MNE); milk N yield/N intake) as well as the relationship between the 15N natural abundance of rumen bacteria and the efficiency of N use at the rumen level. Solid- and liquid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins were obtained (n=16) from four lactating Holstein cows fed four different diets formulated at two metabolizable protein supplies (80% v. 110% of protein requirements) crossed by two different dietary energy source (diets rich in starch v. fiber). We measured the isotopic N fractionation between animal and diet (Δ15Nanimal-diet) in these different body pools. The Δ15Nanimal-diet was negatively correlated with MNE when measured in solid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins, with the strongest correlation found for the latter. However, our results showed a very weak 15N enrichment of duodenal digesta (Δ15Nduodenal digesta-diet mean value=0.42) compared with that observed in plasma proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet mean value=2.41). These data support the idea that most of the isotopic N fractionation observed in ruminant proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet) has a metabolic origin with very little direct impact of the overall digestion process on

  1. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages. PMID:23031792

  2. Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A

    2014-06-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p < 0.01). Chewing activity per kilogram of daily dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by the different diets tested. However, chewing activity significantly decreased for kilogram intake of NDF, but increased for peNDF > 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p < 0.01). Total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients significantly increased for DM, organic matter (p < 0.05) and NDF (p < 0.01) but decreased for crude protein (p < 0.05) as the proportion of SH was increased in the diets. Rumen pH value of cattle was not influenced by the diets. Including medium and high amounts of SH in the diets decreased DMI of the animals (p < 0.05) without any significant effect on their daily milk or 4% fat-corrected milk production. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the NDF from a non-forage fibre source like SH had a lower potential for stimulating chewing activity than did forage NDF. Despite this, the small size of dietary particles increased not only the chewing activity per kilogram of peNDF intake but also saliva secretion as well as the potential for rumen to neutralize acids. The findings of this study demonstrate the greater differences in peNDF > 8 among the diets

  3. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    with linseed supply in diets based on hay or corn silage did not improve digestibility or milk yield. Milk efficiency (kg of FPCM/kg of DM intake) was improved with linseed supply up to H10 in H diets and was unchanged in CS diets. Lower CH4 enteric emission from dairy cows fed linseed helps limit the environmental footprint of ruminant livestock. PMID:26947299

  4. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  5. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  6. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  7. Effects of alfalfa hay particle size in high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat: chewing behavior, total-tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kahyani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of increasing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) intake of lactating dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat on intake, eating behavior, diet sorting, chewing activity, total-tract digestibility, and milk production and composition. Diets contained 24% alfalfa hay (AH), 16% corn silage, 58% concentrate, and 2% yellow grease [dry matter (DM) basis], and dietary peNDF content was increased by varying the particle size (PS) of the AH. Nine multiparous cows averaging 87.8 ± 14.8d in milk and weighing 653 ± 53 kg were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered 1 of 3 total mixed rations that varied in PS of AH: fine, medium, and long, with a geometric mean particle length of 3.00, 3.57 and 3.87 mm, respectively. Increasing PS quadratically affected DM intake (DMI; 24.7, 25.4, and 23.7 kg/d, for fine, medium, and long, respectively), but cumulative DMI at 2, 4, and 6h after feeding was similar across treatments, averaging 23.4, 35.6 and 46.4% of total DMI for the 3 time points, respectively. Increased peNDF intake did not affect feed sorting, but increased daily eating time, and eating and total chewing time per kilogram of DMI. Daily rumination time exhibited a quadratic response, with highest rumination time for the medium diet. Dietary PS had no effects on digestibility in the total tract, but we observed, for fine, medium, and long diets, quadratic responses in milk production (41.5, 43.3, and 40.4 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk production, and milk protein yield. Milk fat content decreased linearly with increasing PS, but milk fat content and fat:protein ratio were low for all treatments, likely due to adding unsaturated fat to a diet containing a high level of nonfiber carbohydrates (42.2% of DM). The composition, degree of saturation, and total conjugated linoleic acid content of fatty acids in milk fat were not affected by

  8. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  9. Effects of canola meal pellet conditioning temperature and time on ruminal and intestinal digestion, hourly effective degradation ratio, and potential nitrogen to energy synchronization in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuewei; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-01

    The increase in bio-oil production in North America has resulted in millions of tonnes of co-products: canola meal and carinata meal. Little research has been conducted to determine the effect of pellet conditioning temperature, time, and their interaction on processing-induced changes in nutrient digestibility in the rumen and intestine (in vitro) of dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of conditioning temperature (70, 80, and 90°C), time (50 and 75 s), and their interaction (temperature × time) during the pelleting of canola meal on (1) rumen degradation kinetics and effective rumen degradability of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber; (2) intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP); and (3) hourly effective rumen degradation ratio and potential N to energy synchronization in dairy cattle. The results showed that the temperature and duration of pellet conditioning significantly altered the degradation characteristics of nutrients in the rumen. Pelleting increased CP degradation in the rumen, and CP digestion site was shifted to the rumen rather than to the small intestine. When conditioning temperature was set 80°C, the rumen degradation of CP and neutral detergent fiber was highest, but postrumen digestion was lowest. With respect to intestinal digestion, the available CP for intestinal digestion became less because of reduced RUP supply to the small intestine. The pelleting process tended to significantly affect the intestinal digestibility of RUP. However, the total digestible CP content of canola meal was not affected. In conclusion, pelleting induced changes in rumen and intestinal digestion profiles, and altered the potential N to energy synchronization and hourly effective rumen degradation ratio of canola meal in dairy cattle. PMID:26409974

  10. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the digestive tract activates inflammatory gene expression and inhibits casein synthesis in the mammary glands of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Xu, Lei; Guo, Junfei; Jin, Di; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2016-03-01

    To meet the nutrition requirements of lactation, dairy cows are usually fed a high concentrate diet (HC). However, high-grain feeding causes subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), a metabolic disorder that causes milk protein depression. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) released in the rumen on inflammatory gene expression and casein synthesis in mammary glands of lactating dairy cows fed a HC diet. We found that milk protein was significantly decreased in the HC group after 15 weeks of feeding. Overall, LPS concentrations in the rumen fluid, lacteal artery and vein were increased in the HC group. Transcriptome microarray was used to evaluate alterations in the signaling pathway in mammary glands. Signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses were activated, whereas those involved in protein synthesis were inhibited in the HC group. mRNA expression involved in inflammatory responses, including that of TLR4, NF-кB and pro-inflammatory genes, was increased in the HC group, while αs1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), mTOR and S6K gene expression were decreased. Moreover, protein expression was consistent with the corresponding gene expression. After feeding with an HC diet, LPS derived from the rumen increased inflammatory gene expression and inhibited casein synthesis in the mammary glands of lactating dairy cows fed a HC diet. PMID:26893357

  11. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the digestive tract activates inflammatory gene expression and inhibits casein synthesis in the mammary glands of lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Xu, Lei; Guo, Junfei; Jin, Di; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    To meet the nutrition requirements of lactation, dairy cows are usually fed a high concentrate diet (HC). However, high-grain feeding causes subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), a metabolic disorder that causes milk protein depression. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) released in the rumen on inflammatory gene expression and casein synthesis in mammary glands of lactating dairy cows fed a HC diet. We found that milk protein was significantly decreased in the HC group after 15 weeks of feeding. Overall, LPS concentrations in the rumen fluid, lacteal artery and vein were increased in the HC group. Transcriptome microarray was used to evaluate alterations in the signaling pathway in mammary glands. Signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses were activated, whereas those involved in protein synthesis were inhibited in the HC group. mRNA expression involved in inflammatory responses, including that of TLR4, NF-кB and pro-inflammatory genes, was increased in the HC group, while αs1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), mTOR and S6K gene expression were decreased. Moreover, protein expression was consistent with the corresponding gene expression. After feeding with an HC diet, LPS derived from the rumen increased inflammatory gene expression and inhibited casein synthesis in the mammary glands of lactating dairy cows fed a HC diet. PMID:26893357

  12. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  13. The effect of heat treatment of whole cottonseed on site and extent of protein digestion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pena, F; Tagari, H; Satter, L D

    1986-05-01

    Six mature Holstein cows in late lactation and fitted with permanent ruminal, duodenal and ideal cannulae were used in a double 3 X 3 Latin-square design to study the effect of roasting or extruding of cottonseed on protein degradation in the rumen and availability of amino acids in the small intestine. Raw whole cottonseed (CS), extruded whole cottonseed (ECS), and roasted whole cottonseed (RCS) were fed in diets containing 17% crude protein and composed of 42% whole cottonseed, 26% corn grain and 29% hay supplemented with dry molasses, vitamins and minerals. The diets were isocaloric and contained 1.86 Mcal NEL/kg. Acid detergent lignin was used as a digesta marker, and diaminopimelic acid as a bacterial marker. Ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P less than .05) for CS than for ECS and RCS (15.7, 12.7 and 10.2 mM). Concentrations of isobutyrate (1.3 vs 0.8 and 0.8 mM) and isovalerate (1.8 vs 1.1 and 1.1 mM) were higher (P less than .05) for CS compared with ECS and RCS. Non-ammonia nitrogen flow to the duodenum (g/d) was 248, 300 and 350 for CS, ECS, and RCS, with RCS higher (P less than .05) that in CS. Apparent absorption of total amino acids in the small intestine was .80, 1.01, and 1.24 kg/d, for CS, ECS, and RCS, respectively, with RCS higher (P less than .05) than CS. Apparent absorption of essential and non-essential amino acids was 376, 425; 458, 548;610 and 628 g/d for CS, ECS and RCS respectively, with RCS higher (P less than .05) than CS. PMID:3755130

  14. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  15. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. PMID:26298755

  16. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, Garrett R

    2013-07-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. PMID:23809900

  17. Validation of an approach to predict total-tract fiber digestibility using a standardized in vitro technique for different diets fed to high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Ruh, K; Combs, D K

    2015-04-01

    The experimental objective was to validate an in vitro model to predict total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility in dairy cattle. Twenty-one diets from 7 studies conducted at University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for in vitro fiber digestibility. Forages varied among diets (corn, alfalfa, tall and meadow fescue, and wheat straw silages) and nutrient composition (ranges: NDF = 22.5 to 33.8%; crude protein = 15.8 to 18.9%; nonfiber carbohydrates = 38.0 to 51.0%). Total-tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD) observed in in vivo trials was determined using different markers as described in the individual studies. The in vitro TTNDFD model predicted total-tract fiber digestibility from the proportion of total NDF potentially digestible (pdNDF), rate of pdNDF degradation, and rate of passage of pdNDF. The model predicted TTNDFD similar to in vivo measurements. The relationship between TTNDFD measured in vivo and TTNDFD predicted by the in vitro assay was significant (R(2) = 0.68). The relationship between in vitro 30-h NDF digestibility values and in vivo total-tract NDF digestibility values was not significant, whereas in vitro 48-h NDF digestibility values were correlated (R(2) = 0.30) with in vivo TTNDFD measurements. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) showed a negative relationship (R(2) = 0.40) with TTNDFD in vivo. Each 1-percentage-unit increase of iNDF resulted in a decrease of 0.96 percentage units of total-tract NDF digestibility; however, iNDF by itself was not a good predictor of TTNDFD because of the difference among the means. This study showed that an in vitro TTNDFD model that uses iNDF, pdNDF, and rates of pdNDF digestion and passage can predict (R(2) = 0.68) total-tract NDF digestibility. Most importantly, we demonstrated the ability to predict total-tract fiber digestibility from a model based on in vitro NDF degradation, which could improve our ability to optimize forage utilization and milk production. PMID:25648802

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  19. Association of Bio-energy Processing-Induced Protein Molecular Structure Changes with CNCPS-Based Protein Degradation and Digestion of Co-products in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-25

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a model to predict Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) protein degradation and digestion based on protein molecular structure changes induced by bio-energy processing in different types of co-products (CoPR, CoPC, CoPS = co-products from bioprocessing of rapeseed, canola seed, and soybean, respectively). The results showed that the inherent structure changes induced by the processing had a close relationship with CNCPS predicted protein degradable, undegradable, and digestible contents. The amide I to II ratio and α-helix to β-sheet ratio could be used to predict total degradable protein (R(2) = 0.99, RSD = 0.84, P < 0.001). Total CNCPS intestinal digestible protein could be predicted by protein structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 0.33, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the processing-induced protein molecular structure changes were highly linked to protein nutritive value of the co-products and could be used as predictors for CNCPS protein degradation and digestion in dairy cattle. PMID:27112731

  20. Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 17±3, 21±3, and 24±3 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ≥20mm at 17±3 or at 21±3 DIM or that had a corpus luteum <20mm in 2 consecutive examinations were determined to be cyclic by 21±3 DIM. The following information was collected for up to 14 DIM: calving season, parity, calving problems, metabolic problems, metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 17±3 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P≤0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ≤76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 21±3 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as

  1. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of forage particle size, level, source, and preservation method on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Imani, M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the effect of forage particle size (FPS) on nutrient intake, digestibility, and milk production of dairy cattle was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2014). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of forage level, source, and preservation method on heterogeneity of the results for FPS. A total of 46 papers and 28 to 91 trials (each trial consisting of 2 treatment means) that reported changes in FPS in the diet of dairy cattle were identified. Estimated effect sizes of FPS were calculated on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. Intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased with decreasing FPS (0.527 and 0.166kg/d, respectively) but neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (0.6%) with decreasing FPS. Heterogeneity (amount of variation among studies) was significant for all intake and digestibility parameters and the improvement in feed intake only occurred with decreasing FPS for diets containing a high level of forage (>50%). Also, the improvement in dry matter intake due to lowering FPS occurred for diets containing silage but not hay. Digestibility of dry matter increased with decreasing FPS when the forage source of the diet was not corn. Milk production consistently increased (0.541kg/d; heterogeneity=19%) and milk protein production increased (0.02kg/d) as FPS decreased, but FCM was not affected by FPS. Likewise, milk fat percentage decreased (0.058%) with decreasing FPS. The heterogeneity of milk parameters (including fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein), other than milk production, was also significant. Decreasing FPS in high-forage diets (>50%) increased milk protein production by 0.027%. Decreasing FPS increased milk protein content in corn forage-based diets and milk fat and protein percentage in hay-based diets. In conclusion, FPS has the potential to affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows, but its effects depend upon

  2. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH. PMID:25599766

  3. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature. PMID:24790232

  4. Northern New England's Dairy Manure digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.E.; Bennett, S.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy Manure digesters are complimentary to systematized manure handling providing unique opportunities for by-product use and pollution control. Separated solids used for bedding are a valued by-product in addition to cash income from electric power sold.

  5. Effect of varying total mixed ration particle size on rumen digesta and fecal particle size and digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maulfair, D D; Fustini, M; Heinrichs, A J

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of feeding rations of different particle sizes on rumen digesta and fecal matter particle size. Four rumen-cannulated, multiparous, Holstein cows (104±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diets consisted of 29.4% corn silage, 22.9% ground corn, 17.6% alfalfa haylage, and 11.8% dry grass hay [20% of forage dry matter (DM)] on a DM basis. Dry grass hay was chopped to 4 different lengths to vary the total mixed ration (TMR) particle size. Geometric mean particle sizes of the rations were 4.46, 5.10, 5.32, and 5.84 mm for short, medium, long, and extra long diets, respectively. The ration affected rumen digesta particle size for particles ≥3.35 mm, and had no effect on distribution of particles <3.35 mm. All rumen digesta particle size fractions varied by time after feeding, with soluble particle fractions increasing immediately after feeding and 0.15, 0.6, and 1.18-mm particle size fractions decreasing slightly after feeding. Particle fractions >1.18 mm had ration by time interactions. Fecal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and indigestible NDF concentrations decreased with increasing TMR particle size. Fecal particle size expressed as total geometric mean particle length followed this same tendency. Fecal particle size, expressed as retained geometric mean particle length, averaged 1.13 mm with more than 36% of particles being larger than 1.18 mm. All fecal nutrient concentrations measured were significantly affected by time after feeding, with NDF and indigestible NDF increasing after feeding and peaking at about 12h later and then decreasing to preprandial levels. Starch concentrations were determined to have the opposite effect. Additionally, apparent digestibility of diet nutrients was analyzed and DM digestibility tended to decrease with increasing TMR particle size, whereas other nutrient digestibilities were not different among rations. These results

  6. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    . The increased milk yield observed in experiment 1 was not observed in experiment 2. Adding 8% of MB to lactating cow diets had a mixed effect on DMI and milk production. Milk component yields and milk quality were not affected. Feeding this level of MB presents a hemolytic danger to lactating dairy cows. PMID:21605775

  7. Orchardgrass vs. alfalfa for replacing dairy-cow grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is currently the predominant forage fed to lactating dairy cows in the Midwestern United States however interest in incorporating grasses into lactating dairy cow diets has recently been rejuvenated. Due to differences in chemical composition and physical characteristics of grasses and legum...

  8. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  9. Factors predisposing dairy and beef cows to grass tetany.

    PubMed

    Harris, D J; Lambell, R G; Oliver, C J

    1983-08-01

    In a study of dairy and beef herds on 120 farms in south-western Victoria, losses attributed to grass tetany were shown to have been an important cause of economic loss during the cooler months of 1980. Thin dairy cows had a higher incidence of suspected grass tetany than dairy cows in moderate body condition, and both thin and fat beef cows had a higher incidence than beef cows in moderate body condition. A lower incidence was found among dairy cows when the available pasture or hay contained a high percentage of clover, when cows in moderate body condition had been grazed on pastures topdressed with low rates of potassium fertilisers, and when cows had been rotated onto fresh pasture at least daily rather than at 2 or 3 day intervals. The incidence among dairy cows was also associated with the length of available pasture, the correlation being positive for cows of moderate body condition, but negative for thin cows. Possible reasons for the associations are discussed. Only a small proportion of farmers adopted measures to prevent grass tetany, and those who did often applied them inefficiently. Practicable control measures are suggested on the basis of the survey results. PMID:6639526

  10. Associations among digestive tract lesions and abnormal serum chemistries in cull dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All animals accrue tissue damage with age, but types and prevalence of damage are not known. Tissue lesions could signal impaired organ function which could affect performance. The study objective was to assess prevalence of microscopic lesions in digestive tracts of cull dairy cows, and determine a...

  11. Ultrasonography of the rumen of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the ultrasonographic findings of the rumen in 45 healthy dairy cows. Results The cows were scanned on both sides using a 5.0 MHz transducer. The dorsal visible margin of the rumen ran parallel to the lung from cranioventral to caudodorsal. It was furthest from the dorsal midline at the 9th intercostal space (48.3 ± 9.24 cm) and closest at the 12th intercostal space (22.4 ± 3.27 cm). The longitudinal groove, which could be clearly identified at all examination sites because it appeared as a triangular notch, formed the ventral margin of the dorsal sac of the rumen. The dorsal sac of the rumen was largest at the caudal flank (40.3 ± 6.33 cm), where it was adjacent to the abdominal wall. The ventral sac of the rumen extended across the ventral midline into the right hemiabdomen and its ventral margin had a largely horizontal craniocaudal course. The height of the ventral sac of the rumen exceeded that of the dorsal sac at all examination sites; the maximum height was measured at the 12th intercostal space (62.6 ± 9.53 cm). The dorsal gas cap, characterised ultrasonographically by typical reverberation artifacts, was visible in all cows from the 12th intercostal space to the caudal flank. It was largest at the 12th intercostal space (20.5 ± 7.03 cm). The transition from the gas cap to the fibre mat was marked by the abrupt cessation of the reverberation artifacts. It was not possible to differentiate a fibre mat and a ventral fluid phase. The rumen could be imaged from the right side in 21 cows (47%). Conclusions Ultrasonography is well suited for the detailed examination of the rumen of cows. The reference values obtained from this study add to the diagnostic tools that are available for the assessment of bovine patients. PMID:23497545

  12. Hyperplastic goiter in two adult dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chee Bing; Herdt, Thomas H; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Iodine excess and resultant hyperplastic goiter are well documented in neonatal ruminants, but little is reported on iodine excess in adult ruminants and associated histological changes of the thyroid gland. Two adult Holstein cows from a Michigan dairy herd that had lost several other animals had nonspecific clinical signs of illness and were submitted for necropsy. Thyroid glands of one of these 2 animals were grossly and markedly enlarged, and histologically, thyroid glands from both animals had regions of cystic nodular hyperplasia and follicular atrophy. Thyroid glands from both animals had markedly elevated iodine concentrations. Investigation into the potential source of excessive iodine on the farm revealed multiple sources of supplemental dietary iodine and probable uneven feed and mineral mixing. Based on the findings of this investigation, adult cattle could be susceptible to excessive doses of iodine. Possibility of previous iodine deficiency before supplementation period, with subsequent development and persistence of thyroid hyperplasia and cystic change, cannot be completely excluded. Current findings suggested that iodine excess in adult cattle can result in nodular hyperplastic goiter. Use of iodized salt in mineral supplements in adult dairy herds is common practice, and accidental excessive iodine supplement may be more common than reported. Recognizing gross and histological thyroid gland changes, consisting of concurrent cystic follicular hyperplasia, atrophy, and fibrosis should raise suspicion of iodine excess and/or prior deficiency in a cattle herd, and ancillary tests such as serum iodine measurements should be part of the diagnostic workup in suspected cases. PMID:25292195

  13. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  14. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  15. Milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. Systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. Encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. Biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2014 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:25748187

  16. Factors associated with occurrence and recovery of nonambulatory dairy cows in the United States.

    PubMed

    Green, A L; Lombard, J E; Garber, L P; Wagner, B A; Hill, G W

    2008-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare characteristics of US dairy operations that had one or more nonambulatory cows (unable to rise for any period of time) (cases) with operations that had no nonambulatory cows (controls) during 2004. A secondary objective was to describe factors associated with recovery of the last nonambulatory cow on the operation during 2004. Case dairy operations (n = 1,822) more often fed a total mixed ration [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.4], produced more than 9,090 kg of milk (OR = 2.8; CI: 1.8-4.5), and were more likely to be of medium to large herd size (100 or more head of adult cows, OR = 3.7; CI: 2.2-6.2) compared with control dairies (n = 151). Compared with operations where the predominant flooring surface on which lactating cows stood or walked in winter was pasture, operations where pasture was not the predominant surface were at increased risk of having nonambulatory cows (OR = 4.7; CI: 2.2-10.2). Cows nonambulatory for less than 24 h were more likely to recover compared with cows nonambulatory for 24 h or more (OR = 3.0; CI: 2.0-4.4). Cows that received calcium, phosphorus, or potassium while non-ambulatory were more likely to recover (OR = 3.6; CI: 2.1-6.1) than cattle that did not receive these treatments. Cattle that were not repositioned periodically were more likely to recover (OR = 2.1; CI: 1.4-3.1), as were cattle that were not treated by a veterinarian before becoming nonambulatory (OR = 1.9; CI: 1.1-3.3). These findings are consistent with prolonged recumbency and prior history of health issues, respectively. Nonambulatory cattle with hypocalcemia were more likely to recover (OR = 6.0; CI: 3.4-10.7) compared with nonambulatory cows with all other causes of a nonambulatory condition (analyzed collectively as a single variable but including cancer, clinical mastitis, digestive conditions, metabolic imbalances, neurological problems, respiratory disease, other, unknown). The results

  17. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  18. Management of Reproductive Disease in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert O

    2016-07-01

    Postpartum diseases are common in dairy cows, and their incidence contributes to reduced fertility and increased risk of culling, making their prevention and management extremely important. Reproductive efficiency has a major impact on economic success of any dairy production unit. Optimizing reproductive efficiency contributes to overall efficiency of production units, minimizing environmental impacts and contributing to sustainability of food production. Additionally, control of reproductive diseases is important for maintenance of health and welfare of dairy cows; for minimizing use of antibiotics; and ensuring a wholesome, safe, and nutritious product. PMID:27324451

  19. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio and intake level on utilization of early vegetative alfalfa silage by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Lamas, G; Combs, D K

    1991-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to measure the effects of intake and forage: grain ratio on utilization of early maturity alfalfa silage in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, diets with three forage: concentrate ratios (percentage of silage, percentage NDF): low (56, 28.3), medium (71, 31.0), or high (86, 33.4) were fed ad libitum to six lactating, ruminally cannulated cows in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. The same diets were then fed at 1.3 x maintenance intake to six gestating dry cows. Dairy milk yield and percentage and yield of milk protein and casein were higher for cows fed the low silage diet than for cows receiving other treatments. Fat percentage and yield were not different among diets. Lactating cows consumed more DM on low silage (23.0 kg/d) than on medium or high silage diets (21.4 kg), but NDF intake as percentage of BW was higher for the high silage diet. Digestibility of DM in the lactating (70.7, 69.9, and 67.5% for low, medium, and high) and dry cows (76.7, 73.5, and 69.0%, respectively) decreased as the level of silage increased. Depression in digestibility was greater as dietary concentrate increased. Cows fed the high silage diet had a faster fractional passage rate of solids and higher rumen fill. Digestion of concentrate cell walls appeared to be depressed more than alfalfa cell walls as intake increased. PMID:1646242

  20. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decreases milk production but increases n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFLAX) on milk yield and fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112 ± 68 da...

  1. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. PMID:26010136

  2. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  3. Influence of mechanical processing on utilization of corn silage by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bal, M A; Wu, Z; Moreira, V R; Shaver, R D; Satter, L D; Shinners, K J; Walgenbach, R P

    2000-11-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the influence of mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by lactating dairy cows. Total mixed rations contained either unprocessed or processed corn silage harvested between 1/4 and 3/4 milk line. In trial 1, 12 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated double switchback design with 21-d periods. Intake of dry matter (DM) was increased 1.2 kg/d by processing, but milk yield was unaffected. Processing did not affect apparent total-tract DM digestibility, but processing tended to lower starch and corn excretion in feces and reduced concentration of sieved corn kernel particles in feces. In trial 2, 42 Holstein cows were used in an 18-wk randomized complete-block design. Intake of DM and milk yield were unaffected by processing, but milk fat percent was increased 0.35 percentage units by processing. Processing tended to increase total-tract digestibility of starch, but reduced organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. In trial 3, 30 Holstein cows were used in a 15-wk randomized complete block design. There was no influence of mechanical processing on intake or lactation performance in this trial. Despite indications of increased starch digestion in two trials and increased DM intake in one trial, effects of processing corn silage on lactation performance were minimal with corn silage at the maturity and moisture contents used in these trials. PMID:11104271

  4. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  5. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  6. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. PMID:24359828

  7. Genetic improvement of dairy cow reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Berglund, B

    2008-07-01

    The welfare of cow along with profitability in production are important issues in sustainable animal breeding programmes. Along with an intense/intensive selection for increased milk yield, reproductive performance has declined in many countries, in part due to an unfavourable genetic relationship. The largely unchanged genetic trend in female fertility and calving traits for Scandinavian Red breeds shows that it is possible to avoid deterioration in these traits if they are properly considered in the breeding programme. Today's breeding is international with a global selection and extensive use of the best bulls. The Nordic countries have traditionally recorded and performed genetic evaluation for a broad range of functional traits including reproduction. In recent years many other countries have also implemented genetic evaluation for these traits. Thus, the relative emphasis of dairy cattle breeding objectives has gradually shifted from production to functional traits such as reproduction. Improved ways of recording traits, e.g. physiological measures, early indicator traits, assisted reproductive techniques and increased knowledge of genes and their regulation may improve the genetic selection strategies and have large impact on present and future genetic evaluation programmes. Extensive data bases with phenotypic recordings of traits for individuals and their pedigree are a prerequisite. Quantitative trait loci have been associated to the reproductive complex. Most important traits, including reproduction traits are regulated by a multitude of genes and environmental factors in a complex relationship, however. Genomic selection might therefore be important in future breeding programmes. Information on single nucleotide polymorphism has already been introduced in the selection programmes of some countries. PMID:18638109

  8. Cystic ovarian follicles and thyroid activity in the dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Mutinati, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

    2013-05-01

    Thyroid activity affects the functionality of the reproductive axis and thyroid dysfunction has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome, in human medicine. This study investigates serum17- estradiol, progesterone, thyrotropic and thyroid hormone levels, in cyclic dairy cows on heat (Group H) and in dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts (Group FC). Both 17- estradiol and progesterone serum concentrations were statistically higher in cystic than in cyclic cows (estradiol: 8.51±1.91 vs 6.32±1pg/mL) (progesterone: 0.49±0.17 vs 0.13±0.03ng/mL), whereas TSH and fT4 serum concentrations were statistically lower in cows with cystic ovarian follicles (COF), compared to cyclic ones (TSH: 2.48±1.31 vs 3.56±1.03ng/mL) (fT4: 5.86±1.69 vs 8.63±1.08). fT3 serum levels were similar, in both cystic and cyclic subjects (2.94±0.65 vs 3.02±0.9, respectively). Based on these results it was decided to examine the function of the thyrothropic axis of dairy cows in a similar manner to that conducted on humans. If severe hypothyroidism should be found, a hormone replacement therapy could be attempted in cystic cows refractory to "ordinary" therapies. PMID:23567219

  9. Brown midrib corn shredlage in diets for high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vanderwerff, L M; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-08-01

    A novel method of harvesting whole-plant corn silage, shredlage, may increase kernel processing and physically effective fiber. Improved fiber effectiveness may be especially advantageous when feeding brown midrib (BMR) corn hybrids, which have reduced lignin content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding TMR containing BMR corn shredlage (SHRD) compared with BMR conventionally processed corn silage (KP) or KP plus chopped alfalfa hay (KPH) on intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. The KP was harvested using conventional rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 19mm of theoretical length of cut, whereas SHRD was harvested using novel cross-grooved rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 26mm of theoretical length of cut. Holstein cows (n=120; 81±8 d in milk at trial initiation), stratified by parity, days in milk, and milk yield, were randomly assigned to 15 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment diets, SHRD, KP, or KPH, in a completely randomized design using a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. The TMR contained (dry matter basis) KP or SHRD forages (45%), alfalfa silage (10%), and a concentrate mixture (45%). Hay replaced 10% of KP silage in the KPH treatment TMR (dry matter basis). Milk, protein, and lactose yields were 3.4, 0.08, and 0.16kg/d greater, respectively, for cows fed KP and SHRD than KPH. A week by treatment interaction was detected for milk yield, such that cows fed SHRD produced or tended to produce 1.5kg/d per cow more milk, on average, than cows fed KP during 6 of the 14 treatment weeks. Component-corrected milk yields were similar among treatments. Cows fed KPH had greater milk fat concentration than cows fed KP and SHRD (3.67 vs. 3.30% on average). Consumption of dry matter, rumination activity

  10. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  11. The high producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, H; Smith, RF; Royal, MD; Knight, CH; Sheldon, IM

    2009-01-01

    Contents: Intensive genetic selection has resulted in modern dairy cow with very high milk yields but reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to get enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation and the animals require considerable veterinary attention in the early period after calving. Both genetic and management changes to increase the persistency of lactations would reduce the number and intensity of clinical risk periods throughout a cow's life without compromising milk output. PMID:17688598

  12. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

  13. Vitamin D3 toxicity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Littledike, E T; Horst, R L

    1982-05-01

    Large parenteral doses of vitamin D3 (15 to 17.5 x 10(6) IU vitamin D3) were associated with prolonged hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and large increases of vitamin D3 and its metabolites in the blood plasma of nonlactating nonpregnant and pregnant Jersey cows. Calcium concentrations 1 day postpartum were higher in cows treated with vitamin D3 about 32 days prepartum (8.8 mg/100 ml) than in control cows (5.5 mg/100 ml). None of the cows treated with vitamin D3 showed signs of milk fever during the peripartal period; however, 22% of the control cows developed clinical signs of milk fever during this period. Signs of vitamin D3 toxicity were not observed in nonlactating nonpregnant cows; however, pregnant cows commonly developed severe signs of vitamin D3 toxicity and 10 of 17 cows died. There was widespread metastatic calcification in the cows that died. Because of the extreme toxicity of vitamin D3 in pregnant Jersey cows and the low margin of safety between doses of vitamin D3 that prevent milk fever and doses that induce milk fever, we concluded that vitamin D3 cannot be used practically to prevent milk fever when injected several weeks prepartum. PMID:6286738

  14. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) as an alternative forage for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alemu, A W; Doepel, L

    2011-08-01

    Fenugreek is a novel forage crop in Canada that is generating interest as an alternative to alfalfa for dairy cows. To evaluate the value of fenugreek haylage relative to alfalfa haylage, six, second lactation Holstein cows (56 ± 8 days in milk), which were fitted with rumen cannulas (10 cm i.d., Bar Diamond Inc., Parma, ID, USA) were used in a replicated three × three Latin square design with 18-day periods. Diets consisting of 400 g/kg haylage, 100 g/kg barley silage and 500 g/kg concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. The haylage component constituted the dietary treatments: (i) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada F70 fenugreek (F70), (ii) Crop Development Center Quatro fenugreek (QUAT) and (iii) alfalfa (ALF). DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein and lactose yields were higher (P < 0.001) for cows fed ALF than fenugreek (FEN, average of F70 and QUAT). Milk fat of cows fed FEN contained lower concentrations of saturated, medium-chain and hypercholestrolemic fatty acids (FAs; P < 0.05) than that of cows fed ALF. Apparent total tract digestibility of DM and nutrients was not affected by treatments. Similarly, individual ruminal volatile FA concentrations and rumen pH (5.9) were not affected by treatments. Rumen ammonia-N concentration was higher for FEN than ALF (P < 0.001). Estimates of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) passage rate (P < 0.05) and NDF turnover rate (P < 0.001) in the rumen were higher for ALF than FEN. Our results suggest that although the digestibility of the FEN diets was not different from that of the ALF diet, fenugreek haylage has a lower feeding value than ALF for lactating dairy cows due in part to lower DMI and subsequently lower milk yield. PMID:22440282

  15. Evaluation of the change of serum copper and zinc concentrations of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Gao, Li; Guo, Changming; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Zhe

    2010-12-01

    Ketosis in dairy cows can lead to poor reproductive success and decreased milk production. Since the serum concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are closely associated with the health status of cows, we investigated whether serum concentrations of Cu and Zn differed in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis and healthy dairy cows. Blood samples of 19 healthy dairy cows and 15 subclinically ketotic dairy cows were collected from three farms, and the concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), Cu, and Zn were determined. Subclinically ketotic dairy cows had significantly higher BHBA and NEFA levels (p < 0.01) and lower glucose (p < 0.01) than healthy dairy cows. Likewise, serum concentrations of Zn were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. There was no significant difference observed for serum Cu concentration between healthy and subclinically ketotic dairy cows. This study suggests that a decreased serum Zn concentration could be a cause of decreased reproductive performance in subclinically ketotic dairy cows. PMID:20101474

  16. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of G. duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centr...

  17. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  18. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  19. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  20. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9 20 h) or the night (21 8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5±2.9 during the day and 70.1±4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes

  1. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Felipe Leite; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility. PMID:26898688

  2. Plasma exosome profiles from dairy cows with divergent fertility phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M D; Scholz-Romero, K; Reed, S; Peiris, H N; Koh, Y Q; Meier, S; Walker, C G; Burke, C R; Roche, J R; Rice, G; Salomon, C

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions may be influenced by neighboring cells, distant tissues, or local environmental factors. Exosomes are specific subsets of extracellular vesicles that internalize and deliver their content to near and distant sites. Exosomes may play a role in the maternal-embryo crosstalk vital for the recognition and maintenance of a pregnancy; however, their role in dairy cow reproduction has not been established. This study aimed to characterize the exosome profile in the plasma of 2 strains of dairy cow with divergent fertility phenotypes. Plasma was obtained and characterized on the basis of genetic ancestry as fertile (FERT; <23% North American genetics, New Zealand Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8) or subfertile (SUBFERT; >92% North American genetics, North American Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8). Exosomes were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation and characterized by size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis, NanoSight NS500, NanoSight Ltd., Amesbury, UK), the presence of CD63 (Western blot), and their morphology (electron microscopy). The total number of exosomes was determined by quantifying the immunoreactive CD63 (ExoELISA kit, System Biosciences), and the protein content established by mass spectrometry. Enriched exosome fractions were identified as cup-shape vesicles with diameters around 100 nm and positive for the CD63 marker. The concentration of exosomes was 50% greater in FERT cows. Mass spectrometry identified 104 and 117 proteins in FERT and SUBFERT cows, of which 23 and 36 were unique, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for proteins involved in immunomodulatory processes and cell-to-cell communication. Although the role of exosomes in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated, their quantification and content in models with divergent fertility phenotypes could provide novel information to support both physiological and genetic

  3. Dairy cow preference and usage of an alternative freestall design.

    PubMed

    Abade, C C; Fregonesi, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-02-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows was created to reduce the amount of bedding and labor needed to keep stalls clean. However, some aspects of stall design may restrict stall usage by cows. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cow preference and usage of a conventional stall (with a neck rail and metal stall dividers) and an alternative stall design with no neck rail or stall dividers other than a wooden board protruding slightly (8cm) above the lying surface. In the no-choice phase of the study, 48 cows were randomly assigned to 8 groups (of 6 cows each); groups were alternately allocated to the 2 treatments. Each group was observed for 7 d on one treatment and then switched to the alternate treatment for 7 d. For the choice phase (also 7 d), groups in adjacent pens were merged (to form 4 groups, each with 12 cows) and cows had free access to both treatments within the merged pen. In the no-choice phase, cows spent more time standing with 4 hooves in the alternative versus conventional freestall (0.60±0.06 vs. 0.05±0.06h/d), but stall designs had no effect on time spent lying down (13.2±0.4 vs. 12.9±0.4h/d). In the choice phase, cows spent more time lying down in the conventional freestall (9.4±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.8h/d) and more time standing with all 4 hooves in the alternative stall (0.24±0.03 vs. 0.02±0.03h/d). These results illustrate how different stall design features can affect different types of stall use; the more open design facilitated standing fully in the stall, but the protruding partitions likely made the stall less suitable for lying. PMID:25497827

  4. Effect of buserelin on pregnancy rates in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Drew, S B; Peters, A R

    1994-03-12

    Three field trials were carried out to assess the effect of buserelin on the fertility of dairy cows. In the first, 10 micrograms of buserelin was injected on the day of insemination; there were no significant effects on fertility in comparison with untreated control cows. In the second study the cows were injected 12 days after insemination; the mean pregnancy rates to first insemination were 53.4 and 65.4 per cent for the control and treated cows, respectively (P < 0.01) and the mean pregnancy rates to repeat inseminations were 52.9 and 59.4 per cent for the control and treated cows. The mean calving to conception intervals were 91.4 and 85.3 days (P < 0.01) and the incidences of barren cows were 10.2 and 5.2 per cent. In the third study the cows were injected with buserelin either eight days or 10 days after insemination; there were no significant effects on fertility in comparison with untreated control cows. PMID:8197694

  5. Effect of formic acid or formaldehyde treatment of alfalfa silage on nutrient utilization by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nagel, S A; Broderick, G A

    1992-01-01

    Third-cutting alfalfa with 37% DM was ensiled untreated or treated with either 2.8 g of formic acid/100 g of DM or .31 g of formaldehyde/100 g of DM and fed to lactating dairy cows in two experiments. Silage treated with formic acid had the lowest pH and concentrations of NPN, NH3, and total free AA. Both treatments decreased rumen in vitro protein degradability but did not affect in vitro rumen plus pepsin digestibility. In trial 1, part 1, 22 Holstein cows received a standard diet for 18 d postpartum and then were fed for 6 wk one of three diets containing 98% alfalfa silage DM. Although DMI was comparable, yields of milk, SCM, fat, protein, lactose, and SNF were higher when treated silages were fed. Plasma concentrations of branched-chain, essential, and total AA increased when formic acid-treated silage was fed. Rumen pH and concentrations of NH3 and VFA were similar for all diets. Rumen escape protein, estimated using 15N as a microbial protein marker, was increased more by formic acid than by formaldehyde treatment. In trial 1, part 2, supplementation with 4.8% fish meal increased concentration of milk protein and yields of milk, protein, lactose, and SNF. Milk urea concentration was higher on the untreated silage diet. Total tract apparent DM and N digestibilities were not affected by silage treatment, although fish meal decreased apparent DM digestibility. In trial 2, 80:20 alfalfa silage:ground corn diets were fed to 12 midlactation cows in a 3 x 3 Latin square study. Milk production was unaffected, but milk protein concentration and DMI were higher when treated silages were fed. Feeding treated silages increased plasma concentrations of branched-chain AA, essential AA, and total AA. Formaldehyde and especially formic acid treatment effectively improved utilization of nutrients in alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows. PMID:1541728

  6. NutriDense corn grain and corn silage for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benefield, B C; Liñeiro, M; Ipharraguerre, I R; Clark, J H

    2006-05-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of them surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas, were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square to compare the effects of whole-plant silage and grain produced from NutriDense (ND), leafy NutriDense (LND), or a conventional yellow dent (YD) hybrid on ruminal fermentation, total tract nutrient digestibility, and performance of lactating dairy cows. On a DM basis, diets contained 30.6% corn silage and 27.7% corn grain provided from the 3 hybrids according to the following combinations: 1) YD grain and YD silage, 2) YD grain and LND silage, 3) ND grain and YD silage, and 4) ND grain and LND silage. The average concentrations of crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber, and ether extract of LND silage and ND grain were higher, but the contents of nonfibrous carbohydrates and starch were lower than those of their YD counterparts. Although DM intake was similar among treatments, feeding ND grain, LND silage, or both reduced the intakes of nonfibrous carbohydrates and starch but increased the intake of ether extract. Apparent digestibility of starch in the total tract was highest for the diet that contained LND silage and YD grain, whereas the amount and percentage of ether extract that were apparently digested in the total tract was increased and tended to be increased, respectively, by the addition of ND grain, LND silage, or both to the diets. Ruminal fermentation parameters were unaffected by treatments except for the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the ruminal fluid, which tended to be increased by the feeding of ND grain, LND silage, or both. Production of milk, crude and true protein, fat, lactose, and total solids did not differ among diets. Concentration of milk urea nitrogen increased when the ND grain, LND silage, or both were fed to the cows. Results indicate that ND grain and LND silage were similar to the conventional grain and silage for the feeding of lactating dairy cows. PMID:16606727

  7. Invited review: udder health of dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Hovinen, M; Pyörälä, S

    2011-02-01

    Automatic milking (AM) is increasing in modern dairy farming, and over 8,000 farms worldwide currently use this technology. Automatic milking system is designed to replace conventional milking managed by a milker in a milking parlor or in tie stalls. Cows are generally milked more frequently in AM than in conventional milking, and milking is quarter-based instead of udder-based. Despite improvements in the milking process and often building of a new barn before the introduction of AM, udder health of the cows has not improved; on the contrary, problems may appear following conversion from conventional milking to AM. This review focuses on udder health of dairy cows in AM, and we discuss several aspects of cow and milking management in AM associated with udder health. Finally, adequate management methods in AM are suggested. According to several studies comparing udder health between automatic and conventional milking or comparing udder health before and after the introduction of automatic milking in the same herds, udder health has deteriorated during the first year or more after the introduction of AM. Automatic detection of subclinical and clinical mastitis and cleaning the teats before milking are challenges of AM. Failures in mastitis detection and milking hygiene pose a risk for udder health. These risk factors can partly be controlled by management actions taken by the farmer, but AM also needs further technical development. To maintain good udder health in AM, it is imperative that the barn is properly designed to keep the cows clean and the cow traffic flowing. Milking frequency must be maintained for every cow according to its stage of lactation and milk production. Careful observation of the cows and knowledge of how to use all data gathered from the system are also important. "Automatic" does not mean that the role of a competent herdsman is in any way diminished. PMID:21257025

  8. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P < 0.001) in cows suffering from ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry. PMID:26728033

  9. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    decreased and the acetate to propionate ratio was lower (P < 0.01) during the trial period. However, no differences for 24-h in sacco dry matter digestibility were detected among different periods (treatments) though NDF digestibility was reduced in the trial and post-trial periods (P < 0.01). Compared with pre-trial period, total ruminal bacteria, proteolytic and amylolytic bacteria in rumen enumerated by culture methods increased by 15.0%, 16.2% and 11.7%, respectively (P < 0.01) but protozoa decreased to 5.35 log10 cfu/ml (P < 0.01) during the trial period. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis natto improves milk production and milk components yield, decreases SCC and promotes the growth of total ruminal bacteria, proteolytic and amylolytic bacteria, which indicate that B. subtilis natto has potential to be applied as a probiotic for dairy cows. PMID:23031615

  10. Influence of corn silage hybrid type on lactation performance by Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Shaver, R D

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed nutridense (ND), dual-purpose (DP), or brown midrib (BM) corn silage hybrids at the same concentration in the diets. A secondary objective was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed NutriDense corn silage at a higher concentration in the diet. One hundred twenty-eight Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows (105 ± 38 d in milk) were stratified by breed and parity and randomly assigned to 16 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Three treatment total mixed rations (TMR; DP40, BM40, and ND40) contained 40% of dry matter (DM) from the respective corn silage hybrid and 20% of DM from alfalfa silage. The fourth treatment TMR had ND corn silage as the sole forage at 65% of DM (ND65). A 2-wk covariate adjustment period preceded the treatment period, with all pens receiving a TMR with equal proportions of DP40, BM40, and ND40. Following the covariate period, cows were fed their assigned treatment diets for 11 wk. nutridense corn silage had greater starch and lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content than DP or BM, resulting in ND40 having greater energy content (73.2% of total digestible nutrients, TDN) than DP40 or BM40 (71.9 and 71.4% TDN, respectively). Cows fed BM40 had greater milk yield than DP40, whereas ND40 tended to have greater milk yield and had greater protein and lactose yields compared with DP40. No differences in intake, component-corrected milk yields, or feed efficiency were detected between DP40, BM40, and ND40. Milk yield differences may be due to increased starch intake for ND40 and increased digestible NDF intake for BM40 compared with DP40. Intake and milk yield and composition were similar for ND40 compared with BM40, possibly due to counteracting effects of higher starch intake for ND40 and higher digestible NDF intake for BM40. Feeding ND65 reduced intake, and thus milk and component yields, compared with

  11. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

  12. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Røntved, C M; Sørensen, P; Herskin, M S

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2 d before (d -2 and -1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening milking on d 0, each cow received an intramammary infusion with 20 to 40 cfu of E. coli in 1 healthy front quarter. Paraclinical and bacteriological examinations were conducted to confirm infection. Half of the cows were subjected to liver and udder biopsies twice during the trial. Behavior was video-recorded on 5 consecutive days, d -2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared with that on the other days (16.6±1.1, 16.5±1.0, 13.2±1.2, 18.1±1.1, and 16.0±0.8% of time for d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 2, respectively). The duration of standing idle increased on d 0 compared with that on the control days and d 1 and 2 (29.4±2.6, 28.0±2.3, 39.1±2.6, 31.4±3.8, and 25.9±2.6% of time for d -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2, respectively). The frequency of self-grooming behavior per hour decreased in the initial 24h compared with that on d -2, -1, and 2 (4.1±0.8, 5.4±1.9, 3.2±0.6, 3.6±0.6, and 4.8±1.0 for d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 2, respectively). Likewise, duration of rumination and frequency of turning the head against the udder decreased in the first days after infection (rumination: 32.2±1.6, 34.8±1.8, 27.9±1.7, 30.0±2.6, and 34.8±1.7% of time; and frequency of turning head: 0.6

  13. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  14. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  15. Effect on Production of Replacing Dietary Starch With Sucrose in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacing dietary starch with sugar has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. Two sets of 24 Holstein cows averaging 41 kg/d of milk were fed a covariate diet and then blocked by DIM and randomly assigned in two phases to four groups of 6 cows each. Cows were fed experimental diets cont...

  16. Prediction of drinking water intake by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Judy, J V; Kebreab, E; Kononoff, P J

    2016-09-01

    Mathematical models that predict water intake by drinking, also known as free water intake (FWI), are useful in understanding water supply needed by animals on dairy farms. The majority of extant mathematical models for predicting FWI of dairy cows have been developed with data sets representing similar experimental conditions, not evaluated with modern cows, and often require dry matter intake (DMI) data, which may not be routinely available. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a set of new empirical models for predicting FWI of lactating and dry cows with and without DMI using literature data, and (2) evaluate the new and the extant models using an independent set of FWI measurements made on modern cows. Random effect meta-regression analyses were conducted using 72 and 188 FWI treatment means with and without dietary electrolyte and daily mean ambient temperature (TMP) records, respectively, for lactating cows, and 19 FWI treatment means for dry cows. Milk yield, DMI, body weight, days in milk, dietary macro-nutrient contents, an aggregate milliequivalent concentration of dietary sodium and potassium (NaK), and TMP were used as potential covariates to the models. A model having positive relationships of DMI, dietary dry matter (DM%), and CP (CP%) contents, NaK, and TMP explained 76% of variability in FWI treatment means of lactating cows. When challenged on an independent data set (n=261), the model more accurately predicted FWI [root mean square prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE%)=14.4%] compared with a model developed without NaK and TMP (RMSPE%=17.3%), and all extant models (RMSPE%≥15.7%). A model without DMI included positive relationships of milk yield, DM%, NaK, TMP, and days in milk, and explained 63% of variability in the FWI treatment means and performed well (RMSPE%=17.9%), when challenged on the independent data. New models for dry cows included positive relationships of DM% and TMP along with DMI or body

  17. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  18. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW. PMID:25958287

  19. Crossbreeding: implications for dairy cow fertility and survival.

    PubMed

    Buckley, F; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Heins, B J

    2014-05-01

    In pasture-based seasonal calving systems, failure to become pregnant during the breeding season results in important economic losses as maximum profit is attained by minimising costs and increasing the proportion of grass in the diet of the lactating dairy cow. In the United States, dairy producers primarily strive to maximise production potential but are becoming increasingly aware of the economic consequences of sub-optimal cow fertility and survival. For this reason, interest in crossbreeding is emerging. The objective of this paper is to review the fertility and survival outcomes reported from recent research studies and data analyses in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Research conducted in Ireland during the early 2000s concluded that of three 'alternative' dairy breeds the Norwegian Red was most suited to seasonal grass-based production. A key finding was favourable fertility and survival. A follow-up study confirmed a fertility advantage with Norwegian Red×Holstein-Friesian compared with Holstein-Friesian: proportion pregnant to first service; +0.08 and in-calf after 6 weeks breeding; +0.11. Another study found higher fertility with Jersey crossbreds: pregnant to first service; +0.21, and in-calf after 6 weeks breeding; +0.19. Studies conducted in Northern Ireland also found superior fertility performance with Jersey crossbred cows offered low and moderate concentrate diets. In New Zealand, crossbred dairy cattle (primarily Jersey×Friesian) are achieving similar rates of genetic gain for farm profit as the purebred populations, but creating additional gain derived from economic heterosis. In the United States, analysis of commercial data from California showed higher first-service conception rates for Scandinavian Red×Holstein (+6 percentage units) and Montbeliarde×Holstein (+10 percentage units) compared with Holstein (23%). They also exhibited fewer days open and greater survival. At Penn State University, Brown Swiss×Holstein cows had 17

  20. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). PMID:27264885

  1. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. Results To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome. PMID:24888604

  2. Aquagrams of raw milk for oestrus detection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Takemura, G; Bázár, G; Ikuta, K; Yamaguchi, E; Ishikawa, S; Furukawa, A; Kubota, Y; Kovács, Z; Tsenkova, R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost-effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen-bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods. PMID:25704193

  3. Prediction of water intake and excretion flows in Holstein dairy cows under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Boudon, A; Maxin, G; Faverdin, P

    2012-10-01

    The increase in the worldwide demand for dairy products, associated with global warming, will emphasize the issue of water use efficiency in dairy systems. The evaluation of environmental issues related to the management of animal dejections will also require precise biotechnical models that can predict effluent management in farms. In this study, equations were developed and evaluated for predicting the main water flows at the dairy cow level, based on parameters related to cow productive performance and diet under thermoneutral conditions. Two datasets were gathered. The first one comprised 342 individual measurements of water balance in dairy cows obtained during 18 trials at the experimental farm of Méjussaume (INRA, France). Predictive equations of water intake, urine and fecal water excretion were developed by multiple regression using a stepwise selection of regressors from a list of seven candidate parameters, which were milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), body weight, diet dry matter content (DM), proportion of concentrate (CONC) and content of crude protein (CP) ingested with forage and concentrate (CPf and CPc, g/kg DM). The second dataset was used for external validation of the developed equations and comprised 196 water flow measurements on experimental lots obtained from 43 published papers related to water balance or digestibility measurements in dairy cows. Although DMI was the first predictor of the total water intake (TWI), with a partial r(2) of 0.51, DM was the first predictive parameter of free water intake (FWI), with a partial r(2) of 0.57, likely due to the large variability of DM in the first dataset (from 11.5 to 91.4 g/100 g). This confirmed the compensation between water drunk and ingested with diet when DM changes. The variability of urine volume was explained mainly by the CPf associated with DMI (r.s.d. 5.4 kg/day for an average flow of 24.0 kg/day) and that of fecal water was explained by the proportion of CONC in the diet and DMI

  4. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which cause these variations. In addition, the effect of the broad range in chemical composition of maize silages on the total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows is quantified and discussed. Finally, the optimum inclusion level of maize silage in the ration of dairy cows for milk production and composition is reviewed. The data showed that the nutritive value of maize silages is highly variable and that most of this variation is caused by large differences in maturity at harvest. Maize silages ensiled at a very early stage (dry matter (DM) < 250 g kg(-1)) were particularly low in starch content and starch/neutral detergent fibre (NDF) ratio, and resulted in a lower DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein content. The DMI, milk yield and milk protein content increased with advancing maturity, reaching an optimum level for maize silages ensiled at DM contents of 300-350 g kg(-1), and then declined slightly at further maturity beyond 350 g kg(-1). The increases in milk (R(2) = 0.599) and protein (R(2) = 0.605) yields with maturity of maize silages were positively related to the increase in starch/NDF ratio of the maize silages. On average, the inclusion of maize silage in grass silage-based diets improved the forage DMI by 2 kg d(-1), milk yield by 1.9 kg d(-1) and milk protein content by 1.2 g kg(-1). Further comparisons showed that, in terms of milk and milk constituent yields, the optimum grass/maize silage ratio depends on the quality of both the grass and maize silages. Replacement of grass silage with maize silage in the ration, as well as an increasing maturity of the maize silages, altered the milk FA profile

  5. Cow-specific diet digestibility predictions based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy scans of faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Mehtiö, T; Rinne, M; Nyholm, L; Mäntysaari, P; Sairanen, A; Mäntysaari, E A; Pitkänen, T; Lidauer, M H

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to obtain information on prediction of diet digestibility from near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) scans of faecal spot samples from dairy cows at different stages of lactation and to develop a faecal sampling protocol. NIRS was used to predict diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) and indigestible neutral detergent fibre content (iNDF) from faecal samples, and dry matter digestibility (DMD) using iNDF in feed and faecal samples as an internal marker. Acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as an internal digestibility marker was used as a reference method to evaluate the reliability of NIRS predictions. Feed and composite faecal samples were collected from 44 cows at approximately 50, 150 and 250 days in milk (DIM). The estimated standard deviation for cow-specific organic matter digestibility analysed by AIA was 12.3 g/kg, which is small considering that the average was 724 g/kg. The phenotypic correlation between direct faecal OMD prediction by NIRS and OMD by AIA over the lactation was 0.51. The low repeatability and small variability estimates for direct OMD predictions by NIRS were not accurate enough to quantify small differences in OMD between cows. In contrast to OMD, the repeatability estimates for DMD by iNDF and especially for direct faecal iNDF predictions were 0.32 and 0.46, respectively, indicating that developing of NIRS predictions for cow-specific digestibility is possible. A data subset of 20 cows with daily individual faecal samples was used to develop an on-farm sampling protocol. Based on the assessment of correlations between individual sample combinations and composite samples as well as repeatability estimates for individual sample combinations, we found that collecting up to three individual samples yields a representative composite sample. Collection of samples from all the cows of a herd every third month might be a good choice, because it would yield a better accuracy. PMID:26412206

  6. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  7. The motivation of dairy cows for access to pasture.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Gemma L; Rutter, S Mark; East, Martyn; Sinclair, Liam A

    2013-07-01

    Several factors influence whether dairy cattle prefer to be indoors or at pasture, including weather conditions and milk yield, but it is unclear how motivated cows are for access to pasture. One way to measure motivation is to require the animal to work (e.g., walk different distances) for access to a resource. This study investigated whether pasture access located 60, 140, or 260m from the indoor housing would affect the proportion of time dairy cows spent at pasture. Thirty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the study, which took place in the United Kingdom from May to July 2010. The experiment consisted of four 18-d experimental periods, with 8 cows in each period, which were further divided into 2 groups of 4 cows. Following a training period, the cows were randomly allocated to distances of 60, 140, or 260m to pasture over three 4-d measurement periods. A video camera was used to record time spent indoors and outdoors 24h/d, and manual behavior observations (0700 to 2200h) took place 6 times during each period to record how the cows spent their time in each location. The video data showed that cows spent, on average, 57.8% (±3.44) of their time outside (either at pasture or on the track). One-sample t-tests revealed that this value was different from 0% (t=16.80), 50% (t=2.26), and 100% (t=-12.28). Analysis of the percentage time spent outside revealed that distance did not influence nighttime pasture use (2100 to 0430h; F2,8=0.16; 81.0% vs. 81.0% vs. 76.7%, for 60m vs. 140m vs. 260m, respectively). In contrast, during the day (0700 to 2100h; from behavior observations), time spent at pasture declined as distance increased; that is, cows spent more time at pasture when they had to walk 60m (F2,80=10.09) than when they had to walk 140 or 260m (45.3% vs. 27.4% vs. 21.2%, respectively). Time spent at pasture decreased on rainy days (y=-1.0672x + 59.646, R(2)=0.09, n=48d), but the indoor temperature-humidity index (THI), the outdoor THI, and body

  8. Changes in serum copper and zinc levels in peripartum healthy and subclinically hypocalcemic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Baoyu; Liu, Guowen

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of serum copper and zinc in subclinically hypocalcemic peripartum dairy cows in comparison to healthy animals. Blood samples were taken from 219 multiparous Holstein cows near parturition (from 4 weeks prepartum to 4 weeks postpartum) and 51 cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. The results showed that the serum copper concentration increased gradually at 1 week prepartum and remained high for the first 4 weeks postpartum in the healthy periparturient dairy cows. The serum zinc concentration reached a nadir at 1 week postpartum and subsequently increased gradually to baseline. The serum zinc concentration was significantly decreased (P<0.01) in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with healthy cows. There was no significant difference in the serum copper concentration between cows with subclinical hypocalcemia and healthy cows. These data demonstrate that the concentrations of copper and zinc in serum change dramatically during the peripartum period in dairy cows, which is a tremendous challenge for the body and for the maintenance of dairy cow health. The present study further suggests that a decreased serum zinc concentration could be a cause of decreased productive performance and increased susceptibility to other diseases due to immunosuppression in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. Additionally, this decreased zinc concentration may be involved in the pathogenesis of subclinical hypocalcemia. PMID:24859816

  9. Selenium-fertilized forage as a way to supplement lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Séboussi, R; Tremblay, G F; Ouellet, V; Chouinard, P Y; Chorfi, Y; Bélanger, G; Charbonneau, É

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization with Se improves forage organic Se concentration, but comparisons with other forms of Se supplementation in feeding lactating dairy cows are scarce. Our objective was to compare the effect of Se-enriched forages to dietary sources of inorganic and organic Se. Digestibility, retention, and balance were assessed by measuring Se concentrations in feces, urine, milk, and blood. The resulting effect on antioxidant status and lactation performance of dairy cows was also determined. High-Se silages [1.72 mg of Se/kg of dry matter (DM)] were produced following a spring application of 2.5 kg/ha of Selcote Ultra, whereas low-Se silages (0.05 mg of Se/kg of DM) were produced in the Se-unfertilized portion of the same fields. After a 77±17 d period of Se depletion, 33 late-lactation primiparous Holstein cows were blocked and randomly assigned for 43 d to 1 of 4 experimental total mixed rations fed for ad libitum intake in an unbalanced randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 4 diets: control with low-Se silages, without Se supplement (0.12±0.04 mg of Se/kg of DM); ISe with low-Se silages and inorganic Se (0.80±0.14 mg of Se/kg of DM); YSe with low-Se silages and organic Se from yeast (0.70±0.11 mg of Se/kg of DM); and FSe with high-Se silages, without Se supplement (0.79±0.14 mg of Se/kg of DM). Organic Se, either as YSe or FSe, was more available and more effective to increase blood and milk Se concentrations than ISe. Moreover, FSe was more available than YSe, as cows fed FSe excreted 16 and 22% less Se (as percentage of intake) in feces and urine, respectively, had higher Se apparent absorption (17%), retention (37%), and balance (45%), and had greater concentration of Se in serum (16%) and milk (11%) than cows fed YSe. Antioxidant status (whole blood and plasma glutathione peroxidase, and milk thioredoxin reductase and malondialdehyde) was not affected by treatments. Dry matter intake, yield of actual, energy-corrected, and fat-corrected milk

  10. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  11. Modeling conductive cooling for thermally stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin; Perano, K

    2016-02-01

    Conductive cooling, which is based on direct contact between a cow lying down and a cooled surface (water mattress, or any other heat exchanger embedded under the bedding), allows heat transfer from the cow to the cooled surface, and thus alleviate heat stress of the cow. Conductive cooling is a novel technology that has the potential to reduce the consumption of energy and water in cooling dairy cows compared to some current practices. A three-dimensional conduction model that simulates cooling thermally-stressed dairy cows was developed. The model used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to characterize the air-flow field surrounding the animal model. The flow field was obtained by solving the continuity and the momentum equations. The heat exchange between the animal and the cooled water mattress as well as between the animal and ambient air was determined by solving the energy equation. The relative humidity was characterized using the species transport equation. The conduction 3-D model was validated against experimental temperature data and the agreement was very good (average error is 4.4% and the range is 1.9-8.3%) for a mesh size of 1117202. Sensitivity analyses were conducted between heat losses (sensible and latent) with respect to air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, and level of wetness of skin surface to determine which of the parameters affect heat flux more than others. Heat flux was more sensitive to air temperature and level of wetness of the skin surface and less sensitive to relative humidity. PMID:26857982

  12. Mechanisms underlying reduced fertility in anovular dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S

    2016-07-01

    Resumption of ovulation after parturition is a coordinated process that involves recoupling of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in the liver, increase in follicular development and steroidogenesis, and removal of negative feedback from estradiol in the hypothalamus. Infectious diseases and metabolic disorders associated with extensive negative energy balance during early lactation disrupt this pathway and delay first ovulation postpartum. Extended periods of anovulation postpartum exert long-lasting effects on fertility in dairy cows including the lack of spontaneous estrus, reduced pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and increased risk of pregnancy loss. Concentrations of progesterone in anovular cows subjected to synchronized programs for AI are insufficient to optimize follicular maturation, oocyte competence, and subsequent fertility to AI. Ovulation of first wave follicles, which develop under low concentrations of progesterone, reduces embryo quality in the first week after fertilization and P/AI in dairy cows. Although the specific mechanisms by which anovulation and low concentrations of progesterone impair oocyte quality have not been defined, studies with persistent follicles support the involvement of premature resumption of meiosis and degradation of maternal RNA. Suboptimal concentrations of progesterone before ovulation also increase the synthesis of PGF2α in response to oxytocin during the subsequent estrous cycle, which explains the greater incidence of short luteal phases after the first AI postpartum in anovular cows compared with estrous cyclic herd mates. It is suggested that increased spontaneous luteolysis early in the estrous cycle is one of the mechanisms that contributes to early embryonic losses in anovular cows. Anovulation also leads to major shifts in gene expression in elongated conceptuses during preimplantation stages of pregnancy. Transcripts involved with control of energy metabolism and DNA repair were

  13. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Marchant-Forde, J N; Weary, D M

    2015-08-01

    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle, but to our knowledge, no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal palpation, with and without uterine palpation, in healthy cows and in cows diagnosed with metritis. A total of 49 Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation parity of 2.8±1.8) were subjected to systematic health checks every 3 d after parturition for 21 d, scoring for vaginal discharge (0 to 4); 13 cows showed a discharge score ≥2 during at least 1 health check and were classified as metritic, whereas 29 cows were classified as healthy and showed no sign of this or any other disease (including mastitis and lameness). Back arch and heart rate variability before examination and during palpation were recorded using video and heart rate monitors. Back arch (cm(2)) on the day of diagnosis was greater in metritic versus healthy cows (1,034±72 vs. 612±48cm(2)), and greater during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (869±45 vs. 777±45cm(2)). Heart rate frequency domain analysis showed that the low-frequency portion was higher in cows with metritis versus healthy cows (16.5±1.2 vs. 12.9±1.0). Time domain analysis showed that the standard deviation between normal to normal interbeat intervals and the root mean square of successive differences both decreased during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (1.9±0.1 vs. 2.5±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1, respectively). Together, these results indicate that the inflammation associated with metritis is painful, and that the pain response can be detected during rectal palpation with and without uterine palpation. Rectal palpation with uterine palpation appears to be more aversive than rectal palpation without uterine palpation

  14. Feeding Behaviors of Transition Dairy Cows Fed Glycerol as a Replacement for Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed sorting is a natural behavior of dairy cows that can result in inconsistencies in nutritive value of a TMR. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing high moisture corn with glycerol on feed sorting and feeding behavior of transition dairy cows. Twenty-six Holstein ...

  15. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their waste as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) and greenhouse gases (GH...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, M J; Liu, Q Y; Fu, J H; Nisbet, A J; Shi, D S; He, X H; Pan, Y; Zhou, D H; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites which cause lowered production and increased abortion in dairy cows. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum infection in dairy cows in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), subtropical southern China. In total, 875 serum samples were collected from the tail veins of dairy cows in 6 main dairy cow-rearing districts of 4 administrative cities in GZAR. The samples were surveyed for T. gondii antibody using the Indirect Haemagglutination Test (IHA), and 365 of the serum samples were examined for N. caninum antibody by indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cows was 13·71% (120/875), and the average seroprevalence of N. caninum was 15·07% (55/365). There were significant differences in the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection between different districts (P = 0·002, χ 2 = 9·261). The highest prevalences of T. gondii and N. caninum were found in cows older than 8 years and those that had completed 5-6 pregnancies. Five cows (1·37%) presented antibodies against both T. gondii and N. caninum, and dairy cows with both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies had higher abortion rates. The present results indicate widespread exposure of dairy cows to T. gondii and N. caninum in GZAR, subtropical southern China. PMID:22717118

  17. Concurrent-schedule performance in dairy cows: persistent undermatching.

    PubMed

    Foster, T M; Temple, W; Robertson, B; Nair, V; Poling, A

    1996-01-01

    Performance of dairy cows responding under concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules of food delivery was examined, with results analyzed in terms of the generalized matching equation. In Experiment 1, bias measures indicated that crushed barley was preferred over meatmeal when these foods were available under the alternative schedules. For whole-session data, substantial undermatching of response and time-allocation ratios to obtained reinforcement ratios was evident. Postreinforcement pause time ratios approximately matched obtained reinforcement rates. Subtracting these times from total time-allocation values yielded net time-allocation ratios that undermatched obtained reinforcement ratios to a greater degree than did whole-session time-allocation ratios. In Experiment 2, substantial undermatching was evident when the same foods (hay for 2 cows, crushed barley for 2 others) were available under the alternative schedules. Food-related activities and other defined behavior not related to food were quantified by direct observation, and were found to occupy a substantial proportion (roughly 40% to 80%) of experimental sessions. Subtracting the time spent in these activities from the time allocated to each component schedule did not reduce the degree of undermatching obtained. Across all conditions in both experiments, slopes of regression lines relating behavioral outputs to environmental inputs characteristically were below 0.6, which agrees with prior findings and suggests that, contrary to suggestions in the literature, undermatching in dairy cows is not the result of using different foods under alternative schedules or differential pausing under those schedules. PMID:8583205

  18. Effects of corn and soybean meal types on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism and productivity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shen, J S; Song, L J; Sun, H Z; Wang, B; Chai, Z; Chacher, B; Liu, J X

    2015-03-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:25656206

  19. Effects of Corn and Soybean Meal Types on Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J. S.; Song, L. J.; Sun, H. Z.; Wang, B.; Chai, Z.; Chacher, B.; Liu, J. X.

    2015-01-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:25656206

  20. Supplementing lactating dairy cows fed high-quality pasture with black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) tannin.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, W M; Clark, C E F; Clark, D A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-11-01

    A reduction in urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from dairy cows fed pasture containing a high N concentration in the dry matter (DM) will have environmental benefits, because losses to soil water and air by leachate and nitrous oxides (N2O) will be reduced. Condensed tannins (CT) reduce digestion of N, and provision as a dietary additive could have nutritional benefits for production, but the amount required and the responses to different sources of CT on milk production have not been defined. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation with CT extracted from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) on milk production and faecal N concentration by lactating dairy cows grazing a vegetative Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture. In one experiment, CT was administered as a drench, twice daily, to 38 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows assigned to four treatments; control (CONT, 0 g/day), low CT (LCT, 111 g/day), medium CT (MCT, 222 g/day) and high CT (HCT, 444 g/day), grazing as a single group. The CT supplementation affected milk yield (P < 0.001) with a trend of declining milk yield as CT concentration increased from about 0.6 to about 2.9% of dietary DM. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) decreased at MCT and HCT levels of supplementation (P < 0.01) but milk fat, CP and lactose percentage were not affected by CT supplementation. The CT supplementation increased N concentration in faeces for LCT and MCT treatments (P < 0.05), suggesting partitioning of dietary N away from urine. When CT was pelleted with grain, in a second experiment and fed twice daily as a supplement at milking, it reduced the acceptability relative to pellets without CT, and tended to lower milk production from 25.4 to 24.5 kg/day, although the decline was not significant (P > 0.05). The diet of cows fed pellets with CT contained about 1.2% CT in the DM but neither milk constituents nor MUN were affected by CT-supplemented grain (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate

  1. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 2. Changes in methane emissions and efficiency with age.

    PubMed

    Grandl, F; Amelchanka, S L; Furger, M; Clauss, M; Zeitz, J O; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies indicated that absolute CH4 emissions and CH4 yield might increase and that milk production efficiency might decrease with age in cattle. Both would make strategies to increase longevity in dairy cattle less attractive. These aspects were experimentally determined in Brown Swiss cattle distributed continuously across a large age range. Thirty lactating dairy cows (876-3,648 d of age) received diets consisting of hay, corn silage, and grass pellets supplemented with 0 or 5kg of concentrate per day. Twelve heifers (199-778 d of age) received hay only. Cows and heifers were members of herds subjected to the 2 different feeding regimens (with or without concentrate) for the past 10 yr. Methane emissions were measured individually for 2 d in open-circuit respiration chambers, followed by quantifying individual feed intake and milk yield over 8 d. Additional data on digestibility, rumination time, and passage time of feed of all experimental animals were available. Regression analyses were applied to evaluate effects of age and feeding regimen. Body weight, milk yield, and the hay proportion of forage dry matter intake were considered as covariates. Methane emissions per unit of intake, body weight, and milk yield were significantly related to age. Their development in the cows with age was characterized by an increase to maximum at around 2,000 d of age, followed by a decline. This response was not accompanied by corresponding age-related changes in intake, chewing activity, digesta passage time, and digestibility of organic matter, which would have explained shifts in CH4. However, fiber digestibility showed a similar change with age as methane emissions, resulting in quite stable methane emissions per unit of digestible fiber. As expected, methane emissions intensity per unit of milk produced was greater by 8% without concentrate than with concentrate, but no difference was noted in the response to age when the animals were subjected to different

  2. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R

    2016-06-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  3. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, leukocyte activity and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed...

  4. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  5. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  6. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, L; Damgaard, B M; Bjerre-Harpøth, V; Herskin, M S

    2012-12-01

    In cattle, percutaneous needle liver biopsy is used for scientific examination of liver metabolism. The impact of the biopsy procedure is, however, poorly investigated. Our aim was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during and after liver biopsy. Data were collected from 18 dry cows. Percutaneous needle liver biopsies (after administration of local anaesthesia (2% Procaine)) and blood samples were taken during restraining. During the control treatment, animals were restrained and blood sampled. During the biopsy procedure, cows showed increased restlessness (P=0.008), frequency of head shaking (P=0.016), and decreased rumination (P=0.064). After biopsies, tail pressing (P=0.016) and time spent perching (P=0.058) increased. Time spent upright (P=0.10) and number of leg movements (P=0.033) increased during the night as compared to controls. Thus, liver biopsy induced behavioural changes for up to 19 h--and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare. Therefore, if the present biopsy procedure--involving several biopsy passes--is to be used, improvement of the anaesthetic protocol as well as the inclusion of analgesics should be considered. PMID:22542802

  7. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    PubMed

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:27127920

  8. Supplementation of prepartum dairy cows with β-carotene.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R C; Guerreiro, B M; Morais Junior, N N; Araujo, R L; Pereira, R A N; Pereira, M N

    2015-09-01

    The prepartum supplementation of dairy cows with β-carotene was evaluated. Cows were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to a treatment: β-carotene (1.2 g/cow per d) or control (no supplementation). The same total mixed ration batch was offered to all cows, and β-carotene was top dressed to individual cows once per day. The data set contained 283 Holsteins that received a treatment for >14 d (29.1±6.9 d). Frequency distributions were analyzed with the GENMOD procedure of SAS using logistic regression for binomial data. Continuous variables were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Within parity, nonparametric estimates of the survivor function for reproductive variables were computed using the product-limit method of the Kaplan-Meier method with the LIFETEST procedure of SAS. Plasma β-carotene concentration before supplementation was similar between supplemented and nonsupplemented cows (2.99µg/mL) and peaked at 3.26±0.175µg/mL on d -15±2.4 precalving for supplemented cows (2.62±0.168µg/mL for control). Colostrum density, milk yield, and milk composition were similar between treatments. β-Carotene tended to increase milk protein content from 2.90 to 2.96% and to decrease the proportion of primiparous cows with a milk fat to protein ratio >1.5 from 22.6 to 6.4%. The proportion of primiparous and multiparous cows with difficult calving, metritis, progesterone >1 ng/mL at 21 d and at 42 d in lactation, % conception at first service, and % pregnancy at 90 and 150 d in lactation were similar between treatments. A trend for decreased incidence of somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL was present in multiparous cows supplemented with β-carotene (38.9% vs. 28.1%). β-Carotene was associated with a reduction in the proportion of multiparous cows with retained placenta 12 h postpartum from 29.9 to 21.7%; time of placenta release was 392 min (340 to 440) for β-carotene and 490 min (395 to 540) for control (median and 95% confidence

  9. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  10. Effects of silymarin, a natural hepatoprotector, in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, D; Tava, A; Galletti, S; Tameni, M; Varisco, G; Costa, A; Steidler, S

    2004-07-01

    Silymarin, a natural acknowledged hepatoprotector used in humans to treat liver diseases, has been tested in dairy cows during peripartum, a period during which animals are subject to subclinical fatty liver. Ten grams of silymarin (76% pure extract consisting in flavonolignans, taxifolin, and other trace compounds) per day, was administered as a water suspension by an oral drench to 15 cows from d 10 before expected calving to 15 d after calving. Milk production was measured, and colostrum, milk, and blood samples were analyzed during the experimental period. Treated animals showed the peak of milk production at 55 +/- 1.85 d after calving, 1 wk before the control group (62 +/- 3.27 d); the average peak production was 41.6 +/- 1.05 kg for the treated group vs. 39.1 +/- 1.44 kg for the control; the treated animals maintained a greater milk production than control cows throughout lactation (9922.1 +/- 215.7 vs. 9597.8 +/- 225.4 kg). Milk composition was unaffected by treatment. No silymarin residues were detected in colostrum and all milk samples. After calving, body condition score (BCS) decrease was greater for control compared with treated cows. Glucose, urea, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, beta-hydroxibutyrate (BHBA), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in plasma were unaffected by treatment. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) on d-7 were higher in treated cows compared with the control group (741 vs. 181 micromol/L). From this evidence, it is possible to conclude that silymarin beneficially affected lactation performances and body condition of treated animals. Blood and milk parameters do not indicate any adverse effects of feeding this natural compound. PMID:15328238

  11. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Blavy, P; Derks, M; Martin, O; Höglund, J K; Friggens, N C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during estrus cycles in cows and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 estrus cycles, coming from 1009 lactations, was obtained from the Danish Cattle Research Centre in Foulum, Denmark. Milk samples were analyzed daily using a Ridgeway ELISA-kit. Estrus cycles with less than 10 data points or shorter than 4 days were discarded, after which 1006 cycles remained in the analysis. A median kernel of three data points was used to smooth the progesterone time series. The time between start of progesterone rise and end of progesterone decline was identified by fitting a simple model consisting of base length and a quadratic curve to progesterone data, and this luteal-like phase (LLP) was used for further analysis. The data set of 1006 LLP's was divided into five quantiles based on length. Within quantiles, a cluster analysis was performed on the basis of shape distance. Height, upward and downward slope, and progesterone level on Day 5 were compared between quantiles. Also, the ratio of typical versus atypical shapes was described, using a reference curve on the basis of data in Q1-Q4. The main results of this article were that (1) most of the progesterone profiles showed a typical profile, including the ones that exceeded the optimum cycle length of 24 days; (2) cycles in Q2 and Q3 had steeper slopes and higher peak progesterone levels than cycles in Q1 and Q4 but, when normalized, had a similar shape. Results were used to define differences between quantiles that can be used as templates. Compared to Q1, LLP's in Q2 had a shape that is 1.068 times steeper and 1.048 times higher. Luteal-like phases in Q3 were 1.053 times steeper and 1.018 times higher. Luteal-like phases in Q4 were 0.977 times steeper and 0.973 times higher than LLP's in Q1. This article adds to our

  12. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production. PMID:26700882

  13. Reproductive tract inflammatory disease in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, S J

    2014-05-01

    Up to half of dairy cows are affected by at least one of metritis, purulent vaginal discharge, endometritis or cervicitis in the postpartum period. These conditions result from inadequate immune response to bacterial infection (failure to clear pathogenic bacteria from the uterus) or persistent inflammation that impairs rather than enhances reproductive function. The degree of mobilization of fat and how effectively it is used as a metabolic fuel is well recognized as a risk factor for metabolic and infectious disease. Release of non-esterified fatty acids has direct effects on liver and immune function but also produces pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6), which contribute to systemic inflammation and to insulin resistance. Therefore, reproductive tract inflammatory disease may be a function of both local and systemic inflammatory stimuli and regulation as well as regulation of fat metabolism. Better understanding of variables associated with insulin resistance and inflammatory regulation in the liver and adipose tissue may lead to improvement of reproductive tract health. This paper reviews factors that may contribute to postpartum reproductive tract inflammatory diseases in dairy cows and their inter-relationships, impacts and treatment. PMID:24679404

  14. Dairy cow culling strategies: making economical culling decisions.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W; Oltjen, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine important economic elements of culling decisions, to review progress in development of culling decision support systems, and to discern some of the potentially rewarding areas for future research on culling models. Culling decisions have an important influence on the economic performance of the dairy but are often made in a nonprogrammed fashion and based partly on the intuition of the decision maker. The computer technology that is available for dairy herd management has made feasible the use of economic models to support culling decisions. Financial components--including profit, cash flow, and risk--are major economic factors affecting culling decisions. Culling strategies are further influenced by short-term fluctuations in cow numbers as well as by planned herd expansion. Changes in herd size affect the opportunity cost for postponed replacement and may alter the relevance of optimization strategies that assume a fixed herd size. Improvements in model components related to biological factors affecting future cow performance, including milk production, reproductive status, and mastitis, appear to offer the greatest economic potential for enhancing culling decision support systems. The ultimate value of any culling decision support system for developing economic culling strategies will be determined by its results under field conditions. PMID:9493103

  15. Thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows in pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; de Morais, Débora Andréia E. Façanha

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present paper was to assess a method for estimating the thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows (0.875 Holstein-0.125 Guzerath) on pasture. A field test was conducted with 472 crossbred dairy cows in three locations of a tropical region. The following environmental data were collected: air temperature, partial vapour pressure, wind speed, black globe temperature, ground surface temperature and solar radiation. Average total radiation absorbed by animals was calculated as {R_{abs}} = 640.0 ± 3.1 W.{m^{ - 2}} . Absorbed short-wave radiation (solar direct, diffuse and reflected) averaged 297.9 ± 2.7 W m-2; long wave (from the sky and from terrestrial surfaces) averaged 342.1 ± 1.5 W m-2. It was suggested that a new environmental measurement, the effective radiant heat load (ERHL), could be used to assess the effective mean radiant temperature ( {T_{mr}^* } ) . Average T_{mr}^* was 101.4 ± 1.2°C, in contrast to the usual mean radiant temperature, {T_{mr}} = 65.1 ± 0.5° C . Estimates of T_{mr}^* were considered as more reliable than those of T mr in evaluating the thermal environment in the open field, because T mr is almost totally associated only with long wave radiation.

  16. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  17. Reducing dietary protein in dairy cow diets: implications for nitrogen utilization, milk production, welfare and fertility.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Garnsworthy, P C; Mann, G E; Sinclair, L A

    2014-02-01

    In light of increasing global protein prices and with the need to reduce environmental impact of contemporary systems of milk production, the current review seeks to assess the feasibility of reducing levels of dietary CP in dairy cow diets. At CP levels between 140 and 220 g/kg DM there is a strong positive relationship between CP concentration and dry matter intake (DMI). However, such effects are modest and reductions in DMI when dietary CP is below 180 g/kg DM can be at least partially offset by improving the digestibility and amino acid profile of the undegradable protein (UDP) component of the diet or by increasing rumen fermentable energy. Level and balance of intestinally absorbable amino acids, in particular methionine and lysine, may become limiting at lower CP concentrations. In general the amino acid composition of microbial protein is superior to that of UDP, so that dietary strategies that aim to promote microbial protein synthesis in the rumen may go some way to correcting for amino acid imbalances in low CP diets. For example, reducing the level of NDF, while increasing the proportion of starch, can lead to improvements in nitrogen (N) utilisation as great as that achieved by reducing dietary CP to below 150 g/kg. A systematic review and meta-analysis of responses to rumen protected forms of methionine and lysine was conducted for early/mid lactation cows fed diets containing ⩽150 g CP/kg DM. This analysis revealed a small but significant (P=0.002) increase in milk protein yield when cows were supplemented with these rumen protected amino acids. Variation in milk and milk protein yield responses between studies was not random but due to differences in diet composition between studies. Cows fed low CP diets can respond to supplemental methionine and lysine so long as DMI is not limiting, metabolisable protein (MP) is not grossly deficient and other amino acids such as histidine and leucine do not become rate limiting. Whereas excess dietary protein

  18. Risk factors for anaplasmosis in dairy cows during the peripartum.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2014-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Some studies have suggested that cows during peripartum may present a transient immunosuppression state and development of clinical signs of anaplasmosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between some risk factors and the seroprevalence of A. marginale in dairy cows during peripartum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The risk factors analyzed in association with the prevalence of antibodies against A. marginale in dairy cows were calving season, reproductive experience, breed standard, tick infestations, stocking density, and milk yield. The antibodies against A. marginale were tested in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A primary screening using a 2 × k contingency table of the exposed variables with the outcomes was performed. All variables for which p < 0.20 were included in a fixed effects log regression. The risk factors investigated to anaplasmosis were calving (OR 2.61, IC 1.08-7.63), breed standard (OR 3.83, IC 0.08-0.28), reproductive experience (OR 33.7, IC 2.14-5.16), milk yield (OR 3.9, IC 2.24-7.03), Rhipicephalus microplus infestations (OR 10.3, IC 0.05-0.17), and stocking density (OR 22.3, IC 0.05-0.17). Low titers of antibodies against A. marginale during peripartum had been characterized as a period previous to development of clinical anaplasmosis. Thus, studies on anaplasmosis should consider each farm as an epidemiological unit, where environmental and immunological factors may influence the endemic status of the pathogen. PMID:24307390

  19. An inhibitor persistently decreased enteric methane emission from dairy cows with no negative effect on milk production

    PubMed Central

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler W.; Harper, Michael T.; Weeks, Holley L.; Branco, Antonio F.; Moate, Peter J.; Deighton, Matthew H.; Williams, S. Richard O.; Kindermann, Maik; Duval, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    A quarter of all anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are from enteric fermentation, primarily from ruminant livestock. This study was undertaken to test the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission in lactating Holstein cows. An experiment was conducted using 48 cows in a randomized block design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 12-wk data collection period. Feed intake, milk production, and fiber digestibility were not affected by the inhibitor. Milk protein and lactose yields were increased by 3NOP. Rumen methane emission was linearly decreased by 3NOP, averaging about 30% lower than the control. Methane emission per unit of feed dry matter intake or per unit of energy-corrected milk were also about 30% less for the 3NOP-treated cows. On average, the body weight gain of 3NOP-treated cows was 80% greater than control cows during the 12-wk experiment. The experiment demonstrated that the methane inhibitor 3NOP, applied at 40 to 80 mg/kg feed dry matter, decreased methane emissions from high-producing dairy cows by 30% and increased body weight gain without negatively affecting feed intake or milk production and composition. The inhibitory effect persisted over 12 wk of treatment, thus offering an effective methane mitigation practice for the livestock industries. PMID:26229078

  20. An inhibitor persistently decreased enteric methane emission from dairy cows with no negative effect on milk production.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Alexander N; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler W; Harper, Michael T; Weeks, Holley L; Branco, Antonio F; Moate, Peter J; Deighton, Matthew H; Williams, S Richard O; Kindermann, Maik; Duval, Stephane

    2015-08-25

    A quarter of all anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are from enteric fermentation, primarily from ruminant livestock. This study was undertaken to test the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission in lactating Holstein cows. An experiment was conducted using 48 cows in a randomized block design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 12-wk data collection period. Feed intake, milk production, and fiber digestibility were not affected by the inhibitor. Milk protein and lactose yields were increased by 3NOP. Rumen methane emission was linearly decreased by 3NOP, averaging about 30% lower than the control. Methane emission per unit of feed dry matter intake or per unit of energy-corrected milk were also about 30% less for the 3NOP-treated cows. On average, the body weight gain of 3NOP-treated cows was 80% greater than control cows during the 12-wk experiment. The experiment demonstrated that the methane inhibitor 3NOP, applied at 40 to 80 mg/kg feed dry matter, decreased methane emissions from high-producing dairy cows by 30% and increased body weight gain without negatively affecting feed intake or milk production and composition. The inhibitory effect persisted over 12 wk of treatment, thus offering an effective methane mitigation practice for the livestock industries. PMID:26229078

  1. Persistency of methane mitigation by dietary nitrate supplementation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Zijderveld, S M; Gerrits, W J J; Dijkstra, J; Newbold, J R; Hulshof, R B A; Perdok, H B

    2011-08-01

    Feeding nitrate to dairy cows may lower ruminal methane production by competing for reducing equivalents with methanogenesis. Twenty lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (33.2±6.0 kg of milk/d; 104±58 d in milk at the start of the experiment) were fed a total mixed ration (corn silage-based; forage to concentrate ratio 66:34), containing either a dietary urea or a dietary nitrate source [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)] during 4 successive 24-d periods, to assess the methane-mitigating potential of dietary nitrate and its persistency. The study was conducted as paired comparisons in a randomized design with repeated measurements. Cows were blocked by parity, lactation stage, and milk production at the start of the experiment. A 4-wk adaptation period allowed the rumen microbes to adapt to dietary urea and nitrate. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Methane production, energy balance, and diet digestibility were measured in open-circuit indirect calorimetry chambers. Cows were limit-fed during measurements. Nitrate persistently decreased methane production by 16%, whether expressed in grams per day, grams per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), or as percentage of gross energy intake, which was sustained for the full experimental period (mean 368 vs. 310±12.5 g/d; 19.4 vs. 16.2±0.47 g/kg of DMI; 5.9 vs.4.9±0.15% of gross energy intake for urea vs. nitrate, respectively). This decrease was smaller than the stoichiometrical methane mitigation potential of nitrate (full potential=28% methane reduction). The decreased energy loss from methane resulted in an improved conversion of dietary energy intake into metabolizable energy (57.3 vs. 58.6±0.70%, urea vs. nitrate, respectively). Despite this, milk energy output or energy retention was not affected by dietary nitrate. Nitrate did not affect milk yield or apparent digestibility of crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, and starch. Milk protein content (3.21 vs. 3.05±0.058%, urea vs. nitrate

  2. Update on human health concerns of recombinant bovine somatotropin use in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2014-04-01

    The 20 yr of commercial use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in the United States provide the backdrop for reviewing the outcome of use on human health issues by the upcoming 78th meeting of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. These results and further advancements in scientific knowledge indicate there are no new human health issues related to the use of rbST by the dairy industry. Use of rbST has no effect on the micro- and macrocomposition of milk. Also, no evidence exists that rbST use has increased human exposure to antibiotic residues in milk. Concerns that IGF-I present in milk could have biological effects on humans have been allayed by studies showing that oral consumption of IGF-I by humans has little or no biological activity. Additionally, concentrations of IGF-I in digestive tract fluids of humans far exceed any IGF-I consumed when drinking milk. Furthermore, chronic supplementation of cows with rbST does not increase concentrations of milk IGF-I outside the range typically observed for effects of farm, parity, or stage of lactation. Use of rbST has not affected expression of retroviruses in cattle or posed an increased risk to human health from retroviruses in cattle. Furthermore, risk for development of type 1 or type 2 diabetes has not increased in children or adults consuming milk and dairy products from rbST-supplemented cows. Overall, milk and dairy products provide essential nutrients and related benefits in health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:24663163

  3. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  4. Understanding the genetics of survival in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, T; Coffey, M; Mrode, R; Wall, E

    2013-05-01

    Premature mortality and culling causes great wastage in the dairy industry, as a large number of heifers born never become productive or are culled before their full lactation potential is reached. The objectives of this study were to characterize survival and estimate genetic parameters for alternative longevity traits that considered (1) the survival of replacement heifers and (2) functional longevity of milking cows in the UK Holstein Friesian population, using combined information from the British Cattle Movement Service and milk recording organizations. Mortality of heifers was highest in the first month of life and was proportionately highest in calves born during winter months. Heifer mortality tended to decrease with age until about 16 mo onward; it then gradually increased, expected to be associated with culls due to reproductive failure or problems during pregnancy and calving. In milking cows, days of productive life (DPL) was analyzed as an alternative to the current trait lifespan score. Cows that died in 2009 on average lived for 6.8 yr with an average production of 4.3 yr. Heritability estimates were low for both heifer and cow survival and were ~0.01 and ~0.06, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between heifer survival with lifespan score (0.31) indicates that bulls that sire daughters with longer productive lives are also likely to have calves that survive and become replacement heifers. However, the magnitude of the genetic correlation suggests that survival in the rearing period and the milking herd are different traits. Genetic correlations were favorable between DPL with somatic cell count and fertility traits indicating that animals with a longer productive life tend to have lower somatic cell count, a shorter calving interval, fewer days to first service, and require fewer inseminations. However, an antagonistic relationship existed between DPL with milk and fat yield traits. PMID:23477814

  5. Dairy cows use and prefer feed bunks fitted with sprinklers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2013-08-01

    Sprinklers reduce heat load in cattle, but elicit variable behavioral responses: cows readily use water in some studies, but in others either avoid it or show no preference. Nevertheless, on US dairies, a common way to cool cows is with nozzles mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray (i.e., 5 min on, 10 min off, as in this study) animals' backs while they feed. The objectives of this study were to determine how this type of sprinkler system affects behavior (single-treatment phase), and to assess preferences when cows were allowed to choose between feed bunks with or without sprinklers (choice phase). Data were collected 24h/d for lactating Holsteins tested in groups of 3 cows (n=8 groups) in warm ambient conditions [air temperature (mean ± standard deviation): 24-h average=24.5±2.5°C, maximum=36.0±3.5°C]. In the single-treatment phase, cows were fed from shaded bunks with or without sprinklers for 2 d/treatment, with order of exposure balanced in a crossover design. When sprinklers were present, cows spent more time at the bunk, both feeding [sprinkler vs. no sprinkler: 3.5 vs. 2.5h/24h, standard error (SE)=0.12h] and standing without feeding (4.3 vs. 2.3h/24h, SE=0.32 h) than when no sprinklers were present. Sprinklers lowered the average 24-h core temperature (38.8 vs. 39.2°C, SE=0.08°C), particularly on warmer days. Water cooling also mitigated the effects of weather on feeding time, which decreased with increasing heat load (air temperature and temperature-humidity index) when cows did not have sprinklers, but was unchanged when sprinklers were provided. In the choice phase, feed was provided ad libitum in both treatments for 5 d and preference was assessed. All groups preferred the feed bunk with sprinklers (78 vs. 22% of time spent near both feed bunks, SE=3.9%), and the magnitude of this preference increased linearly with heat load. In both phases of the study, cows protected their heads from direct spray when head position was elective

  6. Future consequences of decreasing marginal production efficiency in the high-yielding dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to examine the gross and marginal production efficiencies in high-yielding dairy cows and the future consequences on dairy industry profitability. Data from 2 experiments were used in across-treatments analysis (n=82 mid-lactation multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows). Milk yields, body weights (BW), and dry matter intakes (DMI) were recorded daily. In both experiments, cows were fed a diet containing 16.5 to 16.6% crude protein and net energy for lactation (NEL) at 1.61 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM). The means of milk yield, BW, DMI, NEL intake, and energy required for maintenance were calculated individually over the whole study, and used to calculate gross and marginal efficiencies. Data were analyzed in 2 ways: (1) simple correlation between variables; and (2) cows were divided into 3 subgroups, designated low, moderate, and high DMI (LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI), according to actual DMI per day: ≤ 26 kg (n=27); >26 through 28.2 kg (n=28); and >28.2 kg (n=27). The phenotypic Pearson correlations among variables were analyzed, and the GLM procedure was used to test differences between subgroups. The relationships between milk and fat-corrected milk yields and the corresponding gross efficiencies were positive, whereas BW and gross production efficiency were negatively correlated. The marginal production efficiency from DM and energy consumed decreased with increasing DMI. The difference between BW gain as predicted by the National Research Council model (2001) and the present measurements increased with increasing DMI (r=0.68). The average calculated energy balances were 1.38, 2.28, and 4.20 Mcal/d (standard error of the mean=0.64) in the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The marginal efficiency for milk yields from DMI or energy consumed was highest in LDMI, intermediate in MDMI, and lowest in HDMI. The predicted BW gains for the whole study period were 22.9, 37.9, and 75.8 kg for the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The

  7. Serum osteocalcin in dairy cows: age-related changes and periparturient variation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Reiichiro; Onda, Ken; Ochiai, Hideharu; Iriki, Tsunenori; Yamazaki, Yukio; Wada, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated age-related changes in serum osteocalcin concentrations in non-periparturient cows and variations in serum osteocalcin concentration in periparturient primiparous and multiparous cows. The serum osteocalcin levels were evaluated in 144 non-periparturient Holstein dairy cows aged 11 days to 10 years; these levels were the highest in the youngest cows, appeared to steadily decrease with age until the time of the first calving, and were subsequently maintained at low levels. Between 14 days before calving and 21 days after calving, the serum osteocalcin levels were significantly higher in the primiparous cows than in the multiparous cows. A comparison between age-matched non-periparturient and periparturient cows showed that serum osteocalcin levels were significantly lowered during late gestation in both primiparous and multiparous cows. These results suggest that serum osteocalcin measurement might be useful for the detection of mineral imbalances at the time of parturition in cows. PMID:21300389

  8. Development of a Bilingual Training Tool to Train Dairy Workers on the Prevention and Management of Non-Ambulatory Cows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman-Muniz, Ivette N.; Van Metre, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cows at risk of becoming non-ambulatory or downers represent economic losses and animal well-being issues for the dairy industry. Colorado State University researchers and Extension faculty collaborated with Colorado's dairy industry to create a training tool for the early identification and management of cows at risk of becoming downers on…

  9. Analysis of milking characteristics in New Zealand dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Jago, J G; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the variation in milking characteristics, and factors associated with these traits, in grazing dairy cows milked without premilking stimulation. Milk yield, duration, and average and maximum milk flow rate data were collected from 38 farms in New Zealand at 2 time points (spring and autumn) during the 2010 to 2011 season. Subsequently, a second data set, allowing the generation of daily milk flow profiles, was collected from 2 farms in the 2011 to 2012 season. Corresponding animal data, such as breed, date of birth, and ancestry information, were extracted from the New Zealand Dairy Industry Good Animal Database (New Zealand Animal Evaluation Ltd., Hamilton, New Zealand). Residual milking duration (deviation from the regression line of milk yield on milking duration) was calculated, allowing the identification of fast-milking cows independent of milk yield. Variance components for the milking characteristics traits were estimated using an animal linear mixed model. The average milk yield was 10 kg/milking and the average milking duration was 360 s. The average milk flow rate was 1.8 kg/min and maximum milk flow 3.3 kg/min, with 44% of milk flow curves being classified as bimodal. Primiparous animals exhibited different milk flow profiles, with a lower maximum flow, than multiparous animals, possibly due to differences in cisternal capacity. Residual milking duration was shortest (-10s) in mid-lactation (121-180 d) and was 13s longer for Jersey compared with Friesian cows; however, it was 19s shorter when adjusted for energy content. Residual milking duration had a negligible genetic correlation (-0.07) with milk yield, indicating that selection for cows with shorter residual milking duration should have a negligible effect on milk yield. A heritability of 0.27 indicated that residual milking duration could be valuable as part of a breeding program. Knowledge of the distribution of milking durations for a given milk yield

  10. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  11. Hay to reduce dietary cation-anion difference for dry dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Tremblay, G F; Allard, G; Pellerin, D

    2008-04-01

    Timothy grass has a lower dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD = (Na + K) - (Cl + S)] than other cool-season grass species. Growing timothy on low-K soils and fertilizing it with CaCl2 could further decrease its DCAD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding low-DCAD timothy hay on dry dairy cows. Six nonpregnant and nonlactating cows were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Treatments were as follows: 1) control diet (control; DCAD = 296 mEq/kg of dry matter); 2) low-DCAD diet based on low-DCAD timothy hay (L-HAY; DCAD = - 24 mEq/kg of dry matter); and 3) low-DCAD diet using HCl (L-HCl; DCAD = - 19 mEq/kg of dry matter). Decreasing DCAD with L-HAY had no effect on dry matter intake (11.8 kg/d) or dry matter digestibility (71.5%). Urine pH decreased from 8.21 to 5.89 when L-HAY was fed instead of the control. Blood parameters that decreased with L-HAY were base excess (- 0.4 vs. 3.8 mM) and HCO3- (23 vs. 27 mM), and blood parameters that increased were Ca2+ (5.3 vs. 5.1 mg/dL), Cl- (30.5 vs. 29.5 mg/dL), and Na+ (60.8 vs. 60.1 mg/dL). Compared with the control, L-HAY resulted in more Ca in urine (13.4 vs. 1.2 g/d). Comparing L-HAY with L-HCl, cow dry matter intake tended to be higher (11.5 vs. 9.8 kg/d), and blood pH was higher (7.37 vs. 7.31). Urine pH; total dry matter; Ca, K, P, and Mg apparent absorption; and Ca, K, Na, Cl, S, P, and Mg apparent retention were similar. Absorption as a percentage of intake of Na and Cl was lower for L-HAY as compared with L-HCl. In an EDTA-challenge test, cows fed L-HAY regained their initial level of blood Ca2+ twice as quickly as the control treatment (339 vs. 708 min); there were no differences between L-HAY and L-HCl. This experiment confirms that feeding low-DCAD hay is an effective means of decreasing the DCAD of rations and obtaining a metabolic response in dry dairy cows. PMID:18349251

  12. Immunological aspects of metritis in dairy cows: a review.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Marianna; Rizzo, Annalisa; D'Onghia, Giovanni; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Roncetti, Maria; Piccinno, Mariagrazia; Mutinati, Maddalena; Terlizzi, Michele Roberto; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews puerperal metritis in the cow, particularly the complex and multi-factorial pathogenesis characterized by an altered cross-talk among infectious agents, endocrine and immune systems. Uterine infections impair fertility and is one of the main causes of economic losses in dairy production. The early postpartum is a period characterized by an increased exposition to infectious agents and the disruption of the metabolic homeostasis, leading to endocrine and immunologic disorders. Dysregulation of uterine defence mechanisms results in the development of metritis. Because there is a complex interaction between infectious, endocrine and immune factors during metritis, there is need to use safer and cheaper drugs which are able to strengthen the anti-infective actions of the routine therapies. PMID:24867621

  13. Identification of nonlipophilic corynebacteria isolated from dairy cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Hommez, J; Devriese, L A; Vaneechoutte, M; Riegel, P; Butaye, P; Haesebrouck, F

    1999-04-01

    Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium. PMID:10074508

  14. Plasma serotonin levels in Italian Fresian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bruschetta, G; Di Pietro, P; Sanzarello, L; Giacoppo, E; Ferlazzo, A M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the metabolism of plasma serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), an important neurotransmitter, in Fresian dairy cows, a breed of zootechnical interest, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The subjects under study were at the stage of early lactation (n = 10; mean body weight 375 +/- 50 kg; average age of 3 years; body condition score 2.5), bred in a farm at an altitude of 150 m a.s.l. To evaluate animal welfare on this farm, which is closely connected to an animal's physiological status, tryptophan and cortisol levels (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), together with levels of certain blood components [total proteins (TP), albumin, creatinine, glucose (Glu), triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol, and aspartate transaminase, measured by spectrophotometry] were analyzed. The results obtained are discussed in comparison with reference values, taking into account the environmental living conditions. Measured plasma serotonin concentrations, which were lower than values reported for Brown Swiss dairy cows of a comparable age and diet, appeared to be affected by breed, temperature, blood sampling season, and altitude. Additional differences between the levels of plasma tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin, of the two breeds were comparable. Negative correlations between plasma tryptophan and plasma cortisol levels (r = -0.83, P < 0.005), plasma serotonin and plasma TP levels (r = -0.72, P < 0.05), or Glu levels (r = -0.77, P < 0.05) highlight the existence of a stress condition, which is connected to an energetic deficit related to lactation. PMID:20449652

  15. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  16. Selenium and Antioxidant Status in Dairy Cows at Different Stages of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 550 ± 50 kg of body weight and in 2 to 4 parity were divided into three groups according to lactation stage (group A: nine cows from 4 to 1 weeks prepartum; group B: 11 cows from 1 to 30 days postpartum; group C: 15 cows from 30 to 100 days postpartum). Selenium concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were determined to evaluate selenium and antioxidant status in dairy cows at different stages of lactation. The results showed that mean serum selenium concentration, MDA level, and GSH-Px activity of cows in early lactation increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with cows in the dry period and peak lactation. Conversely, serum TrxR activity and TAS declined during this period (P < 0.05). The increase of serum MDA level during early lactation indicate that the reactive oxygen species, including lipid hydroperoxides, increase in this period, thus placing the cows at a greater risk of oxidative stress. The significant decrease in TrxR activity that is accompanied with a decrease in TAS during early lactation suggests that dairy cows have low antioxidant defense in this period and TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in transition dairy cows. PMID:26384688

  17. Body phosphorus mobilization and deposition during lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elizondo Salazar, J A; Ferguson, J D; Beegle, D B; Remsburg, D W; Wu, Z

    2013-06-01

    Dairy cow bone phosphorus (P) mobilization and deposition and their influence on P requirements were studied over the lactation cycle. Thirty Holsteins received a common diet during the dry period and one of the following three dietary treatments that varied in P percentage during the subsequent lactation (44 weeks): (i) 0.36 throughout (constant P, 0.36-0.36-0.36), (ii) 0.36 for 30 weeks then 0.29 for 14 weeks (P changed once, 0.36-0.36-0.29), and (iii) 0.43 for 10 weeks, 0.36 for 20 weeks, and 0.29 for 14 weeks (P changed twice, 0.43-0.36-0.29). Six P balance studies were conducted during the experiment, including one during the dry period and five along lactation, based on P intake, faecal P, urinary P and milk P, when appropriate. Blood samples were taken during balance to analyse bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (pyridinoline) marker concentrations and rib biopsies performed to determine bone P content. Phosphorus balance was negative during weeks -4 to -1 relative to lactation for all groups and remained negative for cows fed 0.36% P during weeks 1-5, but showed a positive value for cows that received 0.43% P. The balance was close to zero for all groups at weeks 19-23 and showed a clear retention during weeks 38-42; by the end of lactation, cows re-stored most of the P mobilized earlier. The pattern in P balance was consistent with changes in blood bone metabolism marker concentrations, rib bone P content, and faecal and urinary P concentrations over the experiment, indicating that cows, irrespective of the dietary P treatments received, mobilized P from bone during the late dry period when fed a low-Ca diet and early lactation, and re-stored P in late lactation. This dynamic of P metabolism can have important implications for dietary P requirements and ration formulations. PMID:22452565

  18. Histopathological alterations in the antral ovarian follicles in dairy cows with a tendency to emaciation.

    PubMed

    Pivko, J; Makarevich, A V; Kubovicova, E; Ostro, A; Hegedusová, Z; Louda, F

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to define interrelationships between histopathological alterations in ovarian antral follicles and body condition in dairy cows with a tendency to emaciation (BCS 1 and 2) compared with dairy cows with normal body condition (BCS 3). The ovaries were recovered from slaughtered cyclic dairy cows (at the luteal phase of the cycle) of Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein breeds at different times of the post-partum period. The animals were estimated as belonging to certain grade of body condition score (BCS) according to a 5-point scale. Only dairy cows with BCS1 (emaciation; n=6), BCS2 (tendency to emaciation; n=5) and BCS3 (optimal body condition status; n=6) were available for the experiment. The ovarian samples were embedded into Technovit 7100 resin; the tissue sections were stained with buffered basic fuchsine with toluidine blue. For acidic mucopolysaccharides (aMPS) a combination of PAS-technique with Alcian blue was used. Histological analysis showed that emaciation was associated with an increased occurrence of late (cystic) and luteinization-related atresia in granulosa and theca cells and increased levels of aMPS in small atretic follicles. Our observations indicate that dairy cows with a tendency to emaciation (BCS 2) or emaciated (BCS 1) have elevated occurrence of late atresia and atresia with luteinization, while initial atresia is less. This expands our basic knowledge of ovarian histopathology providing new insight into the association of antral follicle atresia and body condition status in dairy cows. PMID:22806908

  19. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  20. Modulation of the Somatotropic Axis in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Wook

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on modulation of growth hormone (GH) and its downstream actions on periparturient dairy cows undergoing physiological and metabolic adaptations. During the periparturient period, cows experience a negative energy balance implicating that the feed intake does not meet the total energy demand for the onset of lactation. To regulate this metabolic condition, key hormones of somatotropic axis such as GH, IGF-I and insulin must coordinate adaptations required for the preservation of metabolic homeostasis. The hepatic GHR1A transcript and GHR protein are reduced at parturition, but recovers on postpartum. However, plasma IGF-I concentration remains low even though hepatic abundance of the GHR and IGF-I mRNA return to pre-calving value. This might be caused by alternation in IGFBPs and ALS genes, which consequently affect the plasma IGF-I stability. Plasma insulin level declines in a parallel manner with the decrease in plasma IGF-I after parturition. Increased GH stimulates the lipolytic effects and hepatic glucose synthesis to meet the energy requirement for mammary lactose synthesis, suggesting that GH antagonizes insulin-dependent glucose uptake and attenuates insulin action to decrease gluconeogenesis. PMID:25049937

  1. Sweating rates of dairy cows and beef heifers in hot conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a “Portable Calorimeter” and a “Bovine Evaporation Meter” designed and fabricated for the studies reported herein. Measurements were taken when cows were in their natural habitat. The focus of the study was to compare swea...

  2. Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratio on Lactation Performance and Methane Emission from Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and methane (CH4) emission from lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (means ± standard deviation: 620 ± 38 kg of body weight (BW); 41 ± 34 days in milk (DIM)) ...

  3. Sweating Rates of Dairy and Feedlot Cows in Stressful Thermal Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  4. Energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of ethanol production have become an important source of nutrients for dairy cows in recent years but accurate energy values have yet to be determined. Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of redu...

  5. FEED A POUND OF FAT STRATEGY TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY OF DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of increasing the forage in the diet, while maintaining the energy level through supplemental fat, on production, health and reproductive efficiency of dairy cows. Forty-five Holstein cows were blocked according to expected due date and milk...

  6. Sweating rates of dairy and feedlot cows under stressful thermal environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  7. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alvåsen, K; Jansson Mörk, M; Dohoo, I R; Sandgren, C Hallén; Thomsen, P T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-11-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on-farm cow mortality. Cows with at least one calving between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2009 from herds enrolled in the Swedish official milk recording scheme with >40 cow-years were included. Each cow was followed from the day of calving until she calved again or left the herd (died, slaughtered or sold). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow was slaughtered, sold, calved again or had an on-going lactation at 500 days after calving. The lactations were split into seasons (January to April, May to August and September to December) and at 30 and 100 days in milk in order to evaluate seasonal effects and the effect of disease in different lactation stages. Primiparous and multiparous cows were analysed separately. The highest hazards for both primiparous and multiparous cows were found for traumatic events and diseases, both in the lactation stage in which the cow died and in the preceding stage. The hazard was higher in early lactation and lower in 2nd parity compared to higher parities. Increased age at first calving (for primiparous cows), calving between January and April, dystocia and stillbirth also increased the mortality hazard. Differences were also found between breeds, between milk production parameters at first test milking and between management types. The results from this study show the importance of good management and preventive health actions, especially around calving, to avoid mortality in dairy cows. PMID

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature during heat stress experience lower milk yield and fertility. Given that rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable in dairy cattle, genetic selection for regulation of body temperature should reduce effects of heat stress on production. One goal...

  9. Reasons That Cows in Dairy Herd Improvement Programs Exit the Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This new Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory Research Report was initiated to provide the US industry more comprehensive information on a routine basis on why dairy cows leave Dairy Herd Improvement herds. AIPL had previously published some information on culling rate, but the method used did not...

  10. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron in the serum of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongbin; Guo, Changming; Gao, Li; Liu, Lei; Gao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanfei; Liu, Guowen

    2011-12-01

    Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron were measured in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. Compared with healthy cows, the subclinically ketotic cows had significantly higher levels of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutirate in serum and significantly lower levels of blood glucose (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed, suggesting that the mineral elements measured are not involved in the pathogenesis of subclinical ketosis. PMID:21739162

  11. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. PMID:25981076

  12. Effect of feeding rolled flaxseed on milk fatty acid profiles and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bork, N R; Schroeder, J W; Lardy, G P; Vonnahme, K A; Bauer, M L; Buchanan, D S; Shaver, R D; Fricke, P M

    2010-11-01

    The objectives were to study the effects of feeding rolled flaxseed (FLX) to early-lactation dairy cows on milk yield, milk components, and milk fatty acid profiles as well as on measures of cow reproduction. Lactating Holstein cows, on 3 commercial dairies, were fed either an early-lactation ration (CON) or a ration that was similar in protein, energy, and fat content but that included FLX (0.85 kg of DM/cow per day). Within each dairy, cows were allocated alternately to breeding pens upon leaving the fresh pen (approximately 10 ± 5 d postpartum). Pens (n = 4 to 5 pens/dairy) were randomized to treatment (n = 2 to 3 pens/treatment per dairy). Pen (CON, n = 6; FLX, n = 7) was considered the experimental unit and data were analyzed as a split plot with pen as the whole-plot error term. Cows fed FLX had greater (P ≤ 0.06) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, C18:3n-3, and C20:0 fatty acids in milk fat and a lesser (P = 0.03) proportion of C20:3n-6 fatty acid when compared with cows fed the CON diet. Treatment did not affect (P ≥ 0.24) milk yield, milk protein, protein yield, milk fat, or milk fat yield. No interactions (P ≥ 0.52) were found between treatment and season of the year or parity, or between treatment and days open, pregnancies per AI at first or second service, or pregnancy loss. In conclusion, feeding FLX at 0.85 kg/cow per day (DM basis) altered the fatty acid profile of milk, but milk yield, milk composition, and reproductive performance of dairy cows were not affected. PMID:20622184

  13. Comparison of oestrous synchronization regimens for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D P; Galvin, J A; O'Farrell, K J

    1999-08-16

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate various programmes for synchronization of oestrus. The focus of the study was to evaluate rates of detection of oestrus, synchrony of oestrus, pregnancy rate, and effect of ovarian status at initiation of the programmes on rates of detection of oestrus and pregnancy rate. Spring-calving, lactating dairy cows (n = 2009) were allocated at random to one of six treatments: (1) A (n = 335), progestogen (controlled intravaginal drug release; CIDR) inserted per vaginum 10 d before breeding season for 8 d, 10 microg of buserelin at CIDR insertion, PGF2alpha treatment on the day prior to CIDR removal, and AI of cows detected in oestrus within 6 d after CIDR withdrawal; (2) B (n = 330), as in A, plus 1 mg of oestradiol benzoate i.m. 10 h post CIDR withdrawal; (3) C (n = 347), as in A, except buserelin was replaced by 10 mg of oestradiol benzoate; (4) D (n = 335), as in A, plus PGF2alpha and oestradiol benzoate at CIDR insertion; (5) E (n = 332), CIDR containing a 10 mg oestradiol benzoate capsule inserted per vaginum for 12 d; or (6) F (n = 330), as in E, plus PGF2alpha on the day prior to CIDR withdrawal. The oestrous detection rate (number of cows detected in oestrus within 6 days of CIDR withdrawal as a proportion of the number of cows submitted for synchronization of oestrus) and oestrous synchrony (oestrous detection rate within 2 d of CIDR withdrawal), respectively, were greater (P<0.05) following B (95.7% of 330, 98.7% of 316) compared with any of the other programmes for synchronization of oestrus (A: 87.5 of 335, 79.4% of 293; C: 86.7% of 347, 80.0% of 301; D: 90.1% of 335, 89.8% of 302; E: 74.4% of 332, 70.4% of 247; F: 76.4% of 330, 78.5% of 252). The oestrous detection rate was reduced (P<0.05) among cows in metoestrus administered E (64.0% of 50) relative to similar cows administered F (82.8% of 64). Pregnancy rate was greater (P<0.05) following B (57.9% of 330) than A (48.9% of 335, P = 0.06), C (43.2% of 347), E

  14. Carryover effect of postpartum inflammatory diseases on developmental biology and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G; Greco, L F; Cerri, R L A; Vieira-Neto, A; Monteiro, P L J; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this series of studies was to investigate the effects of inflammatory diseases occurring before breeding on the developmental biology and reproductive responses in dairy cows. Data from 5 studies were used to investigate different questions associating health status before breeding and reproductive responses. Health information for all studies was composed of the incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, mastitis, lameness, and respiratory and digestive problems from parturition until the day of breeding. Retained placenta and metritis were grouped as uterine disease (UTD). Mastitis, lameness, digestive and respiratory problems were grouped as nonuterine diseases (NUTD). Study 1 evaluated the effect of disease before artificial insemination (AI), anovulation before synchronization of the estrous cycle, and low body condition score at AI on pregnancy per AI, as well as their potential interactions or additive effects. Study 2 investigated the effect of site of inflammation (UTD vs. NUTD) and time of occurrence relative to preantral or antral stages of ovulatory follicle development, and the effect of UTD and NUTD on fertility responses of cows bred by AI or by embryo transfer. Study 3 evaluated the effect of disease on fertilization and embryonic development to the morula stage. Study 4 evaluated the effect of disease on preimplantation conceptus development as well as secretion of IFN-τ and transcriptome. Study 5 investigated the effect of diseases before AI on the transcript expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes during peri-implantation stages of conceptus development after first AI postpartum. Altogether, these studies demonstrated that inflammatory disease before breeding reduced fertilization of oocytes and development to morula, and impaired early conceptus development to elongation stages and secretion of IFN-τ in the uterine lumen. Diseases caused inflammation-like changes in transcriptome of

  15. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Van Laar, H; Pellikaan, W F; Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 blocks of 4 cows each. Cows received diets consisting of 60% grass silage and 40% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 different diets composed of concentrates that varied in rate of starch fermentation [slowly (S) vs. rapidly (R) rumen fermentable; native vs. gelatinized corn grain] and level of starch (low vs. high; 270 vs. 530g/kg of concentrate dry matter). Results of rumen in situ incubations confirmed that the fractional rate of degradation of starch was higher for R than S starch. Effective rumen degradability of organic matter was higher for high than low starch and also higher for R than S starch. Increased level of starch, but not starch fermentability, decreased dry matter intake and daily CH4 production. Milk yield (mean 24.0±1.02kg/d), milk fat content (mean 5.05±0.16%), and milk protein content (mean 3.64±0.05%) did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, per kilogram of dry matter intake, or as a fraction of gross energy intake did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of estimated rumen-fermentable organic matter (eRFOM) was higher for S than R starch-based diets (47.4 vs. 42.6g/kg of eRFOM) and for low than high starch-based diets (46.9 vs. 43.1g/kg of eRFOM). Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein were not affected by diets, but starch digestibility was higher for diets based on R starch (97.2%) compared with S starch (95.5%). Both total volatile fatty acid concentration (109.2 vs. 97.5mM) and propionate proportion (16.5 vs. 15.8mol/100mol) were higher for R starch- compared with S starch

  16. Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in feces from preweaned dairy calves and postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Björn

    2015-09-01

    Quinolone resistance may emerge in gut bacteria (e.g., in Escherichia coli) of animals. Such bacteria could cause infections in the animal itself or be transmitted to humans via the food chain. Quinolone resistance is also observed in fecal E. coli of healthy dairy cattle, but the prevalence varies between farms, not solely as a result of varying degree of fluoroquinolone exposure. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the fecal shedding of quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) from dairy calves and postpartum cows. Rectal swabs from 15 preweaned calves and 5 postpartum cows per farm were collected on 23 Swedish dairy farms to determine the prevalence of QREC. Risk factors for the shedding of QREC were investigated using multivariable statistical models. Quinolone-resistant E. coli were found on all but one farm. Factors associated with QREC shedding by calves were being younger than 18 d, being fed milk from cows treated with antimicrobials, recent use of fluoroquinolones in the herd, carriage of QREC by postpartum cows, and using the calving area never or rarely as a sick pen compared with often. Factors associated with QREC shedding by cows were calving in group pens or freestalls compared with single pens or tiestalls, purchasing cattle, sharing animal transports with other farmers, and poor farm hygiene. Proper biosecurity and improved hygiene, as well as minimizing fluoroquinolone exposure and waste milk feeding, may be important factors to reduce the burden of QREC on dairy farms. PMID:26188574

  17. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  18. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  19. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  20. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that might be used to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and

  1. Association of rumination time with subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between rumination and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A study was conducted on 4 commercial dairy farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. A total of 339 Holstein dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) were monitored for rumination activity and SCK from 14 d before calving until 28 d after calving. Rumination was recorded daily using an automated monitoring system. A blood sample was taken from the coccygeal vein of each cow for measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) once weekly throughout the 6-wk observation period. Cows with BHB ≥1.2mmol/L in any of the 4 postpartum samples were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows (HLT) that had no SCK or any other recorded health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n=50); cows with SCK (hyperketonemia; HYK) with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or cows (HYK+) that had SCK and one or more other health problems (n=53). Daily rumination time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT and HYK and HYK+. From 2 wk before calving (wk -2) to 4 wk after calving (wk +4), there was no difference in rumination time (409±9.8min/d) among HLT, HYK, and HYK+ cows in their first lactation. Multiparous cows in HLT spent an average of 459±11.3min/d ruminating from wk -2 to wk +4. Multiparous HYK cows ruminated 25±12.8min/d less than HLT cows, whereas HYK+ cows ruminated 44±15.6min/d less than HLT cows. The largest differences in rumination time between HLT and HYK+ cows were seen during wk -1, +1, and +2, when HYK+ cows ruminated 48±17.2, 73±16.0, and 65±19.4min/d less than HLT cows, respectively. In multiparous cows, increased odds of HYK were associated with greater milk yield in the previous lactation, greater loss of

  2. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

  3. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows. PMID:26888487

  4. Parturition to resumption of ovarian cyclicity: comparative aspects of beef and dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Williams, E J

    2014-05-01

    There is a variable anoestrous period following parturition in the cow. Follicular growth generally resumes within 7 to 10 days in the majority of cows associated with a transient FSH rise that occurs within 3 to 5 days of parturition. Dairy cows that are not nutritionally stressed generally ovulate their first postpartum dominant follicle (~15 days), whereas beef suckler cows in good body condition normally have a mean of 3.2±0.2 dominant follicles (~30 days) to first ovulation; moreover, beef cows in poor body condition have a mean of 10.6±1.2 dominant follicles (~70 to 100 days) to first ovulation. The lack of ovulation of dominant follicles during the postpartum period is associated with infrequent LH pulses, with both maternal-offspring bonding and low body condition score (BCS) at calving being implicated as the predominant causes of delayed resumption of cyclicity in nursed beef cows. In dairy cows, the normal pattern of early resumption of ovulation may be delayed in high-yielding Holstein type cows generally owing to the effects of severe negative energy balance, dystocia, retained placental membranes and uterine infections. First ovulation, in both dairy and beef cows, is generally silent (i.e., no behavioural oestrus) and followed by a short inter-ovulatory interval (>70%). The key to optimizing the resumption of ovulation in both beef and dairy cows is appropriate pre-calving nutrition and management so that cows calve down in optimal body condition (BCS; 2.75 to 3.0) with postpartum body condition loss restricted to <0.5 BCS units. PMID:24680122

  5. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID

  6. What is the true supply of amino acids for a dairy cow?

    PubMed

    Lapierre, H; Pacheco, D; Berthiaume, R; Ouellet, D R; Schwab, C G; Dubreuil, P; Holtrop, G; Lobley, G E

    2006-03-01

    Improving the prediction of milk protein yield relies on knowledge of both protein supply and requirement. Definition of protein/amino acid supply in ruminants is a challenging task, due to feedstuff variety and variability and to the remodeling of nutrient intake by the rumen microflora. The questions arise, therefore, how and where should we measure the real supply of AA in the dairy cow? This review will follow the downstream flow of AA from duodenum to peripheral tissue delivery, with a glance at the efficiency of transfer into milk protein. Duodenal AA flow comprises rumen undegradable feed, microbial protein, and endogenous secretions. Most attention has been directed toward definition of the first two contributions but the latter fraction can represent as much as 20% of duodenal flow. More information is needed on what factors affect its magnitude and overall impact. Once digested, AA are absorbed into the portal vein. The ratio of portal absorption to small intestinal apparent digestion varies among essential AA, from 0.43 (threonine) to 0.76 (phenylalanine), due to the contributions of preduodenal endogenous secretions to the digestive flow, non-reabsorption of endogenous secretions and gut oxidation of AA. Few data are available on these phenomena in dairy cows but the evidence indicates that they alter the profile of AA available for anabolic purposes. Recent comparisons of estimated duodenal flux and measured portal flux have prompted a revisit of the NRC (2001) approach to estimate AA flows at the duodenum. Changes to the model are proposed that yield predictions that better fit the current knowledge of AA metabolism across the gut. After absorption, AA flow first to the liver where substantial and differential net removal occurs, varying from zero for the branched-chain AA to 50% of portal absorption for phenylalanine. This process alters the pattern of net supply to the mammary gland. Overall, intermediary metabolism of AA between the duodenum and

  7. Struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure: A review of application potential and hindrances.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wendong; Fattah, Kazi P; Huchzermeier, Matthew P

    2016-03-15

    Anaerobically digested dairy manure is rich in ammonium, orthophosphates, and magnesium, indicating a high potential for struvite recovery. Continuous generation of large amounts of dairy manure plus increasing global interest in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure suggest a huge market for struvite production with anaerobically digested dairy manure. However, the complex chemical composition of digested dairy manure presents hindrances to struvite recovery. This review paper assesses the significance and potential of struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure, identifies the factors hindering struvite recovery, and discusses the methods to overcome hindrances and the measures to improve phosphorus speciation of dairy manure for struvite formation. This paper proposes using "struvite recovery potential" or Pstruvite based on the least molar activity of struvite component ions in addition to "supersaturation ratio" to identify the potential for struvite recovery. The probable hindrances mainly include high Ca(2+) concentration and molar activity ratios of Ca(2+): Mg(2+) and Ca(2+): PO4(3-), high ionic strength, and high alkalinity. Struvite formation and purity is likely a function of all the interfering variables, rather than just a single factor with digested dairy manure. Potential enhancement measures need to be tested for technical and economic feasibility and applicability to various sources of digested dairy manure. This review paper provides guidance to overcoming the hindrances of digested dairy manure to struvite formation. PMID:26720329

  8. Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

    To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

  9. Cadmium and lead in animal tissue (muscle, liver and kidney), cow milk and dairy products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Gyu; Kim, MeeKyung; Shin, Jin Young; Son, Seong-Wan

    2016-03-01

    A survey of Cd and Pb in animal tissue, milk and dairy products was conducted. Muscle, liver and kidney of domestically produced cows, pigs, chickens and ducks were collected from eight regions in Korea. Raw cow milk was collected from 9 regions, and imported dairy products (butter, cheese, cream and powdered milk) were collected from 15 countries. Cd and Pb were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. Concentrations of Cd and Pb did not exceed the Korean legal maximum levels in any of the samples. Correlation coefficients were estimated between concentration of Cd or Pb and animal age and between muscle, liver and kidney. In cows, there were good correlations between age and Cd in kidney (r = 0.748) and between Cd in liver and in kidney (r = 0.878). Continuous monitoring will be an important role to safeguard consumers in the event of a food contamination incident. PMID:26588172

  10. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) <165 m or (2) ≥165 m. Cover of track way was categorised as (1) prepared (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows. PMID:24387936

  11. Effect of technical cashew nut shell liquid on rumen methane emission and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Branco, A F; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Oh, J; Hristov, A N

    2015-06-01

    Technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid (TCNSL) is a by-product of the cashew nut industry in tropical countries, and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including inhibitory effect against gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TCNSL (73.3% cardanol, 16.4% cardol, and 3.0% methylcardol) on rumen methane emission, nutrient digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d experimental periods. The diet was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage and was formulated to meet or exceed the energy and metabolizable protein requirements of the cows. Treatments were control (no TCNSL supplementation) or 30 g/cow per day of TCNSL. Rumen carbon dioxide emission was not affected by TCNSL. Treatment had no effect on methane emission (542 vs. 511±35.3 g/cow per day, respectively) and methane emission intensity (15.0 vs. 13.9±0.58 g/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively) and tended to decrease methane emission per kilogram of dry matter intake (20.2 vs. 18.6±1.04 g/kg, respectively). Dry matter intake (average 26.9±1.00 kg/d), milk yield (40.0±1.73 kg/d), and milk composition were not different between treatments. The TCNSL had no effect on N losses in urine and feces and total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, except digestibility of neutral detergent fiber tended to be increased compared with the control. Plasma urea and glucose concentrations were not affected by TCNSL. Concentration of milk C18:0 tended to be decreased (17%) by TCNSL compared with the control. In this study, TCNSL did not alter absolute methane emission in the rumen, but tended to decrease it by 8% per kilogram of dry matter intake. The TCNSL had no effect on milk yield and composition in dairy cows. PMID:25795493

  12. Methane emissions of differently fed dairy cows and corresponding methane and nitrogen emissions from their manure during storage.

    PubMed

    Külling, D R; Dohme, Frigga; Menz, H; Sutter, F; Lischer, P; Kreuzer, M

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of supplementing 40 g lauric acid (C12) kg(-1) dry matter (DM) in feed on methane emissions from early-lactating dairy cows and the associated effects on methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia release from the manure during storage. Stearic acid (C18), a fatty acid without assumed methane-suppressing potential in the digestive tract of ruminants, was added at 40 g kg(-1) DM to a control diet. The complete feed consisted of forage and concentrate in a ratio of 1.5:1 (DM basis). The manure was stored for 14 weeks either as complete slurry or, separately, as urine-rich slurry and farmyard manure representing two common storage systems. Methane release of the cows, as measured in respiratory chambers, was lower with C12 by about 20%, but this was mostly resulting from a reduced feed intake and, partly, from a lower rate of fibre digestion. As milk yield declined less than feed intake, methane emission per kg of milk was significantly lower with C12 (11.4 g) than with C18 (14.0 g). Faeces of C12-fed cows had a higher proportion of undigested fibre and accordingly methane release from their manure was higher compared with the manure obtained from the C18-fed cows. Overall, manure-derived methane accounted for 8.2% and 15.4% of total methane after 7 and 14 weeks of storage, respectively. The evolution of methane widely differed between manure types and dietary treatments, with a retarded onset of release in complete slurry particularly in the C12 treatment. Emissions of nitrous oxide were lower in the manures from the C12 treatment. This partially compensated for the higher methane release from the C12 manure with respect to the greenhouse gas potential. The total greenhouse gas potential (cow and manure together) accounted for 8.7 and 10.5 kg equivalents of CO2 cow(-1) d(-1) with C12 and C18, respectively. At unaffected urine-N proportion ammonia and total nitrogen losses from stored manure were lower with C12 than with C18 corresponding

  13. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    González, R N; Cullor, J S; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical cases included 15 E. coli five Klebsiella pneumoniae, three K. oxytoca, three K. ozaenae, five Enterobacter aerogenes, three Serratia marcescens and one Serratia spp. Four control cows were culled, three of them because of chronic coliform mastitis and one because of postcoliform infection agalactia. Incidence rate of clinical gram-negative mastitis was 2.57% in vaccinated cows and 12.77% in unvaccinated cows. The estimated risk ratio, the measure of risk of having clinical gram-negative mastitis for vaccinated cows to unvaccinated cows, was 0.20 (p less than 0.005), indicating a strong relationship between vaccination and lack of clinical gram-negative mastitis. The results of this trial indicate that the administration of the E. coli J5 vaccine is protective against natural challenge to gram-negative bacteria, and reduces the incidence of clinical gram-negative mastitis in dairy cows during the first three months of lactation. PMID:2670166

  14. Modulation of Cytokine Expression and Lymphocyte Subsets During the Periparturient Period in Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm observations suggest that dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) may demonstrate increased signs of clinical disease during the weeks following parturition. To date, limited research is available characterizing host immunity in periparturient dairy cows ...

  15. Efficacy of moxibustion after rolling correction in dairy cows with abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Lee, M R; Kim, J H; Han, T S; Kang, S S; Bae, C S; Kim, D H; Kim, G; Choi, S H

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the efficacy of moxibustion after rolling correction in dairy cows with abomasal displacement (AD). The experimental group comprised 86 Holstein cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) and right displacement of the abomasum (RDA), with a mean age of 3.8 with AD during a 2-year period. The cows were rolled for correction of AD. After the rolling procedure, moxibustion was conducted on six acupoints once a day during the course of treatment. After repositioning the abomasums, the bilateral points of BL-20, BL-21 and BL-26 were then stimulated. During the follow-up of 1 week, 67 (93.1%) of 72 LDA and 12 (85.7%) of 14 RDA cows were released as cured after moxibustion. In conclusion, moxibustion effectively treats AD following rolling correction in dairy cows. PMID:17265551

  16. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production. PMID:26486922

  17. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during -8, -4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at -8 and -4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. PMID:26479383

  18. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as

  19. Expression and detection of estrus in dairy cows: the role of new technologies.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C

    2014-05-01

    Despite the widespread adoption of hormonal synchronization protocols that allow for timed artificial insemination (AI), detection of estrus plays an important role in the reproductive management program on most dairies in the United States. Increased physical activity is a secondary sign of estrus in dairy cattle, and a new generation of electronic systems that continuously monitor physical activity to predict timing of AI have been developed and marketed to the dairy industry. A variety of management and physiologic challenges inhibit detection of behavioral estrus on farms, but the prevalence of anouvular cows near the end of the voluntary waiting period is particularly problematic. Only 70% of lactating Holstein cows were detected in estrus when using an activity monitoring system, with the remaining 20% of cows classified as anovular and 10% ovulating without showing signs of activity. Mean time of AI in relation to ovulation based on the activity monitoring system was acceptable for most of the cows with increased activity, however, variability in the duration of estrus and timing of AI in relation to ovulation could result in poor pregnancy outcomes in some cows. Use of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for submission of cows for first AI has been widely adopted by dairies in the United States, and a combined approach in which AI based on activity is followed by submission of cows not detected with activity to timed AI after synchronization of ovulation may be an effective strategy for submission of cows to first AI. Based on a field trial on a large commercial dairy in the United States, the activity monitoring system detected 70% of cows with increased activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, however, cows inseminated to increased activity had fewer pregnancies per AI (P/AI) compared with cows with increased activity after the second PGF2α injection that received timed AI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. Based on

  20. Identification of plasma and hepatic parameters related to metabolic robustness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Graber, M; Kohler, S; Müller, A; Burgermeister, K; Kaufmann, T; Bruckmaier, R M; van Dorland, H A

    2012-02-01

    Blood plasma and hepatic parameters were identified that describe the differences between metabolically robust or vulnerable dairy cows grouped according to their past health status. Data from a field study on dairy cows were used from which metabolically challenged dairy cows were selected that had a milk fat percentage of >4.5 mg/g and a fat to protein ratio of >1.5 in their previous early lactation. The selected cows were either classified as metabolically robust or vulnerable based on the occurrence of various metabolic and (re)production disorders in their previous lactations. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected in week 3 ante partum (a.p.) (-3 wk), in week 4 (+4 wk) and in week 13 (+13 wk) post-partum (p.p.). Plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones and mRNA expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways in the liver were used as variables for a two-group discriminant analysis (DA). Average discriminant scores (centroids) were different (p < 0.05) in -3 wk, +4 wk and in +13 wk. In -3 wk, significant variables that best explained the differences between metabolically robust and vulnerable cows were parity, plasma triglycerides, glucose and mRNA abundance of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2). In addition, based on the classification matrix, 69% of the dairy cows were correctly classified. In +4 wk, identified significant parameters were parity, plasma glucose and urea, and 67% of the cows were correctly classified. In +13 wk, significant variables that explained the differences between the groups were parity, mRNA abundance of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain 1 and CPT1, and 66% of the cows were correctly classified. In conclusion, the identified variables may distinguish from metabolically challenged cows, those cows that had a poorer health performance in their previous lactations. PMID:21244526

  1. On-farm management decisions to improve beef quality of market dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rogers, C A; Fitzgerald, A C; Carr, M A; Covey, B R; Thomas, J D; Looper, M L

    2004-05-01

    A 3-phase study was conducted to assess on-farm management decisions to reduce antibiotic residue violations and improve carcass characteristics in market (cull) dairy cows. In Phase 1, questionnaires were mailed to dairy producers (n = 142) to determine current on-farm management strategies for reducing antibiotic residues in market dairy cattle. In Phase 2, Holstein market cows (n = 77) were assigned randomly to each of the 3 feeding treatments (0, 30, or 60 d). Average daily gain (ADG), body condition score (BCS), and carcass characteristics were assessed. Phase 3 determined the meat withdrawal time of Holstein cows (n = 62) administered procaine penicillin G. Eighty-six percent of dairy farms responding to the questionnaire had at least one cow condemned annually, and no producer had a designated feeding protocol for market cows prior to selling. In Phase 2, ADG was greater in cows fed for 30 d (1.4+/-0.6 kg/d) than in cows fed for 60 d (0.9+/-0.4 kg/d). Additional feeding did not influence the carcass characteristics studied with the exception of kidney, pelvic and heart fat, which was higher in cows fed for 60 d compared with those fed for 0 and 30 d. In Phase 3, 31% of cows treated with procaine penicillin G exceeded the 10-d label withdrawal recommendation by an average of 3.1+/-1.9 d. Feeding market cows may not influence carcass characteristics, but can increase ADG and may ensure that recommended meat withdrawal times for antibiotics are exceeded. PMID:15291006

  2. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  3. Inducing subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krause, K M; Oetzel, G R

    2005-10-01

    Data from experiments in which subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) was induced in lactating dairy cows (days in milk = 154 +/- 118) were evaluated to investigate the effectiveness of the induction protocol and its effect on production outcomes. For 13 cows in 3 trials, ruminal pH was measured continuously and recorded each minute; dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Milk composition data were obtained from 9 cows in 2 of these trials. The SARA induction protocol included 4 separate periods: 4 d of baseline [normal total mixed ration (TMR)], 1 d of 50% restricted feeding, 1 or 2 d of challenge feeding [addition of 3.5 or 4.6 kg of wheat-barley pellet (dry matter basis) to normal TMR], and 2 d of recovery measurements when feeding normal TMR. The SARA induction protocol lowered mean ruminal pH from 6.31 during the baseline period to 5.85 during the challenge period; pH remained below baseline level during the recovery period (6.16). Mean ruminal pH was highest (6.59) during the day of restricted feeding. Nadir ruminal pH decreased from baseline to challenge period (5.76 vs. 5.13). Hours below pH 5.6 increased from 1.10 to 8.26/d from baseline to challenge period and area below 5.6 (pH x min/d) increased from 15.0 to 190.3. Dry matter intake was not affected by SARA induction. Milk yield dropped from 35.2 kg/d during baseline to 31.7 k/d during the challenge period and did not return to baseline level during the recovery period (31.3 kg/d). No depression in milk fat percentage was observed when SARA was induced. Yield of fat was highest during the restricted feeding period (1.47 kg/d) and was lower during the recovery period than during the baseline period (1.12 vs. 1.31 kg/d). The protocol successfully induced SARA (low ruminal pH without signs of acute ruminal acidosis) on the challenge day. Milk yield was substantially reduced and did not recover within 2 d after the challenge. PMID:16162537

  4. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2005-06-01

    Estimates of environmental heat stress are required for heat stress relief measures in cattle. Heat stress is commonly assessed by the temperature-humidity index (THI), the sum of dry and wet bulb temperatures. The THI does not include an interaction between temperature and humidity, although evaporative heat loss increases with rising air temperature. Coat, air velocity, and radiation effects also are not accounted for in the THI. The Holstein dairy cow is the primary target of heat stress relief, followed by feedlot cattle. Heat stress may be estimated for a variety of conditions by thermal balance models. The models consist of animal-specific data (BW, metabolic heat production, tissue and coat insulation, skin water loss, coat depth, and minimal and maximal tidal volumes) and of general heat exchange equations. A thermal balance simulation model was modified to adapt it for Holstein cows by using Holstein data for the animal characteristics in the model, and was validated by comparing its outputs to experimental data. Model outputs include radiant, convective, skin evaporative, respiratory heat loss and rate of change of body temperature. Effects of milk production (35 and 45 kg/d), hair coat depth (3 and 6 mm), air temperature (20 to 45 degrees C), air velocity (0.2 to 2.0 m/s), air humidity (0.8 to 3.9 kPa), and exposed body surface (100, 75, and 50%) on thermal balance outputs were examined. Environmental conditions at which respiratory heat loss attained approximately 50% of its maximal value were defined as thresholds for intermediate heat stress. Air velocity increased and humidity significantly decreased threshold temperatures, particularly at higher coat depth. The effect of air velocity was amplified at high humidity. Increasing milk production from 35 to 45 kg/d decreased threshold temperature by 5 degrees C. In the lying cow, the lower air velocity in the proximity of body surface and the smaller exposed surface markedly decrease threshold

  5. Diverse Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Manure

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. PMID:24757214

  6. Prepartum supplementation of selenium and vitamin E to dairy cows: assessment of selenium and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hidiroglou, M.; McAllister, A.J.; Williams, C.J.

    1987-06-01

    Incidence of retained placenta in dairy cows was evaluated in 627 parturitions. The herd was divided prepartum into three groups: (1) control, no treatment (n = 217 cows); (2) cows injected intramuscularly (n = 190) 21 to 10 d prior parturition with 45 mg Se and 2040 IU of vitamin E; and (3) cows intraruminally administered (n = 220) with two 30-g pellets containing 10% elemental selenium 2 mo prior to expected calving. Incidence of retained placenta (22.1%) was not reduced by Se in combination with vitamin E injection or intraruminal Se pellet nor were other measures of reproduction improved for cows fed a prepartum diet adequate in Se. At parturition the blood plasma Se concentrations were higher in treated postpartum with Se than in untreated cows. No difference in blood plasma Se was observed at parturition between cows with or without placenta retention. Cows dosed intraruminally with Se had a significant increase in milk Se, but this was to small to be a danger to human health. The present results on placenta retention suggest that this disorder is not a Se responsive disease in the dairy cow.

  7. Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, A Davasaz; Batavani, R A; Rezaei, S Asri; Ahmadi, M

    2008-02-15

    The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in plasma concentration of Cp between healthy and subclinical groups (p>0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (p<0.05). The concentrations of Fb and Cp in the milk of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (p<0.01). The results indicated that measurement of Fb in plasma and milk and Cp only in milk might be suitable for early diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:18817128

  8. Effect of Heat Stress on Concentrations of Faecal Cortisol Metabolites in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Rees, A; Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Heuwieser, W

    2016-06-01

    The negative impact of heat stress on health and productivity of dairy cows is well known. Heat stress can be quantified with the temperature-humidity index (THI) and is defined as a THI ≥ 72. Additionally, animal welfare is affected in cows living under heat stress conditions. Finding a way to quantify heat stress in dairy cows has been of increasing interest over the past decades. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites [i.e. 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA)] as an indirect stress parameter in dairy cows without heat stress (DOA 0), with heat stress on a single day (acute heat stress, DOA 1) or with more than a single day of heat stress (chronic heat stress, DOA 2). Cows were housed in five farms under moderate European climates. Two statistical approaches (approach 1 and approach 2) were assessed. Using approach 1, concentrations of faecal 11,17-DOA were compared among DOA 0, DOA 1 and DOA 2 samples regardless of their origin (i.e. cow, unpaired comparison with a one-way anova). Using approach 2, a cow was considered as its own control; that is 11,17-DOA was treated as a cow-specific factor and only paired samples were included in the analysis for this approach (paired comparison with t-tests). In approach 1 (p = 0.006) and approach 2 (p = 0.038), 11,17-DOA values of cows under acute heat stress were higher compared to those of cows without heat stress. Our results also indicate that acute heat stress has to be considered as a confounder in studies measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in cows to evaluate other stressful situations. PMID:27091101

  9. The effects of a short-term increase in supplementation on the reproduction performance in lactating crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Msangi, B S J; Bryant, M J; Nkya, R; Thorne, P J

    2004-11-01

    The hypothesis that dairy cows partially suckling their calves would ovulate following removal of calves when restored to positive energy balance by a short-term increase in supplementation was investigated in 65 crossbred cows. Five treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) that differed in the amount of total concentrate fed from calving to week 24 were involved. Calves were allowed to suck residual milk to 12 weeks of age. Energy balance was estimated by measuring intake, milk yield and organic matter digestibility. The occurrence of ovulation was determined by the analysis of milk progesterone (P4) concentration. Four groups that were receiving additional supplementation were restored to positive energy balance, while the control group (T1) remained in negative energy balance. The percentage of cows ovulating was 36%, 58%, 92%, 90% and 60% for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively (p = 0.026). Comparison of the timing of ovulation for combined results from T1+T2 and T3+T4+T5 estimated mean time to fail to ovulate as 110+/-9.0 and 87+/-7.6 days, respectively (p = 0.023). The percentage of the cows showing oestrus was 9%, 8%, 33%, 40% and 40% for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively (p = 0.197). Short-term increases in supplementation are unlikely to be an attractive means of reducing calving intervals. PMID:15643813

  10. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. PMID:26805964

  11. Seasonal and parity effects on ghrelin levels throughout the estrous cycle in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Elbaz, Michal; Kaim, Moshe; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran

    2016-09-01

    In dairy cows, heat stress depresses appetite, leading to decreased food intake, a negative energy balance, and modifies ghrelin levels. Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide with two major forms: acylated, with an O-n-octanoylated serine in position 3, and nonacylated. To date, the effect of heat stress and estrous cycle on ghrelin secretion in dairy cows has not been studied. We characterized ghrelin secretion during the estrous cycle in each, the winter and the summer seasons. We further examined the effects of parity on ghrelin secretion. Blood was collected from 10 primiparous or multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows throughout the estrous cycle, in both, the hot and cold seasons. The levels of acylated and total ghrelin were measured in the blood samples. We found that both acylated and total ghrelin levels during heat stress were lower than their respective levels in the winter in both, primiparous and multiparous cows. No differences in acylated and total ghrelin levels were found between primiparous and multiparous cows in both seasons. We further found that in multiparous but not primiparous cows acylated ghrelin secretion oscillated during the estrous cycle in both seasons. Its levels peaked on the last days of the first follicular wave and on the days before and during ovulation. Interestingly, we found that elevated acylated ghrelin levels correlated with conception success and increased total ghrelin levels were associated with successful conception from first insemination. Our data is the first to demonstrate seasonal variation in ghrelin secretion. This study provides evidence for the yet unfamiliar link between heat stress, ghrelin and fertility. Increased circulating acylated ghrelin may contribute to improved fertility in dairy cows. It further raises the possibility of a link between ghrelin levels and successful inseminations. Further research is required to determine the effects of ghrelin on dairy cow performance. PMID:27288640

  12. Requirements for zero energy balance of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed fresh autumn pasture are greater than currently estimated.

    PubMed

    Mandok, K S; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Edwards, G R; Roche, J R

    2013-06-01

    Fifty-three nonlactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cross dairy cows were grouped into 4 cohorts (n=15, 12, 13, and 13) and offered 1 of 3 allowances of fresh, cut pasture indoors for 38 ± 2 d (mean ± SD). Cows were released onto a bare paddock after their meal until the following morning. Animals were blocked by age (6 ± 2 yr), day of gestation (208 ± 17 d), and body weight (BW; 526 ± 55 kg). The 3 pasture allowances [low: 7.5 kg of dry matter (DM), medium: 10.1 kg of DM, or high: 12.4 kg of DM/cow per day] were offered in individual stalls to determine the estimated DM and metabolizable energy (ME) intake required for zero energy balance. Individual cow DM intake was determined daily and body condition score was assessed once per week. Cow BW was recorded once per week in cohorts 1 and 2, and 3 times per week in cohorts 3 and 4. Low, medium, and high allowance treatments consumed 7.5, 9.4, and 10.6 kg of DM/cow per day [standard error of the difference (SED)=0.26 kg of DM], and BW gain, including the conceptus, was 0.2, 0.6, and 0.9 kg/cow per day (SED=0.12 kg), respectively. The ME content of the pasture was estimated from in vitro true digestibility and by near infrared spectroscopy. Total ME requirements for maintenance, pregnancy, and limited activity were 1.07 MJ of ME/kg of measured metabolic BW per day. This is more than 45% greater than current recommendations. Differences may be due to an underestimation of ME requirements for maintenance or pregnancy, an overestimation of diet metabolizability, or a combination of these. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for the greater ME requirements measured in the present study, but the results are important for on-farm decisions regarding feed allocation for nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows. PMID:23522671

  13. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Luchterhand, Karen M; Silva, Paula R B; Chebel, Ricardo C; Endres, Marcia I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score <2 or >4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2-4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts. PMID:27597948

  14. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Luchterhand, Karen M.; Silva, Paula R. B.; Chebel, Ricardo C.; Endres, Marcia I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score <2 or >4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2–4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts. PMID:27597948

  15. Short communication: Association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A total of 339 dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) on 4 commercial dairy farms were monitored for lying behavior and SCK from 14d before calving until 28 d after calving. Lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and average lying bout length were measured using automated data loggers 24h/d. Cows were tested for SCK 1×/wk by taking a blood sample and analyzing for β-hydroxybutyrate; cows with β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2mmol/L postpartum were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were recorded and cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy (HLT) cows had no SCK or any other health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least 1 health issue other than SCK (n=50); SCK (HYK) cows with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or subclinically ketotic plus (HYK+) cows that had SCK and 1 or more other health problems (n=53). Daily lying time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT, HYK, and HYK+, respectively. We found no difference among health categories in lying time, bout frequency, or bout length fromwk -2 towk +4 relative to calving for first-lactation cows. Differences in lying time for multiparous cows were seen inwk +1, when HYK+ cows spent 92±24.0 min/d more time lying down than HLT cows, and duringwk +3 and +4 when HYK cows spent 44±16.7 and 41±18.9 min/d, respectively, more time lying down than HLT cows. Increased odds of HYK+ were found to be associated with higher parity, longer dry period, and greater stall stocking density inwk -1 and longer lying time duringwk +1. When comparing HYK to HLT cows, the same variables were associated with odds of SCK; however, lying time was not retained in the final model. These results suggest that monitoring lying time may contribute to identifying multiparous cows

  16. Effect of genotype on duodenal expression of nutrient transporter genes in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown clear differences between dairy breeds in their feed intake and production efficiencies. The duodenum is critical in the coordination of digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study examined gene transcript abundance of important classes of nutrient transporters in the duodenum of non lactating dairy cows of different feed efficiency potential, namely Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey (JE) and their F1 hybrid. Duodenal epithelial tissue was collected at slaughter and stored at -80°C. Total RNA was extracted from tissue and reverse transcribed to generate cDNA. Gene expression of the following transporters, namely nucleoside; amino acid; sugar; mineral; and lipid transporters was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Data were statistically analysed using mixed models ANOVA in SAS. Orthogonal contrasts were used to test for potential heterotic effects and spearman correlation coefficients calculated to determine potential associations amongst gene expression values and production efficiency variables. Results While there were no direct effects of genotype on expression values for any of the genes examined, there was evidence for a heterotic effect (P < 0.05) on ABCG8, in the form of increased expression in the F1 genotype compared to either of the two parent breeds. Additionally, a tendency for increased expression of the amino acid transporters, SLC3A1 (P = 0.072), SLC3A2 (P = 0.081) and SLC6A14 (P = 0.072) was also evident in the F1 genotype. A negative (P < 0.05) association was identified between the expression of the glucose transporter gene SLC5A1 and total lactational milk solids yield, corrected for body weight. Positive correlations (P < 0.05) were also observed between the expression values of genes involved in common transporter roles. Conclusion This study suggests that differences in the expression of sterol and amino acid transporters in the duodenum could contribute towards the

  17. Stay-green ranking and maturity of corn hybrids: 2. Effects on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2012-02-01

    To address producer concerns that feeding high stay-green (SG) corn hybrids is associated with decreased performance and health problems in dairy cows, this study examined how the performance of cows was affected by feeding hybrids with contrasting SG rankings and maturities. Two near-isogenic corn hybrids with high (HSG; Croplan Genetics 691, Croplan Genetics, St. Paul, MN) and low (LSG; Croplan Genetics 737) SG rankings were grown on separate halves of a 10-ha field, harvested at 27% (maturity 1) or 35% (maturity 2) dry matter (DM) and ensiled in bag silos for 84 and 77 d, respectively. A further treatment involved addition of water (15 L/t) to the HSG maturity 1 hybrid during packing to compound the potential negative effects of excess water in the HSG hybrid. Each of the resulting silages was included in a total mixed ration consisting of 35, 55, and 10% (DM basis) of corn silage, concentrate, and alfalfa hay, respectively. In experiment 1, the total mixed ration was fed for ad libitum consumption twice daily to 30 Holstein cows (92±18 d in milk). This experiment had a completely randomized design and consisted of two 28-d periods, each with 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for sample collection. In experiment 2, the ruminal fermentation of the diets was measured using 5 ruminally cannulated cows on the last day of three 15-d periods. Ruminal contraction rate (2.28±0.14 contractions/min), milk yield (36.7±1.3 kg/d), yield of milk protein (1.1±0.03 kg/d), and concentration of milk protein (2.9±0.03%) were not affected by treatment. Feeding diets containing HSG instead of LSG reduced intake of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, and concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and milk fat when the hybrids were harvested at 27% DM but not 35% DM. Across maturity stages, feeding diets containing HSG instead of LSG decreased DM and CP digestibility, increased rectal temperature and plasma

  18. Association between disease occurrence and fertility of dairy cows in three geographic regions of Chile.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Paudyal, S; Krauss, R; Arias, F; Lopez, H; Luco, A; Vergara, C F

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to analyze the association between disease occurrence during early lactation and reproductive performance and survival of dairy cows in high-producing herds, under different management practices in three geographic regions of Chile. Data included 30,757 lactation records of cows calving from January 2013 to June 2014 in three different locations: Central (C) area (n = 6198 cows in eight herds), Central-South (CS) area(n = 17,234 cows in 12 herds), and South (S) area (n = 7325 cows in six herds). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and ANOVA, considering cow as the experimental unit. Covariables offered to the models included parity number, season of calving, cow and herd relative milk yield, geographic location, and management system. Average milk yield (305 ME) per cow were 12,091, 11,783, and 6852 kg for C, CS, and S regions, respectively. Time from calving to first service and time to conception were consistently greater for cows with at least one disease event within 50 days in milk (DIM), for cows that were reported lame, or for cows that had mastitis or metritis. The odds (95% confidence interval) of pregnancy at 150 DIM (P150) and the odds of survival until 150 DIM (S150) for cows that had at least one disease event within 50 DIM were 0.84 (0.79-0.91) times the odds of pregnancy and 0.25 (0.22-0.28) times the odds of survival for healthy cows. The odds of P150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 1.56 (1.36-1.80) and 1.16 (1.04-1.30) times the odds of P150 for cows in the S area. The odds of S150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 0.48 (0.37-0.62) and 0.54 (0.42-0.67) times the odds of S150 for cows in the S area. These data suggested that cow health status and geographic location are significantly associated with reproductive performance and survival in this population of Chilean dairy cows. PMID:27059394

  19. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Klop, G; van Gastelen, S; van Laar, H; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH(4)) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high fertilisation (HF), 150 kg of N/ha) and of three stages of maturity of grass at cutting: early maturity (EM; 28 days of regrowth), mid maturity (MM; 41 days of regrowth) and late maturity (LM; 62 days of regrowth) on CH(4) production by lactating dairy cows. In a randomised block design, 54 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (168±11 days in milk; mean±standard error of mean) received grass silage (mainly ryegrass) and compound feed at 80 : 20 on dry matter basis. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 days and CH(4) production was measured in climate respiration chambers for 5 days. Dry matter intake (DMI; 14.9±0.56 kg/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation and grass maturity. Production of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 24.0±1.57 kg/day) decreased with advancing grass maturity but was not affected by N fertilisation. Apparent total-tract feed digestibility decreased with advancing grass maturity but was unaffected by N fertilisation except for an increase and decrease in N and fat digestibility with increasing N fertilisation, respectively. Total CH(4) production per cow (347±13.6 g/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation by 4% and grass maturity by 6%. The smaller CH(4) production with advancing grass maturity was offset by a smaller FPCM and lower feed digestibility. As a result, with advancing grass maturity CH(4) emission intensity increased per units of FPCM (15.0±1.00 g CH(4)/kg) by 31% and digestible organic matter intake (33.1±0.78 g CH(4)/kg) by 15%. In addition, emission intensity increased per units of DMI (23.5±0.43 g CH(4)/kg) by 7% and gross energy intake (7.0±0.14% CH(4)) by 9%, implying an increased loss of dietary

  20. Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongping; Chen, Shulin; Li, Xiujiu

    2010-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system was conducted in laboratory scale. Four influents of R0, R1, R2, and R3 were tested, which were made by mixing food waste with dairy manure at different ratios of 0:1, 1:1, 3:1, and 6:1, respectively. For each influent, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13 days but different HRT for acidification (1, 2, and 3 days) and methanogenesis (12, 11, and 10 days) in two-phase digesters. The results showed that the gas production rate (GPR) of co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure was enhanced by 0.8-5.5 times as compared to the digestion with dairy manure alone. Appropriate HRT for acidification was mainly determined by the biodegradability of the substrate digested. Three-, 2-, and 1-day HRT for acidification were found to be optimal for the digestion of R0, R1, and R2/R3, respectively, when overall HRT of 13 days was used. The highest GPR of 3.97 L/L.day was achieved for R3(6:1) in Run 1 (1 + 12 days), therefore, the mixing ratio of 6:1 and HRT of 1 day for acidification were considered to be the optimal ones and thus recommended for co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure. There were close correlations between degradation of organic matters and GPR. The highest VS removal rate was achieved at the same HRT for acidification and mixing ratio of food waste and dairy manure as GPR in the co-digestion. The two-phase digestion system showed good stability, which was mainly attributed to the strong buffering capacity with two-phase system and the high alkalinity from dairy manure when co-digested with food waste. PMID:19214795

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in dairy cows, rodents, and birds from four Wisconsin dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E C; Wachal, M D; Cleven, T D

    1993-05-01

    A combination of culture and subsequent spirochete identification with the polymerase chain reaction technique was used to identify cows, rodents, and birds infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Animals were trapped on four Wisconsin dairy farms during the summer of 1990. Farms 1 and 2 were located in counties nonendemic for Lyme disease and Farms 3 and 4 were located in counties endemic for Lyme disease. The results of the rodent and bird samples were as follows given as the number yielding organisms number tested: Farm 1, 1/17 Mus musculus and 2/52 Peromyscus domesticus; Farm 2, 4/49 M. musculus, 1/2 P. maniculatus, 1/1 P. leucopus, and 1/35 P. domesticus; Farm 3, 0/27 M. musculus, 0/5 P. leucopus, 0/12 P. maniculatus and, 3/58 P. domesticus; and Farm 4, 1/24 M. musculus, 2/19 P. leucopus, 1/12 Microtus pennsylvanicus, and 0/17 P. domesticus. One P. leucopus and one M. musculus from Farm 2 were pregnant and fetal tissues from both were positive. Cow blood sample results were as follows: Farm 1, 7/47 in July, and 2/45 in August; Farm 2, 0/28 in August and 0/23 in October; Farm 3, 0/13 in July and 1/18 in August 29; and Farm 4, 3/45 in August. Ticks were found on rodents on Farm 4 and on one bird on Farm 3. Spirochetemic cows, rodents, and birds were found in non-Lyme endemic counties suggesting that alternate modes of transmission other than by ticks may be important. Transplacental transmission was shown in M. musculus and P. leucopus. PMID:8362496

  2. Prepartum behavior and dry matter intake identify dairy cows at risk for metritis.

    PubMed

    Huzzey, J M; Veira, D M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2007-07-01

    Metritis is a disease of particular concern after calving because of its profound negative effects on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Cows at risk for metritis have shorter feeding times in the days before calving but prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and water intake may also be useful in identifying cows at risk for this disease. Feeding, drinking, and intake measures may also be affected by social interactions among group-housed cows. The objective of this study, therefore, was to measure intake, feeding, drinking, and social behavior to determine which measures could identify cows at risk for metritis after calving. Feeding and drinking behavior and intake measures were collected from 101 Holstein dairy cows from 2 wk before until 3 wk after calving using an electronic monitoring system. Social behavior at the feed bunk was assessed from video recordings. Metritis severity was diagnosed based on daily rectal body temperature as well as condition of vaginal discharge that was assessed every 3 d after calving until d +21. In this study, 12% of cows were classified as severely metritic and 27% as mildly metritic. Prepartum feeding time and DMI were best able to identify cows at risk for metritis. Cows that developed severe metritis spent less time feeding and consumed less feed compared with healthy cows beginning 2 wk before the observation of clinical signs of infection. For every 10-min decrease in average daily feeding time during the week before calving, the odds of severe metritis increased by 1.72, and for every 1-kg decrease in DMI during this period, cows were nearly 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with this disorder. During the week before calving, cows that were later diagnosed with severe metritis had lower DMI and feeding times during the hours following fresh feed delivery. During this period these cows also engaged in fewer aggressive interactions at the feed bins compared with cows that remained healthy. This research is the first

  3. Biochar produced from anaerobically-digested fiber reduces phosphorus in dairy lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of biochar produced from anaerobic digester dairy fiber (ADF) to sequester phosphorus from dairy lagoons. The ADF was collected from a plugged flow digester, air dried to < 8% water content, and pelletized. Biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis in a barrel retort. The potential...

  4. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  5. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  6. Duodenum has the greatest potential to absorb soluble non-ammonia nitrogen in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ying-ming; Xu, Qing-biao; Wu, Yue-ming; Huang, Xin-bei; Liu, Jian-xin

    2015-01-01

    In cattle, dietary protein is gradually degraded into peptide-bound amino acids (PBAAs), free amino acids (FAAs), and ultimately into ammonia by the rumen microbes. Both PBAA and FAA are milk protein precursors, and the rumen and small intestines are the main sites where such precursors are produced and absorbed. This work was designed to investigate the expression of the peptide transporter PepT1 and the AA transporters ASCT2, y+LAT1, and ATB0,+, and the concentrations of PBAA, FAA, and soluble protein in the rumen, omasum, and duodenum of dairy cows. Tissues and digesta were collected from six healthy Chinese Holstein dairy cows immediately after the animals were slaughtered. The expression of transporters was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The FAA concentration was assessed using an amino acid (AA) analyzer, PBAA concentration by quantification of AA before and after acid-hydrolysis by 6 mol/L HCl, and soluble protein concentration by quantification of the bicinchoninic acid content. The results showed that the relative abundance of mRNA of the transporters and the soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) concentration of each fraction were greater in the duodenum than in the rumen or omasum. These results indicate that the duodenum is the predominant location within the nonmesenteric digestive tract for producing milk protein precursors. In addition, PBAA was the largest component of SNAN in the digesta from the rumen, omasum, and duodenum. In conclusion, the duodenum has the greatest concentrations of SNAN and PBAA, and the greatest potential for absorption of SNAN in the form of PBAA in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows. PMID:26055912

  7. Variation in the interservice intervals of dairy cows in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Remnant, J G; Green, M J; Huxley, J N; Hudson, C D

    2015-02-01

    An understanding of the normal estrous-cycle length of the cow is important when managing and monitoring dairy-herd fertility. Although the normal interovulatory interval is widely considered to be 21 d, some studies have found alternative intervals to be more prevalent; previously, most of the variation in interval length was expected to be between cows. The aim of this study was to assess the time between inseminations (interservice interval, ISI) in a large number of dairy cows and to explore possible associations between cow factors and estrous-cycle length. The study used ISI data from 42,252 cows in 159 herds across England and Wales. Univariate analysis of the subset of 114,572 intervals between 15 and 30 d (a range covering the increased frequency of ISI occurring at the expected time of the first return to estrus) following an insemination revealed a modal ISI of 22d. Primiparous heifers had a modal ISI of 21 d. Significant differences existed between the distribution of ISI for different yield groups, parity numbers, and the number of inseminations. Multilevel regression modeling was used to evaluate the associations between cow factors and ISI, while accounting for clustering at the herd and cow level. This revealed significant associations between predicted ISI and insemination number, days in milk, lactation 305-d milk yield, and month and year of insemination. Variance partition coefficients indicated that only 1% of variation in ISI was at the herd level, 12% at the animal level, and 87% at the insemination level, indicating that cycle length varies substantially more between cycles within a cow than between cows or herds. These findings suggest the normal range of ISI for modern UK dairy cows is longer than expected and cycle length has a large amount of unexplained variation within individual animals over time. PMID:25529414

  8. Factors associated with ovarian structures and intrauterine fluid in the postpartum period in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Helguera, I; Colazo, M G; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to examine risk factors for the interval to resumption of ovarian cyclicity (ROC), multiple ovulations (MCL), ovarian follicular cysts (OC), and presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) at 22 to 28 [visit (V) 1] and 36 to 42 (V2) days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. The study was conducted retrospectively by evaluating records from 1,155 Holstein cows from 3 herds. Ovaries and uteri were examined at V1 and V2 by transrectal ultrasonography to determine ovarian structures and IUF. Based on the odds ratio, multiparous cows were more likely to have ROC at V1 by a factor of 1.79 compared with primiparous cows. The likelihood of ROC at V1 was lower in cows with higher milk production, in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) or cows with IUF at V1 by factors of 0.98 (for each kg of milk increased), 0.52, and 0.61, respectively. Based on the odds ratio, cows diagnosed with IUF at V2 were 2.85 times more likely to have attained ROC at V2. Multiparous cows and cows that delivered twins were 2.73 and 2.16 times, respectively, more likely to have MCL at V1, whereas cows with RFM were 0.38 times less likely to have MCL at V1. The likelihood of MCL at V2 was higher in cows with MCL and OC at V1 by factors of 2.67 and 1.91, respectively. Multiparous cows were 8.51 times more likely to have OC at V1 than primiparous cows. Higher producing cows were more likely to have OC at V2 by a factor of 1.04 compared with lower producing cows. Parity, stillbirth, RFM, and ROC at V1 were all identified as risk factors for IUF at V1. Cows with RFM and delivering twins were more likely to be diagnosed with IUF at V2 by a factor of 3.43 and 4.07, respectively. In summary, parity, twinning, RFM, metritis, IUF, and milk production were all associated with altered ovarian structures, and the presence of IUF was related to parity, twinning, RFM, and ROC in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:26947303

  9. Evaluation of different feed intake models for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Sairanen, A; Höjer, A; Huhtanen, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate feed intake prediction models of varying complexity using individual observations of lactating cows subjected to experimental dietary treatments in periodic sequences (i.e., change-over trials). Observed or previous period animal data were combined with the current period feed data in the evaluations of the different feed intake prediction models. This would illustrate the situation and amount of available data when formulating rations for dairy cows in practice and test the robustness of the models when milk yield is used in feed intake predictions. The models to be evaluated in the current study were chosen based on the input data required in the models and the applicability to Nordic conditions. A data set comprising 2,161 total individual observations was constructed from 24 trials conducted at research barns in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Prediction models were evaluated by residual analysis using mixed and simple model regression. Great variation in animal and feed factors was observed in the data set, with ranges in total dry matter intake (DMI) from 10.4 to 30.8kg/d, forage DMI from 4.1 to 23.0kg/d, and milk yield from 8.4 to 51.1kg/d. The mean biases of DMI predictions for the National Research Council, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, the British, Finnish, and Scandinavian models were -1.71, 0.67, 2.80, 0.83, -0.60kg/d with prediction errors of 2.33, 1.71, 3.19, 1.62, and 2.03kg/d, respectively, when observed milk yield was used in the predictions. The performance of the models were ranked the same, using either mixed or simple model regression analysis, but generally the random contribution to the prediction error increased with simple rather than mixed model regression analysis. The prediction error of all models was generally greater when using previous period data compared with the observed milk yield. When the average milk yield over all periods was used in the predictions

  10. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R

    2016-07-01

    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. PMID:27158130

  11. Identifying risk factors for poor hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B H; Thomsen, P T; Sørensen, J T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors for poor cow hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed, lactating dairy cows. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of 1315 cows in 42 commercial Danish dairy herds with primarily Danish Holstein cows. The effect of four cow-level factors (parity, days in milk, daily lying time and lameness) and eight herd-level factors (herd size, milk production, milking system, floor type, access to pasture grazing, floor scraping frequency, hoof bathing frequency and hoof washing frequency) on the risk of having dirtier hind limbs were analysed using ordinal logistic regression fitting a proportional odds model. Cow hind limb cleanliness was scored using an ordinal score from 1 to 4: 1 being clean and 4 being covered in dirt. The odds ratios (ORs) estimated from the proportional odds model depict the effect of a risk factor on the odds of having a higher rather than a lower cleanliness score. First parity cows had an increased risk of being dirtier compared with third parity or older cows (OR=1.70). Compared with late lactation, early and mid lactation were associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=2.07 and 1.33, respectively). Decreasing the daily time lying by 30 min was associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=1.05). Furthermore, an increased risk of being dirtier was found in herds with no pasture access (OR=3.75). PMID:22440353

  12. Reference limits for biochemical and hematological analytes of dairy cows one week before and one week after parturition

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Rocha, Gerardo F.; LeBlanc, Stephen J.; Duffield, Todd F.; Wood, Darren; Leslie, Ken E.; Jacobs, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Since dairy cows during the transition period have multiple endocrine and metabolic changes, it is necessary to determine the reference limits of laboratory analytes in normal transition cows. Reference limits for the weeks before and after calving were determined in dairy cows. Animals that had adverse clinical outcomes after calving and cows that were culled or had mastitis within the first 7 days after calving were excluded. All biochemical analytes (β-hydroxybutyrate, fatty acids, glucose, cholesterol, urea, calcium, and phosphorus) were statistically different between precalving and postcalving groups. The hematological analytes were not significantly different except for eosinophils. The data from precalving and postcalving cows were significantly different from reference limits in a university-associated laboratory derived from early- and mid-lactation cows. Different reference limits for precalving and postcalving dairy cows should be determined for biochemical analytes to ensure appropriate interpretation of results. PMID:19436445

  13. In vitro and Lactation Responses in Mid-lactating Dairy Cows Fed Protected Amino Acids and Fat

    PubMed Central

    Nam, I. S.; Choi, J. H.; Seo, K. M.; Ahn, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ruminally protected amino acids (RPAAs) and ruminally protected fat (RPF) supplementation on ruminal fermentation characteristics (in vitro) and milk yield and milk composition (in vivo). Fourteen mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (mean weight 653±62.59 kg) were divided into two groups according to mean milk yield and number of days of postpartum. The cows were then fed a basal diet during adaptation (2 wk) and experimental diets during the treatment period (6 wk). Dietary treatments were i) a basal diet (control) and ii) basal diet containing 50 g of RPAAs (lysine and methionine, 3:1 ratio) and 50 g of RPF. In rumen fermentation trail (in vitro), RPAAs and RPF supplementation had no influence on the ruminal pH, dry matter digestibility, total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N concentration. In feeding trial (in vivo), milk yield (p<0.001), 4% fat corrected milk (p<0.05), milk fat (p<0.05), milk protein (p<0.001), and milk urea nitrogen (p<0.05) were greater in cows fed RPAAs and RPF than the corresponding values in the control group. With an index against as 0%, the rates of decrease in milk yield and milk protein were lower in RPAAs and RPF treated diet than those of basal diet group (p<0.05). In conclusion, diet supplemented with RPAAs and RPF can improve milk yield and milk composition without negatively affecting ruminal functions in Holstein dairy cows at mid-lactating. PMID:25358363

  14. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of dairy cows in response to ingestion of lauric or myristic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment, part of a larger study, was to investigate changes in rumen bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity in cows with normal and reduced protozoal populations. In the main study, 6 lactating dairy cows were dosed intraruminally with 240 g/cow per day of stearic (contr...

  15. In vitro effects of bethanechol on abomasal and duodenal smooth muscle preparations from dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum and from healthy dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Niederberger, Markus D; Hirsbrunner, Gaby; Steiner, Adrian; Brechbühl, Monika; Meylan, Mireille

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of bethanechol (BeCh) on abomasal and duodenal smooth muscle preparations from dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) and from healthy dairy cows, and determined the role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes 2 and 3 (M(2) and M(3)) in mediating contraction. Concentration-response curves for BeCh, with or without prior incubation with an M(2) antagonist (AF-DX 116) or an M(3) antagonist (4-DAMP), were established and evaluated. BeCh induced a significant, concentration-dependant increase in the contractility variables for all locations in both groups of cows. The inhibiting effect of 4-DAMP was stronger than that of AF-DX 116, which suggested that contractions were mediated by M(3) and to a lesser extent by M(2). The basal tone of abomasal smooth muscle was reduced in cows with LDA, which indicated hypotonia. The use of BeCh as a prokinetic drug in cows with gastrointestinal motility disorder warrants further investigation. PMID:19272820

  16. Influence of breed, milk production, season, and ambient temperature on dairy cow reticulorumen temperature.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Ray, D L; Clark, J D; Bewley, J M

    2013-08-01

    Automatic monitoring of core body temperature in dairy cattle could be useful for identification of illness, heat stress, general physiological stress, and estrus. The SmartBolus (TenXSys Inc., Eagle, ID) system used a reticulorumen bolus to automatically record and transmit dairy cow temperatures. The objective of this research was to characterize the influence of milk yield (MY), time of day, breed, ambient temperature (AT), and season on reticulorumen temperatures (RT) in lactating dairy cows. Continuous RT and AT were collected by SmartBolus transponders every 15 min (96 records per d) from 93 cows (65 Holstein, 18 crossbred, and 10 Jersey) for 615 d. Mean (±SD) daily RT, AT, and MY were 40.14±0.32°C, 12.20±10.61°C, and 33.85±8.67 kg, respectively. The maximum and minimum RT were recorded at 2330 and 1000 h, respectively. Ambient temperature increased RT. Summer RT was significantly greater than spring, fall, or winter RT. The effect of MY on RT varied by breed, season, and AT. Crossbred RT was significantly lower than Holstein RT after adjusting for MY. Crossbred RT responded less to increasing AT than did Holstein RT, potentially indicating improved heat tolerance among these crossbred dairy cows. Reticulorumen temperature increased more dramatically for cows with greater milk yield as AT increased, demonstrating that high-producing cows are more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing cows. These results could be useful in interpretation of automatic temperature system data, heat stress management, and genetic selection of heat-tolerant cows. PMID:23769360

  17. Flaxseed supplementation decreases methanogenic gene abundance in the rumen of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Schoenhals, K E; Brady, P A; Estill, C T; Perumbakkam, S; Craig, A M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a flaxseed-supplemented diet on archaeal abundance and gene expression of methanogens in the rumen of dairy cows. In all, 11 non-lactating dairy cows were randomly divided into two groups: group A (five cows) and B (six cows). The two diets fed were: (1) the control diet, a conventional dry cow ration; and (2) the flaxseed-supplemented diet, the conventional dry cow ration adjusted with 12.16% ground flaxseed incorporated into the total mixed ration. A cross-over experiment was performed with the two groups of cows fed the two different diets for five 21-day periods, which included the first adaptation period followed by two treatment and two wash out periods. At the end of each feeding period, rumen fluid samples were collected via rumenocentesis and DNA was extracted. Quantitative PCR was utilized to analyze the gene abundance of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) targeting the ruminal archaea population and the mcrA gene coding for methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A, a terminal enzyme in the methanogenesis pathway. Results demonstrated a 49% reduction of 16S rRNA and 50% reduction of mcrA gene abundances in the rumen of dairy cows fed the flaxseed-supplemented diet in comparison with those fed the control diet. This shows flaxseed supplementation effectively decreases the methanogenic population in the rumen. Future studies will focus on the mechanisms for such reduction in the rumen of dairy cattle, as well as the relationship between methanogenic gene expression and methane production. PMID:22717375

  18. Effect of puerperal metritis on reproductive and productive performance in dairy cows in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, M; Romero, G; Veneranda, G; Castello, E; Romero, D; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2016-03-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows with and without puerperal metritis and to evaluate the effectiveness of using a long-acting ceftiofur preparation. Dairy cows in one dairy farm, calving from July 2009 to January 2010, were examined between 3 and 14 days postpartum and classified on the basis of vaginal discharge into three groups: cows with normal discharge (control; C); cows with a bloody mucus purulent or pathologic nonfetid discharge (PnFD), and cows with bloody mucopurulent or purulent fetid discharge (PFD). Cows in C and PnFD groups were not treated, whereas those in the PFD group were randomly allocated to receive 2.2 mg/kg of ceftiofur subcutaneously behind the ear (PFD-T) or remain untreated (PFD-No T). From the 640 cows examined, 58.2% formed the C group, 13.4% formed the PnFD group, and 28.4% formed the PFD group. Survival curves differed between cows in the C group and PFD-No T group (P = 0.0013) and between PFD-No T versus PFD-T group (P = 0.0006). Survival curves of PnFD were intermediate and did not differ from those in the C group (P = 0.2) and PFD-T group (P = 0.1) but tended to be different from the PFD-No T group (P = 0.056). The postpartum interval to achieve a 25% pregnancy rate was 72 days for cows in the C group, 73 days for the PFD-T group, 83 days for PnFD group, and 95 days for the PFD-No T group. The chance of pregnancy in a cow in the C group was 1.98 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.33, 3.08) and in cows in the PFD-T group was 2.16 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.37, 3.50) than that in the PFD-No T group. Finally, the chance of pregnancy in cows in the PnFD group tended to be higher (P = 0.08) than that in the PFD-No T group but did not differ from the other two groups. Cumulative 305-day milk production was higher (P < 0.0001) in C group than those with vaginal discharge, regardless of fetidness and regardless of treatment. It is concluded that

  19. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P < 0.05). These biomarkers were involved in pathways of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and gut microbiome-derived metabolism. Comparing these potential biomarkers with previously identified HS candidate biomarkers in plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows. PMID:27048914

  20. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P < 0.05). These biomarkers were involved in pathways of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and gut microbiome-derived metabolism. Comparing these potential biomarkers with previously identified HS candidate biomarkers in plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows. PMID:27048914

  1. Identification of predictive biomarkers of disease state in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, D; Mandal, R; Saleem, F; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S; Ametaj, B N

    2014-05-01

    In dairy cows, periparturient disease states, such as metritis, mastitis, and laminitis, are leading to increasingly significant economic losses for the dairy industry. Treatments for these pathologies are often expensive, ineffective, or not cost-efficient, leading to production losses, high veterinary bills, or early culling of the cows. Early diagnosis or detection of these conditions before they manifest themselves could lower their incidence, level of morbidity, and the associated economic losses. In an effort to identify predictive biomarkers for postpartum or periparturient disease states in dairy cows, we undertook a cross-sectional and longitudinal metabolomics study to look at plasma metabolite levels of dairy cows during the transition period, before and after becoming ill with postpartum diseases. Specifically we employed a targeted quantitative metabolomics approach that uses direct flow injection mass spectrometry to track the metabolite changes in 120 different plasma metabolites. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 dairy cows at 4 time points during the transition period (-4 and -1 wk before and 1 and 4 wk after parturition). Out of the 12 cows studied, 6 developed multiple periparturient disorders in the postcalving period, whereas the other 6 remained healthy during the entire experimental period. Multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis) revealed a clear separation between healthy controls and diseased cows at all 4 time points. This analysis allowed us to identify several metabolites most responsible for separating the 2 groups, especially before parturition and the start of any postpartum disease. Three metabolites, carnitine, propionyl carnitine, and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C14:0, were significantly elevated in diseased cows as compared with healthy controls as early as 4 wk before parturition, whereas 2 metabolites, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C42:4 and

  2. Fecal NIRS relationship with intake and diet digestibility of grazed Bahiagrass by cows determined by nalkanes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if fecal analysis by NIRS could be used to calibrate for intake determined by the alkane ratio technique in grazing cows. Dry matter intake (DMI; g/kg BW) and diet digestibility (D) was estimated in cows of various breeds in 7 trials over 7 years during d...

  3. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high- and low- yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, Afshin; Nasser Mohebi, Abdonnaser; Heidari Soreshjani, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00%) compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%). The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%), wandering pacemaker (22.45 %), bradycardia (18.37%), tachycardia (10.20%), atrial premature beat (2.04%), sinoatrial block (2.04%), atrial fibrillation (8.16%) and atrial tachycardia (2.04%). The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95%) and wandering pacemaker (13.05%). Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows. PMID:25568685

  4. Prevalence of periparturient diseases and effects on fertility of seasonally calving grazing dairy cows supplemented with concentrates.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Bisinotto, R S; Monteiro, A P A; Favoreto, M; Ayres, H; Marsola, R S; Martinez, N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to characterize the prevalence of periparturient diseases and their effects on reproductive performance of dairy cows in seasonal grazing farms. A total of 957 multiparous cows in 2 farms (555 in farm A and 402 in farm B) were evaluated and diseases characterized. At calving, dystocia, twin birth, stillbirth, and retained fetal membranes were recorded and grouped as calving problems. On d 7±3 and 14±3 postpartum, cows were evaluated for metritis and on d 28±3 for clinical endometritis based on scoring of the vaginal discharge. From parturition to 30 d after artificial insemination (AI), prevalence of mastitis, lameness, and digestive and respiratory problems were recorded. For subclinical diseases, diagnosis was based on blood samples collected from 771 cows and analyzed for concentrations of Ca, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows were considered as having elevated NEFA concentration if the concentration was ≥0.70 mM, subclinical ketosis if the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was ≥0.96 mM, and subclinical hypocalcemia if the Ca concentration was ≤2.14 mM. Ovaries were scanned on d 35±3 and 49±3 postpartum for determination of estrous cyclicity. All cows were enrolled in a timed AI program and inseminated on the first day of the breeding season: on average, 86 d postpartum. Overall, 37.5% (359/957) of the cows presented at least 1 clinical disease and 59.0% (455/771) had at least 1 subclinical health problem. Prevalence of individual diseases was 8.5% for calving problems, 5.3% for metritis, 15.0% for clinical endometritis, 13.4% for subclinical endometritis, 15.3% for mastitis, 2.5% for respiratory problems, 4.0% for digestive problems, 3.2% for lameness, 20.0% for elevated NEFA concentration, 35.4% for subclinical ketosis, and 43.3% for subclinical hypocalcemia. Clinical and subclinical diseases had additive negative effects on reproduction, delaying resumption of estrous cyclicity and reducing pregnancy

  5. COMPARISON OF FEEDING CORN SILAGES FROM LEAFY OR CONVENTIONAL CORN HYBRIDS TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three corn hybrids (Pioneer 36F30, Mycogen TMF2450, and Mycogen TMF2404) were compared for yield, plant components, nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, apparent digestibility, and lactation performance by Holstein cows. The three corn silages were harvested at a target of 33 to 35% dry mat...

  6. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P < 0.05). Supplementation with MS showed higher values of milk yield by 2.4 kg/cow/day (P < 0.001), milk protein content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS. PMID:26420350

  7. Long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate fed to dairy cows on enteric methane emission and nitrate and nitrite residuals in milk.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2016-07-01

    A previous study showed the additive methane (CH4)-mitigating effect of nitrate and linseed fed to non-lactating cows. Before practical application, the use of this new strategy in dairy cows requires further investigation in terms of persistency of methanogenesis reduction and absence of residuals in milk products. The objective of this experiment was to study the long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate on enteric CH4 emission and performance in dairy cows. We also assessed the effect of this feeding strategy on the presence of nitrate residuals in milk products, total tract digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and rumen fermentation. A total of 16 lactating Holstein cows were allocated to two groups in a randomised design conducted in parallel for 17 weeks. Diets were on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) control (54% maize silage, 6% hay and 40% concentrate; CON) or (2) control plus 3.5% added fat from linseed and 1.8% nitrate (LIN+NIT). Diets were equivalent in terms of CP (16%), starch (28%) and NDF (33%), and were offered twice daily. Cows were fed ad libitum, except during weeks 5, 16 and 17 in which feed was restricted to 95% of dry matter intake (DMI) to ensure complete consumption of meals during measurement periods. Milk production and DMI were measured weekly. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in milk and milk products were determined monthly. Daily CH4 emission was quantified in open circuit respiration chambers (weeks 5 and 16). Total tract apparent digestibility, N balance and rumen fermentation parameters were determined in week 17. Daily DMI tended to be lower with LIN+NIT from week 4 to 16 (-5.1 kg/day on average). The LIN+NIT diet decreased milk production during 6 non-consecutive weeks (-2.5 kg/day on average). Nitrate or nitrite residuals were not detected in milk and associated products. The LIN+NIT diet reduced CH4 emission to a similar extent at the beginning and end of the trial (-47%, g/day; -30%, g/kg DMI; -33%, g/kg fat- and protein

  8. Phosphorus homeostasis in dairy cows with abomasal displacement or abomasal volvulus.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Walter; Constable, Peter; Schröder, Ulf; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Morin, Dawn; Rohn, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal phosphorus homeostasis occurs in dairy cows with an abomasal displacement or volvulus. The goal of this study was to identify potential mechanisms for hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia in cows with a left displaced abomasum (LDA), right displaced abomasum (RDA), or abomasal volvulus (AV). Accordingly, the results of preoperative clinicopathologic analyses for 1,368 dairy cows with an LDA (n = 1,189), RDA, or AV (n = 179) (data set 1) and for 44 cows with an AV (data set 2) were retrieved. Laboratory values were compared by Student's t-tests, and correlation and regression analyses were performed. Thirty-four percent of the animals from data set 1 (463/1,368) were hypophosphatemic (serum phosphorus concentration ([Pi]) < 1.4 mmol/L), and 9% (122/1,368) were hyperphosphatemic ([Pi] >2.3 mmol/L). Serum [Pi] was significantly lower (P < .05) in cows with an LDA (1.60 +/- 0.53 mmol/L; mean +/- SD) than in cows with an RDA or AV (1.85 +/- 0.68 mmol/L). For cows with an LDA, [Pi] was correlated with serum urea nitrogen concentration ([SUN]) (r = 0.34) and serum concentration of magnesium ([Mg]) (r = 0.20). For cows with an RDA or AV, linear correlations existed between [Pi] and [SUN] (r = 0.45), [Mg] (r = 0.43), and serum chloride concentration ([Cl]) (r = -0.27). Stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that low [SUN] and the diagnosis of an LDA had the strongest associations with hypophosphatemia. In cows with hyperphosphatemia, [Pi] was most strongly associated with azotemia. In cows with an AV, the strongest correlations with [Pi] were found for [SUN] and serum creatinine. We conclude that hypophosphatemia in cows with an LDA is primarily due to decreased feed intake. In contrast, hyperphosphatemia in cattle with an RDA or AV appears to result from dehydration and decreased renal blood flow. PMID:16355687

  9. Quality of embryos produced from dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and the success of embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Petit, H V; Cavalieri, F B; Santos, G T D; Morgan, J; Sharpe, P

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the experiment was to determine the effects of fat supplementation on embryo quality of dairy cows and the subsequent success of embryo transfer into recipient heifers fed the same sources of fat. A total of 30 lactating Holstein cows were allotted on d 18 postpartum to 2 groups of 15 donor cows blocked for similar calving dates. Total mixed diets based on silage and fat supplements were fed for ad libitum intake. On a dry matter basis, diets fed to donor cows contained 7.9% whole flaxseed or 2.8% calcium salts of palm oil and those fed to recipient heifers contained 11.4% whole flaxseed or 4.2% calcium salts of palm oil. The experiment with donor cows was carried out between d 18 and 109 of lactation. The experimental diets were fed to 121 recipient heifers from wk 8 before estrus synchronization and superovulation to d 50 of gestation. Dietary fat fed to donor cows had no effect on the number of viable embryos per cow (3.7 +/- 0.5), the number of degenerated embryos per cow (1.8 +/- 0.4), or the number of unfertilized oocytes per cow (2.1 +/- 0.8). But feeding flaxseed decreased fertilization rate (64.3 vs. 78.4%) and the percentage of grade 1 to 2 embryos (56.5 vs. 74.1%) and increased the embryo degeneration percentage (27.4 vs. 18.2%) compared with feeding calcium salts of palm oil. There was no effect of diets fed to donor cows and those fed to recipient heifers for pregnancy rate of heifers. Supplementation with a rich source of n-3 fatty acids decreased quality of embryos from donor lactating dairy cows compared with feeding calcium salts of palm oil, but had no effect on the subsequent pregnancy rate of heifers receiving frozen grade-1 embryos. PMID:18420609

  10. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  11. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. PMID:26712573

  12. Treatments of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on 51 large dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L; Ruegg, P L

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment of bovine mastitis and few studies have examined modern treatment strategies on large US dairy farms. The objective of this study was to describe treatment practices for clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large dairy herds in Wisconsin. Treatments performed on 747 cows experiencing cases of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms of clinical mastitis were recorded on 51 Wisconsin dairy farms. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter for microbiological analysis at the onset of clinical mastitis and 14 to 21 d after treatment ended. Cows were treated according to individual farm protocol. Drugs and doses used for treatments were recorded for each case. Among all herds, 5 intramammary (IMM) antimicrobials (amoxicillin, hetacillin, pirlimycin, ceftiofur, and cephapirin) were used to treat cows for clinical mastitis. Of 712 cows with complete treatment data, 71.6% were treated with IMM ceftiofur either solely or combined with other antimicrobials (administered either IMM or systemically). Of cows experiencing severe symptoms of clinical mastitis, 43.8% received IMM treatment concurrent with systemic antimicrobials. Of all cows treated, 23.1% received an additional secondary treatment (either IMM, systemic, or both) because of perceived lack of response to the initial treatment. The majority of IMM treatments were administered to cows with a microbiological diagnosis of no growth (34.9%) or Escherichia coli (27.2%). Half of the cows experiencing cases caused by E. coli were treated using systemic antimicrobials in contrast to only 6.8% of cows experiencing cases caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conflict with FDA regulations, which do not allow extra-label treatments using sulfonamides, a total of 22 cows from 8 farms were treated with systemic sulfadimethoxine either solely or in combination with oxytetracycline. Antimicrobial drugs were used on all herds and many cows received extra

  13. Effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected methionine and histidine on performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Hristov, A N; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Werner, J; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Gehman, A; Parys, C

    2015-05-01

    This experiment was conducted with the objective to investigate the effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected (RP) Met and His supplementation of a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) on lactation performance of dairy cows. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were used in a 10-wk randomized complete block-design trial. Cows were fed a covariate diet for 2 wk and then assigned to one of the following treatments for an 8-wk experimental period: (1) MP-adequate diet [AMP; 107% of MP requirements, based on the National Research Council (NRC, 2001)]; (2) MP-deficient diet (DMP; 95% of MP requirements); (3) DMP supplemented with slow-release urea (DMPU); (4) DMPU supplemented with RPMet (DMPUM); and (5) DMPUM supplemented with RPHis (DMPUMH). Total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein, and urinary N and urea-N excretions were decreased by DMP, compared with AMP. Addition of slow-release urea to the DMP diet increased urinary urea-N excretion. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield (on average 44.0±0.9kg/d) were not affected by treatments, except DMPUMH increased DMI and numerically increased milk yield, compared with DMPUM. Milk true protein concentration and yield were increased and milk fat concentration tended to be decreased by DMPUMH, compared with DMPUM. Cows gained less body weight on the DMP diet, compared with AMP. Plasma concentrations of His and Lys were not affected by treatments, whereas supplementation of RPMet increased plasma Met concentration. Plasma concentration of 3-methylhistidine was or tended to be higher for DMP compared with AMP and DMPU, respectively. Addition of RPHis to the DMPUM diet tended to increase plasma glucose and creatinine. In conclusion, feeding a 5% MP-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) did not decrease DMI and yields of milk and milk components, despite a reduction in nutrient digestibility. Supplementation of RPHis increased

  14. Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows’ natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls. Methods 3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures. Results The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows’ turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access. Conclusions The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the

  15. Risk factors associated with detailed reproductive phenotypes in dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Berry, D P; Fitzgerald, A; McParland, S; Williams, E J; Butler, S T; Cromie, A R; Ryan, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify detailed fertility traits in dairy and beef cattle from transrectal ultrasonography records and quantify the associated risk factors. Data were available on 148 947 ultrasound observations of the reproductive tract from 75 949 cows in 843 Irish dairy and beef herds between March 2008 and October 2012. Traits generated included (1) cycling at time of examination, (2) cystic structures, (3) early ovulation, (4) embryo death and (5) uterine score; the latter was measured on a scale of 1 (good) to 4 (poor) characterising the tone of the uterine wall and fluid present in the uterus. After editing, 72,773 records from 44,415 dairy and beef cows in 643 herds remained. Factors associated with the logit of the probability of a positive outcome for each of the binary fertility traits were determined using generalised estimating equations; linear mixed model analysis was used for the analysis of uterine score. The prevalence of cycling, cystic structures, early ovulation and embryo death was 84.75%, 3.87%, 7.47% and 3.84%, respectively. The occurrence of the uterine heath score of 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 70.63%, 19.75%, 8.36% and 1.26%, respectively. Cows in beef herds had a 0.51 odds (95% CI=0.41 to 0.63, P<0.001) of cycling at the time of examination compared with cows in dairy herds; stage of lactation at the time of examination was the same in both herd types. Furthermore, cows in dairy herds had an inferior uterine score (indicating poorer tone and a greater quantity of uterine fluid present) compared with cows in beef herds. The likelihood of cycling at the time of examination increased with parity and stage of lactation, but was reduced in cows that had experienced dystocia in the previous calving. The presence of cystic structures on the ovaries increased with parity and stage of lactation. The likelihood of embryo/foetal death increased with parity and stage of lactation. Dystocia was not associated with the presence of cystic

  16. Fluctuation of neutrophil counts around parturition in Holstein dairy cows with and without retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Cantoni, Andrea; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    Retained placenta (RP) is often diagnosed in high-yielding dairy cows and can negatively affect reproductive performances. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hematological and biochemical profile of cows with RP before and immediately after parturition, with particular emphasis on neutrophil counts, since a previous study demonstrated the presence of peripheral neutropenia in dairy cows with RP sampled a few days after parturition. Results from 12 Holstein cows affected by RP and from 17 clinically healthy controls sampled one week pre-partum, within 12h after calving and between 48 and 72h after parturition were compared between groups and over time. Compared with controls, cows with RP had lower lymphocyte counts before parturition, lower leukocyte and neutrophil counts at parturition, lower monocyte counts at all times, and higher β-hydroxybutyrate before and after parturition. Erythroid and biochemical parameters were similar over time in both groups, whereas RP cows did not show the increase of neutrophil counts that occurs in controls at parturition. Hence, the finding of a lower neutrophil count in a routinely hemogram performed at parturition could be used as an alarm signal suggesting to monitor the affected animals. Moreover, although the underlying pathogenetic mechanism should be better investigated, the present study describes for the first time the association between altered blood leukocyte concentrations at parturition in RP compared to control cows. PMID:27473997

  17. Efficacy of sodium borate in the prevention of fatty liver in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Basoglu, Abdullah; Sevinc, Mutlu; Birdane, Fatih M; Boydak, Murat

    2002-01-01

    The effects of sodium borate (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 15 days) from a month before expected calving until a month after calving were evaluated in dairy cows susceptible to fatty liver. Cows received either sodium borate (n = 13) or no treatment (n = 10). All cows had mild fatty livers and increased plasma triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations at the beginning of the experiment. The control group of cows developed significant fatty liver after calving, and 2 of them had severe fatty liver associated with clinical and biochemical abnormalities. There were no clinicopathological signs related to sodium borate administration. Serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations before calving decreased significantly at calving and after calving in controls, and they were within the normal range only after calving. There were significant alterations during the experiment in some hematological and chemical variables between groups, within period, but they were within the normal range. Unlike treated cows, serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations correlated with liver fat content after calving in untreated cows. Our results document that sodium borate decreases the degree of fatty liver in dairy cows during early lactation. PMID:12465773

  18. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry.

    PubMed

    Heppelmann, Maike; Krach, Karoline; Krueger, Lars; Benz, Philipp; Herzog, Kathrin; Piechotta, Marion; Hoedemaker, Martina; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M-; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH-; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca < 2.0 mmol/l in at least one sample between Days 1 and 3; n = 7). Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility. PMID:26400127

  19. Evaluation of timed insemination using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; sal Sota, R L; de la Risco, C A; Staples, C R; Schmitt, E J; Thatcher, W W

    1996-08-01

    An experiment compared the effectiveness of a timed AI and an AI at observed estrus. Lactating dairy cows were injected with PGF2 alpha at 30 +/- a range of 3 d postpartum, with a GnRH agonist at 65 +/- a range of 3 d, and with PGF2 alpha 7 d later; control cows (n = 128) were inseminated at detected estrus, but cows in the timed AI group (n = 171) received a second injection of GnRH agonist 48 h after the injection of PGF2 alpha and were inseminated 16 h later. Control cows that were not inseminated within 7 d were resynchronized with GnRH agonist, followed 7 d later with an injection of PGF2 alpha. Pregnancy rate was 30.5% for control cows and 29.0% for cows in the timed AI group, and conception rate was 41.5% for control cows and 26.5% for cows in the timed AI group. Days open for cows that conceived by 120 d postpartum was 83.6 d for control cows and 79.2 d for cows in the timed AI group. Treatment by month interactions indicated that pregnancy and conception rates and days open for cows that conceived were more consistent across months for cows in the timed AI group. Differences (control vs. timed AI) were not detected for overall pregnancy rate by 120 d postpartum (58.8 +/- 4.7% vs. 56.2 +/- 4.4%). Conception and pregnancy rates at first synchronization were influenced positively by body condition and plasma concentrations of progesterone at 65 d postpartum. Timed AI was an effective alternative for reproductive management. PMID:8880462

  20. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry

    PubMed Central

    HEPPELMANN, Maike; KRACH, Karoline; KRUEGER, Lars; BENZ, Philipp; HERZOG, Kathrin; PIECHOTTA, Marion; HOEDEMAKER, Martina; BOLLWEIN, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M–; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH–; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca < 2.0 mmol/l in at least one sample between Days 1 and 3; n = 7). Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility. PMID:26400127

  1. 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Plasma Metabolic Profiling of Dairy Cows with Fatty Liver

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chuang; Sun, Ling-wei; Xia, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-you; Zheng, Jia-san; Wang, Jun-song

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder of dairy cows during the transition period. Historically, the diagnosis of fatty liver has involved liver biopsy, biochemical or histological examination of liver specimens, and ultrasonographic imaging of the liver. However, more convenient and noninvasive methods would be beneficial for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. The plasma metabolic profiles of dairy cows with fatty liver and normal (control) cows were investigated to identify new biomarkers using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Compared with the control group, the primary differences in the fatty liver group included increases in β-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, glycine, valine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrulline, and isobutyrate, and decreases in alanine, asparagine, glucose, γ-aminobutyric acid glycerol, and creatinine. This analysis revealed a global profile of endogenous metabolites, which may present potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. PMID:26732447

  2. (1)H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Plasma Metabolic Profiling of Dairy Cows with Fatty Liver.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Sun, Ling-Wei; Xia, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-You; Zheng, Jia-San; Wang, Jun-Song

    2016-02-01

    Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder of dairy cows during the transition period. Historically, the diagnosis of fatty liver has involved liver biopsy, biochemical or histological examination of liver specimens, and ultrasonographic imaging of the liver. However, more convenient and noninvasive methods would be beneficial for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. The plasma metabolic profiles of dairy cows with fatty liver and normal (control) cows were investigated to identify new biomarkers using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. Compared with the control group, the primary differences in the fatty liver group included increases in β-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, glycine, valine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrulline, and isobutyrate, and decreases in alanine, asparagine, glucose, γ-aminobutyric acid glycerol, and creatinine. This analysis revealed a global profile of endogenous metabolites, which may present potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. PMID:26732447

  3. Individual and combined effects of anovulation and cytological endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Neto, A; Gilbert, R O; Butler, W R; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Vercouteren, M M; Bruno, R G; Bittar, J H J; Galvão, K N

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the individual and combined effect of anovulation and cytological endometritis (CTE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. A total of 1,569 cows from 3 data sets were used. In data set 1, 403 Holstein cows from 5 dairies in New York were used. In data set 2, 750 Holstein cows from 2 dairies, one in Florida and one in California were used. In data set 3, 416 dairy cows, 165 Holsteins, 36 Jerseys, and 215 Holstein-Jersey crossbreeds from a grazing dairy in Florida were used. Cyclicity and CTE was determined at 35±3 (data set 2) or 49±3 d in milk (data sets 1 and 3). A variable (VarCycCTE) containing all 4 possible permutations between cyclicity (cyclic = Cyc; anovular = Anov) and CTE (present = CTE; absent = Healthy) was created. In the combined data set (sets 1, 2, and 3), pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) diagnosed at 30 to 38 d after first AI was affected by VarCycCTE, with AnovCTE cows having decreased P/AI compared with CycHealthy cows (21.3 vs. 46.7%), whereas AnovHealthy (37.9%) and CycCTE cows (36.0%) had intermediate P/AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination for the individual data sets and for pregnancy diagnosed at 63 to 74 d after artificial insemination followed a similar pattern. Pregnancy loss was not affected by VarCycCTE. Hazard of pregnancy up to 300 d in milk was affected by VarCycCTE in the combined data sets 1 and 2, with AnovCTE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.55], AnovHealthy cows (HR=0.71), and CycCTE (HR=0.8) having decreased hazard of pregnancy compared with CycHealthy cows. Median days open were 200, 159, 145, and 121 for AnovCTE, AnovHealthy, CycCTE, and CycHealthy, respectively. Hazard of pregnancy for the individual data sets followed a similar pattern. In summary, both anovulation and CTE were negatively associated with reproductive performance and, when combined, they had an additive negative effect. PMID:24996269

  4. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  5. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B

    2016-09-01

    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. PMID:27320672

  6. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  7. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion (“HC” with 60:40% or “LC” with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  8. Ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gozho, G N; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2007-02-01

    The effects of grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating dairy cows on free ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and indicators of inflammation were determined. Four mid lactation dairy cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows and used in a repeated switchover design. During each period, SARA was induced in 2 animals for 5 subsequent days by replacing 25% of their total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with a concentrate made of 50% wheat and 50% barley. The other 2 cows acted as controls and were fed a total mixed ration diet in which 44% of dry matter was concentrate. On average, inducing SARA did not affect milk composition, increased the duration of rumen pH below 5.6 from 187 to 309 min/d, and increased free ruminal LPS concentration from 24,547 endotoxin units (EU)/mL to 128,825 EU/mL. Averaged across treatments, milk fat yield and milk protein yield were 0.66 and 1.00 kg/d, respectively. Rumen pH and milk fat data suggest that control cows also experienced ruminal acidosis, albeit a milder form of this disease than SARA cows. Serum LPS concentration in both control and SARA cows was less than the detection limit of <0.01 EU/mL for the assay. Induction of SARA elevated serum amyloid A concentration from 286.8 to 498.8 mug/mL, but did not affect other markers of inflammation including haptoglobin, fibrinogen, serum copper, or white blood cells. These results suggest that grain-induced SARA in mid lactation dairy cows increases the lysis of gram-negative bacteria and activates an inflammatory response. PMID:17235162

  9. Methane and hydrogen sulfide production during co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage radish cover crops were investigated as a co-substrate to increase biogas production from dairy manure-based anaerobic digestion. Lab-scale batch digesters (300 mL) were operated under mesophilic conditions during two experiments. In the first experiment, the optimal co-digestion ratio for ...

  10. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  11. Vitamin D(3) synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Jensen, S K

    2010-05-01

    How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D(3) during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D(3) and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D(3) synthesis in the skin during exposure to sunlight. Different scenarios have been suggested but never tested in cows; for example, that vitamin D(3) is synthesized from sebum on the hair and ingested by cows during grooming or that body areas such as the udder and muzzle that have scant hair exclusively produce the vitamin. To test different scenarios, 16 Danish Holstein dairy cows were subjected to 4 degrees of coverage of their bodies with fabric that prevented vitamin D(3) synthesis in the covered skin areas. The treatments were horse blanket (cows fitted with horse blankets), udder cover (cows fitted with udder covers, horse blanket+udder cover (cows fitted with both horse blankets and udder covers), and natural (cows without any coverage fitted). The cows were let out to pasture daily between 1000 and 1500h for 4 wk in July and August 2009. Blood samples were collected 15 times during the study and analyzed for content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] indicative of the animals' vitamin D(3) status. Results showed that uncovered cows had a higher 25(OH)D(3) concentration in plasma after 28 d of access to sunlight compared with covered cows and that the plasma concentration of 25(OH)D(3) was strongly inversely correlated to the body surface area covered. These results are consistent with findings in humans, wherein the vitamin D(3) status of different individuals was inversely proportional to the amount of clothing worn during exposure to artificial sunlight. Hence, it appears that human clothing and cow hair are not comparable with respect to prevention of vitamin D(3) synthesis and that cows, like humans, synthesize vitamin D(3) evenly over their body

  12. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  13. Gene-Based Mapping and Pathway Analysis of Metabolic Traits in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc-Thuy; Gross, Josef Johann; van Dorland, Annette; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Schlather, Martin; Bruckmaier, Rupert; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic adaptation of dairy cows during the transition period has been studied intensively in the last decades. However, until now, only few studies have paid attention to the genetic aspects of this process. Here, we present the results of a gene-based mapping and pathway analysis with the measurements of three key metabolites, (1) non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), (2) beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and (3) glucose, characterizing the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows before and after calving. In contrast to the conventional single-marker approach, we identify 99 significant and biologically sensible genes associated with at least one of the considered phenotypes and thus giving evidence for a genetic basis of the metabolic adaptability. Moreover, our results strongly suggest three pathways involved in the metabolism of steroids and lipids are potential candidates for the adaptive regulation of dairy cows in their early lactation. From our perspective, a closer investigation of our findings will lead to a step forward in understanding the variability in the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows in their early lactation. PMID:25789767

  14. What dairy cows are fed impacts manure chemistry and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 20 years or so there has been increasing evidence and concern that nutrients contained in animal manures can adversely impact water and air quality. Research has demonstrated that the diets fed to dairy cows can be modified to reduce nutrient excretions in manure and environmental impa...

  15. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  16. Metagenomic analysis of the bovine hindgut from Salmonella Kentucky and Cerro-shedding dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from dairy cows that appear asymptomatic. Although they are not major contributors to the salmonellosis burden, these serovars have been implicated in human clinical cases in recent years. To...

  17. Comparison of Alfalfa and Orchardgrass Hay as Replacements for Grain in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While alfalfa has been the predominant perennial forage fed to dairy cows in the Midwest, there has been recent interest to increase use of perennial grasses. This interest is because alfalfa can be expensive to produce (short stand life), the perception that manure cannot be applied to alfalfa, and...

  18. Effect of replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal on production of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently that CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We wished to test whether CM was more effective than SBM on low CP (14.9% CP) than high CP (16.8% CP) diets and to see if it was advant...

  19. Prevalence and level of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in culled dairy cows at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and concentration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 (EHEC-7) in fecal, hide, and pre-intervention carcass surface samples from culled dairy cows at harvest. Matched samples were ...

  20. Cytokine Secretion in Periparturient dairy cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's disease, cause by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), has a devastating impact on the dairy industry. Cows typically are infected as neonates, and stressors, such as parturition, may induce the transition from the subclinical to a more clinical stage of disease. The objective ...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOOL TO INSERT ABOMASAL INFUSION LINES INTO DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tool was developed to aid in ruminal insertion of abomasal infusion lines into dairy cows. The tool consisted of two pieces cut from polyvinyl chloride pipe. The first piece of pipe, the insertion tool, contained a groove that held the flexible plastic flange that was on the end of the infusion ...

  2. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part III. Metritis.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metritis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. In this manuscript, the overall performance of HIS to detect cows with all disorders of interest in this study [ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion (companion paper, part I), mastitis (companion paper, part II), and metritis] is also reported. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of <86 units during at least 1 d from -5 to 2 d after CD. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total calcium, and haptoglobin were determined in a subgroup of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The overall sensitivity of HIS was 55% for all cases of metritis (n=349), but it was greater for cows with metritis and another disorder (78%) than for cows with metritis only (53%). Cows diagnosed with metritis and flagged based on HIS had substantial alterations in their rumination, activity, and HIS patterns around CD, alterations of blood markers of metabolic and health status around calving, reduced milk production, and were more likely to exit the herd than cows not flagged based on the HIS and cows without disease, suggesting that cows flagged

  3. Spleen tyrosine kinase regulates mammary epithelial cell proliferation in mammary glands of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaoming; Lin, Lin; Xing, Weinan; Yang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoyu; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun; Lin, Ye

    2016-05-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that has been considered a hematopoietic cell-specific signal transducer involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role of SYK in normal mammary gland is still poorly understood. Here we show that SYK is expressed in mammary glands of dairy cows. Expression of SYK was higher in dry period mammary tissues than in lactating mammary tissues. Knockdown and overexpression of SYK affected dairy cow mammary epithelial cell proliferation as well as the expression of signal molecules involved in proliferation, including protein kinase B (PKB, also known as AKT1), p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that SYK increased the transcriptional activity of the AKT1 promoter, and cis-elements within the AKT1 promoter region from -439 to -84 bp mediated this regulation. These results suggest that SYK affects mammary epithelial cell proliferation by activating AKT1 at the transcriptional level in mammary glands of dairy cows, which is important for the mammary remodeling process in dry cows as well as for increasing persistency of lactation in lactating cows. PMID:26947307

  4. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  5. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas

    2014-01-30

    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases. PMID:24378117

  6. Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane emission of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Bannink, A; van Laar, H; de Jonge, L H; Dijkstra, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest on CH4 emissions by dairy cows consuming corn silage (CS) based diets. Whole-plant corn was harvested at a very early [25% dry matter (DM); CS25], early (28% DM; CS28), medium (32% DM; CS32), and late (40% DM; CS40) stage of maturity. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, of which 8 were fitted with rumen cannula, received 1 of 4 dietary treatments designated as T25, T28, T32, and T40 to reflect the DM contents at harvest. Treatments consisted of (DM basis) 75% CS, 20% concentrate, and 5% wheat straw. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, energy and N balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Corn silage starch content varied between 275 (CS25) and 385 (CS40) g/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect DM intake (DMI), milk yield, or milk contents. In situ ruminal fractional degradation rate of starch decreased linearly from 0.098 to 0.059/h as maturity increased from CS25 to CS40. Apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, crude fat, starch, and gross energy (GE) decreased linearly with maturity. Treatments did not affect ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia concentrations, and volatile fatty acids molar proportions. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in milk fat decreased linearly, and the concentration of C18:2n-6 and the n-6:n-3 ratio increased linearly with maturity. A quadratic response occurred for the total saturated fatty acid concentration and total monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk fat. Methane production relative to DMI (21.7, 23.0, 21.0, and 20.1g/kg) and relative to GE intake (0.063, 0.067, 0.063, and 0.060 MJ/MJ; values for T25, T28, T32, and T40, respectively) decreased linearly with maturity. Also, CH4 emission relative

  7. Ovarian cysts in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Braw-Tal, R; Pen, S; Roth, Z

    2009-09-15

    We examined the hormonal and morphologic changes associated with ovarian cyst formation in high-yielding dairy cows. Follicle fluid was aspirated from 90 cysts and 15 preovulatory and 18 subordinate follicles and used for hormonal determination. Pieces of cystic wall were subjected to morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Cysts were characterized by low concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and glucose and high activity of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Insulin and IGF-I levels were (mean+/-SEM) 205+/-22 pg/mL and 146+/-42 ng/mL in preovulatory follicles and 3+/-1 pg/mL and 61+/-6 ng/mL in cysts, respectively (P<0.001). Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins activity was about 10 times higher in cysts than in preovulatory follicles. Cysts were classified into three types according to their estradiol-to-progesterone (E/P) ratio. Type 1 cysts (n=23) exhibited the highest E/P ratio (10.8+/-2.3), partial loss of granulosa cells, and severe morphologic changes in the theca interna. Expression of P(450) side-chain cleavage and P(450) 17 alpha-hydroxylase was noted in theca cells and expression of inhibin-alpha in granulosa cells. Type 2 cysts (n=35) had a low E/P ratio (0.07+/-0.02), and patches of luteal-like tissue in the cystic wall. Type 3 cysts (n=32) had an E/P ratio of 0.91+/-0.17, and no recognizable granulosa or theca cells. In summary, intrafollicular steroid levels as expressed by E/P ratio, together with IGF-I and insulin levels and morphologic changes in the follicular wall, may serve as accurate cyst-classification parameters. Because IGF-I and/or insulin play an essential role in the final stage of follicle development, it can be speculated that abnormal levels of these metabolic hormones might lead to follicle dysfunction, resulting in follicular regression or cyst formation. PMID:19559473

  8. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Foth, A J; Brown-Brandl, T; Hanford, K J; Miller, P S; Garcia Gomez, G; Kononoff, P J

    2015-10-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% corn silage, 18.4% alfalfa hay, 6.94% brome hay with either 22.9% rolled corn or 14.8% soybean meal (control), or 8.95% rolled corn, 28.8% RFDDGS, and 0% soybean meal [Co-P; dry-matter (DM) basis]. The inclusion of RFDDGS did not affect DM intake, averaging 21.4 ± 0.53 kg of DM for all cows, but milk production tended to increase from 29.8 to 30.9 ± 1.46 kg/d for control and Co-P treatments, respectively. Milk fat percentage and energy-corrected milk did not differ between treatments, averaging 4.33 ± 0.14% and 34.1 kg/d, respectively. Milk protein was significantly decreased by the Co-P treatment (3.56 and 3.41 ± 0.08% for control and Co-P treatments), but protein yield was not affected. Milk energies were 1.40 Mcal/d greater with Co-P. Energy lost as methane was reduced by 0.31 Mcal/d with the addition of RFDDGS to the diet. Heat loss averaged 29.9 ± 0.55 Mcal/d and was not different between diets. Average energy retained as tissue energy was -2.99 ± 0.93 Mcal/d and did not differ between treatments. Intake of digestible and metabolizable energy were not different between the control and Co-P treatments, averaging 2.68 and 2.31 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. The net energy of lactation values of control and Co-P diets were calculated to be 1.43 and 1.47 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. These energy estimates suggest greater energy content of diets containing RFDDGS than diets containing a mixture of corn and soybean meal in lactating dairy cows. PMID:26233444

  9. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  10. Smallholder farmers' attitudes toward the provision of drinking water for dairy cows in Kagera, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Barbara; Kepe, Thembela

    2015-02-01

    Agriculture's large share of Tanzanian GDP and the large percentage of rural poor engaged in the sector make it a focus for many development projects that see it as an area of attention for reducing rural poverty. This paper uses a case of the Kamachumu community, where a dairy cow loan project was implemented using the heifer-in-trust (HIT) model. This study finds that productivity is limited by how the cows are being managed, particularly with many animals not having ad lib access to drinking water. The paper explores reasons why farmers do or do not provide their cows with unlimited access to drinking water. The study concludes that there are many barriers farmers face, including water accessibility, education and training, infrastructure, simple negligence, and security. These results suggest an increase in extension services and national and local livestock policies that consider the specific realities of small-scale dairy farmers. PMID:25433649

  11. Relationships between human-animal interactions and productivity of commercial dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Coleman, G J; Barnett, J L; Borg, S

    2000-11-01

    This study examined the relationships between a number of stockperson and cow variables at 66 commercial dairy farms. Variables such as the attitudes and behavior of stockpeople toward their cows and the behavioral response to humans and productivity of cows were studied over one lactation. There were consistent and significant correlations between some of these stockperson and cow variables. For example, a positive attitude by stockpeople toward the behavior of dairy cows was negatively correlated with the number of forceful, negative, tactile interactions used by stockpeople in handling cows (r = -0.27, df = 127, P < 0.01). Furthermore, based on farm averages, the number of forceful, negative, tactile interactions used by stockpeople was negatively correlated with the percentage of cows approaching within 1 m of an experimenter in a standard test (r = -0.27, df= 64, P< 0.05). Although not confirming a fear-productivity relationship, a moderate but nonsignificant correlation was found between flight distance of cows to an experimenter in a standard test and milk yield (r = -0.27, df = 33, P > 0.05). Support for the existence of a negative fear-productivity relationship was the finding that the use of negative interactions by stockpeople was significantly and negatively correlated with milk yield, protein, and fat at the farm (r = -0.36, -0.35 and -0.33, respectively, df = 64, P < 0.01) and was significantly and positively correlated with milk cortisol concentrations at the farm (r = 0.34, df= 64, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the percentage of cows approaching within 3 m of an experimenter in a standard test was positively correlated with conception rate to the first insemination (r = 0.38, df = 46, P < 0.01). The significant correlations found in the present study between stockperson attitudes and behavior and cow behavior and productivity, although not evidence of causal relationships, indicate the possibility of targeting these human characteristics to reduce fear

  12. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  13. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  14. Short communication: Feeding red clover cut in the afternoon or morning to late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Brito, A F

    2015-10-01

    Forages cut in the afternoon (p.m.) generally yield a higher concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) than those cut in the morning (a.m.). We aimed to compare the effects of p.m.-cut red clover baleage (p.m.-RC) versus a.m.-cut RC baleage (a.m.-RC) on milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk components, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients in late-lactation Holstein cows. Twelve multiparous and 2 primiparous Holstein cows received a total mixed ration containing, on a dry matter (DM) basis, 65% p.m.-RC or a.m.-RC plus 35% concentrate in a crossover design with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. One RC field was split in 2 with the first half cut in the afternoon (1600 h) and the second half in the following morning (0600 h). The p.m.-RC and a.m.-RC contained (% of DM): 12.6 versus 9.43% NSC in samples collected before the beginning of the experiment and 7.49 versus 7.79% NSC in samples collected during the sampling periods (i.e., d 14 to 21). The total mixed rations averaged 18.2 and 17.5% NSC for the p.m.-RC and a.m.-RC, respectively. Feeding p.m.-RC or a.m.-RC did not improve feed intake or milk yield and composition in late-lactation dairy cows. However, milk urea N and plasma urea N were both lowest in cows offered p.m.-RC. With the exception of the apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, which was highest in cows fed p.m.-RC, no other changes in nutrient digestibility were observed. Similarly, no treatment effect was observed for the urinary excretion of N and purine derivatives. Further research is needed to better understand NSC losses during storage and the associated effects on baleage quality and animal performance. PMID:26254532

  15. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    PubMed Central

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized. PMID:24489391

  16. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 respectively) during summer. Proliferation of PBMC, the colostral concentration of Ig fractions and serum levels of IgG in their respective offspring did not differ between spring and summer cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  17. A validation of technologies monitoring dairy cow feeding, ruminating, and lying behaviors.

    PubMed

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Tsai, I C; Wadsworth, B A; Bewley, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate commercially available precision dairy technologies against direct visual observations of feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=24) lactating Holstein dairy cattle (mean ± standard deviation; 223.4±117.8 d in milk, producing 29.2±8.2kg of milk/d) were fitted with 6 different triaxial accelerometer technologies evaluating cow behaviors at or before freshening. The AfiAct Pedometer Plus (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) was used to monitor lying time. The CowManager SensOor (Agis, Harmelen, Netherlands) monitored rumination and feeding time. The HOBO Data Logger (HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) monitored lying time. The CowAlert IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland) monitored lying time. The Smartbow (Smartbow GmbH, Jutogasse, Austria) monitored rumination time. The Track A Cow (ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel) monitored lying time and time spent around feeding areas for the calculation of feeding time. Over 8 d, 6 cows per day were visually observed for feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors for 2 h after morning and evening milking. The time of day was recorded when each behavior began and ended. These times were used to generate the length of time behaviors were visually observed. Pearson correlations (r; calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS Version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and concordance correlations (CCC; calculated using the epiR package of R version 3.1.0, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) evaluated association between visual observations and technology-recorded behaviors. Visually recorded feeding behaviors were moderately correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0.88, CCC=0.82) and Track A Cow (r=0.93, CCC=0.79) monitors. Visually recorded rumination behaviors were strongly correlated with the Smartbow (r=0.97, CCC=0.96), and weakly correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0

  18. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information. PMID:27618107

  19. Reproductive and Metabolic Responses of Early-lactating Dairy Cows Fed Different Dietary Protein Sources.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Lacalandra, G M; Laudadio, V

    2015-10-01

    Optimal reproduction is very closely tied with optimal nutrition, and early-lactation diets in cows are critical to successful reproduction and monitoring is important. To evaluate the effects of different dietary protein sources on metabolic parameters and reproductive activity, a total of 36 Italian Friesian early-lactating dairy cows were assigned for 16 weeks to three dietary treatments as follow: the control diet contained soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas the experimental diets contained faba bean (FB) or pea seeds (PS) as alternative protein sources. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Cow blood samples were collected, and plasma were analysed for metabolites, biological enzymes, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Feeding alternative protein sources had no effects on most metabolic blood profile, except for blood cholesterol, triglycerides and urea. Results from reproductive parameters indicated that cows fed FB diet had a lower insemination index, but a shorter calving to conception period and an improved conception rate and artificial insemination outcome, when compared to cows fed SBM or PS diets. It can be concluded that replacing conventional dietary SBM with alternative protein sources, especially FB, resulted in improved reproductive performances and metabolic parameters in early-lactating dairy cows. PMID:26134899

  20. Monensin might protect Ontario, Canada dairy cows from paratuberculosis milk-ELISA positivity.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Steven H; Duffield, Todd F; Leslie, Ken E; Lissemore, Kerry D; Archambault, Marie; Bagg, Randy; Dick, Paul; Kelton, David F

    2006-10-17

    Our objective was to define the role of monensin sodium in protecting cows from being milk-ELISA positive for paratuberculosis in Ontario, Canada dairy herds. In total, 4933 dairy cows from 94 herds were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Forty-four of the enrolled herds were selected purposively by their herd veterinarian and another 50 herds were randomly selected from a local milk production-recording agency. A herd-management survey was completed on each farm during the months of May through August 2003. During this same time-period, composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows and tested with a milk-ELISA for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Analyses were stratified according to the paratuberculosis history of the herds. In the 48 herds in which paratuberculosis had not been diagnosed before, the use of calf hutches and monensin in milking cows were both associated with reduced odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.19 and 0.21, respectively). In the 46 herds with a prior history of paratuberculosis, feeding monensin to the breeding-age heifers was associated with decreased odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.54). Monensin use might be associated with milk-ELISA positivity, but its impact on the transmission of paratuberculosis remains unknown. PMID:16787675

  1. Invited review: Environmental enrichment of dairy cows and calves in indoor housing.

    PubMed

    Mandel, R; Whay, H R; Klement, E; Nicol, C J

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of farmers are choosing to keep their cows indoors throughout the year. Indoor housing of cows allows farmers to provide high-yielding individuals with a nutritionally balanced diet fit for their needs, and it has important welfare benefits for both cows and their calves, such as protection from predators, parasites, and exposure to extreme weather conditions. However, it also confronts cows and calves with a wide range of environmental challenges. These include abiotic environmental sources of stress (e.g., exposure to loud and aversive sound) and confinement-specific stressors (e.g., restricted movement and maintenance in abnormal social groups). Cows and calves that live indoors are also faced with the challenge of occupying long periods with a limited range of possible behavioral patterns. Environmental enrichment can improve biological functioning (measured as increased lifetime reproductive success, increased inclusive fitness, or a correlate of these such as improved health), help animals to cope with stressors in their surroundings, reduce frustration, increase the fulfillment of behavioral needs, and promote more positive affective states. Here, we review recent findings on the effect of social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional enrichment on dairy cows and calves, and we assess the appropriateness and practicality of implementing different enrichment practices on commercial dairy farms. Some of the enrichment methods reviewed here may also be applied to those more extensive cattle-raising systems, where similar challenges occur. PMID:26774729

  2. Elevation of circulating serotonin improves calcium dynamics in the peripartum dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Samantha R; Prichard, Austin P; Endres, Elizabeth L; Newhouse, Stefanie A; Peters, Tonia L; Crump, Peter M; Akins, Matthew S; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a metabolic disorder that affects dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 days prepartum with either saline or 1.0mg/kg bodyweight of the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, 5hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). On infusion days, blood was collected before, after, and at 2, 4, and 8h postinfusion. Blood and urine were collected daily before the infusion period, for 14 days postpartum and on day 30 postpartum. Milk was collected daily during the postpartum period. Feed intake and milk yield were unaffected by 5-HTP infusion postpartum. Cows infused with 5-HTP had elevated circulating serotonin concentrations prepartum. Infusion with 5-HTP induced a transient hypocalcemia in Jersey cows prepartum, but not in any other treatment. Holstein cows infused with saline had the highest milk calcium on the day of and day after parturition. Postpartum, circulating total calcium tended to be elevated, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) concentrations were elevated in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP. Overall, Jerseys had higher urine DPD concentrations postpartum when compared with Holsteins. Taken together, these data warrant further investigation of the potential therapeutic benefit of 5-HTP administration prepartum for prevention of hypocalcemia. Further research should focus on delineation of mechanisms associated with 5-HTP infusion that control calcium homeostasis during the peripartum period in Holstein and Jersey cows. PMID:27390301

  3. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P > 0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P < 0.01). Moreover, milk production and economic return were increased linearly (P < 0.01) with the increasing level of MSP supplementation. The present findings suggested that supplementation of MSP especially at 300 g/head/day with concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg could improve rumen fermentation efficiency, milk production and protein content, and economical return of lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw. PMID:26205904

  4. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  5. Lactobacilli isolated from vaginal vault of dairy and meat cows during progesteronic stage of estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C; Cofré, J V; Sánchez, M; Fernández, P; Boggiano, G; Castro, E

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacilli have been barely studied in cows. We proposed isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria from dairy cows as compared to those raised for meat production and elucidate the presence of strains with evident probiotic employment's potential. For this, isolation and quantification of LAB mainly lactobacilli were realized from vaginal cattle samples in MRS medium. Each selected microorganism was then briefly characterized. The MATH method was employed using hexadecane, xilene an toluene as solvent. According to the hydrophobic characteristics, strains were classified into three categories: high (71-100%), medium (36-70%) and low (0-35%). Hydrogen peroxide qualitative production was studies too, lactobacilli were streaked onto an MRS agar plate containing 5 mg of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and 0.20 mg of horseradish peroxidase. Twenty-one sampled cows (78%) were positive for lactic acid microflora, 12 belonging to the dairy group and 17 of the meat group. Total LAB counting including dairy and meat cows were log 2,41 CFU/ml. Of overall identified strains, an 83% corresponded to lactobacilli. Most strains belonged to the heterofermentative facultative group (75%), with L. plantarum as the most frequent specie. The highest proportion of isolated vaginal strains (69%) had low hydrophobicity, the LAB with highest hydrophobic characteristics (3 strains) were found only in meat cows. In the qualitative evaluation of H(2)O(2) production, a positive reaction was observed in 13 of 29 strains (45%). The role of lactobacilli in vaginal microbiota is limited, and therefore the present work is interesting in incorporate knowledge of normal microflora of progesteronic healthy cows, in this case in production animals. The isolation and characterization data obtained are consistent in consider the study of particular strains with great potential in the development of a probiotic for production cows. PMID:21145403

  6. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) <2.5 had higher occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI. The occurrence of S. uberis IMI was higher in quarters with California mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens. PMID:24823898

  7. Factors affecting the response to the specific treatment of several forms of clinical anestrus in high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Mirzaei, A; Santolaria, P; Bech-Sàbat, G; Nogareda, C; García-Ispierto, I; Hanzen, Ch; Yániz, J L

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to examine estrous response rates to the therapeutic treatment of clinical anestrus in high producing dairy cows and to identify the factors that could affect these rates. Cows with silent ovulation (Subestrus group), cystic ovarian disease (Cyst group) or ovarian hypofunction (OH group) were given specific treatment for their disorder. Data were derived from 1764 treatments in cows producing a mean of 45.4 kg of milk upon treatment including: 889 subestrous cows, 367 cystic cows and 508 cows with ovarian hypofunction. Cows showing estrus following treatment exhibited a similar pregnancy rate to cows attaining natural estrus used as reference: 33% (337/1006) and 35% (626/1796), respectively. No significant differences in pregnancy rates were observed among the Subestrus, Cyst and OH groups (34% (196/571), 34% (44/130), 32% (97/305), respectively. Based on the odds ratio, an estrous response for all groups was less likely to occur in cows that had suffered previous anestrus, compared to cows that were anestrous for the first time, whereas the likelihood of an estrous response increased in cows treated after 90 days in milk. Our results indicate that previous anestrus and a late stage of lactation can have a negative and positive effect, respectively, on the estrous response to the specific treatment of clinical anestrus shown by high producing dairy cows. Treatment targeted at each type of clinical anestrus can render similar pregnancy rates to those shown by cows in natural estrus. PMID:18359070

  8. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  9. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  10. Hourly and seasonal variations in the area preferences of dairy cows in freestall housing.

    PubMed

    Seyfi, S Uzal

    2013-02-01

    Barn designs that promote animal comfort and that reflect preferences of dairy cattle play an important role in increasing animal production. This study was performed in freestall barn housing in Konya (Turkey) to determine the hourly and seasonal variation occurring in the barn area preferences of dairy cows. Behaviors of dairy cows were observed in a freestall barn at a commercial dairy farm from 2006 to 2007 using continuous video data (24h per d). The behaviors of the cows in the barn were videotaped for a total of 40 d (960 h) over 4 seasons (10d for each season) using a 60-min scan sampling technique. The study design included the hourly and seasonal rates of usage of 5 different parts of the barn area. In addition, temperature and humidity were measured on an hourly basis. The values of the cow comfort index, cow stress index, and stall usage index (SUI) were calculated. All behavioral phenotypes were analyzed with a factorial experimental design. The relationship between the barn area preferences of the dairy cattle and the climatic data for the barn area was significant. The open area (a courtyard) was used at a higher rate by dairy cattle for resting, standing, and walking. In addition, the courtyard area was preferred to the freestalls for resting or lying. The rates of usage of the courtyard during autumn, winter, spring, and summer were 39.0, 20, 66.1, and 52.2%, respectively. The usage rates of the stalls for these seasons were 22.5, 35.7, 4.6, and 8.6%, respectively. The cow comfort index values for autumn, winter, spring, and summer were 0.19, 0.29, 0.03, and 0.05, respectively. The cow stress index values for these seasons were 0.27, 0.29, 0.23, and 0.22, respectively. The qualities and size of the barn areas should allow comfortable movement of the animals. And, it is very important that new barn designs incorporate area preferences and the comfort of the cattle rather than high-cost investments. PMID:23200472

  11. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  12. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to rations of postpartum dairy cows: physiological and metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, L H; Muller, L D; Snyder, T J

    1981-12-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to characterize physiological, metabolic, and ruminal changes immediately postpartum when dairy cows are switched abruptly from a low energy ration prepartum to a high energy ration postpartum. Twelve Holstein cows were paired and assigned randomly to either a control or buffered ration containing .8% sodium bicarbonate. Rations consisted of 50% corn silage:50% concentrate. All All cows were fed a similar dry cow ration for a minimum of 7 days prepartum and experimental rations for 2 wk beginning at parturition. Blood, feces, and urine were sampled on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 postpartum. Rumen fluid was sampled on days 7 and 14. Dry matter intake and milk production were 2.75% of body weight and 30.3 kg/day for cows fed buffer and 2.49% and 27.6 kg/day for cows fed control. Higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide and base excess in blood in cows fed buffer existed on days 2 and 4 postpartum than for cows fed the control ration. Cows fed buffer had higher concentrations of ruminal ammonia than cows fed control. This difference was less pronounced in blood urea nitrogen and urinary ammonia. Urine pH was higher for cows fed buffer than for control. Addition of sodium bicarbonate improved the acid-base status after abrupt change of ration and may be associated with increased dry matter intake and improved ration adaptation. Concentrations of most minerals and metabolites in blood serum did not differ between rations. PMID:6281321

  13. Use of Ovsynch in dairy herds--differences between primiparous and multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, Bernd Alois; Surholt, Ralf; Wittke, Miriam; Vogel, Corinna; Drillich, Marc; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    Ovsynch protocols are used to increase service rate and decrease days open and cullings for infertility. Recent reports have indicated better results after Ovsynch in primiparous than in older cows. However, this was not observed in all investigations on the subject. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences between primiparous and multiparous cows after synchronization of ovulation with an Ovsynch protocol in six trials. A total of 1584 cows (583 primiparous and 1001 multiparous cows, respectively) on three dairy farms were synchronized with an Ovsynch protocol consisting of a GnRH-analogue at Days 0 and 9, and a prostaglandin F(2alpha) analogue on Day 7. AI was carried out in all cows 16-20 h after the last treatment. Cows were categorized into primiparous and multiparous cows for analysis. Conception rate (CR) to timed AI, to further AI, overall conception rate and proportion of cows pregnant by 200 days in milk were compared between the age groups. Finally, two logistic regression models were calculated with conception to first service and conception by 200 DIM as the outcome variables. Independent variables were trial (categorical) and age group (primiparous versus multiparous). Conception rates to TAI were higher in primiparous than in older cows (37.9% versus 31.6%, P=0.015). Likewise pregnancy rates by 200 DIM were higher in primiparous cows (81.8% versus 75.4%, P=0.003). However, the extent of the difference varied between trials. Results indicate that Ovsynch protocols are more effective in primiparous than in older cows. PMID:14749044

  14. Analysis of reproductive performance of lactating cows on large dairy farms using machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Caraviello, D Z; Weigel, K A; Craven, M; Gianola, D; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C

    2006-12-01

    The fertility of lactating dairy cows is economically important, but the mean reproductive performance of Holstein cows has declined during the past 3 decades. Traits such as first-service conception rate and pregnancy status at 150 d in milk (DIM) are influenced by numerous explanatory factors common to specific farms or individual cows on these farms. Machine learning algorithms offer great flexibility with regard to problems of multicollinearity, missing values, or complex interactions among variables. The objective of this study was to use machine learning algorithms to identify factors affecting the reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows on large dairy farms. This study used data from farms in the Alta Genetics Advantage progeny-testing program. Production and reproductive records from 153 farms were obtained from on-farm DHI-Plus, Dairy Comp 305, or PCDART herd management software. A survey regarding management, facilities, labor, nutrition, reproduction, genetic selection, climate, and milk production was completed by managers of 103 farms; body condition scores were measured by a single evaluator on 63 farms; and temperature data were obtained from nearby weather stations. The edited data consisted of 31,076 lactation records, 14,804 cows, and 317 explanatory variables for first-service conception rate and 17,587 lactation records, 9,516 cows, and 341 explanatory variables for pregnancy status at 150 DIM. An alternating decision tree algorithm for first-service conception rate classified 75.6% of records correctly and identified the frequency of hoof trimming maintenance, type of bedding in the dry cow pen, type of cow restraint system, and duration of the voluntary waiting period as key explanatory variables. An alternating decision tree algorithm for pregnancy status at 150 DIM classified 71.4% of records correctly and identified bunk space per cow, temperature for thawing semen, percentage of cows with low body condition scores, number of

  15. Dry anaerobic digestion of high solids content dairy manure at high organic loading rates in psychrophilic sequence batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2015-05-01

    Cow manure with bedding is renewable organic biomass available around the year on dairy farms. Developing efficient and cost-effective psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) processes could contribute to solving farm-related environmental, energy, and manure management problems in cold-climate regions. This study was to increase the organic loading rate (OLR), fed to a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of 27% total solid dairy manure (cow feces and wheat straw) in sequence batch reactor (PDAD-SBR), by 133 to 160%. The PDAD-SBR process operated at treatment cycle length of 21 days and OLR of 7.0 and 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) (5.2 ± 0.1 and 5.8 ± 0.0 g volatile solids (VS) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1)) for four successive cycles (84 days) produced average specific methane yields (SMYs) of 147.1 ± 17.2 and 143.2 ± 11.7 normalized liters (NL) CH4 kg(-1) VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.45 at OLR of 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. The VS removal averaged around 57.4 ± 0.5 and 60.5 ± 5.7% at OLR 7.0 and 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1), respectively. PMID:25773978

  16. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  17. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  18. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    PubMed

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. PMID:26805998

  19. Two approaches to improve fertility of subclinical mastitic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lavon, Y; Kaim, M; Leitner, G; Biran, D; Ezra, E; Wolfenson, D

    2016-03-01

    Mastitis, particularly in its subclinical form, is a widely spread disease that reduces the fertility of lactating cows. A major cause of poor conception risk has been associated with delayed ovulation of a large subgroup of subclinical mastitic cows. This study examined 2 approaches to improve fertility in this subgroup. Subclinical mastitic cows were defined by somatic cell count elevated above a threshold of 150,000 cells/mL of milk determined in all monthly test day samples collected before AI. Uninfected (control) cows were defined by somatic cell count below threshold. In experiment 1, we examined a hormonal approach aimed to correct the timing of ovulation in mastitic cows in which it would otherwise be delayed. The probability of conception of mastitic and uninfected groups following Ovsynch (OVS) and timed AI versus AI following detected estrus (E) was examined (n=1,553 AI) and analyzed by a multivariable, logistic model statement using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The OVS protocol significantly elevated the probability of conception of mastitic cows to a level similar to that of their uninfected counterparts. Actual mean conception risks for uninfected-E, subclinical-E, uninfected-OVS, and subclinical-OVS groups were 41.8, 26.4, 39.3, and 40.5%, respectively. The OVS protocol did not improve probability of conception in cows diagnosed with uterine disease postpartum. In experiment 2, a management approach aimed to better synchronize timing of ovulation with timing of AI in subclinical mastitic cows was examined. A second AI was added 24h after the first (routine) AI, following detection of natural estrus. Probability of conception did not differ between subclinical mastitic cows inseminated once or twice. Lack of improvement in conception risk might be related to low preovulatory LH surge in mastitic cows, which is likely to induce not only delayed ovulation but also disruption of oocyte maturation. Thus the OVS protocol can improve fertility of

  20. Technical note: Validation of a commercial system for the continuous and automated monitoring of dairy cow activity.

    PubMed

    Tullo, E; Fontana, I; Gottardo, D; Sloth, K H; Guarino, M

    2016-09-01

    Current farm sizes do not allow the precise identification and tracking of individual cows and their health and behavioral records. Currently, the application of information technology within intensive dairy farming takes a key role in proper routine management to improve animal welfare and to enhance the comfort of dairy cows. An existing application based on information technology is represented by the GEA CowView system (GEA Farm Technologies, Bönen, Germany). This system is able to detect and monitor animal behavioral activities based on positioning, through the creation of a virtual map of the barn that outlines all the areas where cows have access. The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of data provided by the CowView system. The validation was performed by comparing data automatically obtained from the CowView system with those obtained by a manual labeling procedure performed on video recordings. Data used for the comparisons were represented by the zone-related activities performed by the selected dairy cows and were classified into 2 categories: activity and localization. The duration in seconds of each of the activities/localizations detected both with the manual labeling and with the automated system were used to evaluate the correlation coefficients among data; and subsequently the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the automated monitoring system were calculated. The results of this validation study showed that the CowView automated monitoring system is able to identify the cow localization/position (alley, trough, cubicles) with high reliability in relation to the zone-related activities performed by dairy cows (accuracy higher than 95%). The results obtained support the CowView system as an innovative potential solution for the easier management of dairy cows. PMID:27344390

  1. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. I. Technique, histological criteria and results.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G; Martin, S W; Johnson, W H

    1991-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were taken for histological assessment from 97 cows which calved in a commercial dairy herd between April and August 1984. Sixty-two cows were biopsied at both day 26 and 40 postpartum, 23 cows at only day 26, and 12 at day 40 only. Subjective and quantitative histological criteria were assessed. Ninety-five percent of biopsies were adequate for at least subjective assessment. The distribution of criteria within each horn-day category, as well as combined readings by day and by gravid or nongravid horn were computed and significant differences noted. There was more severe inflammation and more segmented cells at day 26 than 40 postpartum, and in the gravid compared to the nongravid horn. The distribution patterns for the criteria examined provide an overview of histological characteristics in this group of postpartum cows. PMID:1884295

  2. Port of Tillamook Bay (POTB); Methane Energy Agriculture Development (MEAD); Dairy Digester Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Crider

    2004-12-31

    The Tillamook Digester is a fully operational demonstration project that will identify the components necessary to bring the concept to a financially viable alternative for handling waste manure from dairy operations in Tillamook County.

  3. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  4. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW) of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS), urea-treated (5%), long form rice straw (5% ULRS), urea-treated (2.5%), long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS) and urea-treated (2.5%), chopped (4 cm) rice straw (2.5% UCRS). Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not altered among all treatments (p>0.05), whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01) by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05) and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05), thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05) in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05), while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01). From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows. PMID:25049912

  5. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake. PMID:26201971

  6. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the number of ticks from the Group B compared to the Group A on day 4 PT. However, there was no significant difference in the number of ticks on cows from Groups A and C after treatment (P>0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. PMID:27369577

  7. Influence of corn silage particle length on the performance of lactating dairy cows fed supplemental tallow.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the length of chop of processed corn silage influences the impact of supplemental fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows. We hypothesized that increasing forage particle length may alleviate the interference of fat on rumen fermentation. Sixteen Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (dry matter basis), and corn silage harvested at either 19 or 32 mm theoretical length of cut. The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets that were fed twice daily as a total mixed ration. Fat supplemented cows had lower dry matter intake and produced less milk fat relative to nonsupplemented cows. No effect of corn silage particle length was observed for dry matter intake and milk fat production. Proportion of trans-10 C18:1 and of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was highest in milk fat of cows fed 2% supplemental tallow. Rumen pH was not affected by feeding tallow, and tended to be highest for cows eating the 32-mm theoretical length of chop corn silage diets. No effect of treatments was observed for rumen acetate-to-propionate ratio or rumen ammonia concentration. In this study, tallow supplementation had a negative impact on performance of dairy cows regardless of the corn silage particle length. Feeding tallow increased formation of trans-fatty acids in the rumen in the absence of significant changes in the rumen environment. PMID:14507031

  8. Oats (Avena strigosa) as winter forage for dairy cows in Vietnam: an on-farm study.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Paulo; Thang, Vu Q; Thu, Tran V; Trach, Nguyen X; Cuong, Vu C; Lecomte, Philippe; Richard, Didier

    2013-02-01

    In North Vietnam, during winter, alternative forage resources are needed to balance the feed ration of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oat forage as a component of traditional winter roughage diets on feed intake, milk production and feeding cost in dairy cows. The study was conducted on-farm using 24 mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows. The feeding experiment consisted of two successive periods and two dietary treatments per period. Traditional basal diets included fresh tropical grasses, maize silage and hay. The oat forage had no effect on the dry matter intake of the basal diet, but the total crude protein intake was higher in cows fed with oat diets than in those fed with control diets. The yield of butterfat-corrected milk (FCM) was not significantly different between diets during period 1, but there was a trend (P = 0.078) of higher FCM yields in cows fed with the oat diet compared to those with control diet during period 2 (17.3 vs. 16.3 kg/day). The decline rate in milk yield was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in cows fed with control diets than in those fed with oat diets in both experimental periods. The total feeding cost of cows fed with oat diets was on average 12 % lower than those fed with control diets (P < 0.01). So, the oat forage is an important winter resource for cows in North Vietnam allowing higher milk yield whilst reducing feeding cost, compared to traditional roughage diets. PMID:22972515

  9. Short communication: Relationship between natural antibodies and postpartum uterine health in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Bicalho, M L S; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2014-12-01

    Postpartum uterine diseases of dairy cows compromise animal welfare and may result in early removal from the herd or impaired reproductive performance. The relationship between poor immune status around calving and uterine diseases is well established; however, that between natural antibodies (NAb) and uterine health has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating NAb levels around parturition with puerperal metritis, clinical endometritis, and the intrauterine presence of the Escherichia coli virulence factor FimH. One hundred six pregnant heifers were enrolled; NAb in serum samples collected at 30 ± 3 d prepartum and at 2 ± 1 and 35 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) were measured by ELISA. Puerperal metritis was defined as the presence of fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge and rectal temperature >39.5°C at 6 ± 1 DIM. Clinical endometritis was defined as presence of pus in the uterine lavage sample collected at 35 ± 3 DIM. The intrauterine presence of the fimH gene at 2 ± 1 DIM was evaluated by PCR. The overall optical density (wavelength of 650 nm) of ELISA-detected serum NAb was lower for cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis than for cows that did not have puerperal metritis. Additionally, cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis tended to have lower levels of NAb than did cows without clinical endometritis. Finally, FimH-positive cows had lower overall levels of serum NAb compared with FimH-negative cows. In conclusion, NAb detected in serum around parturition was associated with uterine health of dairy cows. PMID:25262191

  10. Lower pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows fed a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, D J; Kastelic, J P; Corbett, R; Pitney, P A; Petit, H V; Small, J A; Zalkovic, P

    2006-08-01

    The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) would influence ovarian function, early embryo survival, conception rates, and pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning 28 d before breeding, Holstein cows (55 +/- 22 d postpartum; mean +/- SD) were assigned to diets supplemented with either rolled flaxseed (FLAX; 56.7% ALA, n = 62) or rolled sunflower seed (SUNF; 0.1% ALA, n = 59) to provide approximately 750 g of oil/d. Diets continued for 32 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI, d 0) following a Presynch/Ovsynch protocol. Barley silage- and barley grain-based TMR were formulated to meet or exceed National Research Council requirements. Metabolizable protein and net energy for lactation concentrations were similar in the 2 diets. Based upon a mean dry matter intake of 22 kg/d, cows fed FLAX or SUNF consumed > 410 g or < 1 g of ALA, respectively. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound 32 d after TAI. Nonpregnant cows were placed on a second Ovsynch regimen and reinseminated 42 d after first TAI, and received oilseeds for 32 d after second TAI. Relative to prediet levels, FLAX increased the ALA content of milk by 187%. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed in 8 cows per diet; the mean diameter of ovulatory follicles was larger in cows fed FLAX compared with SUNF (16.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 14.1 +/- 0.9 mm), but follicle number, corpus luteum size, and plasma progesterone concentrations remained unaffected. Presumptive conception (progesterone < 1 ng/mL on d 0 and > 1 ng/mL on d 21) rates to first TAI were greater in FLAX than in SUNF (72.6 vs. 47.5%). Pregnancy losses were lower in cows fed FLAX (9.8%) compared with those fed SUNF (27.3%). Including flaxseed in the ration of dairy cows increased the size of the ovulatory follicle and reduced pregnancy losses. PMID:16840624

  11. Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on Uterine Involution and Ovarian Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. H.; Lee, Y. T.; Chen, T. C.; Yeh, C. C.; Chen, J. Y.; Liu, L. Y.; Chi, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of 1.2±0.6 cm3, which was significantly lower than that of the control group, 2.3±0.8 cm3 (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of 1.0±0.0 in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, 1.5±0.5 (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:25049906

  12. Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2004-08-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania appear to be unaware of the subclinical mastitis situation in their cows. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and September 2002 on smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region. The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and related risk indicators, and to assess their contribution to the occurrence of subclinical mastitis. Three field procedures based on the principles of herd health and production management were followed: clinical, farm and data inspection. The California mastitis test (CMT) was carried out on quarter milk samples to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. A total of 182 lactating cows from 62 herds were investigated. Clinical inspection indicated that 3.8% of the lactating cows had clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 90.3% of lactating cows screened. Farm inspection revealed that water scarcity, barn size, residual suckling, single udder-towel and dairy labourers as the most substantial (p < 0.05) risk indicators. Although most of the risk indicators studied were not found to be statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, possibly owing to sample size and the presence of confounders, the epidemiological need to address such risk indicators cannot be overemphasized. PMID:15560518

  13. Investigating integument alterations in cubicle housed dairy cows: which types and locations can be combined?

    PubMed

    Brenninkmeyer, C; Dippel, S; Brinkmann, J; March, S; Winckler, C; Knierim, U

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a data set of 2922 lactating dairy cows in a sample of 64 conventional and organic dairy farms with Holstein Friesian cows in Germany and 31 conventional dairy farms with the dual purpose breed Fleckvieh in Austria was used to screen for correlations between the occurrences of different integument alterations. All cows were housed in cubicle systems. Alterations were classified as hairless areas (H), scabs or wounds (W) or swellings (S) and assessed at 15 locations of the cows' body. Highest median farm prevalences were found at the joints of the legs, which are already commonly included in studies on integumentary alterations: median farm prevalence was 83% for S and 48% for H at the carpal joints, followed by H (38%) and S (20%) at the lateral tarsal joints and H at the lateral calcanei (20%). Additional body parts with notable median prevalences for H were the hip bones (13%), pin bones (12%) and sacrum (11%). Three cluster models, with 2, 5 and 14 clusters, were built by hierarchical clustering of prevalences of the 30 most relevant alteration location combinations. Clustering revealed that location overruled type of lesion in most cases. Occasionally, clusters represented body segments significantly distant from each other, for example the carpal joints and lateral and dorsal calcanei. However, some neighbouring areas such as the medial and lateral hock area should be analysed separately from each other for causal analysis as they formed distinct clusters. PMID:26144555

  14. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions. PMID:26479012

  15. Tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2016-08-20

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:27550334

  16. An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe sand abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of sand 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ≤ −110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed. PMID:17987969

  17. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    for all feeding strategies, but the decline was most marked for the control cows. Milk protein concentration increased for all groups as the amount of supplement increased, but was greater for FGM, PMRL, and PMRH cows than control cows. It is concluded that when supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows, inclusion of corn grain and canola meal can increase milk production even at similar metabolizable energy intakes, and that it does not matter whether these supplements are fed as a PMR or in the parlor and paddock. PMID:26585473

  18. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM: Nutrigenomics in dairy cows: Nutrients, transcription factors, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Bionaz, M; Osorio, J; Loor, J J

    2015-12-01

    Nutrigenomics in dairy cows is a relatively new area of research. It is defined as the study of the genomewide influences of nutrition altering the expression of genes. Dietary compounds affect gene expression directly or indirectly via interactions with transcription factors. Among those, the most relevant for nutrigenomics are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, especially peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and liver X receptor. Among other transcription factors, a prominent nutrigenomic role is played by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Data from studies on dairy cows using gene expression and gene reporters among the main molecular methods used to study nutrigenomics in dairy cows are indicative of a network of multiple transcription factors at play in controlling the nutrigenomic responses. Fatty acids, AA, and level of feed and energy intake have the strongest nutrigenomic potential. The effect of 10,12 CLA on depressing milk fat synthesis via inhibition of SREBP1 was among the first and likely the best-known nutrigenomic example in dairy cows. Although long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are clearly the most potent, a nutrigenomic role for short-chain fatty acids is emerging. Available data indicate that saturated compared with unsaturated LCFA have a more potent nutrigenomic effect in vitro, likely through PPAR. In vivo, the effect of saturated LCFA is more modest, with contrasting effects among tissues. Nutrigenomic effects of AA are emerging, particularly for the regulation of milk protein synthesis-associated genes. The level of energy in the diet has a strong and broad nutrigenomic effect and appears to "prime" tissue metabolism, particularly liver. We are at the frontier of the nutrigenomics era in ruminants and initial data strongly indicate that this scientific branch (and spinoffs such as nutriepigenomics) can play a critical role in future strategies to better feed dairy cattle. PMID:26641164

  19. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (12.6 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4. At this lactation point, group 2 also produced significantly less milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (26.0 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4 cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance

  20. Progesterone supplementation to lactating dairy cows without a corpus luteum at initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Castro, L O; Pansani, M B; Narciso, C D; Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Pinto, T L C; Van de Burgwal, N S; Bosman, H M; Surjus, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    The objectives were to determine the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses in lactating dairy cows without corpora lutea (CL) at initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy farms were subjected to the Ovsynch-56 protocol (d -10 GnRH, d -3 PGF2α, d -0.7 GnRH, d 0 AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on d -10. Within farm, cows without CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to remain as nonsupplemented controls (CON; n = 652) or to receive 2 controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) inserts containing 1.38 g of progesterone each from d -10 to -3 (2CIDR; n = 642). Cows with CL were randomly selected within pen and used as positive controls as cows in diestrus at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol (DIEST; n = 640). Signs of estrus were detected beginning on d -9 based on removal of tail chalk, and cows in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood samples from subsets of cows on d -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, and 0 (n = 109) and on d 6, 13, and 19 (n = 156) were analyzed for progesterone concentrations. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 32 and 60 after AI. The average progesterone concentration during the timed AI program was lowest for CON, intermediate for 2CIDR, and highest for DIEST (0.92, 2.77, and 4.93 ng/mL, respectively). The proportions of cows that ovulated in response to the first GnRH (63.6, 61.1, and 47.2%, respectively) and that had a new CL on d -3 at PGF2α injection (72.4, 67.9, and 47.4%, respectively) were greater for CON and 2CIDR compared with DIEST, respectively. The diameter of the ovulatory follicle and the proportion of cows that ovulated in response to the second GnRH did not differ among treatments. A greater proportion of CON and 2CIDR cows were detected in estrus at AI compared with DIEST cows (35.8, 39.6, and 30.6%, respectively). Pregnancy per AI was less for CON compared with 2CIDR and DIEST on d 32 (31.3, 42.2, and 38.4%, respectively) and d 60 after AI

  1. Use of prostaglandin F2 alpha as a postpartum reproductive management tool for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pankowski, J W; Galton, D M; Erb, H N; Guard, C L; Gröhn, Y T

    1995-07-01

    This study compared three programs for reproductive management of the postpartum period for reproductive performance and net economic benefit within three dairy herds (n = 1624 cows). Cows on one program received PGF alpha injection at 25 to 32 d postpartum for reproductive therapy, and cows on a second program received additional PGF2 alpha at 39 to 46 d postpartum for synchronization of estrus. These programs were compared with a postpartum program of rectal palpation based on veterinary intervention. Survival analysis indicated that cows receiving PGF2 alpha for reproductive therapy and synchronization of estrus had an 11% higher rate of first AI and 10% higher rate of pregnancy than did cows receiving the rectal palpation. No differences existed between the cows receiving rectal palpation and those receiving the PGF2 alpha. Because overall conception rates and conception rates at first AI did not differ among programs, the improved reproductive performance of cows receiving PGF2 alpha for both therapy and synchronization may be attributed to greater synchronization of estrus, which resulted in improved estrus detection. A partial budget indicated that the PGF2 alpha programs were less expensive than the rectal palpation program. When PGF2 alpha was used for postpartum reproductive therapy and synchronization of estrus, reproductive performance and net economic benefit were increased compared with those of the other programs. PMID:7593841

  2. Prepartum and Postpartum Rumen Fluid Microbiomes: Characterization and Correlation with Production Traits in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fabio S.; Oikonomou, Georgios; Lima, Svetlana F.; Bicalho, Marcela L. S.; Ganda, Erika K.; de Oliveira Filho, Jose C.; Lorenzo, Gustavo; Trojacanec, Plamen

    2014-01-01

    Microbes present in the rumen of dairy cows are essential for degradation of cellulosic and nonstructural carbohydrates of plant origin. The prepartum and postpartum diets of high-producing dairy cows are substantially different, but in what ways the rumen microbiome changes in response and how those changes may influence production traits are not well elucidated. Here, we sequenced the 16S and 18S rRNA genes using the MiSeq platform to characterize the prepartum and postpartum rumen fluid microbiomes in 115 high-producing dairy cows, including both primiparous and multiparous animals. Discriminant analysis identified differences between the microbiomes of prepartum and postpartum samples and between primiparous and multiparous cows. 18S rRNA sequencing revealed an overwhelming dominance of the protozoan class Litostomatea, with over 90% of the eukaryotic microbial population belonging to that group. Additionally, fungi were relatively more prevalent and Litostomatea relatively less prevalent in prepartum samples than in postpartum ones. The core rumen microbiome (common to all samples) consisted of 64 bacterial taxa, of which members of the genus Prevotella were the most prevalent. The Chao1 richness index was greater for prepartum multiparous cows than for postpartum multiparous cows. Multivariable models identified bacterial taxa associated with increased or reduced milk production, and general linear models revealed that a metagenomically based prediction of productivity is highly associated with production of actual milk and milk components. In conclusion, the structure of the rumen fluid microbiome shifts between the prepartum and first-week postpartum periods, and its profile within the context of this study could be used to accurately predict production traits. PMID:25501481

  3. Possible involvement of oxytocin in modulating the stress response in lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Tops, Mattie

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin can attenuate the physiological and behavioral response to stress in animals. In this study we investigated the relationship between plasma oxytocin concentrations and the behavioral and physiological response of dairy cows to a repeated psychological stressor (novel environment). Twenty lactating multi-parous dairy cows were milked in a familiar milking parlor and in a novel environment. Blood samples were collected before and after milking in the familiar parlor (baseline) and on the second and fifth day in the novel parlor to measure plasma cortisol and oxytocin concentrations. Heart rate was recorded on all cows during milking in the familiar and novel environment. On all test days, the behavioral response of cows to milk cluster attachment was scored. On day 2 in the novel parlor, the oxytocin response, cortisol concentrations and heart rate were greater, and heart rate variability was lower than baseline values recorded in the familiar parlor. The results from this study suggest that oxytocin release is increased in response to exposure to a psychological stressor (novel environment) and that cows adapt to this stressor over time. After initial suppression, oxytocin levels increased over days of milking in a novel environment, whereas indicators of stress simultaneously decreased. Furthermore, the oxytocin increase was associated with habituation of the cortisol response in anticipation of milking in a novel environment, suggesting that oxytocin may be involved in habituation to a novel environment in dairy cows. This mechanism of habituation to novel environments may reflect an association between oxytocin and a “familiarization-habituation response” to repeated exposure to an initially novel environment that has previously been reported in humans. PMID:25228892

  4. Short communication: Association of disease incidence and adaptive immune response in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hine, B; Quinton, M; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use previously calculated estimated breeding values for cell- (CMIR) and antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) to determine associations between immune response (IR) and economically important diseases of dairy cattle. In total, 699 Holsteins were classified as high, average, or low for CMIR, AMIR, and overall IR (combined CMIR and AMIR), and associations with mastitis, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasums, and retained fetal membranes were determined. The incidence of mastitis was higher among average cows as compared with cows classified as high AMIR [odds ratio (OR)=2.5], high CMIR (OR=1.8), or high IR (OR=1.8). Low-CMIR cows had a higher incidence of metritis (OR=11.3) and low-IR cows had a higher incidence of displaced abomasum (OR=4.1) and retained fetal membrane (OR=2.8) than did average responders. Results of this study show that cows classified as high immune responders have lower occurrence of disease, suggesting that breeding cattle for enhanced IR may be a feasible approach to decrease the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases in the dairy industry. PMID:22720943

  5. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05). Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05). Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05). Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI) = 1.1(1.08–1.11). Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23), 3.16 (0.80) and 6.52 (1.01) kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  6. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suthar, V S; Canelas-Raposo, J; Deniz, A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-05-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is defined as concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.2 to 1.4 mmol/L and it is considered a gateway condition for other metabolic and infectious disorders such as metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Reported prevalence rates range from 6.9 to 43% in the first 2 mo of lactation. However, there is a dearth of information on prevalence rates considering the diversity of European dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of SCK, (2) identify thresholds of BHBA, and (3) study their relationships with postpartum metritis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, and mastitis in European dairy farms. From May to October 2011, a convenience sample of 528 dairy herds from Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey was studied. β-Hydroxybutyrate levels were measured in 5,884 cows with a handheld meter within 2 to 15 d in milk (DIM). On average, 11 cows were enrolled per farm and relevant information (e.g., DIM, postpartum diseases, herd size) was recorded. Using receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, blood BHBA thresholds were determined for the occurrence of metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, and lameness. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were built for each disease, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. Overall prevalence of SCK (i.e., blood BHBA ≥ 1.2 mmol/L) within 10 countries was 21.8%, ranging from 11.2 to 36.6%. Cows with SCK had 1.5, 9.5, and 5.0 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression models demonstrated that cows with blood BHBA levels of ≥ 1.4, ≥ 1.1 and ≥ 1.7 mmol/L during 2 to 15 DIM had 1.7, 10.5, and 6.9 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively, compared with cows with lower

  7. Serum paraoxonase-1 as biomarker for improved diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder in dairy cows and is believed to result in major economic losses in dairy farming due to decreased health status, reproductive performance and fertility. Currently, the definitive means for diagnosing fatty liver is determining the fat content of hepatic tissue by liver biopsy, which is an invasive and costly procedure, making it poorly suited to dairy farms. Therefore, the key aim of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme exclusively synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. Results A comparative cohort study using serum specimens from Holstein–Friesian dairy cows (46 healthy and 46 fatty liver cases) was conducted. Serum PON1 (paraoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase) activity and other biochemical and hematological parameters were measured. We found that serum PON1 activity was lower (P<0.001) in cows suffering from fatty liver. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of PON1 activity for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.973–0.989 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.941, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We found that adding serum PON1 measurement to different batteries of serum diagnostic panels showed a combination of high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (−LR), diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) and overall diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing fatty liver. Conclusions The present results indicate that addition of serum PON1 activity measurement to the biochemical profile could improve the diagnosis of

  8. Cecal volvulus in a dairy cow: partial resection of the proximal portion of the ascending colon.

    PubMed

    Pankowski, R L; Fubini, S L; Stehman, S

    1987-08-15

    Cecal volvulus in a dairy cow with vascular compromise of the proximal portion of the ascending colon was corrected surgically with preservation of the ileocecocolic junction. Partial cecectomy was combined with resection of the proximal portion of the ascending colon and anastomosis of the remaining cecum to the distal portion of the ascending colon. The procedure was done with the use of mechanical suturing devices while the cow was standing. Previously, general anesthesia and relocation of the ileocecocolic junction had been suggested. PMID:3654317

  9. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  10. Evaluation of a lysostaphin-fusion protein as a dry-cow therapy for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a lysostaphin-fusion protein (Lyso-PTD) as a dry-cow therapy for the treatment of experimentally-induced chronic, subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Twenty-two Holstein dairy cows were experimentally infected with Staph. aureus in a single pair of diago...

  11. Effect of dietary crude protein and forage contents on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from dairy cows simultaneously

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study aimed to examine, simultaneously, the effects of changing dietary forage and crude protein (CP) contents on methane (CH4) emissions and nitrogen (N) excretion from lactating dairy cows. Twelve post-peak lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 4 treatments from a 2×2 factorial arr...

  12. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  13. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n = 18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n = 29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 12), second (group H, n = 23; group M, n = 18) and fourth (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 7) postpartum luteal phases. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at the same time. Sixteen cows (group H, n = 9; group M, n = 7) underwent transvaginal luteal biopsy for gene expression analysis of steroidogenic regulatory proteins during the second and fourth cycles. Cows with persistence of the corpus luteum (CL) underwent determination of luteal size, luteal biopsy and serum progesterone measurement once between days 29 and 33, followed by prostaglandin treatment to induce luteolysis. The same procedures were repeated once between days 9 and 13 of the induced cycle. Results The cows in group M had smaller first-cycle CLs than the cows in group H (p = 0.04), but progesterone concentrations did not differ between groups. Luteal size, progesterone concentration and gene expression did not differ between the two groups during the second and fourth cycles. Compared with healthy cows (10%), there was a trend (p = 0.07) toward a higher prevalence of persistent CLs in cows with metritis (33%). Persistent CLs were limited to the first cycle. Persistent CLs and the induced cyclic CLs did not differ with regard to the variables investigated. Conclusions An effect of metritis on luteal activity was apparent in the first postpartum estrous cycle. However, after the first postpartum cycle, no differences occurred

  14. Age at occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in naturally infected dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S S; Ersbøll, A K

    2006-12-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants and other species caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Establishing test strategies for paratuberculosis will require insight into the temporal aspects of certainty with a given test. In this study, the age at which cows tested positive by ELISA and fecal culture (FC) was investigated by use of time-to-event analyses. The effects of herd, parity, and shedding group were evaluated at the age of test-positive ELISA and FC, respectively. Finally, the test frequency was investigated for the probability of cows being tested ELISA-positive. Milk and fecal samples were collected repeatedly over a 3-yr period from 1,776 Danish dairy cows from 8 herds. The milk samples were tested for the presence of antibodies by using an ELISA, and an FC test was used for detection of Map. Repeated ELISA testing detected 98 and 95% of cows classified as high and low shedders, respectively, suggesting that most infected cows develop antibodies. Among the high shedders, 50% were positive before 4.3 yr of age (quartiles 1 to 3: 3.4 to 5.7 yr of age). Repeated FC detected only 72% of the cows that were ELISA-positive, and 50% of the ELISA-positive cows were detected by FC at 7.6 yr of age. The age with the highest probability of testing positive was determined as the interval with the steepest slope in the survival probability plots. The highest probability of testing positive by ELISA was from 2.5 to 4.5 yr of age. The highest probability of testing positive by FC was from 2.5 to 5.5 yr of age. For both ELISA and FC, testing positive was highest in the first 300 d in milk. For cows younger than 4 yr of age, monthly testing with ELISA, compared with testing every 2 yr, could increase the probability of detecting cows with antibodies by 19%. In older cows, there were no apparent differences in the probability of testing positive by monthly sampling compared with sampling every second year. Therefore, for older animals

  15. A stochastic estimate of the economic impact of oral calcium supplementation in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Oetzel, G R

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to develop stochastic models to estimate the economic impact in the first 30 d in milk of oral calcium supplementation to multiparous postparturient dairy cows using 4 different strategies: (1) supplementation of cows with a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield, (2) supplementation of lame cows, (3) supplementation of both cows that have a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield and cows that are lame, and (4) supplementation of all cows. Data from current literature were used to model input variables associated with the costs and risks related to milk production, postparturient disease, and culling. The mean net herd impact per 1,000 calvings for each of the 4 supplementation strategies was $4,425, $5,812, $8,313, and $3,065, respectively. Postpartum supplementation of multiparous lame cows had the highest return on investment at 6.5 to 1, followed by supplementation of multiparous high milk yield and lame cows, multiparous high milk yield cows only, and supplementation of all multiparous postpartum cows with returns of 1.8 to 1, 1.1 to 1, and 0.3 to 1, respectively. A herd's average milk yield at first test had the highest influence on the net impact of oral calcium supplementation to all multiparous cows and accounted for 30% of the variation, followed by the decrease in risk of health events in lame cows given oral calcium at 22%, a herd's prevalence of lameness at calving at 13%, and the price of milk at 10%. Each of the remaining stochastic variables contributed to less than 5% of the variation in net herd financial impact of oral calcium administration. Whereas supplementation of all postpartum multiparous cows returned a positive net herd impact approximately 80% of the time, if a herd was willing to devote time to mature-equivalent milk yield calculations and locomotion scoring, supplementation of this subpopulation of postpartum cows with oral calcium was estimated to have a positive economic impact in all

  16. Vulvovaginal laceration as a risk factor for uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Neto, A; Lima, F S; Santos, J E P; Mingoti, R D; Vasconcellos, G S; Risco, C A; Galvao, K N

    2016-06-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the association between vulvovaginal laceration and uterine diseases in dairy cows. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the association between vulvovaginal laceration and cyclicity, and reproductive performance. The vulvovaginal region of 660 Holstein cows from a 5,000 lactating-cows herd was inspected at 4d in milk (DIM) for the presence of lacerations, and scored (VLS) as follows: 0=no laceration; 1=laceration <2cm at the dorsal commissure of the vulva or lateral walls of the vulva/vagina; 2=laceration ≥2cm at the dorsal commissure of the vulva or at the lateral walls of the vulva/vagina, or both. Vaginal discharge was scored at 4, 6, and 8 DIM for diagnosis of metritis, and then at 32 DIM for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD). Data were analyzed using LOGISTIC and PHREG procedures of SAS. Cows with VLS 2 had greater incidence of metritis than cows with VLS 0 (69.1 vs. 42.4%), and cows with VLS 1 tended to have greater incidence of metritis than cows with VLS 0 (52.0 vs. 42.4%). Cows with VLS 2 had greater incidence of PVD than cows with VLS 0 (56.5 vs. 43.1%). A lower proportion of cows with VLS 2 than VLS 0 were cyclic by 64 DIM (70.0 vs. 86.8%). A lower proportion of cows with VLS 2 than VLS 0 were pregnant at 60 d after first AI (28.7 vs. 33.6%). Proportion of pregnant cows at 60d after AI tended to be lower for VLS 1 than VLS 0 (28.4 vs. 33.6%). Hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was not affected by VLS. Hazard of pregnancy was decreased for cows with metritis, PVD, and anovular cows. In summary, vulvovaginal laceration was associated with uterine disease and cyclicity, which were negatively associated with reproductive performance. Vulvovaginal laceration was recognized as a risk factor for postpartum uterine disease. PMID:27016827

  17. The effects of providing portable shade at pasture on dairy cow behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Palacio, S; Bergeron, R; Lachance, S; Vasseur, E

    2015-09-01

    Access to pasture has advantages for cows such as reduced lameness and improved udder health, but also may expose cows to stressors such as extreme heat. The objective of this study was to understand how portable shade affected physiological and behavioral responses of pastured dairy cows in a Canadian summer. Over 8wk, a total of 24 lactating Holstein cows were separated into 2 treatments, one with access to shade and a control without access to shade. The cows were pastured in groups of 4, with 3 field sections per treatment. Instantaneous scan sampling of behaviors (drinking, lying, grazing, other) performed in the shade or not were recorded every 5min for 3h/d during the hottest part of the day (peak hours: 1130-1530h) 3d/wk. Ambient temperature, humidity, and vaginal temperature were recorded at 10-min intervals. Daily milk production was also recorded. Differences between treatments by week were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model with group as random effect and treatment as fixed effect. Cows with shade access were observed at the water trough up to 6.42 times less and lying down up to 1.75 times more. Cows with shade access grazed up to 1.5 times more but only when the temperature-humidity index was above their comfort threshold (≥72) during the hottest part of the day (wk 2). Cows sought shade when it was made available, but spent less than half of their time observed (%) in the shade (40.8±4.67) with the exception of wk 2 when most of the time was spent under the shade (74.3±4.77). Daily lying time was highest during peak hours for cows with shade access. However, no overall difference in total lying time between the 2 treatments was observed. No differences were found in vaginal temperature or milk production between treatments with the exception of wk 1 for daily milk production, which was higher for cows in the control treatment. In conclusion, cows sought shade when it was provided at pasture, whereas cows without access to shade

  18. Salmonella diversity and burden in cows on and culled from dairy farms in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to further characterize the epidemiology of Salmonella carried by dairy cows culled from herds in the Texas High Plains and marketed for human consumption. Feces were collected from 706 animals culled from a convenience sample of 9 dairies. In addition, individually...

  19. Molasses supplementation of grazing dairy cows: summary of case study, continuous culture fermenter trials, and controlled research farm study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of a three-tiered research approach (case study, two continuous culture fermenter studies, and a controlled research farm study) to evaluate molasses as an alternative supplement source for grazing dairy cows. A two-year case study of a New York organic dairy f...

  20. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows. PMID:27383746

  1. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Pilar; Weary, Daniel M; Noro, Mirela; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol

  2. Selected metabolic and hormonal profiles during maintenance of spontaneous ovarian cysts in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Probo, M; Comin, A; Cairoli, F; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; De Amicis, I; Veronesi, M C

    2011-06-01

    Information is lacking regarding the relationship between metabolic and hormonal profiles and the maintenance of spontaneous ovarian cyst disease in dairy cows. For this reason, the concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and cortisol (C) were investigated during the spontaneous course of ovarian cyst disease in dairy cows (n=6) between the 7th and 16th weeks post-partum (PP). The control group consisted of normally cycling cows (n=6). Blood samples were collected twice a day, and plasma was analysed using different techniques. Progesterone and 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2α) plasma profiles were investigated to confirm the ovulatory or anovulatory conditions of the cows. Cortisol plasma levels were not significantly different among sampling times within each group or between the two groups. NEFA plasma levels were significantly higher in cycling cows compared to cystic cows at the 16th week PP (p<0.01), but with rather low values, indicating by now sparse mobilization of fat stores. Insulin-like growth factor I plasma concentrations were higher in cystic cows during the 8th, 10th, 11th (p<0.01) and 16th week PP (p<0.05), indicating that the presence of ovarian cysts coincides with increased IGF-I levels. These results suggest no influence of cortisol and NEFA levels in cysts maintenance, while a possible involvement of IGF-I can be suspected not only in the pathogenesis, as already known, but also in the maintenance of spontaneous cystic ovarian disease in cattle. PMID:20825583

  3. Transition Diseases in Grazing Dairy Cows Are Related to Serum Cholesterol and Other Analytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol

  4. Effects of feeding rumen-protected choline on incidence of diseases and reproduction of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lima, F S; Sá Filho, M F; Greco, L F; Santos, J E P

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding rumen-protected choline (RPC) to dairy cows on the incidence of disease in early lactation, and on their fertility as measured by return to ovarian cyclicity and pregnancies per insemination (P/AI). In the first experiment, 369 cows were fed 15 g/day of RPC between 25 days pre-calving and 80 days post calving. In the second experiment, 578 primigravid cows were fed 15 g/day of RPC for the last 21 days of gestation only. In both experiments, P/AI were evaluated for the first and second inseminations, and health disorders were monitored daily until 90 days after calving. Return to cyclicity was evaluated in experiment 1 only, on days 51 and 61 post calving. In the first experiment, feeding RPC reduced the incidence of clinical ketosis, mastitis, and morbidity, and the number of cases of mastitis per cow. Feeding RPC did not influence cyclicity and P/AI. In the second experiment, cows fed RPC tended to have greater morbidity than controls because of an increased incidence of metritis and fever, although the incidence of retained fetal membranes was lower. The P/AI for first and second inseminations were similar between treatments. Supplementing the diets of dairy cattle with RPC from before until after calving improved the health of early lactation cows. However, in primigravid cows feeding RPC before calving only had mixed effects on health. Feeding RPC had no beneficial effects on reproduction in either experiment. PMID:22178357

  5. Kinetics and residues after intraperitoneal procaine penicillin G administration in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chicoine, A L; Boison, J O; Parker, S; Clark, C; Dowling, P M

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the pharmacokinetic profile of procaine penicillin G after intraperitoneal (IP) administration in eight lactating dairy cows. Procaine pencillin G (PPG, 21 000 IU/kg) was deposited into the abdominal cavity of each cow following an incision in the right paralumbar fossa. Blood and milk samples were taken over the following 10 days, at which point the cows were euthanized. Plasma, milk, muscle, liver, and kidney penicillin concentrations were determined by HPLC, with a limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL for plasma and milk and 40 ng/g for tissue samples. A noncompartmental method was used to analyze plasma kinetics. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters (+/-SD) were: C(max), 5.5 +/- 2.6 microg/mL; T(max), 0.75 +/- 0.27 h; AUC(0-infinity), 10.8 +/- 4.9 microg x h/mL; MRT, 2.2 +/- 0.9 h. All milk from treated cows contained detectable penicillin residues for a minimum of three milkings (31 h) and maximum of five milkings (52 h) after administration. Concentrations of penicillin in all muscle, liver, and kidney samples taken 10 days postadministration were below the limit of quantification. Necropsy examinations revealed foci of hemorrhage on the rumenal omentum of most cows but peritonitis was not observed. Systemic inflammation as determined by change in leukogram or plasma fibrinogen was noted in one cow. The results of this study demonstrate that IP PPG is absorbed and eliminated rapidly in lactating dairy cows. PMID:19646094

  6. A system to assess fitness of dairy cows responding to exercise training.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J A; Beede, D K

    2003-09-01

    Objectives were to develop a system to administer exercise training to dairy cows, to measure potential physiological indicators of fitness, and to assess physical fitness. Nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows (n = 19) were in one of three exercise training treatments: no exercise; 1-h exercise; or 2-h exercise by walking 3 km/h every other day for 60 d in a mechanical walker. Treadmill tests on d 15, 30, 45, and 60 consisted of walking (5 km/h) with 1.6% increases in slope at 3-min intervals until heart rates reached 180 beats per minute (experimentally specified maximum) or until cows refused to walk. Fitness indices analyzed in tests as single datum points at maximal heart rates were length of time of test, heart rate, and plasma L-lactate concentration at end of the test, and change in heart rate and lactate concentration during the test. Exercised (1 or 2 h) cows had longer times to end of tests than nonexercised cows. Maximal and change in heart rates or plasma lactate during tests did not indicate improved physical fitness. However, when all data were evaluated as repeated measures of day and minute of tests, reductions of heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations were greatest on d 60 between exercised and nonexercised cows indicating improved fitness. Acid-base measurements were not found useful in this study. Changes of heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations over time (repeated measures) of treadmill tests quantified the physical fitness of dairy cows and can be used to compare potential responses to different exercise training treatments in this system. PMID:14507020

  7. Short dry period management improves peripartum ruminal adaptation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jolicoeur, M S; Brito, A F; Santschi, D E; Pellerin, D; Lefebvre, D; Berthiaume, R; Girard, C L

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the improvement in postpartum energy balance frequently reported in cows under short dry period management could be due to an improvement in ruminal function related to the reduction in the number of diet changes before calving. Six multiparous and 6 primiparous Holstein cows equipped with ruminal cannula were assigned to 6 blocks of 2 cows each according to parity, projected milk production at 305 d, and expected calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to either a conventional (CDP; 63.2 ± 2.0 d) or a short dry period (SDP; 35.2 ± 2.0 d) management in a randomized complete block design. The CDP cows were fed a far-off diet until 28 d before calving, followed by a prepartum diet, whereas SDP cows received only the prepartum diet. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet. Milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded daily and milk composition, weekly. Blood samples were taken twice a week during the first 4 wk postcalving and weekly otherwise. Omasal and ruminal samples were collected approximately 3 wk prior and 3 wk after calving. From 28 d before calving until calving, when the 2 groups of cows were fed the same prepartum diet, there was no effect of the dry period length management on DMI, plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and glucose and nutrient digestibility in the rumen. However, CDP cows tended to have lower ruminal pH and higher ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids than SDP cows. From calving to 60 d in milk, daily DMI was higher for SDP than for CDP cows (22.3 ± 0.44 vs. 20.7 ± 0.30 kg), but milk production and milk concentrations and yields of fat, protein, and total solids were not affected by the dry period length management. After calving, body weight loss was reduced and body condition score tended to increase more rapidly for SDP than for CDP cows. Nutrient digestibility in the rumen, expressed in

  8. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  9. Prevalence of cervicitis in dairy cows and its effect on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, D; Rohkohl, J; Merbach, S; Heilkenbrinker, T; Klindworth, H P; Schoon, H A; Hoedemaker, M

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cervicitis in dairy cows is an independent disease or occurs concomitantly with inflammation of the uterus, and to clarify possible effects of cervicitis on reproductive performance. Dairy cows (n = 416) from 33 dairy farms were examined by rectal palpation and vaginoscopy between 42 and 50 days postpartum. Inclusion criteria for this study were absence of abnormal vaginal discharge and abnormalities of the uterus (fluctuation) at rectal palpation. Cervicitis was diagnosed when the second cervical fold was swollen and prolapsed with (C2) or without (C1) reddening. Cytobrush samples from the uterus (n = 370) and the cervix (n = 402) were collected, and the percentage of neutrophils in the uterus (PMNU) and the cervix as indicators of inflammation (threshold: ≥5%) was determined. In addition, endometrial biopsies for histology were collected, 300 of which were suitable for evaluation. Cervicitis (C1/C2) was diagnosed in 253 of 416 (60.8%) of cows. Of these, the prolapsed cervical mucosa was hyperemic (C2) in 29.1% of cases. Of 370 available uterine cytology samples, 221 cows had a clinical cervicitis; however, 170 (76.9%) had PMNU less than 5%. Of 300 uterine histologic examinations, 82 (27.3%) did not reveal any abnormalities; the remaining cows either had uterine inflammation and/or degenerative uterine changes such as endometriosis and angiosclerosis. Furthermore, of 300 biopsied animals, 184 revealed a cervicitis (C1/C2); however, 30.4% of these animals had no histopathologic uterine findings. For further analysis, only animals either without histopathologic findings and normal uterine cytology or with solely endometritis (defined as PMNU ≥ 5% and/or positive histopathology of the uterine tissue) were evaluated (n = 157). Of these, 95 cows had cervicitis. Unexpectedly, 63 of 95 (66.3%) cows had cervicitis without endometritis. With regard to reproductive performance, days to first service were

  10. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  11. High rate psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of high solids (35%) dairy manure in sequence batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-06-01

    Zero liquid discharge is increasingly adopted as an objective for waste treatment process. The objective of this study was to increase the feed total solids (TS) and the organic loading rate (OLR) fed to a novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD). Duplicate laboratory-scale bioreactors were fed cow feces and wheat straw (35% TS in feed) at OLR of 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) during long-term operation (147 days consisting of 7 successive cycles). An overall average specific methane yield (SMY) of 151.8±7.9 N L CH4 kg(-1) VS fed with an averaged volatile solids removal of 42.4±4.3% were obtained at a volatile solids-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio (ISR) of 2.13±0.2. The operation was stable as indicated by biogas and VFAs profiles and the results were reproducible in successive cycles; a maximum SMY of 163.3±5.7 N L CH4 kg(-1) VS fed was obtained. Hydrolysis was the reaction limiting step. High rate PDAD of 35% TS dairy manure is possible in sequential batch reactor within 21 days treatment cycle length. PMID:25804501

  12. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  13. Comparison of Microbial Communities Isolated from Feces of Asymptomatic Salmonella-Shedding and Non-Salmonella Shedding Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Pettengill, James; Gorham, Sasha; Ottesen, Andrea; Karns, Jeffrey S; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2016-01-01

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from asymptomatic dairy cows. However, factors that contribute to colonization of the bovine gut by these two serotypes have not been identified. To investigate associations between Salmonella status and bacterial diversity, as well as the diversity of the microbial community in the dairy cow hindgut, the bacterial and archaeal communities of fecal samples from cows on a single dairy farm were determined by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Fecal grab samples were collected from two Salmonella-positive cows and two Salmonella-negative cows on five sampling dates (n = 20 cows), and 16S rRNA gene amplicons from these samples were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A high level of alpha (within) and beta diversity (between) samples demonstrated that microbial profiles of dairy cow hindguts are quite diverse. To determine whether Salmonella presence, sampling year, or sampling date explained a significant amount of the variation in microbial diversity, we performed constrained ordination analyses (distance based RDA) on the unifrac distance matrix produced with QIIME. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference in the microbial diversity associated with Salmonella presence (P > 0.05), but there were significant differences between sampling dates and years (Pseudo-F = 2.157 to 4.385, P < 0.05). Based on these data, it appears that commensal Salmonella infections with serotypes Cerro and Kentucky in dairy cows have little or no association with changes in the abundance of major bacterial groups in the hindgut. Rather, our results indicated that temporal dynamics and other undescribed parameters associated with them were the most influential drivers of the differences in microbial diversity and community structure in the dairy cow hindgut. PMID:27313565

  14. Comparison of Microbial Communities Isolated from Feces of Asymptomatic Salmonella-Shedding and Non-Salmonella Shedding Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Bradd J.; Pettengill, James; Gorham, Sasha; Ottesen, Andrea; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from asymptomatic dairy cows. However, factors that contribute to colonization of the bovine gut by these two serotypes have not been identified. To investigate associations between Salmonella status and bacterial diversity, as well as the diversity of the microbial community in the dairy cow hindgut, the bacterial and archaeal communities of fecal samples from cows on a single dairy farm were determined by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Fecal grab samples were collected from two Salmonella-positive cows and two Salmonella-negative cows on five sampling dates (n = 20 cows), and 16S rRNA gene amplicons from these samples were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A high level of alpha (within) and beta diversity (between) samples demonstrated that microbial profiles of dairy cow hindguts are quite diverse. To determine whether Salmonella presence, sampling year, or sampling date explained a significant amount of the variation in microbial diversity, we performed constrained ordination analyses (distance based RDA) on the unifrac distance matrix produced with QIIME. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference in the microbial diversity associated with Salmonella presence (P > 0.05), but there were significant differences between sampling dates and years (Pseudo-F = 2.157 to 4.385, P < 0.05). Based on these data, it appears that commensal Salmonella infections with serotypes Cerro and Kentucky in dairy cows have little or no association with changes in the abundance of major bacterial groups in the hindgut. Rather, our results indicated that temporal dynamics and other undescribed parameters associated with them were the most influential drivers of the differences in microbial diversity and community structure in the dairy cow hindgut. PMID:27313565

  15. Metabolic Profile and Inflammatory Responses in Dairy Cows with Left Displaced Abomasum Kept under Small-Scaled Farm Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Klevenhusen, Fenja; Humer, Elke; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara; Podstatzky-Lichtenstein, Leopold; Wittek, Thomas; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This research established an association between lactation number and milk production and metabolic and inflammatory responses in high-producing dairy cows affected by left abomasal displacement in small-scaled dairy farms. The study showed metabolic alterations, liver damage, and inflammation in the sick cows, which were further exacerbated with increasing lactation number and milk yield of the cows. Abstract Left displaced abomasum (LDA) is a severe metabolic disease of cattle with a strong negative impact on production efficiency of dairy farms. Metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with this disease have been reported in earlier studies, conducted mostly in large dairy farms. This research aimed to: (1) evaluate metabolic and inflammatory responses in dairy cows affected by LDA in small-scaled dairy farms; and (2) establish an association between lactation number and milk production with the outcome of metabolic variables. The cows with LDA had lower serum calcium (Ca), but greater concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHBA), in particular when lactation number was >2. Cows with LDA showed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and serum amyloid A (SAA), regardless of lactation number. In addition, this study revealed strong associations between milk yield and the alteration of metabolic profile but not with inflammation in the sick cows. Results indicate metabolic alterations, liver damage, and inflammation in LDA cows kept under small-scale farm conditions. Furthermore, the data suggest exacerbation of metabolic profile and Ca metabolism but not of inflammation and liver health with increasing lactation number and milk yield in cows affected by LDA. PMID:26479481

  16. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters. PMID:26101200

  17. Effect of suppression of postpartum ovulation on endometrial inflammation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Heppelmann, M; Brömmling, A; Ulbrich, S E; Weinert, M; Piechotta, M; Wrenzycki, C; Merbach, S; Schoon, H-A; Hoedemaker, M; Bollwein, H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of time of first postpartum ovulation on endometrial inflammation in dairy cows with and without uterine disease during the early puerperal period. Transvaginal follicular puncture (FP) was carried out to suppress postpartum ovulation and formation of a CL until Day 42. Fifty-three lactating Holstein Friesian cows were divided into four groups on the basis of presence (UD+) or absence (UD-) of uterine disease, which was defined as retained fetal membranes and/or metritis, and whether FP had (FP+) or had not been (FP-) carried out. This resulted in the following groups: UD-FP- (n = 15), UD-FP+ (n = 13), UD+FP- (n = 13), and UD+FP+ (n = 12). Cloprostenol was given on Days 55 to 60 postpartum, and GnRH was administered 2 days later for synchronization of ovulation. In the FP- groups, endometrial swab and biopsy samples were collected during the second estrus (approximately Day 40) and during the estrus after synchronization. In the FP+ groups, the same samples were collected during the first estrus (approximately Day 49) and during the estrus after synchronization. The prevalence of positive bacteriologic cultures of the endometrium was not affected by FP (P > 0.05). Histologic signs of endometritis were more severe in UD+FP- cows at second sampling than in UD+FP+ cows (P ≤ 0.05). Endometrial expression of IL1α (in UD- after first sampling and in UD+ after second sampling) and IL1β (in UD- and UD+ after first sampling) was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in FP- cows than in FP+ cows. Regardless of group, cows with histopathologic evidence of endometritis had higher expression (P ≤ 0.05) of IL1α, IL1β, IL6, and TNFα than cows without endometritis. In conclusion, suppression of early ovulation by transvaginal FP enhances clearance of uterine inflammation in postpartum cows. PMID:25841545

  18. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA). Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc) in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Methods Cortisol, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. Results No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l) did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method (< 14 nmol/l). Conclusions The study gives patho-physiological support to the treatment strategies of ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research. PMID:20487518

  19. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  20. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maetani, Ayami; Itoh, Megumi; Nishihara, Kahori; Aoki, Takahiro; Ohtani, Masayuki; Shibano, Kenichi; Kayano, Mitsunori; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  1. Aflatoxins in dairy cow feed, raw milk and milk products from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Hilal Zeynep; Celik, Mehtap; Kotay, Seda; Kabak, Bulent

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to detect aflatoxins (AFs) in dairy cow feed, milk and milk products using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method. All the validation parameters met the method performance criteria of the European Union. The samples comprised 76 dairy cow feeds and 205 milk and milk products (including yoghurt and yoghurt-based beverage, ayran). AFs were present in 26.3% of the feed samples. Two feed samples exceeded the maximum limit (ML) of 5 µg kg(-1) for AFB1 as established by the EU. Nineteen milk samples (21.1%) contained aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) of which three exceeded the EU ML of 0.05 µg l(-1). In addition, only two yoghurt samples and one ayran sample contained AFM1, but the levels were lower than the EU ML. PMID:26883580

  2. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    MAETANI, Ayami; ITOH, Megumi; NISHIHARA, Kahori; AOKI, Takahiro; OHTANI, Masayuki; SHIBANO, Kenichi; KAYANO, Mitsunori; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  3. Technical note: a novel approach to the detection of estrus in dairy cows using ultra-wideband technology.

    PubMed

    Homer, E M; Gao, Y; Meng, X; Dodson, A; Webb, R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2013-10-01

    Detection of estrus is a key determinant of profitability of dairy herds, but estrus is increasingly difficult to observe in the modern dairy cow with shorter duration and less-intense estrus. Concurrent with the unfavorable correlation between milk yield and fertility, estrus-detection rates have declined to less than 50%. We tested ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology (Thales Research & Technology Ltd., Reading, UK) for proof of concept that estrus could be detected in dairy cows (two 1-wk-long trials; n=16 cows, 8 in each test). The 3-dimensional positions of 12 cows with synchronized estrous cycles and 4 pregnant control cows were monitored continuously using UWB mobile units operating within a network of 8 base units for a period of 7d. In the study, 10 cows exhibited estrus as confirmed by visual observation, activity monitoring, and milk progesterone concentrations. Automated software was developed for analysis of UWB data to detect cows in estrus and report the onset of estrus in real time. The UWB technology accurately detected 9 out of 10 cows in estrus. In addition, UWB technology accurately confirmed all 6 cows not in estrus. In conclusion, UWB technology can accurately detect estrus and hence we have demonstrated proof of concept for a novel technology that has significant potential to improve estrus-detection rates. PMID:23910546

  4. A study of the oral toxicity of calcium chloride in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, L G; Pelletier, R P

    1966-02-01

    The effects of oral administration of calcium chloride solutions to dairy cows were studied. When a 0.3 per cent solution was given ad libitum, and as the sole source of water for a period of 75 days, we observed no significant changes in feed consumption, body weight or milk production. The average daily water intake was increased by approximately 20 per cent, and signs of slight gastro-intestinal irritation were seen. No major changes in blood hemoglobin levels, hematocrits, total and differential white cell counts or thrombocyte numbers could be attributed to the treatment. We observed no significant effect on the serum calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, or sodium content. The level of inorganic phosphate in the serum rose to higher, but still normal values. During the entire experiment the urine pH was abnormally acid for dairy cows. Electrocardiograms were taken after 45 days of calcium chloride administration, and they appeared normal. When 0.1 and 0.2 per cent solutions were given as the sole source of water for a period of 81 days, the cows remained in good condition, and we observed no changes in appetite, body weight or milk production. In general, dairy cows will refuse to drink calcium chloride solutions when the concentration exceeds 0.5 per cent, even when they have been deprived of water for 18-24 hours. On the other hand, since the administration of lower concentrations for periods of 75 and 81 days did not cause any clinical sign of disease, it seems that on farms where more than one source of water are usually available, poisoning of dairy cattle by calcium chloride in solution is quite unlikely. PMID:4223697

  5. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    performance of dairy cows in subsequent lactation. PMID:26233442

  6. Effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation in lactating dairy cows with elevated somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Ganda, E K; Bisinotto, R S; Vasquez, A K; Teixeira, A G V; Machado, V S; Foditsch, C; Bicalho, M; Lima, F S; Stephens, L; Gomes, M S; Dias, J M; Bicalho, R C

    2016-09-01

    Objectives of this clinical trial were to evaluate the effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation (ITMS) on somatic cell count (SCC), linear score (LS), milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, subclinical mastitis cure, and incidence of clinical mastitis in cows with elevated SCC. Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm in New York were evaluated for subclinical mastitis, defined as SCC ≥200×10(3) cells/mL on the test day preceding enrollment. Cows with a history of treatment for clinical mastitis in the current lactation and those pregnant for more than 150d were not eligible for enrollment. Cows fitting inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows assigned to ITMS (n=306) received 1 subcutaneous injection containing zinc (300mg), manganese (50mg), selenium (25mg), and copper (75mg) at enrollment (d 0). Control cows (CTRL; n=314) received 1 subcutaneous injection of sterile saline solution. Following treatment, visual assessment of milk was performed daily, and cows with abnormal milk (i.e., presence of flakes, clots, or serous milk) were diagnosed with clinical mastitis (CM). Chronic clinical mastitis was defined as cows with 3 or more cases of CM. Milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, SCC, and LS were evaluated once monthly. Additionally, randomly selected animals were sampled to test serum concentrations of selected minerals on d0 and 30 (n=30 cows/treatment). Treatment did not affect serum concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc on d30. Injectable supplementation with trace minerals did not improve overall cure of subclinical mastitis (CTRL=42.8 vs. ITMS=46.5%), although a tendency was observed in cows with 3 or more lactations (CTRL=27.1 vs. ITMS=40.0%). Supplementation did not reduce treatment incidence of CM (CTRL=48.2 vs. ITMS=41.7%); however, it tended to reduce the proportion of cows diagnosed with chronic CM (CTRL=16.9 vs. ITMS=12

  7. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance and Lipopolysaccharide Concentration of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-yang; Yoon, Ilkyu; Zhu, Wei-yun; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate lactation performance and changes in plasma and fecal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations in response to the supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SC), two dairy farms were selected. On each farm, 32 cows in early to mid lactation (21 to 140 DIM) were blocked by parity and days in milk (DIM), and randomly assigned to one of the two treatments within block (Control or 56 g SC/cow/d). Effect of SC on lactation performance (daily) and changes in blood and fecal LPS level were examined on d 0 and 28 of supplementation. The results showed that SC supplementation increased lactation performance of dairy cows on both farms. On Farm 1, milk production, 3.5% fat corrected milk (FCM), and yield of milk fat and protein were greater (p<0.01) for cows supplemented with SC. Supplementation of SC increased percentage milk fat (p = 0.029) from 81 to 110 DIM. There was no significant effect (p>0.05) of SC supplementation on percentage of milk protein, dry matter intake and feed efficiency. On Farm 2, cows supplemented with SC had a greater (p<0.05) milk yield, percentage of milk fat and milk protein, yield of milk fat and protein, 3.5% FCM and feed efficiency. Supplemental SC had no effect on LPS concentrations in feces (p>0.05) while it trended to reduce (p = 0.07 or 0.207) the concentration in plasma. The results indicate that supplemental SC can increase lactation performance of dairy cattle and has potential for reducing plasma LPS concentration. PMID:25049894

  8. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from Holstein dairy cows fed various forage sources.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Benchaar, C; Gervais, R

    2016-02-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) profile has been previously used as a predictor of enteric CH4 output in dairy cows fed diets supplemented with plant oils, which can potentially impact ruminal fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between milk FA and enteric CH4 emissions in lactating dairy cows fed different types of forages in the context of commonly fed diets. A total of 81 observations from three separate 3×3 Latin square design (32-day periods) experiments including a total of 27 lactating cows (96±27 days in milk; mean±SD) were used. Dietary forages were included at 60% of ration dry matter and were as follows: (1) 100% corn silage, (2) 100% alfalfa silage, (3) 100% barley silage, (4) 100% timothy silage, (5) 50:50 mix of corn and alfalfa silages, (6) 50:50 mix of barley and corn silages and (7) 50:50 mix of timothy and alfalfa silages. Enteric CH4 output was measured using respiration chambers during 3 consecutive days. Milk was sampled during the last 7 days of each period and analyzed for components and FA profile. Test variables included dry matter intake (DMI; kg/day), NDF (%), ether extract (%), milk yield (kg/day), milk components (%) and individual milk FA (% of total FA). Candidate multivariate models were obtained using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator and Least-Angle Regression methods based on the Schwarz Bayesian Criterion. Data were then fitted into a random regression using the MIXED procedure including the random effects of cow, period and study. A positive correlation was observed between CH4 and DMI (r=0.59, P0.19). Milk FA profile and DMI can be used to predict CH4 emissions in dairy cows across a wide range of dietary forage sources. PMID:26399308

  9. Monensin controlled-release intraruminal capsule for control of bloat in pastured dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lowe, L B; Ball, G J; Carruthers, V R; Dobos, R C; Lynch, G A; Moate, P J; Poole, P R; Valentine, S C

    1991-01-01

    Monensin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, is potentially an important agent for bloat relief in dairy cows grazing temperate legume-based pasture. A series of studies was undertaken to determine the effect of monensin, when delivered continuously in the rumen of lactating dairy cows by means of controlled-release capsules (monensin CRC). Such devices release approximately 300 mg/head/day for 100 d. A short-term pilot study made at Ruakura, New Zealand, tested monensin CRC in cows selected for high susceptibility to bloat and grazing lucerne (Medicago sativa) or red clover (Trifolium pratense). Treatment significantly reduced the incidence of bloat, while milk yield and protein yield were increased. There was no effect on fat yield. Following the pilot study, 6 large-scale field experiments involving a total of 368 lactating dairy cows, were made in Australia and New Zealand to confirm the effectiveness of monensin CRC for bloat control and to measure the effect of such treatment on milk production and composition. A severe bloat problem occurred in 2 experiments, mild bloat occurred in 2 others, while no visual signs of bloat were observed in the remaining 2 experiments. Bloat was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced by monensin CRC treatment when data was pooled over the 4 experiments in which bloat occurred. Daily milk yield was increased in all experiments from a mean of 17.7 in untreated groups to 18.8 kg/head/day (P less than 0.05) in monensin CRC-treated cows. Protein percentage was not affected by treatment, while there was a decrease from 4.29 to 4.10% fat, although total fat yield was not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2018451

  10. Proteome dataset of pre-ovulatory follicular fluids from less fertile dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zachut, Maya; Sood, Pankaj; Livshitz, Lilya; Kra, Gitit; Levin, Yishai; Moallem, Uzi

    2016-01-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in Zachut et al. (2016) [1]. Proteomics data from preovulatory follicles in